|Topics in the news|
|Topics in the news|
1. Fields Medal – The Fields Medal is sometimes viewed as the highest honor a mathematician can receive. The Fields Medal and the Abel Prize have often described as the mathematicians Nobel Prize. The Fields Medal differs from the Abel in view of the age restriction mentioned above, the prize comes with a monetary award, which since 2006 has been C$15,000. The colloquial name is in honour of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields, Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, and funding the monetary component. The medal was first awarded in 1936 to Finnish mathematician Lars Ahlfors and American mathematician Jesse Douglas and its purpose is to give recognition and support to younger mathematical researchers who have made major contributions. The Fields Medal is often described as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics, however, in contrast to the Nobel Prize, the Fields Medal is awarded only every four years. The Fields Medal also has an age limit, a recipient must be under age 40 on 1 January of the year in which the medal is awarded and this is similar to restrictions applicable to the Clark Medal in economics. The monetary award is lower than the 8,000,000 Swedish kronor given with each Nobel prize as of 2014. Other major awards in mathematics, such as the Abel Prize, in 1954, Jean-Pierre Serre became the youngest winner of the Fields Medal, at 27. In 1966, Alexander Grothendieck boycotted the ICM, held in Moscow, léon Motchane, founder and director of the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques attended and accepted Grothendiecks Fields Medal on his behalf. In 1970, Sergei Novikov, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Nice to receive his medal. In 1978, Grigory Margulis, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Helsinki to receive his medal. In 1982, the congress was due to be held in Warsaw but had to be rescheduled to the next year, the awards were announced at the ninth General Assembly of the IMU earlier in the year and awarded at the 1983 Warsaw congress. In 1990, Edward Witten became the first physicist to win this award, in 1998, at the ICM, Andrew Wiles was presented by the chair of the Fields Medal Committee, Yuri I. Manin, with the first-ever IMU silver plaque in recognition of his proof of Fermats Last Theorem, don Zagier referred to the plaque as a quantized Fields Medal. Accounts of this award frequently make reference that at the time of the award Wiles was over the age limit for the Fields medal. Although Wiles was slightly over the age limit in 1994, he was thought to be a favorite to win the medal, however, in 2006, Grigori Perelman, who proved the Poincaré conjecture, refused his Fields Medal and did not attend the congress. In 2014, Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian, Artur Avila the first South American and this is a list of the universities that have graduated Fields medalistsFields Medal – The obverse of the Fields Medal
2. Political prisoner – A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment. The term is used by persons or groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner, supporters of the term define a political prisoner as someone who is imprisoned for his or her participation in political activity. If a political offense was not the reason for the prisoners detention. Some understand the political prisoner narrowly, equating it with the term prisoner of conscience. Amnesty International campaigns for the release of prisoners of conscience, which include political prisoners as well as those imprisoned for their religious or philosophical beliefs. To reduce controversy, and as a matter of principle, the organizations policy applies only to prisoners who have not committed or advocated violence, thus, there are political prisoners who do not fit the narrower criteria for POCs. The organisation defines the differences as follows, AI uses the political prisoner broadly. It does not use it, as others do, to imply that all such prisoners have a special status or should be released. It uses the only to define a category of prisoners for whom AI demands a fair. Governments often say they have no political prisoners, only prisoners held under the criminal law. AI however describes cases like the examples given above as political, for instance, French anarchist groups typically call the former members of Action Directe held in France political prisoners. While the French government deemed Action Directe illegal, the group fashioned itself as a guerilla movement. In this sense, political prisoner can be used to describe any politically active prisoner who is held in custody for a violent action which supporters deem ethically justified, some libertarians also include all convicted for treason and some convicted of espionage in the category of political prisoners. Currently, there is much controversy and debate around how to define this term. Political prisoners can also be imprisoned with no legal veneer by extrajudicial processes, some political prisoners need not be imprisoned at all. Supporters of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima in the 11th Panchen Lama controversy have called him a political prisoner and he is held under secluded house arrest. This is common in situations which may otherwise be decried nationally and internationally as a human rights violation or suppression of a political dissident, particularly in this latter situation, whether an individual is regarded as a political prisoner may depend upon subjective political perspective or interpretation of the evidence. In the Soviet Union, dubious psychiatric diagnoses were sometimes used to political prisoners in the so-called psikhushkasPolitical prisoner – Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) member Sabino Arana in Larrinaga prison, Bilbao, 1895. He defended independence for Cuba.
3. Larsen Ice Shelf – It is named for Captain Carl Anton Larsen, the master of the Norwegian whaling vessel Jason, who sailed along the ice front as far as 68°10 South during December 1893. In finer detail, the Larsen Ice Shelf is a series of shelves that occupy distinct embayments along the coast, from north to south, the segments are called Larsen A, Larsen B, and Larsen C by researchers who work in the area. Further south, Larsen D and the much smaller Larsen E, F and G are also named, the breakup of the ice shelf since the mid 1990s has been widely reported, with the collapse of Larsen B in 2002 being particularly dramatic. The collapse of Larsen B has revealed a thriving chemotrophic ecosystem 800 m below the sea, U. S. Antarctic Program scientists were in the north-western Weddell Sea investigating the sediment record in a deep glacial trough twice the size of Texas. Methane and hydrogen sulfide associated with cold seeps is suspected as the source of the chemical energy powering the ecosystem. The area had been protected by the ice sheet from debris. The clams were observed clustered about the vents, the former Larsen B, by contrast, had been stable for at least 10,000 years. The ice of the shelf is renewed on a much shorter time-scale, the speed of Crane Glacier increased threefold after the collapse of the Larsen B and this is likely to be due to the removal of a buttressing effect of the ice shelf. Data collected in 2007 by a team of investigators through satellite-based radar measurements suggests that the overall ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctica is increasingly negative. The Larsen disintegration events were unusual by past standards, typically, ice shelves lose mass by iceberg calving and by melting at their upper and lower surfaces. The disintegration events were linked by The Independent newspaper in 2005 to ongoing climate warming in the Antarctic Peninsula, according to a paper published in Journal of Climate in 2006, the peninsula at Faraday station warmed by 2. The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in January 1995, during 31 January 2002 to March 2002 the Larsen B sector partially collapsed and parts broke up,3,250 km2 of ice 220 m thick, covering an area comparable to the US state of Rhode Island. In 2015 a study concluded that the remaining Larsen B ice-shelf will disintegrate by the end of the decade, based on observations of faster flow and rapid thinning of glaciers in the area. Larsen B was stable for at least 10,000 years, essentially the entire Holocene period since the last glacial period, by contrast, Larsen A was absent for a significant part of that period and reformed beginning about 4,000 years ago, according to the study. Despite its great age, the Larsen B was clearly in trouble at the time of the collapse, with warm currents eating away the underside of the shelf, it had become a hotspot of global warming. What especially surprised glaciologists was the speed of the breakup, which was a three weeks. Andrew Fleming said to Reuters, The Larsen B shattered like car safety glass into thousands and thousands of pieces and it disappeared in the space of about a week. Larsen C is the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, with an area of about 50,000 km2, in 2004, a report concluded that although the remaining Larsen C region appeared to be relatively stable, continued warming could lead to its breakup within the next decadeLarsen Ice Shelf – The collapse of Larsen B, showing the diminishing extent of the shelf from 1998 to 2002.
4. Chester Bennington – Chester Charles Bennington is an American musician, singer, songwriter and actor. He is best known as the lead vocalist of rock bands Linkin Park, Dead by Sunrise and he was originally the lead vocalist for Sean Dowdell And His Friends. Bennington was the lead vocalist for Stone Temple Pilots from 2013 to 2015, Bennington became known as a vocalist with Linkin Parks debut album, Hybrid Theory, in 2000, which was a massive commercial success. The album was certified Diamond by the RIAA in 2005, making it the debut album of the decade. Linkin Parks following studio albums, Meteora, Minutes to Midnight, A Thousand Suns, Living Things, Bennington formed his own band, Dead by Sunrise, as a side project in 2005. The bands debut album, Out of Ashes, was released on October 13,2009 and he worked on new material with Stone Temple Pilots in 2013 to release the EP High Rise on October 8,2013 via their own record label, Play Pen. Bennington has been ranked in the Top 100 Heavy Metal Vocalists by Hit Parader, Bennington was born in Phoenix, Arizona. His mother was a nurse, while his father was a detective who worked with child sex abuse cases. Bennington took interest in music at an age, citing Depeche Mode and Stone Temple Pilots as early inspirations. Benningtons parents divorced when he was 11 years old and his father gained custody of him, after the divorce, Bennington started abusing marijuana, alcohol, opium, cocaine, methamphetamine, and LSD. He eventually overcame his addiction, and would go on to denounce drug use in future interviews. During a Linkin Park tour, he started heavily drinking but claimed to have quit in 2011, noting, in an interview, Bennington revealed that he suffered sexual abuse from an older male friend when he was seven years old. He was afraid to ask for help because he did not want people to think he was gay or lying, the abuse and situation at home affected him so much that he felt the urge to kill and run away. To comfort himself, he drew pictures and wrote poetry and songs, later, he revealed the abusers identity to his father, but chose not to continue the case after he realized the abuser was a victim himself. At the age of 17, Bennington moved in with his mother and was banned from leaving the house when his mother discovered his drug activity and he worked at a Burger King and used his money for cocaine and crystal meth before starting his career as a professional musician. He was physically bullied in high school, in an interview, he said, I was knocked around like a rag doll at school for being skinny and looking different. Bennington first began singing with a band called Sean Dowdell and His Friends and they released an eponymous three-track cassette in 1993. Later, Sean Dowdell and Bennington moved on to form a new band, Grey Daze, the band recorded three albums, Demo in 1993, Wake Me in 1994, and. no sun today in 1997Chester Bennington – Bennington at the Rock Im Park 2014.
5. George A. Romero – His other works contributed include The Crazies, Creepshow, Martin, Monkey Shines, and The Dark Half. Romero was born in the New York City borough of The Bronx, to a Cuban-born father and his father has been reported as born in A Coruña, with his family coming from the Galician town of Neda, although Romero once described his father as of Castilian descent. His father worked as a commercial artist, Romero was raised in the Bronx, and would frequently ride the subway into Manhattan to rent film reels to view at his house. Romero attended Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, after graduating in 1960, he began his career shooting short films and commercials. One of his commercial films was a segment for Mister Rogers Neighborhood in which Rogers underwent a tonsillectomy. With nine friends, Romero formed Image Ten Productions in the late 1960s, directed by Romero and co-written with John A. Russo, the movie became a cult classic and a defining moment for modern horror cinema. Among the inspiration for Romeros filmmaking, as told to Robert K. Elder in an interview for The Film That Changed My Life, was the 1951 British film, The Tales of Hoffmann. It was the filmmaking, the fantasy, the fact that it was a fantasy and it had a few frightening and it was really a movie for me, and it gave me an early appreciation for the power of visual media—the fact that you could experiment with it. He was doing all his tricks in-camera, and they were sort of obvious and that made me feel that, gee, maybe I could figure this medium out. It was transparent, but it worked, three films that followed were less popular, Theres Always Vanilla, Jacks Wife / Season of the Witch and The Crazies were not as well received as Night of the Living Dead or some of his later work. Like many of his films, they were shot in or around Pittsburgh, in 1978, Romero returned to the zombie genre with Dawn of the Dead. Shot on a budget of just $500,000, the film earned over $55 million worldwide and was named one of the top cult films by Entertainment Weekly in 2003, Romero made the third entry in his Dead Series with Day of the Dead. Romero updated his original screenplay and executive produced the remake of Night of the Living Dead directed by Tom Savini for Columbia/TriStar in 1990. Savini is also responsible for the makeup and special effects in many of Romeros films including Dawn of the Dead, Day of the Dead, Creepshow, Romero had a cameo appearance in Jonathan Demmes Academy Award-winning The Silence of the Lambs in 1991 as one of Hannibal Lecters jailers. In 1998, he directed a commercial promoting the videogame Resident Evil 2 in Tokyo. The 30-second advertisement featured the two main characters, Leon S. Kennedy and Claire Redfield, fighting a horde of zombies while in Raccoon Citys police station. The project was obvious territory for Romero, the Resident Evil series has been influenced by the Dead Series. The commercial was rather popular and was shown in the weeks before the actual releaseGeorge A. Romero – Romero in Venice, 2011
6. Martin Landau – Martin Landau is an American film and television actor. His career started in the 1950s, with film appearances including a supporting role in Alfred Hitchcocks North by Northwest. He played regular roles in the television series Mission, Impossible and his performance in the supporting role of Bela Lugosi in Ed Wood earned him an Academy Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award and a Golden Globe Award. He continues to perform in film and TV and heads the Hollywood branch of the Actors Studio, Landau was born in Brooklyn, New York on June 20,1928, the son of Selma and Morris Landau. His family was Jewish, his father, an Austrian-born machinist and he attended James Madison High School and the Pratt Institute before finding full-time work as a cartoonist. At 22, he quit the Daily News to concentrate on theater acting, influenced by Charlie Chaplin and the escapism of the cinema, Landau pursued an acting career. He attended the Actors Studio, becoming friends with James Dean. In 1957, he made his Broadway debut in Middle of the Night, in 1959, Landau made his first major film appearance, as Leonard, right-hand man of a criminal mastermind, in Alfred Hitchcocks North by Northwest. He had featured roles in two 1960s epics, Cleopatra and The Greatest Story Ever Told, and played a killer in the 1965 western Nevada Smith. Landau played the role of master of disguise Rollin Hand in the US television series Mission, Impossible, according to The Complete Mission, Impossible Dossier by Patrick J. He became a full-time cast member in the season, although the studio agreed to contract him only on a year-by-year basis rather than the then-standard five years. Landau co-starred in the series with his then-wife, Barbara Bain, in the mid-1970s, Landau and Bain returned to TV in the British science-fiction series Space,1999. Although the series remains a classic for its high production values, critical response to Space,1999 was unenthusiastic during its original run. Landau himself was critical of the scripts and storylines, especially during the second season. He later wrote forewords to Space,1999 co-star Barry Morses theatrical memoir Remember With Advantages, following Space,1999, Landau appeared in supporting roles in a number of films and TV series, including the TV film The Harlem Globetrotters on Gilligans Island, which again co-starred Bain. In the late 1980s, Landau made a comeback, earning an Academy Award nomination for his role in Tucker, The Man. This was followed by a nomination, for 1989s Crimes and Misdemeanors. Landau also received a Screen Actors Guild Award, a Golden Globe Award, when Landau won the Academy Award, a reporter for the Los Angeles Times announced, the award goes to Martin Landau, its shadow goes to Bela LugosiMartin Landau – Landau in 2010
7. Aegean Sea – The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i. e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles, the Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was known as Archipelago, but in English this words meaning has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the name Aegean, a possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = waves, hence wavy sea, cf. also αἰγιαλός, hence meaning sea-shore. The Venetians, who ruled many Greek islands in the High and Late Middle Ages, popularized the name Archipelago, in some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea. The Aegean Sea covers about 214,000 square kilometres in area, the seas maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters, with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south, Kythera, Antikythera, Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, many of the Aegean Islands, or chains of islands, are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland. One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows, On the South. In the Dardanelles. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles, the dense Mediterranean water sinks below the Black Sea inflow to a depth of 23–30 metres, then flows through the Dardanelles Strait and into the Sea of Marmara at velocities of 5–15 cm/s. The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea, Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a uniform temperature. The current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC, before that time, at the peak of the last ice age sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, and there were large well-watered coastal plains instead of much of the northern Aegean. When they were first occupied, the islands including Milos with its important obsidian production were probably still connected to the mainland. The present coastal arrangement appeared c.7000 BC, with post-ice age sea levels continuing to rise for another 3,000 years after that, the subsequent Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean Sea have given rise to the general term Aegean civilization. In ancient times, the sea was the birthplace of two ancient civilizations – the Minoans of Crete and the Mycenean Civilization of the Peloponnese, later arose the city-states of Athens and Sparta among many others that constituted the Athenian Empire and Hellenic Civilization. Plato described the Greeks living round the Aegean like frogs around a pond, the Aegean Sea was later invaded by the Persians and the Romans, and inhabited by the Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuq Turks, and the Ottoman Empire. The Aegean was the site of the democracies, and its seaways were the means of contact among several diverse civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean. Many of the islands in the Aegean have safe harbours and bays, in ancient times, navigation through the sea was easier than travelling across the rough terrain of the Greek mainlandAegean Sea – Map of the Aegean Sea
8. Turkey – Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black. The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron AgeTurkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
9. Qatar – Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its surrounded by the Arabian Gulf. A strait in the Arabian Gulf separates Qatar from the island country of Bahrain, as well as sharing maritime borders with the United Arab Emirates. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971, Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar, Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Whether it should be regarded as a constitutional or a monarchy is a matter of opinion. In 2003, the constitution was approved in a referendum. In early 2017, Qatars total population was 2.6 million,313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates, Qatar is a high income economy, backed by the worlds third largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. The country has the highest per capita income in the world, Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a significant power in the Arab world, supporting several rebel groups during the Arab Spring both financially and through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to do so. A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, the map also referenced a town named Cadara to the east of the peninsula. The term Catara was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which Katara emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling, eventually, the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the countrys name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced, while in the local dialect it is, Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula, Mesopotamian artefacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Daasa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain, among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, in 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian GulfQatar – Dot carvings at Jebel Jassassiyeh, dating to c. 4000 BC.
10. Linkin Park – Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California. Formed in 1996, the rose to international fame with their debut album Hybrid Theory. Their following studio album Meteora continued the success, topping the Billboard 200 album chart in 2003. In 2003, MTV2 named Linkin Park the sixth-greatest band of the video era. Billboard ranked Linkin Park No.19 on the Best Artists of the Decade chart, in 2012, the band was voted as the greatest artist of the 2000s in a Bracket Madness poll on VH1. In 2014, the band was declared as the Biggest Rock Band in the World Right Now by Kerrang. Having adapted nu metal and rap metal to a radio-friendly yet densely layered style in Hybrid Theory and Meteora, the album topped the Billboard charts and had the third-best debut week of any album that year. The band continued to explore a wider variation of musical types in their album, A Thousand Suns, layering their music with more electronic sounds. Their fifth album, Living Things, combines elements from all of their previous records. Their sixth album, The Hunting Party, returned to a rock sound. Their upcoming album One More Light is expected to be released May 19,2017, the band has collaborated with several other artists, most notably with rapper Jay Z in their mashup EP Collision Course, and many others on the remix albums Reanimation and Recharged. Linkin Park has sold over 70 million albums worldwide and has won two Grammy Awards, Linkin Park was founded by three high school friends, Mike Shinoda, Rob Bourdon, and Brad Delson. The three attended Agoura High School in Agoura Hills, California, a suburb of Los Angeles. After graduating from school, the three began to take their musical interests more seriously, recruiting Joe Hahn, Dave Phoenix Farrell. Though limited in resources, the began recording and producing songs within Shinodas makeshift bedroom studio in 1996, resulting in a four-track demo tape. Tensions and frustration within the band grew however after they failed to land a record deal, the lack of success and stalemate in progress prompted Wakefield, at that time the bands vocalist, to leave the band in search of other projects. Farrell also left to tour with Tasty Snax, a Christian punk, Bennington, formerly of a post-grunge band by the name of Grey Daze, became a standout among applicants because of the dynamic in his singing style. The band then agreed on changing its name from Xero to Hybrid Theory, in 1999 the band released a self-titled extended play, which they circulated across internet chat-rooms and forums with the help of an online street teamLinkin Park – Linkin Park performing in Berlin promoting A Thousand Suns, October 25, 2010. From left to right: Joe Hahn, Dave Farrell, Brad Delson, Mike Shinoda, Rob Bourdon and Chester Bennington
11. Palos Verdes Estates, California – Palos Verdes Estates is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, situated on the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The city was master-planned by the noted American landscape architect and planner Frederick Law Olmsted, the city is located along the Southern California coastline of the Pacific Ocean. The population was 13,438 at the 2010 census, up from 13,340 in the 2000 census, according to the 2000 U. S. Census, Palos Verdes Estates is the 81st richest place in the United States with at least 1,000 households. The 90274 ZIP code was ranked the 47th most expensive housing area among high property value U. S, ZIP codes in a 2007 study by Forbes. com. Palos Verdes Estates was established as a subdivision in 1923, with 3,200 acres carved out of the former Rancho Palos Verdes property of over 16,000 acres. Frank Vanderlip established both a land holding the Palos Verdes peninsula, and a real estate development trust for the Palos Verdes Estates subdivision. The Commonwealth Trust Company filed the Palos Verdes Protective Restrictions in Los Angeles County in 1923 and these restrictions established rules for the developer and all land owners. No less than ninety percent of the land was required to be used for single-family homes. The deed restrictions prohibited nuisance businesses, such as polluting industries, none of the lots or homes could be sold to or rented by a non-white. An art jury reviewed all building plans, regulating any structure in regard to style, material, and even small details like color, the construction of fences and hedges were subject to evaluation by the art jury. At the time of the incorporation in 1939, the business. The Malaga Cove Plaza building of the Palos Verdes Public Library, Palos Verdes Estates was one of the earliest masterplanned communities in the United States. Palos Verdes Estates is located at 33°47′13″N 118°23′48″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, over 99% of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Palos Verdes Estates had a population of 13,438, the population density was 2,814.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Palos Verdes Estates was 10,346 White,161 African American,21 Native American,2,322 Asian,8 Pacific Islander,94 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 631 persons. The Census reported that 13,421 people lived in households,17 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 91 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 26 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 848 households were made up of individuals and 534 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.65. There were 4,083 families, the family size was 2.97Palos Verdes Estates, California – Malaga Cove Plaza was built in a Spanish Renaissance style in 1925.
12. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
13. Burundi – It is also considered part of Central Africa. The southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika, the Twa, Hutu and Tutsi peoples have lived in Burundi for at least 500 years. For more than 200 of those years, Burundi was an independent kingdom, until the beginning of the twentieth century, after the First World War and Germanys defeat, it ceded the territory to Belgium. Both Germans and Belgians ruled Burundi and Rwanda as a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi, despite common misconceptions, Burundi and Rwanda had never been under common rule until the time of European colonisation. The European intervention exacerbated social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu, and contributed to political unrest in the region. Bouts of ethnic cleansing and ultimately two civil wars and genocides during the 1970s and again in the 1990s left the country undeveloped, Burundis political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government, there are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi. On 13 March 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, six years later, on 6 June 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assemblys seats and making provisions for two vice-presidents. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a government in 2000. In October 2016, Burundi informed the UN of its intention to withdraw from the International Criminal Court, Burundi remains an overwhelmingly rural society, with just 13% of the population living in urban areas in 2013. The population density of around 315 people per kilometre is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% are Tutsi, the official languages of Burundi are French and Kirundi, although Swahili can be found spoken along the Tanzanian border. One of the smallest countries in Africa, Burundi has an equatorial climate, Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the East African Rift. The country lies on a plateau in the centre of Africa. The highest peak, Mount Heha at 2,685 m, lies to the southeast of the capital, there are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest, Ruvubu National Park to the northeast. Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations, Burundis lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. Settlement by rural populations has led to deforestation, soil erosion, deforestation of the entire country is almost completely due to overpopulation, with a mere 600 km2 remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum. In addition to poverty, Burundians often have to deal with corruption, weak infrastructure, poor access to health and education services, Burundi is densely populated and has had substantial emigration as young people seek opportunities elsewhereBurundi – Independence Square and monument in Bujumbura.
14. Vince Cable – From 1968 to 1974 he lectured in economics at Glasgow University. Later, he served as Chief Economist for Shell from 1995 to 1997, in the 1970s Cable was active in the Labour Party, becoming a Labour Councillor in Glasgow. He resigned from both of these positions in May 2010 after becoming Business Secretary and he was knighted in the 2015 Dissolution Honours Lists on 27 August 2015. Cable was born in York to a working class Tory family and his father, Len, was a craftsman for Rowntree and his mother packed chocolates for Terrys. He then went to Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, where he initially studied Natural Sciences and he was the President of the Cambridge Union in 1965. He was also a member and later President-elect of the Cambridge University Liberal Club. In 1966, at the end of his studies at the University of Cambridge and he graduated in 1973 with a PhD in Economics from the University of Glasgow on economic integration and industrialisation. From 1966 to 1968, he was a Treasury Finance Officer to the Kenyan Government, in the 1970s, he was special advisor to John Smith when the latter was Trade Secretary. He was an advisor to the British government and then to the Commonwealth Secretary-General in the 1970s and 1980s, Cable served as Chief Economist for the oil company Royal Dutch Shell from 1995 to 1997. His role at Shell came under scrutiny as the company was accused of playing a role in a turbulent era of Nigerian politics, at university, Cable was a member of the Liberal Party but then joined the Labour Party. In 1970, he unsuccessfully contested Glasgow Hillhead for Labour, in 1979, he sought the Labour nomination for Hampstead, losing to Ken Livingstone, who was unsuccessful in taking the seat. In February 1982, he joined the recently created Social Democratic Party and he was the SDP-Liberal Alliance parliamentary candidate for his home city of York in both the 1983 and 1987 general elections. Following the 1988 merger of the alliance, he lost his 1992 general election bid as a Liberal Democrat to unseat Conservative MP Toby Jessel in the Twickenham constituency. Cable entered the House of Commons after unseating Conservative MP Toby Jessel in the Twickenham constituency at the second attempt and he subsequently increased his majority in the elections of 2001,2005 and increased still further in 2010. He lost his seat in 2015, in 2004, Cable contributed to the Orange Book. However, he himself as being a social democrat. Then Lib Dem Leader Charles Kennedy said that the party would remain an independent political force, however, he resigned on 7 January. Cable passed on the opportunity to run for the party leadership himself, a Twickenham resident, Cable commuted by train into central London daily and so claimed the London Supplement instead of the Additional Costs AllowanceVince Cable – The Right Honourable Sir Vince Cable
15. Leader of the Liberal Democrats – The Liberal Democrats are a political party in the United Kingdom. Party members elect the Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Liberal Democrat Members of Parliament also elect a Deputy Leader of the Liberal Democrats Group in the House of Commons, often colloquially referred to as the Deputy Leader. Under the federal constitution of the Liberal Democrats the leader is required to be a member of the House of Commons. In the event that the dies, resigns or loses his or her seat in Parliament. This has occurred twice, with Menzies Campbell serving as leader following the resignation of Charles Kennedy. Notes,1 Joint acting leader, as the last leader of the Liberal Party before the merger,2 Joint acting leader, as the last leader of the Social Democratic Party before the merger. 3 Acting leader between the resignation of Charles Kennedy on 7 January 2006 and his own election as leader on 2 March 2006,4 Acting leader between the resignation of Menzies Campbell on 15 October 2007 and the election of a new leader on 18 December 2007. 5 Deputy Prime Minister as part of the Liberal–Conservative Coalition, resigned on 8 May 2015 following the 2015 general election, the Liberal Democrat peers elect the Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords. The first four Leaders had been members of the Labour Party who left to form the Social Democratic Party in 1981 before merging with the Liberal Party in 1988, lord Wallace of Tankerness had been a member of the Liberal Party before the merger. Lord Newby had been a civil servant before joining the SDPLeader of the Liberal Democrats – Incumbent Tim Farron since 16 July 2015
16. SpaceX – Space Exploration Technologies Corporation, better known as SpaceX, is an American aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by entrepreneur Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs, SpaceX has since developed the Falcon launch vehicle family and the Dragon spacecraft family, which both currently deliver payloads into Earth orbit. As of March 2017, SpaceX has since flown ten missions to the International Space Station under a cargo resupply contract, SpaceX announced in 2011 they were beginning a privately funded reusable launch system technology development program. In December 2015, a first stage was flown back to a landing pad near the launch site and this was the first such achievement by a rocket for orbital spaceflight. In April 2016, with the launch of CRS-8, SpaceX successfully vertically landed a first stage on an ocean drone-ship landing platform, in May 2016, in another first, SpaceX again landed a first stage, but during a significantly more energetic geostationary transfer orbit mission. In March 2017, SpaceX became the first to successfully re-launch and this is the main purpose this System was designed for. In February 2017, Elon Musk announced that the company had contracted by two private individuals to send them in a Dragon spacecraft on a free return trajectory around the Moon. Provisionally launching in 2018, this may become the first instance of lunar tourism. Musk tried to buy cheap rockets from Russia, but returned empty-handed after failing to find rockets for an affordable price, on the flight home, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed. According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor Steve Jurvetson, Musk calculated that the raw materials for building a rocket actually were only 3 percent of the price of a rocket at the time. SpaceX started with the smallest useful orbital rocket, instead of building a complex and riskier launch vehicle. In early 2002, Musk was seeking staff for his new space company, Musk approached renowned rocket engineer Tom Mueller and Mueller agreed to work for Musk, and thus SpaceX was born. SpaceX was first headquartered in a warehouse in El Segundo, California, the company has grown rapidly since it was founded in 2002, growing from 160 employees in 2005 to nearly 5,000 in late 2015 and February 2016. At year-end 2012, SpaceX had over 40 launches on its manifest representing about $4 billion in contract revenue, the contracts included both commercial and government customers. As of December 2013, SpaceX had a total of 50 future launches under contract, Musk has stated that one of his goals is to improve the cost and reliability of access to space, ultimately by a factor of ten. CEO Elon Musk said, I believe $500 per pound or less is very achievable, a major goal of SpaceX has been to develop a rapidly reusable launch system. Musk stated in a 2011 interview that he hopes to send humans to Mars surface within 10–20 years, in 2010, Musks calculations convinced him that the colonization of Mars was possible. After completing its primary burn, the first stage of the rocket detached from the second stage as usualSpaceX – The company's headquarters, located in Hawthorne, California.
17. Gourdon, Lot – Gourdon is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France. The small town, Gourdon, close to Rocamadour, is situated in the south west region of France, Gourdon has a rich prehistoric past, and a high concentration of prehistoric sites. Gourdon is the capital of the Bouriane, the region part of the Quercy. The town lies in the middle of the commune, above the bank of the Bléou, a stream tributary of the Céou. Communes of the Lot department SauveterrianGourdon, Lot – Town and St Peter church
18. Mariposa, California – Mariposa is a census-designated place in and the county seat of Mariposa County, California, United States. The population was 2,173 at the 2010 census, up from 1,373 at the 2000 census and its name is Spanish for butterfly, after the flocks of monarchs seen overwintering there by early explorers. Mariposa is located at 37°29′06″N 119°57′59″W, at 1,949 feet in elevation and it lies in the rugged foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Mariposa Creek flows through the town, soils in the urban area are mostly brown to reddish brown loam of the Blasingame series. A gravelly loam is mapped as Boomer series and these soils support thick grassland plus trees such as blue oak, black oak, gray pine, and ponderosa pine. To the west-northwest of town is an area of sparse vegetation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 12.9 square miles. Mariposa County includes much of Yosemite National Park, and a deal of the local economy is related to the park. The county courthouse, constructed in 1854, is the oldest in use west of the Rockies. The county lies at the end of the Mother Lode. During the 19th century California Gold Rush, its streams were panned, frémont lived here and owned claims to much of the mineral wealth of Mariposa. He later was the first United States Senator from the state, according to the Köppen climate classification system, Mariposa has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated Csa on climate maps. Along with Very wet winters The town was founded as a camp on the banks of a seasonal stream known as Aqua Fria. This original town site was located about 6.0 miles to the west of present-day Mariposa, the gold in small Aqua Fria creek was soon removed, and lacked water most of the year. So the populace moved on to the new boomtown, the large Mariposa mine soon opened, with a 40-foot waterwheel crushing gold ore. This provided a source of employment, and Mariposa soon became the supply hub for hundreds of outlying mining districts. Placer gold, that which is found in creekbeds and alluvial deposits, was extinguished. In 1851 the new town of Mariposa became the county seat, by 1854 Mariposa had a grand courthouse which is still in operationMariposa, California – Dusk in downtown Mariposa
19. Mariposa County, California – Mariposa County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,251 and it is located in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, north of Fresno, east of Merced, and southeast of Stockton. The countys eastern section is the portion of Yosemite National Park. There are no incorporated cities in Mariposa County, however, there are recognized as census-designated places for statistical purposes. It also has the distinction of having no permanent traffic lights anywhere in the county, Mariposa County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850. Thus, Mariposa County is known as the Mother of Counties, Charles Fremont moved the county seat to Mariposa in 1854, resulting in the construction of the Mariposa County Courthouse, whose grounds occupies an entire block. The historic structure is fronted by Bullion Street, Jones Street is to the rear and this handsome, white judicial building erected with whip-sawed wood from nearby forests is the oldest courthouse still in use in California, cases are still tried there to this day. The courthouse is so recognizable that its likeness is on the Mariposa County Seal, also particularly noteworthy is the courthouses clock tower and bell, which chimes every hour, on the hour,24 hours a day,7 days a week. The county took its name from Mariposa Creek, which was so named by Spanish explorers in 1806, each year, the first weekend in May, residents mark the annual arrival of migrating monarch butterflies with a Butterfly Days festival and parade. Mariposa County is located at the end of Californias Mother Lode region. During the California Gold Rush, great quantities of the mineral were found and extracted, first in local stream-beds. One of the most notable beneficiaries of this wealth was the explorer and 1856 Republican presidential candidate, John Charles Frémont, for whom the local hospital. Two small gold mines in Mariposa county, the Mockingbird and the Colorado Quartz, specimens from these occurrences commonly have bright luster and rich color, with well-developed crystals in unusual and attractive arrangements. The best-known example is The Dragon, now on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,463 square miles. Along the banks of the Merced River is found the habitat for the limestone salamander. The 2010 United States Census reported that Mariposa County had a population of 18,251. The racial makeup of Mariposa County was 16,103 White,138 African American,527 Native American,204 Asian,26 Pacific Islander,508 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,676 personsMariposa County, California
20. Yosemite National Park – Yosemite National Park is a national park spanning portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa and Madera counties in Northern California. The park, which is managed by the National Park Service, on average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, and most spend the majority of their time in the seven square miles of Yosemite Valley. The park set a record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Almost 95% of the park is designated wilderness, Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. First, Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development, Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, and the park supports a diversity of plants and animals. The park has a range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones, chaparral/oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone. Of Californias 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada, there is suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants in the park, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic rocks, about 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and then tilted to form its relatively gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes. The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in formation of deep, about one million years ago, snow and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode, the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name Yosemite originally referred to the name of a tribe which was driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion. Before then the area was called Ahwahnee by indigenous people, as revealed by archeological finds, the Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, though humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. The indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahneechee, meaning dwellers in Ahwahnee and they are related to the Northern Paiute and Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, a major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today, acorns were a staple to their diet, as well as seeds and plants, salmon. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance and he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley, attached to Savages unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who later wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya, Bunnell wrote that Chief Tenaya was the founder of the Pai-Ute Colony of Ah-wah-neeYosemite National Park – Yosemite Valley from Tunnel View
21. Prime Minister of Australia – The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of the Crown, the leader of the Cabinet, the office is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and exists only through longstanding political convention and tradition. Despite this, in practice it is the most powerful position in Australia. The individual who holds the office is commissioned by the Governor-General of Australia, almost always and according to convention, the Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party or largest party in a coalition of parties in the House of Representatives. However, there is no requirement that the prime minister sit in the House of Representatives. The only case where a member of the Senate was appointed minister was John Gorton. Malcolm Turnbull has held the office of Prime Minister since 15 September 2015, the Prime Minister and Treasurer are traditionally members of the House, but the Constitution does not have such a requirement. Before being sworn in as a Minister of the Crown, a person must first be sworn in as a member of the Federal Executive Council if they are not already a member. Membership of the Federal Executive Council entitles the member to the style of The Honourable for life, the senior members of the Executive Council constitute the Cabinet of Australia. The Prime Minister is, like ministers, normally sworn in by the Governor-General. When defeated in an election, or on resigning, the Prime Minister is said to hand in the commission, in the event of a Prime Minister dying in office, or becoming incapacitated, the Governor-General can terminate the commission. Despite the importance of the office of minister, the Constitution does not mention the office by name. The conventions of the Westminster system were thought to be entrenched in Australia by the authors of the Constitution that it was deemed unnecessary to detail them. The formal title of the portfolio has always been simply Prime Minister, except for the period of the Fourth Deakin Ministry, Page was the leader of the smaller party in the governing coalition, the Country Party. He held the office for three weeks until the UAP elected a new leader, Robert Menzies, in August 1941 Menzies resigned as prime minister. In July 1945 John Curtin died suddenly and his deputy, Frank Forde, was sworn in the next day as prime minister, although the Labor Party had not had an opportunity to meet and elect a new leader. Forde served for eight days until Ben Chifley was elected leader, Chifley was then sworn in, replacing Forde, who became Australias shortest-serving prime minister. Harold Holt disappeared while swimming on 17 December 1967 and was declared presumed dead on 19 December, the governor-general, Lord Casey, commissioned the Leader of the Country Party, John McEwen, to form a government until the Liberal Party elected a new leaderPrime Minister of Australia – Incumbent Malcolm Turnbull since 15 September 2015
22. Malcolm Turnbull – Malcolm Bligh Turnbull is the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia. The Turnbull Government was re-elected at the 2016 federal election though with a bare one-seat majority, Turnbull attended Sydney Grammar School before going to the University of Sydney, where he attained a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws. Turnbull then attended Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, elevated to the Howard Cabinet in January 2007, he briefly served as Minister for the Environment and Water. Following the defeat of the Liberal Government at the 2007 federal election, Turnbull declared himself a candidate in the subsequent leadership election, following a period of poor opinion polling, Turnbull challenged and defeated Nelson by four votes and became Leader of the Opposition. This led to persistent tensions within the Liberal Party, with Turnbulls support for the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in late 2009 eventually causing a split. Tony Abbott, who was opposed to the Scheme, subsequently challenged Turnbull, Turnbull was subsequently sworn in as Prime Minister of Australia the following day and formed the Turnbull Government. However, at the closest federal majority result since the 1961 election, Malcolm Turnbull was born in Sydney on 24 October 1954 to Bruce Bligh Turnbull and Coral Magnolia Lansbury. Turnbulls maternal grandmother, May Lansbury, was born in England, Turnbulls father was a hotel broker. Turnbulls mother was an actor, a writer, an academic. Turnbull suffered asthma as a young child, Turnbulls parents separated when he was nine, with Turnbulls mother leaving first for New Zealand, and then the United States. Turnbull was then raised by his father, Turnbull is of direct paternal Scottish descent, his great-great-great grandfather John Turnbull arrived in 1802 in New South Wales and became a tailor. During his childhood, he practised Presbyterianism before becoming a Roman Catholic, Turnbull spent his first three years of school at Vaucluse Public School. He then attended the St Ives preparatory school at Sydney Grammar School as a boarder, in senior school he was a boarder at the former Randwick campus of the school while attending classes at the main College Street campus on a partial scholarship. He was senior school co-captain in 1972, as well as winning the Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition, excelling particularly in the subjects such as English. However, contrary to certain sources, Turnbull was not the dux of his year at Sydney Grammar. In 1987, in memory of his father, he set up the Bruce Turnbull means-tested scholarship at Sydney Grammar. In 1973, Turnbull attended the University of Sydney and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1977, during his studies, he was active in student politics, serving as board director of the University of Sydney Union. He also worked as a political journalist for Nation Review, Radio 2SM, in 1978, Turnbull won a Rhodes Scholarship and attended Brasenose College, Oxford, where he studied for a Bachelor of Civil Law degree from 1978 to 1980, graduating with honoursMalcolm Turnbull – The Honourable Malcolm Turnbull MP
23. John McCain – John Sidney McCain III is an American politician who currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for the 2008 U. S. presidential election, McCain followed his father and grandfather, both four-star admirals, into the United States Navy, graduating from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1958. He became an aviator, flying ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he was almost killed in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, in October 1967, while on a bombing mission over Hanoi, he was shot down, seriously injured, and captured by the North Vietnamese. He was a prisoner of war until 1973, McCain experienced episodes of torture, and refused an out-of-sequence early repatriation offer. His war wounds have left him with physical limitations. He retired from the Navy as a captain in 1981 and moved to Arizona, elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1982, McCain served two terms. He was first elected to the U. S. Senate in 1986, winning re-election easily five times, while generally adhering to conservative principles, McCain at times has had a media reputation as a maverick for his willingness to disagree with his party on certain issues. He is also known for his work in the 1990s to restore relations with Vietnam. McCain ran for the Republican nomination in 2000 but lost a primary season contest to George W. Bush of Texas. He subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and largely opposed actions of the Obama administration, by 2013, however, he had become a key figure in the Senate for negotiating deals on certain issues in an otherwise partisan environment. In 2015, McCain became chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, John McCain was born on August 29,1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He has a brother named Joe and an elder sister named Sandy. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control, McCains family tree includes Scots-Irish and English ancestors. Both his father and his grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. became four-star United States Navy admirals. The McCain family followed his father to various postings in the United States. Altogether, he attended about 20 schools, in 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, and McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria. He excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954, following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy at AnnapolisJohn McCain – John McCain
24. Secretary of the Army – The Secretary of the Army is nominated by the President and confirmed by the U. S. Senate, the Secretary of the Army is a non-Cabinet position serving under the Secretary of Defense. Robert M. Speer took office as Acting Secretary on January 20,2017 and he will perform his duties until the U. S. Senate confirms a new Army Secretary, Karl M. Schneider will perform the duties of Undersecretary of the Army. Mr. Speer was formerly Assistant Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Army is in effect the chief executive officer of the Department of the Army, and the Chief of Staff of the Army works directly for the Secretary of the Army. The Secretary presents and justifies Army policies, plans, programs, and budgets to the Secretary of Defense, other executive branch officials, the Secretary also communicates Army policies, plans, programs, capabilities, and accomplishments to the public. As necessary, the Secretary convenes meetings with the leadership of the Army to debate issues, provide direction. The Secretary is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, other offices may be established by law or by the Secretary of the Army. No more than 1,865 officers of the Army on the active-duty list may be assigned or detailed to permanent duty in the Office of the Secretary of the Army and on the Army StaffSecretary of the Army – Eric K. Fanning, the acting 22nd Secretary of the Army
25. Bear – Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and short tails. While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous, and the giant panda feeds almost entirely on bamboo, with the exception of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are typically solitary animals. They may be diurnal or nocturnal and have an excellent sense of smell, despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they are adept runners, climbers, and swimmers. Bears use shelters, such as caves and logs, as their dens, most species occupy their dens during the winter for a period of hibernation. Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their meat and fur, they have used for bear-baiting and other forms of entertainment. With their powerful physical presence, they play a prominent role in the arts, mythology, in modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats and illegal trade in bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market. The IUCN lists six species as vulnerable or endangered, and even least concern species. The poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, Bear taxon names such as Ursidae and Ursus come from Latin Ursus/Ursa, he-bear/she-bear. The female first name Ursula, originally derived from a Christian saints name, in Switzerland, the male first name Urs is especially popular, while the name of the canton and city of Bern is derived from Bär, German for bear. The Germanic name Bernard means bear-brave, bear-hardy, or bold bear, the Old English name Beowulf is a kenning, bee-wolf, for bear, in turn meaning a brave warrior. The family Ursidae is one of nine families in the suborder Caniformia, or doglike carnivorans, Bears closest living relatives are the pinnipeds, canids, and musteloids. Modern bears comprise eight species in three subfamilies, Ailuropodinae, Tremarctinae, and Ursinae, the earliest members of Ursidae belong to the extinct subfamily Amphicynodontinae, including Parictis and the slightly younger Allocyon, both from North America. These animals looked very different from bears, being small and raccoon-like in overall appearance. Parictis does not appear in Eurasia and Africa until the Miocene, european genera morphologically are very similar to Allocyon, and to the much younger American Kolponomos, are known from the Oligocene, including Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon. The raccoon-sized, dog-like Cephalogale is the member of the subfamily Hemicyoninae. The subfamily includes the younger genera Phoberocyon, and Plithocyon, a Cephalogale-like species gave rise to the genus Ursavus during the early Oligocene, this genus proliferated into many species in Asia and is ancestral to all living bearsBear
26. Pro12 – The PRO12 is an annual rugby union competition involving twelve professional sides from Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. Beginning in the 2001–02 season, the league was known as the Celtic League and comprised teams from Ireland, Scotland. The league was sponsored by Irish cider makers Magners from the 2006–07 season until 2010–11, at the start of the 2010–11 season, the league expanded from ten to twelve teams, adding two Italian teams. Following the end of Magners sponsorship, the league was sponsored by RaboDirect from 2011–12 through to 2013–14, the Pro12 name was adopted in 2011 to reflect that the league now included teams from outside the Celtic nations. The current sponsorship deal with Guinness commenced at the beginning of the 2014–15 season, the league has used a play-off structure since the 2009–10 season to determine the champions, similar to that used in the English Premiership. Until the 2008–09 season, the champions were determined from league performance, the league season takes place between September and May, with each team playing every other team on a home and away basis. League points are awarded using the Rugby union bonus points system, the venue for the final is chosen by the highest placed team in the regular season. The legal name of the running the competition is Celtic Rugby Limited. The company is owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union, the Welsh Rugby Union, the Scottish Rugby Union, the board of directors consists of two representatives appointed by each Union and an independent chairman. The BBC Two Wales matches are made available to the rest of the United Kingdom via BBC Red Button. Complete match replays are available on the BBC iPlayer. Each broadcaster provides feed to the others for matches in their home territory, while this means that the league is now available free to air in the UK and Ireland, in Italy it was only available on a subscription basis in its first year. However, from the 2014–15 season, Italys Nuvolari began broadcasting the games involving the two Italian clubs live on its digital free-to-view channel, Glasgow Warriors and Edinburgh matches are also broadcast live on BBC Radio Scotland. Commencing from the 2014–15 season, Sky Sports became one of the leagues broadcast partners, broadcasting 33 live games on a Saturday, sporadic coverage of the tournament can be found in other territories – on beIN Sports in France, and on various Setanta Sports channels around the globe. Setanta closed down in Scotland in 2009, but Setanta Ireland, in 2010, RTÉ Sport, BBC Northern Ireland, TG4, BBC Wales, BBC Alba and SKY Italia came together to buy the Celtic League broadcasting rights. On 2 May 2013, Sky Sports announced that it had agreed a deal to broadcast 33 live Pro12 matches each season. Regional screening of matches continued, BBC Wales show Scrum V Live on Friday Night with S4C covering a match now on Sunday Afternoons, the semi-finals and finals are available to all broadcasters. The league is based on representation of the participating nationsPro12 – Pro12
27. Celtic nations – The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived. The term nation is used in its original sense to mean a people who share a common identity, the six territories widely considered Celtic nations are Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the Isle of Man, commonly referred to as the Celtic fringe. In each of the six nations a Celtic language is spoken, before the expansions of Ancient Rome and the Germanic and Slavic tribes, a significant part of Europe was dominated by Celts, leaving behind a legacy of Celtic cultural traits. Unlike the others, however, no Celtic language has been there in modern times. Each of the six nations has its own Celtic language, in the latter two regions, however, language revitalization movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and produced a number of native speakers. Generally these communities are in the west of their countries and in isolated upland or island areas. The term Gàidhealtachd historically distinguished the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland from the Lowland Scots areas, more recently, this term has also been adopted as the Gaelic name of the Highland council area, which includes non-Gaelic speaking areas. Hence, more terms such as sgìre Ghàidhlig are now used. In Wales, the Welsh language is a curriculum subject. Additionally, 20% of school children in Wales go to Welsh medium schools, parts of the northern Iberian Peninsula, namely Galicia, Cantabria, Asturias and Northern Portugal, also lay claim to this heritage. Notably, the music features extensive use of bagpipes, an instrument common in Celtic music. Musicians from Galicia and Asturias have participated in Celtic music festivals, such as the Breton Festival Interceltique de Lorient, Northern Portugal, part of ancient Gallaecia, also has traditions quite similar to Galicia. However, no Celtic language has been spoken in northern Iberia since probably the Early Middle Ages, Irish was once widely spoken on the island of Newfoundland before largely disappearing there by the early 20th century. Vestiges remain in some words found in Newfoundland English, such as scrob for scratch, knowledge seems to be largely restricted to memorized passages, such as traditional tales and songs. Canadian Gaelic dialects of Scottish Gaelic are still spoken by Gaels in other parts of Atlantic Canada, primarily on Cape Breton Island and adjacent areas of Nova Scotia. In 2011, there were 1,275 Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia, patagonian Welsh is spoken principally in Y Wladfa in the Chubut Province of Patagonia with sporadic speakers throughout Argentina by Welsh Argentines. Estimates of the number of Welsh speakers range from 1,500 to 5,000, the chart below shows the population of each Celtic nation and the number of people in each nation who can speak Celtic languages. The total number of residing in the Celtic nations is 19,596,000 people and, of theseCeltic nations – Pipers at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient
28. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
29. South Africa – South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, however, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa. South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of HumankindSouth Africa – Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
30. Southern Kings – The Southern Kings are a rugby union team based in Port Elizabeth, South Africa that compete in the annual Super Rugby competition. The creation of the team was announced at the opening of the Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium on 16 June 2009. However, after the South African Rugby Union took over the running of the franchise in November 2015, in April 2006, after concerns over the teams financial stability and sporting competitiveness, the Spears were denied entry into the Super 14. Following this, the Southern Spears ceased to exist, the franchise was launched with the goal of a future place in Super Rugby, but no timetable was initially set. The President of the Eastern Province Rugby Union, Cheeky Watson, said there is a hunger for top-flight rugby in the South Eastern Cape. The franchise was announced in April 2009. They played their first ever match against the British and Irish Lions on 16 June 2009, the teams first points were scored by Jaco van der Westhuyzen and their first try was scored by Mpho Mbiyozo. They also played in the 2011 IRB Nations Cup, where they participated as the South African Kings and they won all three their games, beating Georgia, Romania and Portugal on their way to winning the competition. On 19 May 2009, Super Rugby governing body SANZAR announced that the existing Super 14 competition would be expanded to 15 teams from the 2011 season onwards. The expansion would participate in the Australian Conference, but was open to tenders from all territories, with teams from Australia, New Zealand and this was eventually reduced to just two bidders, the Melbourne Rebels and the Southern Kings. On 11 November 2009, SANZAR arbitrators awarded the 15th licence to the Melbourne Rebels, with geographical location and commercial value swaying the decision in the Australian franchises favour. Despite no initial decision as to how they will be accommodated in the competition and they also announced that two-legged promotion/relegation play-off series would be played between the lowest-placed South African side in Super Rugby and the non-participating franchise every season. The Kings made their Super Rugby debut on 23 February 2013, the Kings won the game 22–10, with Sergeal Petersen scoring two tries and Demetri Catrakilis contributing twelve points with the boot. They lost their two home matches to the Sharks and the Chiefs before embarking on their tour of Australasia. Upon their return to South Africa, they suffered three consecutive defeat, with the Bulls, Cheetahs and Waratahs all beating the Kings. The Kings top try scorer in the competition was Wimpie van der Walt, who got six tries and their top scorer was Demetri Catrakilis. However, despite three victories and a draw, the Kings finished bottom of the South African Conference and had to play a two-legged promotion/relegation play-off series against the Lions. The Lions beat the Kings 26–19 in Port Elizabeth in the first leg, however, this was not enough to retain their Super Rugby status, as the Lions won 44–42 on aggregate to return them to Super Rugby in 2014 at the expense of the KingsSouthern Kings – Southern Kings
31. Alaska – Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas, California, and Montana. It is also larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase. The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the regionAlaska – Denali is the highest peak in North America.
32. Alexander Zakharchenko – Zakharchenko was appointed Prime Minister in August 2014 after his predecessor, Alexander Borodai, resigned, and went on to win the early November,2014 election for the position. Zakharchenko was born in Donetsk on 26 June 1976 and he graduated from technical college and then worked as a mine electrician. On 16 May 2014 Zakharchenko was appointed commandant of Donetsk. Since May 2014 Zakharchenko has played a role in the insurgency against Ukraines central government. On 24 July 2014 he was awarded the rank General Major in the DPR armed forces, Zakharchenko succeeded Alexander Borodai as Prime Minister on 7 August 2014. Borodai then became the DPR Deputy Prime Minister, in September 2014, he was the lead negotiator for the DPR at the Minsk Protocol, which agreed to a peace plan for the War in Donbass. At the November 2,2014 Donetsk parliamentary elections, Zakharchenko won the prime ministership with 78. 93% of the vote. In February,2015 Zakharchenko, representing the DPR, agreed to the Minsk II peace treaty, in January 2016, he described the village of Kozhevnia as a milestone for me, saying that it was our first offensive. Unfortunately, in the course of fighting we practically destroyed this village, by burning down houses, we saved our lives and the lives of our people. During the parliamentary election campaign Zakharchenko told potential voters that he wanted pensions to be higher than in Poland, Zakharchenko said this was feasible because Donetsk is very rich, like the United Arab Emirates. We have coal, metallurgy, natural gas . The difference between us and the Emirates is they don’t have a war there and we do. ”Zakharchenko promised to build a state, a good one. Our boys died for this, civilians are still being killed for this until now, in an interview at the end 2016, he proclaimend that Britain must be conquered, what would usher in a “Golden Age for Russia, ” he said. Zakharchenko is in favour of the penalty, which stays abolished in DNRAlexander Zakharchenko – Aleksander Zakharchenko
33. Luhansk People's Republic – Along with the Donetsk Peoples Republic and the Republic of Crimea, the Luhansk Peoples Republic is one of what the Ukrainian government calls the temporarily occupied territories. The authorities of the Republic later held a referendum on 11 May to seek legitimacy for the proclamation, on 24 May 2014, the self-proclaimed government agreed to a merger with the Donetsk Peoples Republic into an unrecognized confederation known as Novorossiya. The Republic is recognised only by South Ossetia, which only has limited international recognition. On 20 May 2015 the leadership of the Federal State of Novorossiya announced the termination of the confederation project, Ukraine classifies the Republic as a terrorist organisation. The northern part of Luhansk Oblast, which is predominantly Ukrainian-speaking, has remained under Ukrainian control, the next week the LPR leadership said that If Ukraine remains like it is now, we will never be together. One-thousand pro-Russian activists seized and occupied the Security Service of Ukraine building in the city of Luhansk on 6 April 2014, following similar occupations in Donetsk, the activists demanded that separatist leaders who had been arrested in previous weeks be released. In anticipation of attempts by the government to retake the building and it was proposed by the activists that a Lugansk Parliamentary Republic be declared on 8 April 2014, but did not occur. By 12 April, the government had regained control over the SBU building with the assistance of police forces. Several thousand protesters gathered for an assembly outside the regional state administration building in Luhansk city on 21 April. These protesters called for the creation of a government. They elected Valery Bolotov as Peoples Governor of Luhansk Oblast, two referendums were announced by the leadership of the activists. One was scheduled for 11 May, and was meant to determine whether the region would seek greater autonomy, or retain its previous constitutional status within Ukraine. Another referendum, meant to be held on 18 May in the event that the first referendum favoured autonomy, was to determine whether the region would join the Russian Federation, during a gathering outside the RSA building on 27 April 2014, pro-Russian activists proclaimed the Luhansk Peoples Republic. They then warned the Ukrainian government that if it did not meet demands by 14,00 on 29 April. As the Ukrainian government did not respond to demands,2,000 to 3,000 activists, some of them armed, attempted to seize the RSA building. The buildings were ransacked, and then occupied by the protesters. Protestors waived local flags, alongside those of Russia and the neighbouring Donetsk Peoples Republic, some police officers that had been guarding the building defected supported the activists, providing little resistance to the takeover. Demonstrations by pro-Russian activists began to spread across Luhansk Oblast towards the end of April, the municipal administration building in Pervomaisk was overrun on 29 April 2014, and the Luhansk Peoples Republic flag was raised over itLuhansk People's Republic – Occupation of the Security Service of Ukraine building in Luhansk
34. Failed state – A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly. Likewise, when a nation weakens and its standard of living declines, the level of government control required to avoid being considered a failed state varies considerably amongst authorities. Furthermore, the declaration that a state has failed is generally controversial and, according to the political theories of Max Weber, a state could be said to succeed if it maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within its borders. When this is broken, the existence of the state becomes dubious. The problem of legitimacy can be solved by understanding what Weber intended by it, Weber clearly explains that only the state has the means of production necessary for physical violence. This means that the state does not require legitimacy for achieving monopoly on having the means of violence, other factors of perception may be involved. Certain areas or cities may even fall outside state control, becoming a de facto ungoverned part of the state. There is no consensus on the definition of a failed state. Some scholars focus on the capacity and effectiveness of the government to determine if a state is failed or not, other indices such as the Fund for Peace’s Fragile States Index underline the democratic character of state institutions in order to determine its level of failure. Robert H. Bates refers to state failure as the implosion of the state, where the state transforms into an instrument of predation, as part of the debate about the state failure definition, Charles T. Call attempts to abandon the concept of state failure altogether, as, he argues, indeed, one of the main contributions to the theorization of the failed-state is the gap framework developed by Call. The gap framework seems to be more useful than other definitions, a relevant contribution to the field of failed states and its attributes was made by J. Goldstone in his paper Pathways to State Failure. What differs him from other definitions is the fact that to him, effectiveness means the capability to carry out state functions such as providing security or levying taxes. Legitimacy means the support of important groups of the population, it is dissociated from democracy as a government/leader can be legitimate in the eyes of his people without being elected, Goldstone coupled pathways to state failure to his conception of a lack of both effectiveness and legitimacy. A state that one of the two aspects is not failed as such, however it is in great danger of failing soon if nothing is being done. Five possible pathways to state failure are,1, examples, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Philippines, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Zimbabwe, South Africa, North Korea, Saudi Arabia 3. Examples, Syria, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen, Turkey, Congo, Colombia, succession or reform crisis in authoritarian states. Examples, Indonesia under Suharto, Iran under the Shah, the Soviet Union under Gorbachev Although Goldstone identifies pathways to state failure he is quick to warn about simplifying the issue, often -building either legitimacy or effectiveness implies a trade off with the other aspect of the stateFailed state – World Map, showing Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2013"
35. Donetsk – Donetsk is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River. The population was estimated at 929, 063 in the city, according to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk was the fifth-largest city in Ukraine. Since April 2014, the city is controlled by separatists from self-proclaimed Donetsk Peoples Republic. Administratively, it has been the centre of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the capital and largest city of the larger economic. Donetsk is adjacent to major city of Makiivka and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl. Donetsk has been an economic, industrial and scientific centre of Ukraine with a high concentration of companies. The original settlement in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire was first mentioned as Aleksandrovka in 1779, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. In 1869, Welsh businessman, John Hughes, built a plant and several coal mines in the region. During Soviet times, the steel industry was expanded. In 1924, it was renamed Stalino, and in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region, renamed Donetsk in 1961, the city today remains the centre for coal mining and steel industry. Since April 2014, Donetsk and its surrounding areas have one of the major sites of fighting in the War in Donbass. The city was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a plant and several coal mines at Aleksandrovka. In its early period, it received immigrants from Wales, especially the town of Merthyr Tydfil, by the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzivka had approximately 50,000 inhabitants, and had attained the status of a city in 1917. The main district of Hughezovka is named English Colony, and the British origin of the city is reflected in its layout, when the Russian Civil War broke out, on 12 February 1918 Yuzovka was part of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic. The Republic was disbanded at the 2nd All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets on 20 March 1918 when the independence of the Soviet Ukraine was announced and it failed to achieve recognition, either internationally or by the Russian SFSR, and, in accordance with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was abolished. In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the population totaled 63,708. In 1929–31 the citys name was changed to Stalino, the city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km system was laid undergroundDonetsk – (During 2014 and 2015 Donetsk has been the scene of much fighting and most of these structures are damaged to some extent)
36. Petro Poroshenko – Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko is the fifth and current President of Ukraine, in office since 2014. He served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2008 to 2011, from 2008 until 2013, Poroshenko headed the Council of Ukraines National Bank. Outside government, Poroshenko has been a prominent oligarch with a career in acquiring and building assets. His most recognized ownerships are Roshen, the confectionery company which has earned him the nickname of Chocolate King, and a TV channel 5 kanal. He was elected president on 10 May 2014, capturing more than 54% of the vote in the first round, thereby winning outright, Poroshenko was born in the city of Bolhrad, in Odessa Oblast, on 26 September 1965. He also spent his childhood and youth in Bendery, where his father Oleksiy was heading a machine building plant. In his youth, Poroshenko practiced judo and sambo, and was Candidate for Master of Sport of the USSR, despite good grades he was not awarded the normal gold medal at graduation, and on his report card he was given a C for his behavior. After getting into a fight with four Soviet Army cadets at the military commissariat, in 1989, Poroshenko graduated, having started studying in 1982, with a degree in economics from the international relations and law department at the Kiev State University. At this university he was friends with Mikheil Saakashvili who he in May 2015 would appoint as Governor of Odessa Oblast, in 1984 Poroshenko married a medical student, Maryna Perevedentseva. Their first son, Oleksiy, was born in 1985, from 1989 to 1992 Poroshenko was an assistant at the universitys international economic relations department. At the same time, he was deputy director of the Republic Union of Small Businesses and Entrepreneurs, Poroshenkos brother, Mykhailo, older by eight years, died in a 1997 car accident under mysterious circumstances. His business success in the confectionery industry earned him the nickname Chocolate King, Poroshenkos business empire also includes several car and bus plants, Kuznya na Rybalskomu shipyard, the 5 Kanal television channel, as well as other businesses in Ukraine. According to Poroshenko since becoming President of Ukraine he has relinquished the management of his businesses, in March 2012, Forbes placed him on the Forbes list of billionaires at 1, 153rd place, with $1 billion. As of May 2015, Poroshenkos net worth was about $720 million, losing 25 percent profit ever since Russias ban of Roshen products and the state of the Ukrainian economy. The estimate of his assets was set at 979 million US dollars, a 20% growth, the article noted that Poroshenko remained one of the only two European leaders who owned a business empire of such scale, with Silvio Berlusconi being the other one. A number of businesses were part of the Ukrprominvest which Poroshenko headed in 1993–1998. The investment group was dissolved in April 2012, Poroshenko has stated that upon beginning his political activity he passed on his holdings to a trust fund. Bogdan group Roshen group 5 Kanal television channel Kuznya na Rybalskomu shipyard Poroshenko first won a seat in the Verkhovna Rada in 1998 for the 12th single-mandate constituencyPetro Poroshenko – Petro Poroshenko Петро Порошенко
37. Igor Plotnitsky – Igor Venediktovich Plotnitsky is the separatists leader of the unrecognised self-proclaimed Luhansk Peoples Republic, in eastern Ukraine. He was born 26 June 1964 either in Luhansk or in the town of Kelmentsi, Chernivtsi Oblast, Plotnitsky was born either in Luhansk or in the town of Kelmentsi to Venedikt and Nina Plotnitsky. He also has a brother Mykhailo Plotnitsky who resides in Kiev, according to a journalist research, Plotnitsky graduated school in Kelmentsi. According to one of his classmates Plotnitsky went to live in Luhansk in 1982, other sources claim that he was drafted to the army in 1982, Plotnitsky served in Penza where he also graduated the Penza Artillery and Engineer College. In 1991 Plotnitsky retired from the Soviet Army as a major, Plotnitsky was a reserve officer of the Soviet Army and started to dedicate himself to business activities after the fall of Soviet Union. Eventually Plotnitsky opened his own business in sale of fuel and lubrication materials, in 2004-2012 he worked for the regional Inspection in protection of Consumer Rights. With the start of 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Plotnitsky sided with so called Luhansk Peoples Republic, in April 2014 he organized the rebel battalion Zarya and on 21 May 2014 he was appointed as the Minister of Defense for Luhansk Peoples Republic. After resignation of Valeriy Bolotov on 14 August 2014, Plotnitsky changed him as a Head of LPR, Plotnitsky won the 2014 Luhansk Presidential Election with 63% of the vote. The Russian Foreign Ministry recognized the elections despite the Minsk Protocol which they signed, when Plotnitsky was participating in election of the Head of LPR, Plotnitsky later stated that he was appointed to the post, but did not specify by whom. Another journalist research points on a connection between Plotnitsky and a former Ukrainian official Oleksandr Yefremov, one of the leaders of Party of Regions. On 30 October 2014, the Prosecutor Generals Office of Ukraine issued a statement, since 10 November 2014 Plotnitsky is wanted by the Security Service of Ukraine for his role in LPR. Plotnitsky challenged Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to a duel in a letter published on 19 November 2014 in which he proposes Whoever wins will dictate their terms to the opposing side. On 18 January 2017 Plotnitsky declared we will never return to Ukraine. and that the LPR was returning to his home - Russia, on 6 August 2016 Plotnitsky´s car exploded, injuring passengers including Plotnitsky. According to the separatists an explosive device had been planted and detonated near a set of traffic lights and they also claimed Ukrainian saboteurs might be behind the terrorist attack - a claim denied by the Ukrainian authorities. On 7 August 2016 Plotnitsky was said to be stable after hospital treatment, members of Russian Cossaks, particularly Pavel Dryomov blamed Plotnitsky in embezzlement of state property and called for an armed coup-détat against Plotnitsky. Dryomov also pointed out that the administration is being controlled by people of Oleksandr Yefremov. Another conflict ensued in the city of Rovenky on 21 January 2015 and another fight with use of grenade launchers. He also referred to President Petro Poroshenko as Valtzman, in the speech he also said I have nothing against the Jews as a people, as the ‘Chosen People, ’ we can talk about this separately if we have the timeIgor Plotnitsky – Igor Plotnitsky
38. Amnesty International – Amnesty International is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights that claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organisation is to research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights. Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article The Forgotten Prisoners in The Observer on 28 May 1961, Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to public opinion to put pressure on governments that let abuse take place. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights, the organisation was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its campaign against torture, and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978. Amnesty International was founded in London in July 1961 by English labour lawyer Peter Benenson, researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar, the government was authoritarian in nature and strongly anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. The newspaper reader feels a sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. It marked the launch of Appeal for Amnesty,1961, the aim of which was to mobilise public opinion, quickly and widely, in defence of these individuals, the Appeal for Amnesty was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year, Benenson had a published, Persecution 1961. In July 1961 the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organisation, Amnesty, Benenson ensured that all three major political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Party. On 30 September 1962, it was officially named Amnesty International, between the Appeal for Amnesty,1961 and September 1962 the organisation had been known simply as Amnesty. From the very beginning, research and campaigning were present in Amnesty Internationals work, a library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called THREES groups, was started. Each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one each of the then three main ideological regions of the world, communist, capitalist and developing. The international movement was starting to agree on its principles and techniques. In 1967 Peter Benenson resigned after an independent inquiry did not support his claims that AI had been infiltrated by British agents, later he claimed that the Central Intelligence Agency had become involved in Amnesty. Leading Amnesty International in the 1970s were key figures Seán MacBride, Amnesty International believed that the reasons underlying torture of prisoners by governments, were either to acquire and obtain information or to quell opposition by the use of terror, or bothAmnesty International – 1986 Faroe postage stamp celebrating Amnesty's 25th anniversary – Painting by 11-year-old Rannvá Kunoy
39. European Parliament – The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union. Together with the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, the Parliament is composed of 751 members, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42. 54% of all European voters. The Parliament is the first institution of the EU, and shares equal legislative and it likewise has equal control over the EU budget. Finally, the European Commission, the body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017 and he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European Peoples Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections, the European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels, the city of Luxembourg and Strasbourg. Luxembourg is home to the administrative offices, meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Strasbourg and in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels, the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952. One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and it was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers. Its development since its foundation shows how the European Unions structures have evolved without a master plan. Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union, nobody would have designed a government as complex. Even the Parliaments two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements, the body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europes Assembly to perform the task, a separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy. The wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term representatives of the people. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the treaty to establish a European Political CommunityEuropean Parliament
40. Soraya Post – Soraya Viola Heléna Post is a Swedish politician and Member of the European Parliament from Sweden. She is a member of the Feminist Initiative, part of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, posts father was a German-born Jew, and her mother was a Romani. She has been a commissioner at Sveriges Television, in February 2014, Post was chosen as the partys top candidate for the 2014 European Parliament election in Sweden. In the election on 25 May 2014, the Feminist Initiative won one seat in the European Parliament with Post taking the party seat, on 7 June 2014, Post joined the S&D group in the European Parliament. Post however became the partys first elected MEP and the first Romani in Swedish history to be chosen as a candidate for a political party, also, Post and Damian Drăghici from Romania are the only MEPs with Romani background. Posts eldest daughter entered into an unofficial marriage / Romani engagement at sixteen years of age which was approved by the Romani community, in 2014, the relationship led to public debate in Sweden where critics accused Post for holding a cultural relativistic position and not opposing child marriages. Viktória Mohácsi, 2004–2009 MEP of Romani ethnicity Damian Drăghici, MEP of Romani ethnicity Lívia Járóka, Hungarian politician of part Romani ethnicity elected in 2004Soraya Post – Soraya Post
41. Australian Senate – The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter I, there are a total of 76 senators,12 senators are elected from each of the six states and two from each of the two autonomous internal territories. Senators are popularly elected under the single vote system of proportional representation. As a result of proportional representation, the features a multitude of parties vying for power. Senators normally serve fixed terms, unless the Senate is dissolved earlier in a double dissolution. Following a double half the state senators serve terms ending on the third 30 June following the election with the rest serving three years longer. The term of the territory senators expires at the time as there is an election for the House of Representatives. The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act of 1900 established the Senate as part of the new system of government in newly federated Australia. From a comparative perspective, the Australian Senate exhibits distinctive characteristics. Unlike upper Houses in other Westminster system governments, the Senate is not a body with limited legislative power. Rather it was intended to play – and does play – an active role in legislation, the Constitution intended to give less populous states added voice in a Federal legislature, while also providing for the revising role of an upper house in the Westminster system. In practice, however, most legislation in the Australian Parliament is initiated by the Government and it is then passed to the Senate, which has the opportunity to amend the bill or refuse to pass it. In the majority of cases, voting takes place along party lines, since 2015, armed officers of the Australian Federal Police have been placed on duty to protect both chambers of the Federal Parliament. The system for electing senators has changed several times since Federation, the original arrangement involved a first-past-the-post block voting or winner takes all system, on a state-by-state basis. This was replaced in 1919 by preferential block voting, block voting tended to produce landslide majorities and even wipe-outs. For instance, from 1920 to 1923 the Nationalist Party of Australia had 35 of the 36 senators, and from 1947 to 1950, the Australian Labor Party had 33 of the 36 senators. From the 1984 election, group ticket voting was introduced in order to reduce a high rate of voting that arose from the requirement that each candidate be given a preference. As a result of the changes, voters may assign their preferences for parties above the line, or individual candidates below the line, both above and below the line voting now use optional preferential votingAustralian Senate
42. Australian Greens – The Australian Greens is an Australian green political party. The party was formed in 1992 and is today a confederation of eight state, in addition to environmentalism the party cites four core values, ecological sustainability, social justice, grassroots democracy and peace and non-violence. Co-ordination between environmentalist groups occurred in the 1980s with various significant protests, the Australian Greens are part of the global green politics movement. The charter of the Australian Greens identifies the following as the four pillars of the policy, social justice, sustainability, grassroots democracy. Major policy initiatives of recent years have also included reform, review of the American alliance. The Greens oppose the importation of animals for zoos in Australia and they also seek to ban and phase out respectively the display of wild or domesticated animals in circuses in Australia. The party also opposes the opening of new mines, and has campaigned against the Adani coal mine. The party calls for the out, closure, and rehabilitation of currently operating coal mines. The party is opposed to coal-seam gas mining and regularly participate and have even organised community demonstrations against the practice. The Greens are strongly in favour of expanding public transport, the Greens support the construction of the national broadband network, as initially invisioned by the Rudd Government, which would increase fibre optic home connections. Abolition of the World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund and World Bank unless they can be democratised, ending Australias Defence Treaty with the United States unless it can be changed to operate within the Greens view on Australias national interest. In 1991, opposition to the Gulf War, and in 2003, the Iraq War, support for independence movements around the world, including in Palestine, Tibet and West Papua In 1999, support for armed intervention in East Timor. Support for human rights in such as China and Myanmar. Support for the 2011 military intervention in Libya, the Greens are in support of voluntary euthanasia for those who are terminally ill. The Greens also support same-sex marriage, and often use the slogan every vote, the party also supports reproductive rights and expanding abortion services and making access to them easier. Estate duties were removed from the Australian Greens policy platform in November 2012,1998 federal election, opposition to the introduction of a Goods & Services Tax. Support the abolition of the 30% private health care rebate, so as to increase funding for health care. The Greens favour establishing a migrant program that prioritises family reunion, review relationship between the exclusive ownership of property and exclusive use of its resourcesAustralian Greens – Bob Brown at a climate change rally in Melbourne on 5 July 2008
43. Canadian nationality law – Canadian nationality law determines who is eligible to be a citizen of Canada. Canadian nationality is obtained by birth in Canada, or birth abroad when at least one parent is a Canadian citizen or by adoption by at least one Canadian citizen. It can also be granted to a permanent resident who has lived in Canada for a period of time, after Canadian Confederation was achieved in 1867, the new Dominions nationality law initially closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom and all Canadians were classified as British subjects. Section 91 of the British North America Act,1867, passed by the British Parliament in London, however, gave the Parliament of Canada authority over Naturalization, the Immigration Act,1910, for example, created the status of Canadian citizen. The Naturalization Act,1914, increased the period of required to qualify for naturalization in Canada as a British subject from three years to five years. Canadian independence from Britain was obtained incrementally between 1867 and 1982 and this, plus the muddled nature of existing nationality law, prompted the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act,1946, which took effect on 1 January 1947. On that date, Canadian citizenship was conferred on most Canadians previously classified as British subjects, subsequently, on 1 April 1949, Canadian nationality law was extended to Newfoundland, upon the former British colony joining the Canadian confederation as the Province of Newfoundland. Canadian nationality law was revised again on 15 February 1977. From that date, multiple citizenship became legal, however, those who had lost Canadian citizenship before that date did not automatically have it restored until 17 April 2009, when Bill C-37 became law. The 2009 act also limited the issuance of citizenship to children born outside Canada to Canadian ancestors to one generation abroad, under paragraph 3 of the 1977 Citizenship Act, any person who was born in Canada after 14 February 1977 acquires Canadian citizenship at birth. Hence, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada considers all children who were born over Canadian airspace as Canadian citizens. In one 2008 case, a born to a Ugandan mother aboard a Northwest Airlines flight from Amsterdam to Boston was deemed a Canadian citizen because she was born over Canadian airspace. There are only three exceptions to this rule, which are listed below, in 2012, Citizenship and Immigration Minister Jason Kenney proposed to modify the jus soli birthright citizenship recognized in Canadian law as a means of discouraging birth tourism. The move had drawn criticism from experts who said that the proposal was based on overhyped popular beliefs, as of 2016, the incumbent Minister John McCallum said during an interview that there is no plan for the change to end birthright citizenship. Under previous legislations, most of people were never considered to be Canadian citizens because they have lost their British subject status before the creation of Canadian citizenship. Persons who had voluntarily renounced British subject status and had their British subject status revoked are ineligible. Under Bill C-37 which went into force on 17 April 2009, prior to Bill C-37 becoming law on 17 April 2009, this only applied to those people born after 15 February 1977. People falling into that category who did not take steps to maintain their citizenship lost their citizenship on that birthday, with Bill C-37 coming into effect on 17 April 2009, there is no longer a requirement or any allowance to apply to maintain citizenshipCanadian nationality law – First official Canadian Citizenship ceremony; at the Supreme Court Building, Ottawa, 1947
44. Scott Ludlam – Scott Ludlam is an Australian politician who has been a Greens member of the Australian Senate since July 2008, representing the state of Western Australia. Ludlam was born in Palmerston North, New Zealand and subsequently moved to Western Australia and he was previously a film-maker, artist and graphic designer. He studied design at Curtin University and then studies at Murdoch University. He subsequently became involved in issues in Western Australia, before becoming increasingly involved in the Western Australian Greens. At the 2001 state election, Ludlam was the second candidate on the Greens ticket for the upper house Mining & Pastoral region. From 2001 to 2005, Ludlam worked for Greens state parliamentarian Robin Chapple, from 2005 to 2007, he worked as a communications officer for Australian Greens Senator Rachel Siewert. At the 2005 state election, Ludlam unsuccessfully contested the seat of Murchison-Eyre, at the 2007 federal election, Ludlam was elected to the Australian Senate, representing Western Australia. He took his place on 26 August 2008 with other incoming Senators, at the 5 April 2014 re-election, Ludlam safely held his seat in the Senate. Since taking his seat in the Senate, Ludlam has been campaigning against internet censorship and he has campaigned for strengthened protections for public ownership of the National Broadband Network and the fair treatment of Julian Assange and the WikiLeaks publishing organisation. In 2011, he advocated to restore $264 million to the National Rental Affordability Scheme which funded the construction of thousands of affordable rental homes. A former film maker, artist and graphic designer by trade and he created the Bike Blackspot App, a smart phone application that enabled cyclists to lobby for better bike funding. In 2007, he created a 30-minute documentary on why he believes nuclear energy is not the solution to climate change, titled Climate of Hope. At the 2014 Western Australian Senate election the Greens won in excess of a quota with the vote increasing from 9.5 to 15.6 percent. On 6 May 2015, Ludlam was elected unopposed to serve as Deputy Leader of the Australian Greens and this followed Christine Milne resigning her leadership of the party. On 3 November 2016, Ludlam announced that he would be taking a leave of absence to seek treatment for depression, media related to Scott Ludlam at Wikimedia Commons Website at The Greens Parliamentary biography Summary of parliamentary voting for Senator Scott Ludlam on TheyVoteForYou. org. auScott Ludlam – Ludlam at GLAM -wiki Canberra in 2009.
45. Bermuda – Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is approximately 1,070 km east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina,1,236 km south of Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Bermuda is an associate member of Caribbean Community. The first person known to have reached Bermuda was the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez in 1503 and he claimed the islands for the Spanish Empire. Bermúdez never landed on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago, of which he created a recognisable map, shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on Portuguese Rock. Subsequent Spanish or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there, the island was administered as an extension of Virginia by the Company until 1614. Its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, took over in 1615, at that time, the companys charter was revoked, and the English Crown took over administration. The islands became a British colony following the 1707 unification of the parliaments of Scotland and England, after 1949, when Newfoundland became part of Canada, Bermuda became the oldest remaining British Overseas Territory. Since the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, it is the most populous Territory and its first capital, St. Georges, was established in 1612 and is the oldest continuously inhabited English town in the New World. Bermudas economy is based on insurance and reinsurance, and tourism. Bermuda had one of the worlds highest GDP per capita for most of the 20th century, recently, its economic status has been affected by the global recession. The island is in the belt and prone to severe weather. However, it is protected from the full force of a hurricane by the coral reef that surrounds the island. It is 898 nautical miles northeast of Miami, Florida, and 667 nautical miles from Cape Sable Island, in Nova Scotia, Canada. The islands lie due east of Fripp Island, South Carolina, west-northwest of Cape Verde, southeast of New York City, New York, north-northwest of Brazil and north of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The archipelago is formed by points on the rim of the caldera of a submarine volcano that forms a seamount. The volcano is one part of a range that was formed as part of the process that formed the floor of the Atlantic. It has 103 km of coastline, the two incorporated municipalities in Bermuda are the City of Hamilton and the Town of St George. Bermuda is divided into nine parishes, which have some localities called villages, such as Flatts Village, although usually referred to in the singular, the territory consists of 181 islands, with a total area of 53.3 square kilometresBermuda – View from the top of Gibb's Hill Lighthouse
46. Martial law in the Philippines – Martial law is declared either when there is near-violent civil unrest or in cases of major natural disasters, however most countries use a different legal construct like state of emergency. Civilians defying martial law may be subjected to military tribunals, Bonifacio planned to capture El Polvorin, the San Jose del Monte powder magazine along with El Depósito, a water station supplying Manila. The defending Spaniards were outnumbered, but fought the rebels until reinforcements arrived, once reinforced, the Spaniards drove Bonifacios forces back with heavy casualties. Elsewhere rebels attacked Mandaluyong, Sampaloc, Santa Ana, Pandacan, Pateros, Marikina, balintawak in Caloocan saw intense fighting. Rebel troops tended to gravitate towards fighting in San Juan del Monte, South of Manila, a thousand-strong rebel force attacked a small force of civil guards. In Pandacan Katipuneros attacked the church, making the parish priest run for his life. After their defeat in San Juan del Monte, Bonifacios troops regrouped near Marikina, San Mateo and Montalban and they captured these areas but were driven back by Spanish counterattacks, and Bonifacio eventually ordered a retreat to Balara. On the way, Bonifacio was nearly killed shielding Emilio Jacinto from a Spanish bullet that grazed his collar, despite his reverses, Bonifacio was not completely defeated and was still considered a threat. North of Manila, the towns of San Francisco de Malabon, Noveleta, in Nueva Ecija rebels in San Isidro led by Ivan Pilien attacked the Spanish garrison on September 2–4, they were repulsed. These provinces were Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas and these would later be represented in the eight rays of the Sun in the Philippine flag. He was encouraged to return by the Americans, who saw in him as an opportunity in their war against Spain. After five days, on May 23, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine military forces, on 12 June, at Aguinaldos ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence was read. The act had been prepared and written in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, on 18 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On 23 June another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government, President José P. Laurel of the wartime Second Philippine Republic placed the Philippines under martial law in 1944 through Proclamation No. Martial law came into effect on September 22,1944, Proclamation No.30 was issued the next day, declaring the existence of a state of war between the Philippines and the US and Great Britain. This took effect on September 23,1944, around 1970, student activism was raging and many student activists joined the ranks of the communists. KM members protested in front of Congress, throwing a coffin, a stuffed alligator, in front of the US embassy, protesters vandalized, arsoned and damaged the embassy lobby resulting to a strong protest from the U. S. Ambassador. The KM protests ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 in number per weekly mass action, in the aftermath of the January 1970 riots, at least two activists were confirmed dead and several were injured by the policeMartial law in the Philippines – Martial Law monument in Mehan Garden
47. Rodrigo Duterte – Rodrigo Rody Roa Duterte, also known as Digong, is a Filipino politician and jurist who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines. He is the first Mindanaoan to hold the office, and the fourth of Visayan descent, at 71 years old, Duterte is the oldest person to assume the Philippine presidency, eclipsing Sergio Osmeñas age of 65. Duterte studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, Duterte was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms totaling more than 22 years in office. Duterte has alternately confirmed and denied his involvement in the killings, Duterte has repeatedly confirmed that he personally killed three kidnapping suspects while Mayor of Davao in 1988. On May 9,2016, Duterte won the Philippine presidential election with 38. 5% of the votes and his domestic policy has focused on combating illegal drug trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War. He has vowed to pursue an independent foreign policy, Duterte was born on March 14,1945, in Maasin. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Xiamen, Fujian and his father was Vicente G. Duterte, a Cebuano lawyer, and his mother Soledad Duterte, was a school teacher from Cabadbaran, Agusan and a civic leader of Maranao descent. Dutertes father was acting mayor of Danao, Cebu and subsequently the governor of Davao province. Rodrigos cousin Ronald, on the hand, served as Cebu City mayor from 1983 to 1986. Ronalds father, Ramon Duterte, also held the position from 1957 to 1959, the Dutertes consider the Cebu-based political families of the Durano and the Almendras clan as relatives. Duterte also has relatives from the Roa clan in Leyte through his mothers side, before they resettled to Davao, Dutertes family briefly lived in his birthplace in Maasin, Leyte, and in his fathers hometown in Danao, Cebu, until he was four years old. The Dutertes initially moved to Mindanao in 1948 but still went back and they finally settled in the Davao Region in 1950. Vicente as a lawyer engaged in practice, while Soledad taught in public schools as a teacher. Mrs Duterte, however, retired as a supervisor in 1952 when her lawyer-husband entered politics there, Duterte went to Laboon Elementary School in Maasin, for a year. He spent his elementary days at the Santa Ana Elementary School in Davao City. He graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in science at the Lyceum of the Philippines in Manila. He obtained a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972, in the same year, he passed the bar exam. Duterte has said that he was abused by a priest when he was a minorRodrigo Duterte – Rodrigo R. Duterte
48. Congress of the Philippines – The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Philippines. It is a body consisting of the Senate, and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter. The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years, the senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district. The House of Representatives is currently composed of 297 congressmen, VI of the Constitution states that the House shall be composed of not more than 250 members, unless otherwised fixed by law. There are two types of congressmen, the district and the sectoral representatives, the district congressmen represent a particular geographical district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district, several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some composed of two or more representatives. The sectoral congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population and this enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, the Constitution provides that the Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its regular session in the succeeding year. The President may, however, call special sessions which are held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters. When the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes and it was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. On March 19,1812, the Constitution of Cadiz was approved, restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Illustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century. The Illustrados campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule, proclaiming independence on June 12,1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the 1899 Constitution of the Philippines, with the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish sold the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine–American War, when the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission, furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights and this bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907Congress of the Philippines – Senate: Government Service Insurance System Building, Pasay House of Representatives: Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City
49. Philippine Standard Time – Philippine Standard Time, also known as Philippine Time and informally Juan Time, is the official name for the time in the Philippines. The country only uses one time zone, and for a short period, geographically, the Philippines lies within 116°40′ and 126°34′ east of the Prime Meridian, and is physically located within the UTC+08,00 time zone. Philippine Standard Time is maintained by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, the Philippines shares the same time zone with Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, most parts of China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei, central Indonesia, and Western Australia. Philippine Standard Time was instituted through Batas Pambansa Blg,8, approved on 2 December 1978 and implemented on 1 January 1983. The Philippines is one of the few countries to officially and almost exclusively use the 12-hour clock in non-military situations. From 1521 to 1844, the Philippines had the date as Mexico. Monday,30 December 1844 was immediately followed by Wednesday,1 January 1845 and this meant that International Date Line moved from going west of the Philippines to go on the east side of the country. At the time, local time was used to set clocks, meaning that every place used its own local time based on its longitude. Television and radio stations in the Philippines display the time, in September 2011, the Department of Science and Technology proposed to synchronise time nationwide in an effort to discourage tardiness. On May 15,2013, President Benigno Aquino III signed Republic Act No,10535, better known as the The Philippine Standard Time Act of 2013 as a last step to finally implement the Juan Time. Effective June 1,2013, all government offices and media networks will be required to use Philippine Standard Time as a basis to set their timepieces, in addition, the first week of January will be regularly observed as the National Time Consciousness Week. The IANA time zone database contains one zone for the Philippines in the file zone. tab, hapon starts at 1,00 PM and ends 5,59 PM. Gabí starts at 6,00 PM and ends 12,00 AM which is Hatinggabi, madalíng Araw starts at 12,01 AM and ends 4,59 AM. Except in very formal situations, Filipinos rarely use the numbers in telling time. - Alas otso kwarenta y uno ng gabí or Apatnapút-isá makalipas ng ikawaló ng gabí5,30 A. M, - Alas singko y medya ng umaga or Tatlumpûng minuto makalipas ng ikalimá ng umaga or ikalimá at kalaháti ng umaga 3,00 P. M. - Alas tres ng hapon o Ikatló ng hapon 12,00 P. M, - Alas dose ng tanghalì o Ikalabíndalawá ng tanghalì12,00 A. M. - Alas dose ng hatinggabi o Ikalabíndalawá ng hatinggabí2,00 A. MPhilippine Standard Time – World time conversion based on Philippine Standard Time (click to enlarge).
50. Constitution of the Philippines – The Constitution of the Philippines is the constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines. Its final draft was completed by the Constitutional Commission on October 12,1986 and was ratified by a plebiscite on February 2,1987. Three other constitutions have effectively governed the country in its history, the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution, the 1973 Constitution, ruling by decree during the early part of her tenure and as a president installed via the People Power Revolution, President Corazon C. Aquino issued Proclamation No. Often called the Freedom Constitution, this constitution was intended as a temporary constitution to ensure the freedom of the people. A constitutional assembly was called to draft a new constitution for the country. The Commission elected Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, a former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, lino Brocka, a film director and political activist who was member of the Commission, walked out before the constitutions completion, and two other delegates dissented from the final draft. The Commission finished the draft on October 12,1986. The constitution was ratified by a plebiscite on February 2,1987. The Constitution contains a preamble and eighteen self-contained articles with a numbering that resets for every article. The preamble introduces the constitution and the source of sovereignty, the people and it follows the pattern in past constitutions, including an appeal to God. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, article 2 lays out the basic social and political creed of the Philippines, particularly the implementation of the constitution and sets forth the objectives of the government. S. Similar to U. S. jurisprudence and other common law jurisdictions, article 4 defines the citizenship of Filipinos. It enumerates two kinds of citizens, natural-born citizens and naturalized citizens, natural-born citizens are those who are citizens from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect Philippine citizenship. The Philippines follows a jus sanguinis system where citizenship is acquired through a blood relationship with Filipino citizens. Article 5 provides for the qualification to vote and for a system of the secrecy of the ballot and absentee voting, article 6 provides for a bicameral legislature called the Congress composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Article 7 provides for a form of government where the executive power is vested on the President. It provides for the qualification, terms of office, election and it also provides for a Vice President and for the presidential line of succession. Article 8 vests the judicial power upon the Supreme Court and other courts as may be established by lawConstitution of the Philippines – The Memorial at Biak-na-Bato National Park
51. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The Affordable Care Act was designed to increase health insurance quality and affordability, lower the uninsured rate by expanding insurance coverage and reduce the costs of healthcare. It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges, the law requires insurers to accept all applicants, cover a specific list of conditions and charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. The ACA has caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, increases in overall healthcare spending have slowed since the law was implemented, including premiums for employer-based insurance plans. The Congressional Budget Office reported in studies that the ACA would reduce the budget deficit. As implementation began, first opponents, then others, and finally the president himself adopted the term Obamacare to refer to the ACA. The law and its implementation faced challenges in Congress and federal courts, and from state governments, conservative advocacy groups, labor unions. The ACA includes provisions to take effect between 2010 and 2020, although most took effect on January 1,2014, few areas of the US health care system were left untouched, making it the most sweeping health care reform since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. However, some areas were more affected than others, most of the coverage gains were made through the expansion of Medicaid, and the biggest cost savings were made in Medicare. Some regulations applied to the market, and the law also made delivery system changes that affected most of the health care system. Not all provisions took full effect, some were made discretionary, some were deferred, and others were repealed before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions, States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. The law provides a 5% income disregard, making the income eligibility limit for Medicaid 138% of the poverty level. The State Childrens Health Insurance Program enrollment process was simplified, among the groups who remained uninsured were, Illegal immigrants, estimated at around 8 million—or roughly a third of the 23 million projection—are ineligible for insurance subsidies and Medicaid. They remain eligible for emergency services, eligible citizens not enrolled in Medicaid. Citizens who pay the penalty instead of purchasing insurance, mostly younger. Citizens whose insurance coverage would cost more than 8% of household income and are exempt from the penalty, citizens who live in states that opt out of the Medicaid expansion and who qualify for neither existing Medicaid coverage nor subsidized coverage through the states new insurance exchanges. Households with incomes between 100% and 400% of the poverty level were eligible to receive federal subsidies for policies purchased via an exchange. Subsidies are provided as an advanceable, refundable tax credits, additionally, small businesses are eligible for a tax credit provided that they enroll in the SHOP MarketplacePatient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The President and White House Staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
52. Crime in the Philippines – Crime is present in various forms in the Philippines. Petty crime, which includes pick-pocketing, is a problem in the Philippines and it takes place usually in locations with many people, ranging from shopping hubs to churches. Traveling alone to withdraw cash after dark is a risk, especially for foreigners, violent crime is high in the country, foreigners are usually the victims. As many Filipinos are stricken with poverty, one alternative they take is to others for money. Prostitution in the Philippines is illegal and it is a serious crime with penalties ranging up to life imprisonment for those involved in trafficking. It is covered by the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, prostitution is still sometimes illegally available through brothels, bars, karaoke bars, massage parlors, street walkers and escort services. As of 2009, one source estimates there are 800,000 women working as prostitutes in the Philippines. While victims are female, and according to the current Revised Penal Code. Human trafficking and the prostitution of children is a significant issue in the Philippines, human trafficking in the country is a crime against humanity. Nevertheless, enforcement is reported to be inconsistent, corruption is a great problem in the Philippines. In May 2013, during the elections, some 504 political candidates were accused mostly of corruption. Illegal drug trade is common all around the Philippines, and large concerned, methamphetamine and marijuana, are the most common drugs accounting most drug-related arrests. Most of the drug trade involved members of large Chinese triad groups operating in the Philippines. From 2010-2015, Quezon City leads as the city with the highest number of index crimes and this section contains 5 cities in the Philippines that has the highest number of index crimes from 2010-2015. List of gangs in the PhilippinesCrime in the Philippines – A boat belonging to the Philippine National Police at the Iloilo River in Iloilo City
53. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred, then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were also among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient FilipinosPhilippines – King Philip II of Spain.
54. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre. This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, ISIL originated as Jamaat al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. The group proclaimed itself a caliphate and began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political, and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood. As of 2015, ISIL is estimated to have a budget of more than USD$1 billion. In April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām, while the use of either one or the other acronym has been the subject of debate, the distinction between the two and its relevance has been considered not so great. Of greater relevance is the name Daesh, which is an acronym of ISILs Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām. This name has been used by ISILs Arabic-speaking detractors, although – and to a certain extent because – it is considered derogatory, as it resembles the Arabic words Daes. Within areas under its control, ISIL considers use of the name Daesh punishable by flogging or cutting out the tongue, in late June 2014, the group renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah, declaring itself a worldwide caliphate. The name Islamic State and the claim to be a caliphate have been widely rejected, with the UN, various governments. Frances Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said This is a terrorist group, I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam, Muslims, and Islamists. The Arabs call it Daesh and I will be calling them the Daesh cutthroats, the group is very sensitive about its name. They will cut your tongue out even if you call them ISIS – you have to say Islamic State, the Islamic State is mocked on social media websites such as Twitter and YouTube, with the use of hashtags, mock recruiting ads, fake news articles and YouTube videos. ISIL is a theocracy, proto-state and a Salafi or Wahhabi group and it follows an extremist interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence, and regards Muslims who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates. According to some observers, ISIL emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood and it adheres to global jihadist principles and follows the hard-line ideology of al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups. However, other sources trace the roots to Wahhabism. For their guiding principles, the leaders of the Islamic State, are open and clear about their almost exclusive commitment to the Wahhabi movement of Sunni IslamIslamic State of Iraq and the Levant – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
55. El-Arish – It borders the Gaza Strip and Israel. Arish is distinguished by its blue water, widespread fruitful palmy wood on its coast. It has a marina, and many luxury hotels, the city also has some of the faculties of Suez Canal University. Arish is by a big wadi, the Wadi Al Arish, the Azzaraniq national park is on the eastern side of Arish. The city grew around a Bedouin settlement near the ancient Ptolemaic Dynasty outpost of Rhinocolura, in the Middle Ages, pilgrims misidentified the site as the Sukkot of the Bible. ʻArīsh means palm huts in Literary Arabic, new fortifications were constructed at the original site by the Ottoman Empire in 1560. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French laid siege to the fort, during World War I, the fort was destroyed by British bombers. It was later the location of the 45th Stationary Hospital which treated casualties of the Palestine campaign, the remains of those who died there were later moved to Kantara Cemetery. Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, proposed Arish as a Jewish homeland since neither the Sultan nor the Kaiser supported settlement in Palestine, on December 8,1958, an air battle occurred between Egyptian and Israeli air forces over Arish. Arish was under occupation by Israel briefly in 1956 and again from 1967 to 1979. It was returned to Egypt in 1979 after the signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, in February 2017, ISIS terrorists assassinated seven Coptic Christian men in the town, causing the Christian population to flee the town. Arish is in the northern Sinai Peninsula and is about 50 kilometres from the Rafah border crossing with the Gaza Strip, Arish is the closest larger settlement to Lake Bardawil. The city is served by Arish International Airport, the construction of the northern coast highway in Egypt was expected to be finished by 2008 linking El-Qantarah at Suez Canal to Gaza strip border passing by Arish. The railway line from Cairo is also under re-construction and it reached the Ser. This route was part of the Palestine Railway built during World War I. The railway was cut during the formation of Israel, the highest record temperature was 45 °C, recorded on May 29,2003, while the lowest record temperature was −6 °C, recorded on January 8,1994El-Arish – Skyline of Arish, 1916
56. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country also ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life. The Netherlands also ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder, Nether and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Boven, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, however, changed over time tremendouslyNetherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
57. List of monarchs of the Netherlands – This is a list of monarchs of the Netherlands. By practical extension, the list includes the stadtholders of the House of Orange Nassau since 1556, however, they were voted into office by and were civil servants and generals of the semi-independent provinces of the Dutch Republic and cannot be seen as monarchs. From William IV they were the male line ancestors of later monarchs when the monarchy was established in 1813. First as a Sovereign Principality, but in 1815 as a Kingdom, the origin of the Dutch monarchy can be traced back to the appointment of William I, Prince of Orange as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht in 1559 by Philip II of Spain. However, he was removed from office and became the leader of the Dutch Revolt, consequently, the States-General appointed him as stadtholder of both rebelling provinces, Holland and Zeeland, in 1572. All stadtholders after William I were drawn from his descendants or the descendants of his brother, in 1813, Allied forces drove out the French. The Dutch called back William Frederick, the son of the last stadtholder, in 1815, he raised the Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself King William I. The kingdom was enlarged with the Southern Netherlands, now Belgium and Luxembourg, when William III died childless, the patrilineal ancestry of Orange-Nassau became extinctList of monarchs of the Netherlands – the Silent
58. Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands – Willem-Alexander is the King of the Netherlands. Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht and is the oldest child of Beatrix of the Netherlands and he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mothers accession on 30 April 1980, and succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy. He married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters, Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Alexia, and Princess Ariane, Willem-Alexander is interested in sports and international water management issues. At the age of 49, he is currently the second youngest monarch in Europe after Felipe VI of Spain, Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand was born on 27 April 1967 in the University Hospital Utrecht, Now is University Medical Center Utrecht in Utrecht, Netherlands. He is the first child of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus, and he was the first male Dutch royal baby since the birth of Prince Alexander in 1851, and the first immediate male heir since Alexanders death in 1884. From birth, Willem-Alexander has held the titles Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau and he was baptised as a member of the Dutch Reformed Church on 2 September 1967 in Saint Jacobs Church in The Hague. He had two brothers, Prince Friso and Prince Constantijn. He lived with his family at the castle Drakensteyn in the hamlet Lage Vuursche near Baarn from his birth until 1981 and his mother Beatrix became Queen of the Netherlands in 1980, after his grandmother Juliana abdicated. He then received the title of Prince of Orange as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander attended Nieuwe Baarnse Elementary School in Baarn from 1973 to 1979. After his military service from 1985 to 1987, Willem-Alexander studied History at Leiden University from 1987 onwards and his final thesis was on the Dutch response to Frances decision under President Charles de Gaulle to leave the NATOs integrated command structure. Willem-Alexander speaks English, Spanish and German in addition to his native Dutch, between secondary school and his university education, Willem-Alexander performed military service in the Royal Netherlands Navy from August 1985 until January 1987. He received his training at the Royal Netherlands Naval College and the frigates HNLMS Tromp and HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen, in 1988 he received additional training at the ship HNLMS Van Kinsbergen and became a lieutenant. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Navy, Willem-Alexander was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1995, Commander in 1997, Captain at Sea in 2001, and Commodore in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Army, he was made a Major in 1995, and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1997, Colonel in 2001, and Brigadier General in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, he was made Squadron Leader in 1995, as a reservist for the Royal Marechaussee, he was made Brigadier General in 2005. Before his investiture as king in 2013, Willem-Alexander was honorably discharged from the armed forces, the government declared that the head of state cannot be a serving member of the armed forces, since the government itself holds supreme command over the armed forces. As king, Willem-Alexander may choose to wear a uniform with royal insigniaWillem-Alexander of the Netherlands – Willem-Alexander in 2015
59. Prime Minister of the Netherlands – He is the de facto head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates the policy of the government. The current prime minister is Mark Rutte, although he is the most important political figure in the Netherlands, the Prime Minister is not as powerful as his British and German counterparts. This is mainly because, due to the Dutch system of proportional representation, therefore, the government is always a coalition between two or more parties. Because of his powers, the prime minister is described as primus inter pares. As a result of the review of 1983, the position of Prime Minister was inscribed into the Dutch constitution for the first time. According to the constitution, the Government is constituted by the King, the constitution stipulates the Prime Minister chairs the council of ministers and is appointed by royal decree. The royal decree of their own appointment and those of the ministers are to be countersigned by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chairs the meetings of the council of ministers and has the power to set the agenda of these meetings. The prime minister is also Minister of General Affairs, which takes an important role in coordinating policy and is responsible for the Government Information Service, the Prime Minister is also responsible for the royal house and has a weekly meeting with the King on government policy. Informally the Prime Minister functions as the face of the cabinet to the public, after the meetings of the cabinet on Friday, the Prime Minister hosts a press conference on the decisions of the cabinet and current affairs. The Prime Minister also has functions in international affairs, attending the European Council every six months. The Prime Ministers office is a hexagon shaped tower, named The Little Tower Het Torentje on the Binnenhof in The Hague, the official residence is the Catshuis. Conventionally, the party with the largest number of seats in the Second Chamber will initiate coalition talks after elections and these negotiations are concluded by means of a so-called government agreement. He or she usually appoints her/himself Prime Minister, a minister from the smaller coalition party usually becomes Deputy Prime Minister of the cabinet. If there is a party in the coalition, one of its ministers will become the second Deputy Prime Minister. For a list of historic Prime Ministers, see List of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands, for a list of Prime Ministers by age, see List of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands by age. For a list of Prime Ministers by religious affiliations, see Religious affiliations of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands, gradually the Prime Minister became an official function of government leader, taken by the political leader of the largest party. Since 1848 the role of the first minister has become relevant, until 1901 the position chair of the council of ministers officially rotated between ministersPrime Minister of the Netherlands – Incumbent Mark Rutte since 14 October 2010
60. Mark Rutte – Mark Rutte is a Dutch politician who has been the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 14 October 2010, and the Leader of the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy since 31 May 2006. At the 2006 general election, the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy, already under Rutte, lost six seats, and he became the opposition leader. At the following election in 2010, the VVD won the highest number of votes cast. After a long period, Rutte became Prime Minister and formed a Cabinet. When Rutte was sworn in on 14 October 2010, he became the first liberal Prime Minister of the Netherlands in 92 years, on 5 November 2012, the Second Rutte cabinet was installed by Queen Beatrix. Izaäk Rutte worked for a company, first as an importer in the Dutch East Indies. Rutte attended a high school from 1979 until 1985, specialising in the arts. Although Ruttes original ambition was to attend a conservatory and become a concert pianist, he went to study history at Leiden University instead, where he obtained a MA degree in 1992. Rutte combined his studies with a position on the board of the Youth Organisation Freedom and Democracy, after his studies, Rutte entered the business world, working as a manager for Unilever and Calvé. Until 1997, Rutte was part of the human resource department of Unilever, between 1997 and 2000, Rutte was staff manager for Van den Bergh Nederland, a subsidiary of Unilevers. In 2000, Rutte became a member of the Corporate Human Resources Group, between 1993 and 1997, Rutte was a member of the national board of the VVD. Rutte also served as a member of the VVD candidate committee for the election of 2002. Rutte was elected as Member of Parliament in 2003, Rutte served as Undersecretary in the Social Affairs and Employment ministry from 22 July 2002 to 17 June 2004 in the first and second Balkenende cabinets. Rutte was responsible for fields including bijstand and arbeidsomstandigheden, after the 2003 elections Rutte was briefly also a member of the House of Representatives, from 30 January to 27 May 2003. In office, Rutte showed particular interest in making the Dutch higher education system more competitive internationally, Rutte would have been succeeded by former The Hague alderman Bruno Bruins. Before Bruins could be sworn into office, the second Balkenende cabinet fell, in the subsequently formed third Balkenende cabinet Bruins succeeded Rutte as Undersecretary. Rutte resigned as Undersecretary in June 2006 to return to the House of Representatives, Rutte became an important figure within the VVD leadership. Rutte was campaign manager for the 2006 municipal elections, on 31 May 2006, it was announced that Mark Rutte would be the next front-runner of the VVDMark Rutte – His Excellency Mark Rutte
61. NAFTA – The North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1,1994 and it superseded the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement between the U. S. and Canada. NAFTA has two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation, most economic analyses indicate that NAFTA has been a small net positive for the United States, large net positive for Mexico and had an insignificant impact on Canada. The signed agreement was ratified by each nations legislative or parliamentary branch. The earlier Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement had been controversial and divisive in Canada, in that election, more Canadians voted for anti-free trade parties but the split caused more seats in parliament to be won by the pro-free trade Progressive Conservatives. Mulroney and the PCs had a majority and were easily able to pass the 1987 Canada-U. S. FTA and NAFTA bills. However, he was replaced as Conservative leader and prime minister by Kim Campbell. S and it also required U. S. partners to adhere to environmental practices and regulations similar to its own. After much consideration and emotional discussion, the House of Representatives passed the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act on November 17,1993, the agreements supporters included 132 Republicans and 102 Democrats. The bill passed the Senate on November 20,1993, 61–38, Senate supporters were 34 Republicans and 27 Democrats. Clinton signed it into law on December 8,1993, the agreement went into effect on January 1,1994, Clinton, while signing the NAFTA bill, stated that NAFTA means jobs. American jobs, and good-paying American jobs, if I didnt believe that, I wouldnt support this agreement. The goal of NAFTA was to eliminate barriers to trade and investment between the U. S. The implementation of NAFTA on January 1,1994 brought the elimination of tariffs on more than one-half of Mexicos exports to the U. S. Within 10 years of the implementation of the agreement, all U. S. -Mexico tariffs would be eliminated except for some U. S. agricultural exports to Mexico that were to be phased out within 15 years, most U. S. -Canada trade was already duty-free. NAFTA also sought to eliminate trade barriers and to protect the intellectual property rights on traded products. Chapter 52 provides a procedure for the resolution of disputes over the application and interpretation of NAFTA. It was modelled after Chapter 69 of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement, the roster of NAFTA adjudicators includes many retired judges, such as Alice Desjardins, John Maxwell Evans, Constance Hunt, John Richard, Arlin M. Adams, Susan Getzendanner, George C. Pratt, Charles B. Renfrew and Sandra Day OConnor, securing U. S. congressional approval for NAFTA would have been impossible without addressing public concerns about NAFTA’s environmental impactNAFTA – Back row, left to right: Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, at the initialing of the draft North American Free Trade Agreement in October 1992. In front are Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development Jaime Serra Puche, United States Trade Representative Carla Hills, and Canadian Minister of International Trade Michael Wilson.
62. European Union – The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendumEuropean Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
63. The Doctor (Doctor Who) – The Doctor is the title character and protagonist in the long-running BBC science fiction television programme Doctor Who. The character has also featured in one made-for-television film. In the programme, the Doctor is the alias assumed by a centuries-old alien—a Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey—who travels through space and time in his TARDIS, since the shows inception in 1963, the character has been portrayed by twelve lead actors. The War Doctor and an aborted regeneration are counted in his previous cycle of twelve regenerations, a number of other actors have played the character in stage and audio plays, as well as in various film and television productions. The character has been well received by the public, with his enduring popularity leading The Daily Telegraph to dub him Britains favourite alien. On 30 January 2017, Capaldi confirmed that the series would be his last. His kind have dedicated themselves to overseeing all of time and space without interference, the Doctor chose to leave his home by stealing an obsolete TARDIS model as revealed in the 1969 serial The War Games and depicted in the 2013 episode The Name of the Doctor. With this vehicle, the Doctor explores the universe with usually human companions who serve as audience surrogate characters to ask questions which allow the Doctor to provide relevant exposition, spin-off media offer the explanation that his true name is unpronounceable by humans. In The Name of the Doctor, the Eleventh Doctor tells companion Clara Oswald that the name Doctor is essentially a promise he made, the promise itself is revealed in The Day of the Doctor, Never cruel nor cowardly. The Doctors earlier life and childhood on Gallifrey has been little described, the classic programme refers to his time at the Academy and his affiliation with the notoriously devious Prydonian chapter of Time Lords. Some are inspired, some go mad and some run away, when asked to which group he belonged, he replied, Oh, the ones that ran away, I never stopped. In the Armageddon Factor, it is revealed that the Doctor scraped through the Academy with 51% on his second attempt, in The Time Meddler, it is said that the Doctor was fifty years before the Meddling Monk. In Time and the Rani, the Doctor claims to have attended University alongside the Rani, specialising in thermodynamics. In The Time Monster, the Doctor says he grew up in a house on a mountainside and he is later reunited with this former mentor, now on Earth posing as the abbot Kanpo Rimpoche, in Planet of the Spiders. In other media, more has been revealed of the Doctors early life, in the Past Doctor Adventures novel Divided Loyalties, the Doctor recalls his Academy years in a dream induced by the Celestial Toymaker. With this group, he learns about the Celestial Toymaker and travels to his realm in a type 18 TARDIS with Deca members Rallon and Millennia and this leads to the Doctors expulsion from the Academy, condemned to five hundred years in Records and Traffic Control. In The Quantum Archangel, it is revealed the Doctor studied cosmic science alongside the Master, feeling that too much of the Doctors backstory had been revealed by the Seventh Doctors era, writers Andrew Cartmel, Ben Aaronovitch and Marc Platt developed a new direction for the series. Cartmel wished to restore the awe, mystery and strengthThe Doctor (Doctor Who) – The episode title screen of the first episode of Doctor Who, broadcast 23 November 1963.
64. Doctor Who – Doctor Who is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called The Doctor and he explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, which was a sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes, while working to save civilisations, the show is a significant part of British popular culture, and elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series, the programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot. The programme was relaunched in 2005, and since then has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff, twelve actors have headlined the series as the Doctor. The conceit is that this is a Time Lord trait through which the character of the Doctor takes on a new body, each actors portrayal differs, but all represent stages in the life of the same character and form a single narrative. The time-travelling feature of the means that different incarnations of the Doctor occasionally meet. The current lead, Peter Capaldi, took on the role after Matt Smiths exit in the 2013 Christmas special The Time of the Doctor, in 2017, Capaldi confirmed he would be leaving at the end of the tenth series. Doctor Who follows the adventures of the character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey. He fled from Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS – Time and Relative Dimension in Space – a machine which allows him to travel across time, the TARDIS has a chameleon circuit which normally allows the machine to take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. However, the Doctors TARDIS remains fixed as a blue British police box due to a malfunction in the chameleon circuit, the Doctor rarely travels alone and often brings one or more companions to share these adventures. His companions are usually humans, as he has found a fascination with planet Earth, as a Time Lord, the Doctor has the ability to regenerate when his body is mortally damaged, taking on a new appearance and personality. The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during his travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, and the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17,16,20 GMT, eighty seconds after the programme time,5,15 pm. It was to be a weekly programme, each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year, writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert also heavily contributed to the development of the seriesDoctor Who – The Present TARDIS prop used from 2010 till the present day.
65. Payson, Arizona – Payson is a town in northern Gila County, Arizona, United States. Its location puts it very near to the center of Arizona. Payson has been called The Heart of Arizona, the town is surrounded by the Tonto National Forest and has many outdoor activities year round. As of the 2010 census, the population of Payson was 15,301, Payson considers its founding year as 1882, at which time it was known as Green Valley. On March 3,1884, a post office was established with the help of Illinois Representative Lewis E. Payson, the first postmaster was Frank C. In honor of Representative Paysons help, the name was changed to Payson. Payson had its first rodeo in 1884, Payson considers its rodeo the worlds oldest continuous, as it has been held every year since. In 1918 author Zane Grey made his first trip to the area surrounding Payson and he would come back with regularity through 1929, and would purchase two plots of land near Tonto Creek, including 120 acres from Sampson Elam Boles under Myrtle Point. Grey wrote numerous books about the area and also filmed some movies, such as To the Last Man, during Prohibition the manufacture, sale, and distribution of liquor was plentiful. The transactions took place on historic Bootleg Alley, during the 1930s an effort began to try to get Payson a better road to connect it to the outside world. At that time Payson was very isolated, with a trip from Phoenix to Payson taking eight to twelve hours, throughout the 1950s work on a paved road from Phoenix to Payson progressed, and the paving was completed in 1958. A few years ago this highway, State Route 87, was expanded to four lanes, located in northern Gila County at 34°14′22″N 111°19′39″W, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the town has a total area of 19.5 square miles. The Mogollon Rim, the boundary of the Colorado Plateau, lies to the north of Payson, with elevations exceeding 7,500 feet. They are stocked with fish by the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Payson is bordered to the east by the town of Star Valley. Other nearby communities are Pine, Strawberry, Gisela and Rye, globe, the Gila County seat, is 80 miles to the south via State Routes 87 and 188. State Route 87, the Beeline Highway, leads southwest 90 miles to Phoenix, State Route 260 leads east from Payson 90 miles to Show Low. Zane Grey Country is a term for the area around Payson and this term was most often used in the 1970s and 1980s, and appeared in the header of the local newspaper, the Payson Roundup. In recent times it has fallen out of favor, as the term Rim Country has become more popular among localsPayson, Arizona – Green Valley Park, Payson, Arizona
66. Gila County Sheriff's Office – The Gila County Sheriffs Office is a local law enforcement agency that serves Gila County, Arizona. It provides general-service law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Gila County and it also operates the county jail system. The Gila County Sheriffs Office is primarily headquartered in Globe, Arizona, with a patrol, communications. Since the establishment of the Gila County Sheriffs Office,5 officers have died in the line of duty, list of law enforcement agencies in Arizona Gila County Sheriffs Office webpageGila County Sheriff's Office – Patch of the Gila County Sheriff's Office
67. Himalayas – The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has the Earths highest peaks, including the highest, the Himalayas include over a hundred mountains exceeding 7,200 metres in elevation. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia – Aconcagua, in the Andes – is 6,961 metres tall. The Himalayas are spread across five countries, Bhutan, India, Nepal, China, the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Some of the major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia, many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate and its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the bend of the Tsangpo river. The range varies in width from 400 kilometres in the west to 150 kilometres in the east, the name of the range derives from the Sanskrit Himā-laya, from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the Himalaya Mountains, usually shortened to the Himalayas, formerly, they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was also previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinsons poetry and Henry David Thoreaus essays. The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or The Land of Snow in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu, the flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice, the amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude, rainfall and soil conditions combined with the high snow line supports a variety of distinct plant. The extremes of high altitude combined with extreme cold favor extremophile organisms, the unique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas is undergoing structural and compositional changes due to climate change. The increase in temperature is shifting various species to higher elevations, the oak forest is being invaded by pine forests in the Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in some species, especially rhododendron, apple. The highest known tree species in the Himalayas is Juniperus tibetica located at 4,900 metres in Southeastern Tibet, the Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rockHimalayas – The north face of Mount Everest seen from the path to the base camp in Tibet Autonomous Region, China
68. Ajit Doval – Ajit Kumar Doval, IPS, PM, PPM, KC is a former Indian intelligence and law enforcement officer, who, since 30 May 2014, is the 5th and current National Security Adviser to Prime Minister of India. He had previously served as the Director of the Intelligence Bureau in 2004–05, Doval was born in 1945 in Ghiri Banelsyun village in Pauri Garhwal in the erstwhile United Provinces, now in Uttarakhand. Dovals father was an officer in the Indian Army and he received his early education at the Ajmer Military School in Ajmer, Rajasthan. He graduated with a degree in Economics from the University of Agra in 1967. Doval joined the IPS in 1968 in the Kerala cadre and he was actively involved in anti-insurgency operations in Mizoram and Punjab. Doval was one of three negotiators who negotiated the release of passengers from IC-814 in Kandahar in 1999, uniquely, he has the experience of being involved in the termination of all 15 hijackings of Indian Airlines aircraft from 1971–1999. In the Headquarters, he headed IBs operations wing for over a decade and was founder Chairman of the Multi Agency Centre, during the Mizo National Front insurgency, Doval won over six of Laldengas seven commanders. He spent long periods of time incognito with the Mizo National Army in the Arakan in Burma, from Mizoram, Doval went to Sikkim where he played a role during the merger of the state with India. In Punjab he was behind the rescue of Romanian diplomat Liviu Radu and he was inside the Golden Temple in Amritsar in 1988 before Operation Black Thunder to collect critical information. Doval spent six years in Indian High Commission in Islamabad, Pakistan and he went to Kashmir in 1990 and persuaded militants to become counter-insurgents targeting hardline anti-India terrorists. This set the way for elections in Jammu and Kashmir in 1996. Later, he was posted in the Indian High Commission in London, Doval retired in January 2005 as Director, Intelligence Bureau. In December 2009, he was the founder Director of the Vivekananda International Foundation, a think tank set up by the Vivekananda Kendra, Doval has remained actively involved in the discourse on national security in India. Doval has also spoken internationally at global events, citing the increasing need of cooperation between the major established and emerging powers of the world. On 30 May 2014, Doval was appointed as Indias fifth National Security Adviser, in June 2014, Doval played a crucial role in ensuring secure return of 46 Indian nurses who were trapped in a hospital in Tikrit, Iraq. After the family members lost all contacts from these nurses, following the capture of Mosul by ISIS, Doval, on a top secret mission flew to Iraq on 25 June 2014 to understand the position on the ground and make high-level contacts in the Iraqi government. Along with Army Chief General Dalbir Singh Suhag, Doval planned an operation against Indian militants operating out of Myanmar. The mission was said to be a success with 50 militant casualties and he is widely credited for the doctrinal shift in Indian security policy in relation to Pakistan, from Defensive to Defensive OffensiveAjit Doval – Doval in 2014
69. Tennis – Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return, the player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society, the sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis and it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport of real tennis. The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s, two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s. Tennis is played by millions of players and is also a popular worldwide spectator sport. Historians believe that the ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France. Louis X of France was a player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, in due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe. Because of the accounts of his death, Louis X is historys first tennis player known by name. Another of the enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France. It wasnt until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and the game began to be called tennis, from the French term tenez, an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, during the 18th century and early 19th century, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. This in turn led to the codification of rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls. In 1872, along with two doctors, they founded the worlds first tennis club in Leamington Spa. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis, according to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield popularized this game enormouslyTennis – A tennis match at Wimbledon, the oldest and most prestigious tennis tournament.
70. Roger Federer – Roger Federer is a Swiss professional tennis player who is currently ranked world No.4 by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Many players and analysts have called him the greatest tennis player of all time, Federer turned professional in 1998 and was continuously ranked in the top 10 from October 2002 to November 2016. Federer has won 18 Grand Slam singles titles, the most in history for a tennis player. In majors, Federer has won seven Wimbledon titles, five Australian Open titles, five US Open titles and he is among the eight men to capture a career Grand Slam. He has reached a record 28 mens singles Grand Slam finals, Federers ATP tournament records include winning a record six ATP World Tour Finals and playing in the finals at all nine ATP Masters 1000 tournaments. He also won the Olympic gold medal in doubles with his compatriot Stan Wawrinka at the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, representing Switzerland, he was a part of the 2014 winning Davis Cup team. He was named the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year for a four consecutive years from 2005 to 2008. Federer was born at the Basel Cantonal Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, Federer has one sibling, his older sister Diana, who is the mother of a set of twins. He holds both Swiss and South African citizenship, Federer was raised as a Roman Catholic and met Pope Benedict XVI while playing the 2006 Internazionali BNL dItalia tournament in Rome. Like all male Swiss citizens, Federer was subject to military service in the Swiss Armed Forces. However, in 2003 he was ruled unsuitable and was not required to fulfil his military obligation. Instead, he served in the protection force and was required to pay 3% of his taxable income as an alternative. He grew up supporting F. C. Basel and the Swiss National Football Team, Federer also credits the range of sports he played as a child—he also played badminton and basketball—for his hand-eye coordination. Federer is married to former Womens Tennis Association player Mirka Vavrinec and he met her while both were competing for Switzerland in the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Vavrinec retired from the tour in 2002 because of a foot injury and they were married at Wenkenhof Villa in Riehen near Basel on 11 April 2009, surrounded by a small group of close friends and family. In July 2009, Mirka gave birth to twin girls, Myla Rose. The Federers had another set of twins in 2014, this time boys whom they named Leo and Lennart, in 2003, he established the Roger Federer Foundation to help disadvantaged children and to promote their access to education and sports. In 2005, he auctioned his racquet from his US Open championship to aid victims of Hurricane Katrina, at the 2005 Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, Federer arranged an exhibition involving several top players from the ATP and WTA tour called Rally for ReliefRoger Federer – Federer at the 2009 Wimbledon Championships
71. Switzerland – Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations. On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, German, French, Italian and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Schweiz, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, also in use since the 16th century. The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, Eidgenossen, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’Switzerland – Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
72. Croatia – Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric periodCroatia – Branimir Inscription
73. William Renshaw – William Willie Charles Renshaw was a former World number 1 tennis player from Great Britain active during the late 19th century. Additionally he won the title five times together with his brother Ernest. The right-hander was known for his power and technical ability which put him ahead of competition at the time and he was the first president of the British Lawn Tennis Association. Renshaw won a total of twelve Wimbledon titles, seven of those were in singles, an all-time record he shares with Pete Sampras and Roger Federer. The first six were consecutive, an achievement which has been unequaled to this day, in singles play he played his twin brother Ernest Renshaw three times in the Wimbledon final, triumphing on all three occasions. He was unable to defend his title in 1887 due to an elbow, the first time this injury received public attention. The other five titles were in the Gentlemens doubles, partnering with Ernest, additionally, he and his brother dominated the sport for many years in a time when the only other Grand Slam was the US Open, and by custom players did not travel far. The rise in popularity of tennis in this became known as the Renshaw Rush. In 1888 William was elected the first president of the British Lawn Tennis Association, in 1983, William Renshaw was elected posthumously into the International Tennis Hall of Fame together with his brother. He died in Swanage, Dorset on 12 August 1904, aged 43, list of Grand Slam mens singles champions William Renshaw at the Association of Tennis Professionals William Renshaw at the International Tennis Hall of FameWilliam Renshaw – William Renshaw
74. Grand Slam (tennis) – The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money, public and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of best of sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open in May and June, Wimbledon in June and July, each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on courts, the French on clay. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, however, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924/25, the time when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. In doubles, one team may accomplish a Grand Slam playing together or one player may achieve it with different partners, the term Grand Slam without qualification refers to winning the four majors in a single calendar year. Winning the gold medal at the Summer Olympic Games in addition to the four majors in a one year is known as a Golden Grand Slam or more commonly the Golden Slam. Also, winning the Year-End Championship in the period is known as a Super Slam. Together, all four Majors in all three disciplines are called a set of Grand Slam titles. No male or female player has won all events in one calendar year. The term slam for winning all of the tricks in the whist family card games is attested early in the 17th century. Grand slam for all of the tricks, in contrast to small slam or little slam for all but one and this use was inherited by contract bridge, a modern development of whist defined in 1925 that became very popular in Britain and America by 1930. Grand slam has been used in golf since 1930, when Bobby Jones won the four major championships, before that time only three events, Wimbledon, the World Hard Court Championships and the World Covered Court Championships were considered the premier international tennis events by the ILTF. Tony Wilding of New Zealand won all three of those majors in one year –1913. It has been possible to complete a Grand Slam in most years, phil Dent has pointed out that skipping Grand Slam tournaments—especially the Australian Open—was not unusual then, before counting Grand Slam titles became the norm. Nevertheless, except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates, the tournament was won by Arthur Ashe. The first definitive Grand Slam, of the current four majors, was accomplished when Don Budge won all four mens singles Majors in 1938, to date,17 players have completed a Grand Slam, though only six in the most prestigious singles titles. The four Junior disciplines, boys and girls singles and doubles, Players are only eligible from age 13 to 18, with 18-year-olds likely to hold a physical advantageGrand Slam (tennis) – Basics
75. South China Sea disputes – An estimated US$5 trillion worth of global trade passes through the South China Sea, there are many non-claimant states that want the South China Sea to remain as international waters. Several states are conducting freedom of operations to promote this situation. The disputes include the islands, reefs, banks, and other features of the South China Sea, including the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, and various boundaries in the Gulf of Tonkin. There are further disputes, including the waters near the Indonesian Natuna Islands, the PRC neither acknowledges the tribunal nor abides by its ruling, insisting that any resolution of the matter should be made through bilateral negotiations with other claimants. The disputes involve both maritime boundaries and islands, Maritime boundary along the Vietnamese coast between PRC, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Maritime boundary north of Borneo between PRC, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, Maritime boundary in the waters north of the Natuna Islands between PRC, Indonesia and Taiwan Maritime boundary off the coast of Palawan and Luzon between PRC, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Maritime boundary, land territory, and the islands of Sabah, including Ambalat, Maritime boundary and islands in the Luzon Strait between the PRC, the Philippines, and Taiwan. The area may be rich in oil and natural gas deposits, however, the Ministry of Geological Resources and Mining of the Peoples Republic of China estimated that the South China Sea may contain 17.7 billion tons of crude oil. In the years following the announcement by the PRC ministry, the claims regarding the South China Sea islands intensified. However, other sources claim that the reserve of oil in the South China Sea may only be 7.5 billion barrels. The same EIA report also points to the variety of natural gas resource estimations, ranging from 190 trillion cubic feet to 500 trillion cubic feet. The South China Sea is dubbed by the PRC as the second Persian Sea, the state-owned China Offshore Exploration Corp. The Philippines began exploring the areas west of Palawan for oil in 1970, Exploration in the area began in Reed Bank/Tablemount. In 1976, gas was discovered following the drilling of a well, however, the PRCs complaints halted the exploration. On 27 March 1984, the first Philippine oil company discovered an oil field off Palawan, which is a province bordering the South China Sea. These oil fields supply 15% of annual oil consumption in the Philippines, the nine-dotted line was originally an eleven-dotted-line, first indicated by the then Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1947, for its claims to the South China Sea. After, the Communist Party of China took over mainland China, the line was adopted and revised to nine dashes/dots as endorsed by Zhou Enlai. The legacy of the line is viewed by some PRC government officialsSouth China Sea disputes – Territorial monument of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) on Southwest Cay, Spratly Islands, defining the cay as part of Vietnamese territory (to Phước Tuy Province). Used since 22 August 1956 until 1975, when replaced by another one from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (successor state after the Fall of Saigon)
76. Natuna Islands – The Natuna Islands archipelago is located in the South China Sea in the larger Tudjuh Archipelago, off the northwest coast of Borneo. Administratively, the islands constitute a regency within the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia and are the northernmost non-disputed island group of Indonesia. In 2014–2015, the presence of the Indonesian army on the islands is being reinforced, according to statistics released in 2010, the population of the islands stood at 69,003 people. 85. 27% of the inhabitants are Malays, with the remainder consisting of Javanese, other Sumatrans, by January 2014, the population was estimated officially to be 83,498. Despite being politically part of Indonesia, the majority of the inhabitants trace their ancestry to the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the prevailing language is a distinct variety of Malay which has strong similarities with Terengganu Malay and Sarawak Malay. Malaysia has no claims to the Natunas and acknowledges the islands as Indonesian territory, islam is the prevalent religion of the islands. Despite important natural gas reserves, most of the work as fishermen or farmers. There is no significant tourism industry, farming is not on an industrial scale, just small holdings. The other main source of income is gained by working for the government. The Natuna Islands are a 272-island archipelago of Indonesia, located in the Natuna Sea between Peninsular Malaysia to the west and Borneo to the east and they extend in a NNW direction for 300 km from Tanjung Api, the northwest extremity of Kalimantan/Borneo. The Natuna Sea itself is a section of the South China Sea, the North Group consists of a large island, two small islands and several adjacent islets and reefs which lie about 50 km NNW of Natuna Besar Island. Pulau Laut is about 11 km long with a greatest width of 5 km towards the south, it is generally hilly, the Southern Group consists primarily of two groups of islands separated from the coast of Kalimantan by the Api Passage. The Subi Islands of which the islands are Subi Besar, Subi Kecil, Bakau, Panjang and Seraya. Serasan Island is the largest of the islands lying further to the southeast, Natuna has large reserves of natural gas that is exported to neighbouring countries such as Singapore. Matak Island now serves as an offshore exploitation base, the Natuna Islands have a remarkable avifauna with 71 species of bird registered, including the near-threatened lesser fish-eagle, the Natuna serpent-eagle. Other endangered species include the green iora, the brown fulvetta or the green broadbill, colourful coral reefs are found in the neighbouring waters. The Natuna banded leaf monkey, Presbytis natunae, is among the 25 most endangered primates on EarthNatuna Islands – The Natuna Islands have a rich diversity of birds, although some, like the Green Iora are threatened by habitat loss
77. Politics of Hong Kong – Executive power is exercised by the government. On July 1,1997, sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the China, ending over one and a half centuries of British rule. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of the PRC with a degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defence. For instance, the International Olympic Committee recognises Hong Kong as a participating dependency under the name, Hong Kong, China, separate from the delegation from the China. The Basic Law, Hong Kongs constitutional document, was approved in March 1990 by National Peoples Congress of China, the Hong Kong government is economically liberal, but currently universal suffrage is only granted in District Council elections, and in elections for part of the Legislative Council. The head of the government is elected through a college with the majority of its members elected by a limited number of voters mainly within business. The Executive Council, the top policy organ of the government that advises on policy matters, is entirely appointed by the Chief Executive. The franchise for the other 30 seats is limited to about 230,000 voters in the functional constituencies. The Judiciary consists of a series of courts, of which the court of final adjudication is the Court of Final Appeal and this caused widespread concerns among the public on the social and economic consequences. The NPCSC issued an interpretation in favour of the Hong Kong Government in June 1999, while the full powers of NPCSC to interpret the Basic Law is provided for in the Basic Law itself, some critics argues this undermines judicial independence. The Hong Kong 1 July March is an annual protest rally led by the Civil Human Rights Front since the 1997 handover on the HKSAR establishment day, however, it was only in 2003 when it drew large public attention by opposing the bill of the Article 23. In 2003, the HKSAR Government proposed to implement Article 23 of the Basic Law by legislating against acts such as treason, subversion, secession and sedition. However, there were concerns that the legislation would infringe human rights by introducing the concept of national security into the HKSAR. Together with the dissatisfaction with the Tung administration, about 500,000 people participated in this protest. Article 23 enactment was temporarily suspended, towards the end of 2003, the focus of political controversy shifted to the dispute of how subsequent Chief Executives get elected. The Basic Laws Article 45 stipulates that the goal is universal suffrage. Under the Basic Law, electoral law could be amended to allow for this as soon as 2007, arguments over this issue seemed to be responsible for a series of Mainland Chinese newspapers commentaries in February 2004 which stated that power over Hong Kong was only fit for patriots. On 26 April 2004, the Standing Committee of National Peoples Congress denied the possibility of universal suffrage in 2007 and 2008, in 2007 Chief Executive Sir Donald Tsang requested for Beijing to allow direct elections for the Chief ExecutivePolitics of Hong Kong – Politics and government of Hong Kong
78. Hong Kong – Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the Pearl River Delta of East Asia. Macau lies across the delta to the west, and the Chinese province of Guangdong borders the territory to the north. With a total area of 1,106 square kilometres. Hong Kong was later occupied by Japan during World War II until British control resumed in 1945, under the principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China. Except in military defence and foreign affairs, Hong Kong maintains its independent executive, legislative, in addition, Hong Kong develops relations directly with foreign states and international organisations in a broad range of appropriate fields. Hong Kong is one of the worlds most significant financial centres, with the highest Financial Development Index score and consistently ranks as the worlds most competitive and freest economic entity. As the worlds 8th largest trading entity, its legal tender, Hong Kongs tertiary sector dominated economy is characterised by simple taxation with a competitive level of corporate tax and supported by its independent judiciary system. However, while Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world and it has a very high Human Development Index ranking and the worlds longest life expectancy. Over 90% of the population use of well-developed public transportation. Seasonal air pollution with origins from neighbouring areas of Mainland China. Hong Kong was officially recorded in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking to encompass the entirety of the island, before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour —between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was a point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. Detailed and accurate romanisation systems for Cantonese were available and in use at the time, fragrance may refer to the sweet taste of the harbours fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River or to the incense from factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Hong Kong developed Victoria Harbour, the name had often been written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926. Nevertheless, a number of century-old institutions still retain the form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric. As of 1997, its name is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. This is the title as mentioned in the Hong Kong Basic Law. Hong Kong has carried many nicknames, the most famous among those is the Pearl of the Orient, which reflected the impressive nightscape of the citys light decorations on the skyscrapers along both sides of the Victoria HarbourHong Kong – The Cenotaph in Hong Kong commemorates those who died in service in WWI and WWII.
79. Politics of China – The politics of the Peoples Republic of China takes places in a framework of a semi-presidential socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China. State power within the Peoples Republic of China is exercised through the Communist Party, the Communist Party of China uses Internal Reference to manage and monitor internal disagreements among the people of Peoples Republic of China. Peoples Congress members at the county level are elected by voters and these county level Peoples Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government, and elect members to the Provincial Peoples Congress. The Provincial Peoples Congress in turn elects members to the National Peoples Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing, the ruling Communist Party committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels. The President of China is the head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under National Peoples Congress. The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers, as a one-party state, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China holds ultimate power and authority over state and government. Chinas population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing, political power has become much less personal and more institutionally based than it was during the first forty years of the PRC. For example, Deng Xiaoping was never the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President, or Premier of China, today the authority of Chinas leaders is much more tied to their institutional base. Central government leaders must increasingly build consensus for new policies among party members, local and regional leaders, influential non-party members, however, control is often maintained over the larger group through control of information. The Chinese Communist Party considers China to be in the stages of socialism. Many Chinese and foreign observers see the PRC as in transition from a system of ownership to one in which private ownership plays an increasingly important role. The more than 80 million-member Communist Party of China continues to dominate government, in periods of relative liberalisation, the influence of people and groups outside the formal party structure has tended to increase, particularly in the economic realm. Under the command system, every state owned enterprise was required to have a party committee. The introduction of the market means that economic institutions now exist in which the party has limited or no power. Nevertheless, in all institutions in the PRC, the party committees at all levels maintain a powerful. The CPCs most important responsibility comes in the selection and promotion of personnel and they also see that party and state policy guidance is followed and that non-party members do not create autonomous organizations that could challenge party rule. Particularly important are the small groups which coordinate activities of different agencies. Constitutionally, the partys highest body is the Party Congress, which is supposed to meet at least once every 5 years, meetings were irregular before the Cultural Revolution but have been periodic since thenPolitics of China – 1st
80. Chen Min'er – Chen Miner is a Chinese politician, currently serving as the Communist Party Secretary of Guizhou province. Chen spent most of his career in his native Zhejiang province, Chen was born in September 1960 in of Zhuji, Zhejiang. From 1978 to 1981 Chen Miner studied Chinese at Shaoxing Teachers College in Zhejiang, after college he worked in the Shaoxing government, rising through the ranks to become the county governor of Shaoxing County in 1991, and party chief in 1994. In 1997 Chen was transferred to the city of Ningbo to become its Vice Mayor. In 1999 he was promoted to deputy party chief Ningbo, in June 2002, Chen, then 42, earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee. From May 2007 to January 2012 he was a Vice Governor of Zhejiang, during this period he worked under Zhejiang party secretary Xi Jinping. In January 2013 he was confirmed as governor by the Guizhou Provincial Congress. In July 2015, Chen was promoted to Party Secretary of Guizhou, due to the Communisty Partys rigid age-based promotion system, it led to speculation that Chen may be destined for higher office. After taking charge as party secretary, Chen enthusiastically advanced the policies of General secretary Xi Jinping, such as the Three Stricts, Chen also led an initiative to set up formal discussions over alleged wrongdoing by officials in the province, personally taking charge of the most serious cases. Chen set up over 1,400 working committees in neighbourhoods, Chen was an alternate member of the 17th Central Committee and a full member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Chen has been portrayed by media as an associate of Xi JinpingChen Min'er – Family
81. Tardigrade – Tardigrades are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals. They were first discovered by the German zoologist Johann August Ephraim Goeze in 1773, the name Tardigrada was given three years later by the Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani. They have been found everywhere from mountaintops to the deep sea, Tardigrades are one of the most resilient animals known, they can survive extreme conditions that would be rapidly fatal to nearly all other known life forms. They can go without food or water for more than 30 years, drying out to the point where they are 3% or less water, only to rehydrate, forage and they are not considered extremophilic because they are not adapted to exploit these conditions. Usually, tardigrades are about 0.5 mm long when they are fully grown and they are short and plump with four pairs of legs, each with four to eight claws also known as disks. Tardigrades are prevalent in mosses and lichens and feed on plant cells, algae, when collected, they may be viewed under a very low-power microscope, making them accessible to students and amateur scientists. Tardigrades form the phylum Tardigrada, part of the superphylum Ecdysozoa and it is an ancient group, with fossils dating from 530 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. About 1,150 species of tardigrades have been described, Tardigrades can be found throughout the world, from the Himalayas, to the deep sea and from the polar regions to the equator. Johann August Ephraim Goeze originally named the tardigrade kleiner Wasserbär, meaning little water bear in German, the name Tardigrada means slow walker and was given by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1776. The name water bear comes from the way they walk, reminiscent of a bears gait, the biggest adults may reach a body length of 1.5 mm, the smallest below 0.1 mm. Newly hatched tardigrades may be smaller than 0.05 mm, the most convenient place to find tardigrades is on lichens and mosses. Other environments are dunes, beaches, soil, and marine or freshwater sediments, Tardigrades, in the case of Echiniscoides wyethi, may be found on barnacles. Often, tardigrades can be found by soaking a piece of moss in water, Tardigrades have barrel-shaped bodies with four pairs of stubby legs. Most range from 0.3 to 0.5 mm in length, the body consists of a head, three body segments with a pair of legs each, and a caudal segment with a fourth pair of legs. The legs are without joints, while the feet have four to eight claws each, the cuticle contains chitin and protein and is moulted periodically. Tardigrades are eutelic, meaning all adult tardigrades of the species have the same number of cells. Some species have as many as 40,000 cells in each adult, the body cavity consists of a haemocoel, but the only place where a true coelom can be found is around the gonad. No respiratory organs are found, with gas exchange able to occur across the whole of the body, some tardigrades have three tubular glands associated with the rectum, these may be excretory organs similar to the Malpighian tubules of arthropods, although the details remain unclearTardigrade
82. Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growthSpain – Lady of Elche
83. Coordinated Universal Time – Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean time at 0° longitude. It is one of closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, the first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments, a number of proposals have been made to replace UTC with a new system that would eliminate leap seconds, but no consensus has yet been reached. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of universal time, see the Current number of leap seconds section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date. The official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC and this abbreviation arose from a desire by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers originally proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC, the compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets from UTC, the westernmost time zone uses UTC−12, being twelve hours behind UTC, the easternmost time zone, theoretically, uses UTC+12, being twelve hours ahead of UTC. In 1995, the nation of Kiribati moved those of its atolls in the Line Islands from UTC-10 to UTC+14 so that the country would all be on the same day. UTC is used in internet and World Wide Web standards. The Network Time Protocol, designed to synchronise the clocks of computers over the internet, computer servers, online services and other entities that rely on having a universally accepted time use UTC as it is more specific than GMT. If only limited precision is needed, clients can obtain the current UTC from a number of official internet UTC servers, for sub-microsecond precision, clients can obtain the time from satellite signals. UTC is also the standard used in aviation, e. g. for flight plans. Weather forecasts and maps all use UTC to avoid confusion about time zones, the International Space Station also uses UTC as a time standard. Amateur radio operators often schedule their radio contacts in UTC, because transmissions on some frequencies can be picked up by many time zones, UTC is also used in digital tachographs used on large goods vehicles under EU and AETR rules. UTC divides time into days, hours, minutes and seconds, days are conventionally identified using the Gregorian calendar, but Julian day numbers can also be used. Each day contains 24 hours and each hour contains 60 minutes, the number of seconds in a minute is usually 60, but with an occasional leap second, it may be 61 or 59 insteadCoordinated Universal Time – Key concepts
84. 2017 Pacific typhoon season – The 2017 Pacific typhoon season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 2017, though most tropical cyclones develop between May and October. The scope of article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center are given a number with a W suffix and these agencies include the Tropical Storm Risk Consortium of University College London, PAGASA and Taiwans Central Weather Bureau. The first forecast of the year was released by PAGASA during January 20, during January 7, both PAGASA and the JMA reported that Tropical Depression Auring developed about 400 km to the northeast of Davao City on Mindanao, Philippines. It later made landfall in the Philippines the next day, and degenerated into a remnant low by the PAGASA, the JMA however tracked the system until it emerged to the South China Sea. By January 15, the JTWC re-issued advisories as it was located to the east of Vietnam, however, convection dissipated due to shear and land interaction, and both the JTWC and JMA issued their final warnings on January 16. Flooding in Cebu killed one person, on February 3, a tropical depression developed near Palau. A tropical depression formed close to the east coast of Leyte, Philippines early on March 20, the names of significant tropical cyclones are retired, by both PAGASA and the Typhoon Committee. Should the list of names for the Philippine region be exhausted then names will be taken from an auxiliary list of which the first ten are published each season, unused names are marked in gray. A tropical cyclone is named when it is judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h, the JMA selected the names from a list of 140 names, that had been developed by the 14 members nations and territories of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. Retired names, if any, will be announced by the WMO in 2018, the next 24 names on the naming list are listed here along with their international numeric designation, if they are used. This season, PAGASA will use its own naming scheme, that will develop within or move into their self-defined area of responsibility. The names were taken from a list of names, that was last used during 2013 and are scheduled to be used again during 2021. All of the names are the same except for Lannie, Salome and Yasmin, auxiliary list This table summarizes all the systems that developed within or moved into the North Pacific Ocean, to the west of the International Date Line during 2017. The tables also provide an overview of an intensity, duration, land areas affected2017 Pacific typhoon season – Image of Hurricane Gonzalo shortly after peak strength on October 2014
85. European migrant crisis – And a small number of hostile agents including Islamic State militants. Of the unauthorized entrants arriving in Europe by sea in 2015, 58% were adult males over 18 years of age, 17% were adult females over 18 years of age, and 25% were minors under 18 years of age. According to Eurostat, EU member states received over 1.2 million first-time asylum applications in 2015, four states received around two-thirds of the EUs asylum applications in 2015, with Hungary, Sweden, and Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for public policy or national security reasons, by default, the first member state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the asylum seeker then moves to another state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered. Further clauses on this topic are found in EU directive 2001/51/EC and this has had the effect that migrants without a visa are not allowed on aircraft, boats or trains going into the Schengen Area, so migrants without a visa have resorted to migrant smugglers. Humanitarian visas are in general not given to refugees who want to apply for asylum, the laws on migrant smuggling ban helping migrants to pass any national border if the migrants are without a visa or other permission to enter. This has caused many airlines to check for visas and refuse passage to migrants without visas, after being refused air passage, many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 amounts to 33 million people, by comparison, the foreign-born population is 1. 63% of the total population in Japan,7. 7% in Russia, 13% in the United States, 20% in Canada and 27% in Australia. Between 2010 and 2013, around 1.4 million non-EU nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees, immigrated into the EU each year using regular means, prior to 2014, the number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in 1992,2001, and 2013. According to the UNHCR, the EU countries with the biggest numbers of recognised refugees at the end of 2014 were France, Germany, Sweden, no European state was among the top ten refugee-hosting countries in the world. Prior to 2014, the number of border crossings detected by Frontex at the external borders of the EU peaked in 2011. According to the UNHCR, the number of displaced people worldwide reached 59.5 million at the end of 2014. Of these 59.5 million,19.5 million were refugees, the rest were persons displaced within their own countries. The 14.4 million refugees under UNHCRs mandate were around 2.7 million more than at the end of 2013, among them, Syrian refugees became the largest refugee group in 2014, overtaking Afghan refugees, who had been the largest refugee group for three decades. Six of the ten largest countries of origin of refugees were African, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, developing countries hosted the largest share of refugees, the least developed countries alone provided asylum to 25% of refugees worldwide. The largest single recipient of new asylum seekers worldwide in 2014 was the Russian Federation, with 274,700 asylum requests, 99% of them lodged by Ukrainians fleeing from the war in Donbass. In 2012, immigrant influx into Greece by land decreased by 95% after the construction of a fence on that part of the Greek–Turkish frontier which does not follow the course of the Maritsa RiverEuropean migrant crisis – Migrants being stopped at the Greek – Macedonian border near Gevgelija by the Macedonian Police, 24 August 2015.
86. UEFA Women's Euro 2017 – The competition will be expanded from twelve teams in the previous edition to 16 teams. The Netherlands were declared as hosts by the UEFA Executive Committee on 4 December 2014, expressions of interest in hosting the tournament were received from seven associations. The Netherlands were chosen to host the tournament on 4 December 2014 and this was the first time that the tournament will be staged in this country. The qualifying competition, which took place from April 2015 to October 2016, each group was played in single round-robin format at one of the pre-selected hosts. The two group winners advanced to the group stage. Qualifying group stage, The 40 teams were drawn into eight groups of five teams, each group was played in home-and-away round-robin format. The eight group winners and the six best runners-up qualified directly for the final tournament, play-offs, The two teams played home-and-away two-legged matches to determine the last qualified team. The following teams qualified for the final tournament, notes The final draw was held on 8 November 2016,17,30 CET, at the Luxor Theatre in Rotterdam. The 16 teams were drawn into four groups of four teams, the teams were seeded according to their coefficient ranking following the end of the qualifying group stage, with the hosts Netherlands assigned to position A1 in the draw. Each group contained one team each of the four seeding pots. H Hosts TH Title holders Seven venues in seven different towns will be used in the tournament, each national team have to submit a squad of 23 players, three of whom must be goalkeepers. If a player is injured or ill severely enough to prevent her participation in the tournament before her teams first match, the schedule of the competition was announced on 23 September 2015. The group winners and runners-up advance to the quarter-finals, in the knockout stage, extra time and penalty shoot-out are used to decide the winner if necessaryUEFA Women's Euro 2017 – Breda
87. 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification process will decide 31 of the 32 teams which will play in the 2018 FIFA World Cup, with the host Russia qualifying automatically. All 210 remaining FIFA member associations are eligible to enter the qualifying process, for the first time in World Cup history, all national teams registered for the preliminary competition, although suspensions excluded some teams from participating in qualification. Bhutan, South Sudan, Gibraltar and Kosovo made their FIFA World Cup qualification debuts, while the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg on 25 July 2015, a number of qualification matches were played before that. The first began in Dili, Timor-Leste on 12 March 2015 as part of the AFCs qualification, matches were also played in CONCACAF prior to the main draw. Notes The number of participating in the final tournament is 32. It was decided that the same allocation as 2014 would be kept for the 2018 and 2022 tournaments, while all FIFA members entered the tournament, not all competed. Kuwait had a number of their qualifiers cancelled for a suspension that began while their campaign was underway. Updated as of matches played on 28 March 2017 Note, One team each from AFC, CONCACAF, CONMEBOL, Note, UEFA total includes +1 for Russia as hosts. The formats of the qualifying competitions depend on each confederation, knockout format, where two teams play home-and-away two-legged matches. In knockout format, the team that has the aggregate score over the two legs progresses to the next round. In the event that aggregate scores level, the away goals rule is applied. If away goals are equal, then thirty minutes of extra time are played, divided into two fifteen-minutes halves. If no goals are scored during extra time, the tie is decided by penalty shoot-out, the six winners advanced to the second round. Second round, A total of 40 teams were divided into eight groups of five teams to play home-and-away round-robin matches. The eight group winners and the four best group runners-up advanced to the round of FIFA World Cup qualification as well as qualified for the 2019 AFC Asian Cup finals. Third round, The 12 teams which advance from the round were divided into two groups of six teams to play home-and-away round-robin matches. The top two teams of each group qualify for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, and the two third-placed teams will advance to the fourth round. Fourth round, The two third-placed teams of each group from the round will play home-and-away over two legs2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – Confederation
88. Golf – Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, the game is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, there are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough, sand traps, and hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, while the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, one theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries, the game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England, the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504, to many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green, while many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee, the hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice, this is called a double dogleg, a regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land. This gave rise to the golf links, particularly applied to seaside coursesGolf – A golfer in the finishing position after hitting a tee shot
89. Elections in Albania – Albania holds elections on a national level for a legislature. The Assembly of Albania has 140 members elected for four-year terms, the electoral system is closed list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the countrys 12 administrative regions, within any constituency, parties must meet a threshold of 3 percent of votes, and pre-election coalitions must meet a threshold of 5 percent of votes. This electoral system replaced a system in November 2008. Under the old system,100 members were elected directly in single member constituencies with approximately equal numbers of voters,40 were elected from multi-name lists of parties or party coalitions according to their ranking. The change was criticised by the parties, but supported by the two main parties. It was considered an important step towards Albanias European integration, the president is elected by parliament. Albania has a multi-party system, with two or three parties and several other parties that are electorally successful. Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carrs Election Archive Parties and elections Real Time Elections Result June 2009Elections in Albania – Politics of Albania
90. Elections in Mongolia – Elections in Mongolia gives information on elections and election results in Mongolia. Mongolia elects its head of state—the President of Mongolia—at the national level, the president is elected for a four-year term by the people, using the Two-round system. The State Great Khural has 76 members, originally elected for a term from single-seat constituencies. Beginning in 2008, local candidates were elected from 26 electoral districts, beginning with the 2012 elections, a parallel system was enacted, combining a district part and a nationwide proportional part. 48 seats are chosen at the level in 26 districts with 1-3 seats using Plurality-at-large voting. 28 seats are chosen from nationwide closed party lists using the Largest remainder method, in the district seats, a candidate is required to get at least 28% of the vote cast in a district to be elected. Dominant parties are the Mongolian Peoples Party, the Democratic Party, the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party, in the 2012 legislative elections, the MPRP and Mongolian National Democratic Party ran together as the Justice Coalition, winning 11 seats. 1Later changed to Mongolian Peoples PartyElections in Mongolia – Mongolia
91. Elections in Republic of the Congo – The Republic of the Congo elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people, the National Assembly has 153 members, for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies. The Senate has 66 members, elected for a term by district. The Republic of Congo is a one party dominant state with the Congolese Labour Party in power, opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Elections are governed by Congos election law, most recently modified in 2016, Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carrs Election Archive African Elections DatabaseElections in Republic of the Congo – Republic of the Congo
92. Elections in Gabon – Elections in Gabon take place within the framework of a presidential multi-party democracy with the Gabonese Democratic Party, in power since independence, as the dominant party. The President and National Assembly are directly elected, whilst the Senate is indirectly elected, following World War II, Gabon (in a combined constituency with French Congo, began to elect members to the French National Assembly. The first elections took place in October 1945, with voters split into two colleges, the First College for French citizens and the Second for non-citizens. The next elections were held in June the following year, with dArboussier defeated by Henri Seignon in the First College, another election was held in November that year, with the Second College gaining an extra seat, and now split into Congolese and Gabonese sections. Maurice Bayrou was elected by the still-combined First College, whilst Aubame was elected in the Gabonese Second College seat on a French Section of the Workers International ticket. A third election in 1946 took place in December when the Representative Assembly was elected, it used a college system. The next French elections took place in 1951, with Bayrou re-elected in the First College, the Representative Council was converted into a Territorial Assembly prior to the 1952 elections, with Aubames Gabonese Democratic and Social Union winning 14 of the 24 seats. Bayrou and Aubame were both re-elected again in the 1956 French elections, the final national elections in the colonial period were the Territorial Assembly elections of 1957. This resulted in the BDGs Léon Mba becoming Prime Minister, following independence, the President became a directly elected post, with the National Assembly elected every three years and the President every six. In the first post-independence elections in 1961 both posts were elected simultaneously, and the BDG and UDSG agreed to run on a united list under the name National Union. No other party ran and the list won all 67 seats in the National Assembly, whilst Mba ran unopposed for the presidency, however, the two parties ran against each other in the 1964 parliamentary elections, with the BDG winning 31 seats to the UDSGs 16. The BDG was the party to contest the 1967 general elections, resulting in Mba being re-elected unopposed. The following year the country became a one-party state with the Gabonese Democratic Party as the legal party. General elections were held in 1969, with Omar Bongo elected unopposed as President, presidential elections in 1979 and 1986 saw Bongo re-elected in the same manner, whilst the PDG remained unopposed in parliamentary elections in 1980 and 1985. Multi-party politics was reintroduced in 1990 and parliamentary elections that saw the PDG retain its majority in the National Assembly. The first competitive presidential elections were held in 1993, with Bongo re-elected with 51% of the vote, although the runner-up, Paul Mba Abessole, the PDG won the 1996 parliamentary elections, winning 85 seats. The Senate was elected for the first time in early 1997, Bongo was re-elected again in 1998 with 67% of the vote, and the PDG gained another seat in the 2001 parliamentary elections. The February 2003 Senate elections saw the PDG win 67 of the 92 seats, Bongo was re-elected for a sixth time in the 2005 presidential elections with 79% of the voteElections in Gabon – Gabon
93. Elections in the Republic of the Congo – The Republic of the Congo elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people, the National Assembly has 153 members, for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies. The Senate has 66 members, elected for a term by district. The Republic of Congo is a one party dominant state with the Congolese Labour Party in power, opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Elections are governed by Congos election law, most recently modified in 2016, Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carrs Election Archive African Elections DatabaseElections in the Republic of the Congo – Republic of the Congo
94. Elections in Kenya – Elections in Kenya take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system. The President, Senate and National Assembly are directly elected by voters, with elections organised by the Independent Electoral, nationwide elections have taken place in Kenya since 1920, when the first elections to the Legislative Council were held. The legislature initially had 11 elected Europeans and three appointed to represent Indians and Arabs, together with a number of nominated officials. However, the Indian community demanded equal representation with the Europeans, and this boycott continued for the 1927 elections, although one Indian candidate did stand. All five Indian seats were filled by election in the 1931 elections, prior to the 1952 elections the number of European seats was increased to 14 and the Indian seats to six, with six African members appointed. The same system was used in 1956, but in March 1957 elections were held for eight African seats, the 1961 elections were the first held under universal suffrage, although 20 of the 65 seats in the expanded Council were reserved for Europeans, Indians and Arabs. The Kenya African National Union emerged as the largest party, winning 19 seats, the electoral system was changed again prior to the 1963 elections, with the creation of a 129-seat House of Representatives and a 38-seat Senate. KANU won a majority in the House of Representatives and the most seats in the Senate, allowing Jomo Kenyatta to become the first Prime Minister, and upon independence the following year, President. This came to be known as the general election, in which the KPU received a majority of the vote. Later in the year the Senate was abolished, as it was merged with the House of Representatives to form the National Assembly, the KPU was subsequently banned in 1969 and Kenya became a one-party state. As a result, KANU won every seat in elections in 1969,1974,1979,1983 and 1988, with the wave of democratisation sweeping across Africa in the early 1990s, multi-party politics was reintroduced, together with the direct election of the president. Moi was re-elected again in 1997 with 40% of the vote, whilst KANU retained its parliamentary majority, the 2002 elections saw KANUs first defeat, Moi stood down and the KANU candidate Uhuru Kenyatta was defeated by Mwai Kibaki of the National Rainbow Coalition alliance. NARC also won a majority in the National Assembly, however, the coalition fell apart as a result of the 2005 referendum, and Kibakis former ally Raila Odinga became his principal opponent in the 2007 elections. Although Kibaki was declared the winner in the presidential contest, opposition parties won a majority of seats in the National Assembly, accusations of electoral fraud were made, resulting in violence that left around 1,000 dead. The following year the National Accord and Reconciliation Act 2008 was passed, a new constitution was introduced in 2010, and the first elections were held under it in 2013. Running as the Jubilee Alliance candidate, Uhuru Kenyatta defeated Odinga, two nationwide referendums have been held in Kenya, both on proposed new constitutions. A2005 referendum saw the proposed constitution rejected by 58% of voters, the 2010 constitution provides for a two-round system for presidential elections, the president having previously been elected on a first-past-the-post basis. In order to win in the first round, a candidate is required to receive over 50% of the vote, a successful presidential candidate must also run for, and win, a parliamentary seatElections in Kenya – Kenya
95. Max Gallo – Max Gallo is a French writer, historian and politician. The son of Italian immigrants, Gallos early career was in journalism, at the time he was a Communist. In 1974, he joined the Socialist Party, on April 26,2007, the Académie française recorded his candidacy for its Seat 24, formerly held by the late Jean-François Revel. He was elected to the Académie française on 31 May 2007, la Revolte des Esclaves, Fayard,2006 LItalie de Mussolini, Editions Tallandier,1973 Dieu le veut, XO éditions, Paris,2015 Napoleon I. Le Chant du départ, Robert Laffont,1997 II, le Soleil dAusterlitz, Robert Laffont,1997 III. LEmpereur des rois, Robert Laffont,1997 IVMax Gallo – Max Gallo (2009)
96. Bob Wolff – Robert Alfred Wolff is an American sportscaster. He was the radio and TV voice of the Washington Senators from 1947 to 1960, continuing with the team when they relocated, Wolff began his professional career in 1939 on CBS in Durham, North Carolina while attending Duke University. He is a graduate of Duke University with Phi Beta Kappa, Wolff is currently seen and heard on News 12 Long Island, on MSG Network programming and doing sports interviews on the Steiner Sports Memories of the Game show on the YES Network. He is a resident of South Nyack, New York. His son Rick Wolff is an author, radio host for WFAN and former baseball player, bob Wolff is the longest running broadcaster in television and radio history. He and Curt Gowdy are the two broadcasters to be honored by both the Baseball and Basketball Halls of Fame. Wolff has also honored with induction into Madison Square Gardens Walk of Fame. Wolff has been a broadcaster in nine decades and is still going strong. Seen and heard on two ESPN TV specials in 2008, hes been on the Madison Square Garden Network since 1954 and he also was on NBC Radio for the World Series in 1958 and 1961. Wolff has been seen and heard doing play-by-play on all the major TV networks, another of his classic broadcasts was the NY Giants / Baltimore Colts 1958 NFL Championship Game called, The Greatest Game Ever Played. On the collegiate scene, hes broadcast the Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Gator Bowl, Wolff was television play-by-play voice of the Detroit Pistons for multiple seasons. He did soccer games for the old Tampa Bay Rowdies, for many years Wolff was the play-by-play telecaster for all events originating from Madison Square Garden. His broadcast partner with the Knicks for many years was Cal RamseyBob Wolff – Wolff pictured c. 1941 at Duke University
97. Ilya Glazunov – Ilya Glazunov is a Russian artist from Saint Petersburg. He holds the title of Peoples Artist of Russia, and serves as a rector at the Russian Academy of Painting, Ilya Glazunovs paintings have mostly historic or religious themes. Famous works include Russia the Eternal, The 20th Century Mystery, The Ruining of the Temple on Easter Night, Ilya Glazunov was one of the main advocates behind the restoration of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. Soviet statesman Mikhail Suslov in his later yearsn formed a relationship with Glazunov. After a long time spent out of favour, Glazunov was given permission for a solo exhibition in the Manège. In the 1980s Ilya Glazunov was associated with far-right Pamyat society, the artists father was an historian named Glazunov Sergey Fedorovich. His mothers name was Glazunova Olga Konstantinovna, Ilya Glazunov survived World War II, in part because, in 1942, then-eleven-year-old Ilya was transported from besieged Leningrad along the Road of Life. He stayed in the village of Greblo in the Novgorod region after his family perished from starvation. In 1944, he returned to Leningrad and studied in the art school. From 1951 to 1957 he studied art under the direction of Professor Boris Ioganson, in 1956, he married Nina Vinogradova-Benois. He painted the image of Nina in many of his works, Nina Aleksandrovna was a descendant of the Benois family, a familiar name art history. Her uncle was the director of the La Scala Opera for 30 years. On 24 May 1986, Nina Vinogradova-Benois committed suicide, just a few days before the opening of the exhibition of her husband in Manege and their children, Ivan and Vera, have both become artists. Glazunovs success at the International competition of Young Artists in Prague prompted the opening of his first single exhibition in Moscow. Soon after in the 1960s, he traveled to Italy for the first time to paint the portraits of famous actors and actress, including Gina Lollobrigida. He also painted portraits of political leaders, including Indira Gandhi, Leonid Brezhnev, Urho Kekkonen, Yury Luzhkov. In 1978, Glazunov started teaching in the Moscow University of Art, in 1987, he founded the Russian Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Glazunovs epic canvas on Russia in the 20th century, legend of the Grand Inquisitor Triptych Illustrations for F. Dostoyevskys novel The Brothers Karamazov, Grand InquisitorIlya Glazunov – Ilya Sergeyevich Glazunov Илья Сергеевич Глазунов
98. Nelsan Ellis – Nelsan Ellis is an American film and television actor and playwright. Ellis was born in Harvey, Illinois, near Chicago, when Ellis and his siblings were younger, their mother, a single parent after her divorce from her childrens father, broke down over the death of her brother. Ellis and his siblings became wards of the state as a result and they were then raised in Bessemer, Alabama, by their grandmother. In Alabama, Ellis attended Jess Lanier High School for a year and he moved back to Illinois at age 15, where he lived with his maternal aunt, and in 1997 he graduated from Thornridge High School in Dolton, Illinois. He joined the United States Marines at the age of 17, following this, Ellis attended Illinois State University, where he was a National Champion in Duo Interpretation, among other successes, at the National Forensic Association national tournament. And was accepted for enrollment at the Juilliard Schools Drama Division when he was 21 where he befriended True Blood-colleague Rutina Wesley, Ellis earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Juilliard in 2004. In 2007, Ellis was cast as Lafayette Reynolds in the pilot for True Blood, as a short order cook at Merlottes, a dealer, a member of Jason Stackhouses road crew. The pilot was shot in the summer of 2007 and was officially ordered to series in August. Production on the series later that fall. In casting, Alan Ball had concerns that the characters sexuality would be a dominating trait, nelsan Ellis says that it took him a few episodes to find the character. Ellis says that he based many of Lafayettes mannerisms on his mother and his sister, I have more makeup on than any of the females in the cast. Once they get me with the fake eyelashes and the eye makeup, I listen to some Rihanna, the series premiered on September 7,2008 and concluded on August 24,2014, comprising seven seasons and 80 episodes. In 2008, Ellis received a Satellite Award from the International Press Academy for best supporting actor in a series for his role as Lafayette Reynolds. In 2009, he was nominated for a Scream Award for Best Supporting Actor for True Blood, in 2012, Ellis was cast as Martin Luther King, Jr. in a supporting performance in Lee Daniels The Butler. The Butler received mostly positive reviews critics, with a 71% rating on the film critic aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes. On October 21,2013, Ellis joined the cast of Get on Up and he portrayed Bobby Byrd, Browns long-time friend. Get on Up was met with reviews from critics. The film currently has a rating of 80% on the aggregator site Rotten Tomatoes, based on 150 reviewsNelsan Ellis – Ellis in June 2009
99. Paolo Villaggio – Paolo Villaggio is an Italian actor, voice actor, writer, director and comedian. He has written books, usually of satirical character. He has also acted in roles, and has appeared in several movies. Paolo Villaggio was born in Genoa, with a twin brother and his father was Ettore Villaggio, a surveyor originally from Palermo. His mother, Maria, originally from Venice, was a language teacher, Villaggio attended the classic school Liceo ginnasio Andrea Doria and initially studied Law, but did not complete his degree. His jobs included being a clerk for the Italsider steel works, which inspired his character Il ragioniere Fantozzi Ugo, maurizio Costanzo discovered his artistic potential and in 1967 he advised Villaggio to play in a cabaret in Rome. In 1971 the publishing house Rizzoli released the book Fantozzi, a collection of these stories, the first book received the Gogol Prize in Moscow and led to his 1975 appearance in the film Fantozzi, directed by Luciano Salce. The films success led to a sequel, Il secondo tragico Fantozzi, with the director in the following year, in which Fantozzi delivered his most famous line. è una cagata pazzesca, or roughly For me The Battleship Kotemkin is a load of crap. Villaggio has played in numerous comedies and he has been directed by Federico Fellini, with Roberto Benigni), Lina Wertmüller, by Ermanno Olmi, by Mario Monicelli, and by Gabriele Salvatores. He has received several awards, including the David di Donatello, the Nastro dArgento. Villaggio continued writing while acting in films and he moved to the Mondadori publishing house in 1994. He published Fantozzi saluta e se ne va, Vita morte e di un pezzo di merda,7 grammi in 70 anni and his latest. He also acted in plays, playing Arpagone in LAvare of Molière in 1996. In 1996 he also led the news bulletin Striscia la notizia. More recently, he participated in the television fiction Carabinieri, in which he played the role of a tramp who often helped the police to solve crimes, with fellow Genoan Fabrizio De André, Villaggio wrote two songs, Carlo Martello torna dalla battaglia di Poitiers and Il fannullone. Ugo Fantozzi, Caro direttore ti scrivo, lettere del tragicomico ragioniere Fantozzi saluta e se ne va, le ultime lettere del ragPaolo Villaggio – Paolo Villaggio in 2007
100. Heathcote Williams – Heathcote Williams is an English poet, actor, political activist and dramatist. He played Prospero in Derek Jarmans The Tempest and has appeared in arthouse films, including Orlando. Al Pacino played the part of a Williams fan in a spoof documentary, Every Time I Cross the Tamar I Get into Trouble. Williams also writes lyrics, collaborating with Marianne Faithfull among others and he wrote a TV play called What the Dickens. About Charles Dickens’s penchant for performing magic shows, bob Hoskins taught him fire eating. When he went to demonstrate his new talent to then girlfriend Jean Shrimpton. Williams was a leading activist in the London squatting scene in the 1970s, in 1977 he and a couple of hundred fellow squatters established the state of Frestonia in Notting Hill and declared independence from Britain. Then Shadow Chancellor, Geoffrey Howe, wrote to express his support, Frestonia lasted almost a decade and had its own institutions and postage stamps. Williams spray-painted graffiti on the walls of Buckingham Palace as a protest against the Queen signing Michael Xs death warrant while there was no punishment in the UK. In the early 1970s, his graffiti were a feature on the walls of the then low-rent end of Londons Notting Hill district. John Henley Heathcote-Williams was born in Helsby, Cheshire, after his schooldays at Eton, he changed his name to Heathcote Williams. His father, also named Heathcote Williams, was a lawyer, from his early twenties, Williams has enjoyed a minor cult following. His first book was The Speakers, an account of life at Speakers Corner in Londons Hyde Park, in 1974, it was adapted for the stage by the Joint Stock Theatre Company. Its production did not, however, appear to impede cordial relations between the two men in later years, AC/DC won the London Evening Standards Most Promising Play Award. It also received the 1972 John Whiting Award for being a new and it was described in the Times Literary Supplement in a front-page review by Charles Marowitz as the first play of the 21st century. AC/DC was produced in New York City in 1971 at the Chelsea Theater Center at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the inaugural issue of the London Review of Books included an effusive profile by fellow Etonian Francis Wyndham titled The Magic of Heathcote Williams. Williams has often been reluctant to co-operate in the promotion of his work on a level, refusing, for example, to go to the US to promote AC/DC. The only book-signing tour he has ever done – enough, he complained, energetic publicity efforts on Williams behalf, the responsibility of Capes Polly Samson, enabled him to reach a wider audience for his trilogy of book-length poems on environmental themesHeathcote Williams – Cover of Autogeddon' s UK edition, 1991
101. Steffi Martin – Steffi Martin is an East German luger who competed during the 1980s. Martin also won two medals in the womens singles event at the FIL World Luge Championships. She also won two medals in the womens singles event at the FIL European Luge Championships. Martin was overall Luge World Cup champion in singles in 1983-4. Great Olympians Fuzilogik Sports - Winter Olympic results - Womens luge Hickoksports. com results on Olympic champions in luge, hickok sports information on World champions in luge and skeleton. List of European luge champions List of womens singles luge World Cup champions since 1978, sportQuick. com information on World champions in lugeSteffi Martin – Martin (center) signing autographs at the 1985 World championships in Oberhof, East Germany.
102. Trial – In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes. One form of tribunal is a court, the tribunal, which may occur before a judge, jury, or other designated trier of fact, aims to achieve a resolution to their dispute. Where the trial is held before a group of members of the community, where the trial is held solely before a judge, it is called a bench trial. Hearings before administrative bodies may have many of the features of a trial before a court, trials can also be divided by the type of dispute at issue. A criminal trial is designed to resolve accusations brought against an accused of a crime. In common law systems, most criminal defendants are entitled to a trial held before a jury, because the state is attempting to use its power to deprive the accused of life, liberty, or property, the rights of the accused afforded to criminal defendants are typically broad. The rules of criminal procedure provide rules for criminal trials, a civil trial is generally held to settle lawsuits or civil claims—non-criminal disputes. In some countries, the government can both sue and be sued in a civil capacity, the rules of civil procedure provide rules for civil trials. Although administrative hearings are not ordinarily considered trials, they retain many elements found in more formal trial settings, when the dispute goes to judicial setting, it is called an administrative trial, to revise the administrative hearing, depending on the jurisdiction. The types of disputes handled in these hearings is governed by administrative law, labor law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees, in Canada, employment laws related to unionized workplaces are differentiated from those relating to particular individuals. In most countries however, no distinction is made. However, there are two categories of labour law. First, collective labour law relates to the relationship between employee, employer and union. Second, individual labour law concerns employees rights at work and through the contract for work, the labour movement has been instrumental in the enacting of laws protecting labour rights in the 19th and 20th centuries. Labour rights have been integral to the social and economic development since the industrial revolution, there are two primary systems for conducting a trial, Adversarial, In common law systems, an adversarial or accusatory approach is used to adjudicate guilt or innocence. In several jurisdictions in more cases, there is a jury to determine the facts. This polarizes the issues, with each competitor acting in its own self-interest, to maintain fairness, there is a presumption of innocence, and the burden of proof lies on the prosecutionTrial – Trial of Jean II, Duke of Alençon, October 1458.
103. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – She was the countrys second female president, and the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. Arroyo is also the first duly elected female Vice President of the Philippines, Arroyo was a former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University where Benigno Aquino III was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade, after serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001 and she was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30,2004. Following her presidency, she was elected to the House of Representatives, on November 18,2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage and she was rearrested while in the hospital on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds in October 2012. On July 19,2016, she was acquitted by the Supreme Court by a vote of 11-4 and she is a member of the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language. She was born as Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife and she is the sister of Dr. Diosdado Boboy Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo Macapagal Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga, at the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City. She stayed there for three years, then split her time between Mindanao and Manila until the age of 11 and she is fluent in English, Tagalog, Spanish and several other Philippine languages, most importantly, Kapampangan, Ilokano, and Cebuano. In 1961, when Arroyo was just 14 years old, her father was elected as president and she moved with her family into Malacañang Palace in Manila. A municipality was named in her honor, Gloria, Oriental Mindoro and she attended Assumption Convent for her elementary and high school education, graduating valedictorian in 1964. She then earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Assumption College, in 1968, Arroyo married lawyer and businessman Jose Miguel Arroyo of Binalbagan, Negros Occidental, whom she had met while still a teenager. They had three children, Juan Miguel, Evangelina Lourdes and Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria and she pursued a masters degree in Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University and a Ph. D. in Economics from the University of the Philippines Diliman. From 1977 to 1987, she held teaching positions in schools, notably the University of the Philippines. She became chairperson of the Economics Department at Assumption College, in 1987, she was invited by President Corazon Aquino to join the government as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry. She was promoted to Undersecretary two years later, in her concurrent position as Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Export Board, Arroyo oversaw the rapid growth of the garment industry in the late 1980sGloria Macapagal Arroyo – Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
104. Ched Evans – Chedwyn Michael Ched Evans is a Welsh footballer who plays as a striker for League One club Chesterfield. Born in Rhyl, Denbighshire, Evans was signed by Manchester City from Chester Citys youth set up in 2002, Evans was loaned to Norwich City in 2007, where he scored 10 goals in 28 league appearances, before returning to his parent club. With first team opportunities at City limited he was sold to Sheffield United for £3 million in 2009. After an unspectacular first two seasons at Bramall Lane he scored 35 goals during the 2011–12 season and he also represented Wales at Wales under-21 and senior level, scoring on his debut for the national side in 2008, and making a total of 13 appearances. Evans was convicted of rape in April 2012 and spent two and a half years in prison and his conviction was quashed on 21 April 2016 by the Court of Appeal, and a retrial was ordered. On 14 October 2016, he was not guilty. Prior to the retrial, he joined Chesterfield, Evans began his playing career in Rhyl, before spending two seasons in Chester Citys youth set-up from where he moved to Manchester City in 2002 following the closure of Chesters youth team. During the 2006–07 season, Evans was a regular in the Academy and reserve teams and was also in the side reached the final of the 2006 FA Youth Cup. In May 2007, Evans signed his first professional contract with Manchester City, in September 2007 Evans came off the bench to make his senior debut in City’s 1–0 League Cup victory against Norwich City. With first choice opportunities at City limited Evans moved on loan to Norwich City in November of that year and he made his debut for Norwich the following week when he came on as a substitute in the 3–1 victory over Blackpool. His first goal for the club two games later, and just two minutes into his first start in a 2–1 victory over Plymouth Argyle at the start of December. Evans returned to Manchester City after his loan deal expired in January 2008, having made eight appearances. However, after talks between the two clubs at the end of January 2008, the deal was extended to allow Evans to stay with the Carrow Road club until the end of the season. Then Manchester City manager Sven-Göran Eriksson stated he had no plans to sell Evans, Evans played regularly for Norwich for the remainder of his loan spell and by the end of the season he had notched up 10 goals from 20 starts and eight substitute appearances. Evans made his Premier League debut for Manchester City in the game of the following season on 18 August, against Aston Villa. He was not chosen for the starting eleven but replaced Valeri Bojinov, Evans scored his first Premier League goal for Manchester City against Portsmouth on 21 September, scoring the fifth goal as City went on to win 6–0. With Citys acquisition of Craig Bellamy and later Emmanuel Adebayor, Roque Santa Cruz and Carlos Tevez, having bagged a brace for the Wales U21s during the midweek fixtures he then scored his first goal in Blades colours on his home debut, a 2–0 win over Watford. The following season Evans was a regular first team choice and his form and scoring rate began to improve, despite the going through a season of turmoilChed Evans – Evans before a Wales under-21 game
105. Fred Talbot – Frederick Fred Talbot is a British former teacher and television presenter. Talbot spent much of his career in the north west of England, in February 2015, he was found guilty of indecent sexual assault against two teenage boys at Altrincham Grammar School for Boys, where he had taught biology. He was sentenced to five years in prison the following month, born in Edinburgh, Talbot was a pupil at North Cestrian Grammar School and in 1964, a founding member of the Altrincham and District Astronomical Society. He co-discovered a meteor shower, the June Lyrids, in June 1966, at the time of his dismissal, Talbot was also recording a weekly astronomy programme for radio. In 1984, he began presenting for the news programme Granada Reports in North West England. Granada Television later commissioned Talbot to appear in an educational science programme for children called The Final Frontier. He continued as a reporter for Granada Reports and became a weatherman for the ITVs This Morning in October 1988. Until production of This Morning was moved from the Albert Dock, Liverpool, to London and he was forced to jump across a gap to go back and forth between Ireland and Britain, crowds often gathered to watch his leap. On one occasion, a diver swam near the map to distract Talbot and on another a streaker swam naked up to the map and jumped on. Talbot also presented several regional feature series for ITV Granada, including Locks and Quays and he also contributed to the CITV science series Prove It. and guest presented weather forecasts for the ITV Breakfast programme Daybreak. A day before the search, Talbot posted on his Twitter account that he was on a cruise in the Atlantic Ocean. He did not return to his role at ITV Granada upon his return to the UK, in April 2013, police arrested Talbot, who refused to answer interview questions about allegations by men who claimed they had been abused as children. Following a re-arrest in December 2013, he was charged with ten historical sexual offences and his trial began in January 2015, accused of abusing four former pupils at Altrincham Grammar School and a fifth schoolboy from the Newcastle area, during a canal boat holiday in the 1970s. Witnesses included Stone Roses lead singer Ian Brown, a pupil of Talbots at Altrincham Grammar School for Boys. Evidence was also provided by Talbots extensive diaries, which noted his sexual activity, found guilty of indecent assault against two teenage boys at the school, he was acquitted of eight further charges. Immediately remanded in custody bearing in mind Talbots abuse of trust, during the trial, Talbot said he knew at fourteen that he is homosexual. On 13 March 2015, Judge Timothy Mort sentenced Talbot to five years in prison, Talbot was told that he must serve at least two and a half years in prison before he can be considered for release on licence. Talbot appeared in court on 11 March 2016, where he faced ten fresh charges of indecent assault dating from 1968 to 1981 and he did not enter a plea during the hearingFred Talbot – The 'weather map' at Liverpool Docks that Talbot used as weather presenter on This Morning
106. Graham Spanier – Spanier is currently president emeritus, university professor, and professor of human development and family studies, sociology, demography, and family, and community medicine. He had a one-year post-presidential sabbatical leave following his resignation as president of Penn State in November 2011 and he was later convicted on March 24,2017 of one misdemeanor charge of child endangerment. Graham Basil Spanier was born to Rosadele Lurie and Fritz Otto Spanier in Cape Town, South Africa and his father had previously escaped Nazi Germany in 1936, much of his fathers extended family perished during the Holocaust. The family moved to a neighborhood on the south side of Chicago. Spanier’s father worked in a nuts, bolts and screws warehouse loading and unloading trucks, the family moved to the suburb of Highland Park, where Spanier graduated from Highland Park High School in 1966. His father became postmaster of Highland Park in 1962 and retired from that position in 1975, Spanier has revealed that his father was physically violent with all three of his children. His sister Anita told The New York Times that Graham received the most violent beatings, “I’ve had to have four operations to correct serious deformities inside my head from beatings my father gave me, ” Spanier said. “They had to me from the inside out. He was president of J&A Radio Productions, a Junior Achievement company that produced a show called “Variety” targeted to Chicago-area youth. Along with Brian Ross, he co-founded a radio service that covered the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. He attended Iowa State University, where he earned a degree in sociology in three years and continued his education to earn a masters degree. As a graduate student, he taught classes in marriage. During college, Spanier served as a resident in the residence halls and worked in radio and television at WEEF, KASI. He had summer jobs as an announcer, news director, pizza maker, bank teller. He received numerous honors while a university student for his leadership in student government and campus activities, Iowa State later honored him with the Distinguished Achievement Citation and an honorary doctorate. Following his graduation from Iowa State, Spanier attended Northwestern University, where he was a Woodrow Wilson Fellow and he oversaw the merger with the Dickinson School of Law, creating an accredited and acclaimed two-campus law school. During his tenure, applications exceeded 120,000 per year, enrollment grew to 97,000, as president, Spanier made a commitment to spend time with students. He performed with Penn State’s Musical Theatre students and occasionally with Penn State’s marching band, the Glee Club, and he and his racquetball partner are eleven-time Penn State co-ed intramural racquetball championsGraham Spanier – Graham Spanier
107. Bill Cosby – William Henry Bill Cosby, Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, actor, author, and singer. Cosbys start in comedy began at the hungry i in San Francisco and was followed by his landing a starring role in the 1960s television show I Spy. He was also a regular on the television series The Electric Company during the shows first two seasons. Throughout the 1970s, Cosby starred in a number of films, after attending Temple University in the 1960s, he received his bachelors degree there in 1971. In 1973, he received a degree from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His dissertation discussed the use of Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids as a tool in elementary schools. The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an affluent African-American family, Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations since about 2000. He surrendered to authorities on December 30,2015, and was released on $1 million bail, Cosby is scheduled to go on trial on or before June 5,2017. Cosby was born on July 12,1937 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and he is one of four sons of Anna Pearl, a maid, and William Henry Cosby Sr. who served as a mess steward in the U. S. Navy. During much of Cosbys early childhood, his father was away in the U. S. armed forces, as a student, he described himself as a class clown. Cosby was the captain of both the team and the track and field team at Mary Channing Wister Public School in Philadelphia. Early on, though, teachers noted his propensity for clowning around rather than studying, at FitzSimons Junior High School, Cosby began acting in plays as well as continuing his devotion to playing sports. Cosby went on to Philadelphias Central High School, a magnet and academically rigorous university prep school where he played football, basketball, baseball, and ran track. In addition, Cosby was working before and after school, selling produce, shining shoes and he transferred to Germantown High School, but failed the tenth grade. Instead of repeating, he got a job as an apprentice at a repair shop, which he liked. In 1956, Cosby enlisted in the Navy, serving at the Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland and at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland. During his four years in the Navy, Cosby served as a Hospital Corpsman working in therapy with Navy. He finished his equivalency diploma via correspondence courses and was awarded a track, there, he studied physical education while running track and playing fullback on the universitys football teamBill Cosby – Cosby before receiving the U.S. Navy Lone Sailor Award at the National Building Museum, Washington, D.C. in 2010
108. Yang Weize – Yang Weize is a former Chinese politician. He was the Communist Party Secretary of Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province, prior to that, he served as the party chief in the neighbouring city of Wuxi for seven years, and before that the Mayor of Suzhou. Yang was an member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Yang was born in Nantong, Jiangsu province in August 1962 and he traces his ancestry to the Changzhou area. His father was an administrator in the city of Nantong. Yang went to college at the Nanjing Marine Engineering Institute, where he studied marine and he began working in the Jiangsu provincial transportation department in August 1981. In 1998, he became the director of transportation. The next year, he was transferred to become Deputy Party Secretary of Suzhou, in 2004, Yang became the party chief of Wuxi, becoming first-in-charge of the southern Jiangsu city. By 2006, at age 44, he had earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee, Yang was said to have received praise from Zhou for his work in controlling the razing of local residential neighbourhoods near Zhous hometown. In 2011, he became the Party Secretary of the provincial capital Nanjing, as the citys two most prominent political leaders, Ji and Yang had an uneasy, often hostile relationship. Yang publicly criticized Ji over a rainwater diversion construction project in Nanjing led by the mayor, Ji was abruptly removed from his office of mayor in December 2013 to face a corruption investigation. Yang also served as the president of the committee of the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics, spearheading a strategy of using temporary venues for competition. After the dismissal of Ji Jianye, rumours about Yang himself being in trouble began circulating in late 2013. For much of 2014, Yang executed the partys anti-corruption and mass campaigns with great fervour in Nanjing. In addition, in preparation for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing, Yang called upon the city to embrace the slogan, work hard for one hundred days, between April and August, various clean-up initiatives took place across the city. During this time, Yang was said to have visited all the sporting venues, the one hundred day clean-up campaign earned Yang praise from local residents. In May, Yang said that Nanjing was open to the idea of hosting the 2019 Asian Games after organizers from Vietnam withdrew from hosting the event, in July 2014, state media announced the investigation into Chinas former security chief and Wuxi-area native Zhou Yongkang. Several days later, Lou Xuequan, former party chief of Luhe District of Nanjing, on December 13, the National Commemoration Ceremony for the Nanking Massacre took place in the city, attended by President Xi JinpingYang Weize – Yang Weize 杨卫泽
109. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama is an Indonesian politician serving as the 17th Governor of Jakarta since November 14,2014. Basuki was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on November 18,2014 and he was a legislator in the Indonesian Peoples Representative Council and Regent of East Belitung. He is also known by his Hakka Chinese nickname, Ahok, Basuki was also a Komisi II House of Representatives member for the 2009–2014 office term. However, he resigned from the position in 2012 to run for Lieutenant Governor Jakarta governor election, Basuki is the second governor with Chinese ancestry, and also the second Christian governor of Jakarta, following Henk Ngantung, who was governor during the period 1964–65. Basuki was born on 29 June 1966 and grew up in Manggar and he is the first son of Buniarti Ningsih and the late Indra Tjahaja Purnama. Basuki has three siblings, Basuri Tjahaja Purnama, Fifi Lety, and Harry Basuki, Basuki attended Trisakti University majoring in Mineral Resources & Technology. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Geological Engineering in 1989, after two years of working in the company, he decided to pursue a masters degree in Financial Management at Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Jakarta. He graduated as a Master of Business Administration, Basuki is married to Veronica Tan and the couple has three children, Nicolas Sean, Natania, and Daud Albeneer. Basuki entered politics in his region of Belitung. He ran in the 2005 East Belitung regent election with Khairul Effendi as his mate and was elected as regent with 37. 13% of the vote. Basuki believes that Indonesia is breaking with the past, that had a long and often violent history of prejudice and he is nicknamed The Father and The Law for strong actions against corruption. After a month in office, Basuki confronted key issues related to congestion, labor, corruption. Basuki resigned from his position as East Belitung regent on 11 December 2006 in order to run in the 2007 Bangka-Belitung gubernatorial election and he later credited former Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid, for convincing him to run for public office. Wahid supported Basukis candidacy and praised Ahoks healthcare reforms, Basuki was defeated by Eko Maulana Ali. In 2008, Basuki wrote a biography titled Merubah Indonesia In 2009, Basuki was elected to the House of Representatives and he was elected with 119,232 votes and was assigned to the Second Commission. In 2011, he created a controversy during a visit to his local constituency and he was recorded by the local media condemning local tin mining businesses for causing environmental damage. The comment was regarded as an insult by a local youth NGO, in 2011, Basuki considered to run as Jakarta governor as an independent. However, he decided not to run as he was pessimistic about his chances on getting 250 thousand signatures, however, he then ran along Joko Widodo in the 2012 election as his running mateBasuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama 鍾萬學
110. Mukhtar Ablyazov – Mukhtar Ablyazov is a Kazakh dissident, politician, economist, businessman, and banker. He is the founder and leader of ‘Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan’ and he is also the author of Ablyazov against Nazarbayev. Ablyazov is currently fighting extradition from France to Russia, in Russia, Ablyazov faces ill-treatment and unfair trial. In 1986, Ablyazov graduated from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, there he earned a degree in theoretical physics. After graduation, he worked as a researcher at the Kazakh National University. In 1987, Ablyazov married Shalabayeva Alma, in 1990, Ablyazov was enrolled in postgraduate studies in the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. For that reason, he was fired from his role as a researcher at the Kazakh National University. Ablyazov started working during the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of Kazakhstans Independence and his first job was the buying and selling of computers and copying machines. In 1991, Ablyazov registered his first company and called it Madina, in 1992, Ablyazov started his business by supplying all the regions of Kazakhstan with products such as salt, sugar, flower, matches, tea, chocolate, and medicine. In 1998, together with a consortium of Kazakh investors, Ablyazov acquired a loan to buy the shares in Bank TuranAlem in an auction for $72 million. He later paid back the loan, the bank later came to be known as BTA Bank. In 1997, Ablyazov was appointed as head of the state-owned Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company, KEGOC was a company close to buncruptcy at the time of his appointment as its head. In one year, he managed to make the company profitable. In 1998, as head of KEGOC, Ablyazov was named Minister for Energy, Industry, and Trade. ”Yet after a few years, “Ablyazov and the others had broken ranks, citing disenchantment with endemic corruption in Nazarbaevs inner circle. This opposition initiative, according to RFE/RL, “quickly drew the wrath of the regime. ”In July 2002, as one of the leaders of the DCK, Ablyazov was convicted of “abusing official powers as a minister”. Also sent to prison were his fellow would-be reformers and former Nazarbaev proteges Galymzhan Zhakiyanov, many observers, including the European Parliament and Amnesty International, considered the charges against Ablyazov to be politically motivated. His trial failed to meet international fair trial standards and it is alleged that Ablyazov was subject to torture, beatings and other ill-treatment while he was in prison. Unlike Ablyazov, Zhakiyanov refused a pardon, Sarsenbaev was released from prison and later became head of Ak Zhol, an opposition partyMukhtar Ablyazov – Logo of BTA Bank
111. Leni Robredo – Maria Leonor Leni Santo Tomas Robredo is a Filipino lawyer and social activist who is the 14th and current Vice President of the Philippines. She is the woman to serve as Vice President after Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Robredo first came to attention in 2012 after the death of her husband, Interior Secretary Jesse Robredo. Prior to the accident, her involvement in life was as a lawyer. Maria Leonor Santo Tomas Gerona was born on April 23,1964 in Naga, Camarines Sur and she was the first of three children born to retired Naga City Regional Trial Court Judge Antonio Gerona and Salvacion Santo Tomas. Gerona was educated at the Universidad de Sta, isabel in Naga, graduating from elementary school in 1978, and from high school in 1982. She then graduated with a degree in economics from the School of Economics of the University of the Philippines Diliman in 1986 and she then went to obtain her Masters Degree in business administration at San Beda College prior to studying Law at University of Nueva Caceres, graduating in 1992. Here she met then-Program Director Jesse Robredo, who would become her husband. From 1998 to 2008, Robredo became the coordinator of Sentro ng Alternatibong Lingap Panligan, later, the groups focus shifted to include helping rural women to acquire capital in order to become competitive markets. In addition, she founded the Lakas ng Kababaihan ng Naga Federation, in 2012, Robredo was named the chairperson of the Liberal Party in Camarines Sur. She ran in Camarines Surs 3rd congressional district during the Philippine general elections of 2013 and she was known for being a strong advocate of the Freedom of Information Act, was a strong supporter of the Bangsamoro Basic Law. Participatory governance and transparency were major thrusts of Robredos legislative agenda, to promote transparency in the taxation process, she sponsored the house version of what would eventually become Republic Act RA10708, the Tax Incentives Management and Transparency Act of 2009. Other major legislation co-authored by Robredo include the Anti-Dynasty Bill and the Healthy Beverage Options Act, in addition, Robredo was one of many co-authors of the National Budgets for the years 2014,2015, and 2016. Robredo won the election with 14,418,817 votes or 35.11 percent of the votes, Robredo was sworn in as Vice President of the Philippines on June 30,2016 at the Quezon City Reception House, of which Robredo uses as her office. Robredo first met President Rodrigo Duterte personally at the Armed Forces of the Philippines change-of-command ceremonies at Camp Aguinaldo on July 1,2016 and she later paid a courtesy call on him at the Malacañang Palace on July 4, their first formal meeting. On July 7, Duterte called Robredo during a conference to offer her the Cabinet position of being the head of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council. Robredo is the third Vice President to head the government agency focused on housing programs, following her immediate predecessors Noli de Castro, Duterte earlier said that he did not want to appoint a Cabinet position to Robredo due to his unfamiliarity with her and his friendship with Bongbong Marcos. In September 2016, after the onslaught of Typhoon Ferdie in Batanes, Robredo visited the island in which she offered aid, in the same month Leni Robredo met with Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines president Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates BLeni Robredo – Leni Robredo in 2013
112. Gheorghe Nichita – Gheorghe Nichita is a Romanian politician, who has served as the mayor of Iaşi since 2003, and suspended over allegations of corruption. A member of the Social Democratic Party, Nichita is the national vice-president of the party, in 1995-2000, Nichita was a member of the Democratic Party. In 1996-1998, and 2000-2003, he was also a member of the city council, Nichita made two unsuccessful runs for mayor of Iași, in 1996, and 2000. In 2004, he was elected as the mayor of Iaşi, on 1 May 2015, Gheorghe Nichita had been detained during the night by the National Anticorruption Directorate, after more than seven hours of hearings on suspicion of abuse of office. Next day, a court ruled he would be investigated under judicial control, on 9 May 2015, Gheorghe Nichita had been placed under house arrest. Gheorghe Nichita is suspected that he abused his position by using police officers to spy and report on rivals. Three senior local police officers were also detained, prosecutors said Nichita abusively obtained confidential information, using police and city hall employees, for personal gain. On 22 May 2015, Nichita was suspended from his job as mayor of the city, Gheorghe Nichitas blog Gheorghe Nichita va fi primar interimar al Iasului Gheorghe Nichita, în an electoral,70.000 RON, în depozite, şi o maşină nou-nouţă, în garajGheorghe Nichita – Nichita in 2014
113. People's Party (Spain) – The Peoples Party is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain. It is one of the four parties of modern Spanish politics. The new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic, in 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of Founding Chairman. The PP was until November 2011 the largest opposition party in the Congress of Deputies, with 153 out of 350 deputies, and its youth organization is New Generations of the Peoples Party of Spain. In the elections of November 2011, the PP won a majority, the PP is a member of the center-right European Peoples Party, and in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is also a member of the Centrist Democrat International, the PP was also one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The party has its roots in the Peoples Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga, although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an extremely gradual transition to democracy. However, he underestimated the publics distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, in the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fragas wing won the struggle, prompting most of the disenchanted reactionaries to leave the party, the AP then joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition. In the March 1979 general election, however, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, at the APs Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had merely confused the voters, Fraga resumed control of the party, and the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP. In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership and he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right. It became the opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers Party. Whereas the APs parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the APs emphasis on law, subsequent political developments belied the partys aspirations to continue increasing its base of supportPeople's Party (Spain) – Headquarters on Calle Genova in Madrid. As the party seat, the term Genova often used as a metonym for the Party leadership.
114. ICTY – The tribunal is an ad hoc court which is located in The Hague, Netherlands. The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, the maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences, a total of 161 persons were indicted, the final indictments were issued in December 2004, the last of which were confirmed and unsealed in the spring of 2005. The final fugitive, Goran Hadžić, was arrested on 20 July 2011, the ICTY is slated to close upon the completion of the remaining trials of first instance and any appeal proceedings that had been initiated prior to 1 July 2013. Any appeal proceedings initiated since 1 July 2013 have been under the jurisdiction of a successor body, a report on all aspects of this matter, including specific proposals and where appropriate options. Taking into account suggestions put forward in regard by Member States. The Court was originally proposed by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel, Resolution 827 of 25 May 1993 approved S/25704 report of the Secretary-General and adopted the Statute of the International Tribunal annexed to it, formally creating the ICTY. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment, in 1993, the ICTY built its internal infrastructure. 17 states have signed an agreement with the ICTY to carry out custodial sentences, 1993–1994, In the first year of its existence, the Tribunal laid the foundations for its existence as a judicial organ. The Tribunal established the framework for its operations by adopting the rules of procedure and evidence, as well as its rules of detention. Together these rules established a legal aid system for the Tribunal, as the ICTY is part of the United Nations and as it was the first international court for criminal justice, the development of a juridical infrastructure was considered quite a challenge. However after the first year the first ICTY judges had drafted and adopted all the rules for court proceedings, 1994–1995, The ICTY established its offices within the Aegon Insurance Building in The Hague and detention facilities in Scheveningen in The Hague. The ICTY hired now many staff members, by July 1994 there were sufficient staff members in the office of the prosecutor to begin field investigations and by November 1994 the first indictment was presented and confirmed. In 1995, the staff numbered more than 200 persons. Moreover, some governments assigned their legally trained people to the ICTY, in 1994 the first indictment was issued against the Bosnian-Serb concentration camp commander Dragan Nikolić. While the war in the former Yugoslavia was still raging, the ICTY prosecutors showed that a court was viable. The court confirmed eight indictments against 46 individuals and issued arrest warrants, Bosnian Serb indictee Duško Tadić became the subject of the Tribunals first trial. Tadić was arrested by German police in Munich in 1994 for his actions in the Prijedor region in Bosnia-HerzegovinaICTY – Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, including the proposed Statute of the International Tribunal, approved by UN Security Council Resolution 827.
115. Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar, is an Estonian politician, one of the founding members of Popular Front of Estonia and the Centre Party. He has served as the acting Prime Minister of Estonia, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications and he was born in Vastse-Kuuste to Estonian father Elmar Savisaar and Russian mother Maria Burešin. In 1949 his parents wanted to leave the local kolkhoz with their livestock, both were arrested on charges of seizing public property, tax evasion and an assault. Elmar Savisaar was sentenced 15 years and Marie Burešin 5 years in prison, Marie Savisaar gave birth to Edgar Savisaar in Harku womens prison while serving the sentence. It has been theorized that Elmar Savisaar is not his biological father, the mother with the newborn was released the same year after being pardoned and they returned to Vastse-Kuuse. After graduating from school, Savisaar continued his studies at the University of Tartu. In 1973, he graduated from the university with a degree in history, in 1980, he wrote his candidate thesis in philosophy on the topic Social Philosophical Foundations of the Global Models of the Club of Rome. From 1980 to 1988, Savisaar worked in the Soviet Estonian governmental institutions dealing with the planning of economy, during 1988–1989, he was the academic director for the consultation company Mainor. In April he co-established the Popular Front which became the first political organization in Soviet Union outside Communist Party after 1920. Initially formed to support perestroika Popular Front started increasingly develop ideas of Estonian national independence, the process with several others lead to dissolution of Soviet Union ultimately. In 1989, he became the Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Estonian SSR, in 1990, he was the Minister of Economic Affairs. On 3 April 1990, he was appointed the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, when Estonia declared its independence on 20 August 1991, he became the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia. His government was in office until 29 January 1992, when he resigned after supplementary problems, from 1992 until 1995, Savisaar was the Vice-Speaker of the Estonian Parliament. From 17 April –6 November 1995, he was the Minister for Internal Affairs, when he was accused of recording private conversations of other politicians, the entire government faltered. Although his participation in the recordings was never proved, he announced his intention to leave politics, however, in 1996, he participated in the elections of the Riigikogu and became the Chairman of the Tallinn City Council. His return to the Centre Party leaders post evoked a split, from 2001 to 14 October 2004, he was mayor of Tallinn. On 11 April 2005, he became Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications in the new coalition of Prime Minister Andrus Ansip, from 2007 he has been mayor of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Savisaar refused to congratulate the winner, in 2016, the discussion on electing a new leader escalated in the Centre Party and an extraordinary party congress was called for NovemberEdgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar
116. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi is a former Libyan political figure. He is the son of late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD from London School of Economics and he was a part of his fathers inner circle, performing public relations and diplomatic roles on behalf of his father. He publicly turned down his fathers offer of the second highest post. An arrest warrant was issued for him by the International Criminal Court for charges of crimes against humanity against the Libyan people, for torturing and killing civilians, a charge he denied. Gaddafi was captured by the Zintan militia on 19 November 2011, after the end of the Libyan Civil War, in southern Libya and flown by plane to Zintan. He was sentenced to death on 28 July 2015 by a court in Tripoli for crimes during the 2011 Libyan Civil War and he remained in the custody of the de facto independent authorities of Zintan. In July 2016 it was reported that he had been released, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering science from Tripolis Al Fateh University in 1994. However, there is another report stating that he is an architect and he earned an MBA from Viennas IMADEC business school in 2000. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD degree in 2008 from the London School of Economics and he presented a thesis on The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions, from soft power to collective decision-making. Examined by Meghnad Desai and Anthony McGrew, among the LSE academics acknowledged in the thesis as directly assisting with it were Nancy Cartwright, David Held, professor Joseph Nye of Harvard University is also thanked for having read portions of the manuscript and providing advice and direction. Furthermore, allegations abound that Saifs thesis was in many parts ghost-written by consultants from Monitor Group, speaking in Sabha on 20 August 2008, Gaddafi said that he would no longer involve himself in state affairs. He noted that he had previously intervene due to the absence of institutions and he dismissed any potential suggestion that this decision was due to disagreement with his father, saying that they were on good terms. He also called for reforms within the context of the Jamahiriya system and rejected the notion that he could succeed his father. Gaddafi was the president of the Libyan National Association for Drugs, in 2009, both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch were allowed entry to Libya, via Gaddafis non-profit organization in order to gather facts about the human rights situation in Libya. Gaddafi was instrumental in negotiations that led to Libyas abandoning a weapons of mass destruction programme in 2002–2003 and he arranged several important business deals on behalf of the Libyan regime in the period of rapprochement that followed. He was viewed as a reformer, and openly criticised the regime and you mean Libya needs more democracy. More democracy’ would imply that we had some, Gaddafi said, in 2003, he published a report critical of Libyas record on human rights. S. -led sanctions against Libya after the Lockerbie bombing, and for denying him a student visa to study in Canada in 1997Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in a military aircraft in Zintan after he had been captured by Libyan soldiers.
117. List of ongoing armed conflicts – The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence. This list of ongoing armed conflicts is for the purpose of identifying present-day conflicts. The guidelines of inclusion are, Armed conflicts consist in the use of armed force between two or more organized armed groups, governmental or non-governmental alike, interstate, intrastate and non-state armed conflicts are listed. For ongoing civil unrest and violence against protesters not escalating into armed conflict, fatality figures include battle-related deaths as well as civilians intentionally targeted by the parties to an armed conflict. Listed conflicts are at least 100 cumulative deaths in total and at least 1 death in current or past calendar year, fatality totals may be underestimated or unavailable due to a lack of information. A figure with a sign indicates that at least that many people have died – the actual toll could be higher. Location refers to the state where the violence takes place. Italics indicate disputed territories and unrecognized states, only states with ongoing military activity are listed, past states and states where conflicts are no longer active are omitted. Military conflicts that no longer produce deaths are not listed here, but can be found in the historical list of wars, the 4 conflicts in the following list have caused at least 10,000 direct violent deaths in current or past calendar year. The 10 conflicts in the following list have caused at least 1,000, Conflicts causing at least 1,000 deaths in one calendar year are considered wars by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. The 28 conflicts in the following list have caused at least 100, the 14 conflicts in the following list have caused at least 1 and fewer than 100 direct violent deaths in current or past calendar year. This section details armed conflict-related fatalities by country in 2013,2014 and 2015, UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia – Uppsala Conflict Data Program of the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University. Armed Conflicts Report Interactive Map, by Project Ploughshares, global Conflict Tracker, by the Council on Foreign Relations. CrisisWatch – Monthly bulletin, interactive map and database on ongoing conflicts by the International Crisis Group, Map of the worlds conflicts, by IRINList of ongoing armed conflicts – Major wars, 10,000+ deaths in current or past year
118. Boko Haram insurgency – The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. By 2015, part of the split into al-Qaeda affiliated Ansaru. In 2013, over 1,000 people died as a result of the conflict, the violence escalated dramatically in 2014, with 10,849 deaths. In 2014, the spread to neighboring Cameroon, Chad. In 2015, a coalition offensive forced Boko Haram to retreat into the Sambisa Forest, the insurgency took place within the context of long-standing issues of religious violence between Nigerias Muslim and Christian communities. Boko Haram has been called the worlds deadliest terrorist group, in terms of the number of people it has killed, sir Frederick Lugard, assumed office as governor of both protectorates in 1912. The aftermath of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of which was Cameroon, to French, Belgian, Cameroon was divided in French and British parts, the latter of which was further subdivided into southern and northern parts. The territory made up much of what is now Northeastern Nigeria, religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953. The Igbo massacre of 1966 in the North that followed the counter-coup of the year had as a dual cause the Igbo officers coup. This was a factor in the Biafran secession and the resulting civil war. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a major Islamic uprising led by Maitatsine and his followers, after Maitatsines death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more. In the same decade the military ruler of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida enrolled Nigeria in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. This was a move which aggravated religious tensions in the country, in response, some in the Muslim community pointed out that certain other African member states have smaller proportions of Muslims, as well as Nigerias diplomatic relations with the Holy See. This was followed by controversy as to the legal status of the non-Muslims in the Sharia system. A spate of Muslim-Christian riots soon emerged, in the primarily Islamic northern states of Nigeria, a variety of Muslim groups and populations exist, who favour the nationwide introduction of Sharia Law. The demands of these populations have been at least partially upheld by the Nigerian Federal Government in 12 states, the implementation has been widely attributed as being due to the insistence of Zamfara State governor Ahmad Rufai Sani. The death sentences of Amina Lawal and Safiya Hussaini attracted international attention to what many saw as the regime of these laws. These sentences were overturned, the first execution was carried out in 2002Boko Haram insurgency
119. ADF insurgency – The insurgency began in 1995, intensifying in 2013, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The ADF was formed by Jamil Mukulu, an ultra conservative Ugandan Muslim, Mukulu was born as David Steven and was baptised as a Catholic, later converting to Islam, adopting a Muslim name and becoming radicalised. He reportedly spent the early 1990s in Khartoum, Sudan, coming into contact with Osama bin Laden. ADF merged with the remnants of another group, the National Army for the Liberation of Uganda. ADF-NALUs initial goal was to overthrow Ugandan presidents Yoweri Museveni government, the group went on to recruit former officers of the Ugandan army, as well as volunteers from Tanzania and Somalia. Funded by the mining and logging industries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, ADF created 15 well organised camps in the Rowezori mountains. The insurgence remained unaffected by government amnesty and talk efforts, as members married local women, according to intelligence sources, ADF has collaborated with al-Shabaab and Lords Resistance Army. Receiving training and logistic support, with limited involvement from al-Shabaabs side. Other alleged sponsors of the faction include Sudanese Islamist politician Hassan al-Turabi, formed in 1989, ADF carried out its first attacks in 1995. The conflict gradually intensified, culminating in the 1998 Kichwamba Technical College attack, by 2002, continuous pressure from the Ugandan Army forced ADF to relocate most of its activities into the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo. The insurgency continued on a smaller scale until 2013, which marked a resurgence of ADF activity, on 13 November 1996, ADF perpetrated its first large scale attack on the towns of Bwera and Mpondwe-Lhubiriha in Kasese district, Uganda. Approximately 50 people were killed in the attack,25000 people fled the towns, before they were recaptured by Ugandan troops. On 20 February 1998, ADF abducted 30 children, in the aftermath of an attack on a Seventh-Day Adventist College in Mitandi, on 4 April 1998,5 people were killed and at least 6 were wounded, when bombs exploded at two restaurants in Kampala. On 8 June 1998, ADF rebels killed 80 students of the Kichwamba Technical College in Kabarole District,80 students were abducted in the same raid. In June 1998, ADF rebels abducted over l00 school children from a school in Hoima, in August 1998,30 people were killed in three separate bus bombings, perpetrated by ADF. Between 10 April 1999 -30 May 1999 ADF carried out seven attacks, on 9 December 1999, ADF attacked the Katojo prison facility, releasing 360 prisoners held for terrorism. During March 2007, the UPDF engaged ADF groups in multiple firefights, killing at least 46 in Bundibugyo, the biggest battle occurred on March 27, when the UPDF faced an estimated 60 ADF troops and killed 34, including three senior commanders. The UPDF claimed to have retrieved numerous weapons as well as documents that tie the ADF to the LRA, on 13 April 2007, the UPDF and ADF engaged in an intense battle inside the Semuliki National Park, near the upscale Semliki Lodge tourist destinationADF insurgency – A FIB soldier during an operation against the ADF in Beni.
120. Ituri conflict – The Ituri conflict was a major conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. While the two groups had fought since as early as 1972, the name Ituri conflict refers to the period of violence between 1999 and 2003. A low level armed conflict continues to the present day, the conflict was largely set off by the Second Congo War, which had led to increased ethnic consciousness, a large supply of small arms, and the formation of various armed groups. More long term-factors include land disputes, the abundant natural resources. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front while the Union of Congolese Patriots claimed to be fighting for the Hema, the conflict was extremely violent and was accompanied by large-scale massacres perpetrated by members of both ethnic factions. In 2006, the BBC reported that as many as 60,000 people had died in Ituri since 1998, hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, becoming refugees. In June 2003, the European Union began Operation Artemis, sending a French-led peacekeeping force to Ituri, the EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia. Despite this, fighting and massacres continued in the countryside, in December 2003, the Hema-backed UPC split and fighting decreased significantly. Ethnic tension between the Lendu and Hema can be traced to the period, when the area was part of the Belgian Congo. The Belgian colonial administrators favored the pastoralist Hema, resulting in education and this divergence continued into modern times. Despite this, the two peoples have lived together peacefully and extensively intermarried. While the southern Hema speak their own language, the northern Hema speak Lendu, the Hema and Lendu have longstanding grievances about land issues that had erupted into conflict on at least three previous occasions,1972,1985 and 1996. Some wealthy Hema used this law to force Lendu off their land, the 1994 Rwandan genocide sent psychological shockwaves throughout the Great Lakes region. The murder of 800,000 people on the basis of ethnicity served to people even more aware of their tribal. The subsequent influx of Hutu refugees into the region, which led to the First Congo War, however, it was not until the Second Congo War, which began in 1998, that the situation between the Hema and Lendu reached the level of regional conflict. The widespread conflict was accompanied by an influx of assault rifles, in June 1999 James Kazini, the commander of UPDF forces in the DRC, ignored the protests of the RCD-K leadership and created a new “province” of Ituri out of eastern Orientale Province. He then named a Hema to be the new governor, the UPDF did little to stop the fighting but, in some cases, aided the Hema. However, even as the fighting intensified the UPDF continued to train both Hema and Lendu, reports indicate that Lendu trainees refused to join the RCD-K and instead set up ethnically-based militiasIturi conflict – Internally displaced refugees in Bunia with MONUC personnel, 2004
121. Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The Lords Resistance Army insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign waged by the Lords Resistance Army insurgent group since 1987. Currently, there is low-level LRA activity in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, the movement is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the spokesperson of God and a spirit medium. It aims to overthrow Yoweri Musevenis Ugandan government and establish a state based on the Ten Commandments. The conflict, one of Africas longest running, has resulted in a humanitarian crisis, by 2004, the LRA had abducted more than 20,000 children, while 1.5 million civilians had been displaced and an estimated 100,000 civilians killed. The January 1986 overthrow of President Tito Okello, an ethnic Acholi, the NRA in their efforts to liberate the entire country meted out a lot of atrocities on the people of Acholi. This act spurred some Acholis to resist the medieval acts, by August of that year, a full-blown popular insurgency had developed in northern regions that were occupied by the new government forces. In January 1987, Joseph Kony made his first appearance as a spirit medium, former Uganda Peoples Democratic Army commander Odong Latek convinced Kony to adopt conventional guerrilla warfare tactics, primarily surprise attacks on civilian targets, such as villages. The LRA also occasionally carried out large-scale attacks to underline the inability of the government to protect the populace, until 1991 the LRA raided the populace for supplies, which were carried away by villagers who were abducted for short periods of time. The fact that some NRA units were known for their brutal actions ensured that the LRA were given at least passive support by segments of the Acholi population. March 1991 saw the start of Operation North, which combined efforts to destroy the LRA while cutting away its roots of support among the population through heavy-handed tactics. As part of Operation North, Acholi Betty Oyella Bigombe, the Minister charged with ending the insurgency, created Arrow Groups mostly armed with bows and arrows, as the LRA was armed with modern weaponry, the bow-and-arrow groups were overpowered. The creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he no longer had the support of the population, in response the LRA mutilated numerous Acholi whom they believed to be government supporters. While the government efforts were a failure, the LRA reaction caused many Acholi to finally turn against the insurgency, however, this was tempered by the deep-seated antagonism towards the occupying government forces. Following the Operation North, Bigombe initiated the first face-to-face meeting between representatives of the LRA and government, the LRA asked for a general amnesty for their combatants and stated that they would not surrender, but were willing to return home. However, the government stance was hampered by disagreement over the credibility of the LRA negotiators, in particular, the military had learned that Kony was negotiating with the Sudanese government for support while talking to Bigombe, and felt that Kony was simply trying to buy time. At a second meeting on 10 January 1994, Kony asked for six months to regroup his troops, four days later, President Yoweri Museveni announced a seven-day deadline for the LRA to surrender. This ultimatum ended the Bigombe Avengers Initiative, Sudanese aid was a response to Ugandan support for the rebel Sudan Peoples Liberation Army fighting in the civil war in the south of the country. Also, convinced that the Acholi were now collaborating with the Museveni government, mutilations became commonplace, and 1994 saw the first mass abduction of children and youthLord's Resistance Army insurgency – The conflict forces many civilians to live in internally displaced person (IDP) camps
122. Northern Mali conflict – The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa. On 16 January 2012, several insurgent groups began fighting a campaign against the Malian government for independence or greater autonomy for northern Mali, an area known as Azawad. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, an organization fighting to make Azawad an independent homeland for the Tuareg people, had control of the region by April 2012. On 22 March 2012, President Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup détat over his handling of the crisis, mutinous soldiers, calling themselves the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, took control and suspended the constitution of Mali. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Malis three largest northern cities—Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu—were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days. On 5 April 2012, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA said that it had accomplished its goals, the following day, it proclaimed Azawads independence from Mali. The MNLA were initially backed by the Islamist group Ansar Dine, after the Malian military was driven from Azawad, Ansar Dine and a number of smaller Islamist groups began imposing strict Sharia law. The MNLA and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for a new state. Afterwards, the MNLA began fighting against Ansar Dine and other Islamist groups, including Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, by 17 July 2012, the MNLA had lost control of most of northern Malis cities to the Islamists. The government of Mali asked for military help to re-take the north. On 11 January 2013, the French military began operations against the Islamists, Forces from other African Union states were deployed shortly after. By 8 February, the Islamist-held territory had been re-taken by the Malian military, Tuareg separatists have continued to fight the Islamists as well, although the MNLA has also been accused of carrying out attacks against the Malian military. Fighting is still ongoing even though French forces are scheduled for withdrawal, a ceasefire agreement was signed on February 19,2015 in Algiers, Algeria but sporadic terrorist attacks still occur. In the early 1990s Tuareg and Arab nomads formed the Mouvement Populaire de l’Azaouad/Azawad Peoples Movement, the MNLA was an offshoot of a political movement known as the National Movement for Azawad prior to the insurgency. After the end of the Libyan Civil War, an influx of weaponry led to the arming of the Tuareg in their demand for independence for the Azawad. The strength of this uprising and the use of heavy weapons, though dominated by Tuaregs, the MNLA stated that they represented other ethnic groups as well, and were reportedly joined by some Arab leaders. The MNLAs leader Bilal Ag Acherif said that the onus was on Mali to either give the Saharan peoples their self-determination or they would take it themselves, another Tuareg-dominated group, the Islamist Ansar Dine, initially fought alongside the MNLA against the government. Unlike the MNLA, it did not seek independence but rather the imposition of Islamic law across Mali, thereafter, Mali has been in a constant struggle to maintain its territoryNorthern Mali conflict – French Mirage 2000 refuels over Africa on 2 February 2013.
123. South Sudanese Civil War – The South Sudanese Civil War is a conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. In December 2013, President Kiir accused his former deputy Riek Machar, Machar denied trying to start a coup and fled to lead the SPLM – in opposition. Fighting broke out between the SPLM and SPLM-IO, igniting the civil war, Ugandan troops were deployed to fight alongside South Sudanese government. The United Nations has peacekeepers in the country as part of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan, in January 2014 the first ceasefire agreement was reached. Fighting continued and would be followed by several more ceasefire agreements, negotiations were mediated by IGAD +. A peace agreement known as the Compromise Peace Agreement was signed in August 2015, Machar returned to Juba in 2016 and was appointed vice president. Following a second breakout of fighting within Juba, the SPLM-IO fled to the surrounding, Machar was replaced by Kiir as First Vice President by Taban Deng Gai, splitting the opposition, and rebel in-fighting has become of major part of the fighting. Up to 300,000 people are estimated to have killed in the war. Although both men have supporters from across South Sudans ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has had ethnic undertones, Mr. Kiirs Dinka ethnic group has been accused of attacking other ethnic groups and Mr. Machars Nuer ethnic group has been accused of attacking the Dinka. Fighting in the heart in the south of the country has soared the number of people facing starvation to 6 million with famine breaking out in some areas. In 2010, after an election, George Athor led the South Sudan Democratic Movement in rebellion against the government. The same year, a faction of the South Sudan Democratic Movement, called the Cobra Faction and his faction signed a cease-fire with the government in 2011 and his militia was reintegrated into the army but he then defected again in 2012. Gabriel Tang who led a militia allied to Khartoum during the Second Sudanese Civil War, in 2011, Peter Gadet lead a rebellion with the South Sudan Liberation Army but was reintegrated into the army the same year. In a strategy of co-option known as big tent, the government often buys off community militia, others call the use of rebellion to receive public office as bad culture and an incentive to rebel. In January 2013 Kiir replaced the general of the national police service with a lieutenant from the army. In February 2013 Kiir retired an additional 117 army generals but this was viewed as troublesome in regards to a power grab by others, Kiir had also suggested that his rivals were trying to revive the rifts that had provoked infighting in the 1990s. In July 2013, Kiir dismissed Vice President Riek Machar, one-time leader of the Nasir revolt, Kiir suspended the SPLM Secretary-General Pagan Amum Okech and forbade him from leaving Juba or speaking to the media. The decrees elicited fears of political unrest, with Machar claiming that Kiirs move was a step towards dictatorship and he said that if the country is to be united, it cannot tolerate one mans ruleSouth Sudanese Civil War – A South Sudanese man holding a HK G3
124. Xinjiang conflict – The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist conflict in Chinas far-west province of Xinjiang, whose northern region is known as Dzungaria and whose southern region is known as East Turkestan. The East Turkestan independence movement is led by Turkic Islamist organizations, most notably the Turkistan Islamic Party, during the 18th century, the Qing Dynasty created the province of Xinjiang. The wars played an important role in the East Turkestan independence movement, after the establishment of the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs who studied in Soviet Central Asia Russified their surnames. Urban Uyghurs sometimes select Russian names for their children in such as Qaramay. The Soviet Union supported the Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion against the Republic of China, many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, political, and economic ties with the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Many were educated in the Soviet Union, and a community of Russian settlers lived in the region, ehmetjan Qasim, a pro-Soviet Uyghur who led the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, was Soviet-educated, Stalins man and a communist-minded progressive. Kadeer and her family were friends with White Russian exiles in Xinjiang, many Uyghurs respected Russians. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch claim that Uyghur resentment of cultural repression is the cause of riots in Xinjiang. Some Han Chinese opponents of the movement view themselves as receiving second-class treatment by PRC policies regulating ethnic autonomy. The name Uyghur was associated with the Buddhist peoples in the Tarim Basin during the ninth century, Rebiya Kadeer calls Urumqi Uyghur land. The name Urumqi derives from the Mongolic Oirat language, Han and Hui mainly live in Dzungaria, separate from the Uyghur Tarim Basin. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were about 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang, according to an early-19th-century Xinjiang census, the population was 30 percent Han and 60 percent Turkic. In the 1953 census the percentages were six percent Han and 75 percent Uyghur, stanley W. Toops said that the current demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period. Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in the southern Xinjiang oases, critics have said that the governments response to Uyghur concerns do little to address the underlying issues. Uyghur views vary by oasis of residence, China has historically favored Turpan and Hami, Uyghurs in those oases allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China made the rulers of Turpan and Hami autonomous princes, Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to govern Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more prosperous, and sees China more positively than Kashgar. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated favourably by China with regard to religion, Kashgar, Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law, allowing Islamic education of Uyghur childrenXinjiang conflict – Xinjiang region in China
125. Insurgency in Northeast India – Some factions favour a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Northeastern India consists of seven states, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as amongst their native tribal people and migrants from other parts of India. Regional tensions eased off in late 2013, with the Indian, however, in late 2014 tensions again rose as the Indian government launched an offensive, which led to a retaliatory attack on civilians by tribal guerrillas. As of January 1,2015, major militant activities are being conducted in Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, the Indian general election,2014 had an 80% voter turnout in all northeastern states, the highest among all states of India. Indian authorities claim that this shows the faith of the people in Indian democracy. Despite this, a number of organizations listed as terrorist groups continue to promote an insurgency, the National Liberation Council of Taniland is active along the Assam – Arunachal Pradesh border, and its members belong to the Tani groups of people which are demanding Taniland. The Tani groups are Mongoloid people in India as well as the Luoba in China who live along the frontier of India, Assam has been a refuge for militants for a number of years, due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s, the insurgency status in Assam is classified as very active. The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of the ULFA, the United Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland was formed in 1989 as the Bodo Security Force, and aims to set up an autonomous region Bodoland. The Karbi Longri N. C. Hills Liberation Front is a militant group operating in the Karbi Anglong, the outfit claims to fight for the cause of Karbi tribes, and its declared objective is Hemprek Kangthim, meaning self-rule/self-determination of the Karbi people. In 2004, the UPDS renamed itself as the Karbi Longri North Cachar Hills Liberation Front, in 2014 the UPDS disbanded, following the mass surrender of all it cadres and leaders. The Dima Halam Daoga is a descendant of the Dimasa National Security Force, commander-in-Chief Jewel Gorlosa, refused to surrender and launched the Dima Halam Daogah. After the peace agreement between the DHD and the government in the year 2003, the group further broke out. The Black Widows declared objective is to create Dimaraji for the Dimasa people in Dima Hasao district only, however the objective of DHD is to include parts of Cachar, Karbi Anglong, and Nagaon districts in Assam, and sections of Dimapur district in Nagaland. In 2009 the group surrendered en masse to the CRPF and local police,193 cadres surrendering on 2009-09-12, the objective of the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation is to carve out a separate Kamtapur State. Manipurs long tradition of independence can be traced to the foundation of the Kangleipak State in 1110, the Kingdom of Manipur was conquered by Great Britain following the brief Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891, becoming a British protectorate. Manipur became part of the Indian Union on 15 October 1949, despite the fact that Manipur became a separate state of the Indian Union on 21 January 1972, the insurgency continuedInsurgency in Northeast India – Map of India and the Northeastern provinces
126. Internal conflict in Myanmar – The internal conflict in Myanmar refers to a series of ongoing insurgencies within Myanmar that began shortly after the country became independent from the United Kingdom in 1948. The conflict has been labeled as the worlds longest running civil war, prior to independence from the United Kingdom, several anti-colonial groups in Myanmar protested against British rule over the country. The groups became especially influential during World War II, when the Empire of Japan promised an independent Burmese state, and appointed Ba Maw as its head of state. During this period, left-wing groups such as the Communist Party of Burma, on 4 January 1948, Myanmar gained independence from the United Kingdom. The communists and the minorities in the country were dissatisfied with the newly formed government. For example, it was noted that many Christian Karen military officials, three months after independence, the communists began an armed insurgency against the government. Similarly, Karen insurgent groups began to fight for independence, in the early 1960s, the government refused to adopt a federal system, to the dismay of insurgent groups such as the CPB, who proposed adopting the system during peace talks. By the early 1980s, politically motivated armed insurgencies had largely disappeared, several insurgent groups have negotiated ceasefires and peace agreements with successive governments, which until political reforms that begun in 2011 and ended in 2015, had largely fallen apart. Both groups had fought the British colonial government prior to independence, initially, there was calm during the transitional period after independence, but on 2 April 1948, the CPB fired the first shots of the conflict in Paukkongyi, Pegu Region. During the post-independence period, the KNU favoured an independent state, the proposed state would have been forged out of Karen and Karenni State, in Lower Burma. The KNU has since shifted their focus from full independence to regional autonomy, after negotiations failed, defectors from the Tatmadaw and ethnic insurgents walked back to their bases, with headlines across Myanmar famously reading They Go Back. Private property was confiscated by the government, and the Burmese Socialist Programme Party was founded in 1974 to govern the country under a one-party system. Under General Ne Wins 26 year dictatorship, Myanmar became a hermit kingdom. In 1988, nationwide student protests resulted in the BSPP and General Ne Win being ousted and replaced with a new military regime, on 8 August 1988, students began demonstrating in Rangoon against General Ne Wins rule, and the disastrous Burmese Way to Socialism system. The protests spread across the country, The uprising ended on 18 September 1988, after a coup was enacted by the State Law and Order Restoration Council. Authorities in Myanmar claimed that around 350 people were killed, whilst anti-government groups claimed thousands died in the protests, according to the Economist, over 3,000 people were killed in the public uprising. As a result of the uprising, the new government agreed to separate peace treaties with certain insurgent groups. Because the 1988 uprising was mostly politically motivated, ethnic insurgent groups did not receive support from political movements in MyanmarInternal conflict in Myanmar – CPB rebels walk back to their bases after failed peace talks. (1963)
127. War in North-West Pakistan – The armed conflict began in 2004, when tensions, rooted in the Pakistan Armys search for al-Qaeda fighters in Pakistans mountainous Waziristan area, escalated into armed resistance. Pakistans actions were presented as its contribution to the international War on Terror, clashes further erupted between unified Pakistan Armed Forces and the Central Asian militant groups, allied with the Arab fighters, in 2008–10. The foreign militants were joined by Pakistani non-military veterans of the Afghan War to the west, the TNSM established in 1992 allied with the TTP and LeI. The war depleted the countrys resources, and the outcomes outlined a deep effect on its national economy. A year later in 2015, Forbes cited Pakistans progress on the security front, various names have been applied to the conflict by the authors and historians. War in North-West Pakistan is the most commonly used name in English and it has also been called the Waziristan War, and the War in Waziristan. On the other hand, political scientist, Farrukh Saleem, termed the war as the Fourth Generation War or the 4G War. In 2016, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif stated that the aim was to establish the writ of the Pakistani Government on every square kilometer of Pakistan. Violence is down by three-quarters the last two years due to Karachi operation and Zarb-e-Azb launched by the Army, prompting analysts to say Pakistan is winning the war on terror. In the aftermath of Battle of Tora Bora, formal troop deployment was begun by the Pakistan Army, at the behest of the Pakistan Government, the conservative parties, most notably the Pakistan Muslim League, were very critical of such troop deployments in the region. The XI Corps, under its commander Lieutenant-General Jan Aurkzai, entered the Tirah Valley in the Khyber Agency for the first time since Pakistans independence in 1947, the army troops later moved into the Shawal Valley of North Waziristan, eventually entering South Waziristan. A monitoring reconnaissance base was established by the Special Service Group in 2003, criticism of Musharraf and the United States grew in Peshawar by a massive communist party in 2003, demanding an end to the operations. In 2003, the troubles mounted as the Tribes began to see militarys deployment, in 2003–04 public speeches, Musharraf repeatedly called for the eviction of the foreign fighters from the South Waziristan and justified the army deployments in the region despite the concerns. In December 2003, at least two assassination attempts against President Pervez Musharraf were traced to South Waziristan, the government responded by intensifying military pressure on the area. However, the fighting was costly, government forces sustained heavy casualties throughout 2004 and into early 2005, on 16 March 2004, a bloody mountainous battle between the Pakistan Army troops and the foreign fighters of al-Qaeda was fought in the White Mountains of South Waziristan. The Pakistani media speculated that Pakistan Army had surrounded a high value target in the mountainous region, according to the military intelligence in 2004, all militants were Chechens, Uzbeks, and Tajiks who were trying to flee Black Caves. After a week of the battle, the area was captured. In spite of its success, the failed to capture ZawahiriWar in North-West Pakistan – The Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, aflame after being bombed in September 2008. For a map of the current military situation in Pakistan, see here.
128. CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion – In 1969, NPA was formed, and the first violent incident took place in 1971. A year later, President Ferdinand Marcos introduced martial law, until 2002, NPA received a considerable amount of aid from outside the Philippines. However, later developments forced it to rely on support from local sources. Between 1969 and 2008, more than 43,000 insurgency related fatalities were recorded, the NPA broke off from the Communist Party of the Philippines on 29 March 1969. Previously, NPA served as the wing of the CPP. The initial strength of the NPA was believed to comprise approximately 60 guerrillas and 35 weapons. On 21 August 1971, the first act of NPA rebellion took place when NPA militants threw two grenades onto the stage at a Liberal Party rally in Manila, killing 9 people and injuring 95 others. Relying on small armed community-based propaganda units, the NPA found itself in a rebellion by 1972. On 21 September 1972, president Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law, in 1974, the NPA launched its first tactical operation in Calbiga, Samar, when it ambushed an army scout patrol and seized a number of their weapons. China provided support to the NPA from 1969-1976, after that period, the Chinese ceased all aid, resulting in a five-year period of reduced activity. Despite the setback, the rebellion rekindled with funds from taxes, extortion. Financial aid, training and other forms of support were received from a number of the above, NDF controlled trading companies were allegedly set up in Hong Kong, Belgium, and Yugoslavia. Despite the massive amount of aid previously received, foreign support eventually dried up following the 1990s collapse of communist regimes worldwide, between the 1970s and 1980s, thousands of volunteers, including youth and teenagers from both urban and rural areas, joined the organization. In 1992, NPA split into two factions, the reaffirmist faction led by Sison and the rejectionist faction which advocated the formation of military units. Through NPAs history,13 smaller factions emerged from the group, a parallel Moro insurgency created favorable conditions for the development of NPA. During the 1970s, 75% of the Philippine military was deployed on the island of Mindanao, as of 2000, 40% of the AFP troops continued to engage Moro rebels. In 2001, AFP launched a campaign of extrajudicial killings. By targeting suspected rebels sympathizers, the campaign aimed to destroy the communist political infrastructure, the program was modeled after the Phoenix Program, a U. S. project implemented during the Vietnam WarCPP-NPA-NDF rebellion – Map of the Philippines showing the main Communist hotspots areas.
129. Military intervention against ISIL – Later, there were also minor interventions by some states against ISIL-affiliated groups in Nigeria and Libya. In mid-June 2014, Iran, according to American and British information, started flying drones over Iraq, simultaneously, the United States ordered a small number of troops to Iraq and started flying crewed aircraft over Iraq. In August 2014, the US and Iran separately began a campaign of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq, since then, fourteen countries in a US-led coalition have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq and in Syria. In September 2015, Russian forces, with the permission of the Syrian government, began hundreds of bombing raids against ISIL, al-Nusra Front, since the airstrikes started, ISIL has been losing ground in both Iraq and Syria. There have been accounts of civilian deaths from the airstrikes. In mid-2016, the US and Russia planned to begin to coordinating their airstrikes, however, on the margins of the 4/5 September 2014 NATO summit in Wales, U. S. Those nine countries agreed to do so by supporting anti-ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria with supplies and air support, according to a statement that day from Kerry and U. S. Secretary of Defense Hagel. On 3 December 2014, at the NATO headquarters in Brussels, on 30 September 2015, Russia began its air campaign on the side and in support of the Syrian government. Russia was also reported to have reached agreements on co-ordination of operations in Syria with Jordan, on 14 March 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced a partial withdrawal from Syrian territory, citing the success of the ongoing ceasefire and greater security of the Syrian government. Until July 2015, the Turkish government attacked ISIL only once, in September 2014 Turkey joined a US-led coalition ‘to fight ISIL’. Turkish tanks shelled the village the day of the ground operation. The operation reportedly lasted over an hour and killed over 100 ISIL militants, the Turkish General Staff neither confirmed nor denied the special forces foray but did confirm shelling the village. On 24 July, a report appeared on a Turkish newspaper website stating that the United States had agreed with Turkey on a ‘partial no-fly zone’ in northern Syria. On 24 and 25 July launched an operation entitled ‘Operation Martyr Yalçın’ against both ISIL in Syria and the Kurdistan Workers Party in Iraq, deploying at least 70 F-16 fighter jets. Later that month Iran started flying drones over Iraq, and by August, according to sources like Reuters, One war correspondent suggested that Iran joined the air war against ISIL on 21 June. In July, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Iran sent several Su-25 aircraft to Iraq, in early August, those Su-25s began combat against ISIL, according to Business Insider. By September, according to Business Insider, Iranian Quds Force personnel were deployed to Samarra, Baghdad, Karbala, and the abandoned U. S. military post formerly known as Camp Speicher. At the end of November 2014, an Israeli website claimed to have seen Iranian F-4 Phantom II jet-fighters bombing ISIL in eastern Iraq, in March and May 2015, American commentators indicated Qasem Soleimani was leading Iraqs military strategy against ISILMilitary intervention against ISIL
130. Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Fighting from the Syrian Civil War has spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels have travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil. Killings, unrest, and kidnappings of foreign citizens across Lebanon have resulted, in mid-2011, seven people were killed and 59 wounded in a fight between gunmen in Tripoli. In May 2012, the spread to Beirut, and later to south and east Lebanon, while the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed in north Lebanon. As of January 2016 there have more than 800 fatalities. Among Lebanons political blocs the anti-Syrian Saudi-backed March 14 Alliance supports the Syrian rebels, and this has been rejected by the ruling March 8 alliance, which includes the Shia Hezbollah and allies such as the Maronite Free Patriotic Movement, among others. Pro-government protestors countered the actions by carrying posters of Nasrallah and it was reported that, sales of black market weapons in Lebanon have skyrocketed in recent weeks due to demand in Syria. In June 2011, clashes in the Lebanese city of Tripoli between members of the Alawite minority, loyal to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and members of the Sunni majority left seven people dead. Future Movement MP Okab Sakr was long suspected to be involved in aiding the insurgents in the Syrian civil war, at first he denied his involvement, but admitted it when Al Akhbar published audio tapes of him making arms deals with Syrian insurgents. Sakr later claimed the tapes were edited, and that he only provided Syrians with milk, Sunni extremists from Tripoli have been flocking to Syria to join the terrorist Al-Nusra Front. Hezbollah fighters have been deployed to protect border towns inhabited by Lebanese Shias from the rebels, the Lebanese Army has attempted to disassociate itself from the conflict in Syria, and to prevent clashes within Lebanon. From the inception of the violence began in Syria as a result of the Arab Spring. In June 2014, a joint brigade of Al-Nusra Front and ISIL troops invaded and briefly held the town of Arsal, leading to a major battle and it has long been expected that another major push would take place in Lebanon. By 22 June 2016, 95% of the territory controlled by militants had been recaptured by Lebanese army and their allies. Daily clashes were ongoing mainly near the town of Arsal, on 22 September, ISIL emir Imad Yassin was arrested from Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp. Clashes erupted between ISIL and Nusra Front in Arsal Barrens on 26 October after ISIL tried to infiltrate towards the Hamid valley. On 28 October, the Lebanese Army carried out a raid against ISIL in the Wadi Zarzour area of Jaroud Arsal, killing a number of militants and destroying a militant hideout. An ISIL commander Ahmad Youssef Amoun was arrested along with 10 other militants on 24 November after an operation by the Lebanese Army on a center of the group near Arsal. In the unrest of June 2011, at least 7 deaths were reported, a further 2-3 deaths occurred during the incidents of February 2012Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Controlled by the Lebanese Government
131. Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen – The al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen refers to the armed conflict between the Yemeni government with United States assistance, and al-Qaeda-affiliated cells. The strife is often categorized as a sub-conflict in the greater Global War on Terror, government crackdown against al-Qaeda cells began in 2001, and reached an escalation point on January 14,2010, when Yemen declared open war on al-Qaeda. In addition to battling al Qaeda across several provinces, Yemen is also contending with Shia insurgency in the north and militant separatists in the south. Fighting with al-Qaeda escalated during the course of the 2011 Yemeni revolution, with Jihadists seizing most of the Abyan Governorate, a second wave of violence occurred throughout early 2012, with militants claiming territory across the southwest amid heavy combat with government forces. In May 2013, attackers blew up Yemens main oil pipeline, on 18 March 2015, the conflict escalated into a full-scale civil war. Yemen has come under pressure to act against al-Qaeda, since attacks on its two allies, Saudi Arabia and the United States, by militants coming from Yemeni soil. Previous attacks linked to al-Qaeda in Yemen include the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, the 2008 American Embassy attack, in Yemen they operate as part of a counter-terrorism training unit and assisting in missions to kill or capture AQAP leaders. Specifically, they were hunting down for the planners of the Cargo planes bomb plot, the SAS was also liaising with local commandos and provided protection to embassy personnel. December 17,2009, Yemeni ground forces carried out raids in Sanaa, Arhab, according to ABC News, American cruise missiles were also part of the raids. The U. S. denied they were involved in the strikes, December 24, U. S. drones or missiles struck an al-Qaeda meeting in Shabwa, killing some 30 individuals. One target of the strike was Anwar al-Awlaki, January 4,2010, Yemeni security forces killed two alleged militants a day earlier north of the capital. January 6, Yemeni forces arrested three suspected militants who were wounded in a raid, that was carried out by security forces. January 13, Yemeni army launches Operation Blow to the Head in Sadah city, January 14, A Yemen army air strike has killed at least six suspected al-Qaeda fighters in the north of the country, a Yemeni security official said. January 17, A radical Islamist Somali group claimed it was exchanging some of its fighters with those in Yemen, Yemeni militants are reportedly also sending fighters in return. This exchange in fighters shows the links it has with the country of Yemen. January 20, The Yemeni air force bombed the home of a suspected al-Qaeda leader, Ayed al-Shabwani, who the military had claimed was dead a week before this bombing. January 21, In order to halt terrorist infiltration, Yemen decided to issue visas through embassies. February 8, al-Qaeda leader Said Ali al-Shihri released an audio message calling for jihad in the Arabian PeninsulaAl-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen – AQAP fighters in Yemen, 2014
132. 2014 – February – The Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa begins, infecting at least 28,616 people and killing at least 11,310 people, the most severe both in terms of numbers of infections and casualties. February 7–23 – The XXII Olympic Winter Games are held in Sochi, february 13 – Belgium becomes the first country in the world to legalise euthanasia for terminally ill patients of any age. March 5 – Nicolás Maduro, the President of Venezuela, severs diplomatic and political ties with Panama, march 8 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, a Boeing 777 airliner en route to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur, disappears over the Gulf of Thailand with 239 people on board. The aircraft is presumed to have crashed into the Indian Ocean, march 16 – A referendum on the status of the Crimean Peninsula is held. March 21 – Russia formally annexes Crimea after President Vladimir Putin signed a bill finalizing the annexation process, march 24 – During an emergency meeting, the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, Germany, France, Japan, and Canada temporarily suspend Russia from the G8. March 27 – The United Nations General Assembly passes Resolution 68/262, recognizing Crimea within Ukraine’s international borders, march 31 – The United Nations International Court of Justice rules that Japans Antarctic whaling program is not scientific but commercial and forbids grants of further permits. April 7 – The Donetsk Peoples Republic unilaterally declares its independence from Ukraine, april 14 – An estimated 276 girls and women are abducted and held hostage from a school in Nigeria. April 16 – Korean ferry MV Sewol capsizes and sinks after a cargo shift, killing 304 people. April 27 – The Catholic Church simultaneously canonizes Popes John XXIII, april 28 – United States President Barack Obamas new economic sanctions against Russia go into effect, targeting companies and individuals close to Russian President Vladimir Putin. May 5 The World Health Organization identifies the spread of poliomyelitis in at least 10 countries as a worldwide health emergency. Boko Haram militants kill approximately 300 people in an attack on Gamboru Ngala. The Donetsk Peoples Republic and the Luhansk Peoples Republic declare the formation of Novorossiya, june 12 – July 13 – The 2014 FIFA World Cup is held in Brazil, and is won by Germany. June 13 – The military intervention against ISIL begins, june 29 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant declares itself a caliphate. In seven weeks of fighting,2,100 Palestinians and 71 Israelis are killed, July 17 Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777, crashes in eastern Ukraine after being shot down by a missile. All 298 people on board are killed, July 21 – The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 2166 in response to the shootdown of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17. July 24 – Air Algérie Flight 5017 crashes in Mali, killing all 116 people on board, august 7 – Khmer Rouge leaders Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan are found guilty of crimes against humanity and are sentenced to life imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal. August 8 – The United States military begins an air campaign in northern Iraq to stem the influx of ISIL militants, september 22 – The United States and several Arab partners begin their airstrike campaign in Syria. October 19 – The Roman Catholic Church beatifies Pope Paul VI, october 31 – Longtime Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaoré resigns after widespread protests in response to the attempt in abolishing presidential term limits2014 – Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland
133. 2013 – January 16–20 – Thirty-nine international workers and one security guard die in a hostage crisis at a natural gas facility near In Aménas, Algeria. February 12 – North Korea conducts its third nuclear test, prompting widespread condemnation. February 15 – A meteor explodes over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1, 489-1,492 people and it is the most powerful meteor to strike Earths atmosphere in over a century. The incident, along with a flyby of a larger asteroid. February 21 – American scientists use a 3D printer to create a living lab-grown ear from collagen, in the future, it is hoped, similar ears could be grown to order as transplants for human patients suffering from ear trauma or amputation. February 28 – Benedict XVI resigns as pope, becoming the first to do so since Gregory XII in 1415, march 24 – Central African Republic President François Bozizé flees to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after rebel forces capture the nations capital, Bangui. March 25 – The European Union agrees to a €10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus, the bailout loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. The deal precipitates a banking crisis in the island nation, march 27 – Canada becomes the first country to withdraw from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. April 2 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate the trade of conventional weapons. April 15 – Two Chechen Islamist brothers explode two bombs at the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States, killing 3, july 1 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup détat, august 14 – Following the military coup in Egypt, two anti-coup camps are raided by the security forces leaving 2,600 dead. The raids were described by Human Rights Watch as one of the world’s largest killings of demonstrators in a day in recent history”. August 21 –1,429 are killed in the Ghouta chemical attack during the Syrian Civil War, september 21 – al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least 62 civilians and wounding over 170. October 18 – Saudi Arabia rejects a seat on the United Nations Security Council, jordan takes the seat on December 6. November 5 – The Mars Orbiter Mission is launched by India from its launchpad in Sriharikota, november 8 – Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical cyclones on record, hits the Philippines and Vietnam, causing devastation with at least 6,241 dead. November 24 – Iran agrees to limit their nuclear development program in exchange for sanctions relief, December 7 – Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization delegates sign the Bali Package agreement aimed at loosening global trade barriers. December 14 – Chinese spacecraft Change 3, carrying the Yutu rover, becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon since 1976 and the third ever robotic rover to do so. December 15 – Fighting between ethnic Dinka and Nuer members of the presidential guard break out in Juba, South Sudan, plunging the country into civil war2013 – April 24: Savar building collapse.
134. 2011 – January 4 – Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi dies after setting himself on fire a month earlier, sparking anti-government protests in Tunisia and later other Arab nations. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring, January 9 –15 – Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July. January 14 – Arab Spring, The Tunisian government falls after a month of increasingly violent protests, January 24 –37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia. February 22 – March 14 – Uncertainty over Libyan oil output causes crude oil prices to rise 20% over a period following the Arab Spring, causing the 2011 energy crisis. March 11 – A9. 0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840, tsunami warnings are issued in 50 countries and territories. Emergencies are declared at four power plants affected by the quake. March 15 Arab Spring, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain declares a state of emergency as troops from the Gulf Co-operation Council are sent to quell the civil unrest. Arab Spring, The Syrian Civil War begins, april 29 – An estimated two billion people watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London. May 1 – U. S. President Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, may 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The bailout loan will be split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. May 21 – Grímsvötn, Icelands most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe, may 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia. June 4 – Chiles Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia, june 5 – Arab Spring, Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh travels to Saudi Arabia for treatment of an injury sustained during an attack on the presidential palace. Protesters celebrate his transfer of power to his Vice-President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, june 12 – Arab Spring, Thousands of Syrians flee to Turkey as Syrian troops lay siege to Jisr ash-Shugur. June 28 – Food and Agriculture Organization announces the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest from the world, July 7 – The worlds first artificial organ transplant is achieved, using an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells. July 9 – South Sudan secedes from Sudan, per the result of the referendum held in January. July 12 – The planet Neptune completes its first orbit since it was discovered in 1846, July 14 – South Sudan joins the United Nations as the 193rd member. July 20 Goran Hadžić is detained in Serbia, becoming the last of 161 people indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the United Nations declares a famine in southern Somalia, the first in over 30 years2011 – Gerry Rafferty
135. 2009 – Asunción, the capital of Paraguay, becomes the American Capital of Culture and Vilnius and Linz become the European Capitals of Culture. Slovakia adopts the euro as its currency, replacing the Slovak koruna. January 21 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a war it had with Hamas. However, Intermittent air strikes by both sides continue in the weeks to follow, january 26 The first trial at the International Criminal Court is held. Former Union of Congolese Patriots leader Thomas Lubanga is accused of training soldiers to kill, pillage. The Icelandic government and banking system collapse, Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns, february 1 Patriarch Kirill of Moscow is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church following the death of his predecessor, Alexy II in 2008. Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir is appointed as the new Prime Minister of Iceland, february 26 – Former Serbian president Milan Milutinović is acquitted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia regarding war crimes during the Kosovo War. March 2 – The President of Guinea-Bissau, João Bernardo Vieira, is assassinated during an attack on his residence in Bissau. March 4 – The International Criminal Court issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur, al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002. March 7 – NASAs Kepler Mission, a space photometer that will search for planets in the Milky Way galaxy, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. March 17 – The President of Madagascar, Marc Ravalomanana, is overthrown in a coup détat, april 1 – Albania and Croatia are admitted to NATO, becoming the newest members of the organization. April 6 – A6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes near LAquila, Italy, killing nearly 300, april 21 – UNESCO launches The World Digital Library. May 18 – Following more than a quarter-century of fighting, the Sri Lankan Civil War ends with the military defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. May 25 – North Korea announces that it has conducted a successful nuclear test in North Hamgyong Province. The United Nations Security Council condemns the reported test, june 1 – Air France Flight 447, en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 on board. June 11 – The outbreak of the H1N1 influenza strain, commonly referred to as swine flu, is deemed a global pandemic, june 18 – NASA launches the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS probes to the Moon, the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998. June 28 – The Military of Honduras ousts Honduran President Manuel Zelaya in a coup détat, june 30 – Yemenia Flight 626 crashes off the coast of Moroni, Comoros, killing all but one of the 153 passengers and crew. July 15 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 crashes near Qazvin, Iran, july 16 – Icelands national parliament, the Althingi, votes to pursue joining the EU2009 – 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
136. 2008 – January 14 – At 19,04,39 UTC, the MESSENGER space probe is at its closest approach during its first flyby of the planet Mercury. January 21 – Stock markets around the world plunge amid growing fears of a U. S. recession, january 24 – A peace deal is signed in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, ending the Kivu conflict. February 4 – Iran opens its first space center and launches a rocket into space, february 5 – U. S. stock market indices plunge more than 3% after a report shows signs of economic recession in the service sector. The S&P500 fall 3. 2%, The Dow Jones Industrial Average drops 370 points, february 13 – Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd delivers a formal apology to the Stolen Generations. February 17 – Kosovo formally declares independence from Serbia, with a response from the international community. March–April – Rising food and fuel prices trigger riots and unrest in the Third World, march 2 – Venezuela and Ecuador move troops to the Colombian border, following a Colombian raid against FARC guerrillas inside Ecuadorian territory, in which senior commander Raúl Reyes is killed. March 9 – The first European Space Agency Automated Transfer Vehicle, march 24 – Bhutan holds its first-ever general elections following the adoption of a new Constitution which changed the country from an absolute monarchy to a multiparty democracy. March 25 – African Union and Comoros forces invade the island of Anjouan. April 22 – Surgeons at Londons Moorfields Eye Hospital perform the first operations using bionic eyes, may 3 – Cyclone Nargis passes through Myanmar, killing over 100,000 people. May 12 – An earthquake measuring 7.9 Moment magnitude scale strikes Sichuan, China, may 23 The Union of South American Nations, an intergovernmental organization between states in South America, is founded. The International Court of Justice awards Middle Rocks to Malaysia and Pedra Branca to Singapore, may 25 – NASAs Phoenix spacecraft becomes the first to land on the northern polar region of Mars. May 28 – The Legislature Parliament of Nepal votes overwhelmingly in favor of abolishing the countrys 240-year-old monarchy, may 30 – The Convention on Cluster Munitions is adopted in Dublin. June 11 The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is launched, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper formally apologizes, on behalf of the Canadian government, to the countrys First Nations for the Canadian Indian residential school system. June 14 – Expo 2008 opens in Zaragoza, Spain, lasting to September 14, with the topic Water, July 2 – Íngrid Betancourt and 14 other hostages are rescued from FARC rebels by Colombian security forces. July 21 – Radovan Karadžić, the first president of the Republika Srpska, is arrested in Belgrade, Serbia, on allegations of war crimes, august 6 – President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi of Mauritania is deposed in a military coup détat. August 7 – Georgia invades the breakaway state of South Ossetia, august 8–24 – The 2008 Summer Olympics take place in Beijing, China. September 20 – A suicide truck bomb explosion destroys the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing at least 60, September 28 – SpaceX Falcon 1 becomes the worlds first privately developed space launch vehicle to successfully make orbit. October 21 – The Large Hadron Collider is officially inaugurated and it is a collaboration of over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories2008 – First-ever photograph of the "unseen side" of Mercury, taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft on January 14
137. 2007 – 2007 was designated as International Heliophysical Year. January 1 Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union, while Slovenia joins the Eurozone, adam Air Flight 574 disappeared from Jakartas radar. A week later it was founded that the aircraft has crashed into the Makassar Strait, january 8 – Russian oil supplies to Poland, Germany, and Ukraine are cut as the Russia–Belarus energy dispute escalates, they are restored three days later. February 2 The IPCC publishes its fourth assessment report, having concluded that climate change is very likely to have a predominantly human cause. February 3 – A truck bomb explodes in Baghdad, Iraq, killing at least 135 people, february 26 – The International Court of Justice finds Serbia guilty of failing to prevent genocide in the Srebrenica massacre, but clears it of direct responsibility and complicity in the case. March 1 – The fourth International Polar Year, a $1.73 billion research program to both the North Pole and South Pole, is launched in Paris. March 23 – Naval forces of Irans Revolutionary Guard seize Royal Navy personnel in disputed Iran-Iraq waters, march 27 – Latvian Prime Minister Aigars Kalvītis and Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov sign a border treaty between Latvia and Russia, officially demarcating the border between the two. April 3 – French high speed train, the TGV, reaches a top speed of 574.8 km/h. April 18 – A series of attacks take place across Baghdad, Iraq, April 24 – Gliese 581 c, a potentially Earth-like extrasolar planet habitable for life, is discovered in the constellation Libra. April 26-27 – Ethnic Russian riot in Tallinn and other cities in Estonia against the moving of the Bronze Soldier, may 17 – The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Moscow Patriarchate re-unite after 80 years of schism. May 20 – Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum of Dubai makes the largest single donation in modern history. June 5 – NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft makes its second fly-by of Venus en route to Mercury, july 7 – Live Earth Concerts are held throughout 9 major cities around the world to raise environmental awareness. July 17 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054 overruns the runway of São Paulo–Congonhas Airport and crashes, killing all 187 and 12 others on the ground. July 24 – Five Bulgarian nurses were released from Libyan prison after eight, august 4 – The Phoenix spacecraft is launched toward Mars to study its north pole. August 14 – Multiple suicide bombings kill 572 people in Qahtaniya, august 15 – An 8.0 earthquake strikes Peru, killing at least 450 people, injuring more than 1,500, and causing tsunami warnings in the Pacific Ocean. September 6 – Israeli Air Force airplanes attack a suspected nuclear reactor in Syria in an airstrike, september 14 – The SELENE spacecraft launches, with its objective being to study the Moon. September 20 – The Universal Forum of Cultures opens in Monterrey, october 28 – The Vatican beatifies 498 Spanish victims of religious persecution from before and during the Spanish Civil War. November 6 – A suicide bomber kills at least 50 people in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, november 14 – High Speed 1 from London to the Channel Tunnel is opened to passengers2007 – Yvonne De Carlo
138. 2006 – 2006 was designated as, International Year of Deserts and Desertification International Aspergers Year January 1 – Russia cuts the shipment of natural gas to Ukraine over a price dispute. January 12 – A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, January 15 – NASAs Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a nine-year journey. February 3 – Egyptian passenger ferry, MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98, sinks in the Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia, february 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines killing an estimated 1,126 people, march 9 – NASAs Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturns moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars, march 16 – The United Nations General Assembly votes overwhelmingly to establish the United Nations Human Rights Council. March 28 – A scramjet jet engine, HyShot III, designed to fly at seven times the speed of sound, is tested at Woomera. April 11 The European Space Agencys Venus Express spaceprobe enters Venus orbit, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirms that Iran has successfully produced a few grams of low-grade enriched uranium. May – The Human Genome Project publishes the last chromosome sequence, may 27 – The 6.4 Mw Yogyakarta earthquake shakes central Java with an MSK intensity of IX, leaving more than 5,700 dead and 37,000 injured. June 3 – Montenegro declares independence after a May 21 referendum, the state union of Serbia and Montenegro is dissolved on June 5, leaving Serbia as the successor state. June 9 – July 9 – The 2006 FIFA World Cup begins in Germany, June 28 Israel launches an offensive in the Gaza Strip in response to rocketfire by Hamas into Israeli territory. The United States Armed Forces withdraws its forces in Iceland, thereby disbanding the Iceland Defense Force, July 1 – The Qinghai–Tibet Railway launches a trial operation, making Tibet the last province-level entity of China to have a conventional railway. July 6 – The Nathu La pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years, July 12 – Israeli troops invade Lebanon in response to Hezbollah kidnapping two Israeli soldiers and killing three others. Hezbollah declares open war against Israel two days later, august 22 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border in Ukraine, killing all 171 people on board. August 24 – The International Astronomical Union defines planet at its 26th General Assembly, september 19 – The Royal Thai Army overthrows the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup détat. September 29 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides with a jet over the Amazon rainforest. October 9 – North Korea claims to have conducted its nuclear test. October 13 – South Korean Ban Ki-moon is elected as the new Secretary-General of the United Nations,5,1948 by Jackson Pollock becomes the most expensive painting after it is sold privately for $140 million2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
139. 2005 – 2005 was designated as, International Year for Sport and Physical Education International Year of Microcredit The year 2005 was the end of the International Decade of the Worlds Indigenous People. January 12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral with the purpose of studying the comet Tempel 1, january 14 – The Huygens spacecraft lands on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. February 10 – North Korea announces that it possesses nuclear weapons as a protection against the hostility it feels from the United States, february 14 – Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri is assassinated, along with 21 others, by a suicide bomber in Beirut. February 16 – The Kyoto Protocol officially goes into effect, march 14 – The Peoples Republic of China ratifies an anti-secession law, aimed at preventing Taiwan from declaring independence. March 24 – The President of Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev is overthrown following mass anti-government demonstrations, march 28 – The 8.6 Mw Nias–Simeulue earthquake shakes northern Sumatra with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI, leaving 915–1,314 people dead and 340–1,146 injured. April 2 – Pope John Paul II dies, over 4 million people travel to the Vatican to mourn him, Pope Benedict XVI succeeds him on April 19, becoming the 265th pope. April 9 – Charles, Prince of Wales marries Camilla Parker Bowles in a ceremony at Windsors Guildhall. Camilla acquires the title Duchess of Cornwall, April 26 – Syria withdraws the last of its military garrison from Lebanon, ending its 29-year military occupation of the country. April 27 – The Superjumbo jet aircraft Airbus A380 makes its first flight from Toulouse, may 13 – Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops massacre at least 200 protesters in the city of Andijan. May 15 – A passenger ferry capsizes and sinks in strong winds in the Bura Gauranga River in Bangladesh, june 21 – A Volna booster rocket carrying the first light sail spacecraft fails 83 seconds after its launch, destroying the spacecraft. June 28 – Three U. S. Navy SEALs and 16 American Special Operations Forces soldiers are killed in a firefight in Afghanistan. Only one SEAL survives the battle, july 2 – Live 8, a set of 10 simultaneous concerts, takes place throughout the world, raising interest in the Make Poverty History campaign. July 6 – The European Parliament rejects the Proposed directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions in its second reading, july 7 – Four coordinated suicide bombings rock central London, killing 52 people and injuring over 700. July 23 – A series of hit the resort city of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. July 28 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army announces an end to the campaign it has pursued since 1969. August 12 – The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is launched from Cape Canaveral, august 16 – West Caribbean Airways Flight 708 crashes into a mountain in Venezuela, killing 160 passengers. August 18 – Peace Mission 2005, the first joint China–Russia military exercise, august 29 – Hurricane Katrina makes landfall along the U. S. Gulf Coast, causing severe damage and killing over a thousand people and dealing an estimated $108 billion in damage. August 31 – A stampede at the Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad, Iraq, september 7 – Egypt holds its first ever multi-party presidential election, which is marred with allegations of fraud2005 – Shirley Chisholm
140. 2004 – February 26 – Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a plane crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. February 29 – Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is overthrown in a coup détat, march 2 – A series of bombings occur in Karbala, Iraq, killing over 140 Shia Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 11 – Coordinated bombs explode at a Cercanías train station in Madrid, Spain, march 28 – Hurricane Catarina, the first ever recorded South Atlantic tropical cyclone, makes landfall in Santa Catarina, Brazil. March 29 – Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia are admitted to NATO, april 8 – The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and two rebel groups, in order to put a pause on the War in Darfur. April 17 – Israeli helicopters fire missiles at a convoy of vehicles in the Gaza Strip, april 24 – Referendums on the Annan Plan for Cyprus, which proposes to reunite the island, take place in both the Greek-controlled and the Turkish-controlled parts. Although the Turkish Cypriots vote in favour, the Greek Cypriots reject the proposal, june 21 – In Mojave, California, SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded spaceplane to achieve spaceflight. June 28 – The U. S. -led coalition occupying Iraq transfers sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government, june 30 – Preliminary hearings begin in Iraq in the trial of former president Saddam Hussein, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. July 1 – The Cassini–Huygens spacecraft arrives at Saturn, august 3 – NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft is launched, with its primary mission being the study of Mercury. August 13–29 – The 2004 Summer Olympics are held in Athens, august 22 – Armed robbers steal Edvard Munchs The Scream, Madonna, and other paintings from the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway. September 1 – Chechen rebels take 1,128 people hostage, mostly children, at a school in Beslan, the crisis ends when Russian security forces storm the building, resulting in more than 330 people being killed. September 2 – The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 1559, calling for the removal of all troops from Lebanon. October 8 – Suicide bombers detonate two bombs at the Red Sea resort of Taba, Egypt, killing over 30 people, october 19 – A team of explorers reach the bottom of Krubera Cave, the worlds deepest cave, with a depth of 2,080 meters. October 29 – European heads of state sign in Rome the Treaty and Final Act, november 13 – The European Space Agency probe SMART-1 arrives at the Moon, becoming the first European satellite to travel to and orbit it. November 16 – NASAs hypersonic Scramjet breaks a record by reaching a velocity of about 7,000 mph in an experimental flight. It obtains a speed of Mach 9.6, almost 10 times the speed of sound, november 22 – The Orange Revolution begins following a disputed presidential election in Ukraine where Viktor Yanukovych won against Viktor Yushchenko amid accusations of electoral fraud. A revote results in Yushchenko being declared the winner, December 14 – The worlds tallest bridge, the Millau Viaduct over the River Tarn in the Massif Central mountains, France, is officially opened. December 21 – Iraqi insurgents attack a U. S. military base in the city of Mosul, December 26 – The 9. 1–9.3 Mw Indian Ocean earthquake shakes northern Sumatra with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. One of the largest observed tsunamis follows, affecting areas of Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
141. 2003 – 2003 was designated the, International Year of fresh water. January 22 – The last signal from NASAs Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, January 30 – Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so. February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all seven astronauts on board. February 4 – The leaders of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reconstitute the country into a loose state-union between Montenegro and Serbia, marking an end to the 85 year old Yugoslav state. February 15 – Millions of people take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States. February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government, february 27 – Former Bosnian Serb leader Biljana Plavšić is sentenced by the U. N. ICTY to 11 years in prison for war crimes committed during the Bosnian War. March 8 – Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum, march 12 Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper. The World Health Organization issues an alert on severe acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong. March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U. S. march 23 – Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum. April 9 – U. S. forces seize control of Baghdad, april 12 – Hungary approves joining the European Union in a referendum. April 14 – The Human Genome Project is completed, with 99% of the human genome sequenced to 99. 99% accuracy. April 29 – The United States announces the withdrawal of troops stationed in Saudi Arabia, may 11 Benvenuto Cellinis Cellini Salt Cellar table sculpture is stolen from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Lithuania approves joining the European Union in a referendum, may 12 – In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 30 people are killed in multiple bombings at a housing compound, mostly foreign expatriates. May 17 – Slovakia approves joining the European Union in a referendum, may 23 – Dewey, the first deer cloned by scientists at Texas A&M University, is born. May 28 – Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists, is born, june 8 – Poland approves joining the European Union in a referendum. June 14 – The Czech Republic approves joining the European Union in a referendum, june 30 – Warring parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo sign a peace accord, bringing an end to the Second Congo War, which left millions dead. July 5 – Severe acute respiratory syndrome is declared to be contained by the World Health Organization, july 18 – The Convention on the Future of Europe finishes its work and proposes the first European Constitution. July 24 – The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands, led by Australia, august 11 The Second Liberian Civil War comes to end after President Charles Taylor resigns and flees the country2003 – Richard Crenna
142. 2000 – According to the Gregorian Calendar, these distinctions fall to the year 2001 because the 1st century was retroactively said to start with year AD1. Since the calendar does not have zero, its first millennium spanned from years 1 to 1000 inclusively. The year 2000 is sometimes abbreviated as Y2K, the year 2000 was the subject of Y2K concerns, which are fears that computers would not shift from 1999 to 2000 correctly. However, by the end of 1999, many companies had already converted to new, or upgraded, as a result of massive effort, relatively few problems occurred. January 1 – The piece Longplayer begins and it lasts 1,000 years, finishing on December 31,2999. January 3–10 – Israel and Syria hold inconclusive peace talks, january 5–8 – The 2000 al-Qaeda Summit of several high-level al-Qaeda members is held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. January 6 – The last natural Pyrenean ibex is found dead, january 10 – America Online announces an agreement to purchase Time Warner for $162 billion. January 11 – The armed wing of the Islamic Salvation Front concludes its negotiations with the government for an amnesty, january 14 A United Nations tribunal sentences 5 Bosnian Croats to up to 25 years in prison for the 1993 killing of over 100 Bosnian Muslims in a Bosnian village. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 11,722.98, january 18 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth. January 24 – Gods Army, a Karen militia group led by twins Johnny and Luther Htoo, january 30 – Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes off the coast of Ivory Coast into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169. January 31 Alaska Airlines Flight 261 crashes off the California coast into the Pacific Ocean, dr. Harold Shipman is found guilty of murdering 15 patients between 1995 and 1998 at Hyde, Greater Manchester, and sentenced to life imprisonment. February 4 – German extortionist Klaus-Peter Sabotta is jailed for life for attempted murder and extortion, February 6 – Tarja Halonen is elected the first female president of Finland. February 7 – Stipe Mesić is elected president of Croatia, February 8 – Radio broadcaster Bob Collins plane collides with that of a student pilot over Zion, Illinois. February 9 – Torrential rains in Africa lead to the worst flooding in Mozambique in 50 years, February 13 – The final original Peanuts comic strip is published, following the death of its creator, Charles M. Schulz. February 21 – UNESCO holds the inaugural celebration of International Mother Language Day, February 29 – a rare century leap year date occurs. Usually, century years are common due to not being exactly divisible by 400. 2000 is the first such year to have a February 29 since the year 1600, the next such leap year will not occur until 2400. March 1 The Constitution of Finland is rewritten, jorge Batlle, a son, grandnephew and great-grandson of former presidents, is sworn in as President of Uruguay2000 – Hedy Lamarr
143. 1998 – 1998 was designated as the International Year of the Ocean. January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation, January 4 – Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 4 January 1998 in Algeria, Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. January 6 – The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is launched into orbit around the Moon, January 8 – Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to life in prison for planning the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993. January 11 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria, January 12 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. January 14 – Ralph Guarino is arrested for attempting to rob a Bank of America bank in the World Trade Center. January 17 – The Drudge Report breaks the story about U. S. President Bill Clintons alleged affair with Monica Lewinsky, January 20 – Nepalese police intercept a shipment of 272 human skulls in Kathmandu. January 22 – Suspected Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski pleads guilty, and accepts a sentence of life without the possibility of parole, January 28 Gunmen hold at least 400 children and teachers hostage for several hours, at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines. Stade de France, as well for sports venues of France, officially opened in Saint-Denis, suburb of Paris. February 3 – Cavalese cable car disaster, a United States military pilot causes the deaths of 20 people near Trento, Italy, february 4 – The 5.9 Mw Afghanistan earthquake shakes the Takhar Province with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. With 2,323 killed, and 818 injured, damage is considered extreme, february 7–22 – The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan. February 16 – China Airlines Flight 676 crashes into an area near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport. February 28 – A massacre in Likoshane, FR Yugoslavia starts the Kosovo War, march 1 – Titanic becomes the first film to gross US$1 billion. March 2 Data sent from the Galileo probe indicates that Jupiters moon Europa has an ocean under a thick crust of ice. In Austria, Natascha Kampusch is abducted by Wolfgang Přiklopil, march 5 – NASA announces that the Clementine probe orbiting the Moon has found enough water in polar craters to support a human colony and rocket fueling station. March 11 – Danish parliamentary election,1998, Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen is re-elected, march 13 – The High-Z Supernova Search Team becomes the first team to publish evidence that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. March 23 – The 70th Academy Awards ceremony, hosted for the 6th time by Billy Crystal, is held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, Titanic wins 11 Oscars including Best Picture. March 24 – First Computer-assisted Bone Segment Navigation, performed at the University of Regensburg, march 26 – Oued Bouaicha massacre in Algeria,52 people are killed with axes and knives,32 of the killed are babies under the age of 2. March 27 – Sildenafil, sold as Viagra and developed by Pfizer, is approved as the first oral treatment for erectile dysfunction in the USA by the Food, march 31 – Netscape released Mozilla source code under an open source license1998 – New rubles
144. 1997 – January 17 – A Delta II rocket carrying a military GPS payload explodes, shortly after liftoff from Cape Canaveral. January 18 – In northwest Rwanda, Hutu militia members kill 6 Spanish aid workers,3 soldiers, january 19 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. January 20 – Bill Clinton is sworn in for a term as President of the United States. January 22 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, january 23 – Mir Aimal Kasi is sentenced to death for a 1993 assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters that killed 2 and wounded 3. January 27 – It is revealed that French museums had nearly 2,000 pieces of art that had been stolen by Nazis, february 4 On their way to Lebanon,2 Israeli troop-transport helicopters collide, killing 73. After at first contesting the results, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections, British Home Secretary Michael Howard informs Moors Murderer Myra Hindley that she will never be released from prison. Mr. Howard has made the decision in agreement with a made by his predecessor David Waddington in 1990. February 5 The so-called Big Three banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors, morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Reynolds investment banks announce a $10 billion merger. February 10 The United States Army suspends Gene C, mcKinney, Sergeant Major of the Army, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct. Sandline affair, Australian newspapers publish stories that the government of Papua New Guinea has brought mercenaries onto Bougainville Island, february 13 STS-82, Tune-up and repair work on the Hubble Space Telescope is started by astronauts from the Space Shuttle Discovery. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 7,000 for the first time, february 22 – In Roslin, Scotland, scientists announce that an adult sheep named Dolly had been successfully cloned, and was born in July 1996. February 23 – A small fire occurs on the Russian space station Mir, february 27 – Divorce becomes legal in the Republic of Ireland. February 28 – North Hollywood shootout, Two robbers wearing kevlar body armor armed with AK-47s containing armor-piercing bullets injure 17 police officers, the incident sparks debate on the appropriate firepower for United States patrol officers to have available in similar situations in the future. March 4 – U. S. President Bill Clinton bans federal funding for any research on human cloning, march 6 Pablo Picassos Tête de Femme is stolen from a London gallery. In Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers overrun a military base and kill more than 200, march 13 Indias Missionaries of Charity chooses Sister Nirmala to succeed Mother Teresa as its leader. The National Peoples Congress of the Peoples Republic of China creates a new Chongqing Municipality, the Phoenix Lights, a series of UFOs, are seen over Phoenix, Arizona. March 16 – Sandline affair, On Bougainville Island, soldiers of commander Jerry Singirok arrest Tim Spicer and his mercenaries of the Sandline International. March 18 – The tail of a Russian An-24 charter plane breaks off while en route to Turkey, causing the plane to crash, killing all 50 on board, and resulting in the grounding of all An-24s1997 – The funeral cortege of Diana, Princess of Wales, en route to Westminster Abbey from Kensington Palace.