|Topics in the news|
|Topics in the news|
1. Palace of Westminster – Commonly known after its occupants, it is also known as the ` heart of British politics'. The Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and, for ceremonial purposes, retains its original status as a royal residence. The building is managed by committees appointed by both houses, which report to the Speaker of the House of the Lord Speaker. Barry was assisted by a leading authority on Gothic architecture and style, who designed the interior of the Palace. The Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1987. The Palace of Westminster site was strategically important during the Middle Ages, as it was located on the banks of the River Thames. The surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Those used by William I survive. The oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the Medieval period. The Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall. The first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265. During the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace. In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from a powerful minister who had lost the King's favour.Palace of Westminster – The Palace of Westminster with Elizabeth Tower and Westminster Bridge, viewed from across the River Thames
2. United States national baseball team – The United States National Baseball team represents the United States of America in international baseball competitions. The United States has won 4 times, including 2 of the final 3 tournaments. It is currently ranked second in the WBSC World Rankings. The team is governed by USA Baseball. Major League commissioner Bud Selig promptly ordered him to take down the sign the next day. Former big league managers Davey Johnson and Marcel Lachemann served as hitting coach and pitching coach, respectively. Along with fellow North American rivals Canada and Mexico, the U.S. hosted the South Africa. Round One games were held in Scottsdale, Arizona. The top two teams advanced in Anaheim, California. Despite a surprising loss to Canada, the United States advanced to the second round via tiebreaker. However, second-round losses to South Korea and Mexico allowed Japan to advance over the Americans via tiebreak. The United States competed along with Italy, Venezuela and host Canada. The U.S. won the pool opener against Canada by defeating Venezuela in a 15 -- 6 slugfest. Venezuela, however, came back to defeat the U.S. in the game of Pool C, 5 -- 3. Captain Derek Jeter were among the ones to voice their distaste with the severe beating.United States national baseball team – USA Baseball
3. Puerto Rico national baseball team – In 1951, Puerto Rico became the world baseball champion by winning the event. The team went on finishing second twice and third four times. Puerto Rico was an inaugural member of the World Baseball Classic, making its debut in the first edition. Like all of the other expansion teams, they finished in the bottom half of the table, tied with a record of 2-10. The team repeated this performance, finishing tied with El Salvador. Between 1943, Puerto Rico did not participate due to the ongoing World War II to which several LBPPR players were drafted. The team finished tied with Nicaragua with arecord of 1-6. Puerto Rico declined participation in the 1945 Amateur World Series, joining Mexico and Cuba in absence. As the LBPPR became more organized, the quality of players compossing the Puerto Rican national team improved. Puerto Rico lost 11-1 and 2-1 to the Dominicans in the best-of-3 finals. They won their straight Silver Medal. M. Ruiz tied for most triples. This inicident was the result of the LBPPR from amateur to professional a few years earlier. In 1951, Puerto Rico earned a record of 7-3 in the regular stage, handing its only defeat in the first games. After advancing, the team went undefeated with wins over Cuba and Venezuela to secure the gold medal.Puerto Rico national baseball team – Puerto Rico national baseball team
4. Abel Prize – The Abel Prize /ˈɑːbəl/ is a Norwegian prize awarded annually by the Government of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians. It comes with a monetary award of million Norwegian kroner. The board has also established an Abel symposium, administered by the Norwegian Mathematical Society. The prize was first proposed to be part of the 1902 celebration of 100th anniversary of Abel's birth. In August 2001, the Norwegian government announced that the prize would be awarded beginning in the two-hundredth anniversary of Abel's birth. The first actual Abel Prize was only awarded in 2003. A series presenting Abel Prize laureates and their research was commenced in 2010. The first two volumes cover 2008 -- 2012 respectively. The committee is currently headed by John Rognes. The European Mathematical Society nominate members of the Abel Committee. The Norwegian Government gave an initial funding of NOK 200 million in 2001. The funding is controlled by the Board, which consists of members elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Self-nomination is not allowed. The nominee must be alive; however, if the awardee dies after being declared as the winner, the prize is awarded posthumously. The Abel Laureate is decided based on the recommendation of the Abel Committee.Abel Prize – The prize is awarded in the atrium of the Domus Media building of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, where the Nobel Peace Prize was formerly awarded
5. Wavelet – A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases, then decreases back to zero. It can typically be visualized as a "brief oscillation" like one recorded by a seismograph or monitor. Generally, wavelets are purposefully crafted to have specific properties that make them useful for processing. For example, a wavelet could be created to have a short duration of roughly a 32nd note. Mathematically, the wavelet will correlate with the signal if the unknown signal contains information of similar frequency. This concept of correlation is at the core of practical applications of wavelet theory. Sets of wavelets are generally needed to analyze data fully. A set of "complementary" wavelets overlap so that the decomposition process is mathematically reversible. Thus, sets of complementary wavelets are useful in wavelet based compression/decompression algorithms where it is desirable to recover the original information with minimal loss. This is accomplished through coherent states. The wavelet has been used for decades in digital signal processing and exploration geophysics. The French word ondelette meaning "small wave" was used by Morlet and Grossmann in the early 1980s. Wavelet theory is applicable to several subjects. All wavelet transforms so are related to harmonic analysis. Almost all practically useful discrete wavelet transforms use discrete-time filterbanks.Wavelet – Seismic wavelet
6. Rock and roll – For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. The beat is essentially a rhythm with the latter almost always provided by a snare drum. Beyond simply a musical style, roll, as seen on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, language. In addition, roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both white American teens enjoyed the music. It went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary both roll as synonymous with rock music. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in New Jersey, was established as a venue. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it. The origins of roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, folk. The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz based music.Rock and roll – Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio in the origins of rock and roll
7. Chuck Berry – Charles Edward Anderson "Chuck" Berry is an American guitarist, singer and songwriter and is one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. While still a high school student he was convicted of armed robbery and was sent to a reformatory, where he was held from 1944 to 1947. After his release, he worked at an automobile plant. By early 1953, influenced by the guitar riffs and showmanship techniques of the blues musician T-Bone Walker, Berry began performing with the Johnnie Johnson Trio. His break came when he traveled to Chicago in May 1955 and met Muddy Waters, who suggested he contact Leonard Chess, of Chess Records. By the end of the 1950s, he was an established star with a lucrative career. He had also established his own St. Louis nightclub, Berry's Club Bandstand. But in January 1962, he was sentenced to three years in prison for offenses under the Mann Act—he had transported a 14-year-old girl across state lines. After his release in 1963, Berry had more hits in the mid-1960s, including "No Particular Place to Go", "You Never Can Tell", "Nadine". By the mid-1970s, he was more in demand as a live performer, playing his past hits with local backup bands of variable quality. In 1979 Berry served 120 days for evasion. Berry's "Johnny B. Goode" is the only rock-and-roll song included on the Voyager Golden Record. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Berry was the fourth child in a family of six. Berry grew up in the St. Louis neighborhood known as an area where many middle-class people lived at the time. Henry, was a deacon of a nearby Baptist church; his mother, Martha, was a certified public school principal.Chuck Berry – Chuck Berry in 1957
8. People's Party for Freedom and Democracy – The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Dutch pronunciation: is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands. The VVD supports private enterprise in the Netherlands and is an economically liberal party. After the fourth Balkenende cabinet was formed, the VVD was the second-largest opposition party in the House of Representatives. Rutte has been the leader of the VVD since 31 May 2006. Therefore, elections for the House of Representatives were held on 12 September 2012. The VVD remained the largest party, with 41 seats. Since 5 the VVD has been the senior partner in a "purple" coalition with the Labour Party. They were joined by the Comité-Oud, a group of liberal members of the Labour Party, led by Pieter Oud. They were unhappy with the social-democratic orientation of the Labour Party. Between 1948 and 1952 the VVD took part in the broad cabinets led by the Labour Party Prime Minister Willem Drees. The party was a junior partner with only eight seats to the Catholic People's Party and Labour Party, which both had around thirty seats. The party's leadership was in the hands of the former Labour Party Oud. The Drees cabinet laid the foundation for the decolonization of the Dutch East Indies. In the general election of 1952 the VVD did not join the government. They gained the party entered government alongside the Protestant Anti Revolutionary Party, Christian Historical Union CHU and the Roman Catholic KVP.People's Party for Freedom and Democracy – Pieter Oud, founder and leader from 1948 until 1963.
9. Prime Minister of the Netherlands – He is the de facto head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates the policy of the government. The prime minister is Mark Rutte. Although he is the most important political figure in the Netherlands, the Prime Minister is not as powerful as his German counterparts. Therefore, the government is always a coalition between two or more parties. Because of his limited powers, the prime minister is described as primus inter pares. As a result of the constitutional review of 1983, the position of Prime Minister was inscribed into the Dutch constitution for the first time. According to the constitution, the Government is constituted by the ministers. The constitution stipulates the Prime Minister is appointed by royal decree. Those of the other ministers are to be countersigned by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has the power to set the agenda of these meetings. The prime minister is also Minister of General Affairs, responsible for the Government Information Service. The Prime Minister has a weekly meeting with the King on government policy. Informally the Prime Minister functions to the public. After the meetings of the cabinet on Friday, the Prime Minister hosts a conference on the decisions of the cabinet and current affairs. The Prime Minister also has some functions in international affairs, maintaining bilateral contacts.Prime Minister of the Netherlands – Incumbent Mark Rutte since 14 October 2010
10. Mark Rutte – At the 2006 general election, he became Opposition Leader. After a long period, Rutte became Prime Minister and formed a Cabinet. When Rutte was sworn in on 14 October 2010, he became the liberal Prime Minister of the Netherlands in 92 years. On 5 the Second Rutte cabinet was installed by Queen Beatrix. Izaäk Rutte worked for a trading first as importer in the Dutch East Indies and later as director in the Netherlands. Rutte attended a gymnasium high school, specialising in the arts, until 1985. After his studies, Rutte entered the world, working as a manager for Unilever and Calvé. Until 1997, Rutte played a leading role in several reorganisations. Between 2000, Rutte was personnel manager for Van den Bergh Nederland, a subsidiary of Unilever. Between 1997, Rutte was a member of the national board of the VVD. Rutte also served for the general election of 2002. Rutte was himself elected as a Member of Parliament in 2003. Rutte served as Undersecretary in the Social Affairs and Employment ministry from 22 July 2002 June 2004 in the first and second Balkenende cabinets. Rutte was responsible for fields including arbeidsomstandigheden. After the 2003 elections Rutte was also a member of the House of Representatives, from 30 January to 27 May 2003.Mark Rutte – His Excellency Mark Rutte
11. Second Rutte cabinet – The Second Rutte cabinet, also called the Rutte-Asscher cabinet has been the executive branch of the Dutch government since 5 November 2012. The cabinet is formed by Labour Party after the Dutch general election of 2012. The cabinet is a grand cabinet in the House of Representatives. Title Allowed to use a ministers while on foreign business. Sharon Dijksma appointed Undersecretary for the Environment. Res Resigned. Interim Stef Blok served ad interim following the resignation of Ivo Opstelten and the medical leave of absence of Ronald Plasterk. Note Ronald Plasterk returned on 16 September 2016. 2012 Dutch cabinet formation Official Kabinet-Rutte-Asscher Rijksoverheid Kabinet-Rutte II Parlement & PolitiekSecond Rutte cabinet – The Second Rutte cabinet on 5 November 2012
12. Dallas Green (baseball) – George Dallas Green is a former pitcher, manager, executive in Major League Baseball. Green had a losing record both as a manager. Nonetheless, in 1983, he was inducted of Fame. He achieved notoriety for his blunt manner. Green was born in Newport, Delaware. A 1952 graduate of his nickname was Spider. After attending the University of Delaware, he was signed by the Phillies by scout Jocko Collins. As a manager, Green was known for his gruff manner. "I'm a screamer, a cusser. I never hold back", he said. He was notorious for his use of profanity. His personality won't let him." Rolen would win eight Gold Glove Awards. After his playing days ended, Green joined the Phillies office. In 1979, he was appointed manager of the Phillies, replacing Danny Ozark.Dallas Green (baseball) – Green in 2009
13. Martin McGuinness – James Martin Pacelli McGuinness is an Irish republican Sinn Féin politician, the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland since 2007. He was also Sinn Féin's unsuccessful candidate for President of Ireland in the 2011 election. A former Provisional Irish Republican Army leader, McGuinness was the MP for Mid Ulster from 1997 until his resignation in 2013. Like all Sinn Féin MPs, McGuinness practised abstentionism in relation to the Westminster Parliament. On 5 June 2008 he was re-appointed as deputy First Minister to serve alongside Peter Robinson, who succeeded Paisley as First Minister. McGuinness previously served in the Northern Ireland Executive between 2002. McGuinness has acknowledged that he is a former IRA member but claims that he left the IRA in 1974. He originally joined the Official IRA, unaware of the split at the December 1969 Army Convention, switching to the Provisional IRA soon after. He claimed that another anonymous IRA member gave bomb parts that morning. He said that his organisation intended to attack city centre premises in Derry on the same day. McGuinness negotiated alongside Gerry Adams with the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Willie Whitelaw, in 1972. He refused to recognise the court, was sentenced to six months imprisonment. In court, he declared his membership of the Provisional IRA without equivocation:'We have fought against the killing of our people... I am a member of Óglaigh na hÉireann and very, very proud of it'. After another conviction in the Republic for IRA membership, he became increasingly prominent in the political wing of the republican movement.Martin McGuinness – Martin McGuinness MLA
14. Sylhet – Sylhet /sɪlhət/, also known as Jalalabad, is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh. Sylhet is the administrative seat of Sylhet Division. The city is located in northeastern Bengal. Sylhet has lush highland terrain. \The city has a population of more than 479,837 residents. The city's dargahs draw each year. The name of Sylhet is the anglicized form of the Indo-Aryan term Srihatta. In 1303, the Muslim leader Shah Jalal conquered Sylhet by defeating the local Hindu Raja. Ibn Battuta saw Bengali Muslims transforming the region into an agricultural basket. It was a town of the Bengal Sultanate. In the 16th-century, it became a district of the Mughal Empire. British rule began under the administration of the East India Company. With its ancient tradition, it became a key source of lascars in the British Empire. The Sylhet municipal board was established in 1867. The Sylhet City Corporation was constituted in 2001.Sylhet – The two landmarks of the city: Kean Bridge and the Ali Amjad Clock
15. Bangledesh – Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign state in South Asia. It forms the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. With a population of million, it is the world's eighth-most populous country, the fifth-most populous in Asia and the third-most populous Muslim-majority country. The official Bengali language is the spoken language in the world, which Bangladesh shares with the neighboring Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam. The Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna, flow through Bangladesh and form the fertile Bengal delta -- the largest delta in the world. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, ranking alongside South Korea and Monaco. The port city of Chittagong are the most prominent urban centers. Greater Bengal was known as Gangaridai. The people of the delta developed their own language, script, literature, music, architecture. Early Asian literature described the region as a seafaring power. It was an important entrepot of the historic Silk Road. Bengal was ruled by sultans for four centuries, including under the Delhi Sultanate and the Bengal Sultanate. This was followed by the administration of the Mughal Empire. Islamic Bengal was a melting pot, a key player in medieval world trade. Colonial conquest took place in the late 18th century.Bangledesh – Mahasthangarh is the oldest archaeological site in Bangladesh. It dates back to 700 BCE and was the ancient capital of the Pundra Kingdom
16. Afghan National Police – The Afghan National Police is the primary police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The agency is under the responsibility of Afghanistan's Ministry of Interior, headed by Nur ul-Haq Ulumi. The ANP has about 157,000 active members as of September 2013, expected to reach 160,000 by the end of 2014. The Afghan police traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed to power. It was reorganized in 1880 during Emir Abdur Rahman Khan's reign. The current ANP was rebuilt in late 2001. Various government agencies from the United States well as Germany's Bundespolizei and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence Police provided most of the early training. As of 2009, it is being trained under NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan. Police officers in Afghanistan are largely illiterate. Approximately 17 percent of them tested positive for illegal drugs in 2010. They were widely accused of demanding bribes. Attempts to build a Afghan police force were faltering badly, according to NATO officials. A quarter of the officers quit every year, making the Afghan government's goals of substantially building up the force even harder to achieve. Traditionally, police officers were poorly paid, frequently held in contempt by the communities they served. Compounding these factors, over two decades of unrest had also resulted in an rate conservatively estimated at over 70 % for police recruits.Afghan National Police – Afghan police (c. 1879)
17. Logar Province – Logar is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It contains hundreds of villages. Puli Alam is the capital of the province. As of 2013, Logar has a population of about 373,100. It is a tribal society, with about 60 % belonging to the Pashtun group and the rest being Tajiks and Hazaras. The word of Logar is a combination of two Pashto words: Loy and Ghar. The Logar River leaves to the north. The Logar territory fell to the Maurya Empire, led by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryas were planning to capture more territory of Central Asia until they faced local Greco-Bactrian forces. Having consolidated power in the northwest, Chandragupta pushed east towards the Nanda Empire. Afghanistan's significant tangible intangible Buddhist heritage is recorded through wide-ranging archaeological finds, including religious and artistic remnants. Buddhist doctrines are reported to have reached as far even during the life of the Buddha as recorded by Husang Tsang. Originally these two were merchants of the kingdom of Balhika, as the name Bhalluka or Bhallika probably suggests the association of one with that country. They had happened to be at Bodhgaya when the Buddha had just attained enlightenment. It was one of the main supply routes of mujahideen rebels coming from Pakistan.Logar Province – Aerial view of Mohammad Agha District in Logar province
18. Syrian Civil War – The Syrian government has since then refused efforts to negotiate with what it describes as armed terrorist groups. The factions receive substantial support from foreign actors, leading many to label the conflict a proxy war waged by both regional and global powers. Syrian opposition groups seized control of the area surrounding parts of southern Syria. Over time, factions of the Syrian opposition split from their original moderate position to pursue an Islamist vision for Syria, as al-Nusra Front and ISIL. In the north, Syrian government forces largely withdrew allowing the Kurdish YPG to proclaim de facto autonomy. International organizations have accused other opposition forces of severe human rights violations and of many massacres. The conflict has caused a refugee crisis. On 1 a formal start of the mediated Geneva Syria peace talks was fighting continues. Syria became an independent republic in 1946, although democratic rule ended followed by two more coups the same year. A popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the power to civilians. From 1958 to 1961, a brief union with Egypt replaced Syria's parliamentary system with a highly centralized presidential regime. The Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch government came through a successful coup d'état in 1963. For the several years Syria went in leadership. In March 1971, an Alawite, declared President, a position that he held until his death in 2000. On 31 January 1973, Assad implemented the new Constitution which led to a national crisis.Syrian Civil War – Pro-regime demonstration in Latakia, heartland of Assad's Alawite people
19. Idlib – Idlib is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, 59 kilometers south west of Aleppo. It has an elevation of nearly 500 meters above level. In the 2004 census by the Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2010 the population of Idlib was around 165,000. The inhabitants are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslims, although there is a Christian minority. Idlib is divided into six main districts: al-Qusur. A agricultural center of Syria, the Idlib area is also historically significant, containing many "dead cities" and man-made tells. Idlib contains the ancient city of Ebla, once the capital of a powerful kingdom. The ancient kingdoms of Nuhašše and Luhuti flourished during the Bronze and Iron ages. In the tablets Duhulubuum is located 22 km south of "Unqi" which the modern village of Kaukanya; a village located 22 km northeast of Idlib. Thutmose III mentioned the city with the name "Ythb". Although the major markets for Idlib's soap were at Aleppo, Antioch, Hama, the product was exported far as the Ottoman capital of Istanbul. Idlib was also a major producer of cotton fabrics. Western traveler Josias Leslie Porter noted that Idlib was "rare in this bleak region." He further remarked that its olives groves were larger than those of Damascus, Beirut, Gaza. In the mid-19th-century, the town had an estimated population of 8,000, including 500 Christians.Idlib – Typical olive field in the valleys surrounding Idlib
20. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights – The organisation is run from his home in Coventry by Rami Abdulrahman, a Syrian Sunni Muslim who owns a clothes shop. Born Osama Suleiman, he has used it publicly ever since. After being imprisoned three times in Syria, Abdulrahman has not returned since. In 2012 Süddeutsche Zeitung described the organization with a single permanent worker, Rami Abdulrahman. The United Nations, nongovernmental organisations say that SOHR is an accurate source. SOHR has been described as being "pro-opposition" or anti-Assad. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is of the opinion that SOHR is a one-man operation that acts as a front for spreading anti-governmental messages into western media. Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently Syrian Observatory for Human Rights – websiteSyrian Observatory for Human Rights – Seal of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
21. Hezbollah – Hezbollah —also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist militant group and political party based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass the Israeli occupation. Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on May 24, 2000, SLA collapsed and surrendered. Backed by Iran, Hezbollah fighters fought against Serbian forces during the Bosnian War. Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army. Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda. Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, financial support from Iran, political support from Syria. Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War. It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS. Hezbollah's status as a legitimate political party, a terrorist group, a resistance movement, or some combination thereof is a contentious issue. The Arab League, United States, France, Israel have classified Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. The European Union, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have proscribed Hezbollah's military wing as a terrorist organization, while making a distinction with Hezbollah's political wing.Hezbollah – Flag of Hezbollah
22. Syria – Largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Yazidis. Sunni Arabs make up the largest group in Syria. Largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In the Islamic era, Damascus was a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. A large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949 -- 71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, terminated by the 1961 Syrian d'état. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur. In the past, others believed that it was derived from the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon. The area designated by the word has changed over time. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of gyps and burnt lime.Syria – Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
23. Bashar al-Assad – Bashar Hafez al-Assad is the current President of Syria, holding the office since 17 July 2000. He is a son of Hafez al-Assad, President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. Four years later, he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital in London, specialising in ophthalmology. After his elder Bassel died in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent. He entered the military academy, taking charge of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon in 1998. On 10 July 2000, Assad was elected as President, succeeding his father, who died in office a month prior. In the 2000 and subsequent 2007 election, he received 99.7% and 97.6% support, respectively, in referendums on his leadership. During the Syrian Civil War, an inquiry by the United Nations reported finding evidence which implicated Assad in war crimes. In June 2014, Assad was included in a list of war indictments of government rebels handed to the International Criminal Court. Assad criticised the American-led intervention for attempting regime change. Bashar Hafez al-Assad was born in Damascus on 11 September 1965, the second oldest son of Anisa Makhlouf and Hafez al-Assad. Al-Assad in Arabic means "the Lion"; Assad's grandfather had changed the family name from Wahsh upon acquiring minor noble status in 1927. Hafez promoted his supporters within the Ba'ath Party, many of whom were also of Alawite background. After the coup, Alawite strongmen were installed while Sunnis, Druzes and Ismailis were purged from the army and Ba'ath party. Assad had five siblings, three of whom are deceased.Bashar al-Assad – Bashar al-Assad بشار الأسد
24. Scud – Scud is a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. It was exported widely to both Second and Third World countries. The term comes from the NATO name "Scud", attached to the missile by Western intelligence agencies. The Russian names for the missile are R-17 Elbrus. The first use of the Scud was in the NATO name SS-1b Scud-A, applied to the R-11 Zemlya ballistic missile. The R-11 used technology was a new design, smaller and differently shaped than the V-2 and R-1 weapons. The R-11 entered service in 1957. The most revolutionary innovation in the R-11 was the engine, designed by A.M. Isaev. The Scud-D variant developed in the 1980s can deliver a terminally guided warhead capable of greater precision. All models are 0.88 m in diameter. The missile reaches a maximum speed of mach 5. The first of designated R-11 originated in a 1951 requirement for a ballistic missile with similar performance to the German V-2 rocket. The R-11 was developed by engineer Viktor Makeev, then working in the OKB-1, headed by Sergey Korolev. It first flew on 18 April 1953, was fitted with an Isayev engine using nitric acid as propellant.Scud
25. Haifa – Haifa, is the third-largest city in the State of Israel, with a population of 278,903 in 2015. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including Daliyat al-Karmel, the Krayot, Nesher, some kibbutzim. It is also home to the Bahá' í World Centre, a destination for Baha'i pilgrims. Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the settlement has a history spanning more than 3,000 years. The earliest known settlement in the vicinity was a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age. In the 3rd CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the centuries, the city has changed hands: being ruled by the Phoenicians, Persians, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Ottomans, British, the Israelis. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haifa Municipality has governed the city. As of 2016, the city is a major seaport located in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres. It is the major regional center of northern Israel. The city plays an important role in Israel's economy. Haifa Bay is a center of heavy industry, chemical processing. Haifa formerly functioned from Iraq via Jordan. The earliest named settlement within the domain of modern-day Haifa was a city known as Sycaminum. Haifa is also mentioned more than 100 times in the Talmud, a book central to Judaism.Haifa – Western Haifa from the air
26. Sinai insurgency – Since 2011, the central authorities have attempted to restore their presence through both political and military measures. Egypt launched two military operations, then Operation Sinai in mid-2012. Following an abduction of Egyptian officers, violence in the Sinai surged once again. Following the 2013 Egyptian d'état, which resulted in the ousting of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi, "unprecedented clashes" have occurred. Militant attacks continued into 2015. Security officials say militants based in Libya have established ties with Sinai Province. Since the start of the conflict, dozens of civilians were kidnapped and then beheaded by militants. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the North Sinai Governorate. Sufism was previously dominant in the region before militant jihadi ideas began to take hold. The Sinai peninsula has long been known for its lawlessness, having historically served as a route for weapons and supplies. Security provisions in the Egypt -- Israel Peace Treaty of 1979 have institutionalized a diminished presence in the area, enabling militants to operate with a freer hand. Moreover, development in Sinai has discriminated against the local Bedouin population, a population that values tribal allegiance over all else. The combination of lack of resources have kept the area poor and hence ripe for militancy. Following the January 2011 uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak's regime, the country became increasingly destabilized, creating a vacuum in the Sinai peninsula. Islamic elements in Sinai exploited the opportunity, using the unique environment, in launching several waves of attacks upon Egyptian military and commercial facilities.Sinai insurgency – Map of the Sinai Peninsula
27. Egyptian Army – The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces, is the largest army in Africa. The modern army was established during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha, considered to be the "founder of modern Egypt". The Egyptian army was also engaged heavily in the brief Libyan-Egyptian War in July 1977. As of 2014, the army has an estimated strength of which, approximately 90,000 -- 120,000 are professionals with the rest being conscripts. For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out. Nevertheless, the great expanses of the desert formed a barrier, almost impossible for massive armies to cross. The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts to the south. If a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked other defenses. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into two intermediate periods. During the three kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government. During the intermediate periods control was in the hands of the various nomes and various foreigners. The geography of Egypt allowed it to thrive. This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests.Egyptian Army – The Hyksos of Ancient Egypt drove chariots
28. Arish – Arish is distinguished by its clear blue water, its soft white sand. It has many luxury hotels. The city also has some of the faculties of Suez Canal University. Arish is by the Wadi Al Arish, which receives flash flood water from much of north and central Sinai. The national park is on the eastern side of Arish. The city grew near the ancient Ptolemaic Dynasty outpost of Rhinocolura. In the Middle Ages, pilgrims misidentified the site as the Sukkot of the Bible. ʻArīsh means "palm huts" in Literary Arabic. New fortifications were constructed by the Ottoman Empire in 1560. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French laid siege to the fort, which fell on February 19, 1799. During World War I, the fort was destroyed by British bombers. It was later the location of the 45th Stationary Hospital which treated casualties of the Palestine campaign. The remains of those who died there were later moved to Kantara Cemetery. The founder of Zionism, proposed Arish as a Jewish homeland since neither the Sultan nor the Kaiser supported settlement in Palestine. On December 1958, an air battle occurred between Egyptian and Israeli air forces over Arish.Arish – Skyline of Arish, 1916
29. North Sinai Governorate – North Sinai Governorate is one of the governorates of Egypt. It is located in the north-eastern part of the country, encompasses the northern half of the Sinai Peninsula. Its capital is the city of Arish. A governorate is administered by a governor, appointed by the President of Egypt and serves at the president's discretion. The population of the North Sinai Governorate as at 2014 was 421,984 people, predominantly Bedouin tribesmen. The Governorate covers an area of 27,574 square kilometers. The population density is 15 inhabitants per square kilometer. A significant economic activity of the Bedouin tribes has been smuggling. These activities have been curtailed by the building of the Israel-Egypt barrier. North Sinai has since 2011 been especially affected by the Sinai insurgency and measures by government forces to combat it, which has resulted in many casualties. According to population estimates from 2015 the majority of residents in the governorate live with an rate of 60.2 %. Of an estimated 434,781 people residing in the governorate, 261,686 people live in urban areas as opposed in rural areas.North Sinai Governorate – Flag
30. Driehaus Architecture Prize – It was established in 2003 by The Richard H. Driehaus Charitable Lead Trust. It is presented annually through the Notre Dame School of Architecture, a faculty of the University of Notre Dame in United States. The Driehaus Prize is an alternative to the predominantly modernist Pritzker Prize. The most recent winner is Scott Merrill, officially awarded on March 2016 in Chicago. The 2017 laureate will be announced in January 2017. The award includes a monetary prize of US$200,000. The jury travels together to a city of architectural significance, taking the city's urban fabric as a backdrop for its deliberations. In addition to Richard H. Driehaus, the jury of leading educators includes: Adele Chatfield-Taylor, Robert S. Davis, Paul Goldberger, Léon Krier, Witold Rybczynski. The two prizes represent the most significant recognition for classicism in the contemporary built environment. The following architects were awarded the Driehaus Prize since 2003: 2003 In 2003, the first Driehaus prize was awarded to Léon Krier. Mr. Krier has taught architecture and planning at the Royal College of Arts in London; at Princeton University; the University of Virginia and Yale University. He is a founding trustee for Traditional Architecture & Urbanism in Charleston, South Carolina. The first Driehaus Prize ceremony took place at the Stock Exchange Trading Room of the Art Institute of Chicago. The 2004 Driehaus Prize was awarded to Demetri Porphyrios. Dr. Porphyrios has redefined the classical idea by making it relevant to modern sensibilities.Driehaus Architecture Prize – Driehaus Architecture Prize
31. New Classical architecture – New Classical architecture is a contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical and traditional architecture. At the beginning of the 20th century, historicism and Jugendstil were still dominant styles in Germany. As as the major modernist movements like Werkbund and Bauhaus gained momentum in Germany, the desire to continue and develop classical styles sprouted. Until around 1955 the Heimatschutz style prospered in Germany, which can be roughly translated to cultural protection style. Examples of this classical style are the Hamburg Museum, the Prinzipalmarkt in Münster and the market square of Freudenstadt. In Britain, architect Raymond Erith continued to design classical houses into the late 1960s and early 1970s. A New Classical Architect who continues to practice, was an employee, now the successor of the late Raymond Erith. In the late 1970s young architects in Europe began challenging modernist proposals in planning. It received a boost from the sponsorship of Charles, Prince of Wales, especially with The Prince's Foundation for Building Community. In the US, MIT and Cornell were the first, created in the mid-1970s, followed by Columbia, Berkeley, Princeton. In these years architecture developed a critique of architectural aesthetics. A broad spectrum of historians presented other alternatives to modernism. Stern, who practice both in post modern as well as classical modes. Tittman, fully moved from postmodern design to new interpretations of traditional architecture. Thomas Gordon Smith, the 1979 Rome Prize laureate from the American Academy in Rome, was a devotee of Charles Moore.New Classical architecture – Schermerhorn Symphony Center in Nashville - opened in 2006
32. ADAM Architecture – ADAM Architecture is an architecture and urban design practice in the UK with offices in Winchester and London. The practice specialises in contemporary classical design, commonly known as New Classical Architecture. The Practice became incorporated in 1986. The name was changed to ADAM Architecture in March 2010. The practice works throughout Britain, the USA, continental Europe, the Middle East, India and Japan. The team of around 75 staff includes architects, technologists, urban designers, project managers, craftspeople, Dan Cruickshank as historic building consultant. There are five equal-equity directors: Robert Adam, Nigel Anderson, Paul Hanvey, George Saumarez Smith. "How to Build Skyscrapers". City Journal. Retrieved April 2014. Hidden Passions, The Guardian, 24 July 2006 The Country House Ideal - Recent Work by ADAM ArchitectureADAM Architecture – Sackler Library for Oxford University, Oxford, UK
33. Chicago – Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. Chicago has the third-largest metropolitan product in the United States -- about $630.3 billion according to 2014 -- 2016 estimates. The city has one with no single industry employing more than 14 % of the workforce. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, novels, film, theater, music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, gospel and house music. Chicago also has professional teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has the best-known being the Windy City. The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language. The known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called "chicagoua", grew abundantly in the area. The first known permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s. He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago". In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, later rebuilt. The Ottawa, Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land in 1833.Chicago – Clockwise from top: Downtown Chicago, the Chicago Theatre, the 'L', Navy Pier, Millennium Park, the Field Museum, and the Willis Tower.
34. European Union – The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. The EU operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmental decision-making. The Maastricht Treaty introduced European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. Additionally, 26 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8, the G-20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a potential superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of Steel Community, declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe." The supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak.European Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
35. Treaty of Rome – The Treaty of Rome, officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, is an international agreement that led to the creation of the European Economic Community. It came into force on 1 January 1958. It remains one of the two most important treaties in the modern-day European Union. The TEEC proposed the establishment of a customs union. It proposed to create a single market for goods, labour, capital across the EEC's member states. It also established the European Commission. Since its signature, the treaty's name has been retrospectively amended on several occasions. In 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, creating Steel Community. The underlying political objective of Steel Community was to strengthen Franco-German cooperation and banish the possibility of war. France, the Netherlands began negotiating the treaty. The Treaty Establishing the ECSC was entered into force on 24 July 1952. The Treaty expired on 23 July 2002, after fifty years, as was foreseen. The common market opened on February 1953 for coal, iron ore and scrap, on 1 May 1953 for steel. Partly in the aim of creating a United States of Europe, two further communities were proposed, again by the French. A European Defence Community and a European Political Community.Treaty of Rome – The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony, at the Palazzo dei Conservatori on Capitoline Hill
36. Northern Mali conflict – Mutinous soldiers, calling the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, took control and suspended the constitution of Mali. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Mali's three largest northern cities -- Gao and Timbuktu -- were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days. On 5 April 2012, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA called off its offensive. It proclaimed Azawad's independence from Mali. The MNLA were initially backed by the Islamist group Ansar Dine. After the Malian military was driven from Azawad, a number of smaller Islamist groups began imposing strict Sharia law. The MNLA and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for an new state. By 17 the MNLA had lost control of most of northern Mali's cities to the Islamists. The government of Mali asked for military help to re-take the north. On 11 the French military began operations against the Islamists. Forces from other African Union states were deployed shortly after. By 8 the Islamist-held territory had been re-taken by the Malian military, with help from the international coalition. Tuareg separatists have continued to fight the Islamists well, although the MNLA has also been accused of carrying out attacks against the Malian military. Fighting is still ongoing even though French forces are scheduled for withdrawal. Sporadic terrorist attacks still occur.Northern Mali conflict – French Mirage 2000 refuels over Africa on 2 February 2013.
37. Tuareg people – The Tuareg people are a large Berber ethnic confederation. They principally inhabit the Sahara desert, in a vast area stretching to southern Algeria, Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso. Traditionally small groups of Tuareg are also found in northern Nigeria. The Tuareg speak the Tuareg languages, which belong to the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. The Tuaregs have been called the "blue people" for the colored clothes they traditionally wear and which stains their skin. They are believed to be descendants of the Berber autochthones of North Africa. Tuareg society has traditionally featured clan membership, social status and caste hierarchies within each political confederation. The meaning of the name Tuareg have long been debated, with various etymologies hypothesized. Targa in Berber means " channel". Another theory is that Tuareg is derived from the plural of the Arabic exonym Tariqi. The term for a Tuareg man is the term for a woman Tamajaq. Spellings of the appellation vary by Tuareg dialect. However, they all reflect the linguistic root, expressing the notion of "freemen". As such, the endonym strictly refers only to the Tuareg nobility, the slaves. The English exonym "Blue People" is similarly derived from the color of the tagelmust veils and other clothing, which sometimes stains the skin underneath.Tuareg people – Tuareg
38. UK Independence Party – The UK Independence Party is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Newton Abbot, Devon and currently led by Paul Nuttall. At Westminster, UKIP has one Member of Parliament in the House of Commons and three representatives in the House of Lords. It has 20 Members of the European Parliament, making the jointly the largest party in the Parliament. It has six Assembly Members in the National Assembly for Wales and has 488 councillors in UK local government. UKIP has been identified by political scientists as part of the broader European radical right. Its ideological approach is that of right-wing populism, employing populist rhetoric to distinguish itself from the political establishment. Promoting nationalist agenda, it characterises the latter approach as a civic nationalism, although the accuracy of this description has been disputed. Influenced by Thatcherism, it promotes economically liberal policies while appealing to traditional social values. UKIP was founded as the Anti-Federalist League, a single-issue Eurosceptic party. Renamed UKIP in 1993, the party adopted a wider platform, influenced by its ideological heritage on the right-wing of the Conservative Party. The party's early growth was slow and largely eclipsed by the Eurosceptic Referendum Party. At the 2015 general election, the party gained the third-largest vote seat in the House of Commons. Governed by National Executive Committee, UKIP is divided with an additional one representing Gibraltar. UKIP began as the Anti-Federalist League, a political party established by the historian Alan Sked.UK Independence Party – A UKIP campaign bus, 2004
39. Douglas Carswell – John Douglas Wilson Carswell is a British politician who in 2014 became the first elected Member of Parliament for the UK Independence Party, representing Clacton. Formerly a member of the Conservative Party, he was elected for Harwich in 2005 and Clacton in 2010. They aren't serious about the change that Britain desperately needs." He is the son of two doctors of medicine. Carswell lived until his late teens. His father's experiences in Uganda were the inspiration for the character Dr Nicholas Garrigan in The Last King of Scotland. He later attributed his libertarianism to his experiences of the "arbitrary rule" of Idi Amin. Carswell then attended King's College London, graduating with a master's degree in imperial history. He worked as Corporate Development Manager for Television Broadcasting in Italy until 1999, later for Invesco. At the 2001 general election, he contested the constituency of Prime Minister Tony Blair, as the Conservative candidate. Blair's majority fell by 7,500 votes with Carswell effecting a swing of 4.7 percent compared to a national swing of 1.8 percent. In the months before the 2005 general election, he worked in the Conservative Party's Policy Unit, then run by David Cameron. He made his maiden speech on 28 June 2005 in the debate on the Identity Cards Bill. Carswell was a member of Conservative Friends of Israel. He serves on the House of the Public Accounts Committee.Douglas Carswell – Douglas Carswell MP
40. Minsk – Minsk is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Nyamiha rivers. It is the administrative centre of the Commonwealth of Independent States. As the national capital, Minsk is the administrative centre of Minsk Region and Minsk raion. In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. The earliest historical references to Minsk date to the 11th century, when it was noted within the principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers. In 1242, Minsk became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It received town privileges in 1499. From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodship in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was part of a region annexed as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. After the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. Minsk will host the 2019 European Games. The average altitude above level is 220 metres. The physical geography of Minsk was shaped over the two most recent ice ages. There are six smaller rivers within all part of the Black Sea basin.Minsk – Victors' Avenue in Minsk
41. Belarus – Most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested. Its strongest economic sectors are manufacturing. Belarus lost almost half of its territory after the Polish -- Soviet War of 1919 -- 1921. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 Belarus became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Ukrainian SSR. Alexander Lukashenko has served since 1994. Lukashenko continued a number such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. In 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70 % of Belarus's population of million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only country in Europe to retain punishment in law and practice.Belarus – Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrosyne from 1992
42. Insurgency in the North Caucasus – It followed the official end of the decade-long Second Chechen War on 16 April 2009. The violence has mostly been concentrated in the North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. Occasional incidents happen like North Ossetia-Alania, Karachay-Cherkessia, Volgograd Oblast. In late 1999, Russia's Premier, Vladimir Putin, ordered military, police and security forces to enter the breakaway region of Chechnya. By early 2000, these forces occupied most of the region. High levels of fighting resulted in hundreds of thousands of displaced persons. After his death, Dokka Umarov, declared continuing jihad to establish an fundamentalist Caucasus Emirate in the North Caucasus and beyond. Russia's policy in Chechnya has involved transferring more local security duties to this government. An important factor in Russia's apparent success in Chechnya has been reliance on pro-Moscow Chechen clans affiliated with regional President Ramzan Kadyrov. Paramilitary forces under Kadyrov's authority have committed abuses of human rights, according to rulings by the European Court of others. Terrorist attacks in the North Caucasus appeared to increase substantially in 2007–2010. The insurgency in the North Caucasus is a direct result of the two post-Soviet wars fought between Russia and Chechnya. The First Chechen War took place between 1996. The republic remained a major center of violence for many years. Reported casualties declined, with 26 security forces and 24 suspected militants being killed in 2014.Insurgency in the North Caucasus – Russian President, Dmitri Medvedev, meets with FSB head, Alexander Bortnikov, in March 2009, to discuss the ending of the counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya.
43. Chechnya – The Chechen Republic, commonly referred to as Chechnya, also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in the North Caucasus, situated in the southernmost part of Eastern Europe, within 100 kilometres of the Caspian Sea. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two parts: the Republic of Ingushetia and the Chechen Republic. The latter proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which sought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains and southern regions of the republic. According to Leonti Mroveli, the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas. According to Professor George Anchabadze of Ilia State University The Vainakhs are the ancient natives of the Caucasus. Dr. Henry Harpending, University of Utah, supports her claims. People living in prehistoric cave settlements used skin for other purposes. Traces of human settlement that date back to 40,000 BC were found near Lake Kezanoi. Cave paintings, artifacts, other archaeological evidence indicates continuous habitation for some 8,000 years. 10,000–8000 BCE Migration of Nakh peoples to the slopes of the Caucasus from the Fertile Crescent.Chechnya – 1855 Atlas Map of Turkey and the North Caucasus. Map of the American cartographer J.H.Colton. Top right corner, Chechnya is labeled as Gelia, with Chechen cities: Grosnaja (Grozny), Basdet and Leshistan cities: Andi, Metiro.
44. Afghanistan – Afghanistan /æfˈɡænᵻstæn/, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. Its territory covers 652,000 km2, making the 41st largest country in the world. The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began in the 18th century. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country. It remained peaceful during Zahir Shah's forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of civil wars that continues to this day. The Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul - ` alam. The suffix" - stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." An important site of many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan.Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
45. Zamir Kabulov – Zamir Kabulov is a high rank career diplomat and Russian presidential envoy to Afghanistan. He was the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation until September 21, 2009. His Central Asian background further bolstered his position in dealing with Pakistani issues. From 1979 to 1983 he worked in Iran. From 1983 to 1987 he was second secretary in the Soviet Embassy in Kabul also responsible for relations with the press. From 1987 to 1991 he studied at the Diplomatic Academy in Moscow. During these talks he met with the Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar. Between 1996 -- 1998, Kabulov was a senior political adviser in a special mission of the United Nations based in Pakistan. On 18 Kabulov presented his diplomatic credentials to Hamid Karzai, the head of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan. Agent in Kabul — and eventually as the K.G.B. Resident, Moscow’s top spy — in the 1980s and 1990s, during and after the nine-year Soviet military occupation.” Ambassador of Russia to AfghanistanZamir Kabulov – Zamir Kabulov
46. NATO – The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides. Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members' spending is supposed to amount to 2 % of GDP. The course of the Cold War led with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 2004. The Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a receptive hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. Talks for a military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The creation of NATO can be seen as the institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation.NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
47. Curtis Scaparrotti – Curtis Michael "Mike" Scaparrotti is a four-star general in the United States Army, is the current Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO Allied Command Operations. Scaparrotti is also the commander of the United States European Command. He succeeded General Philip M. Breedlove on May 3, 2016 as SACEUR. Scaparrotti recently served as the Director of the Joint Staff. Prior to his tour with the Joint Staff, General Scaparrotti served as Commander, International Security Assistance Force Joint Command and Deputy Commander, U.S. Forces – Afghanistan, the Commanding General of I Corps and Joint Base Lewis-McChord, the Commanding General of the 82nd Airborne Division. He has commanded forces during Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, Support Hope, Assured Response. His military education includes the Infantry Officer Basic and Advanced Courses, the United States Army War College. He holds a Master’s Degree in Administrative Education from the University of South Carolina. He returned to West Point in 1985 where he was assigned until 1988. After his assignment here, he continued his military studies at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. From 1992 to 1994, he worked in the Army Chief of Staff's office. He served in Washington, D. C. in 1998. From July 2003 to July 2004, Scaparrotti served during the Iraq War. From August 2004 to July 2006, Scaparrotti served at West Point, New York.Curtis Scaparrotti – Scaparrotti as the commander of UNC, CFC, and the USFK
48. Russia – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
49. Taliban – The Taliban, alternatively spelled Taleban, is an Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country. Until his death in 2013, Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates. The group later regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In its / 11 insurgency, the group has been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their political goals. Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban from Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to Iran. The Taliban is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, the plural of ṭālib. This is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban", rather than "an American Talib". In the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban.Taliban – Darul Uloom Deoband, India
50. Shahjalal International Airport – Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport is the largest airport in Bangladesh. Operated and maintained by the Civil Aviation Authority, Bangladesh, it is also used by the Bangladesh Air Force. Located in Kurmitola in northern Dhaka, it started operations in 1980, taking over as the country's sole international airport from Tejgaon Airport. It is the hub including Biman Bangladesh Airlines, US-Bangla Airlines. The airport's IATA code – "DAC" is derived from "Dacca", the previously used spelling for "Dhaka". The airport has an area of 1,981 acres. The airport has a capacity of handling 15 million passengers annually, is predicted by the CAAB to be enough until 2026. In 2014, it handled 6.1 million passengers, 248,000 tonnes of cargo. Average aircraft movement per day is around 190 flights. National flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines is the ground handling provider of the airport. Biman flies from the airport internationally to 39 cities. The airport is located in Kurmitola and was originally 11 NM north of the capital Dhaka. It can be accessed by the eight-lane Airport Road. To the north of the airport lies Uttara and Gazipur, while Dhaka city lies to its south. There is a railway station immediately opposite to the airport named Airport Railway Station.Shahjalal International Airport – Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport হযরত শাহ্জালাল আন্তর্জাতিক বিমানবন্দর
51. Lille – Lille is a city in northern France, in French Flanders. Near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region and the prefecture of the Nord department. The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of Lille at 640. In the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research. Lille's Dutch name is Rijsel, which comes from ijsel. The French equivalent has the same meaning: Lille comes from l'île. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by local princes. The first mention of the town dates from 1066: apud Insulam. At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders, as were the regional cities. The County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, most prosperous regions of Europe. A local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs. There was an important Battle of Lille in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day Saint-Sauveur.Lille – Grand' place, Lille city centre.
52. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
53. National Front (France) – The National Front is a socially conservative, nationalist political party in France. Its major policies include economic protectionism, opposition to mass immigration. As anti-European Union party, the FN has opposed the European Union since its creation. Party representatives reject this and suggest other ways of looking at the left -- right axis. The party was founded in 1972 to unify a variety of nationalist movements of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011. His daughter, was elected as the current leader. While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the major force of French nationalism. In the run-off, he finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac. Due to the electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited, despite its significant share of the vote. They, again, came out in 1st place in the last regional elections with a historic result of nearly 28 % of the votes. Marine Le Pen would lead the first round of the 2017 presidential elections, according to various polls. As of 2015, the FN has established itself as one of the largest political forces in France. In the 1965 presidential election, Le Pen unsuccessfully attempted to consolidate the right-wing vote around the presidential candidate Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour. During early 1970s, the French far-right consisted mainly of small extreme movements such as Occident, Groupe Union Défense, the Ordre Nouveau.National Front (France) – Jean-Marie Le Pen (2001), the long-time leader of the FN.
54. Marine Le Pen – An attorney by profession, she is the youngest daughter of longtime FN leader Jean-Marie Le Pen. She is the aunt of Marion Maréchal-Le Pen. She then became the second president of the party. In 2012, she placed third behind François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy. She finally expelled her father from the party on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements. Le Pen was ranked among the most influential people in 2011 and 2015 by the Time 100. In 2016, she was ranked as second-most influential MEP in the European Parliament by Politico, just behind the President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz. Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen was born on 5 August 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. She is the youngest of the three daughters of a former paratrooper, with his first wife Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized 25 April 1969, at La Madeleine by Father Pohpot. Her godfather was Henri Botey, a relative of her father. She has two sisters: Yann and Marie Caroline. In 1976, Marine survived a bomb attack on the family as they slept in their beds. She was eight when a bomb meant for her father exploded in the stairwell outside the family's apartment. The blast ripped a hole into the outside wall of the building.Marine Le Pen – Marine Le Pen in 2014.
55. Vladimir Putin – Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician, the current President of the Russian Federation, holding the office since 7 May 2012. He was Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, again Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the Chairman of the ruling party. Born in Saint Petersburg, Putin speaks fluent German. He then studied law at the Saint Petersburg State University, graduating in 1975. Putin won the subsequent 2000 presidential election by a 53 % to 30 % margin, thus avoiding a runoff with Gennady Zyuganov. He was reelected President in 2004 with 72% of the vote. During Putin's first presidency, GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72 %. The growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, prudent economic and fiscal policies. Of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third consecutive presidential term in 2008. The 2008 presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev, who appointed Putin Prime Minister, beginning a period of so-called "tandemocracy". In September 2011, after presidential terms were extended from four to six years, Putin announced he would seek a third term as president. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64 % of a result which aligned with pre-election polling. Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly on both the Corruption index. Putin received extensive international attention as one of the world's most powerful leaders.Vladimir Putin – Vladimir Putin Владимир Путин
56. Hosni Mubarak – Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. He was appointed Vice-President of Egypt by President Anwar Sadat in 1975 and assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, eight days after Sadat's assassination. Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak is detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court. Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.Hosni Mubarak – Hosni Mubarak حسني مبارك
57. Cairo – It is the capital and largest city of Egypt. It has music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media, organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence. With a population of million spread over 453 square kilometers, it is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. It, like other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. One of only two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides. The economy of Cairo was 43rd globally by Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians often refer as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country. The location of the ancient city is the suburb of Ain Shams. Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro. However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. This fortress, known as Babylon, is the oldest structure in the city today. Cairo is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Byzantine church in the late 4th century. Many including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.Cairo – Cairo القاهرة al-Qāhirah
58. The Gambia – It is the smallest country in mainland Africa. Its area is 10,689 square kilometres at the April 2013 census. The largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama. Later, on May 1765, The Gambia was made a part of the British colony when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Province of Senegambia. On 18 The Gambia gained independence from the United Kingdom. Following the 1 December 2016 elections, the elections commission declared Adama Barrow the winner of the presidential election. Barrow, won to incumbent Yahya Jammeh's 36.7 %. Mama Kandeh, won 17.8 %. The Gambia's economy is dominated by farming, especially tourism. As of 2008, about a third of the population lived below the international line of US$1.25 per day. The name "Gambia" is derived from the Mandinka Kambra/Kambaa, meaning Gambia river. According in English, The Gambia is one of only two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word "The". Arab traders provided the first written accounts in the ninth and tenth centuries. During the tenth century, Muslim scholars established communities in several West African commercial centres. Both groups established trans-Saharan trade routes, leading to a large trade in slaves, gold and ivory, as well as imports of manufactured goods.The Gambia – Serer civilisation
60. Yahya Jammeh – Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh is the outgoing President of the Gambia. As a young officer, Jammeh took power in a 1994 military coup. He was elected in 1996; he was re-elected in 2001, 2006, 2011. Jammeh was defeated by Adama Barrow in the 2016 election. Although he initially conceded defeat, on 9 December 2016, Jammeh rejected the result citing "unacceptable abnormalities". Jammeh subsequently announced he had annulled the result, pending a new vote. Jammeh then filed a petition with the Supreme Court of the Gambia to contest the result. Jammeh received military police training at Fort McClellan, Alabama. The coup met with very little resistance. The group identified itself with the 29-year-old Jammeh as its chairman. The AFPRC then suspended the constitution, implemented a curfew. He founded the Alliance as his political party. Jammeh was elected as president in September 1996. Foreign observers did not deem these elections fair. A attempt against Jammeh was reported to have been thwarted on 21 March 2006; Jammeh, in Mauritania at the time, quickly returned home.Yahya Jammeh – Yahya Jammeh.
61. Warlord – These armed forces, usually considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the regime. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political, social structure of states or ungoverned territories. There are two functional distinctions when considering warlords vis-à-vis their relationship with the state. This can be viewed as "warlord politics." This is commonly viewed as "ungoverned warlordism." The major consideration in categorizing warlords is through the lens of history. Warlordism was a widespread, political framework that ordered many of the world's societies until the modern state became globally ubiquitous. Often, warlord governance in pre-modern history was constructed along tribal or kinship lines and was congruent with early perceptions of "nation." In colonial empires, warlords served as leaders of rebellions. In modern states, the presence of warlords is often seen as an indicator of state failure. American historian David G. Herrmann noted, "Warlordism is the condition of humanity." In both cases, there is an inherent inefficiency in the model as "resources are wasted on unproductive fighting." However, the functionality is often sustainable because it presents citizens with no choice but to accept rent payments in exchange for protection. An American political scientist and sociologist, theorized that organized crime can function as a means for war and state making. In this model, the citizens are forced to subject to rent payments in order to receive protection from external rivals well as internal political rivals.Warlord – Uesugi Kenshin was one of the most powerful lords of the Warring States period in Japan.
62. Germain Katanga – The verdict was the second-ever conviction in the 12 years of operation of the ICC, following the 2012 conviction of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo. Katanga was born on 28 April 1978 in Orientale Province, in the north-east of Zaire. He is believed to be of Ngiti ethnicity. He has two children. In early 2003, he emerged as the senior commander of a militia group, involved in the conflict in Ituri. On December 2004, Katanga was one of six former militia leaders appointed as generals in the Congolese armed forces as part of a peace process. He was granted the specific rank of general. Katanga was succeeded by Cobra Matata. He was held without charge to the ICC in October 2007. On 1 a United Nations Security Council committee imposed a travel ban and asset freeze on Katanga for violating an arms embargo. He was charged with three counts of crimes against humanity. On 17 October 2007, he was flown to the ICC's detention centre in The Hague. Katanga was the second person surrendered since its establishment in 2002. The hearing to confirm the charges against them began on 27 June 2008. and ended on 11 July 2008. The trial began on 24 November 2009.Germain Katanga – Location of Ituri within the Democratic Republic of the Congo
63. International Criminal Court – The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, war crimes. The ICC began functioning on 1 the date that the Rome Statute entered into force. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as governing document. States which become party for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC. Currently, there are 124 states which are party to the Rome Statute and therefore members of the ICC. However, Burundi, Gambia have given formal notice that they will withdraw from the Rome Statute. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Registry. The President is the most senior judge chosen by her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and proceedings before the Judicial Division. The Office of the Prosecutor is also conducting an additional nine preliminary examinations. None ratified it and the convention never entered into force. Following the Second World War, the allied powers established two hoc tribunals to prosecute axis power leaders accused of war crimes. The International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. Benjamin B.International Criminal Court – The current headquarters of the ICC in The Hague
64. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
65. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is an American politician, businessman, television personality, the President-elect of the United States. Trump is scheduled to take office as the 45th President on January 20, 2017. In 1971, Trump took control of Elizabeth Trump & Son, later renamed The Trump Organization. During his career, he has built, renovated or managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos, golf courses. Trump has lent the use of his name to brand various products. Trump became a fixture of television as he hosted The Apprentice on NBC from 2004 to 2015. As of 2016, Forbes listed Trump with a net worth of $4.5 billion. He withdrew before voting began. Trump ultimately decided against it. In June 2015, Trump quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 contenders in the Republican primaries. In July he was formally nominated at the Republican Convention. Trump's campaign received international attention. Many of his statements on social media, at campaign rallies were controversial or false. Anti-Trump protests occurred during his campaign and after the election. He won the general election on November 2016, gaining a majority of the U.S.Donald Trump – Donald Trump
66. Keystone XL – The Keystone Pipeline System is an oil pipeline system in Canada and the United States, commissioned in 2010. Three phases of the project are in operation. The Keystone-Cushing extension, running 468 kilometres from Steele City at Cushing, Oklahoma, completed in February 2011. However, after more than six years of review, President Barack Obama announced on his administration's rejection of the fourth phase. Donald Trump, has stated that he would "absolutely approve it, 100 percent." The first two phases have the capacity to deliver up into the Mid-West refineries. Phase III has capacity to deliver up to the Texas refineries. By comparison, U.S. production averaged 9,400,000 barrels per day in first-half 2015, with gross exports of 500,000 barrels per day through July 2015. The Keystone Pipeline system consists of the operational Phase I, Phase III, the Gulf Coast Pipeline Project. Keystone XL, failed to receive necessary permits from the United States federal government in 2015. Construction of Phase III, to Nederland, Texas, in the Gulf Coast area, began in August 2012 as an independent economic utility. Cushing is a major crude oil marketing/refining and hub. Operating since the original Keystone Pipeline System is an 3,461-kilometre pipeline delivering Canadian crude oil to U.S. Midwest markets and Cushing, Oklahoma. It also included approximately 373 kilometres of new 30-inch diameter pipeline, the Keystone Hardisty Terminal. The U.S. portion of the Keystone Pipeline included 1,744 kilometres of 30-inch diameter pipeline in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri and Illinois.Keystone XL – Keystone 30 in (760 mm) pipeline (phase 1) near Swanton, Nebraska (2009)
67. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law requires insurers to charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. In 2011, the Congressional Budget Office projected that the ACA would lower future deficits and Medicare spending. Its implementation faced challenges from some state governments, conservative advocacy groups, labor unions, small business organizations. The law has caused a significant reduction in the percentage of people without insurance. The CDC reported that the percentage of people without insurance fell to 8.9 % during the January -- June 2016 period. According to the Kaiser Foundation, cost increases in the employer market continued to moderate. As implementation began, first opponents and then most others adopted the term "Obamacare" to refer to the ACA. The ACA includes provisions to take effect between 2020, although most took effect on January 2014. The complexity of changes was unprecedented in the US health system. Not all provisions took full effect. Others were discarded before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions. States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. The law provides a 5 % "disregard", making the effective income limit for Medicaid 138 % of the poverty level.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The President and White House Staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
68. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The new agency became operational on October 1958. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. This led to an agreement that a federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. Many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.NASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
69. Shane Kimbrough – Robert S. Kimbrough is a retired United States Army officer and a NASA astronaut. He was part of the first group of candidates selected for NASA training following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. He is the current commander of the International Space Station. Born in Killeen, Texas, Kimbrough attended The Lovett School in Atlanta, Georgia. Kimbrough later graduated from Georgia Tech with a master's degree in Operations Research in 1998. He helped NASA train astronauts before he himself was selected for training. He retired with the rank of Colonel. Kimbrough was a Mission Specialist on STS-126, which launched on November 2008. During the mission, Kimbrough participated in two spacewalks, 52 minutes in EVA. He launched onboard Soyuz MS-02 to the International Space Station as part of a four month mission for Expedition 49/50. Shane Kimbrough on Twitter NASA biography Spacefacts biography of R. Shane Kimbrough Georgia Tech storyShane Kimbrough – Shane Kimbrough
70. ESA – The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states. Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle. After World War II, European scientists left Western Europe in order to work with the United States. The meeting was attended by scientific representatives including Harrie Massey. The latter was established on 20 March 1964 by an agreement signed on 14 June 1962. From 1968 to 1972, ESRO launched seven research satellites. ESA in its current form was founded with the ESA Convention in 1975, when ESRO was merged with ELDO. ESA has 10 founding member states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom. These deposited the instruments of ratification by 1980, when the convention came into force. During this interval the agency functioned in a facto fashion. ESA launched its first scientific mission in 1975, Cos-B, a space probe monitoring gamma-ray emissions in the universe first worked on by ESRO. ESA operated very successfully for 18 years. In 1986 ESA began Giotto, its first deep-space mission, to study the comets Halley and Grigg -- Skjellerup. In the 1990s SOHO, Ulysses and the Hubble Space Telescope were all jointly carried out with NASA. Scientific missions in cooperation with NASA include the Cassini -- Huygens space probe, to which ESA contributed by building the Titan landing module Huygens.ESA – ESA Mission Control at ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany
71. Thomas Pesquet – Thomas Pesquet is a French aerospace engineer, pilot, European Space Agency astronaut. He successfully completed his basic training in November 2010. From 19 Pesquet is part of the International Space Station as a crew member for Expedition 50 and Expedition 51. He considers Dieppe his hometown. Pesquet is the youngest of two brothers. He lists basketball, jogging, swimming, squash as his favorite sports. Pesquet enjoys mountain biking, kite surfing, sailing, skiing and mountaineering. Pesquet holds advanced licenses in both scuba diving and parachuting. His other interests include traveling, reading. He graduated in 1998. Pesquet spent his final year before graduation as an exchange student on the Aeronautics and Space Master. He graduated from the Air France school in 2006. This led to an Airline Transport Pilot License-Instrument Rating. From October 2001, he worked on remote sensing missions for GMV, S.A. in Madrid, Spain. Between 2004, he worked at the French space agency, CNES, as a research engineer on space missions autonomy.Thomas Pesquet – Thomas Pesquet
72. Spacewalk – Extravehicular activity is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere. Astronauts also used EVA in 1973 to repair damage to Skylab, the United States' first space station. A "Stand-up" EVA is where the astronaut is completely reliant on the spacesuit for environmental support. Its name derives from the astronaut "standing up" in the open hatch, usually to assist a spacewalking astronaut. EVAs may be untethered. The Soviet Union/Russia, China have conducted EVAs. The Soviets were able to launch two Voskhod capsules before U.S. was able to launch its first manned Gemini. By contrast, the Gemini avionics did not require air allowing the spacewalking astronaut to exit and re-enter the depressurized cabin through an open hatch. Because of this, Soviet space programs developed different definitions for the duration of an EVA. The cosmonaut is in vacuum. An American EVA began when the astronaut had at least his head outside the spacecraft. The USA has changed its EVA definition since. The first EVA was performed on March 1965 by Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov, who spent 12 minutes outside the Voskhod 2 spacecraft. He improperly got stuck sideways. He could not get back in without reducing the pressure in his suit, risking "the bends".Spacewalk – Cosmonaut Sergey Volkov works outside the International Space Station on August 3, 2011.
73. International Space Station – The International Space Station is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, American Space Shuttles. The station is suited for equipment required to the Moon and Mars. It completes 15.54 orbits per day. The station has been continuously occupied for 48 days since the arrival on 2 November 2000. This is the longest human presence in low orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 7008314841600000000 ♠ 9 years and 357 days held by Mir. It has been visited by astronauts, cosmonauts and space tourists from 17 different nations. The ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, CSA. The use of the station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into the United States Orbital Segment, shared by many nations. As of January 2014, the American portion of ISS is being funded until 2024. On 28 March 2015, Russian sources announced that Roscosmos and NASA had agreed to collaborate on the development of a replacement for the current ISS. NASA later issued a guarded statement expressing thanks for Russia's interest in future co-operation in space exploration, but fell short of confirming the Russian announcement. It was also planned to provide transportation, act to the Moon, Mars and asteroids.International Space Station – International Space Station
74. Metropolitan Police Service – As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 1,626 non-sworn police support officers. This number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, one of the biggest in the world. The post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is currently occupied by Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioner's subordinate, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey. A number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is sometimes referred to as the Old Bill. The Met's current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria. In 1837, it also incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol, organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime. The mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf; the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly. The area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District.Metropolitan Police Service – London
75. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The group first proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate and began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions. ISIL is headed and run by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Before their deaths, he had two deputy leaders, Abu Muslim al-Turkmani for Iraq and Abu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, both ethnic Turkmen. Advising al-Baghdadi is a cabinet of senior leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria are controlled by local governors. Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a shura council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. While al-Baghdadi has told followers to "advise me when I err" in sermons, according to observers "any threat, opposition, or even contradiction is instantly eradicated". In 2014 The Wall Street Journal estimated that eight million people live in areas controlled by ISIL. Al-Raqqah in Syria has been under ISIL control since 2013 and in 2014 it became the group's de facto capital city. Civilians, as well as the Islamic State itself, have released footage of some of the human rights abuses. Since December 2013, ongoing clashes have occurred throughout western Iraq between tribal militias, Iraqi security forces, ISIL.Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
76. Russian Duma – The State Duma in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia. The Duma headquarters are located from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma was Russia's first elected parliament. The first two attempts by Tsar Nicholas II to make it active were ineffective. Subsequently, each of these Dumas was dissolved after only a few months. The third Duma was the only one to last to the end of its 5-year term. The establishment of the Duma after the 1905 Revolution was to herald significant changes to the autocratic system. In the December 1993 elections pro-Yeltsin parties won 175 seats versus 125 seats for the left bloc. The balance of power lay with the sixty four deputies of the ultranationalist Democratic Party of Russia. Only parties that won more than five percent of the vote were given party-list seats: eight passed the threshold in 1993. In addition to those eight parties, a pool of five deputies was entitled to form a registered group to reflect regional or sectoral interests. Business was governed by the Duma Council, consisting of one person from each party or group. The most important task was dividing up the chair positions in the Duma’s twenty three committees, done as part of a power-sharing "package" deal. The work such as those for defense, foreign affairs, or budget, attracted a good deal of media attention and lobbying activity.Russian Duma
77. Ukraine – Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. Two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near another during World War II. Following independence, Ukraine declared a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited military partnership with NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych was against Ukraine joining NATO. These events formed the background by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. Both are still ongoing as of December 2016. On 1 Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union. It remains one of the world's largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, judicial branches.Ukraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC
78. Ilya Ponomarev – Ilya Vladimirovich Ponomarev is a Russian politician, former member of the State Duma and a technology entrepreneur. Ponomarev was the only member of the State Duma to vote during the 2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Ponomaryov lives in self-imposed exile in California. He holds a BSc in Physics from a Master of Public Administration from the Russian State Social University. Ponomarev started his career when he was 14 years old at the Institute for Russian Academy of Sciences. Later he was in Russia, the first one when he was 16 years old. His first position was at the Institute for Nuclear Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1995/1996 he acted in Russia. At that time Ponomarev created one of the largest distributed networks in Russia for now-defunct company Yukos. Afterwards Ponomarev worked from 1998 -- 2001. Ponomarev went on to earn a living as a entrepreneur. In 2002 -- 2007 Ponomarev worked as the chief officer of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He is known to be standing on unorthodox left, best described as progressive position. Some people call him neo-communist, although critics inside Communist Party of Russia has identified him as "neotrotskyist". Ponomarev himself identifies his approach as "social globalism".Ilya Ponomarev – Ponomarev at the 2012 Horasis Global Russia Business Meeting
79. Sangin – Sangin is a town in Helmand province of Afghanistan, with population of approximately 14,000 people. It is located on 32 ° 4 ′ 24 ″ N 64 ° 50 ′ 2 ″ E in the valley of the Helmand River to the north-east of Lashkargah. It was described as "the deadliest area in Afghanistan". Sangin also houses the main bazaar for Sangin District. Route 611 passes through Sangin. Sangin has a hot climate, characterised by little precipitation and high variation between summer and winter temperatures. The average temperature in Sangin is 18.8 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 143 mm. July is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 31.6 °C. January has an average temperature of 6.1 ° C. The base immediately became a target for poppy growers. FOB Wolf would soon be renamed FOB Robinson of Brandon, Mississippi. Robinson was killed while on mission Carpe Diem with the Special Forces group in the valley center. Later in March, a resupply convoy from 1/124th IN SECFOR was sent to FOB Wolf. The convoy was involved in a complex ambush that lasted about an hour resulting in 8 -- no friendly forces lost. After regrouping the convoy an Afghan National Army vehicle struck an explosive device killing six Afghans outside of Hyderabad, Gerishk District, Helmand province, Afghanistan.Sangin – Sangin District Centre during a fight between American troops and the Taliban in 2007
80. Helmand Province – Helmand or Hillmand is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, in the south of the country. It is the largest province by area, covering 58,584 square kilometres area. The province contains 13 districts, encompassing over 1,000 villages, roughly 879,500 settled people. Lashkar Gah serves as the provincial capital. Helmand was part of the Greater Kandahar region until made into a separate province by the Afghan government in the 20th century. The province has a domestic airport (Bost Airport, in the city of Lashkar Gah and heavily used by NATO-led forces. The British Camp Bastion and U.S. Camp Leatherneck are a short distance northwest of Lashkar Gah. The Helmand River flows through the mainly desert region of the province, providing water for irrigation. The Kajaki Dam, one of Afghanistan's major reservoirs, is located in the Kajaki district. Helmand is believed to be one of the world's largest opium-producing regions, responsible for around 42% of the world's total production. This is believed to be more than the whole of Burma, the second largest producing nation after Afghanistan. The region also produces tobacco, sugar beets, cotton, sesame, wheat, mung beans, potato, tomato, cauliflower, peanut, apricot, grape, melon. Helmand culture of western Afghanistan was a Bronze Age culture of the 3rd millennium BC. It is exemplified by such major sites as Shahr-i Sokhta, Mundigak, Bampur.Helmand Province – Arghandab River Valley between Kandahar and Lashkar Gah
81. Antwerp, Belgium – Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium. Its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked by the Westerschelde estuary. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, both economically and especially before the Spanish Fury in the Dutch Revolt. The city also hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. For those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river. Eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, which has evolved to today's warp. A longstanding theory is that the name comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river. More something like an outpost with a river crossing.Antwerp, Belgium – Antwerp Antwerpen
82. Fort Collins, Colorado – Fort Collins is the Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Larimer County, Colorado, United States. Situated on the Cache La Poudre River along the Colorado Front Range, Fort Collins is located 65 miles north of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. With a 2016 estimated population of 161,000, it is the fourth most populous city in Colorado after Denver, Colorado Springs, Aurora. Fort Collins is a midsize college city, home to Colorado State University. Fort Collins was founded as a military outpost of the United States Army in 1864. It succeeded a previous encampment, known as Camp Collins, on the Cache La Poudre River, near what is known today as Laporte. Camp Collins was erected during the Indian wars of the mid-1860s to protect the Overland mail route, recently relocated through the region. Travelers crossing the county on the Overland Trail would camp there, but a flood destroyed the camp in June 1864. The post was manned originally by two companies of the 11th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry and never had walls. Settlers began arriving in the vicinity of the fort nearly immediately. The fort was decommissioned in 1867. The original fort site is now adjacent to the present historic "Old Town" portion of the city. The first school and church opened in 1866, the town was platted in 1867. The city's first population boom came in 1872, with the establishment of an agricultural colony. Hundreds of settlers arrived, developing lots just south of the original Old Town.Fort Collins, Colorado – Downtown "Old Town" Fort Collins
83. BalakliyaBalakliya – Main Street of Balaklija
84. Sinking of MV Sewol – The sinking of MV Sewol occurred on the morning of 16 April 2014, en route from Incheon to Jeju in South Korea. The ferry capsized while carrying 476 people, mostly secondary school students from Danwon High School. The 6,825-ton vessel sent a distress signal at 08:58 Korea Standard Time. In all, crew members died in the disaster. The sinking of Sewol resulted within South Korea. Many criticized most of the crew of the ferry. More criticized the regulators who oversaw its operations. Additional criticism attempts to downplay government culpability. On 22 police revealed that they had established that a dead man found in a field 415 kilometres south of Seoul was Yoo. Police say they have yet to establish the cause of Yoo's death. The modifications were later found to have been based on an illegal redesign of the ship. The modifications resulted in her center of gravity being moved upward by.51 m well as a left-right imbalance. After the modification, Sewol had a legal capacity of 956 people including the crew, 154 regular cargo containers. She had 46 rubber lifeboats, each with a capacity of 45. She could travel at a maximum of 22 knots.Sinking of MV Sewol – MV Sewol capsizing, as taken by the South Korean coast guard on 16 April 2014
85. South Korea – South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The earliest Korean pottery dates with three kingdoms flourishing in the 1st century BC. Its vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites. Annexed by Imperial Japan in 1910 due to its central location, Korea was divided after its surrender in 1945. A Korean invasion led to the Korean War. A long legacy of focus in innovation made it successful. It is the only G20 nation trading freely with China, the US and EU simultaneously. It is rated highly in peaceful tolerance and inclusion of minorities. South Korea is East Asia's most developed country in the Human Development Index. The name Korea derives from Goryeo, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants, who called it "Korea". The name Goryeo originally referred to the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, which referred to itself, was widely referred to, since the 5th century. The modern spelling, "Korea", first appeared in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After Goryeo was replaced in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country to Daehan Jeguk.South Korea – Flag
86. MV Sewol – MV Sewol was a Korean vehicle-passenger ferry, built and previously operated in Japan. It was operated to Jeju. On April 2014 Sewol capsized and sank with the loss of 304 passengers and crew. Sewol was a RoPax ferry, built in 1994. At 22 m in width, she could carry 921 passengers, or a total of 956 persons, including the crew. She had a legal capacity for 154 regular cargo containers. The maximum speed of the ship was 22 knots. The ferry had been operated in Japan for almost 18 years without any accidents. In 2012, the ship was later bought by Chonghaejin Marine Company, controlled by the family of businessman Yoo Byung-eun. The ship was refurbished. After regulatory and safety checks by the Korean Register of Shipping, the ship began her operation on 15 March 2013. The ship made every week from Incheon to Jeju. On April 2014 Sewol capsized and sank 1.5 kilometres off Donggeochado, Jindo County, South Jeolla Province on a voyage from Incheon to Jeju. 304 of those on board died. The South Korea government's Board of Audit and Inspection revealed that the Korean Register's licensing was based on falsified documents.MV Sewol – MV Sewol at Incheon in March 2014
87. United States House of Representatives – The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. Since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof and is therefore traditionally the leader of the controlling party. Other floor leaders are chosen depending on whichever party has more voting members. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates. The issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation. The Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. Its implementation was set for March 1789. The House began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time.United States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
88. Houses of Parliament – Commonly known after its occupants, it is also known as the ` heart of British politics'. The Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and, for ceremonial purposes, retains its original status as a royal residence. The building is managed by committees appointed by both houses, which report to the Speaker of the House of the Lord Speaker. Barry was assisted by a leading authority on Gothic architecture and style, who designed the interior of the Palace. The Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1987. The Palace of Westminster site was strategically important during the Middle Ages, as it was located on the banks of the River Thames. The surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Those used by William I survive. The oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the Medieval period. The Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall. The first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265. During the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace. In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from a powerful minister who had lost the King's favour.Houses of Parliament – The Palace of Westminster with Elizabeth Tower and Westminster Bridge, viewed from across the River Thames
89. Raqqa – It is located 40 kilometres east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The city was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, al-Raqqah was the sixth largest city in Syria. In 2013, the city was captured by the Islamic State of the Levant. ISIL went on to make the city its headquarters in Syria in 2014. As a result, the city has been hit from the Syrian government, Russia, several other countries. Most non-Sunni religious structures in the city have been destroyed by ISIL, most notably the Shi'ite Uwais al-Qarni Mosque. The modern city traces its history by the Seleucid king Seleucus I Nicator. Seleucus II Callinicus renamed it after himself as Kallinikos. In Roman times, it was part of the province of Osrhoene, but had declined by the 4th century. Rebuilt by the Byzantine emperor Leo I in 466, it was named Leontopolis after him, but the name Kallinikos prevailed. The city played an important role in the Byzantine Empire's relation with Sassanid Persia and the wars fought between two states. By treaty, it was recognized as one of the cross-border trading posts between the two empires. In the 6th century, Kallinikos became a center of Assyrian monasticism. Dayra d'Mār Zakkā, or the Saint Zacchaeus Monastery, situated on Tall al-Bi'a, became renowned.Raqqa – Al-Raqqah skyline • The Euphrates Al-Raqqah city walls • Baghdad gate Qasr al-Banat Castle • Uwais al-Qarni Mosque
90. Hama Governorate – Hama Governorate is one of the fourteen governorates of Syria. It is situated in western-central Syria. Its area depends on sources. It varies to 8,883 km ². Governorate has a population of 1,593,000. The capital is Hama. Hama is an important industrial center in Syria, with 3,680 square kilometres, over a third of the governorate's area, under cultivation. The governorate produces over half of the national crop of potatoes and pistachio nuts, well as growing a variety of other vegetables. Ranching is also common in the governorate. The governorate is divided into five districts: Al-Suqaylabiyah Hamah Masyaf Muhardeh Salamiyah These are further divided into 22 sub-districts. Hama Governorate has the most important Isma'ilism community in Syria. The Governorate has a large Christians population. For the most part, the governorate has stayed under the Assad regime's control. Ehama The First Complete website for hama news and servicesHama Governorate – Map of Syria with Hama highlighted
91. Khitab – According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, Khitab had a population of 10,830 in the 2004 census. Its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims. During the Ottoman era, Khitab was part of the Sanjak of Hama. It paid 5,610 qirsh in taxes to the treasury. In the 1930s about two-thirds of the village's lands were owned by the al-Azm family. In 1838, Khitab was recorded as a Muslim village.Khitab – Khitab خطاب Khutab Khattab
92. Boko Haram insurgency – The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. By 2015, Shekau's faction became ISIL's West Africa branch. In 2013, over 1,000 people died as a result of the conflict. The violence escalated dramatically with 10,849 deaths. In 2014, the insurgency spread to neighboring Cameroon, Chad, Niger thus becoming a regional conflict. In 2015, a offensive forced Boko Haram to retreat into the Sambisa Forest. The insurgency took place between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities. Boko Haram has been called the world's deadliest terrorist group, in terms of the number of people it has killed. Sir Frederick Lugard, assumed office in 1912. The aftermath of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of, Cameroon, to French, British mandates. Cameroon was divided in British parts, the latter of, further subdivided into southern and northern parts. A large part of the areas affected by the insurgency. Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as back as 1953. This was a major factor in the resulting civil war. After Maitatsine's death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more.Boko Haram insurgency
93. Israel Defense Forces – The Israel Defense Forces, commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force, navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The Israel Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world in many ways. Differences include the mandatory conscription of its structure, which emphasizes close relations between the force. Since its founding, the IDF has been specifically designed to match Israel's unique security situation. The IDF is one of Israeli society's most prominent institutions, influencing the country's economy, culture and political scene. In 1965, the Israel Defense Forces was awarded the Israel Prize for its contribution to education. The Uzi submachine gun was invented in Israel and used by the IDF until December 2003, ending a service that began in 1954. The IDF traces its roots to Jewish paramilitary organizations in the New Yishuv, starting with the Second Aliyah. The first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. It was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, was mainly created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade. The order called for the establishment of the Israel Defense Forces, the abolishment of all other Jewish armed forces.Israel Defense Forces – Major-Gen. Ariel Sharon (left), during the Battle of Abu-Ageila, June 1967
94. Palestinian territories – Israeli governments have maintained that the area involved is within territorial dispute. The extent of the territories, while subject to future negotiations, have frequently been defined by the Green Line. In December 2012, UN Secretariat communications replaced this by the term State of Palestine. The ISO adopted the name change in 2013. But, as of August 2015, the UN Security Council continues to treat Palestine as a non-sovereign entity; This prevents its admission to UN General Assembly membership. Israel occupied the territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the Six-Day War of 1967 and has since maintained control. Previously, these territories had been occupied by Jordan and Egypt, respectively, since the 1948 founding of Israel. In 1980, Israel officially absorbed East Jerusalem and has proclaimed the whole of Jerusalem to be its capital. The inclusion, though never formally amounting to legal annexation, declared "void" by the United Nations Security Council. Israel shut them down in response to the Sbarro bombing. Israeli sovereignty, however, has not been recognized by any country, since the unilateral annexation of territory occupied during war contravenes the Fourth Geneva Convention. The cost of the occupation for Israel over four decades is estimated to amount to $50 billion. The World Bank estimates the annual cost in 2013 to the Palestinian economy of Israeli occupation at $3.4 billion. With the Palestine Liberation Organization intention to declare a Palestinian State, Jordan renounced all territorial claims including East Jerusalem. Since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988, 135 UN Member Nations have recognized the State of Palestine, comprising the Palestinian territories.Palestinian territories
95. Gaza Strip – Gaza, together with the West Bank, comprise the Palestinian territories claimed as the State of Palestine. The territories of the West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory. It has been placed under an U.S.-led international economic and political boycott from that time onwards. The territory is 41 kilometers long, from 6 to 12 kilometers wide, with a total area of square kilometers. With around million Palestinians on some 362 square kilometers, Gaza ranks as the 3rd most densely populated polity in the world. An Israeli buffer zone within the Strip renders much land off-limits to Gaza's Palestinians. Gaza is often referred to as overcrowded. The population is expected to increase in 2020. By that time, Gaza may be rendered unliveable, if present trends continue. Sunni Muslims make up the predominant part of the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip. It maintains a no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory. Gaza is dependent on Israel for its water, electricity, other utilities. When Hamas won 2006, Fatah refused to join the proposed coalition, until a short-lived unity government agreement was brokered by Saudi Arabia. Economic sanctions were imposed by Israel and the European Quartet against Hamas. A civil war between the two groups had broken out in Gaza when, apparently under a U.S.-backed plan, Fatah contested Hamas's administration.Gaza Strip – Gaza Strip, with Israeli-controlled borders and limited fishing zone
96. Israeli Air Force – The Israeli Air Force operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence. As of May 2012 Aluf Amir Eshel serves as the Air Force Commander. The Israeli Air Force formed on May 1948, using obsolete and surplus World War II combat-aircraft. Eventually, more aircraft were procured, including Boeing B-17s, P-51D Mustangs. The Israeli Air Force played an important part in Operation Kadesh, Israel's part in the 1956 Suez Crisis. On October 7, 1973, the IAF conducted Operation Tagar against Egyptian air bases of the Egyptian Air Defence Force. Although initially successful, with 10 bases hit, the urgency of the fighting on the Golan heights forced the operation's suspension. Since that war most of Israel's military aircraft have been obtained from the United States. Among these are the F-4 Phantom II, A-4 Skyhawk, F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. The Israeli Air Force has also operated a number of domestically produced types such as the IAI Nesher, later, the more advanced IAI Kfir. On June 1981, eight IAF F-16A fighters covered by six F-15A jets carried out Operation Opera to destroy the nuclear facilities at Osiraq. On June 1982, the Israeli Air Force carried out Operation Mole Cricket 19, crippling the Syrian air array. The IAF continued to mount attacks on Hezbollah and PLO positions in south Lebanon. The strike involved the bombing of PLO Headquarters in Tunis, by F-15 Eagles.Israeli Air Force – Gloster Meteor
97. Damascus, Syria – Damascus is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a metropolitan area of million people. The Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. It is all of the government ministries. The name of Damascus first appeared in the 15th BC. The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic. It is attested in Akkadian T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammeśeq in Biblical Hebrew. The Akkadian spelling is found from the 14th BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name often include an intrusive resh, perhaps influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling".Damascus, Syria – View of Damascus from Mount Qassioun
98. Ramle – Ramla is a city in central Israel. The city is predominantly Jewish with a significant Arab minority. It was founded circa 705 -- 715 CE by the Umayyad caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. After an outbreak of the Black Death in 1347, which greatly reduced the population, an order of Franciscan monks established a presence in the city. Under Ottoman rule the city became an important center. Napoleon's French Army occupied it to Acre. The town had an Arab majority before most of its Arab inhabitants were expelled or fled during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The town was subsequently repopulated by Jewish immigrants. In 2001, 80% of the population were Jewish and 20% Arab. In recent years, attempts have been made to beautify the city, plagued by neglect, a negative public image. New shopping malls and public parks have been built, a municipal museum opened in 2001. A 2013 Israeli police report documented that the Central District ranks fourth among Israel's seven districts in terms of drug-related arrests. Five prisons are located including the maximum-security Ayalon Prison. Its name was derived from the Arabic word raml, meaning sand. The early residents came from nearby Ludd.Ramle – רַמְלָה
99. Gin – Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, gin has evolved to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. The gin is a shortened form of the older English word genever, related to the French word genièvre and the Dutch word jenever. All ultimately derive from the Latin for juniper. Although different styles of gin have evolved, it is legally differentiated into four categories in the European Union, which are described as follows. It must be bottled at a minimum of 30% ABV. Juniper-flavoured spirit drinks may also be sold under the names Wacholder or Genebra. The flavour must be juniper. Gin obtained simply by adding flavourings to ethanol of agricultural origin is not distilled gin. The London gin may be supplemented by the term "dry". In the EU, the minimum alcoholic strength for gin, distilled gin, London gin is 37.5 % ABV. In the United States, gin is defined as an alcoholic beverage of no less than 40% ABV that possesses the characteristic flavour of juniper berries. Gin produced only through redistillation of aromatics with an alcoholic wash can be further distinguished and marketed as "distilled gin". Different techniques for the production of gin have evolved since its early origins, this evolution being reflective of ongoing modernization in distillation and flavouring techniques. As a result of this evolution, gins can be broadly differentiated into three basic styles.Gin – A selection of bottled gins offered at a liquor store
100. Whiskey – Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains are used including barley, corn, rye, wheat. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, generally made of charred white oak. Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many classes and types. The unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains, distillation, aging in wooden barrels. The whisky is an anglicisation of the Classical Gaelic word uisce meaning "water". Distilled alcohol was known as aqua vitae. This was translated to Classical Gaelic as Irish: uisce beatha/Scottish Gaelic: beatha "water of life". Early forms of the word in English included uskebeaghe, usquebaugh, usquebae. Much is made of the word's two spellings: whiskey. There are two schools of thought on the issue. There is general agreement that when quoting the proper name printed on a label, the spelling on the label should not be altered. Some writers refer to "whisky" or "whisky/whiskey" to acknowledge the variation. The whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, while whisky is used in all other whisky producing countries. In the US, the usage has not always been consistent.Whiskey – Whisky with ice
101. World War I – More than million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. It paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within weeks, the major powers were at the conflict soon spread around the world. On 28 the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia. As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. The Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. Economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. In Canada, Maclean's magazine in October 1914 wrote, "Some wars name themselves.World War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
102. British Army during World War I – The British Army during World War I fought the largest and most costly war in its long history. Unlike the French and German Armies, the British Army was made up exclusively of volunteers—as opposed to conscripts—at the beginning of the conflict. Furthermore, the British Army was considerably smaller than its French and German counterparts. During World War I, there were three distinct British Armies. The "first" army was the small volunteer force of 400,000 soldiers, over half of which were posted overseas to garrison the British Empire. This total included the Regular Army and reservists in the Territorial Force. Together, they formed the British Expeditionary Force, formed for service in France and became known as the Old Contemptibles. The'second' army was Kitchener's Army, formed from the volunteers in 1914–1915 destined to go into action at the Battle of the Somme. The vast majority of the British Army fought against the German Empire. The expansion of the British Army saw some officers promoted to commander in less than a year. Army commanders also had to cope with the new tactics and weapons that were developed. With the move from manoeuvre to warfare, both the artillery had to learn how to work together. During an offensive, when in defence, they learned how to combine forces to defend the front line. The men at the front had to struggle with supply problems–there was a shortage of food; and disease was rife in the damp, rat-infested conditions. Along with action, many soldiers had to contend with new diseases: trench foot, trench nephritis.British Army during World War I – August 1914: London volunteers await their pay at St. Martin-in-the-Fields
103. Security Service of Ukraine – Educational Institutions National Academy of Security Service of Ukraine Institute in preparation of Service Personnel at the National Law Academy of Yaroslav the Wise. To support the Soviet government in Ukraine in Moscow was formed a corps of special assignment as part of the All-Ukrainian Cheka. In spring 1919 there was consisted of Adolph Joffe, Stanislav Kosior, Martin Latsis. In its early years the agency fought against the "kulak-nationalistic banditry". On August 1920 the All Ukrainian Cheka arrested all members of the All Ukrainian Conference of Mensheviks after accusing them in counterrevolution. On December 1934 the State Political Directorate was liquidated. The SBU is a successor of the Soviet Socialist Republic's Branch of the Soviet KGB, keeping the majority of its 1990s personnel. Many of whom came from the KGB’s 5th directorate. Since 1992, the agency has been competing with the intelligence branch of the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense. Despite this, Ihor Smeshko, served as an SBU chief until 2005. Reports of SBU involvement in sales abroad began appearing regularly in the early 2000s. Ukrainian authorities have arrested some alleged participants. In 2004, the SBU's Intelligence Department was reorganized into an independent agency called Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine. It is responsible for all kinds of intelligence well as for external security. As of 2004, the exact functions of respective responsibilities of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine were not regulated yet.Security Service of Ukraine – Main Department "K" (Fight with corruption and organized crime)
104. Eurovision Song Contest – The competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951. The contest has been broadcast every year for sixty years, since its inauguration in 1956, is one of the longest-running television programmes in the world. Eurovision has also been broadcast to several countries that do not compete, such as the USA, Canada, China. In November 2015, the EBU announced that Australia was invited back as a participant in the 2016 contest after their success in 2015. Following their success again in 2016, Australia will compete again in 2017. Since 2000, the contest has also been broadcast over the Internet via the Eurovision website. Winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a short-term boost to the winning artists' career, but rarely results in long-term success. Notable exceptions are ABBA, Bucks Fizz and Céline Dion, all of whom launched successful worldwide careers after their wins. Under the current system, the highest winner is Jamala of Ukraine who won the 2016 contest in Stockholm, Sweden with 534 points. In place from 1975 to 2015, the highest winner is Alexander Rybak of Norway with 387 points in 2009. The Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial network. The name "Eurovision" was first used by British journalist George Campey in the London Evening Standard in 1951. The first contest was held in the town of Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated—each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957, all contests have allowed one entry per country.Eurovision Song Contest – Opening act in Düsseldorf in 2011
105. Crimea – The peninsula is located south of west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is separated from Kuban by the Strait of Kerch. The Arabat Spit is located to a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Crimea has historically been between the classical world and the Pontic -- Caspian steppe. Adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire. Since 1997, after the Peace and Friendship Treaty signed by Russia and Ukraine, Crimea hosts the Black Sea Fleet naval base in Sevastopol. Its facilities were divided between Russia's Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian Naval Forces. The two navies co-used some of the city's piers, while others were demilitarised or used by either country. Sevastopol remained the location of the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters with the Ukrainian Naval Forces Headquarters also based in the city. The most of the international community do not consider Crimea to be Ukrainian territory. Russia temporarily administers the federal city of Sevastopol. Ukraine continues to assert its right over the peninsula. Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. In English usage since the modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary.Crimea – Ruins of ancient Greek colony of Chersonesos
106. Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation – The Ukrainian Autonomous Republic of Crimea declared independence and decided to return to the Russian Federation on 18 March 2014. On 23 February 2014, pro-Russian demonstrations were held in the Crimean city of Sevastopol. It led to the other members of the then G8 suspending Russia from the group, then introducing the first round of sanctions against the country. The resolution calls upon international organizations to imply the recognition of Russia's annexation. The Russian Federation opposes the "annexation" label, with Putin defending the referendum as complying with the principle of self-determination of peoples. In July 2015, Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev said that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia. A series of short-lived governments were established during first stages of the Russian Civil War, but they were followed by White Russian. In October 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR was instituted. In 1990, the Soviet of the Crimean Oblast proposed the restoration of the Crimean ASSR. The oblast conducted a referendum in 1991, which asked whether Crimea should be elevated into a signatory of the New Union Treaty. By that time, though, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was well underway. The Crimean ASSR was restored for less than a year as part of Soviet Ukraine before Ukrainian independence. Newly independent Ukraine maintained Crimea's autonomous status, while the Supreme Council of Crimea affirmed the peninsula's "sovereignty" as a part of Ukraine. The autonomous status of Crimea was limited by Ukrainian authorities in 1995. On 24 anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held by ethnic Russian residents.Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation – Euromaidan in Kiev, 11 December 2013
107. North Korea and weapons of mass destruction – North Korea may also have a chemical weapon and/or biological weapons capability. Since 2003, North Korea is no longer a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. On October 2006, North Korea announced it had successfully conducted its nuclear test. An underground nuclear explosion was detected, its yield was estimated as less than a kiloton, some radioactive output was detected. On January 2007, the Korean government further confirmed that it had nuclear weapons. On May 2009, North Korea conducted a nuclear test, resulting in an explosion estimated to be between 2 and 7 kilotons. The 2009 test, like the 2006 test, is believed to have occurred at Mantapsan, Kilju County, in the north-eastern part of North Korea. On February 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey detected a magnitude 5.1 seismic disturbance, reported to be a third nuclear test. Multiple South Korean sources estimate the yield at 6–9 kilotons, while the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources estimates the yield at 40 kilotons. However, the German estimates has since revised to a yield equivalent of 14 kt when they published their estimations in 2016 Jan. On January 2016 in Korea, the United States Geological Survey detected a magnitude 5.1 seismic disturbance, reported to be a fourth nuclear test. North Korea claimed that this test involved a hydrogen bomb. This claim has not been verified. Within hours, many nations and organizations had condemned the test. Expert U.S. analysts do not believe that a hydrogen bomb was detonated.North Korea and weapons of mass destruction – Nuclear weapons
108. North Korea – North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation's capital as well as its largest city. To northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. The country is bordered to the south with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone separating the two. The earliest human artifacts found in North Korea have been dated to 8000 BC. There were three kingdoms flourishing on the peninsula in the 1st BC. The name Korea is derived from the Kingdom of Goguryeo, also spelled as Koryŏ, one of East Asia's greatest empires. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. No official peace treaty was ever signed. Both states were accepted in 1991. The DPRK officially formally holds elections. Critics regard it as a dictatorship. Various outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around his family. International organizations have assessed human violations in North Korea as belonging to a category of their own, with no parallel in the contemporary world. Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world movement.North Korea – Jikji, the first known book printed with movable metal type in 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris
109. Democratic Republic of the Congo – The Democratic Republic of the Congo, also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1908 to 1960 it was called the Belgian Congo. It is the second-largest country in Africa by area, eleventh largest in the world. The Congolese Civil Wars, which began in 1996, devastated the country. These wars ultimately resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. Besides the capital, the other major cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi, are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting in 2012. According to the Human Development Index, DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 187 countries. The country's name was restored by former president Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997. Their propagation was accelerated to Iron Age techniques. The people living in southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper.Democratic Republic of the Congo – Village attacked by Arab-Swahili slavers near Nyangwe, end of 19th century
110. Jean-Pierre Bemba – Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo is a politician in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bemba was one of four vice-presidents in the transitional government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 17 July 2003 to December 2006. Bemba also leads the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo, a rebel group turned political party. Bemba received the second highest number of votes in the 2006 presidential election. In January 2007 Bemba was elected to the Senate. Bemba was arrested near Brussels on 24 May 2008 on the basis of an warrant issued by the International Criminal Court. On 21 he was convicted on these charges. On 21 he was jailed for 18 years following a landmark conviction at the International Criminal Court for war crimes and sexual violence. Bemba remains a controversial figure, increasingly regarded as a figure of notoriety. Bemba awaits further sentencing for corruptly influencing witnesses during his trial for war crimes. He was born in Bokada, Nord-Ubangi. Bemba is one of the richest men in the Congo, with an estimated fortune of several million dollars. His businesses have included portable radios, aviation and private television stations. In 2002, President Ange-Félix Patassé of the Central African Republic invited the MLC to put down a coup attempt. Human activists accused MLC fighters of committing atrocities against civilians in the course of this conflict.Jean-Pierre Bemba – Jean-Pierre Bemba, 2006
111. War crime – A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the law of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred. Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law. Additionally, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. Twelve villagers were smoked out, had their throats cut. He was hanged at the scene of the crime having been convicted of striking a blow to the head of John Fowler with an axe. Accordingly, states retain different values with regard to wartime conduct. Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Protocol III relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. A small number of military personnel of the First World War were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes. Several nations, most notably the United States, China, Israel, have criticized the court.War crime – Criminology and penology
112. Euro – Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. Additionally, million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro. The euro is the second largest currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The euro was officially adopted on 16 December 1995. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spain's troubled banking sector. As of December 2016, the euro -- dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.04. The euro is administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them. These banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring the ECB.Euro – The central bank has its seat in Frankfurt (Germany) and is in charge of the monetary policy of the euro area.
113. Rothschild, Wisconsin – Rothschild is a village in Marathon County, Wisconsin, United States. It is part of the Wausau, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 5,269 at the 2010 census. Rothschild is the northern terminus of Interstate 39, which starts in Normal, Illinois. Rothschild is located at 89 ° 37 14 ″ W. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,269 people, 2,199 households, 1,465 families residing in the village. The population density was 806.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,332 housing units at an average density of 357.1 per square mile. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. 27.8 % of all households were made up of 10.3 % had living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average size was 2.90. The median age in the village was 41.8 years. The makeup of the village was 50.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,970 people, 1,922 households, 1,406 families residing in the village. The population density was 763.1 people per square mile.Rothschild, Wisconsin – Village hall
114. Massachusetts – Massachusetts /ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsᵻts/ mass-ə-CHOO-sits; officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The state is named for the the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston. Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts' economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic world, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, transcendentalist movements.Massachusetts – A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland
115. Obama administration – The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama became the 44th President of the United States. Obama is the first to have been born in Hawaii. Senator Joe Biden of Delaware, took office on the same day. Obama also appointed Supreme Court Justices Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor, the latter of whom became the first Hispanic American on the Supreme Court. Democrats controlled both houses of Congress until Republicans won a majority in the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections. Following the elections, Obama and Congressional Republicans engaged over the debt ceiling. Obama won election in 2012 making the seventeenth person to win two presidential elections. In his second term, Obama took steps to combat change, signing an executive order to limit carbon emissions. Obama's presidency is scheduled to end with the inauguration of Republican President-elect Donald Trump on January 20, 2017. The Obama-Biden Project was co-chaired by John Podesta, Pete Rouse. During the period, Obama announced nominations for his administration. In November 2008, Congressman Rahm Emanuel accepted Obama's offer to serve as White House Chief of Staff. Obama was inaugurated on January 20, 2009, succeeding George W. Bush. Obama officially completed the oath of office at EST.. He delivered his inaugural address immediately following his oath.Obama administration – Barack Obama
116. United States Department of Justice – The current Attorney General is Loretta Lynch. The U.S. Attorney General was initially a part-time job. This grew with the bureaucracy. On February 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice. Both the Senate and House passed the bill. President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill on June 22, 1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1870. Prior to the Civil War, in February of 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. The law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred from the Department of Interior. A facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the project. On Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over one million square feet of space. The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served for the entire building contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside.United States Department of Justice – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
117. Federal Bureau of Investigation – Operating under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Justice, the FBI is concurrently a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. Criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. These overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation. Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D.C. In the fiscal 2012, the Bureau's total budget was approximately $ billion. The 1901 assassination of President McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Justice Department had been tasked with regulating interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its shortage until the Oregon land scandal erupted around the start of the 20th century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to create an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation with its own staff of special agents.Federal Bureau of Investigation – J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972.
118. Devin Nunes – Devin Gerald Nunes, OIH, is the U.S. Representative for California's 22nd congressional district, serving since 2003. Nunes is a member of the Republican Party. He is the author of Restoring the Republic, published by WND Books in September 2010. Paulo Portas, described Nunes as "one of the eight most influential statesmen" in America. Nunes was co-chair of the U.S.-Mexico Friendship Caucus. He was also past co-chair, of the U.S.-Japan Caucus. He was born in the oldest of two sons born to Anthony and Diane Nunes. His family has operated a farm in Tulare County for three generations. The Nunes family is of Portuguese descent, immigrating to California. He graduated from Tulare Union High School. "I had cracked open my piggy bank to buy seven head of young cattle to sell," he wrote. "I had two choices: I could fix fences in exchange for free grazing. Like water flowing down a furrow, my cattle went to pasture where I could make a higher profit." He was first elected to public office when he was 22.Devin Nunes – Devin Nunes
119. 2017 World Baseball Classic – The 2017 World Baseball Classic is an upcoming international professional baseball competition. This will be the fourth iteration of the WBC. Colombia and Israel, will each be making their first appearance in the World Baseball Classic. The first-round hosts will be Guadalajara. The championship round will be played in Los Angeles. The top three teams from each pool of the first round of the 2013 World Baseball Classic automatically qualified. Six stadiums will be used during the main tournament: MLB Network will have English-language broadcast rights in the United States. ESPN Deportes will have Spanish-language broadcast rights in the United States. Sportsnet will have English-language broadcast rights in Canada. RDS will have English-language broadcast rights in Canada. Tele Rebelde will have exclusive broadcast rights in Cuba. Teletuya will have exclusive rights in Venezuela. Sky Sport will have exclusive broadcast rights, with Rai handling free-to-air broadcast rights in Italy. Official website Results, Rosters & Stats2017 World Baseball Classic
120. World Baseball Classic – It is the main tournament sanctioned by the WBSC, which grants to the winner the title of "World Champion". The final men's Baseball World Cup was discontinued to streamline the international calendar. The third edition of the event, was won by the Dominican Republic in an all-Caribbean World Baseball Classic Final. The next is scheduled for 2017. In fact, the final series in 2009 rank among the highest-rated sporting events in Japanese television history. Meanwhile, Cuba defeated the Dominican Republic in the final game. Japan then defeated Cuba 10–6 to be crowned the first champion of the World Baseball Classic. In the 2009 tournament, the controversial format from 2006 was replaced by a modified double-elimination format for the first two rounds. The other four contested a qualifying round in late 2012, along with 12 additional teams. As a result, two new teams competed for the first time:. The main tournament ended with the Dominican Republic defeating Puerto Rico in the final. The Dominican Republic also became the first team to win the tournament with a perfect record. The first two iterations of the Classic featured the same sixteen teams. For the 2013 tournament, qualifier rounds were introduced. The third team receives bronze medals at a separate date.World Baseball Classic – Japan winning the inaugural World Baseball Classic
121. Toronto Blue Jays – The Toronto Blue Jays are a Canadian professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario. The Blue Jays compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division. The team plays its home games at the Rogers Centre. In addition, the team was originally owned by the Labatt Brewing Company, makers of the popular beer Labatt's Blue. Colloquially nicknamed the "Jays", the team's official colours are royal blue, navy blue, red, white. An expansion franchise, the club was founded in Toronto in 1977. Originally based at Exhibition Stadium, the team began playing its home games at the SkyDome upon its opening in 1989. Since 2000, the Blue Jays have been owned by Rogers Communications and in 2004, the SkyDome was purchased by that company, which it renamed Rogers Centre. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Blue Jays went through struggles typical of an expansion team, frequently finishing in last place in its division. In 1983, the team had its first winning season and two years later, they became division champions. From 1985–1993, they were an AL East powerhouse, winning five division championships in nine seasons, including three consecutive from 1991–93. After 1993, the Blue Jays failed to qualify for the playoffs for 21 consecutive seasons, until clinching a playoff berth and division championship in 2015. The team clinched a second consecutive playoff berth in 2016, after securing an AL wild card position. Both years, the Jays won the AL Division Series. The Blue Jays are one of two MLB teams under corporate ownership, with the other being the Atlanta Braves.Toronto Blue Jays – Dave Stieb has the second highest number of wins among pitchers in the 1980s.
122. Marcus Stroman – Marcus Earl Stroman is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball. He attended Patchogue-Medford High School. Stroman did not sign. Stroman was also a player for Duke, making 97 appearances, mostly at second base and shortstop. On May 2016, he graduated from Duke University with a bachelor's degree in sociology. After starting his professional career with the Low-A Vancouver Canadians, the Blue Jays promoted Stroman on August 1, 2012. He was suspended for testing positive for methylhexanamine, a banned stimulant. Having completed his suspension, he pitched five scoreless innings to get the win in the May 19, 2013 game for the Fisher Cats. On July 2013, he struck out 13 batters over 6 2⁄3 innings in a 3 -- 1 loss to the New Britain Rock Cats. Stroman was ranked on July 26, 2013, when the revised Top 100 Prospects list was released. He was assigned to the minor league camp on March 19. Stroman was the 2014 Day starting pitcher for the Triple-A Buffalo Bisons. He was called up on May 3, 2014 after Brandon Morrow was transferred to the 60-day disabled list. At the time of his call-up, Stroman was considered the organization's number two prospect. Stroman earned his first MLB victory on May 6, pitching 1⁄3 innings in relief of Drew Hutchison.Marcus Stroman – Stroman pitching for the Toronto Blue Jays in 2015
123. Federal government of the United States – The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, respectively. The full name of the republic is "United States of America". In casual conversation or writing, the term "National Government" is sometimes used. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D.C. "Washington" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution. The government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the world's first, if not the first, modern constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of republicanism, in which power is shared between the federal government and state governments. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the executive can veto any legislation—an act which, in turn, can be overridden by Congress. Those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as "unconstitutional" any law passed by the Congress. Other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of the Senate.Federal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
124. Government of the United Kingdom – The government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the remaining ministers. The other most senior ministers belong to the decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet. The government ministers all sit in Parliament, are accountable to it. The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. They also exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments. The current prime minister is Theresa May, who took office on 13 July 2016. Prior to this, the Conservatives led a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was prime minister. A key principle of the British Constitution is that the government is responsible to Parliament. This is called responsible government. Britain is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by the government and Parliament. Parliament is split into two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Commons is the lower house and is the more powerful. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law. For most senior ministers this is usually the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords.Government of the United Kingdom – Main entrance of 10 Downing Street, the residence and offices of the First Lord of HM Treasury
125. Laptop – Laptops are folded shut for transportation, thus are suitable for mobile use. Laptops are commonly used for personal multimedia and home computer use. Most 2016-era laptops also have integrated webcams and built-in microphones. Some 2016-era laptops have touchscreens. Laptops can be powered either by an external supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the processor capacity, significantly vary between different types, makes, models and price points. Construction can also vary significantly between models depending on intended use. As portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes. Regardless of the etymology, by the late 1990s, the terms were interchangeable. As the personal computer became feasible in 1971, the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed. A "portable manipulator" was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968, described in his 1972 paper as the "Dynabook". The IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable was demonstrated in 1973. This prototype was based on the IBM PALM processor. The first commercially available portable computer, was based on the SCAMP prototype. As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly.Laptop – A Modern Day Laptop
126. Tablet computer – Tablets often come equipped with sensors, including an accelerometer, so that images on screens are always displayed upright. The display uses the recognition of stylus gestures to replace the mouse, trackpad and keyboard used in laptops. Tablets are typically larger than digital assistants with screens 7 inches or larger, measured diagonally. However much of a tablet's functionality resembles that of a modern smartphone, like running a dedicated ` mobile' system. Tablets can be classified according to the presence and physical appearance of keyboards. Hybrids, convertibles, 2-in-1s do have physical keyboards, yet they typically also make use of virtual keyboards. Most tablets can use separate keyboards connected using Bluetooth. The format was developed in the last two decades of that century. In April 2010, Apple released the iPad, the first mass-market tablet to achieve widespread popularity. Thereafter in the 2010s, tablets became a large category used for both personal and workplace applications. Its associated operating system began with the development of computing. Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been created as blueprints, prototypes, or commercial products. A device more powerful than today's tablets appeared briefly in Jerry Pournelle and Larry Niven's The Mote in God's Eye. The audience was children. In 1992, Atari showed developers the Stylus, later renamed ST-Pad.Tablet computer – Apple iPad, a tablet computer
127. Smartphone – Most smartphones can run a variety of third-party software components. They typically have a color display with a graphical interface that covers 70 % or more of the front surface. In 1999, the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country. Smartphones became widespread in the late 2000s. Most of those produced from 2012 onward have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE, mobile payment features. In the third quarter of 2012, billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures in early 2013. As of 2013, 65% of mobile consumers in the United States owned smartphones. By January 2016, smartphones held over 79% of the U.S. mobile market. Paraskevakos was the first to introduce the concepts of intelligence, data visual display screens into telephones. They were demonstrated to several telephone companies. The historic working models are still in the possession of Paraskevakos. It included other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 under the name Simon Personal Communicator. The Simon was the first commercially available device that could be properly referred as a "smartphone", although it was not called that in 1994.Smartphone – The first caller identification receiver (1971)
128. Car bomb – The gasoline in the vehicle's tank may make the explosion of the bomb more powerful by dispersing and igniting the fuel. Car bombs are effective weapons as they are an easy way to transport a large amount of explosives to the intended target. A bomb also produces copious shrapnel, or flying debris, secondary damage to bystanders and buildings. In recent years, car bombs have become widely used by suicide bombers. Provisional Irish Republican Army Chief of Staff Seán Mac Stíofáin defines the bomb as both a tactical and a strategic guerrilla weapon. Where public roads pass near buildings, road closures may be the only option. Historically these tactics have encouraged potential bombers to target "soft" or unprotected targets, such as markets. The vehicle would be driven in a similar fashion to a kamikaze plane of WW2. These were known by VBIEDs. Cars were sometimes driven into incoming enemy columns. Most often, the SVIEDs were also used by Syrian rebels against government troops. In some cases trucks were also used, well as cars. They were sometimes used to start an assault. Generally the vehicles had a large space that would contain very heavy explosives. In some cases, animal drawn carts with improvised dxplosive devices have been used, generally either horses.Car bomb – The result of a car bombing in Iraq.
129. Villa Somalia – Villa Somalia is a building in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. It serves as the official residential palace and workplace of the President of Somalia. The edifice was built - in partially modern art style - by the colonial authorities in Italian Somaliland, serving as a residence for the Governors. Villa Somalia sits on high ground that overlooks Mogadishu on the Indian Ocean, with access to both the airport. It was originally a squarish stucco building with a tiled roof. The edifice was built in the new section of the city created in the 1930s. Following independence in 1960, the building became the presidential palace of the President of the nascent Somali Republic. On 8 Transitional Federal Government President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office. The government subsequently relocated at Baidoa. As of January 2014, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud works out of Villa Somalia. The palace also hosts various Federal Government events. Governor's Palace of Mogadishu Video of Villa Somalia in 1991Villa Somalia – Villa Somalia (and the area in yellow) inside metropolitan Mogadishu
130. President of Somalia – The President of Somalia is the head of state of Somalia. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. The office of President of Somalia was established on 1 July 1960. The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. The current office-holder is the 8th President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, since 16 September 2012. In addition, Aden Madobe acted as President after Yusuf's resignation in the 2008. Sharif Sheikh Ahmed took office on 31 January 2009, after being elected by the presidential election held on January 2009. He was succeeded by General Muse Hassan, serving in an interim capacity. Current President Mohamud took office on 16 September 2012, after being elected by the presidential election held on 10 September 2012. Formerly, the President was elected by the members of the Somali Parliament.quirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament. The President can be re-elected only once. The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office. Somalia Politics of Somalia List of Presidents of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia Lists of office-holdersPresident of Somalia – Incumbent Hassan Sheikh Mohamud since 16 September 2012
131. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed – Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed "Farmajo" is a Somali diplomat, professor and politician. He is the former Prime Minister of Somalia and is the founder and Secretary-General of the Tayo Political Party. Mohamed was born in Mogadishu, Somalia in 1962 to a Marehan Darod family. Nicknamed "Farmajo", he hails from the Gedo region in the south. Mohamed's parents were activists affiliated with the Somali Youth League, Somalia's first political party. During the 1970s, his father worked as a civil servant in the national Department of Transportation. Mohamed holds both Somali and American citizenship. For his secondary education, Mohamed attended a local boarding school in Somalia. Between 1993, he completed a Bachelor's degree from the University at The State University of New York in Buffalo, New York. He followed that in 2009 with a Master's degree in Political Science from the University at Buffalo again. His thesis was titled: "U.S. Strategic Interest in Somalia: From the Cold War Era to the War on Terror." Between 1988, he worked with human rights organizations. From 1994 to 1997, Mohamed was chosen as an at-large Commissioner for the Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority, worked there as the finance chairman. He also served as case manager for a lead abatement program in the city from 1995 to 1999. Between 2002, Mohamed was a coordinator for the Erie County Division of Equal Employment Opportunity.Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed – Somali activist Shadya Yasin energizes the crowd at a pro-Farmajo rally in Toronto (June 2011).
132. Mogadishu – Mogadishu, known locally as Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banaadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for millennia. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was historically inhabited by hunter-gatherers. These were later joined by Cushitic agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, a vassal of the Ajuran Sultanate. It subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Geledi Sultanate. The city later became the capital of Italian Somaliland in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean. The ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government and its AMISOM allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction. As Somalia's capital city, many important national institutions are based in Mogadishu. It is the seat of the Federal Government of Somalia established in August 2012, with the Somalia Federal Parliament serving as the government's legislative branch. Yusuf Hussein Jimaale has been the Mayor of Mogadishu since October 2015. Villa Somalia is the official residential palace and principal workplace of the President of Somalia, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.Mogadishu – Engraving of the 13th century Fakr ad-Din Mosque built by Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu
133. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action – For the next 15 years, Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3.67%. Iran also agreed not to build any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a single facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks. To verify Iran's compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. A nuclear weapon uses a fissile material to cause a nuclear reaction. The most commonly used materials have been plutonium 239. Reactor-grade plutonium have also been used. Natural uranium is about 99.3 % uranium 238 and 0.7 % U-235. Therefore, plutonium must be produced. Uranium enrichment is also frequently necessary for nuclear power. For this reason, enrichment is a dual-use technology, a technology which "can be used both for civilian and for military purposes". Iranian development of nuclear technology began in the 1970s, when the U.S. Atoms for Peace program began providing assistance to Iran, then led by the Shah. Iran ratified the NPT in 1970.Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action – The signatories announcing the agreement.
134. Tasnim News Agency – Tasnim News Agency is a private news agency in Iran launched in 2012. Its purpose is to cover a variety of political, international subjects along with other fields. Its stated aims are to defend the Islamic Republic against negative media propaganda campaign and providing readers with realities on the ground about Iran and Islam. It also says adds that it is to promote Islamic principles across the world. As of 2014, Tasnim's main headquarters for news is based with reporters across the region sending in reports. Tasnim has strong links with the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps. Official websiteTasnim News Agency – Tasnim News Agency
135. Supreme Leader of Iran – This post was established by the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran with the concept of the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist. However, in 1989, the constitution was amended to require simply Islamic "scholarship" of the leader, i.e. the leader could be a lower ranking cleric. In theory, the Supreme Leader is supervised by the Assembly of Experts. As such, the Assembly has never questioned the Supreme Leader. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei has publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their dismissal. There has also been instances where the Guardian Council reversed its ban after being ordered to do so by Khamenei. The Supreme Leader issues makes the final decisions on economy, environment and everything else. Any declaration of peace is supposed to be made by the Supreme Leader together with a two-thirds majority of Parliament. The Supreme Leader is the provisional Head of the three branches of the state. He may also together with a two third majority of the Parliament impeach him. The Chief Justice for a term of 8 years, the members of the Expediency Discernment Council for a term of 5 years. 6 of the 12 Members of the Guardian Council from among the members of the Council of Experts the other 6 are chosen by the Parliament. Although some groups boycotted the referendum, 98 % of those voting voted "yes". The leading jurist were known as Marja'. And the importance of the Supreme Leader.Supreme Leader of Iran – Incumbent Ali Khamenei since 4 June 1989
136. Ali Khamenei – Sayyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei is the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran and a Muslim cleric. Iranian president Hassan Rouhani arranged for Khamenei to get his major post in the revolutionary government as deputy defense minister. Khamenei also served as the President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. In 2012, 2013, 2014 Forbes selected him 21st, 23rd, 19th, respectively, in the list of The World's Most Powerful People. Khamenei is a head of state and also chief commander of the armed forces, is considered the most powerful political authority in Iran. Khamenei issues makes the final decisions on economy, foreign everything else in Iran. In August 2016, Khamenei directly warned the current president Hassan Rouhani that there should be no deviation from Khamenei's economic policies. Khamenei controls an organization called Setad, worth at least $95 billion in 2015. Setad gives Khamenei financial independence from parliament and the national budget. He has control over the executive, well as media. Over the years, to cement his power base, Khamenei has also developed close relations with the military and security apparatus. He has built a vast bureaucracy inside the government and around his compound Beit Rahbari. There have been also instances when the Guardian Council reversed its ban of particular people after being ordered to do so by Khamenei. Khamenei has also fired and reinstated Presidential cabinet appointments. Khamenei was the victim of an attempted assassination in June 1981 that paralysed his right arm.Ali Khamenei – Sayyed Ali Khamenei سید علی خامنهای
137. Iranian Students News Agency – The Iranian Students News Agency is a news organization run by Iranian university students. News Agency was established in December 1999 in order to report from Iranian universities. It now covers a variety of national and international topics. Correspondents are students in a variety of subjects, many of them are volunteers. ISNA is considered by Western media to be one of the most independent and moderate media organizations in Iran, is often quoted. "While taking a reformist view of events, ISNA has managed to remain politically independent. It has, however, maintained its loyalty to the former president and carries a section devoted to "Khatami's perspectives". Although it is generally considered independent, the ISNA is supported by another student organization. Once he was beaten while supporting his correspondents to report student demonstration in June 2003. In January 2005 a server called The Planet unilaterally stopped hosting the website of the ISNA. The ISNA said that they did not receive a reason for the closure, had only been informed 48 hours before the move. An Iranian government official later accused the United States of ordering the shutdown. The incident led to new calls for Iran to develop its own technology. Therefore... ISNA perhaps cannot be characterized as a member of the media with the highest journalistic values and professional standards.Iranian Students News Agency – ISNA banner
138. Mohammad Javad Zarif – Mohammad Javad Zarif Khonsari is an Iranian career diplomat, academic and current Minister of Foreign Affairs. Zarif has held significant diplomatic and cabinet posts since the 1990s. He is also a visiting professor of Tehran, teaching diplomacy and international organizations. Zarif was the Permanent Representative of Iran from 2002 to 2007. He was born on 7 January 1960 in Tehran. According to The New Republic, he is born in Tehran". His mother was daughter of one of the most famous businessmen of Tehran. Zarif was educated at a private religious institution. He was shielded from TV, radio, newspapers as a youth. Instead, Zarif became exposed to revolutionary ideas by reading the books of Samad Behrangi. At age 17, Zarif left Iran for the United States. He attended a private college-preparatory high school located in San Francisco, California. Zarif went on to study at San Francisco State University, from which he gained a B.A. in 1981 and M.A. both in international relations. His thesis was entitled, "Self-Defense in International Law and Policy." Ved Nanda, on Zarif's dissertation committee, recalled.Mohammad Javad Zarif – Mohammad Javad Zarif محمدجواد ظریف
139. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. Once appointed, justices have tenure unless they resign, are removed after impeachment. In modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. The Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court is sometimes colloquially referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789. Its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the only court specifically established by the Constitution, all the others were created by Congress. The Court first convened on February 2, 1790, by which time five of its six initial positions had been filled. Nothing did. They had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, everyone went home." The sixth member was not confirmed until May 12, 1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was also made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four judges in 1789.Supreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
140. National Labor Relations Board – Under the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 it can investigate and remedy unfair labor practices. Unfair labor practices may involve union-related instances of protected concerted activity. The NLRB is governed by a General Counsel, all of whom are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. The General Counsel is appointed to a four-year term. The General Counsel acts as the Board acts as an appellate judicial body from decisions of administrative law judges. The NLRB is headquartered at 1015 Half St. SE, residential offices throughout the U.S.. The history of the National Labor Relations Board can be traced in 1933. The National Industrial Recovery Act was administered by the National Recovery Administration. At the outset, the tremendous labor unrest proved him wrong. The National Labor Board established a system of 20 regional boards to handle the immense caseload. Each regional board had a representative designated by local labor unions, a "public" representative. All were unpaid. The public representative acted as the chair. The regional boards could propose settlements to disputes. This changed after Roosevelt issued additional executive orders on February 1 and February 23, 1934.National Labor Relations Board – National Labor Relations Board
141. United States Senate – The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House. Within the United States, the Senate is sometimes referred to as "world's greatest deliberative body". In the 20th Century, the practice of minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was also a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents. The other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally. The Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate. The name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation.United States Senate – United States Senate
142. Barack Obama – Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician and the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to be elected to that office and the first president born outside the contiguous United States. Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He then defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the general election, was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Nine months after his inauguration, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Obama was re-elected president in November 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney, was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013. His mother, Ann Dunham, born in Wichita, Kansas, was of mostly English ancestry. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo from Nyang'oma Kogelo, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship. There he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964 where he remarried; he visited Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971. He was killed in an automobile accident in 1982 when his son was 21 years old.Barack Obama – Barack Obama
143. Minister of the Interior (France) – The Ministry of the Interior in France is one of the most important French government cabinet positions. The Minister of Interior is also Ministre des is formally consulted in the process of appointment of Catholic diocesan bishops. While the ministry of the Interior supervises police forces, it does not supervise criminal enquiries; criminal enquiries are conducted under the supervision of the judiciary. The Ministry's headquarters are located on the place Beauvau, facing the Élysée Palace. "Place Beauvau" is often used as a metonym for the ministry. The current Minister of the Interior is Bruno Le Roux. List of Interior Ministers of France Official websiteMinister of the Interior (France) – The entrance to the Ministry in Place Beauvau is guarded by one gendarme (left) and one policewoman (right). Joint gendarmerie/police guard duty was seen as a way to bridge the differences between the services.
144. French National Assembly – The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. The upper house is the Senate. The National Assembly's members are known as députés. There are each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority. The assembly is presided over by a president, normally from the largest party represented, assisted from across the represented political spectrum. It is guarded by Republican Guards. The Constitution of the French Fifth Republic greatly increased the power of the executive compared to previous constitutions. The President of the Republic can decide to call for new legislative elections. This is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly can not decide on a political direction. This possibility is seldom exercised. The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government by a vote of no confidence. For this reason, his cabinet are necessarily from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. The Government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the Assembly's sessions, for a single day each month. This, however, was amended on 23 July 2008.French National Assembly
145. Japan national baseball team – The Japan national baseball team is the national team representing Japan in international baseball competitions. They have won the World Baseball Classic in 2006 and 2009. The team is currently ranked #1 in the world by the International Baseball Federation. The team has been nicknamed "Samurai Japan". The team participated in every Summer Olympic Games through when it was discontinued following the 2008 Beijing Games. Until 2000, the team was made exclusively of amateur players. Since the 2000 Summer Olympics, the team has been composed of players from Nippon Professional Baseball. The playing in the 2006 World Baseball Classic included Japanese players from Major League Baseball as well. In the Classic, the team placed second, advancing to round two. They went on to win the Classic. They played in 2008 as they had qualified through the Asian Baseball Championship in 2007. Unlike the WBC roster, the Olympic team was exclusively formed by NPB players. Like national teams in Japan, the nickname is usually prefixed with the surname of the manager. However, in the 2009 World Baseball Classic, the team used a symbol of Japan's history, instead of Hara, the surname of their manager. In 2012, it was adopted officially.Japan national baseball team – 2009 World Baseball Classic finals. Kenji Johjima and Yu Darvish
146. Dodger Stadium – Opened 54 years ago on April 1962, it was constructed in less than three years at a cost of $23 million, financed by private sources. Often referred to as a "pitcher's ballpark", the stadium has seen 12 no-hitters, two of which were perfect games. The stadium hosted the Major League Baseball All-Star Game in 1980, well as games of eight World Series. It also hosted the finals of the 2009 World Baseball Classic as well as exhibition baseball during the 1984 Summer Olympics. Before construction could begin on the project, the local political climate changed greatly when Norris Poulson was elected mayor of Los Angeles in 1953. Public housing projects such as Elysian Park Heights lost most of their support as they became associated with socialist ideals. Los Angeles-based Mike Davis, in his seminal work on City of Quartz, describes the process of gradually convincing Chavez Ravine homeowners to sell. With nearly all of the Spanish-speaking homeowners initially unwilling to sell, developers resorted to offering immediate cash payments, distributed through their Spanish-speaking agents. Ground was broken for Dodger Stadium on September 1959. A elementary school was simply buried and sits beneath the parking lot northwest of third base. A total of million cubic yards of earth were moved in the process of building the stadium. Dodger Stadium was also the home through 1965. To avoid constantly referring to their landlords, the Angels called the park Chavez Ravine Stadium, after the geographic feature in which the stadium sits. At the conclusion of the 2005 season, the Los Angeles Dodgers made major renovations during the subsequent off-season. The largest of these improvements was the replacement of nearly all the seats in the stadium.Dodger Stadium
147. Baghdad – Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. Located along the Tigris River, the city became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several academic institutions, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Center of Learning". Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with an estimated population of 1,200,000 people. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgency attacks. The Baghdad is pre-Islamic. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. The name dād "given by", translating to "Bestowed by God" or "God's gift". In Old Persian the first element is related to Slavic bog "god", while the second can be traced to dadāti. A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, meaning "gift of Mithra". The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the etymological origins. When al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the official name on coins, other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name.Baghdad – Zumurrud Khaton tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD), photo of 1932.
148. Hayy Al-A'amelHayy Al-A'amel – Main districts
149. Syrian Army – The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army, is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces. The Syrian Army originated in military forces formed by the French after World War I, after France obtained a mandate over the region. It officially came into being in 1945, before Syria obtained the following year. Since 1946, it has in 1954, 1963, 1966, 1970. It has fought one with Jordan. An armored division saw little action. From 1976 to 2005 it was the major pillar of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon. The former with 8,000 men later grew into both the Lebanese armies. As Syria gained independence in 1946, its leaders envisioned a division-sized army. The 1st Brigade was ready by the time of the Syrian war against Israel on May 1948. It consisted of one armored battalion. The 2nd Brigade also included two infantry battalions and one armored battalion. At the time of the 1948 Arab -- Israeli War, the army was small, poorly trained. "Paris had neglected indigenous forces. Consequently, training was lackadaisical, staff work almost unheard of.Syrian Army – Syrian anti-tank teams deployed French-made MILAN ATGMs during the war in Lebanon in 1982.
150. Elbit Skylark – The Elbit Systems Skylark I and Skylark II are small Miniature UAVs developed by Elbit Systems. The Skylark I is a Miniature UAV. It is designed as a manpacked system for tactical reconnaissance. The Skylark is launched by hand. The payload consists for night operations. During operation, it sends real-time video to a portable station. Recovery involves landing on a small inflatable cushion. It has a range of 20/40 km. The Skylark is in operation with the militaries of Australia, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Israel, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden. It has been deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Skylark I has also been selected in March 2008. In total, it has been selected by more than 20 operators worldwide. The Skylark II was unveiled in 2006. It is designed to be operated by a two-person crew and to be deployed using HMMWV class field vehicles. In December 2007, South Korea decided to purchase the Skylark II system.Elbit Skylark – Skylark 1 closeup
151. Quneitra Governorate – Quneitra Governorate is one of the fourteen governorates of Syria. It is situated in southern Syria, notable for the location of the Golan Heights. The governorate borders Lebanon, Jordan and Israel. Its area varies, according to different sources, from 685 km² to 1,861 km². The governorate had a population of 87,000 at the 2010 estimate. The governorate was established by splitting it from Riff Dimashq. Most of the governorate now forms the contentious Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. In June 2015, the rebels were repelled by the Syrian army. In October 2015, the rebels launched another offensive, which again ended in a stalemate. The governorate is divided into 2 districts: Fiq District, further officially divided into 2 sub-districts.Quneitra Governorate – Map of Syria with Quneitra Governorate highlighted With UNDOF and Israeli occupied Golan Heights 's borders
152. Kintampo waterfallsKintampo waterfalls – Kintampo
153. Ghana – Ghana, officially the unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. The word Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language. The territory of present-day Ghana has been inhabited with the first permanent state dating back to the 11th century. Numerous empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. In 1957, it became the first African nation to declare independence from European colonisation. Ghana has a population of approximately 27 million, spanning a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Five percent of the population practices 71.2 % adhere to Christianity and 17.6 % are Muslim. Ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles. Ghana is a democratic country led by a president, both head of the government. Ghana's economy is one of the strongest and most diversified following a quarter century of relative stability and good governance. Democratic political system has made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The name "Ghana" was a possible source of the name "Guinea" used to refer off Ghana. The minister responsible for shepherding through the legislation Charles Arden-Clarke Lord Listowel explained that the name was chosen "in accordance with local wishes".Ghana – 1925 map of pre–existing Ghana
154. Antonov An-26 – The Antonov An-26 is a twin-engined turboprop civilian and military transport aircraft, designed and produced in the Soviet Union from 1969 to 1985. After successful operations of the tactical transport in austere locations, interest in a version with a retractable cargo ramp increased. Initial studies for the retractable ramp were carried out as part of the projected An-40 medium transport. The majority of early An-26 production was delivered to the VTA. The An-26 has a secondary role with underwing bomb racks. In the role it was extensively used by the Sudanese Air Force during the Second Sudanese Civil War and the War in Darfur. Also Russian Forces train with the An-26 as a bomber. An-26 "Curl-A": Twin-engine tactical transport aircraft. An-26-100 Convertible aircraft modified from ` An-26' aircraft at the Kiev plant from 1999. An-26 Nel ` mo An arctic surveillance and aircraft retrofitted with the Nel ` mo equipment. An-26 Pogoda Another aircraft for control duties, similar to the'An -26 Tsiklon', with a simplified equipment test lab. A single production aircraft built as laboratory for atmospheric research. An-26 Shtabnoy some'An -26's delivered to the Soviet and DDR air forces as staff transports/mobile command posts. An-26 Vita A single mobile operating room, surgery and intensive care unit, for the Ukrainian Air Force. An-26A A one-off assault prototype with higher performance due to removal of some military equipment.Antonov An-26 – An-26
155. East Timor – East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia. The country's size is about 15,410 km2. It was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor was characterised by a highly violent decades-long conflict between the Indonesian military. Following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory. In 2011, East Timor announced its intention to gain membership status by applying to become its eleventh member. It is one of only predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the Philippines. In Indonesian, the country is called Timor Timur, thus using the Portuguese name for the island followed for "east". The official names under the Constitution are Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste in English, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste in Tetum. Humans first settled in East Timor 42,000 years ago. Descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to live in East Timor. The first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo-Australoid type. Around 3000 BC, a second migration brought Melanesians. The earlier Veddo-Australoid peoples withdrew to the mountainous interior. Finally, proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina.East Timor – "Timor of the rising sun" Sunrise on Mount Tatamailau
157. Francisco Guterres – Francisco Guterres, popularly known as Lú-Olo is the President of the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor. He was also President of the National Parliament of East Timor from 2002 to 2007. As the FRETILIN candidate, he was defeated in the second round. Guterres has described himself as "the son of humble people". He is a former guerrilla fighter. At an Extraordinary Conference of FRETILIN in Sydney, Australia in 1998, Guterres was named General Coordinator of the Council of Armed Resistance. In July 2001, he was elected President of FRETILIN. In the 2007 presidential election, Guterres campaigned on a populist platform. In the first round of the election, held on 9 April, Guterres took first place with 27.89% of the vote. Guterres lost with 31 % of the vote against 69 % for Ramos-Horta. He congratulated Ramos-Horta. Guterres was re-elected as the first name on FRETILIN's candidate list. East Timor: Birth of a Nation: Lu Olo's StoryFrancisco Guterres – Francisco Guterres
158. East Timorese presidential election, 2007 – The 2007 East Timorese presidential election involved two separate votes. The first, on April 2007 eliminated six of the eight nominees. Ramos-Horta won the second round with 69% of the vote. Afterward, Ramos-Horta joined the calls for a recount, also called for a U.N. investigation regarding the absence of votes from 150,000 citizens. Araújo followed with 19.18 %. Voter turn-out was placed at 81.79%. Manuel Tilman endorsed Guterres. The Fretilin executive José Teixeira said: Both Ramos-Horta and the United Nations rejected the Fretilin's claims. Amid tight security from the Australian forces present, the election was orderly, with no violence related to the election reported. However within a day of votes being counted, irregularities began to appear. Following the election, initial reports predicted a large majority for Ramos-Horta. With 90% of votes counted, Ramos-Horta had 73%. However, he declined to declare victory until the results were final. Subsequently, Guterres accepted defeat and congratulated Ramos-Horta. Voter turnout in the second round was placed at 81%.East Timorese presidential election, 2007 – Candidate
159. East Timorese presidential election, 2012 – A presidential election was held in Timor-Leste on 17 March and 16 April 2012 to choose a president for a five-year term. The election was seen as a test for the "young democracy" in seeking to take control of its own security. Military commander Taur Matan Ruak provisionally beat Francisco Guterres in a second round runoff. The presidency is seen after the 1999 East Timorese crisis. This election is also seen as a FRETILIN's ability to take back control in the parliamentary election later in the year. He supported by East Timor's second biggest party, the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction, its leader, Prime Minister Xanana Gusmao. Manuel Tilman The candidacy of Angela Freitas, was rejected due to the ineligibility of some of the signatures required. She then offered her support to FRETILIN's Francisco Guterres. A special session of parliament amended the electoral so as not to restart the electoral process as mandated by the older law. The controversial move elicited protests. Economic issues were said to be the primary concern. According to the AFP, the most likely candidates were Jose Ramos-Horta, Taur Matan Ruak. Ruak also said that he was confident of winning without a run-off. If someone supports I'm happy because I admire." However, there were also concerns of having someone affiliated to the army run for president because the army has sometimes disagreed with the police.East Timorese presidential election, 2012 – Candidate
160. United States presidential election, 2016 – The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana Governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine. On January 2017, Trump is expected to take office as the 45th President, Pence as the 48th Vice President. Trump obtained the required majority to become President-elect of the United States, winning 30 states with pledged electors out of 538. His victory had been considered unlikely by most media forecasts. Clinton received about 2.9 million more votes nationwide, 2.1% of the total cast. A further three electors were replaced or forced to vote again. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U.S. This was the largest primary field for any political party in American history. Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 2016, Perry, Walker, Jindal, Graham and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers. Following a sizable victory for Trump in the New Hampshire primary, Christie, Fiorina and Gilmore abandoned the race. Bush followed suit after scoring fourth place in South Carolina.United States presidential election, 2016
161. United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary – The Judiciary Committee, with 20 members, is in charge of conducting hearings prior to the Senate votes on confirmation of federal judges nominated by the president. In recent years, this role has made the committee increasingly a point of contention, with party-line votes and standoffs over which judges should be approved. It is also Senate procedure that all proposed Constitutional Amendments pass through the Judiciary Committee. The committee is one of the oldest in the Senate. It was initially created in 1816. Source: 2013 Congressional Record, Vol. 159, Page S296 to 297 United States House Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary Official WebsiteUnited States Senate Committee on the Judiciary – Sonia Sotomayor testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee on her appointment to the United States Supreme Court
162. Brexit – The United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union is widely known as Brexit, a portmanteau of "British exit". This, within the treaty terms, would put the UK on a course to leave the EU by March 2019. The terms of withdrawal have not yet been negotiated; in the meantime, the UK remains a full member of the European Union. 1973 -- 2015 tended to reveal majorities in favour of remaining in the EEC, EC or EU. In the 1980s, withdrawal from the EEC was advocated mainly by some Labour Party and trade union figures. From the 1990s, withdrawal from the EU was advocated mainly by the newly founded UK Independence Party. Brexit is a portmanteau of "Britain" and "exit". It was derived from Grexit referring to a hypothetical withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone. Opinion polls taken until the end of 2015 generally revealed popular British support for EEC or EU membership. Similarly, in the United Kingdom European Communities referendum of 1975, two thirds of British voters favoured membership. The following events are relevant. The UK was not a signatory to the Treaty of Rome which created the EEC in 1957. Once de Gaulle had relinquished the French presidency in 1969, the UK made a successful application for membership. The document concluded that it was advisable to put the considerations of power before those of formal sovereignty. The Treaty of Accession was signed by the prime minister Edward Heath, leader of the Conservative party.Brexit
163. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. Prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the "Head of Her Majesty's Government" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers. Under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. The Prime Minister also acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad.Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – Incumbent David Cameron since 11 May 2010
164. Theresa May – Theresa Mary May, PC, MP is a British politician, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since July 2016. She has been the Member of Parliament for Maidenhead since 1997. May has been characterised as a liberal conservative. She is Leader of the Conservative Party after Margaret Thatcher. The daughter of May grew up in Oxfordshire. She was also Chairman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003. Leadsom's withdrawal from the election on 11 July led as leader the same day. She was appointed Prime Minister two days later, the second woman to hold both offices. On becoming Prime Minister, May became the first woman to have held two of the Great Offices of State. Born on October 1956 in Eastbourne, Sussex, May is the only child of Zaidee Mary and Hubert Brasier. Her father was a Church of England clergyman, chaplain of an Eastbourne hospital. He later became vicar of Enstone with Heythrop and finally of St Mary's to the east of Oxford. May's mother was a strong supporter of the Conservative Party. May was educated primarily with a short spell at an independent Catholic school. At the age of 13, May won a place in Wheatley.Theresa May – The Right Honourable Theresa May MP
165. Withdrawal from the European Union – Part of the Danish Realm, voted to leave the European Economic Community, in 1985. Algeria left upon independence in 1962, having been a part of France until then. The voting results showed 51.9% voted to leave and a voting turnout of 72.2%. The Treaty of Lisbon introduced an exit clause for members who wish to withdraw from the Union. The two-year period of time in which the terms of the withdrawal agreement are negotiated is known as the sunset period. The agreement is to be approved by the Council, acting by qualified majority, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament. Should a former Member State seek to rejoin the European Union, it would be subject to the same conditions as any other applicant country. This system gives a negotiated withdrawal, due to the complexities of leaving the EU. However it does include in it a strong implication of a unilateral right to withdraw. The absence of such a provision made withdrawal technically difficult but not impossible. Legally there were two interpretations of whether a state could leave. The process also occurs in the opposite direction. The procedure for implementing such changes was made easier by the Treaty of Lisbon. French Algeria had joined the European Communities since it was not legally a colony, but a full-fledged part of France. Upon independence in 1962, Algeria left the European Communities.Withdrawal from the European Union – ESCB
166. Coordinated Universal Time – Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated to UTC or CUT, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of solar time at 0 ° longitude; it does not observe daylight saving time. It is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on January 1960. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. No consensus has yet been reached. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of UT1. See the "Current number of leap seconds" section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date. The official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC. This abbreviation arose by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers originally proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC. The compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets by UTC offset. The westernmost zone uses UTC − 12, being twelve hours behind UTC; the easternmost time zone, theoretically, uses UTC +12, being twelve hours ahead of UTC.Coordinated Universal Time – Key concepts
167. European migrant crisis – The unauthorized national entrants came mostly from Muslim-majority countries of the regions of Western Asia, South Asia, Africa, Western Balkans. By religious affiliation, the overwhelming majority of entrants were Muslim, with a small component of non-Muslim minorities. According to Eurostat, EU member states received over 1.2 million first time asylum applications a number more than double that of the previous year. Four states received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications with Hungary, Sweden, Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for "public policy or national security" reasons. By default, the first state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the seeker then moves to another member state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered. Further clauses on this topic are found in directive 2001/51/EC. Humanitarian visas are given to refugees who want to apply for asylum. The laws on migrant smuggling ban helping migrants to pass any national border if the migrants are without other permission to enter. This has caused many airlines to refuse passage to migrants without visas, including through international flights inside the Schengen Area. After being refused passage, many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 amounts to 7 % of the total population of the 28 EU countries. Prior to 2014, the number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in 1992, 2013. In 2014 it reached 626,000.European migrant crisis – Migrants being stopped at the Greek – Macedonian border near Gevgelija by the Macedonian Police, 24 August 2015.
168. Territorial disputes in the South China Sea – There is a further dispute in the waters near the Indonesian Natuna Islands which by most definitions are not part of the South China Sea. China abide by its ruling, insisting that any resolution should be with other claimants. The disputes involve both maritime boundaries and islands. Maritime boundary along the Vietnamese coast between PRC, Taiwan, Vietnam. Maritime boundary north of Borneo between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan. Maritime boundary, land territory, the islands of Sabah, including Ambalat, between Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines. Maritime boundary and islands in the Luzon Strait between Taiwan. The area may be rich in oil and natural gas deposits; however, the estimates are highly varied. In the years following the announcement by the ministry, the claims regarding the South China Sea islands intensified. However, other sources claim that the proven reserve of oil in the South China Sea may only be about billion tons. The South China Sea is dubbed by China as the "second Persian Sea." The Philippines began exploring the areas west of Palawan for oil in 1970. Exploration in the area began in Reed Bank/Tablemount. in 1976, gas was discovered following the drilling of a well. However, China's complaints halted the exploration. These oil fields supply 15% of annual oil consumption in the Philippines.Territorial disputes in the South China Sea – Territorial monument of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) on Southwest Cay, Spratly Islands, defining the cay as part of Vietnamese territory (to Phước Tuy Province). Used since 22 August 1956 until 1975, when replaced by another one from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (successor state after the Fall of Saigon)
169. Lola Albright – Lola Jean Albright is an American singer and actress. Albright was born to John Paul and Marion Albright, both of whom were gospel music singers. She attended West High School. At 18, she was a stenographer at WTAM radio. Her first performance came on WJW in Cleveland. Albright's motion career began with a bit part in the 1947 film The Unfinished Dance, gained notice in the 1949 film Champion. For the several years, she appeared in secondary roles in over 20 films, including several ` B' Westerns. Albright's roles in major films included Elvis Presley's 1962 film Kid Galahad; the 1967 western epic The Way West. Albright first appeared in Inside Story, an episode of Lux Video Theatre. In 1958, she was cast on the television detective series produced by Blake Edwards and scored by Henry Mancini. Albright played Edie Hart, the romantic interest of Peter Gunn. In 1964, she appeared on his short-lived CBS drama Mr. Broadway. When Dorothy Malone had to undergo surgery in 1966, Albright filled for her as Constance Mackenzie on the prime-time soap opera Peyton Place. At the time, Albright called this role "one of the biggest challenges of my theatrical career." Albright continued to perform until her retirement in the mid-1980s.Lola Albright – Albright as Edie Hart, 1959.
170. Pete Hamilton – Peter "Pete" Hamilton is an American retired NASCAR racer. He won four times in his career, three times driving for Petty Enterprises. Hamilton began racing at Norwood Arena Speedway. In 1965, he was the Thompson World Series Twin 50s champion. He won the 1967 NASCAR National Sportsman division in 1967. After that season he moved south to race in NASCAR. He was the series Rookie of the Year. In 1969, he competed in a division of smaller pony cars. He won that year. He had 3 wins in 1970 for Petty Enterprises in the # Plymouth Superbird with Maurice Petty as his crew-chief. He won the Daytona 500 and both races at Talladega Superspeedway. He won his fourth race of the season at the July Daytona race in Cotton Owens' car. Hamilton won his Twin 125 mile qualifying race for the 1971 Daytona 500. He retired because of a neck injury suffered in a Grand American race in 1969. Hamilton won the 1974 Snowball Derby in his late racecar.Pete Hamilton – The 1970 Plymouth Superbird driven to victory by Pete Hamilton in 3 of the 1970 season SuperSpeedway races.
171. Sib Hashian – John Thomas "Sib" Hashian is an Armenian/Italian-American musician, best known as a drummer for the rock band Boston. Hashian was later replaced when Masdea returned. After leaving Boston, the two later settled out of court. Hashian was also the drummer for Barry Goudreau's self-titled solo album, released in 1980. The album achieved moderate success with the radio hit "Dreams". The Barry Goudreau album were the last mainstream projects Hashian worked on. He went on to own a chain of tanning salons in Boston, well as a small record shop. He occasionally plays gigs in the Boston area including Goudreau, Fran Sheehan and also, prior to the singer's suicide in 2007, Brad Delp. In 2003 he appeared on Sammy Hagar's "Live: Hallelujah" as an unofficial member of "The Waboritas". In 2004 he returned of "9-Ball" which he also produced along with Ernie Boch Jr.. In 2005 he appeared in R U the Girl as his daughter Lauren was a contestant trying out to win the chance to perform with TLC. In 2006 he recorded with Ernie and the Automatics, a band that features Goudreau on guitar. Hashian is of Armenian/Italian ancestry and currently lives in Lynnfield, Massachusetts. He has two daughters, songwriter, singer-songwriter Lauren Hashian. The Hashian sisters produce musically together.Sib Hashian – Hashian with his daughter Lauren in 2011
172. Chuck Barris – Charles Hirsch "Chuck" Barris is an American game show creator, producer, host. He is best known for creating The Dating Game and The Newlywed Game. Barris was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He attended Drexel Institute of Technology where he was a columnist for The Triangle. He graduated in 1953. Barris soon became a music figure. His most successful venture was writing "Palisades Park". Recorded by Freddy Cannon, it peaked on the Billboard Hot 100 for two weeks, the biggest hit of Cannon's career. Barris also co-wrote some of the music that appeared on his game shows. Barris was put in charge of deciding which game shows ABC would air. Barris told his bosses that the producer/packagers' pitches of show concepts were worse than Barris' own ideas. They suggested that he become a producer. Barris formed his company Chuck Barris Productions on June 14, 1965. Barris first became successful during 1965 on ABC. Its "flower power" - motif studio set were a revolution for the game show genre.Chuck Barris – Barris on The Gong Show in 1976
173. David Rockefeller – David Rockefeller is a former American banker who served as chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation. He is the oldest member of the Rockefeller family and family patriarch since July 2004. He is the youngest of six children born to socialite Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. John Jr. was the only son of schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman. Abby was a daughter of Abigail Pearce Truman "Abby" Chapman. David's five elder siblings were Abby, John III, Nelson, Winthrop. On the seventh floor was his mother's modern art gallery. The house was subsequently donated as a site for a sculpture garden, now part of the Museum of Modern Art. Marshall, the adventurer Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, the aviator Charles Lindbergh. Summer vacations were spent at the Eyrie, a 100-room house in Seal Harbor on the southeast shore of Mount Desert Island, in Maine. The house was demolished by the family in the early 1960s to make way for Museum of Modern Art. This was planned for by his mother Abby. Rockefeller attended the experimental Lincoln School in Harlem. The school was the brainchild of Abraham Flexner, who had structured the institution after the educational philosophy of John Dewey. In 1936, Rockefeller graduated laude from Harvard University.David Rockefeller – David Rockefeller (left) with Eleanor Roosevelt, Trygve Lie, and Thomas J. Watson in 1953
174. Robert B. Silvers – Robert Benjamin Silvers is an American editor who has served as editor of The New York Review of Books since 1963. Silvers was sent by the Army to Paris in 1952 while finishing his education at the Sorbonne and Sciences Po. Silvers soon joined the The Paris Review under the guidance of George Plimpton. From 1959 to 1963, Silvers was an associate editor of Harper's Magazine in New York. Co-edited several essay anthologies and supervises the Review's book publishing arm, New York Review Books. Silvers appears prominently in the 2014 film about the Review, The 50 Year Argument. Among other honors, Silvers is a member of the French Ordre National du Mérite. Silvers had Edwin D. Silvers, a civil engineer. Silvers briefly attended Yale Law School. He worked to Connecticut Governor Chester Bowles in 1950, campaigning for reelection. At the same time, Silvers attended the Sorbonne and Paris Institute of Political Studies, eventually receiving its certificate. Silvers was promoted in 1956. Beginning in 1963, Silvers and Barbara Epstein edited the New York Review of Books together, until 2006, when Epstein died of cancer. Since then, he has been the sole editor. That's an extraordinary opportunity in life.Robert B. Silvers – Silvers at the National Book Critics Circle Awards in March 2012
175. Jimmy Breslin – Jimmy Breslin is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist and author. He currently writes a column for the New York Daily News Sunday edition. Columns of his have appeared regularly in various newspapers in his hometown of New York City. Born in New York, Breslin attended Long Island University from 1948 to 1950 before becoming a weekly columnist for the Long Island Press. His early columns were attributed to ordinary people that he chatted with in various watering holes near Queens Borough Hall. Breslin was a columnist for the New York Herald Tribune, the Daily News, the New York Journal American, other venues. He has been married twice. His first marriage, to Rosemary Dattolico, ended in 1981. They had six children together: daughters Rosemary and Kelly. Since 1982, he has been married to former New York City Council member Ronnie Eldridge. One of his best known columns was focused on the man who had dug the president's grave. The column is indicative of Breslin's style, which often highlights how the actions of those considered "newsworthy" affect the "common man". His memorable quote from the experience: "I am mortified to have taken part in a process that required bars to be closed." His career as an investigative journalist led him to cultivate criminal elements in the city, not always with positive results. In 1970, he was viciously beaten at The Suite, a restaurant then owned by Lucchese crime family associate Henry Hill.Jimmy Breslin – Breslin at the 2008 Brooklyn Book Festival
176. Bernie Wrightson – Bernard Albert "Berni" Wrightson is an American artist known for his horror illustrations and comic books. He was born in Dundalk, Maryland. His artistic influences were Frank Frazetta and Graham Ingels. Wrightson published a piece of art, containing a headstone bearing the inscription "Berni Wrightson, Dec. 15, 1965", on page 33 of Warren Publishing's Creepy # 9. In 1966, he began working as an illustrator. The following year, after artist Frank Frazetta at a comic-book convention in New York City, he was inspired to produce his own stories. In 1968, Wrightson was given a freelance assignment. In 1968 Wrightson drew his first comic book story, "The Man Who Murdered Himself", which appeared in House of Mystery No. 179. Wrightson continued on a variety of mystery and anthology titles for both DC and, a few years later, its principal rival, Marvel Comics. And I said,'You know, I just wrote a story that actually kind of feels like the way you feel now.' I told him about Swamp Thing, he said,' I got ta draw that." In summer 1972 Wrightson published a horror/science fiction comics anthology featuring his own scripts and artwork, each story being drawn in a different medium. Writer Marv Wolfman co-created Destiny in Weird Mystery Tales No. 1, a character which would later be used in the work of Neil Gaiman. In the fall of 1972 the Swamp Thing returned in his own series, set in the general DC continuity. He drew the first ten issues of the series.Bernie Wrightson – Wrightson at the 2006 Dallas Comic Con.
177. Derek Walcott – Sir Derek Alton Walcott, KCSL OBE OCC is a Saint Lucia poet and playwright. Walcott received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Literature. Walcott was Professor of Poetry from 2010 to 2013. His works include the Homeric poem Omeros, which many critics view "as Walcott's major achievement." His family is of European descent, reflecting the complex colonial history of the island which he explores in his poetry. A teacher, loved the arts and often recited poetry around the house. Walcott's family was part of a minority Methodist community, who felt overshadowed by the Catholic culture of the island established during French colonial rule. As a young man Walcott trained as a painter, mentored by Harold Simmons, whose life as a professional artist provided an inspiring example for him. He greatly sought to learn from them. He had an early sense of a vocation as a writer. In the poem "Midsummer", he wrote: At 14, Walcott published The Voice of St Lucia. An English Catholic priest condemned the Methodist-inspired poem in a response printed in the newspaper. Walcott covered the costs. I remember her being very upset because she wanted to do it. Somehow she got it—a lot of money for a woman to have found on her salary.Derek Walcott – Walcott at an honorary dinner in Amsterdam, 20 May 2008
178. James Cotton – Cotton is famous for his harmonica playing. He began his professional career playing the harp in Howlin' Wolf's band in the early 1950s. Cotton made his first recordings in Memphis under the direction of Sam Phillips. In 1955, Cotton was recruited by Muddy Waters to join his band. He stayed with the group until 1965. In 1965 Cotton formed the Jimmy Cotton Blues Quartet, with Otis Spann on piano, to record between gigs with Waters's band. Cotton eventually left Waters to form his full-time touring group. In the 1970s, Cotton played harmonica on Waters's Grammy Award -- winning Hard Again, produced by Johnny Winter. Born in Tunica, Mississippi, he became interested in music when he first heard Sonny Boy Williamson II on the radio. Cotton moved to West Helena, Arkansas, finding Williamson there. However, Williamson did Cotton during his early years. Williamson left leaving his band in Cotton's hands. He was quoted as saying, "He just gave it to me. He is famous for his harmonica playing. Cotton began his professional career playing the harp in Howlin' Wolf's band in the early 1950s.James Cotton – James Cotton 2007
179. Sok An – Dr. Sok An is a Cambodian politician. He is the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Office of the Council of Ministers. He has served since 1993. He is a Member of a member of the Cambodian People's Party. He has five children. In 1969 was appointed as principal of a high school in Kirivong. He pursued higher education in Phnom Penh graduating with a bachelor's degree in Geography, History and Sociology in 1972. In the same year, he also received a High Diploma in Pedagogy. From 1973 to 1975, he attended a high-ranking official training program at the National School of Administration. In 1980, he served as personal secretary to Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Hun Sen. In 1981, he was named Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in 1983, as Secretary-General of the Cambodian National Peace Council. Since 1998, he has been the Minister in charge of the Office of the Council of Ministers. Appointed as Senior Minister in 1998, he was promoted to the rank of Deputy Prime Minister in 2004. As Deputy Prime Minister and Minister in charge of the Office of the Council of Ministers, he has responsibility over a number of areas. As Chairman of the Council of the Board of Engineers Cambodia he has led the organization through the current period of increasing prosperity in Cambodia.Sok An – His Excellency Dr. Sok An MP
180. Dave Stallworth – David A. Stallworth is a retired American professional basketball player. He was a member of the New York Knicks' 1969 -- 70 championship-winning team. A 6' 7" forward/center from Dallas' Madison High School, Stallworth attended Wichita State University. In his three seasons with the Shockers, he set 18 school records, including the highest point per game average. He earned "Dave the Rave" while playing at Wichita State. In the 1965 NBA draft, Stallworth was selected in the first round with the third overall pick. Stallworth played eight seasons as a member of the Knicks and Baltimore/Capital Bullets. He won a league championship with New York in 1970. Following a period as a coach for a amateur team, Stallworth was told by his doctor that he could return to playing. A back-up on the 1969 -- Stallworth was forced into action in Game 5 of the 1970 NBA Finals after Willis Reed was injured early. He was aided in holding him in check when on defense. In 1971, Stallworth was traded along for Earl Monroe. He returned to the Knicks for the 1974 -- 75 season, playing in seven games. After his career ended, Stallworth was employed in Wichita, Kansas by Boeing. Dave Stallworth at Basketball-Reference.comDave Stallworth – Stallworth in 1971
181. Royal Robbins – Royal Robbins is one of the pioneers of American rock climbing. After learning to climb at Tahquitz he went on to make first ascents of big wall routes in Yosemite. He went on to become a well-known kayaker. 1957 Northwest Face of Dome, Yosemite, CA, USA. First grade VI climb in America. With Mike Sherrick and Jerry Gallwas. 1961 Salathé Wall, El Capitan, Yosemite, CA, USA. Hardest big grade VI climb in world at time of first ascent. With Tom Frost and Chuck Pratt. 1962 American Direct, Aiguille du Dru, Mont Blanc Range, France. With Gary Hemming. 1963 Direct NW Face of Dome, Yosemite, CA, USA. With Dick McCracken. 1963 Robbins Route, Mount Proboscis, Logan Mountains, NWT, Canada. With Jim McCarthy, Layton Kor and Dick McCracken.Royal Robbins – Royal Robbins in the early 1960s.
182. John Van de Kamp – John Van de Kamp is an American politician. Van served as Los Angeles County District Attorney from 1975 until 1981, then as 28th Attorney General of California until 1991. John Kalar Van de Kamp was born on February 1936. Van graduated from Stanford Law School in 1959. Van later became the first federal public defender in Los Angeles. Van was appointed District Attorney after the previous incumbent died in office. During his tenure as Los Angeles County District Attorney, Van de Kamp dramatically increased the number of deputy district attorneys in the office. Van set in place programs to help witnesses, as well as quick response teams in cases of police officer-involved shootings. Van de Kamp was criticized for his office's handling of the Hillside Strangler case. Van de Kamp was assured by his prosecutors because of Bianchi's behavior, conviction of Buono could not be secured. Van de Kamp allowed the trial prosecutor, Roger Kelly, to move to dismiss all 10 murder charges against Buono and release him. Judge George reassigned the case, moving it to the California Attorney General's office under George Deukmejian. Van also helped to modernize the Department of Justice by beginning support of DNA forensic investigation. Van was re-elected easily in 1986. In 1987, Van De Kamp unsuccessfully led the State's charge against pornography by defending the pandering conviction of adult filmmaker Harold Freeman.John Van de Kamp – Van de Kamp in 2012
183. Adib Boroumand – Adib Boroumand is an Iranian poet, politician, lawyer. He is known as the national poet of Iran. He is currently the head of the leadership chairman of central council of the National Front of Iran. He was born on June 1924 in Gaz, Borkhar County, Isfahan, Persia. Since then he has been living in Tehran. Abdol Ali Boroumand was born in the country of Iran, then called Persia. His father was a writer, while his mother was interested in education and culture. At the age of six, Adib gained literacy. He eventually earned his high school diploma, while studying literature. He began writing prose at the age of sixteen, forming an interest in poems written by constitutionalists. He began his political career during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He wrote about Iranian nationalism, while calling it a dictatorship. He also criticized the invading forces by promoting nationalism and patriotism. His poems could be found while reading Tehran's newspapers at the time. During this time, he published titled Groaning of Homeland.Adib Boroumand – Adib Boroumand ادیب برومند
184. Danehill Dancer – A son of Danehill, Danehill Dancer was owned by Michael Tabor. As a two-year-old, he won the Phoenix Stakes and National Stakes, before finishing second in the Dewhurst Stakes on his last start of the season. Danehill Dancer only raced once, finishing seventh in the Duke of York Stakes. In 2009, Mastercraftsman Again won the Irish 1,000 Guineas. These victories, along with successes from two-year-olds Alfred Nobel and Lillie Langtry, helped Danehill Dancer be crowned Ireland that year. Both Choisir and Mastercraftsman, who are also now stallions at Coolmore, have made promising starts as sires. He is a horse bred by L. K. and K. McCreery and foaled on 20 January 1993. Danehill Dancer was sired by Danehill, who won the Haydock Sprint Cup in 1989. After retiring from racing Danehill was champion sire in Great Britain and Ireland, Australia and France. Amongst his best progeny are Dylan Thomas, Duke of Marmalade, Fastnet Rock, George Washington, North Light, Oratorio and Rock of Gibraltar. Danehill Dancer's dam is a daughter of Sharpen Up. Mira Adonde only raced once, finishing seventh in a seven-furlong maiden race at Newmarket. Danehill Dancer, who stands 15.3 hands high, was put up at the Goffs sale in October 1994. He then raced at the top level, when one month later he contested the Group 1 Phoenix Stakes. Ridden again by Eddery, Danehill Dancer won the race, beating Woodborough by a neck.Danehill Dancer – Leopardstown Racecourse, where Danehill Dancer won the Phoenix Stakes
185. John Surtees – John Surtees, CBE is a British former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver. Surtees founded the Surtees Racing Organisation team that competed from 1970 to 1978. Surtees is also the ambassador of the Racing Steps Foundation. He is the son of a south London dealer. Surtees had his professional outing in the sidecar of his father's Vincent, which they won. However, when race officials discovered Surtees's age, they were disqualified. Surtees entered his first race in a grasstrack competition. At the age of 16, Surtees went to work for the Vincent factory as an apprentice. Surtees made his first headlines in 1951 when he gave a strong challenge in an ACU race at the Thruxton Circuit. In 1955, Norton chief Joe Craig gave Surtees his first factory sponsored ride aboard the Nortons. Surtees finished the year by beating reigning champion Duke at Silverstone and then at Brands Hatch. In 1956 Surtees won the 500cc championship, MV Agusta's first in the senior class. On 25 Surtees had a life-threatening accident at the Mosport Circuit whilst practising a Lola T70 sports racing car. A front casting had broken. A.J.John Surtees – Surtees sitting in his Ferrari signing autographs at Brands Hatch in 1964
186. Howard Hodgkin – Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin CH CBE is a British painter and printmaker. His work is most often associated with abstraction. A cousin of the English still life painter Eliot Hodgkin, was educated at Eton College and then at Bryanston School in Dorset. He then studied in Corsham where Edward Piper studied drawing under him. Hodgkin's first show was in London in 1962. His early paintings tend to be made up in a limited number of colours. Around the beginning of the 1970s, Hodgkin's style became more spontaneous, with vaguely recognisable shapes presented in bold forms. In 1984, Hodgkin represented Britain at the Venice Biennale, in 1992 he was knighted. In 1995, Hodgkin printed the Venetian Views series, which depict the same view of Venice at four different times of day. Venice, Afternoon - one of the four prints - fragments, in a hugely complex printing process which creates a colourful, painterly effect. This piece was given by the Israel family to complement their already-impressive collection of Hodgkins. In 2003 he was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II as a Companion of Honour. A major exhibition of his work was mounted in 2006. He has worked with the same master printer and print publisher for the last 25 years. Michael Auping; John Elderfield; Susan Sontag; Marla Price.Howard Hodgkin – 'Dinner at Smith Square', 1975-1979. Oil painting on board and wood support.
187. George Andrew Olah – George Andrew Olah is a Hungarian and American chemist. His research involves the reactivity of carbocations via superacids. For this research, Olah was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1994. He has also been awarded the Priestley Medal, the highest honor granted by the American Chemical Society and F.A. Cotton Medal for Excellence in Chemical Research of the American Chemical Society in 1996. Olah was born in Budapest, Hungary, to Magda and Julius Oláh, a lawyer. After the high school of Budapesti Piarista Gimnazium, he then taught, at what is now Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Olah's pioneering work on carbocations started with Dow. In 1965 he returned in 1977. In 1971, Olah became a naturalized citizen of the United States. As of April 2016, Olah is the director of the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute. In 2005, Olah wrote an essay promoting the economy. The Olah family formed an fund which grants annual awards to outstanding chemists. The awards are administered by the American Chemical Society. The search for stable carbocations led like FSO3H-SbF5.George Andrew Olah – George Olah
188. Ron Bass (wrestler) – Ronald "Ron" Heard is a former American professional wrestler, best known under the name Ron Bass. His gimmick was a Texan cowboy who entered World Wrestling Federation rings to the sound of a bullwhip. Herd started wrestling as Ron Bass in 1975. Throughout the 1970s, he performed primarily in National Wrestling Alliance territories. He was known depending on which territory he was working at the time. In the early 1980s, he wrestled in Jim Crockett Promotions, frequently teaming with Black Bart as The Long Riders in both promotions. He also feuded with Barry Windham in Florida. Bass' feud with Barry Windham led to Windham coming back to wrestle as the masked "Dirty Yellow Dog." In 1987, Bass went to the World Wrestling Federation, where he voiced challenges to the likes of WWF champion Hulk Hogan and Brutus Beefcake. On he was part of the five-man team captained by The Honky Tonk Man at the inaugural Survivor Series pay-per-view on Thanksgiving Day 1987. He also participated at WrestleMania IV. Bass was one of the rare heels during this time to not have a manager. Bass and Honky co-captained a five-man contingent against a team captained at the second Survivor Series in November. Teammate Greg Valentine were eliminated by Warrior in succession in the final minute of the match. On the January 1989 edition of Saturday Night's Main Event, Bass lost to Beefcake via sleeperhold in a hair vs. hair match.Ron Bass (wrestler) – Ron Bass
189. Robert Osborne – Robert Jolin Osborne is an American film historian and former actor best known as the primary host for Turner Classic Movies. Prior to TCM, he had been a host on The Movie Channel. Born in the small town of Colfax, Washington, he graduated from the University of Washington's School of Journalism. Osborne began his career working as a actor for Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball's Desilu Studios. There, he became part of Lucille Ball's Desilu Workshop, in which Ball nurtured such young performers as Osborne and actress-singer Carole Cook. One of Osborne's early television appearances was in a 1959 episode of Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse called "Chain of Command," starring Hugh O'Brian. Osborne was also featured in December 1959. Osborne also had small roles in the 1962 pilot episode of The Beverly Hillbillies, "The Clampetts Strike Oil". Not thinking the show would be a success, he decided not to sign up for the series, instead deciding to focus on acting in television commercials. Ball suggested that Osborne focus his energies on becoming a journalist, as he would often quip, "especially after she saw me act". After The Beverly Hillbillies, he would focus more on journalism. In 1965, he had his first book published, Academy Awards Illustrated. In 1977, he began his long-standing stint for The Hollywood Reporter. He published 50 Golden Years of Oscar, which won the 1979 National Film Book award. In 1982, he began a five-year stint on KTTV Channel 11 in Los Angeles.Robert Osborne – April 2007
190. Jay Lynch – Jay Lynch is an American cartoonist who played a key role in the underground comix movement with his Bijou Funnies and other titles. His work is sometimes signed Jayzey Lynch. Jay Lynch was born in New Jersey. He lived in Chicago. Working a string of odd jobs to support himself, he wound up manning the bar at Second City one summer. The Belushi hippie years. "At that time it seemed like Second City was over," Lynch says. "They had been on Jack Paar, all the Hyde Park Compass Players were gone... The Realist would come out, you'd see them taking their improvs from there." Lynch moved on Hudson. Close had left it in such a mess that the landlord let him live there for free on the condition that he fix the place up. He drew cartoons for the Aardvark, which got tossed off campus by college administrators after the first issue. Bijou Funnies was collected in 1975 in the book The Best of Bijou Funnies. Lynch's best known comic book stories involve recurring characters in Bijou Funnies. Beginning in 1968, Lynch became a major contributor plus other Topps humor products.Jay Lynch – Lynch at the 2014 New York Comic Con
191. Clayton Yeutter – Yeutter served as United States Trade Representative from 1985 to 1989 and as Chairman for the Republican National Committee until 1992. Yeutter is employed at the international law firm Hogan Lovells in Washington, D.C. Yeutter was born in Eustis, Nebraska. He is a graduate of the University of Nebraska -- Lincoln from which he received a Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics. He was born during the Nebraska Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Despite a successful career in government and politics, he expressed a continued desire to remain close to his upbringing. As Deputy Trade Representative Yeutter stated, "I once wanted to be a successful farmer. There are days when I get a yearning to return." He graduated from Eustis High School in 1948. Yeutter then was a member of FarmHouse Fraternity. In 1952 Yeutter graduated with a B.S. "With High Distinction", the highest scholastic honor given by the University of Nebraska. Yeutter also was named the "Outstanding Animal Husbandry Graduate" in the United States. Upon graduation from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, which coincided with the Korean War, he enlisted in the United States Air Force. While enlisted he earned credits under the G.I. Bill to attend graduate school.Clayton Yeutter – Yeutter in February 2005.
192. Thomas Starzl – Thomas Earl Starzl is an American physician, researcher, is an expert on organ transplants. He performed the first human liver transplants, has often been referred to as "the father of modern transplantation." He is the second of four siblings. Originally intending to become a priest in his teenage years, Starzl's plans changed drastically when his mother died from breast cancer in 1947. He attended Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in biology. While attending medical school, he established a long friendship with a neurosurgeon. Starzl spent an extra year at medical school, using the additional time to complete a doctorate in neurophysiology, in 1952. The paper is still cited today. After obtaining his medical degree, Starzl trained at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. At both places, he conducted research, showing a keen interest in liver biology. He made an exceptional mark on the medical community creating new surgical techniques. He reportedly worked up to three days straight on organ transplantation procedures as he was the only one who could perform them. The Institute for Scientific Information released information in 1999 that documented that his work had been cited more than any other researcher in the world. Between 1981 and June 1998, he was cited 26,456 times. The Puzzle People, was named as the third best book on doctors' lives.Thomas Starzl – Thomas E. Starzl Way on the campus of the University of Pittsburgh
193. Tommy Gemmell – Thomas Gemmell is a former Scottish footballer and manager. Although right-footed, he had powerful shooting ability. In October 1961, Gemmell joined Celtic from Coltness United. He was one of the'Lisbon Lions' in which Gemmell scored a spectacular equalising goal. He scored 64 goals. This total comprised 247 league, 43 cup, 54 European appearances. His record for penalties was 34 goals from 37 attempts. In Lion Heart, Gemmell revealed that during his time at Celtic he was on the receiving end of sectarian abuse from fellow Celtic players. Gemmell stated that team-mate Ian Young had been the target of colleagues who had wanted an all-Catholic team. In December 1971, Gemmell was transferred to Nottingham Forest to cover for Liam O'Kane. After a short stint in America he won the Scottish League Cup against former team Celtic. He made his international debut in April 1966. He played in the famous 3 -- 2 victory over World Champions England at Wembley Stadium. He scored one goal from the penalty spot against Cyprus in an 8 -- 0 win in a 1970 World Cup qualifier. Gemmell later managed Albion Rovers.Tommy Gemmell – Gemmell (left) and Willie Wallace (1971)
194. Gustav Metzger – Gustav Metzger is an artist and political activist who developed the concept of Auto-Destructive Art and the Art Strike. Together with John Sharkey, he initiated the Destruction in 1966. Metzger is recognised in the political and artistic realms. He has been stateless since the 1940s. He received a grant from the UK Jewish community to study at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp between 1949. His experience of twentieth society's destructive capabilities led Metzger to a concentrated ` formulation of what destruction is and what it might be in relation to art.' He is known as a leading exponent of the Art Strike movements. In 1959 he published the auto-destructive manifesto Auto-Destructive Art. This was given to the Architecture Association in 1964, taken over by students as an artistic ` Happening'. In 1962 he participated at Gallery One, London. His proposal to exhibit the front pages of the Daily Mirror covering the Cuban Missile Crisis was rejected by the organisers Robert Filliou and Daniel Spoerri. In 2005 he selected EASTinternational which he proclaimed to be "The exhibition without the art."." " From 29 September to 8 November 2009 the Serpentine Gallery in London featured the most extensive exhibition ever in the UK of his work. Exhibits included 15 upturned willow trees embedded in a block of concrete, symbolising a world turned upside down by global warming. He felt that artists are especially threatened, because so many rely as a big inspiration.Gustav Metzger – Gustav Metzger in 2009.
195. Paul Kangas – He is best known for signing off each NBR broadcast with "I'm Paul Kangas, wishing all of you the best of good buys!" . He recently returned on December 6, 2012 to answer viewer questions about the stock market and its future. After graduating from the University of Michigan, Kangas served aboard the USCG Cutter Mackinaw. Later, he served as aide in Cleveland, Ohio. Kangas completed his Coast Guard service as a Lieutenant. Kangas earned his broker's license after studying at the New York University Stern School of Business. While Kangas began his career as a broadcaster at WINZ, a CBS Radio affiliate in Miami owned by his biggest client. In 2005, he won a Suncoast Chapter Silver Circle Award. Kangas retired at the end of 2009. Kangas is of Finnish descent. Paul is also an amateur operator with the callsign W4LAA.Paul Kangas – Paul Kangas
196. Gerald Kaufman – He was a government minister in the 1970s and a member of the Shadow Cabinet in the 1980s. Kaufman became the current Father of the House after the retirement of Peter Tapsell in 2015. Kaufman is also the oldest sitting MP of the UK Parliament. The youngest of Kaufman was born in Leeds to Louis and Jane Kaufman. His parents came from Poland before the First World War. Kaufman graduated with a degree in philosophy, politics and economics from the University of Oxford. Kaufman was general secretary of the Fabian Society from, a lead writer on the Daily Mirror and a journalist on the New Statesman. Kaufman eventually became a member of Prime Minister Harold Wilson's informal "kitchen cabinet". In the 1955 general election he had unsuccessfully in the 1959 general election, Gillingham. Kaufman regularly appeared as a guest of Life. In 1999, Kaufman acted as chairman of the Booker Prize judges. He has represented the Manchester Gorton constituency since the 1983 election. Kaufman was made a member of the Privy Council in 1978. In opposition, he was the Shadow Environment Secretary, Shadow Foreign Secretary. Kaufman dubbed the Labour Party's left-wing 1983 manifesto "the longest suicide note in history".Gerald Kaufman – The Right Honourable Sir Gerald Kaufman MP
197. Bill Paxton – William "Bill" Paxton is an American actor and director. He has appeared in a number including The Terminator, Weird Science, Aliens, True Lies, Apollo 13, Twister, Titanic. He also was nominated for an Emmy Award for the miniseries Hatfields & McCoys. He and his siblings were raised in her faith. Paxton was in the crowd when President John F. Kennedy emerged from the Hotel Texas on November 22, 1963. There are pictures at the Sixth Floor Museum in Dallas, where an eight-year-old Paxton can be seen being lifted above the crowd. Paxton collaborated with director James Cameron on True Lies and Titanic, the highest-grossing film of all time at its release. Four years after appearing in Titanic, he joined James Cameron on an expedition to the actual Titanic. Ghosts of the Abyss, was released in 2003. Paxton received acclaim for some of his television performances. Most notably, he had the lead role in HBO's Big Love, for which Paxton received three Golden Globe nominations. He directed a number of short films, including Fish Heads, which aired during Saturday Night Live's low-rated 1980–1981 season. The Greatest Game Ever Played. He was cast in a video for the 1982 Pat Benatar song "Shadows of the Night", in which he appeared as a Nazi radio officer. He appears in the Limp Bizkit video Eat You Alive.Bill Paxton – Paxton at the 2013 San Diego Comic Con International
198. Alan Colmes – Alan Samuel Colmes is an American radio and television host, liberal political commentator for the Fox News Channel, blogger. From 1996 to 2009, he served on Fox News Channel. In addition to broadcasting, he contributes to AOL News. He is the author of Red, White & Liberal: How Left Is Right Is Wrong and Thank the Liberals for Saving America. He was born in New York City. His grandparents emigrated from the Ukraine. Colmes went to Hofstra University, where he graduated in 1971 with a Bachelor of Arts degree from its School of Communications. While at Hofstra, Colmes worked at its station WRHU. He began his career in stand-up comedy. His career took off when WABC hired him for the morning drive time slot. He was billed as "W. Alan B. Colmes," as in the station's call sign. His tenure there would be short when NBC announced in 1988 it would close its radio division. When WNBC went off the air for the last time on October 1988, Colmes' was the last voice heard. He has been syndicated nationally, starting with his involvement with Daynet, a venture created by other regional radio hosts.Alan Colmes – Colmes in September 2014
199. David Waddington, Baron Waddington – David Charles Waddington, Baron Waddington, GCVO, PC, QC, DL is a British politician. He then served from 1992-97. Waddington was educated at two independent schools in North West England: Cressbrook School in Kirkby Lonsdale and Sedbergh School. It is alleged this was because Kiszko's team made significant mistakes. Firstly, they did not seek an adjournment when the Crown delivered thousands of pages of unused material on the first morning of the trial. Secondly, it has also been alleged that, in court, Waddington maintained the defence of diminished responsibility which Kiszko had never authorised. Waddington states that this assertion runs counter to what Kiszko's new counsel told the Court of Appeal. His authority properly obtained." Kiszko was finally released in 1992 after the Court of Appeal was told forensic evidence showed that he could not have been the murderer. Coincidentally, Kiszko's appeal was first lodged on the day Waddington was announced as the new Home Secretary in 1989. Waddington stood several times before finding success. He fought Farnworth at the 1955 general election, Heywood and Royton in 1966. He was first elected at a by-election in Nelson and Colne caused by the death of Labour MP Sydney Silverman. He was subsequently elected for the broadly-similar Ribble Valley constituency in 1983. On December 1990 he was created a life peer as Baron Waddington, of Read in the County of Lancashire.David Waddington, Baron Waddington – Secretary of State for the Home Department
201. Elections in Netherlands – Apart from elections, referenda are also held occasionally, a fairly recent phenomenon in Dutch politics. At the national level, legislative power is invested in the States General, bicameral. The House of Representatives has 150 members, elected by proportional representation. Elections are also called after a dissolution of the House of Representatives. Candidates to the elections of the House of Representatives are chosen according to a system of proportional representation. The threshold is 1/150th of the total number of valid votes. During the municipal elections of 2006, elections were electronic throughout the country. As a result, results were known after the closing of the poll stations. Since then, most elections have been held using pencil. The most recent election were March 2015. Elections are generally held about four years after the previous one. Normal elections, i.e. after the House of Representatives has fulfilled its term, take place in March. If provincial elections are already taking place in March of that year, the parliamentary elections are postponed to May. City councils and States-Provincial cannot be dissolved, so no dissolution elections can occur. An exception to the four-year term is made when new elections take place for the merged municipality.Elections in Netherlands – Voting using "paper and red pencil": the voter colours in the box preceding the name of his or her favoured candidate
203. Elections in Bulgaria – Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected directly by the people. The National Assembly has 240 members, elected for a four-year term with a 4 % threshold. Parliamentary elections have been held since 1879. This, in practice, gave a monopoly on power. Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic. All elections since 1990 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term with a 4 % threshold. The last were held in 2016. On October 2015 the question was if Bulgaria should introduce electronic voting. On November 2016 voters were asked three questions. Regional referendums have been held as well.Elections in Bulgaria – Bulgaria
204. Elections in Armenia – Elections in Armenia gives information on election and election results in Armenia. Armenia elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people. The National Assembly has 131 members, elected for a four-year term, 90 by proportional representation. Electoral calendar Electoral system Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Armenia Adam Carr's Election Archive Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of ArmeniaElections in Armenia – Armenia
205. Elections in Ecuador – Elections in Ecuador is about information on elections and election results in Ecuador. Ecuador elects on national level a legislature. The President of his vice-president are elected on one ballot for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress has 100 members elected for a four-year term in the 22 provinces. National electoral calendar 2017 Adam Carr's Election Archive Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues, issue brief from the Center for Economic and Policy ResearchElections in Ecuador – Ecuador
206. Ecuadorian general election, 2017 – Elections in Ecuador is about information on elections and election results in Ecuador. Ecuador elects on national level a legislature. The President of his vice-president are elected on one ballot for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress has 100 members elected for a four-year term in the 22 provinces. National electoral calendar 2017 Adam Carr's Election Archive Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues, issue brief from the Center for Economic and Policy ResearchEcuadorian general election, 2017 – Ecuador
207. Elections in The Gambia – Elections in The Gambia gives information on election and election results in Gambia. Gambia elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people. The National Assembly has 48 members elected for a five-year term and 4 members appointed. Gambia is a one party dominant state in power. Opposition parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Following the December 2016 elections, the elections committee declared Adama Borrow winner of the elections. Incumbent president Yahya Jammeh accepted defeat on December 2. Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carr's Election Archive African Elections DatabaseElections in The Gambia – The Gambia
208. Elections in TurkeyElections in Turkey – Turkey
209. Trial – One form of tribunal is a court. The tribunal, which may occur before a judge, other designated trier of fact, aims to achieve a resolution to their dispute. Where the trial is held before a group of members of the community, it is called a trial. Where the trial is held solely before a judge, it is called a trial. Hearings before administrative bodies are typically not referred to as trials. Trials can also be divided at issue. A criminal trial is designed to resolve accusations brought against a person accused of a crime. In common law systems, most criminal defendants are entitled to a trial held before a jury. The rules of criminal procedure provide rules for criminal trials. A civil trial is generally held to settle civil claims -- non-criminal disputes. In some countries, the government can both be sued in a civil capacity. The rules of civil procedure provide rules for civil trials. Although administrative hearings are not ordinarily considered trials, they retain many elements found in more "formal" trial settings. When the dispute goes to judicial setting, it is called an administrative trial, to revise the administrative hearing, depending on the jurisdiction. The types of disputes handled in these hearings is governed by the civil trial law.Trial – Trial of Jean II, Duke of Alençon, October 1458.
210. Sam Rainsy – Sam Rainsy is a Cambodian politician who most recently served as the Minority Leader. Rainsy was a Member of Parliament for Kampong Cham from 1998 until his removal in 2015. Rainsy was previously the MP for Siem Reap until 1995 when he was expelled from the National Assembly. From 2000 to 2002 and again from 2012 to 2014, he was the chairperson of the Council of Asian Democrats. He faced criminal defamation charges after accusing the Cambodian People's Party and Funcinpec of corruption in the formation of the current coalition government. Rainsy has also accused Prime Minister Hun Sen of involvement in the 2004 murder of SRP-affiliated leader Chea Vichea. In September 2010, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for charges widely believed to be politically motivated. In 2012, the Sam Rainsy Party merged with the Human Rights Party to form the Cambodia National Rescue Party. Following his resignation from the Sam Rainsy Party to lead the newly formed party, Kong Korm succeeded him as party leader in November 2012. He returned to Cambodia on July 2013 where thousands of his supporters waited along the roads. The opposition boycotted parliament in September 2013, until July 2014. Sam Rainsy was born in Phnom Penh on March 1949. Rainsy moved to France in 1965, then worked as an investment manager and executive director in a variety of Parisian financial companies. Rainsy was expelled from the party after losing a vote of no-confidence in 1994. In 1995, Rainsy founded the Khmer Nation Party, which changed its name to the Sam Rainsy Party to avoid registration issues.Sam Rainsy – Sam Rainsy សម រង្ស៊ី MP
211. Zhou Yongkang – Zhou Yongkang is a retired senior leader of the Communist Party of China. He was a State Councilor of the State Council from 2003 to 2008 and also a member of the Party Secretariat of the Central Committee. Zhou served from 2002 -- 07, before being promoted to the PSC. He retired in 2012. In late 2013, Zhou was placed for alleged abuse of power and corruption, a decision state media announced in July 2014. Following his investigation, he was expelled from the Communist Party of China. On June 2015, he was convicted of bribery, abuse of power and the intentional disclosure of state secrets by the Intermediate Court in Tianjin. His family members were said to have taken 129 million yuan in bribes. Zhou was sentenced to life in prison. Born Zhou Yuangen in December 1942, he is a native in Jiangsu province. Xiqiantou is located 18 kilometers outside Wuxi city proper. The majority of Xiqiantou residents were surnamed "Zhou". He took on the surname of his mother because his father, whose surname was Lu, was a ` live-in son-in-law' of his maternal grandparents. Upon joining the Zhou household when he married, Zhou Yongkang's father became known as Zhou Yisheng. He was the eldest of three sons.Zhou Yongkang – Zhou Yongkang
212. Guo Boxiong – Guo Boxiong was a retired general of the People's Liberation Army of China. He served between 2002 and 2012. During the same period he also held a seat in the Politburo of the Communist Party of China's top decision-making body. He was expelled from the Communist Party on 30 July 2015. On July 2016, he was sentenced to life imprisonment for bribery. Guo was born in Shaanxi province. In August 1958, Guo, aged just finished middle school, began working at a military factory in Xingping, Shaanxi province. Guo joined the People's Liberation Army in 1961. Two years later, he joined the Communist Party of China. Guo was trained at the Xi'an Army Academy in People's Liberation Army Military Academy where he graduated. Guo earned a series of promotions in the 1970s. In the 55th Division of the 19th Army, Guo rose from a soldier by 1982. Afterwards Guo became commander of the 47th Group Army for three years. In 1993 Guo became deputy commander of the heart of China's defense establishment, in 1997 commander of the Lanzhou Military Region. In September 1999, Guo was also promoted to the rank of General.Guo Boxiong – General Guo Boxiong
213. Geert Wilders – Geert Wilders is a Dutch politician, the founder and leader of the Party for Freedom. Wilders is the parliamentary group leader of his party in the Dutch House of Representatives. Raised a Roman Catholic, Wilders left the church at his coming of age. His travels to Israel as a young adult, well as to Arab countries, helped form his political views. He was elected to the Utrecht city council in 1996, later to the House of Representatives. Wilders has campaigned to stop what he views as the "Islamisation of the Netherlands". He has compared the Quran to Mein Kampf and has campaigned to have the book banned in the Netherlands. He advocates ending immigration from Muslim countries, supports banning the construction of new mosques. His controversial 2008 film about his views on Islam, Fitna, received international attention. He has been described in the media as populist and labeled far-right, although this is disputed by other observers. Wilders was born in the city of Venlo, in the southeast Netherlands. He is the youngest of four children, was raised Catholic. He was born to a Dutch father and a mother born in colonial Indonesia, whose ancestors were Dutch Indonesian. Wilders received his secondary education at the Mavo and Havo middle school and high school in Venlo. Wilders' goal after he graduated from secondary school was to see the world.Geert Wilders – Wilders delivering a speech in 2010
214. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – She was the country's second female president, the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. Arroyo is also the first duly elected female Vice President of the Philippines. Arroyo was a former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University where Benigno Aquino III was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, was sworn in on June 30, 2004. On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage. But released on bail in July 2012. She was rearrested while in the hospital on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds in October 2012. On July 19, 2016, she was acquitted by the Supreme Court by a voting of 11-4. She is a member of the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language. She was born as Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo Macapagal Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga, with her two older siblings from her father's first marriage. At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City.Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
215. Nur Misuari – Nur Misuari is a Moro revolutionary and politician, founder and leader of the Moro National Liberation Front. Nur Misuari was born on March 3, 1939 in Tapul, Sulu, Philippines. The fourth of his parents came from Kabinga-an, Tapul Island. His father was Saliddain Misuari, who worked as a fisherman, his mother was Dindanghail Pining. Misuari's father moved their family from Tapul to Jolo, Sulu when he was still young. Misuari studied from 1955 to 1958. Misuari's family experienced financial difficulties and could not afford to send him to college. Misuari initially took up a degree in liberal arts, intending to pursue medicine. He became active in many of the university's extra-curricular activities, particularly in debate. He finished his master's degree in Asian studies in 1964 at the Asian Center of the University of the Philippines. In 1964, Misuari founded a radical student group called the Bagong Asya. Together with Jose Maria Sison, he also founded the Kabataan Makabayan. Until 2016, Misuari had five wives, his first wife was Desdemona Tan, who died of illness in Islamabad, Pakistan. The elder sister of the deceased Desdemona, Eleonora Tan then became his second wife. His fourth wives are Maimona Palalisan.Nur Misuari – Nur Misuari in 2009.
216. Liviu Dragnea – Liviu Nicolae Dragnea is a Romanian engineer and politician. He graduated in 1987. Dragnea's political career began in 1996, when he was elected a councilor in Turnu Măgurele. In 2000, he became president of the Teleorman County Council, being re-elected in 2004, 2012. He is a member of the party's Teleorman County chapter. In 2006, he led the PSD's campaign at the 2007 European Parliament election. Following the resignation of Gabriel Oprea, Dragnea was named Interior Minister. He announced his priorities as being the safety of children in the safety of citizens on the street, decentralisation and administrative reform. He resigned, citing a lack of resources and funds to implement his plans. Also, his brief tenure was rocked by an arms theft from a depot in Ciorogârla. He became general of the PSD in July 2009. At the December 2012 parliamentary election, Dragnea won a seat with 71.5 % of the vote. Simultaneously, he left the county leadership. In early 2013, he left the party general position, soon becoming executive president. Following a reshuffle in December 2014, he lost the deputy premiership but retained the Regional Development portfolio.Liviu Dragnea – Dragnea at a Social Democratic Youth meeting in Otopeni, September 2009
217. Lionel Messi – Lionel Andrés "Leo" Messi is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club FC Barcelona and captains the Argentina national team. With Barcelona Messi has won four UEFA Champions League titles, as well as four Copas del Rey. Messi has scored over 500 senior career goals for country. Raised in central Argentina, he was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency as a child. At age 13, Messi relocated to Spain to join Barcelona, who agreed to pay for his medical treatment. After a fast progression through Barcelona's academy, he made his competitive debut aged 17 in October 2004. His uninterrupted campaign came in the 2008 -- 09 season, during which he helped Barcelona achieve the first treble in Spanish football. At 22 years old, he won FIFA World Player of the Year award by record voting margins. Three successful seasons followed, including an unprecedented fourth. Messi again struggled during the following two seasons twice finishing second for the Ballon d'Or behind Cristiano Ronaldo, his perceived career rival. Messi is his country's all-time leading goalscorer. His style of play as a left-footed dribbler drew comparisons with compatriot Diego Maradona, who declared the teenager his successor. Messi was then convicted of fraud committed from 2007 to 2009, for which he received a fine and a suspended prison sentence. A lifelong supporter of Newell's Old Boys, he joined the Rosario club when he was six years old. However, his future as a professional player was threatened when, at age 10, he was diagnosed with a growth deficiency.Lionel Messi – Messi with Barcelona during the UEFA Super Cup in August 2015
218. Ched Evans – Chedwyn Michael "Ched" Evans is a Welsh footballer who plays as a striker for League One club Chesterfield. Born in Rhyl, Denbighshire, Evans was signed by Manchester City from Chester City's youth set up in 2002 and he subsequently progressed through the ranks. Evans was loaned to Norwich City in 2007, where he scored 10 goals in 28 league appearances, before returning to his parent club. With first team opportunities at City limited he was subsequently sold to Sheffield United for £3 million in 2009. After an unspectacular first two seasons at Bramall Lane he scored 35 goals during the 2011–12 season. Evans was wrongly convicted of rape in April 2012 and spent two and a half years in prison. His conviction was quashed on 21 April 2016 by the Court of Appeal, a retrial was ordered. On 14 Evans was found not guilty. Prior to the retrial, he joined Chesterfield. In May 2007, Evans signed his first professional contract with Manchester City. In September 2007 Evans came off the bench to make his senior debut in City’s 1–0 League Cup victory against Norwich City. With first choice opportunities at City limited Evans moved on loan to Norwich City in November of that year, agreeing a deal until 1 January 2008. He made his debut for Norwich the following week when he came on as a substitute in the 3–1 victory over Blackpool. Evans returned to Manchester City after his initial loan deal expired in January 2008, having made eight appearances and scored two goals. Then Manchester City manager Sven-Göran Eriksson stated that he would not be leaving the summer window.Ched Evans – Evans before a Wales under-21 game
219. Bob McDonnell – Robert Francis "Bob" McDonnell is an American Republican politician, the 71st Governor of Virginia. McDonnell also served on the executive committee of the Republican Governors Association. McDonnell was a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army Reserve. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1992 to 2006, was Attorney General of Virginia from 2006 to 2009. McDonnell was elected Governor of Virginia after using the campaign slogan "Bob's for Jobs." McDonnell succeeded Democrat Tim Kaine, term-limited by Virginia law. After taking office as governor, McDonnell advocated privatization and promoted offshore drilling for Virginia. McDonnell's governorship ended with a 55% to 32% approval to disapproval rating among registered voters. On January 2014, Maureen, were indicted for receiving improper gifts and loans from a Virginia businessman. They were convicted on most counts by a federal jury on September 4, 2014. However, he was free on bond during the subsequent appeals process. On June 27, 2016, the United States Supreme Court unanimously vacated McDonnell's conviction and remanded the case back to a lower court. McDonnell was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Emma B. Meta and Lt. Col. John Francis McDonnell USAF Ret.. His paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, his maternal grandparents were from Alsace-Lorraine in what was then the German Empire.Bob McDonnell – McDonnell in February 2010
220. ICTY – The tribunal is an hoc court, located in The Hague, Netherlands. The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, passed on 25 May 1993. The maximum sentence it can impose is imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. Goran Hadžić, was arrested on 20 July 2011. Any appeal proceedings initiated since 1 July 2013 have been for International Criminal Tribunals. The Court was originally proposed by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. In 1993, the ICTY built its internal infrastructure. 17 states have signed an agreement with the ICTY to carry out custodial sentences. 1993-94: In the first year of its existence, the Tribunal laid the foundations for its existence as a judicial organ. Together these rules established a legal system for the Tribunal. However after the first year the first ICTY judges had adopted all the rules for court proceedings. 1994-95: The ICTY established its offices within the Aegon Insurance Building in The Hague and detention facilities in Scheveningen in The Hague. The ICTY hired now many staff members.ICTY – Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, including the proposed Statute of the International Tribunal, approved by UN Security Council Resolution 827.
221. Yang Weize – Yang Weize is a former Chinese politician. He was the Communist Party Secretary of capital of Jiangsu Province, from 2011 to 2015. Prior to that, he served in the neighbouring city of Wuxi for seven years, before that the Mayor of Suzhou. Yang was an alternate member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Yang was born in Jiangsu province in August 1962. He traces his ancestry to the Changzhou area. His father was a administrator in the city of Nantong. Yang went at the Nanjing Marine Engineering Institute where he studied marine and seaport engineering. He began working in the Jiangsu provincial department in August 1981. In 1998, he became the provincial director of transportation. He was transferred to become Deputy Party Secretary of Suzhou, later Mayor. In 2004, Yang became the chief of Wuxi, becoming first-in-charge of the southern Jiangsu city. At age 44, he had earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee. Yang was said to have received praise from Zhou in controlling the razing of local residential neighbourhoods near Zhou's hometown. In 2011, he became the Party Secretary of the provincial Nanjing.Yang Weize – Yang Weize 杨卫泽
222. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – He was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on 18 November 2014. Basuki is well known by Ahok. He was also a Komisi II Indonesian People's Representative Council member for the 2009 -- 2014 term. However, Basuki resigned from the position in 2012 to run for Vice Governor of Jakarta. Previously Basuki is Regent of East Belitung. He is the second Christian governor of Jakarta, following Henk Ngantung, governor during the period 1964 -- 65. He grew up in Manggar, East Belitung. Basuki is the first son of his father, the late Indra Tjahaja Purnama. He has three siblings, Basuri Tjahaja Purnama, Harry Basuki. He attended Trisakti University majoring in Mineral Resources & Technology. After two years working in the company, Basuki decided to pursue master's degree at Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Jakarta. Basuki graduated as a Master of Business Administration. He entered politics in his region of Belitung. Basuki was elected as regent with 37.13 % of the vote. He resigned from his position as East Belitung regent on 11 December 2006 in order to run in the 2007 gubernatorial election then failed.Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama 鍾萬學
223. Leila de Lima – Leila Norma Eulalia Josefa Magistrado de Lima is a Filipino lawyer, human rights activist and politician. De Lima eventually will serve as a Philippine senator in the Philippines' 17th Congress. De Lima is the eldest daughter of Norma Magistrado. De Lima was raised in Iriga of the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. Julie de Lima, married Communist Party of the Philippines founder Jose Maria Sison, making him Leila de Lima's uncle by marriage. She completed her basic education at the La Consolacion Academy, where she graduated as Valedictorian. De Lima graduated in 1980 with an AB History degree. De Lima finished her Bachelor of Laws degree in 1985. She began her legal career to Supreme Court associate justice Isagani Cruz from 1986 to 1989. De Lima joined the Jardeleza Sobreviñas Diaz Hayudini and Bodegon Law Offices in 1989 where she served as a junior associate. De Lima worked from 1991 to 1993. She joined the Philippine government as a clerk and secretary of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. De Lima resigned in 1995 to return to private practice. De Lima then joined Roco, Buñag, Kapunan and Migallos firm as its Junior Partner. De Lima was also a professor of law at the San Beda College of Law during her private practice.Leila de Lima – Leila de Lima
224. Rodrigo Duterte – Duterte is the fourth of Visayan descent. At 71 years old, he is the oldest person to assume superseding Sergio Osmeña and Fidel Ramos, respectively. He was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms totaling more than 22 years in office. Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug criminals. He denied any involvement in the said vigilante groups. He has said he personally killed while as Davao Mayor in 1988. His domestic policy has focused on combating illegal trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War. His administration has also vowed to pursue an "foreign policy" that would reject any meddling by foreign governments. He was born on March 1945, in Maasin. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Xiamen, Fujian. Duterte's father was acting mayor of Danao, Cebu and subsequently the provincial governor of Davao province. Rodrigo's cousin Ronald, on the other hand, served from 1983 to 1986. Ramon Duterte, also held the position from 1957 to 1959. The Dutertes consider the Almendras clan as relatives. He also has relatives through his mother's side.Rodrigo Duterte – Rodrigo R. Duterte
225. Elena Udrea – Elena Gabriela Udrea is a Romanian politician. A member of the People's Movement Party, she was a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies from 2008 to 2016. In successive Emil Boc cabinets, she served as Tourism Minister from 2008 from 2009 to 2012. Udrea was completed secondary studies at the city's Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu National College. She then attended the faculty of Law and Public Administration at Bucharest's Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, graduating in 1996. In 2005, Udrea began studies at the Carol I National Defence University, receiving a master's degree in Military Science in 2007. She abandoned the endeavor in 2012. Udrea worked as a lawyer in Bucharest to February 2005 resuming the practice of law that December. At Dimitrie Cantemir, she has authored or co-authored five works on geopolitics and globalisation. Udrea began her political activity as a legal adviser to the Social Democratic Party. She joined that year becoming a Bucharest city councillor in June 2004, during the period of the Justice and Truth Alliance. She during that time was president of the council's committee on law and discipline. In October 2005 she resigned from the PNL, joining the Democratic Party in February 2006. In December, she was elected the party's executive secretary, becoming a vice-president of a year later. In these capacities, she spoke approvingly of the president, for instance ahead of the 2008 local election.Elena Udrea – Udrea at the 2013 PD-L convention
226. Gheorghe Nichita – Gheorghe Nichita is a Romanian politician, who has served as the mayor of Iaşi since 2003, suspended over allegations of corruption. A member of Nichita is the national vice-president of the party, the leader of the party's county organization. In 1995-2000, Nichita was a member of the Democratic Party. In 2000-2003, he was also a member of the city council. Nichita made two unsuccessful runs in 1996, 2000. In 2004, he was then re-elected in 2008 and 2012. A court ruled he would be investigated under judicial control, meaning he is banned from leaving the city and has to report to police. On 9 Gheorghe Nichita had been placed under house arrest. Gheorghe Nichita is suspected that he abused his position by using local police officers on rivals and his girlfriend. Three local police officers were also detained. Prosecutors said Nichita abusively obtained confidential information, using police and hall employees, for personal gain. On 22 Nichita was suspended from his job as mayor of the city. Gheorghe Nichita's blog Gheorghe Nichita va fi primar interimar al Iasului Gheorghe Nichita, în an electoral: 70.000 RON, în depozite, şi o maşină nou-nouţă, în garajGheorghe Nichita – Nichita in 2014
227. Marian Vanghelie – Following his electoral victory, he was re-accepted in PSD, although his PNA files were not closed. Vanghelie's return into the Social Democratic party brought up to two the number of district mayoral seats the PSD held to in Bucharest. Best described as a populist, Vanghelie started his political career in the year 2000, when he was elected mayor in the same sector. Although he was not particularly well-known, Vanghelie made a name through his populism. He promotes himself as a tell-it-like-it-is, if not particularly well-educated everyman, out to help the simple people. His wife Charlotte have a son, Alexandru. He has Paul. His father, Jewish, emigrated to Israel, where he is a businessman. Povestea lui Vanghelie, un primar de nota 5Marian Vanghelie – Vanghelie speaking to a Social Democratic Youth audience in Otopeni, September 2009
228. Alexei Navalny – Alexei Anatolievich Navalny is a Russian lawyer, political and financial activist, politician. Since 2009, he has gained prominence in Russia, in the Russian and international media, of Russian President Vladimir Putin. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal described him as "the man Vladimir Putin fears most". Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member and the leader of the political party Progress Party, formerly People's Alliance. In September 2013, he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came with 27 % of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee. Navalny came to prominence via his blog, hosted on the website LiveJournal, which remains his primary method of communicating with the public. In July 2013, he was sentenced to five years in a corrective labor colony. Russia's Memorial Human Rights Center recognized Navalny as a political prisoner. Navalny was released after sentencing. The fine was suspended in October 2013. Navalny is of Ukrainian descent. His father Anatoliy Navalny is from Zalissia, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Navalny spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine. Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia with a law degree.Alexei Navalny – Alexei Navalny in 2012
229. Disappearance of Etan Patz – Ramos was the missing child to be pictured on milk cartons. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan designated the anniversary of Etan's disappearance as National Missing Children's Day in the United States. In 2010, the case was reopened by the New York County District Attorney's office. In 2012, the FBI discovered no new evidence. Pedro Hernandez, was charged and indicted later that year on charges of second-degree murder and first-degree kidnapping. In 2014, the case went through a series of hearings to determine if Hernandez's statements before receiving the Miranda warning were legally admissible at trial. His trial ended in a mistrial in May when one of the twelve jurors held out. A retrial began on October 2016. Ramos was wearing a blue shirt, blue jeans, blue sneakers. Ramos never reached the stop. At school, Etan's teacher did not report it to the principal. When Etan did not come home at the end of the day, his mother called the police. At first, detectives considered the Patzes as possible suspects, but quickly determined they had no involvement. An intense search began that evening, using a team of bloodhounds. The search continued for weeks.Disappearance of Etan Patz – Etan Patz photographed September 16, 1978
230. Rolf Harris – Rolf Harris is an Australian entertainer whose career has encompassed work as a musician, singer-songwriter, composer, comedian, actor, painter and television personality. During the 1970s, he became a popular personality in the UK, later presenting shows such as Rolf's Cartoon Club and Animal Hospital. In 2005, he painted an official portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. He lived in Bray, Berkshire, England, for more than six decades. Harris's career as a popular entertainer was ended by his conviction and imprisonment for sexual offences. As a result, he was stripped of many of the honours he had been awarded during his career, including the OA and CBE. Since 2014, he has been serving a sentence of nine months, at HMP Stafford. Harris was born on 30 March 1930 in Bassendean, Perth, Western Australia, to Agnes Margaret and Cromwell Harris, who had both emigrated from Cardiff, Wales. He grew up in Wembley, Western Australia. He was named after Rolf Boldrewood, the pseudonym of an Australian writer whom his mother admired. After his later fame, Harris was often referred to as "the boy from Bassendean" within Australia. As a child he owned a dog called Buster Fleabags, about whom he later wrote a book. He painted a portrait of the then Lieutenant Governor of Western Australia, Sir James Mitchell, for the 1948 Archibald Prize. He won the 1949 Claude Hotchin prize for oil colours with his landscape "On a May Morning, Guildford". As an young adult he was a swimmer.Rolf Harris – Harris in November 2010
231. Laurent Gbagbo – Laurent Gbagbo was the President of Côte d'Ivoire from 2000 until his arrest in April 2011. Gbagbo ran unsuccessfully for President against Félix Houphouët-Boigny at the start of multi-party politics in 1990. He also won a seat in 1990. Gbagbo claimed victory after head of a military junta, barred other leading politicians from running in the October 2000 presidential election. The Ivorian people took to the streets, toppling Guéï. Gbagbo was then installed as President. Following the 2010 presidential election, Gbagbo challenged the count, alleging fraud. He called from nine of the country's regions. After a short period of civil conflict, Gbagbo was arrested by backers of Alassane Ouattara, supported by French Forces of "Operation Unicorn". In November 2011, he was extradited to the International Criminal Court, becoming the first head of state to be taken into the court's custody. Laurent Gbagbo was born on 31 May 1945 in the village near Gagnoa in the then French West Africa. He became an opponent of the regime of President Félix Houphouët-Boigny. He was imprisoned from 31 March 1971 to January 1973. In 1979, he obtained his doctorate at Paris Diderot University. In 1980, he became Director of the Institute of History, African Archeology at the University of Abidjan.Laurent Gbagbo – Laurent Gbagbo
232. Wu Changshun – Wu Changshun is the former police chief of the municipality of Tianjin, China. He has 35 patents and utility models to his credit. He was the chief of the police force for some eleven years. He was placed under investigation by the Communist Party's anti-corruption agency. Wu was expelled from the party in February 2015. Wu was born into a farming family in rural Tianjin, his father worked on a farming cooperative, while his mother was a homemaker. Wu was the second of five children. Wu spent his childhood at the Wu courtyard where he lived with his extended family. As a child, he enjoyed playing football. He attended No. 28 Middle School in Tianjin, where he completed middle school in 1970. Thereafter, Wu joined the Tianjin police force as a trainee at the age 16. Wu joined the Communist Party of China in September 1973. In September 1998 Wu was appointed as the Deputy Party Secretary of Tianjin Public Security Bureau. In February 2003, 32 years after he joined the force, Wu became the chief commissioner of Tianjin. Wu would serve in the role of the city's top cop for over ten years.Wu Changshun – Traffic lights found in Tianjin, patented by Wu Changshun
233. Mohamed Morsi – He was the first democratically elected head of state in Egyptian history. The constitutional declaration was called for an act that his opponents called an "Islamist coup". These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, brought millions of protesters to the streets in the 2012 Egyptian protests. On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation. The military suspended the constitution and established a new administration headed by the chief justice. His death sentence was overturned, so he will receive a retrial. His father was a housewife. Morsi told journalists that he remembers being taken on the back of a donkey. In the late 1960s, Morsi earned a BA with high honors in 1975. Morsi fulfilled his military service from 1975 to 1976 serving in the chemical unit. Morsi then earned an MS in 1978. Morsi then earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. While living in the United States, Morsi became an Asst.Prof. At the California State University, Northridge from 1982 to 1985. An expert on metal surfaces, also worked for NASA in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines.Mohamed Morsi – Mohamed Morsi محمد مرسى
234. Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar, is an Estonian politician, one of the founding members of Popular Front of Estonia and the Centre Party. He has served as the acting Prime Minister of Estonia, Minister of the Interior, Communications and Mayor of Tallinn. He was born into a rural family of Elmar and Marie Savisaar residing in Vastse-Kuuste. In 1949 his parents wanted to leave the local kolkhoz with their livestock, this resulted in a physical conflict. Both were arrested on charges of seizing public property, an assault. Elmar Savisaar was sentenced Marie Savisaar 5 years in prison. Marie Savisaar gave birth while serving the sentence. It has been theorized that Elmar Savisaar is not his biological father. They returned to Vastse-Kuuse. After graduating from high school, Savisaar continued his studies at the University of Tartu. In 1973, he graduated with a degree in history. In 1980, he wrote his candidate thesis on the topic "Social Philosophical Foundations of the Global Models of the Club of Rome". From 1980 to 1988, Savisaar worked in the Soviet governmental institutions dealing with the planning of economy. During 1988 -- 1989, he was the academic director for the company "Mainor". In April he co-established the Popular Front which became the first political mass organization after 1920.Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar
235. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi is a former Libyan political figure. He is the second son of late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and his second wife Safia Farkash. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD from London School of Economics. He was a part of his father's inner circle, performing public relations and diplomatic roles on behalf of his father. He publicly turned down his father's offer of the country's second highest post and held no official government position. He remained in the custody of the de facto independent authorities of Zintan. In July 2016 it was reported that he had been released. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering science from Tripoli's Al Fateh University in 1994. However, there is another report stating that he is an architect. He earned an MBA from Vienna's IMADEC business school in 2000. He presented a thesis on "The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions: from'soft power' to collective decision-making?" Professor Joseph Nye of Harvard University is also thanked for having read portions of the manuscript and providing advice and direction. Speaking in Sabha on 20 August 2008, Gaddafi said that he would no longer involve himself in state affairs. He noted that he had previously "intervene due to the absence of institutions", but said that he would no longer do so. He dismissed any potential suggestion that this decision was due to disagreement with his father, saying that they were on good terms.Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in a military aircraft in Zintan after he had been captured by Libyan soldiers.
236. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is a militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges. He was named as "the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks" in the 9/11 Commission Report. According to the prosecution, Sheikh Mohammed was a member of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization, leading al-Qaeda's propaganda operations from around 1999 until late 2001. By December 2006 he had been transferred to military custody at Guantanamo Bay detention camp. In 2012, a former military prosecutor criticized the proceedings as insupportable due to confessions gained under torture. A revised Military Commissions Act was passed by Congress in 2009 to address court concerns. Sheikh Mohammed has used at least fifty aliases. According to official records, Sheikh Mohammed was born on 14 April 1965 in Balochistan, Pakistan. Some sources indicate his place of birth as Kuwait. It is believed that he belongs to the Baloch ethnic group and is fluent in Balochi, Urdu, Arabic, English. He grew up and spent his formative years in Kuwait, as did his nephew Ramzi Yousef. According to U.S. federal documents, in 1982 he had heard Abdul Rasul Sayyaf's speech in which a call for jihad against the Soviets was declared. At age sixteen, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood. After graduating from high school in 1983, Mohammad travelled to the United States and enrolled in Chowan University in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. He later transferred to North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University and received a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering in 1986.Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Shaikh Mohammed photographed by the Red Cross while in captivity in Guantanamo, July 2009
237. Graham Spanier – He is currently president emeritus, professor of human development and family studies; sociology, demography, family; and community medicine. Spanier had a post-presidential sabbatical leave following his resignation as president of Penn State in November 2011. As of October 2014, Spanier is also under indictment in Pennsylvania in connection with the scandal. His father had previously escaped Nazi Germany in 1936; much of his father's extended family perished during the Holocaust. The family moved on the south side of Chicago living there until 1956. Spanier's father worked in a nuts, screws warehouse loading and unloading trucks; his mother worked in a clerical position. The family moved to the suburb of Highland Park, where Spanier graduated in 1966. His father retired from that position in 1975. He has revealed that his father was physically violent with all three of his children. His Anita told The New York Times that Graham received the most violent beatings, leaving him with lifelong complications. "I've had to have four operations to correct serious deformities inside my head from beatings my father gave me," he said. “They had to rebuild me from the inside out.” Spanier was president of a Junior Achievement company that produced a weekly show called "Variety" targeted to Chicago-area youth. Along with Brian Ross, Spanier co-founded a radio service that covered the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Spanier attended Iowa State University, where he continued his education to earn a master's degree.Graham Spanier – Graham Spanier
238. Bill Cosby – William Henry "Bill" Cosby, Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, actor, author. He was also a regular on the children's series The Electric Company during the show's first two seasons. Throughout the 1970s, he occasionally returned to film later in his career. After attending Temple University in the 1960s, he received his bachelor's degree there in 1971. In 1976 he earned his Doctor of Education degree, also from UMass. His dissertation discussed the use of the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools. The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an African-American family. Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations since about 2000. He has denied the allegations. Most of the acts alleged by his accusers fall outside the statutes of limitations for legal proceedings. He has been charged with three felony counts of aggravated indecent assault in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. He was released on $1 million bail. Cosby is scheduled to go on or before June 5, 2017. Cosby was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is one of four sons of Anna Pearl, William Henry Cosby Sr. who served as a mess steward in the U.S. Navy.Bill Cosby – Cosby before receiving the U.S. Navy Lone Sailor Award at the National Building Museum, Washington, D.C. in 2010
239. List of ongoing armed conflicts – The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence. This list of armed conflicts is for the sole purpose of identifying present-day conflicts and the death toll associated with each conflict. The guidelines of inclusion are: Armed conflicts consist in the use of armed force between governmental or non-governmental alike. Interstate, non-state armed conflicts are listed. For violence against protesters not escalating into armed conflict, see List of ongoing protests. Fatality figures include battle-related deaths well as civilians intentionally targeted by the parties to an armed conflict. Listed conflicts are at least 1 death in current or past calendar year. Fatality totals may be unavailable due to a lack of information. A figure with a plus sign indicates that at least that many people have died – the actual toll could be higher. Location refers to the state where the main violence takes place, not to the warring parties. Italics indicate unrecognized states. Only states with military activity are listed, past states and states where conflicts are no longer active are omitted. Conflicts in the following list have caused year. Conflicts in the following list have caused year. Conflicts causing at least 1,000 deaths in one year are considered wars by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.List of ongoing armed conflicts – Major wars, 10,000+ deaths in current or past year
240. Kivu conflict – The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo also became involved in the conflict. Until March 2009, the main group against the FARDC was the rebel Tutsi forces formerly under the command of Laurent Nkunda. CNDP is sympathetic to the Tutsi-dominated government of Rwanda. It was opposed by the FDLR, by United Nations forces. Laurent Nkunda was an officer in the Second Congo War. He soon retreated with some of RCD-Goma troops to the Masisi forests in Nord Kivu. The organisation Global Witness says that Western companies sourcing minerals are buying them from traders who finance government troops. Minerals, such as cassiterite, coltan, used for electronic equipment and cell phones, are an important export for the Congo. The extent of the problem is not known. About 150,000 Kinyarwanda-speaking people were reported to have fled from Sud-Kivu to Nord-Kivu by DRC army. In January 2006, Nkunda's troops clashed with DRC army forces, also accused by the MONUC. Further clashes took place around the town of Sake. As June 2006, Nkunda became subject to United Nations Security Council restrictions. During both the second rounds of the contested and violent 2006 general election, Nkunda had said that he would respect the results. On 2006-12-07, RCD-Goma troops attacked DRC army positions in Nord Kivu.Kivu conflict – Eastern DR Congo map
241. ADF insurgency – The insurgency began in 1995, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The ADF was formed by an ultra conservative Ugandan Muslim, belonging to the Tablighi Jamaat group. Mukulu was baptised as a Catholic, later converting to Islam, adopting a Muslim name and becoming radicalised. He reportedly spent the early 1990s in Khartoum, Sudan, coming with Osama bin Laden. ADF merged with the remnants of another rebel group, the National Army during the years following the fall of Idi Amin. ADF-NALU's initial goal was to overthrow Ugandan president's Yoweri Museveni government, replacing it with an fundamentalist state. The group went on to recruit former officers of the Ugandan army, well as volunteers from Tanzania and Somalia. The insurgence remained unaffected by government talk efforts, as members married local women. According to intelligence sources, ADF has collaborated with Lord's Resistance Army. Receiving training and logistic support, with limited direct involvement from al-Shabaab's side. Alleged sponsors of the faction include Sudanese Islamist politician Hassan al-Turabi and former DRC president Mobutu Sese Seko. Formed in 1989, ADF carried out its first attacks in 1995. The conflict gradually intensified, culminating in the 1998 Kichwamba Technical College attack, which left 80 people dead, with 80 more being abducted. By 2002, continuous pressure from the Ugandan Army forced ADF to relocate most of its activities into the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo. On 13 ADF perpetrated its first large scale attack on the towns of Bwera and Mpondwe-Lhubiriha in Kasese district, Uganda.ADF insurgency – A FIB soldier during an operation against the ADF in Beni.
242. Ituri conflict – While the two groups had fought since early as 1972, the conflict itself lasted from 1999 to 2003. A low level armed conflict continues to the present day. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front while the Union of Congolese Patriots claimed to be fighting for the Hema. The conflict was accompanied by large-scale massacres perpetrated by members of both ethnic factions. In 2006, the BBC reported that as many as 60,000 people had died since 1998. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, becoming refugees. In June 2003, the European Union began Operation Artemis, sending a French-led force to Ituri. The EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia. Despite this, however, fighting and massacres continued in the countryside. In December 2003, fighting decreased significantly. Ethnic tension between the Lendu and Hema can be traced to the colonial period when the area was part of the Belgian Congo. The colonial administrators favored the Hema, resulting in education and wealth disparities between the two groups. This divergence continued into modern times. Despite this, the two peoples have largely extensively intermarried. While the northern Hema speak Lendu, the southern Hema speak Hema.Ituri conflict – Internally displaced refugees in Bunia with MONUC personnel, 2004
243. Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The Lord's Resistance Army insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign waged by the Lord's Resistance Army rebel group since 1987. Currently, there is low-level activity in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. The movement is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims the "spokesperson" of God and a spirit medium. It aims to establish a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and Acholi tradition. One of Africa's longest running, has resulted in a humanitarian crisis. By 2004, the LRA had abducted more than 20,000 children, while an estimated 100,000 civilians killed. The NRA in their efforts to liberate the entire country meted out a lot of atrocities on the people of Acholi. This act spurred some Acholis to resist the medieval acts. By August of that year, a popular insurgency had developed in northern regions that were occupied by the new government forces. Former Uganda People's Democratic Army commander Odong Latek convinced Kony to adopt conventional warfare tactics, primarily surprise attacks on civilian targets, such as villages. The LRA also occasionally carried out large-scale attacks to protect the populace. Until 1991 the LRA raided the populace for supplies, which were carried away by villagers who were abducted for short periods of time. As the LRA was armed with modern weaponry, the bow-and-arrow groups were overpowered. The creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he longer had the support of the population. In response the LRA mutilated numerous Acholi whom they believed to be government supporters.Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The conflict forces many civilians to live in internally displaced person (IDP) camps
244. South Sudanese Civil War – The South Sudanese Civil War is a conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. In December 2013, a political struggle broke out between President Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar. The president accused ten others of attempting a coup d'état. Machar fled, calling for Kiir to resign. Fighting broke out between the SPLM -- in opposition, igniting the civil war. Ugandan troops were deployed to fight against the rebels. The United Nations has peacekeepers in South Sudan. In January 2014 the first agreement was reached. Fighting still would be followed by several more ceasefire agreements. Negotiations were mediated by "IGAD +". A agreement known as the "Compromise Peace Agreement" was signed in Ethiopia under threat of United Nations sanctions for both sides in August 2015. Machar was appointed vice president. Following a second breakout of fighting within Juba, Machar went to exile in the Sudan. Up to 300,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the war, including notable atrocities such as the 2014 Bentiu massacre. Although both men have supporters from across South Sudan's ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has had ethnic undertones.South Sudanese Civil War – A South Sudanese man holding a HK G3
245. War in Darfur – The government responded by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. Estimates of the number of human casualties range up to several thousand dead, from either combat or starvation and disease. Coercive migrations forced millions into refugee camps or across the border, creating a humanitarian crisis. Former US Secretary of State Colin Powell described the situation as a genocide or acts of genocide. The JEM signed a ceasefire agreement in February 2010, with a tentative agreement to pursue peace. The JEM could see semi-autonomy much like South Sudan. However, talks were disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army launched raids and air strikes against a village, violating the Tolu agreement. The largest rebel group in Darfur, vowed to boycott negotiations. It was first then surrendered by its governor Slatin Pasha to the Mahdia in 1883. Subsequently, Darfur remained the independent Republic of the Sudan. There are different explanations for the origins of the present conflict. One explanation involves those who practice sedentary agriculture. Water access has also been identified as a major source of the conflict. The Darfur crisis is also related to a second conflict. In southern Sudan, civil war has raged for Christian and animist black southerners.War in Darfur – Arab Janjaweed tribes have been a major player in the conflict.
246. Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile – The conflict is intertwined with the War in Darfur, since in November 2011 SPLM-N established a loose alliance with Darfuri rebels, called Sudan Revolutionary Front. In January 2015, fighting intensified as Omar al-Bashir’s government tried to regain control of rebel-held territory ahead of April 2015 general elections. Although South Kordofan and Blue Nile are north of the international border separating South Sudan, many of their residents identify with the South. Many residents fought during the long civil war. At least 15 Sudanese tanks entered Abyei town on 20 May, beginning large-scale fighting in Abyei. By 22 May, had seized control of the town and most of Abyei's residents had fled south toward Bahr el Ghazal. Both the government of Southern Sudan accused one another of violating the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The agreement details the mechanism by which the Abyei council to replace the one dissolved by president Omer Hassan al-Bashir in May 2011. Its chief must be approved by the Northern National Congress Party. The deputy however, would be endorsed by SPLM. Three of the five heads of the departments of the administrative council would be nominated by the NCP. A service would be established for the region, with the size and composition determined by a joint committee co-chaired by northern and southern officials. However, the spokesman of Philip Aguer, told the press that the statement from the NCP senior official was incorrect. The Northern army said that SPLA stole weapons prompting a response. The SPLA claimed that the Northern army attempted to disarm their units by force.Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile – Map of Sudan (after 2011)
247. Sudanese nomadic conflicts – Sudanese nomadic conflicts are non-state conflicts between rival nomadic tribes taking place in the territory of Sudan and, since 2011, South Sudan. Conflict between nomadic tribes in Sudan is common, with fights breaking out including grazing land, cattle and drinking water. Over the years, clashes between ethnic militias have resulted in a large number of casualties and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. Fighting in 2008 between the Rizeigat tribes claimed around 70 lives. Sudanese police attempted as they were doing so were attacked by around 3,000 Rizeigat horsemen. The attack killed 75 police officers, between 89 and 109 from the Misseriya. Ibrahim Mahmoud Hamad, has pledged to bring those responsible for the fighting to justice and to take steps to disarm civilians. The United Nations Mission in Sudan, which earlier in May deployed 120 peacekeepers to Jonglei state to prevent tribal conflict, is also investigating. In the meantime Sudanese authorities have asked both tribes to move at least 5 km from each other to avoid fresh outbreaks of fighting. Whilst fighting in the area appears to have calmed down, there are concerns over security for the February national general election. Eleven protective soldiers were also killed. The dead were searching for amidst severe shortages after barges which were shipping aid to them were attacked the previous June. People were pursued with some bodies becoming tangled in fishing nets. The majority of the dead were women, with entire families claimed to have been "wiped out". The toll was predicted to rise.Sudanese nomadic conflicts – Sudan (orange) and South Sudan (green) shown within Africa
248. Mexican Drug War – Since 2006, when intervention with the Mexican military began, the government's principal goal has been to put down the drug-related violence. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually. By the end of Felipe Calderón's administration, the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, not including 27,000 missing. Given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U.S. markets. Towards the end of the 1960s, Mexican narcotic smugglers started to smuggle drugs on a major scale. During the early 1980s, Colombia's Pablo Escobar dealt all over the world. By the mid-1980s, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine. Transporters from Mexico usually were given 35% to 50% of each cocaine shipment. Currently, the Gulf Cartel have taken to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the Mexican cartels continually shifts as older ones collapse. A disruption such as the deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the vacuum. The fighting between rival drug cartels began in earnest after the 1989 arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, who ran the cocaine business in Mexico. There was a lull in the fighting during the late 1990s but the violence has steadily worsened since 2000.Mexican Drug War – Mexican soldiers during a confrontation in Michoacán in August 2007
249. Internal conflict in Peru – However, violence again erupted in Peru proper. A great amount of the victims of the conflict were ordinary civilians. It is the second longest internal conflict in Latin America with the armed conflict being the first. Notwithstanding its historical stability, Peru has had a succession of authoritarian and democratic governments. General Juan Velasco Alvarado led a left-leaning government until 1975. Francisco Morales Bermúdez was allowed elections to be held in 1980. The group was led at the San Cristóbal of Huamanga University. Guzmán had been inspired by the Cultural Revolution, which he had witnessed firsthand to China. Shining Path members painted graffiti exhorting "armed struggle" against the Peruvian state. On the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho. It was the first "act of terrorism" by Shining Path. Shining Path opted to fight their war in the style taught by Mao Zedong. Shining Path also adhered to Mao's teaching that war should be fought primarily in the countryside and gradually choke off the cities. On December 1982, the Shining Path officially formed "People's Guerrilla Army", its armed wing. In 1982, the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement launched its own war against the Peruvian state.Internal conflict in Peru – Comrade Artemio makes demands of the Peruvian government
250. Xinjiang conflict – The East Turkestan movement is led by Turkic Islamist organizations, most notably the Turkistan Islamic Party, against the Chinese government. During the 18th century, the Qing Dynasty created the province of Xinjiang. The wars played an important role in the East Turkestan movement. After the establishment of the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs who studied in Soviet Central Asia Russified their surnames. Urban Uyghurs sometimes select Russian names for their children in cities such as Qaramay and Urumqi. The Soviet Union supported the Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic against the Republic of China. Many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, economic ties with the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. A community of Russian settlers lived in the region. A pro-Soviet Uyghur who led the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, was Soviet-educated, "Stalin's man" and a "communist-minded progressive". Her family were close friends with White Russian exiles in Xinjiang; many Uyghurs "respected" Russians, considering Russian culture "more advanced" than their own. Some Han Chinese opponents of the movement view themselves as receiving second-class treatment by PRC policies regulating ethnic autonomy. Rebiya Kadeer calls Urumqi "Uyghur land". The name "Urumqi" derives from the Mongolic Oirat language. Han and Hui mainly live from the Uyghur Tarim Basin. According to an early-19th-century Xinjiang census, the population was 60 percent Turkic.Xinjiang conflict – Xinjiang region in China
251. Insurgency in Northeast India – Some factions favour a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Some extreme groups demand complete independence. Northeastern India consists of seven states: Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland. Tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as amongst their native tribal people and migrants from other parts of India. However, in late 2014 tensions again rose as the Indian government launched an offensive, which led to a retaliatory attack on civilians by tribal guerrillas. As of January 2015, militant activities are being conducted in Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura. 2014 had an 80 % voter turnout among all states of India. Indian authorities claim that this shows the faith of the northeastern people in Indian democracy. Despite this, a number of organizations listed as terrorist groups continue to promote an insurgency. The Tani groups are Mongoloid people in India as well as the Luoba in China who live along the frontier of India. Assam has been a refuge for militants for a number of years, due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include agitation in the simmering Assam-Bodo tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as "very active". The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of the ULFA. The United Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through armed struggle.Insurgency in Northeast India – Map of India and the Northeastern provinces
252. Kashmir conflict – The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947. China has at times played a minor role. India and Pakistan have fought three wars including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965, as well as the Kargil War. The two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier. India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, and, as of 2010, administers approximately 43% of the region. It controls Jammu, the Siachen Glacier. India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which administers approximately 37% of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. China currently administers the Aksai Chin region. China's claim over these territories has been disputed by India since China took Aksai Chin during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The root of conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian government is tied to a dispute over local autonomy. Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s, by 1988, many of the democratic reforms introduced by the Indian Government had been reversed. Non-violent channels for expressing discontent were thereafter limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India. In July 1988 a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian Government began the Kashmir Insurgency. Although thousands of people have died as a result of the turmoil in Jammu and Kashmir, the conflict has become less deadly in recent years. Protest movements created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government, specifically the Indian Military, have been active in Jammu & Kashmir since 1989.Kashmir conflict – India claims the entire erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir based on an instrument of accession signed in 1947. Pakistan claims Jammu and Kashmir based on its majority Muslim population, whereas China claims the Shaksam Valley and Aksai Chin.
253. Moro conflict – The Moro conflict is an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines. Since then, Moro resistance has persisted against the Philippine government. The Moros had a history of resistance against Japanese rule for 400 years. During the Spanish -- conflict, Spain repeatedly tried to conquer the Moro Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao. The root of the conflict originates in the American wars against the Moros. Filipinos opposed foreign rule from the United States, which claimed the Philippines as its territory. After defeating Spanish forces, the United States had established a military government in the Philippines under General Wesley Merritt as Military Governor. American forces took control in December 1899. Brigadier General John C. Bates was sent to negotiate a treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul Kiram II. Kiram was disappointed by the American takeover, as he expected to regain sovereignty after the defeat of Spanish forces in the archipelago. Bates' main goal was to establish order in the southern Philippines. After some negotiation, the Bates Treaty was signed, based on an earlier Spanish treaty. In 1915, the Americans imposed the Carpenter Treaty on Sulu. On 20 March 1900, the District of Mindanao-Jolo was upgraded to a full department. The United States military killed hundreds of Moro in the Moro Crater massacre.Moro conflict – Top: Filipino and US Troops during the PMC Balikatan Exercise Below: A member of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front training with a light machine gun. Map of the Philippines showing the Moro-Muslim majority areas in Mindanao.
254. Papua conflict – The Indonesian Government restricts foreign access due to sensitivities regarding its suppression of Papuan nationalism. The Netherlands argued that the Netherlands would continue to administer the territory until it was capable of self-determination. The legitimacy of the vote is hence disputed by independence activists, who launched a campaign of protests against the military occupation of West Papua by Indonesia. As of 2010, occasionally the fighting spills over the border. As a result, the Papua New Guinea Defence Force has set up patrols along PNG's western border to prevent infiltration by the OPM. Additionally, the PNG government has been making a pledge of no anti-Indonesian activity a condition for migrants' stay in PNG. Since the late 1970s, the OPM have made retaliatory "threats against PNG business projects and politicians against the OPM". The PNGDF has performed joint border patrols since the 1980s although the PNGDF's operations against the OPM are "parallel". The Campaign has the backing of notable figures such as Nobel Peace Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu. In 2012, the Campaign issued an arrest warrant to the UK in October -- November that year. Yudhoyono was protested against everywhere he regularly saw West Papuan National Flags of Independence which are illegal in Indonesia. 15 August 1962: New York Agreement by Kingdom of the Netherlands, Republic of Indonesia and United Nations. Region of West Papua submitted to UN temporary authority, which transferred governance to Indonesia on 1 May 1963. Implementation of Indonesian governance was followed until 1969. 1966–67: Aerial bombing of Arfak Mountains.Papua conflict – Papua (province)
255. Internal conflict in Myanmar – The conflict has been described as one of the world's "civil wars". Prior to independence from the United Kingdom, anti-colonial groups in Myanmar protested over the country. On 4 January 1948, Myanmar gained independence from the United Kingdom. Three months after independence, the communists began an armed insurgency against the government. Similarly, Karen insurgent groups began to fight for independence. By the early 1980s, politically motivated armed insurgencies had largely disappeared, while ethnic-based insurgencies continued. Both groups had also fought Japanese forces during World War II. During the post-independence period, the KNU favoured an independent state, administered by the Karen people. The proposed state would have been forged out of Karen and Karenni State, in Lower Burma. The KNU has since shifted their focus under a federal system with fair Karen representation in the government. After negotiations failed, defectors from ethnic insurgents walked back with headlines across Myanmar famously reading "They Go Back". Private property was confiscated by the government, the Burmese Socialist Programme Party was founded in 1974 to govern the country under a one-party system. Under General Ne Win's 26 dictatorship, Myanmar became one of the least developed countries in the world. On 8 students began demonstrating in the disastrous Burmese Way to Socialism system. According to the Economist, over 3,000 people were killed in the public uprising.Internal conflict in Myanmar – CPB rebels walk back to their bases after failed peace talks. (1963)
256. War in North-West Pakistan – The armed conflict began in 2004, when tensions, rooted in the Pakistan Army's search for al-Qaeda fighters in Pakistan's mountainous Waziristan area, escalated into armed resistance. Pakistan's actions were presented to the international War on Terror. Clashes further allied with the Arab fighters, in 2008 -- 10. The TNSM established in 1992 allied with the TTP and LeI. Various names have been applied by the authors and historians. War in North-West Pakistan is the most commonly used name in English. It has also been called the War in Waziristan. On the other hand, Farrukh Saleem, termed the war as the "Fourth Generation War" or the "4G War". In the aftermath of Battle of Tora Bora, formal deployment was begun by the Pakistan Army, at the behest of the Pakistan Government, in 2002. The conservative parties, most notably the Pakistan Muslim League, were very critical of such troop deployments in the region. The XI Corps, under its commander Lieutenant-General Jan Aurkzai, entered the Tirah Valley since Pakistan's independence in 1947. The army troops later moved into the Shawal Valley of North Waziristan, eventually entering South Waziristan. A monitoring base was established by the Special Service Group in 2003. Criticism of the United States grew in Peshawar by a massive communist party in 2003, demanding an end to the operations. In 2004, the troubles mounted as the Tribes repeated PAF's flights in the region as an act of subjugation.War in North-West Pakistan – The Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, aflame after being bombed in September 2008. For a map of the current military situation in Pakistan, see here.
257. Balochistan conflict – Rich in natural resources like this is the least developed province in Pakistan. Baloch want greater autonomy, an independent nation-state. In the 2010s, attacks against the Shia community by sectarian groups—though not always directly related to the political struggle—have risen, contributing to tensions in Balochistan. As of May 2015, one foreign-based Baloch journalist calls anger towards Chief Minister Abdul Malik Baloch "growing and often uncontrollable". Baloch militants have offered to hand in their weapons. In April 2016, 144 militants had surrendered under reconciliation. 1025 surrendered after accepting reconciliation as of August 2016. Baloch seperatists argue they are economically poor compared to the rest of Pakistan. Being crucial for Pakistan's economic future, China has invested $ Billion in the region. The Balochistan Liberation Army, designated by Pakistan and Britain, is the most widely known Baloch separatist group. Since 2000 it has conducted deadly attacks on Pakistani troops, police, civilians. Separatist groups include Lashkar-e-Balochistan and the Baloch Liberation United Front. In 2005, a rebellion by Baloch against the Islamic Republic of Iran began. The fight over the IRI Baloch region bordering Pakistan, has "not gained" as the conflict in Pakistan. Human activists have accused nationalist militants and the Government of Pakistan of human rights abuses.Balochistan conflict – Balochs (pink), Pashtuns (green), Punjabis (brown), Sindhis (yellow)
258. CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion – In 1969, the first violent incident took place in 1971. President Ferdinand Marcos introduced martial law. Until 2002, NPA received a considerable amount of aid from outside the Philippines. However, later developments forced it to rely from other local sources. Between 2008, more than 43,000 insurgency related fatalities were recorded. The NPA broke off on 29 March 1969. Previously, NPA left the Party due to its perceived ineffectiveness. The initial strength of the NPA was believed to comprise 35 weapons. Relying on small armed community-based propaganda units, the NPA found itself by 1972. On 21 president Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law, which forced the NPA to fight for its freedom. In 1974, the NPA launched its tactical operation in Calbiga, Samar, when it ambushed an army scout patrol and seized a number of their weapons. China provided support from 1969-1976. After that period, the Chinese ceased all aid, resulting in a five-year period of reduced activity. Despite the setback, the rebellion rekindled from revolutionary taxes, extortion and large scale foreign support campaigns. Financial training and other forms of support were received from a number of the above.CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion – Map of the Philippines showing the main Communist hotspots areas.
259. South Thailand insurgency – The South Thailand insurgency is an ongoing conflict centered in southern Thailand. Incidents blamed on southern insurgents have occurred in Bangkok and Phuket. The insurgency escalated further. On 19 a military junta ousted Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup. The junta implemented a major shift by replacing Thaksin's earlier approach with a campaign to win over the "hearts and minds" of the insurgents. Despite little progress in curbing the violence, the junta declared that peace would come to the region by 2008. By March 2008, however, the toll surpassed 3,000. But by the end of 2010 insurgency-related violence had increased, confounding the government's optimism. Finally in March 2011, the government could not be solved in a few months. However, these groups have been largely sidelined by the group currently spearheading the insurgency. It is against talks with other insurgent groups. It has largely been successful. Estimates of the strength of the insurgency vary greatly. In 2004 General Pallop Pinmanee claimed that there were only 500 hardcore jihadists. Other estimates say there as many as 15,000 armed insurgents.South Thailand insurgency – Original arms of the PULO and GMIP
260. War in Donbass – The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. Prior to a change of the top leadership in August 2014, the separatists were largely led by Russian citizens. During the middle of 2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% and 80% of the combatants. These events followed the reported shelling of Ukrainian positions from the Russian side of the border over the course of the preceding month. Head of the Security Service of Ukraine, Valentyn Nalyvaichenko said that the events of 22 August were a "direct invasion by Russia of Ukraine". Ukrainian officials described these events by Russia. Russian President Vladimir Putin justified the incursion as'defending the Russian-speaking population in the Donbass'. As a result of this, DPR and LPR insurgents regained much of the territory they had lost during the preceding government military offensive. A deal to establish a ceasefire, called the Minsk Protocol, was signed on 5 September 2014. Violations of the ceasefire on both sides were common. The ceasefire completely collapsed in January 2015, including at Debaltseve. A new ceasefire, called Minsk II, was agreed to on 12 February 2015. Immediately following the signing of the agreement, separatist forces launched an offensive on Debaltseve and forced Ukrainian forces to withdraw from it. In the months after the fall of Debaltseve, minor skirmishes continued along the line of contact, but no territorial changes occurred. A new ceasefire of 1 September 2016 reduced combat until 9 September, when Ukrainian authorities reported the death of a soldier.War in Donbass – Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk, 9 March 2014
261. Military intervention against ISIL – Later, there were also minor interventions by some states against ISIL-affiliated groups in Nigeria and Libya. In mid-June 2014, according to Reuters, Iranian soldiers were in Iraq fighting ISIL. Simultaneously, the United States started flying manned aircraft over Iraq. In August 2014, the US and Iran separately began a campaign of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq. Since then, fourteen countries in a US-led coalition have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Syria. In September 2015, Russian forces, with the permission of the Syrian government, began hundreds of bombing raids against ISIL. Since the airstrikes have started, ISIL has been losing ground in both Iraq and Syria. There have been multiple accounts of civilian deaths from both Russian and coalition airstrikes. In mid-2016, Russian-led planning coordinated. On 3 December 2014, at the NATO headquarters in Brussels, diplomats/ ministers from 59 countries gathered to plot a way forward against the threat of ISIL. On 30 Russia began its air campaign on the side and in support of the Syrian government. Russia was also reported to have reached agreements on co-ordination of operations in Syria with Jordan and Israel. The Turkish government until July 2015 once attacked ISIL militarily, in January 2014. In September 2014 Turkey joined a US-led coalition ‘to fight ISIL’. Turkish tanks and were confirmed shelling the same day of the ground operation.Military intervention against ISIL
262. American-led intervention in Syria – The United States began surveillance missions in September 2014. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria, well as Iraq." On 6 a US airstrike struck Ahrar ash-Sham at its headquarters in Idlib. By 14 it was revealed that the negotiations between al-Nusra, Jund al-Aqsa, ISIL and Ahrar ash-Sham had failed. Following the start of the Arab Spring in 2011, protests in Syria against the Assad administration became violent. In 2012, the al-Nusra Front was established by the Islamic State of Iraq in Syria. One of the groups that United States intended to train-and-equip was the Islamist Army of Mujahedeen while the Harakat Hazm group was already being supplied. There were indications that the Army of Mujahedeen was still being vetted for support. The countries taking part in the train-and-equip program were to include Jordan, Qatar, Turkey. As of mid-2015, only a group of 54 such fighters had been deployed, quickly routed by al-Nusra. The United Kingdom announced it will send around 75 military instructors to train Syrian opposition forces. The train-and-equip programme started on 9 May 2015. On 25 Turkey and the U.S. agreed "in principle" on the necessity to support these forces with air support. As of July 2016 extensive shipments were continuing. The special operations members were quickly engaged by ISIL forces dispatched from Ar-Raqqah, which started a three-hour firefight.American-led intervention in Syria – Tomahawk missiles being fired from the warships USS Philippine Sea and USS Arleigh Burke at ISIL targets in Syria
263. Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Kidnappings of foreign citizens across Lebanon have resulted. In mid-2011, seven people were killed and 59 wounded in a fight between gunmen in Tripoli. In May 2012, the conflict spread to Beirut, later to south and east Lebanon, while the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed in north Lebanon and Beirut. As of January 2016 there have been more than 800 fatalities and almost 3,000 injuries. Among Lebanon's political blocs the anti-Syrian Saudi-backed March 14 Alliance supports the Syrian rebels, the Iranian-backed pro-Syrian March 8 Alliance supports the Syrian government. This has been rejected by the ruling March 8 alliance, which includes the Shia Hezbollah and allies such as the Maronite Free Patriotic Movement, among others. Pro-government protestors countered the actions by carrying posters of Nasrallah. It was reported that, "sales of black market weapons in Lebanon have skyrocketed in recent weeks due to demand in Syria." Future Movement MP Okab Sakr was long suspected to be involved in aiding the insurgents in the Syrian civil war. At first he admitted it when Al Akhbar published audio tapes of him making deals with Syrian insurgents. Sakr later claimed the tapes were edited, that he only provided Syrians with milk and blankets. Sunni extremists from Tripoli have been flocking to Syria to join the terrorist al-Nusra Front. Hezbollah fighters have been deployed to protect border towns inhabited by Lebanese Shias from the rebels. The Lebanese Army has attempted to disassociate itself from the conflict in Syria, to prevent clashes within Lebanon. It has long been expected that another major push would take place in Lebanon.Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Controlled by the Lebanese Government
264. Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – The intervention initially consisted of a bombing campaign and later saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. Fighter jets and ground forces from the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain also took part in the operation. Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia made their airspace, military bases available to the coalition. The United States provided logistical support, including aerial refueling and search-and-rescue for downed coalition pilots. It also accelerated the sale of weapons to coalition states. Its parliament voted to maintain neutrality. Its coalition partners said they would be launching political and peace efforts, which they called Operation Restoring Hope. However, the coalition did not rule out saying it would respond to threats and prevent Houthi militants from operating within Yemen. On 1 July UN declared for Yemen a "level-three" emergency – the highest UN emergency level – for a period of six months. Human groups repeatedly blamed the Saudi-led military coalition for killing civilians and destroying health centers and other infrastructure with airstrikes. The facto blockade left 78 % of the Yemeni population in urgent need of food, water and medical aid. The bulk of commercial shipping, on which the country relies, is blocked. In one occasion, coalition jets prevented an Iranian Red Crescent plane by bombing Sana'a International Airport's runway, which blocked aid delivery via air. As of 10 more than 2,500,000 people had been internally displaced by the fighting. Many countries evacuated more than 23,000 foreign citizens from Yemen.Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – Controlled by Houthis
265. Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen – The al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen refers to the armed conflict between the Yemeni government with United States assistance, al-Qaeda-affiliated cells. The strife is often categorized as a sub-conflict in the greater Global War on Terror. Crackdown against al-Qaeda cells began in 2001, reached an escalation point on January 14, 2010, when Yemen declared open war on al-Qaeda. In addition to battling al Qaeda across several provinces, Yemen is also contending with militant separatists in the south. A second wave of violence occurred with militants claiming territory across the southwest amid heavy combat with government forces. In May 2013, attackers blew up Yemen's main pipeline, halting the flow of crude oil. On 18 the conflict escalated into a full-scale civil war. Previous attacks linked in Yemen include the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, the 2008 American Embassy attack, several attacks against foreign tourists. The SAS provided protection to embassy personnel. According to ABC News, American cruise missiles were also part of the raids. The U.S. denied they were involved despite evidence from Amnesty International. December 24: U.S. drones or missiles struck an al-Qaeda meeting in Shabwa, killing some 30 individuals. One target of the strike was Anwar al-Awlaki. January 4, 2010: Yemeni security forces killed two alleged militants a day earlier north of the capital. January 6: Yemeni forces arrested three suspected al-Qaeda militants who were wounded in a raid, carried out by security forces.Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen – AQAP fighters in Yemen, 2014
266. 2015 – Lithuania officially adopts the euro as its currency, replacing the litas, becomes the nineteenth Eurozone country. January 3 -- 7 -- A series of surrounding villages by Boko Haram kills more than 2,000 people. January 15 – The Swiss National Bank abandons the cap on the franc's value relative to the euro, causing turmoil in international financial markets. January 22 – After Houthi forces seize the presidential palace, Yemeni President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi resigns after months of unrest. The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 2199 to combat terrorism. March 5 -- 8 -- The ancient city sites in Iraq are demolished by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. March 6 – NASA's Dawn probe enters orbit around Ceres, becoming the first spacecraft to visit a dwarf planet. March 12 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant becomes allies with fellow jihadist group Boko Haram, effectively annexing the group. March 24 – An Airbus A320-211 operated by Germanwings crashes in the French Alps, killing all 150 on board. April 29 – The World Health Organization declares that rubella has been eradicated from the Americas. May 1–October 31 – Expo 2015 is held in Milan, Italy. May 23 – Ireland votes to legalize same-sex marriage, becoming the first country to legalize same-sex marriage by popular vote. June 6 – The governments of India and Bangladesh officially ratify their 1974 agreement to exchange enclaves along their border. June 7 -- 8 -- The 41st summit is held in Schloss Elmau, Bavaria. Sousse attacks: 22-year-old Seifeddine Rezgui opens fire at a tourist resort at Port El Kantaoui, Tunisia, killing 38 people.2015 – Mario Cuomo
267. 2014 – February 7–23 – The XXII Olympic Winter Games are held in Sochi, Russia. February 13 – Belgium becomes the first country in the world to legalise euthanasia for terminally ill patients of any age. The aircraft is presumed to have crashed into the Indian Ocean. March 16 – A referendum on the status of the Crimean Peninsula is held. March 21 – Russia formally annexes Crimea after President Vladimir Putin signed a bill finalizing the annexation process. March 24 -- During an emergency meeting, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada temporarily suspend Russia from the G8. March 27 – The United Nations General Assembly passes Resolution 68/262, recognizing Crimea within Ukraine’s international borders and rejecting the validity of the 2014 Crimean referendum. April 7 – The Donetsk People's Republic declares its independence from Ukraine. April 14 -- women are abducted and held hostage from a school in Nigeria. April 16 – Korean ferry MV Sewol capsizes and sinks after an unmanageable cargo shift, killing 304 people, mostly high school students. April 27 – The Catholic Church simultaneously canonizes Popes John XXIII and John Paul II. April 28 – United States President Barack Obama's new economic sanctions against Russia go into effect, targeting companies and individuals close to Russian President Vladimir Putin. The World Health Organization identifies the spread of poliomyelitis in at least 10 countries as a major worldwide health emergency. Boko Haram militants kill approximately 300 people on Gamboru Ngala. The Luhansk People's Republic declare the formation of Novorossiya, also referred to as the Union of People's Republics.2014 – Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland
268. 2013 – January 16–20 – Thirty-nine international workers and one security guard die in a hostage crisis at a natural gas facility near In Aménas, Algeria. February 12 – North Korea conducts its third underground nuclear test, prompting widespread condemnation and tightened economic sanctions from the international community. February 15 – A meteor explodes over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1,489-1,492 people and damaging over 4,300 buildings. It is the most powerful meteor to strike Earth's atmosphere in over a century. The incident, along with a coincidental flyby of a larger asteroid, prompts international concern regarding the vulnerability of the planet to meteor strikes. February 21 – American scientists use a 3D printer to create a living lab-grown ear from collagen and animal ear cell cultures. In the future, it is hoped, similar ears could be grown to order as transplants for human patients suffering from ear amputation. March 25 – The European Union agrees to a €10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus. The loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, the International Monetary Fund. The deal precipitates a banking crisis in the nation. March 27 – Canada becomes the first country to withdraw from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. April 2 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate the international trade of conventional weapons. July 1 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup d'état, leading to widespread violence. August 14 – Following the military coup in Egypt, two anti-coup camps are raided by the security forces leaving 2,600 dead.2013 – April 24: Savar building collapse.
269. 2012 – February 19 – Iran suspends oil exports to Britain and France, following sanctions put in place by the European Union and the United States in January. February 21 – Greek government-debt crisis: Eurozone finance ministers reach an agreement on a second, €130-billion Greek bailout. February 27 – Arab Spring: As a result of continuing protests, Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh is succeeded by his Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi. March 13 – After 244 years since its first publication, the Encyclopædia Britannica discontinues its print edition. Amadou Toumani Touré, is ousted in a coup d'état after mutinous soldiers attack government offices. April 6 – The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declares the independence of Azawad from Mali. April 12 – Mutinous soldiers in Guinea-Bissau stage a coup d'état and take control of the capital city, Bissau. They arrest leading presidential candidate Carlos Gomes Júnior in the midst of a presidential election campaign. April 13 – Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, a North Korean Earth observation satellite, explodes shortly after launch. Other countries had called the impending launch a violation of United Nations Security Council demands. The launch was planned to mark the centenary of the birth of the founder of the republic. May 12 – August 12 – The 2012 World Expo takes place in Yeosu, South Korea. May 22 – Tokyo Skytree, the tallest self-supporting tower in the world at 634 metres high, is opened to the public. Last solar transit of Venus occurs. The next pair are predicted to occur in 2125.2012 – Etta James
270. 2011 – January 1 – Estonia officially adopts the Euro currency and becomes the 17th Eurozone country. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring. January 9 – 15 – Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July. January 24 – 37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia. March 11 – A 9.0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840 and leaving another 3,926 missing. Tsunami warnings are issued in territories. Emergencies are declared at four nuclear power plants affected by the quake. Arab Spring: The Syrian Civil War begins. April 29 – An estimated two billion people watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London. May 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, the International Monetary Fund. May 21 – Grímsvötn, Iceland's most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe. May 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia. June 4 – Chile's Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia and forcing over 3,000 people to evacuate.2011 – Gerry Rafferty
271. 2010 – 2010 is pronounced either "two thousand ten", or "twenty-ten". January 1 – A suicide blast in the village of Shah Hasan Khel, Pakistan, kills at least 105 people and injures over 100. January 3 – The United States and the United Kingdom close their embassies in Yemen due to the ongoing security threat by Al-Qaeda. January 4 -- The tallest man-made structure to date, United Arab Emirates, is officially opened. The attack was perpetrated by their first since the Angolan Civil War. January 12 – A 7.0-magnitude earthquake occurs in Haiti, devastating the nation's capital, Port-au-Prince. With a confirmed toll over 316,000, it is the seventh deadliest on record. The longest annular solar eclipse of the 3rd millennium occurs. February 12 -- 28 -- The 2010 Winter Olympics are held in Whistler, Canada. February 27 – An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurs in Chile, triggering a tsunami over the Pacific and killing at least 525. The earthquake is one of the largest in recorded history. March 16 – The Kasubi Tombs, Uganda's only cultural World Heritage Site, are destroyed by fire. March 26 – The ROKS Cheonan, a South Korean Navy ship carrying 104 personnel, sinks off the country's west coast, killing 46. In May, an independent investigation blames North Korea, which denies the allegations. April 7 – Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev flees Bishkek amid fierce rioting, sparking a sociopolitical crisis.2010 – January 12: Damaged buildings in Jacmel as a result of the Haiti earthquake
272. 2009 – Linz become the European Capitals of Culture. Slovakia adopts the euro as its national currency, replacing the Slovak koruna. January 3 – Israel launches a ground invasion of the Gaza Strip as the Gaza War enters its second week. January 7 – Russia shuts off all gas supplies to Europe through Ukraine. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin publicly urges greater international involvement in the energy dispute. January 13 – Ethiopian military forces begin pulling out of Somalia, where they have tried to maintain order for nearly two years. January 17 – Israel announces a unilateral ceasefire in the Gaza War. It comes into the following day, on which Hamas declares a ceasefire of its own. January 21 – Israel completes its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip. Intermittent air strikes by both sides of the preceding war continue in the weeks to follow. January 22 – Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda is captured by Rwandan forces after crossing over the border into Rwanda. The first trial at the International Criminal Court is held. Former Union of Congolese Patriots leader Thomas Lubanga is accused of child soldiers to kill, pillage, rape. The Icelandic government and banking system collapse; Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns. February 1 Patriarch Kirill of Moscow is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church.2009 – 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
273. 2008 – January 1 Cyprus and Malta adopt the euro. A bombing occurs in Zayouna, Baghdad, killing over 25 people during a funeral over the deaths from the preceding attack. January 2 – The price of petroleum hits $100 per barrel for the first time. January 3 – A car bomb detonates, killing at least 4 and injuring 68, in Diyarbakır, Turkey. Police blame Kurdish rebels. January 8 – An attempted assassination of Maldivian president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom is thwarted after a Boy Scout grabs the attacker's knife. After a scuffle police arrest the attacker. January 12 – A Macedonian Army Mil Mi-17 helicopter crashes in thick fog southeast of Skopje, killing all 11 military personnel on board. January 14 -- At 19:04:39 the MESSENGER space probe is at its closest approach during its first flyby of the planet Mercury. January 15 – The Federal Court of Australia orders a Japanese whaling company to stop research whaling within their exclusive economic zone. January 21 – Stock markets around the world plunge amid growing fears of a U.S. recession, fueled by the 2007 subprime mortgage crisis. January 22 – Russia stages the largest naval exercise since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 in the Bay of Biscay. Polish Air Force EADS CASA C-295 crashes on approach to the 12th Air Base near Mirosławiec; all 20 personnel on board die. Thousands of Palestinians cross into Egypt, as the wall with Gaza in Rafah is blown up by militants. January 24 – A peace deal ends the Kivu conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.2008 – First-ever photograph of the "unseen side" of Mercury, taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft on January 14
274. 2007 – 2007 was designated as International Heliophysical Year. International Polar Year. European Year of Equal Opportunities for All. Year of Rumi. Year of the Dolphin. Scotland's Year of Highland Culture. Celebrating 100 years of the Scout Movement. Leicester's year of construction UNESCO has recognized fifteen anniversaries for 2007. Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union. Bulgarian, Romanian, Irish become official languages of the European Union, joining 20 other official languages. Slovenia joins Eurozone. South Korea's Ban Ki-moon becomes the new United Nations Secretary-General, replacing Kofi Annan. Adam Air Flight 574, disappeared from Jakarta's radar. It was founded that the aircraft has crashed onto the Makassar Strait, killing all 102 people on board. January 8 -- Russian oil supplies to Poland, Germany, Ukraine are cut as the Russia -- Belarus dispute escalates; they are restored 3 days later.2007 – Yvonne De Carlo
275. 2006 – January 4 – Ariel Sharon, Prime Minister of Israel, suffers a severe stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Saudi Arabia, collapses, killing 76 pilgrims visiting to perform Hajj. Saudi Arabia, kills 362 pilgrims. January 15 – NASA's Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 16 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf assumes office as President of Liberia, the first female elected head of state in Africa. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a 9-year journey. January 25 – Pope Benedict XVI issues his first encycylical, Deus caritas est. January 27 – Celebrations are held in Salzburg and around the world, for the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Philippines, kills 74 people and leaves 600 injured. February 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126. February 19 – Pasta de Conchos mine disaster: Sixty-five miners die after becoming trapped underground, following an explosion in Nueva Rosita, Mexico. March 4 – The final contact attempt with Pioneer 10 receives no response. March 9 – NASA's Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturn's moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars.2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
276. 2005 – January 12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral by a Delta II rocket. January 14 – The Huygens probe lands on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. January 25 – A stampede occurs at the Mandhradevi temple near Wai, India during a religious pilgrimage, killing 291 people. January 30 – Iraq holds its first parliamentary election since 1958. February 10 North Korea announces that it possesses nuclear weapons as a protection against the hostility it feels from the United States. Saudi Arabia holds its municipal election in over 40 years, in which only male citizens are allowed to vote. February 14 21 others are killed by a suicide bomber in Beirut. The most popular video sharing website, is founded. February 16 – The Kyoto Protocol goes into effect, without the support of the United States and Australia. February 19 – Multiple suicide bombings kill more than 30 people across Iraq as Shia Muslims mark Ashura, their holiest day. February 28 – In Iraq, the Al Hillah bombing kills 127 people at the Iraqi police forces recruiting centre in Al Hillah. Millionaire Steve Fossett breaks a world record by completing the fastest non-stop, non-refueled, solo flight around the world in the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer. Four Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers are gunned down in Alberta, Canada. It is deadliest day in Canadian enforcement in over 120 years. The People's Republic of China ratifies an anti-secession law, aimed at preventing Taiwan from declaring independence.2005 – Shirley Chisholm
277. 2004 – January 3 – Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea off the coast of Egypt, killing all 148 aboard. February 1 – A hajj stampede in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills 251 pilgrims. February 4 – Facebook, a mainstream online social networking site, is founded by Mark Zuckerberg. February 7 – Several leaders of Abnaa el-Balad are arrested in Israel. February 24 – The 6.3 Mw Al Hoceima earthquake strikes northern Morocco with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. At least 628 people are killed. The United States lifts a 1981 travel ban upon Libya. Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The John Jay Report into Catholic abuse cases in the United States has its initial release. February 29 – 2004 Haitian coup d'état: Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti. Boniface Alexandre, is sworn in as interim president. March 2 NASA announces that the Mars MER-B has confirmed that its landing area was once drenched in water. The Iraq Ashura bombings injure at least 500 Iraqi Shi'a Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 10 – Five British men are released from detention at Camp Delta, Guantanamo Bay. After they land at RAF Brize Norton, 4 of them are immediately arrested for questioning.2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
278. 2003 – 2003 was designated the: International Year of fresh water. European Disability Year. January 22 – The last signal from NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, some 7.6 billion miles from Earth. January 30 – Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so. February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all 7 astronauts on board. February 15 – Millions of people worldwide take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States and its allies invade Iraq. February 20 – The Station nightclub fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island kills 100 people and injures 230. February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government. March 8 – Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum. Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper. The World Health Organization issues a global alert on acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong and Vietnam after originating in China. March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. and allied forces. March 23 – Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum. April 9 – Iraq War: U.S. forces seize control of Baghdad, ending the regime of Saddam Hussein. April 12 – Hungary approves joining the European Union in a referendum.2003 – Richard Crenna
279. 2002 – Euro coins are introduced in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Finland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and the Netherlands. January 16 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and freezes the assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, the Taliban. January 17 – The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo displaces an estimated 400,000 people. January 27 – Several explosions at a military dump in Lagos, Nigeria kill more than 1,000 people. January 31 – A large section of the Antarctic Larsen Ice Shelf begins disintegrating, consuming about 3,250 km over 35 days. February 6 – Queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II celebrates her Golden Jubilee, marking 50 years since her accession to the British throne. February 8 -- 24 -- The 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Utah. The former President of Yugoslavia, begins at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague. February 19 – NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system. February 20 – A train catches fire at Reqa Al-Gharbiya in Egypt while en route to Luxor from Cairo, killing 383 people. The most prolific serial killer in Canadian history, is arrested and charged with the first 2 counts of first-degree murder. Sri Lankan Civil War: A Spanish-facilitated ceasefire begins in Sri Lanka. February 28 – The ex-currencies of all euro-using nations cease to be legal tender in the European Union. March 1 War in Afghanistan: In eastern Afghanistan, Operation Anaconda begins. STS-109: Space Shuttle Columbia flies the Hubble Space Telescope service mission, the penultimate flight before its ill-fated STS-107 mission.2002 – Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft
280. 2001 – 2001 was designated as: International Year of January 1 -- Kolkata restores officially name from Calcutta, West Bengal, India. January 10 – The U.S. Federal Trade Commission approves the merger of America Online and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner. January 13 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people and leaving thousands homeless. January 15 – Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online. January 20 George W. Bush is sworn as President of the United States. Impeachment proceedings against Philippine President Joseph Estrada, accused of playing Jueteng, trigger the second EDSA People Power Revolution or People Power II. His Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeds him as the 14th President of the Republic. January 23 – The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident occurs. January 26 – An earthquake hits Gujarat, India, killing almost 20,000. January 31 – The Congressional Budget Office of the United States forecasts a $5,600,000,000,000 budget surplus for the next 10 years. February 9 – The submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Japanese fishing vessel Ehime-Maru near Hawaii. February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid. February 13 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400. February 16 – Iraq disarmament crisis: British and U.S. forces carry out bombing raids, attempting to disable Iraq's air defense network. February 18 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years.2001 – September 11 attacks
281. 2000 – According to the Gregorian Calendar, these distinctions fall to the year 2001 because the 1st century was retroactively said to start with year AD 1. 2000 is sometimes abbreviated as "Y2K". 2000 was the subject of Y2K concerns, which are fears that computers would not shift from 1999 to 2000 correctly. However, by the end of 1999, many companies had already converted to new, or upgraded, existing software. Some even obtained certification. As a result of massive effort, relatively few problems occurred. January 1 – The piece Longplayer begins. It lasts 1,000 years, finishing on December 2999. Syria hold inconclusive peace talks. January 5–8 – The 2000 al-Qaeda Summit of several high-level al-Qaeda members is held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. January 6 -- The last Pyrenean ibex is found dead, apparently killed by a falling tree. January 10 – America Online announces an agreement to purchase Time Warner for $162 billion. January 11 – The armed wing of the Islamic Salvation Front concludes its negotiations with the government for an amnesty and disbands in Algeria. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 11,722.98. January 18 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth.2000 – Hedy Lamarr
282. 1999 – 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older Persons. January 1 – The euro is established. January 4 – Gunmen open fire on Shia Muslims worshiping in a mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 16 and injuring 25. The Sopranos debuts on HBO. January 20 – The China News Service announces new government restrictions on Internet use aimed especially at Internet cafés. January 25 – The 6.2 Mw Armenia, Colombia earthquake hits western Colombia, killing at least 1,000. January 31 – Family Guy debuts on Fox. February 7 – King Hussein of Jordan dies from cancer, his son Abdullah II inherits the throne. February 11 – Pluto moves along its eccentric orbit further from the Sun than Neptune. It will become again in 2231. February 12 – U.S. President Bill Clinton is acquitted in impeachment proceedings in the United States Senate. February 16 In Uzbekistan, an apparent attempt against President Islam Karimov takes place at government headquarters. Across Europe, Kurdish rebels take after Turkey arrests one of their rebel leaders. February 21 – Sanna Sillanpää shoots 4 men, killing 3 at a shooting range in Finland. February 22 – Moderate Iraqi Shiite cleric Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr is assassinated.1999 – The iBook G3
283. 1998 – 1998 was designated as the International Year of the Ocean. January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. January 4 -- Wilaya in Algeria: Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. January 8 – Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to life in prison for planning the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993. January 11 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria. January 12 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. January 14 – Ralph Guarino is arrested for attempting to rob a Bank of America bank in the World Trade Center. January 20 – Nepalese police intercept a shipment of 272 human skulls in Kathmandu. January 22 – Suspected "Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski pleads guilty, accepts a sentence of life without the possibility of parole. January 28 Gunmen hold teachers hostage for several hours, at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines. Stade de France, as known well for venues of France, officially opened in Saint-Denis, suburb of Paris, before 1998 FIFA World Cup. February 4 – The 5.9 Mw Afghanistan earthquake shakes the Takhar Province with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. With 818 injured, damage is considered extreme. February 7–22 – The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan. February 16 – China Airlines Flight 676 crashes into a residential area near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport, killing 202 people.1998 – New rubles
284. 1997 – January 17 – A Delta II rocket carrying a military GPS payload explodes, shortly after liftoff from Cape Canaveral. January 18 – In northwest Rwanda, Hutu militia members kill 6 Spanish aid workers, 3 soldiers, seriously wound another. January 19 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. January 20 – Bill Clinton is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. January 22 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, after confirmation by the United States Senate. January 23 – Mir Aimal Kasi is sentenced to death for a 1993 assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters that killed 2 and wounded 3. January 27 – It is revealed that French museums had nearly 2,000 pieces of art, stolen by Nazis. February 4 On their way to Lebanon, 2 troop-transport helicopters collide, killing 73. After at first contesting the results, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections. British Home Secretary Michael Howard informs Moors Murderer Myra Hindley that she will never be released from prison. Mr. Howard has made the decision in agreement with a recommendation made by his predecessor David Waddington in 1990. The so-called "Big Three" banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors and their families. Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Reynolds investment banks announce a $ billion merger. February 10 The United States Army suspends Gene C. McKinney, Sergeant Major of the Army, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct.1997 – The funeral cortege of Diana, Princess of Wales, en route to Westminster Abbey from Kensington Palace.
286. Library of Congress Classification – The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically. The classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System. It was designed specifically for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. That is, it provides a guide to the books actually in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. The National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R for Medicine. Others use LCC's QP–QR schedules and include Medicine R. Subclass AC – Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums. Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs.Library of Congress Classification – Java programming books in the QA subclass.