|Topics in the news|
|Topics in the news|
1. Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the largest Christian Church in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East. According to tradition, the Church was established by Saint Mark, the head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark, who also carries the title of Coptic Pope. The See of Alexandria is titular, and today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Marks Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. The precise Christological differences that caused the split with the Coptic Christians are still disputed, highly technical, the foundational roots of the Coptic Church are based in Egypt, but it has a worldwide following. Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, the first Christians in Egypt were common people who spoke Egyptian Coptic. There were also Alexandrian Jews such as Theophilus, whom Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the chapter of his gospel. When the church was founded by Saint Mark during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, in the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local languages, namely Coptic. The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world, St. Jerome records that the Christian School of Alexandria was founded by Saint Mark himself. Origen wrote over 6,000 commentaries of the Bible in addition to his famous Hexapla, many scholars such as Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars. The scope of this school was not limited to subjects, science, mathematics. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read, the Theological college of the catechetical school was re-established in 1893. Many Egyptian Christians went to the desert during the 3rd century, by the end of the 5th century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian desert. A great number of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations to this day, countless pilgrims have visited the Desert Fathers to emulate their spiritual, disciplined lives. In the 4th century, an Alexandrian presbyter named Arius began a dispute about the nature of Christ that spread throughout the Christian world and is now known as Arianism. We confess one Baptism for the remission of sins and we look for the resurrection of the dead, as a consequence of this, he denied the title Mother of God to the Virgin Mary, declaring her instead to be Mother of Christ Christotokos. When reports of this reached the Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark, Pope Saint Cyril I of Alexandria acted quickly to correct this breach with orthodoxy, when he would not, the Synod of Alexandria met in an emergency session and a unanimous agreement was reached. Pope Cyril I of Alexandria, supported by the entire See and this epistle drew heavily on the established Patristic Constitutions and contained the most famous article of Alexandrian Orthodoxy, The Twelve Anathemas of Saint Cyril. In these anathemas, Cyril excommunicated anyone who followed the teachings of Nestorius, for example, Anyone who dares to deny the Holy Virgin the title Theotokos is AnathemaCoptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – Religion in Egypt
2. Marawi – Marawi, officially the Islamic City of Marawi and often referred to as Marawi City, is the capital city of the province of Lanao del Sur on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 201,785 people, the people of Marawi are called the Maranaos and speak the Maranao language. They are named after Lake Lanao, which is called Meranau in the language, the city is also called the Summer Capital of the South because of its higher elevation and cooler climate, a nickname they share with Malaybalay who legally holds the title. Marawi was founded as Dansalan in 1639 by the Spaniards led by Francisco Atienza who came from Iligan and were attempting to conquer the entire Lake Lanao area. The Spaniards only returned to the area when they began the conquest of the Sultanate of Maguindanao in late 19th century and it served as the capital of the undivided Lanao province from 1907 to 1940. Dansalan in Meranaw is a place where ships berth - a port of entry, the Tribal leader of Marawi way back before Spanish colonation is Datu Buadi Sa Kayo. He is collecting the taxes during his Era, according to the late well-known Meranaw scholar Dr. Mamitua Saber, Marawi City got its charter in 1940. The granting of a charter to the old Dansalan municipality was jointly conceived by the Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon and Assemblyman, later Senator, Tomas L. Cabili. The changing of the name from Dansalan to Marawi was through Congressional amendment of the Charter in 1956 sponsored by Sen. Domocao Alonto. This is embodied by Republic Act No.1552 dated June 16,1956. Sultan of Marawi Sultan of Guimba Sultan of Madaya Sultan of Sunggod Sultan of Punod Sultan of Bacolod Sultan of Dansalan Marawi City has a land area of 8,755 hectares. It is located on the shores of Lake Lanao. Mountains, rolling hills, valleys and a large placid lake dominate the citys landscape, angoyao Hills served as natural viewpoint over the water of the Lake Lanao. Signal Hill, Arumpac Hill and Mt. Mupo are considered beautiful, Mt. Mupo, located within the Sacred Mountain National Park, is known for its untouched trees and beautiful perfect cone. Marawi City is politically subdivided into 96 barangays, due to its high elevation, with the elevation along Lake Lanao at around 2,300 feet, Marawis weather is cool and pleasant, distinguished by an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year. Maranao or Meranaw is widely spoken in Marawi City, however, local inhabitants can also speak Filipino, Cebuano, English, Marawi City is predominantly Muslim city which accounts for 99. 6% of the population. Sharia criminal law exists but without stoning, amputations, flagellations or other Islamic punishments as they are against the law of the Philippines, the distribution of alcoholic products and gambling is forbidden and women must cover their heads, though non-Muslims are exempted from this rule. Other than sharia law in matters, these laws are not applicable elsewhere in Lanao del Sur. The economy of Marawi City is largely based on agriculture, trading and exporting, most industries in the city are agriculture-orientedMarawi – Skyline of Marawi City
3. Ariana Grande – Ariana Grande-Butera, known as Ariana Grande, is an American singer and actress. She began her career in the Broadway musical 13, before landing the role of Cat Valentine on the Nickelodeon television series Victorious in 2009, the show ended after four seasons, and Grande starred on the spinoff, Sam & Cat, which ended in 2014. She has also appeared in theatre, television and film roles. Grandes music career began with the soundtrack Music from Victorious and she signed a recording contract with Republic Records and released her debut studio album, Yours Truly in 2013, which debuted at No.1 on the US Billboard 200. The albums lead single, The Way, debuted in the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100, Grandes second studio album, My Everything, debuted at No.1 in the US and charted in the top 10 in various other countries. In 2015, Grande promoted My Everything with her first world tour, The Honeymoon Tour, and guest-starred in the Fox comedy horror television series, Scream Queens. She also released the single Focus, which debuted at No.7 in the US, and a holiday EP album, Christmas & Chill, in 2016, she released her third studio album, Dangerous Woman, as well as several songs from the album. The title track debuted at No.10 on the Billboard Hot 100, the album debuted at No.2 on the Billboard 200. As of January 2017, Grandes music videos had been viewed a total of more than 7 billion times online, All three of her albums have been certified platinum or better by the RIAA. In 2016, Time named Grande one of the 100 most influential people in the world on the annual Time 100 list, Grande has a large following on social media, including the 2nd most followed Instagram account. In 2017, Grande is touring in North America and then Europe and her name was originally inspired by Princess Oriana from Felix the Cat. She has an older half-brother, Frankie Grande, who is an actor, dancer and producer, Grandes family moved from New York to Florida when her mother was pregnant with Grande, and her parents separated when she was around 8 or 9 years old. As a child, Grande performed with the Fort Lauderdale Childrens Theater, playing her first role as Annie, as well as performing in the musicals The Wizard of Oz and Beauty and she attended Pine Crest School and North Broward Preparatory School. By age 13, she became serious about pursuing a music career, who is going to buy a 14-year-olds R&B album. In 2008, Grande was cast in the role of cheerleader Charlotte in the musical 13 on Broadway. When she joined the musical, Grande left her school, North Broward Preparatory School. The school sent materials to her so she could study with tutors and she also sang various times at the New York City jazz club, Birdland. Grande auditioned for the Nickelodeon television show Victorious in New York along with 13 co-star Elizabeth Gillies in 2009, in this sitcom set in a performing arts high school, Grande was cast as Cat ValentineAriana Grande – Grande performing at the Amalie Arena in December 2013
4. Manchester Arena – The Manchester Arena is an indoor arena in Hunts Bank, Manchester, England. Situated immediately north of the city centre, most of the arena is situated above Manchester Victoria station in air rights space, the arena was a key part of Manchesters bids to host the Olympic Games in 1996 and 2000 and was eventually used for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The structure was designed by DLA Ellerbe Beckett, Ove Arup & Partners, the arena is sited in air rights space over the station and was constructed without disrupting use of the station. The original plans included a tower which was not built. It originally hosted a seven screen cinema, a multi-purpose arena. The former multiplex cinema is now used as a call centre, a large truss measuring 105 metres spans the roof. Reinforced concrete is used to increase sound insulation, the upper parts of the building are clad in purple-grey with green glass. The arena was opened on 15 July 1995, the arena was one of the first indoor venues in Europe to be built following layout of 360 degree seating, and is the only arena in the UK to have this feature. The arena was constructed as part of the unsuccessful bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction cost £52 million of which £35. 5m was provided by government grants, although built as an American style sports arena it has been more successful hosting large music events. The arena opened in July 1995, sponsored by NYNEX CableComms as the NYNEX Arena, in December 2011, the Manchester Evening News ended its thirteen-year sponsorship, and the arena was renamed the Manchester Arena in January 2012. On the opening night,15,000 spectators watched Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean perform, attendance records were set in 1997 when 17,425 people watched Manchester Storm play Sheffield Steelers, a record for an ice hockey match in Europe. When 14,151 people watched Manchester Giants play London Leopards, the arena was the Worlds Busiest Arena from 2001 until 2007 based on ticket sales for concerts, attracting five and a half million customers. It was voted Europes Favourite Arena at the TPi Awards in 2008 by the companies that bring the shows to the venue. In 2008, the arena was worlds third busiest arena behind Londons The O2 arena, in 2009, it was the worlds second busiest arena behind Londons The O2 and ahead of Antwerps Sportpaleis and Madison Square Garden. Although second to Londons The O2, Manchesters arena had its busiest year with over 1,500,000 people attending concerts, the arena hosts over 250 events annually including comedy, live music and tours, sporting events, and occasionally musicals. As one of the largest venues in the UK, the arena has hosted concerts since opening in 1995 and is the arenas primary source of visitors. On March 26,2000, English boy band Five performed at this venue as part of their Invincible Tour, the show was also filmed for a concert special, called Five Live, that was released on DVD and VHS later that same yearManchester Arena – Exterior of venue
5. Ice hockey – Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponents net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of six each, one goaltender. A fast-paced, physical sport, ice hockey is most popular in areas of North America, Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity. In North America, the National Hockey League is the highest level for mens hockey, the Kontinental Hockey League is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the governing body for international ice hockey. The IIHF manages international tournaments and maintains the IIHF World Ranking, worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 74 countries. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules were developed, such as shinny and ice polo. The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey began in the 1880s, and professional ice hockey originated around 1900. The Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion, in international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in mens competition at the Olympics, in the annual Ice Hockey World Championships,177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. In Russia and the Ukraine, where hockey can also refer to bandy, the name hockey has no clear origin. The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word hockey when he translated the proclamation in 1720, the 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called hokie—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves. A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage. According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word derives from the Scots Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his caman or hurley is always called a puck. Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times, in Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the closely related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on a surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age. It was played with a curved bat, a wooden or leather ballIce hockey – The San Jose Sharks (teal) attempt to prevent the Anaheim Ducks (white) from scoring a goal during the 2007–08 NHL season.
6. Jim Bunning – James Paul David Jim Bunning is an American former Major League Baseball pitcher and politician. During his baseball career, he pitched from 1955 to 1971, most notably with the Detroit Tigers and the Philadelphia Phillies. In 1959, the right-hander struck out the side, throwing the minimum nine pitches as a reliever in the top of the ninth inning of Detroits 5–4 loss to Boston at Briggs Stadium, sammy White, Jim Mahoney and Ike Delock were the victims of his immaculate inning. When Bunning retired, he had the second-highest total of career strikeouts in Major League history, as a member of the Phillies, Bunning pitched the seventh perfect game in Major League Baseball history on Fathers Day Sunday, June 21,1964, against the New York Mets. He was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in 1996, after retiring from baseball, Bunning returned to his native northern Kentucky and was elected to the city council, then the state senate, in which he served as minority leader. In 1986, Bunning was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives from Kentuckys 4th congressional district and he was elected to the United States Senate from Kentucky in 1998 and served two terms as the Republican junior U. S. Senator. In July 2009, he announced that he would not run for re-election in 2010, Bunning gave his farewell speech to the Senate on December 9,2010, and was succeeded by current Senator Rand Paul on January 3,2011. Bunning was born in Southgate, Kentucky, the son of Gladys and he graduated from St. Xavier High School in Cincinnati in 1949 and received a bachelors degree in economics from Xavier University. In 1952, Bunning married Mary Catherine Theis and they had five daughters and four sons. One of Bunnings sons, David L. Bunning, is a judge for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky. Another son, Bill, is the brew master at Ye Olde Brothers Brewery in Navarre. Jim and Mary Catherine also have thirty-five grandchildren and fourteen great-grandchildren, one of those grandchildren is Patrick Towles, starting quarterback for the University of Kentucky football team. Towles uses the same number 14 that his grandfather did, Bunning pitched for the Detroit Tigers. He then went to the Philadelphia Phillies, the Pittsburgh Pirates, Bunning then returned to the Phillies in 1970 and retired in 1971. He wore uniform number 15 on the 1955 Tigers, and then switched to 14 in 1956 for the rest of his time with Detroit and he stayed with number 14 on his jersey with the Phillies and Pirates. When he was traded to the Dodgers in 1969 he wore number 17, the Phillies retired his number 14 jersey in 2001 after his election to the Hall of Fame in 1996. Manager Gene Mauch used Bunning and fellow hurler Chris Short heavily down the stretch, the collapse of the 1964 Phillies remains one of the most infamous in baseball history. With a six and a half lead as late as September 21Jim Bunning – Jim Bunning
7. Gregg Allman – Gregory LeNoir Gregg Allman is an American musician, singer and songwriter. He is best known for performing in the Allman Brothers Band and he was born and spent much of his childhood in Nashville, Tennessee, before relocating to Daytona Beach, Florida. He and his brother, Duane Allman, developed an interest in music in their teens, in 1967, they relocated to Los Angeles and were renamed the Hour Glass, releasing two albums for Liberty Records. In 1969, he and Duane regrouped to form the Allman Brothers Band, the Allman Brothers Band began to reach mainstream success by the early 1970s, with their live album At Fillmore East representing a commercial and artistic breakthrough. Shortly thereafter, Duane was killed in a crash in 1971. The following year, the bands bassist, Berry Oakley was also killed in a motorcycle accident very close to the location of Duanes wreck. Their 1973 album Brothers and Sisters became their biggest hit, and Allman pursued a solo career afterward, releasing his debut album, internal turmoil took over the group, leading to a 1975 breakup. Allman was married to pop star Cher for the rest of the decade, after a brief Allman Brothers reunion and a decade of little activity, he reached an unexpected peak with the hit single Im No Angel in 1987. After two more albums, the Allman Brothers reformed for a third and final time in 1989. He released his most recent solo album, Low Country Blues, in 2011, for his work in music, Allman has received numerous awards including several Grammys, he has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. His distinctive voice placed him in 70th place in the Rolling Stone list of the 100 Greatest Singers of All Time, Allman released an autobiography, My Cross to Bear, in 2012. Gregg Allman was born Gregory LeNoir Allman at St. Thomas Hospital on December 8,1947 in Nashville, Tennessee to Willis Turner Allman and Geraldine Robbins Allman. The couple had met during World War II in Raleigh, North Carolina, when Allman was on leave from the U. S. Army and they moved to Vanleer, Tennessee in 1945. Their first child, Duane Allman, was born in Nashville in 1946, in 1949, Willis Allman, having been recently promoted to captain, offered a hitchhiker a ride home and was subsequently shot and killed. Geraldine moved to Nashville with her two sons, and she never remarried, lacking money to support her children, she enrolled in college to become a Certified Public Accountant —state laws at the time, according to her son, required students to live on-campus. As a result, Gregg and his brother were sent to Castle Heights Military Academy in nearby Lebanon. While his brother adapted to his surroundings with a defiant attitude, with little to do, he studied often and developed an interest in medicine—had he not gone into music, he hoped to become a dentist. He was rarely hazed at Castle Heights as his brother protected him, the brothers returned to Nashville upon their mothers graduationGregg Allman – Gregg Allman performing in 2011
8. North Korea and nuclear weapons – North Korea and weapons of mass destruction concerns North Korea, which declared in 2009 that it had developed a nuclear weapon, and possessed a small stockpile of relatively simple nuclear weapons. North Korea may also have a chemical weapon and/or biological weapons capability, since 2003, North Korea is no longer a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The nuclear program can be traced back to about 1962, when North Korea committed itself to what it called all-fortressization, in 1963, North Korea asked the Soviet Union for help in developing nuclear weapons, but was refused. The Soviet Union agreed to help North Korea develop a nuclear energy program. Later, China, after its nuclear tests, similarly rejected North Korean requests for help with developing nuclear weapons, in 1979 North Korea indigenously began to build in Yongbyon a second research reactor, an ore processing plant and a fuel rod fabrication plant. North Koreas nuclear weapons program dates back to the 1980s, in 1985 North Korea ratified the NPT, but did not conclude the required safeguards agreement with the IAEA until 1992. In early 1993, while verifying North Koreas initial declaration, the IAEA concluded that there was strong evidence this declaration was incomplete, when North Korea refused the requested special inspection, the IAEA reported its non-compliance to the UN Security Council. In 1993, North Korea announced its withdrawal from the NPT, under the 1994 Agreed Framework, the U. S. government agreed to facilitate the supply of two light water reactors to North Korea in exchange for North Korean disarmament. Such reactors are considered more proliferation-resistant than North Koreas graphite-moderated reactors, implementation of the Agreed Framework floundered, and in 2002 the Agreed Framework fell apart, with each side blaming the other for its failure. By 2002, Pakistan had admitted that North Korea had gained access to Pakistans nuclear technology in the late 1990s, on October 9,2006, North Korea announced it had successfully conducted its first nuclear test. An underground nuclear explosion was detected, its yield was estimated as less than a kiloton, on January 6,2007, the North Korean government further confirmed that it had nuclear weapons. In April 2009, reports surfaced that North Korea has become a fully fledged nuclear power, on May 25,2009, North Korea conducted a second nuclear test, resulting in an explosion estimated to be between 2 and 7 kilotons. The 2009 test, like the 2006 test, is believed to have occurred at Mantapsan, Kilju County, on February 11,2013, the U. S. Geological Survey detected a magnitude 5.1 seismic disturbance, reported to be a third underground nuclear test. North Korea has officially reported it as a nuclear test with a lighter warhead that delivers more force than before. Multiple South Korean sources estimate the yield at 6–9 kilotons, while the German Federal Institute for Geosciences, however, the German estimates has since revised to a yield equivalent of 14 kt when they published their estimations in 2016 Jan. On January 6,2016 in Korea, the United States Geological Survey detected a magnitude 5.1 seismic disturbance, North Korea claimed that this test involved a hydrogen bomb. This claim has not been verified, within hours, many nations and organizations had condemned the test. Expert U. S. analysts do not believe that a bomb was detonatedNorth Korea and nuclear weapons – Nuclear weapons
9. Baghdad – Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000 making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century, within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key institutions, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the Centre of Learning. Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with a population of 1,200,000 -3,000,000 people. The city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, in contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks. As of 2012, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, the site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name is of Indo-European origin and a Middle Persian compound of Bagh god and dād given by, translating to Bestowed by God or Gods gift. In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog god, a similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning gift of Mithra. There are a number of locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan. The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins, when the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the name on coins, weights, and other official usage. By the 11th century, Baghdad became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis, after the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital whence they could rule. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762, the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city, mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying, This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward. The citys growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors, it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, the abundance of water in a dry climateBaghdad – Zumurrud Khaton tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD), photo of 1932.
10. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre. This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, ISIL originated as Jamaat al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. The group proclaimed itself a caliphate and began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political, and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood. As of 2015, ISIL is estimated to have a budget of more than USD$1 billion. In April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām, while the use of either one or the other acronym has been the subject of debate, the distinction between the two and its relevance has been considered not so great. Of greater relevance is the name Daesh, which is an acronym of ISILs Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām. This name has been used by ISILs Arabic-speaking detractors, although – and to a certain extent because – it is considered derogatory, as it resembles the Arabic words Daes. Within areas under its control, ISIL considers use of the name Daesh punishable by flogging or cutting out the tongue, in late June 2014, the group renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah, declaring itself a worldwide caliphate. The name Islamic State and the claim to be a caliphate have been widely rejected, with the UN, various governments. Frances Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said This is a terrorist group, I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam, Muslims, and Islamists. The Arabs call it Daesh and I will be calling them the Daesh cutthroats, the group is very sensitive about its name. They will cut your tongue out even if you call them ISIS – you have to say Islamic State, the Islamic State is mocked on social media websites such as Twitter and YouTube, with the use of hashtags, mock recruiting ads, fake news articles and YouTube videos. ISIL is a theocracy, proto-state and a Salafi or Wahhabi group and it follows an extremist interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence, and regards Muslims who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates. According to some observers, ISIL emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood and it adheres to global jihadist principles and follows the hard-line ideology of al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups. However, other sources trace the roots to Wahhabism. For their guiding principles, the leaders of the Islamic State, are open and clear about their almost exclusive commitment to the Wahhabi movement of Sunni IslamIslamic State of Iraq and the Levant – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
11. Bangladesh – Bangladesh, officially the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The countrys maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area, Bangladesh is the worlds eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong which has the countrys largest port, Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people of different ethnic groups and religions, Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the worlds third largest Muslim-majority country, most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km of inland waterways, highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef and it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The countrys biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including critically endangered Bengal tigers, the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which had trade links for millennia. The Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries, the region was home to many principalities which had inland naval prowess. It was also a center of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance, the Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan, and was renamed as East Pakistan. The region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, after independence, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy, the country has also been affected by poverty, natural disasters, hunger, dominant party systems and military coups. Bangladesh is a power and a major developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, it has the 46th largest economy and it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, with its strategically vital location between Southern, Eastern and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperationBangladesh – Mahasthangarh is the oldest archaeological site in Bangladesh. It dates back to 700 BCE and was the ancient capital of the Pundra Kingdom
12. Damascus – Damascus is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine, in addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant. The city has an population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a metropolitan area of 2.6 million people. The Barada River flows through Damascus, first settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad, Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Today, it is the seat of the government and all of the government ministries. The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC, the etymology of the ancient name T-m-ś-q is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic. It is attested as Dimašqa in Akkadian, T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic, the Akkadian spelling is found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name include a intrusive resh, perhaps influenced by the root dr. Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is Damascus which was imported from originated from the Qumranic Darmeśeq, and Darmsûq in Syriac, meaning a well-watered land. In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbours. Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for Levant and for Syria, the latter, the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Syria and Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, however, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables, cereals, maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus. Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not even exist, the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, to the south-east, north and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages, Midan in the south-west, Sarouja and Imara in the north and north-west. These neighbourhoods originally arose on roads leading out of the city and these new neighbourhoods were initially settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian ruleDamascus – View of Damascus from Mount Qassioun
13. Syria – Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon. However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gyps, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC. The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit also arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, Qatna, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of ElamSyria – Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
14. Justin Trudeau – Justin Pierre James Trudeau PC MP is a Canadian politician. He is the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Liberal Party. The second youngest Prime Minister after Joe Clark, he is also, as the eldest son of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, born in Ottawa, Trudeau attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf and graduated from McGill University in 1994 and the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a public profile in October 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his fathers state funeral. After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia and he completed one year of an engineering program at Montreals École Polytechnique before quitting in 2003. In 2005 he began a degree in environmental geography at McGill University. He used his profile to advocate for various causes and acted in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War. Eight years after his fathers death, Trudeau entered politics, in the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Partys critic for youth and multiculturalism, in 2011, he was appointed as critic for secondary education and youth and amateur sport. On Christmas Day, Justin Trudeau was born at 9,27 pm EST at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, like all Canadian hospitals at that time, Ottawa Civic Hospital barred husbands from the delivery room. The hospitals board of directors promptly ended the restriction following Margaret Trudeaus protests and many hospitals in the city. Trudeau is the child in Canadian history to be born to a prime minister in office. Trudeaus younger brothers Alexandre and Michel were the third and fourth, Trudeau is predominantly of Scottish, French Canadian, and English descent. His grandfathers were businessman Charles-Émile Trudeau and Scottish-born James Sinclair, who served as minister of fisheries in the cabinet of prime minister Louis St. Laurent. Trudeaus maternal great-grandfather Thomas Bernard was born in Makassar to an Anglo-Dutch colonial family and immigrated to Penticton, on April 14,1972, Trudeaus father and mother hosted a gala at the National Arts Centre, at which visiting U. S. president Richard M. Earlier that same day U. S. first lady Pat Nixon had come to see him in his nursery to deliver a gift, nixons White House audio tapes later revealed Nixon referred to that visit as wasting three days up there. That trip we needed like a hole in the head and his parents publicly announced their separation on May 27,1977, when Trudeau was five years old, with his father having custody. Eventually his parents came to an amicable joint-custody arrangement and learned to get quite wellJustin Trudeau – Trudeau in Toronto, June 2014
15. Aboriginal peoples in Canada – Aboriginal peoples in Canada, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada. They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, although Indian is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors Indian and Eskimo have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and are pejorative. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Canada. The Paleo-Indian Clovis, Plano and Pre-Dorset cultures pre-date current indigenous peoples of the Americas, projectile point tools, spears, pottery, bangles, chisels and scrapers mark archaeological sites, thus distinguishing cultural periods, traditions and lithic reduction styles. The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal culture included permanent settlements, agriculture, civic and ceremonial architecture, complex societal hierarchies, the Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and Inuit people married Europeans. The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during early period. Various laws, treaties, and legislation have been enacted between European immigrants and First Nations across Canada, Aboriginal Right to Self-Government provides opportunity to manage historical, cultural, political, health care and economic control aspects within first peoples communities. National Aboriginal Day recognizes the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples to the history of Canada, First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of all backgrounds have become prominent figures and have served as role models in the Aboriginal community and help to shape the Canadian cultural identity. The terms First Peoples and First Nations are both used to refer to peoples of Canada. The terms First Peoples or Aboriginal peoples in Canada are normally broader terms than First Nations, as they include Inuit, Métis, First Nations has come into general use for the indigenous peoples of North America in Canada, and their descendants, who are neither Inuit nor Métis. On reserves, First Nations is being supplanted by members of various nations referring to themselves by their group or ethnical identity, in conversation this would be I am Haida, or we are Kwantlens, in recognition of their First Nations ethnicities. In this Act, Aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit, Indian remains in place as the legal term used in the Canadian Constitution. Its usage outside such situations can be considered offensive, Aboriginal peoples is more commonly used to describe all indigenous peoples of Canada. It also refers to self-identification of Aboriginal people who live within Canada claiming rights of sovereignty or Aboriginal title to lands, the term Eskimo has pejorative connotations in Canada and Greenland. Indigenous peoples in those areas have replaced the term Eskimo with Inuit, the Yupik of Alaska and Siberia do not consider themselves Inuit, and ethnographers agree they are a distinct people. They prefer the terminology Yupik, Yupiit, or Eskimo, the Yupik languages are linguistically distinct from the Inuit languages. Linguistic groups of Arctic people have no universal replacement term for Eskimo, inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people across the area inhabited by the Inuit. Besides these ethnic descriptors, Aboriginal peoples are divided into legal categories based on their relationship with the CrownAboriginal peoples in Canada – Aboriginal peoples in Canada
16. Assembly of First Nations – The Assembly of First Nations is an assembly, modelled on the United Nations General Assembly, of First Nations represented by their chiefs. It emerged from and replaced the Canadian National Indian Brotherhood in the early 1980s, the aims of the organization are to protect and advance the aboriginal and treaty rights and interests of First Nations in Canada, including health, education, culture and language. Other groups formed to enter into Treaties with colonial governments, the Grand Indian Council of Ontario and Quebec was established in 1870 composed primarily of Ojibway and Iroquois. In 1915, the Allied Tribes of B. C. was formed by Peter Kelly and Andrew Paull to seek treaties, after the First World War, the League of Indians in Canada was founded by a Mohawk veteran, Fred Ogilvie Loft. It became the antecedent of the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, rickard organized an annual celebration to assert border crossing rights, Indian rights generally, and respect for the value and dignity of indigenous culture. A split took place in the League of Indians in 1938, in 1946, after the Second World War, the Union of Saskatchewan Indians emerged from the Protective Association and a newly founded “Association of Saskatchewan Indians. In 1956, the Union of Saskatchewan Indians transformed itself into the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians, in 1965, the federation was incorporated by Walter Deiter, Henry Langan, Max Goodwill, Hilliard McNabb and Lucien Bruce. With the 1969 White Paper, George Manuel led the formation of the Union of B. C, Indian Chiefs to oppose the new proposed policy. The government envisaged a neat package of three national aboriginal associations and one regional association per province or territory for each. An adjustment was made in the case of Ontario where Indians had already organized four associations on tribal, in British Columbia, the Native Brotherhood had always represented both status and non-status Indians and the United Native Nations had aggressively asserted the same principle. Similarly, some of the BC tribal councils, the Council of Yukon Indians, in July 1971, the First National Native Women’s Conference took place. The National Indian Council was created in 1961 to represent indigenous people of Canada, including treaty/status Indians, non-status Indians, the NIB was a national political body made up of the leadership of the various provincial and territorial organizations which lobbied for changes to federal and provincial policies. Supported by a churches, labour and other groups, the NIB mounted massive opposition to the government plan. On June 3,1970, the NIB presented the response by Harold Cardinal, startled by the strong opposition to the White Paper, the Prime Minister told the delegation the White Paper would not be imposed against their will. In 1972, the NIBs policy paper Indian Control of Indian Education was generally accepted by federal government and the NIB gained national recognition for the issue of indigenous education in Canada. Undoubtedly, this was one of the last steps in ending the Canadian Residential School System, long opposed by indigenous people, in 1973, the Calder case decision was issued. You have more rights than I thought you did, Prime Minister Trudeau told the NIB leaders, the NIB gained consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1974, until such time as an international indigenous organization could be formed. When the World Council of Indigenous Peoples was formed on Nuu-chah-nulth territory the year with the leadership of George ManuelAssembly of First Nations – AFN Logo
17. Japan Tobacco – Japan Tobacco Inc. abbreviated JT, is a cigarette manufacturing company. It is part of the Nikkei 225 index, in 2009 the company was listed at number 312 on the Fortune 500 list. The company is headquartered in Toranomon, Minato, Tokyo and Japan Tobacco Internationals headquarters are in Geneva, as of 2012 the chairman is Hiroshi Kimura and the CEO is Mitsuomi Koizumi. It was founded as a company on April 1,1985. Japan Tobacco is the entity to a nationalized tobacco monopoly first established by the Government of Japan in 1898 to secure tax revenue collections from tobacco leaf sales. It was announced in May 2012 that the government would sell one-sixth of the outstanding shares to raise ¥500 billion to finance reconstruction from the 2011 earthquake. In 2013 the Japanese government disclosed the details of its plans to reduce its equity interest in Japan Tobacco by $10 billion, the ministry of finance sold the stock in March 2013, selling about 333 million of the 1 billion shares it owned at that time. The government remains required by law to own at least one-third of JTs stock, JT International, acquired in 1999 from R. J. Reynolds, is a division of Japan Tobacco Inc. handling the international production, marketing. It sells Camel, Salem, and Winston brands outside the USA, Japan Tobacco also operates in foods, pharmaceuticals, agribusiness, engineering, and real estate. It left the industry in September 2015. Japan Tobacco completed the largest ever takeover in Japanese history through acquisition of Gallaher Group plc in April 2007. Japan Tobacco runs the Tobacco and Salt Museum in Shibuya, Tokyo, in 2006/2007 Japan Tobacco planned to start Serbia production, and also planned to invest another $100 million. JT paid $35 million euros for 98.5 percent of Senta Tobacco Industry in May 2006, the plant has a production capacity of some five billion cigarettes a year. In April 2012 it was announced that Mitsuomi Koizumi would become President, Wakui had previously been a bureaucrat at the ministry of finance. Koizumi assuming the presidency meant that for the first time since the 1985 privatization neither president nor chairman was from the ministry of finance, Koizumi, who had been Executive Deputy President, became president in June 2012. As of 2013, although tobacco consumption was declining, the Japanese remained heavy smokers, consuming an average of 1,800 cigarettes a year, compared to about 1,000 per capita in the United States. On October 30,2013 JT announced that it would close four Japanese factories and this was planned to be completed by March 2016Japan Tobacco – Headquarters in Toranomon, Minato, Tokyo
18. Hamerton Zoo Park – Hamerton Zoo Park is situated in Hamerton, near Sawtry, Cambridgeshire, England. It is a 25-acre wildlife park that exhibits around 500 animals from over 100 different species focusing on lemurs, cats, the zoo is home to three white tigers. Cats - oncilla, rusty spotted cat, Canadian lynx, cheetah, jaguarundi, serval, white Bengal tigers, primates - collared lemurs, black and white ruffed lemur, ring tailed lemurs, lar gibbons, and various monkeys including, Goeldis monkey. Birds - greater curassow, flamingo and Ruppells griffon vulture, an application for two 50 kW turbines was turned down in August 2015 by Huntingdonshire District Council. The zoo a conservation sanctuary supports two conservation schemes, The Cheetah Conservation Fund founded by Dr. Laurie Marker in 1990, Hamerton Zoo Park provides funds to CCF partly from the money raised through its cheetah contact experiences. The Giant Anteater Survey in Brazil seeks to track this flagship species using radio collars for twelve months as an in depth research project. Three organisations are involved in project, The Zoological Research Museum Koenig in Bonn, Germany, the Brazilian Projeto TamanduaHamerton Zoo Park – Yawning corsac fox at Hamerton Zoo
19. Cambridgeshire – The city of Cambridge is the county town. It contains most of the known as Silicon Fen. Local government is divided between Cambridgeshire County Council and Peterborough City Council, which is a unitary authority. Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of Flag Fen in Fengate, one of the earliest-known Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom, compared in importance to Balbridie in Aberdeen, Scotland. A great quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, most items were found in Isleham. Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as Grantbridgeshire, covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. In 1965, these two counties were merged to form Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. Under the Local Government Act 1972 this merged with the county to the west, Huntingdon, the resulting county was called simply Cambridgeshire. Since 1998, the City of Peterborough has been a separately administered area and it is associated with Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, and joint functions such as policing and the fire service. In 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife unofficially designated Cambridgeshires county flower as the Pasqueflower, the Cambridgeshire Regiment, the county-based army unit, fought in the Boer War of South Africa, the First World War and Second World War. Due to the flat terrain and proximity to the continent, during the Second World War the military built many airfields here for RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command. In recognition of this collaboration, the Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial is located in Madingley and it is the only WWII burial ground in England for American servicemen who died during that event. Most English counties have nicknames for their people, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire, the traditional nicknames for people from Cambridgeshire are Cambridgeshire Camel or Cambridgeshire Crane, referring to the wildfowl that were once abundant in the fens. The term Fenners was often applied to those who come from the country to the north of Cambridge. Since the late 20th century, this term is considered to be derogatory and has been discouraged in use, original historical documents relating to Cambridgeshire are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies. See also Geology of Cambridgeshire Large areas of the county are extremely low-lying, the highest point is in the village of Great Chishill at 146 m above sea level. Other prominent hills are Little Trees Hill and Wandlebury Hill in the Gog Magog Downs, Rivey Hill above Linton, Rowleys Hill, AWG plc is based in Huntingdon. The RAF has several stations in the Huntingdon and St Ives area, RAF Waterbeach,6 miles north of Cambridge, is a former RAF airfield, now used as an army barracksCambridgeshire – Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904)
20. Moscow – Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament also sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word also meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, puddle, Lithuanian, mazgoti and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, Sanskrit, majjati to drown, Latin, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists. The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal PrincipalityMoscow – Left to right, top to bottom: Moscow State University, Spasskaya Clocktower, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour; Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow International Business Center; Red Square
21. Golf – Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, the game is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, there are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough, sand traps, and hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, while the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, one theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries, the game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England, the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504, to many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green, while many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee, the hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice, this is called a double dogleg, a regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land. This gave rise to the golf links, particularly applied to seaside coursesGolf – A golfer in the finishing position after hitting a tee shot
22. Jeremy Corbyn – Jeremy Bernard Corbyn is a British politician who was elected Leader of the Labour Party in 2015, thus becoming Leader of the Opposition. He has been Member of Parliament for Islington North since 1983, born in Chippenham, Wiltshire, Corbyn attended Adams Grammar School and later North London Polytechnic, leaving without a degree. Before entering politics he worked as a representative for trade unions. As a backbench MP he was known for activism and rebelliousness, frequently voting against the Labour whip, including when the party was in government under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. As Labour leader, Corbyn advocates reversing austerity cuts to services and welfare funding made since 2010, and proposes renationalisation of public utilities. A longstanding anti-war and anti-nuclear activist, Corbyn supports a policy of military non-interventionism. He was the chair of the Stop the War Coalition. After Labours defeat in the 2015 general election and the resignation of Ed Miliband and he was elected leader of the Labour Party on 12 September 2015, with a vote of 59. 5% in the first round of the ballot. In June 2016, Labour MPs passed a vote of no confidence in Corbyn by 172 votes to 40 following the resignation of around two-thirds of Corbyns Shadow Cabinet. On 24 September 2016, following a leadership contest, Corbyn retained leadership of the party with a vote share of 61. 8%. Corbyn was born in Chippenham and brought up in nearby Kington St Michael in Wiltshire and he is the youngest of the four sons of Naomi, a maths teacher, and David Benjamin Corbyn, an electrical engineer and expert in power rectifiers. His brother Piers Corbyn is a weather forecaster and his parents were peace campaigners who met in the 1930s at a committee meeting in support of the Spanish Republic at Conway Hall during the Spanish Civil War. When Corbyn was seven years old, the moved to Pave Lane in Shropshire. Corbyn was educated at Castle House Preparatory School, an independent school near Newport, while still at school, he became active in The Wrekin constituency Young Socialists, his local Labour Party, and the League Against Cruel Sports. He achieved two E-grade A-Levels before leaving school at 18, Corbyn joined the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1966 whilst at school and later became one of its three vice-chairs. After school, Corbyn worked briefly as a reporter for a local newspaper, at around the age of 19 he spent two years doing Voluntary Service Overseas in Jamaica. Returning to the UK in 1971, he worked as an official for the National Union of Tailors, Corbyn began a course in Trade Union Studies at North London Polytechnic but left after a series of arguments with his tutors over the curriculum. He worked as a union organiser for the National Union of Public Employees and Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical UnionJeremy Corbyn – Corbyn in April 2014
23. Henrique Capriles – Henrique Capriles Radonski, more commonly known as Henrique Capriles, is a Venezuelan politician and lawyer, currently serving as 36th Governor of Miranda. Born in Caracas on 11 July 1972, he received a degree on law from the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, Capriles first ventured into politics at age 26, when he became the youngest member ever elected of the Venezuelan parliament. He secured a seat into the Chamber of Deputies in the 1998 parliamentary elections and he served as Vice President of the Congress and President of the Chamber of Deputies until their dissolution by the Constitutional Assembly in August 1999. Capriles became the candidate at the 2012 and 2013 presidential elections. His defeat in 2012 marked the first loss of his political career, Maduro narrowly defeated Capriles in the 2013 elections, a result that sparked controversy and debate admist the oppositions claims of electoral fraud. Between both presidential campaigns, Capriles successfully secured his re-election as Governor of Miranda during the 2012 regional elections and he has repeatedly been the target of smear campaigns by political opponents who seek to capitalize on homophobic and antisemitic currents in Venezuelan society. Capriles Radonski is of Sephardi Jewish and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, his grandparents immigrated from Russia, however, he considers himself a devout Catholic, revealing that his greatest hero in history was Jesus Christ. Capriles dated Venezuelan actress Erika de la Vega between his first and second tenure as Mayor, prior to his political career, he worked in the public and private sectors at several tax and law firms of Venezuela. Capriles is a member of the International Fiscal Association, Henrique Capriles was born in Caracas on 11 July 1972. His parents are Mónica Cristina Radonski-Bochenek and Henrique Capriles García and his maternal grandparents were Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated from Russia and Poland following World War II. His great-grand parents were murdered by the Germans in the Treblinka extermination camp during World War II and his maternal grandmother, Lili Bochenek, lived for 20 months in the Warsaw Ghetto. Capriles’s paternal grandfather, Armando Capriles-Myerston, was a Sephardi Jew, capriles’s father was a successful businessman. In the 1950s, he helped launch Kraft Foods entry into Venezuela by inviting the vice-president of its Nabisco subsidiary and his maternal grandparents, Andrés Radonski and Lili Bochenek, migrated to Venezuela in 1947. Andrés was an active in the cinema business in Poland, he opened his first cinema several years later. The company operated under the name Circuito Radonski and it was merged in 1998 alongside Venefilms and Grupo Blanco to create the countrys largest cinema chain, Cinex. His parents agreed to educate their children in the Catholic faith until they were old enough to decide for themselves as a compromise, Capriles has continued as a fervent Catholic through his adulthood, commenting that his greatest hero in history was Jesus Christ. Capriles enrolled at the Andrés Bello Catholic University to study commerce law and he received his degree in 1994, and then continued studies at the Central University of Venezuela. He received a degree in tax law several years later and he took additional studies at the IBFD International Tax Academy in Amsterdam, the Pan American Center of Tax Managers in Viterbo, and Columbia UniversityHenrique Capriles – Henrique Capriles Radonski
24. Huddersfield Town A.F.C. – Huddersfield Town Association Football Club is a professional football club based in the town of Huddersfield, West Yorkshire. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. In 1926, Huddersfield became the first English club to win three league titles, a feat which only three other clubs have matched, and none has bettered. They also won the FA Cup in 1922, nicknamed The Terriers, the club plays in blue and white vertically striped shirts and white shorts. They have played games at the Kirklees Stadium since 1994. The stadium replaced Leeds Road, Huddersfield Towns home since 1908, in 1910, just three years after being founded, Huddersfield entered the Football League for the first time. In November 1919 a fund-raising campaign was needed to avoid a move to Leeds, citizens of Huddersfield were asked to buy shares in the club for £1 each, and the club staved off the proposed merger. The team went on to reach the 1920 FA Cup Final, in 1926, it became the first English team to win three successive league titles – a feat that only three other clubs have been able to match. Huddersfield Town also won the FA Cup in 1922 and have been runners-up on four other occasions, during the clubs heyday, on 27 February 1932 the club achieved a record attendance of 67,037 during their FA Cup 6th round tie against Arsenal at Leeds Road. This attendance has been bettered by only 13 other clubs in the history of the Football League, after the Second World War, the club began a gradual decline, losing its First Division status in 1952. Town came straight back up, then relegated three seasons later, fourteen years later, they would return to the top flight for the last time in 1970 but was relegated two seasons later and has since meandered through the lower three divisions. Before the start of the 1969/70 season, Huddersfield Town adopted the nickname The Terriers, however, the club did not make it back to the top flight and fell two divisions. The club was sold by Rubery to David Taylor and under David Taylors ownership, in the summer of 2003, the Terriers came out of administration under the new ownership of Ken Davy. At the start of the 2004–05 season, the stadium was renamed the Galpharm Stadium, on 19 November 2011, following a 2–1 victory over Notts County, Huddersfield broke Nottingham Forests long-standing 42-match unbeaten league record, the Terriers went 43 games unbeaten. On 28 November 2011, Huddersfield lost for the first time in 44 games to Charlton Athletic, on 26 May 2012, following a penalty shoot-out in the 2012 Football League One play-off Final victory over Sheffield United, Huddersfield were promoted to the Championship. The shoot-out was the longest contested in the current League One play-offs format, eleven rounds took place, the final score was 8–7 to Huddersfield, with the winning goal being scored by goalkeeper Alex Smithies. F. C. Then in September 2014, Chris Powell was named the new Huddersfield Town manager and he was sacked on 3 November 2015, for failing to meet the clubs objectives. The following day, ex-USA international David Wagner was appointed head coach, the club spent over five years debating what colour the kit should beHuddersfield Town A.F.C. – View into the John Smith's Stadium
25. Government of the Philippines – The Government of the Philippines is the national government of the Philippines. The government has three interdependent branches, the branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the President, Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body. The legislative power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines which consists of the Senate, the upper house is located in Pasay City, while the lower house is located in Quezon City. The district and sectoral representatives are elected for a term of three years and they can be re-elected but they may not run for a fourth consecutive term. Senators are elected to a term of six years and they can be re-elected but may not run for a third consecutive term. The House of Representatives may opt to pass for a vacancy of a legislative seat, the winner of the special election will serve the unfinished term of the previous district representative, and will be considered as one elective term. The same rule applies in the Senate, however it only applies if the seat was vacated before a regular legislative election. The current President of the Senate is Aquilino Pimentel III, while the current Speaker of the House of Representatives is Pantaleon Alvarez, the executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines. The President is elected by popular vote, the principal workplace of the President is the Malacañang Palace in San Miguel, Manila. The executive branch is headed by President Rodrigo Duterte. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Vice President is first in line to succession if the President resigns, is impeached or dies. The Vice President is usually, though not always, a member of the presidents cabinet, if there is a vacancy in the position of vice-president, the President will appoint any member of Congress as the new Vice President. The appointment must then be validated by a vote of the Congress. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of the Philippines, the Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, occupies the highest tier of the judiciary. The justices serve until the age of 70, the justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council of the Philippines. The sitting Chief Justice is Maria Lourdes Sereno, the 24th to serve in that position, the government and all three of its branches are independently monitored by the office of the Ombudsman. The Ombudsman is given the mandate to investigate and prosecute any government official guilty of crimes, especially GraftGovernment of the Philippines – Government of the Republic of the Philippines Pamahalaan ng Republika ng Pilipinas (Filipino)
26. Abu Sayyaf – The group is considered violent, and was responsible for the Philippines worst terrorist attack, the bombing of Superferry 14 in 2004, which killed 116 people. The name of the group is derived from the Arabic abu, as of 2012, the group was estimated to have between 200 and 400 members, down from 1,250 in 2000. They use mostly improvised explosive devices, mortars, and automatic rifles, the group has been designated as a terrorist group by the United Nations, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 2002, fighting Abu Sayyaf became a mission of the American militarys Operation Enduring Freedom, the group was founded by Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani, and led after his death in 1998 by his younger brother Khadaffy Janjalani who was killed in 2007. On 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Totoni Hapilon swore an oath of loyalty to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, in September 2014, the group began kidnapping people to ransom, in the name of ISIL. In the early 1970s, the Moro National Liberation Front was the main Muslim rebel groups fighting in Basilan, Abdurajik then went to Afghanistan to fight against the Soviet Union and the Afghan government during the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Both Abdurajik Abubakar and his brother who succeeded him were natives of Isabela City. Located on the North-Western part of the island of Basilan, Isabela is also the capital of Basilan province, MNLF had moderated into an established political government, the ARMM. It was established in 1989, fully institutionalised by 1996 and which became the ruling government in southern Mindanao. According to the defector Only 10 to 30% of the funding goes to the legitimate relief and livelihood projects. Khalifa had married a woman, Alice Jameelah Yabo, By 1995 Abu Sayyaf was active in large scale bombings. The Abu Sayyafs first attack was the assault on the town of Ipil in Mindanao in April 1995 and this year also marked the escape of 20-year-old Khadaffy Janjalani from Camp Crame in Manila along with another member named Jovenal Bruno. On 18 December 1998, Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani was killed in a gun battle with the Philippine National Police on Basilan Island and he is thought to have been about age 39 at the time of his death. The Abu Sayyaf primarily operates in the southern Philippines with members travelling to Manila and it was reported that Abu Sayyaf had begun expanding into neighbouring Malaysia and Indonesia by the early 1990s. The Abu Sayyaf is one of the smallest, but strongest of the Islamist separatist groups in the Philippines, some Abu Sayyaf members have studied or worked in Saudi Arabia and developed ties to mujahadeen while fighting and training in the war against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Abu Sayyaf proclaimed themselves as mujahideen and freedom fighters but are not supported by people in the Philippines including its Muslim clerics. Until his death in a gunbattle on 4 September 2006, Khaddafy Janjalani was considered the leader of the group by the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The 23-year-old Khadaffy Janjalani then took leadership of one of Abu Sayyafs factions in an internecine struggle and he then worked to consolidate his leadership of the Abu Sayyaf, causing the group to appear inactive for a periodAbu Sayyaf – Isnilon Totoni Hapilon in 2000.
27. Tegucigalpa – Tegucigalpa, commonly referred to as Téguz, is the capital of Honduras and seat of government of the Republic, along with its twin sister Comayagüela. Claimed on September 29,1578 by the Spaniards, Tegucigalpa became the capital on October 30,1880 under President Marco Aurelio Soto. After a failed attempt to create a Central American republic in 1821, on January 30,1937, Article 179 of the 1936 Honduran Constitution was changed under Decree 53 to establish Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District. Tegucigalpa is located in the highland region known as the department of Francisco Morazán of which it is also the departmental capital. It is situated in a valley, surrounded by mountains, Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, being sister cities, are physically separated by the Choluteca River. The Central District is the largest of the 28 municipalities in the Francisco Morazán department, Tegucigalpa is Honduras largest and most populous city as well as the nations political and administrative center. Tegucigalpa is host to 25 foreign embassies and 16 consulates and it is the home base of several state-owned entities such as ENEE and Hondutel, the national energy and telecommunications companies, respectively. The city is home to the countrys most important public university. The capitals international airport, Toncontín, is known for its short runway. The Central District Mayors Office is the governing body, headed by a mayor and 10 aldermen forming the Municipal Corporation. Being the departments seat as well, the office of Francisco Morazán is also located in the capital. In 2008, the city operated on a budget of 1.555 billion lempiras. In 2009, the city government reported a revenue of 1.955 billion lempiras, Tegucigalpas infrastructure has not kept up with its population growth. Deficient urban planning, densely condensed urbanization, and poverty are ongoing problems, heavily congested roadways where current road infrastructure is unable to efficiently handle over 400,000 vehicles create havoc on a daily basis. Both current national and local governments have taken steps to improve, most sources indicate the origin and meaning of the word Tegucigalpa is derived from the Nahuatl language. Another source suggests that Tegucigalpa derives from another language in which it means painted rocks, other theories indicate it may derive from the term Togogalpa which refers to tototi and Toncontín, a small town near Tegucigalpa. In Mexico, it is believed the word Tegucigalpa is from the Nahuatl word Tecuztlicallipan, meaning place of residence of the noble or Tecuhtzincalpan, meaning place on the home of the beloved master. Tegucigalpa was founded by Spanish settlers as Real de Minas de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa on September 29,1578 on the site of a native settlement of the Pech, TolupansTegucigalpa – Tegucigalpa
28. Lincoln County, Mississippi – Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,869, the county was created by the legislature in April 7,1870, during the Reconstruction Era. It was formed from portions of Lawrence, Pike, Franklin, Copiah and it was named for Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States. Lincoln County comprises the Brookhaven, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Jackson-Vicksburg-Brookhaven Combined Statistical Area, the county is southwest of the state capital of Jackson. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 588 square miles. Interstate 55 U. S. Highway 51 U. S. S, as of the United States Census of 2000, - there were 33,166 people,12,538 households, and 9,190 families residing in the county. The population density was 57 people per square mile, there were 14,052 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile. 0. 69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,24. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was out with 26. 70% under the age of 18,9. 50% from 18 to 24,27. 60% from 25 to 44,22. 30% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 92.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.60 males, the median income for a household in the county was $27,279, and the median income for a family was $33,552. Males had an income of $29,060 versus $18,877 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,961, about 16. 00% of families and 19. 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22. 80% of those under age 18 and 17. 10% of those age 65 or over. This county does not have home rule, thus, the legislature reserved to itself power over the county and its representatives and state senators help serve its residents. The telecommunications company MCI Worldcom is located in Lincoln County and its Chief Executive Officer and founder Bernard Ebbers resided near Brookhaven prior to his conviction, he was sentenced to prison. The county is served by two public school districts, a private school, and a couple of smaller Christian or religious/private schools. The Lincoln County Public School District consists of four K-12 schools of elementary, middle school and these include Loyd Star, Bogue Chitto, West Lincoln and EnterpriseLincoln County, Mississippi – Location in the state of Mississippi
29. Munich – Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes, black and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically. In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events, exhibitions and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document. The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopolyMunich – From left to right: The Munich Frauenkirche, the Nymphenburg Palace, the BMW Headquarters, the New Town Hall, the Munich Hofgarten and the Allianz Arena.
30. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, wide, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. For the second part also the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or EvropaEurope – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
31. Takuma Sato – Takuma Sato is a Japanese professional racing driver. He currently races full-time in the IndyCar Series for Andretti Autosport, in 2002 Sato graduated to Formula One with the Honda-powered Jordan team, and was paired with Giancarlo Fisichella. His low point was a crash in Austria, caused when Nick Heidfeld lost control of his Sauber under braking and hit the side of Satos car. Throughout he showed flashes of speed but also wild driving, nevertheless the teams faith in Sato was repaid by a drive to fifth at his home Grand Prix in Suzuka. With Hondas focus shifting solely to British American Racing for 2003 Sato joined the Brackley-based outfit as a test driver, for the final round in Japan Sato replaced Jacques Villeneuve and scored the second points finish of his career with sixth, despite a collision with Michael Schumacher. He was signed to race full-time in 2004 and his season was blighted by numerous engine failures, suffering no less than six. He finished eighth in the championship with 34 points and helped the team to second in the Constructors championship, Sato was retained by BAR-Honda for the 2005 season, but the 2005 car was not as close to the front of the pack as the previous years design. The Court did not find that this was deliberate, Sato joined the new Super Aguri F1 team for 2006, run by former Japanese driver Aguri Suzuki. The new outfit was in effect a Honda B-team but ran the first half of the season with a version of a 2002 Arrows A23 chassis. Nevertheless, Satos reputation improved thanks to his attitude and competitive spirit. The team introduced a new car, the SA06 at the German Grand Prix, at the season finale in Brazil Sato finished tenth just two places short of a points finish and comfortably ahead of both Toro Rossos and the Spyker MF1s. For 2007, Super Aguri ran a version of the previous years Honda RA106 chassis. Their performance improved drastically as Sato made it through to Q3 at the Australian Grand Prix and he then scored the first point for the team at the Spanish Grand Prix. Financial problems began to affect the team in the winter break. The team used a modified Honda RA107 chassis, which was launched just before the first Friday Practice session that weekend, the car was just as uncompetitive as the Honda had been in 2007 and the team withdrew from Formula One after the Spanish Grand Prix. In late 2008, Sato took part in tests at Jerez with Scuderia Toro Rosso and he was competing against former Toro Rosso driver Sébastien Bourdais and Red Bull Racing test and reserve driver Sébastien Buemi for one of the two race seats. Bourdais eventually won the seat and in March 2009 it was announced that Sato would not be the reserve driver for the Red Bull team. Sato visited the Indianapolis 500 in May 2009 and he signed with KV Racing Technology to drive in the 2010 IndyCar Series season finishing in 21st place, he signed for the same team for 2011Takuma Sato – Sato at Sonoma Raceway in 2014
32. Indianapolis 500 – The Indianapolis 500 is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend, which is typically the last weekend in May and it is contested as part of the Verizon IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel formula colloquially known as Indy Car Racing. The name of the race is often shortened to Indy 500, the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, the inaugural running was won by Ray Harroun in 1911. The race celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, and the 100th running was held in 2016, alexander Rossi is the defending champion. The most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser, the active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three. Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six, the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 16 total wins and 17 poles. For a list of races and winners, see List of Indianapolis 500 winners, the Indianapolis 500 is held annually at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, a 2.5 mile oval circuit. Drivers race 200 laps, counterclockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles, since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled on or around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend, practice and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece. The event is contested by Indy cars, a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, as of 2015, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport, firestone, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider. The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar and it has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world. Likewise, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the worlds largest sporting facility in terms of capacity, the total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Due to safety issues, the race is not held in wet conditions, in the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, and the track is sufficiently dried. If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway complex was built in 1909 as a gravel-and-tar track and hosted a smattering of small events, including ones for motorcycles. The first long distance event, in conditions, was the 100-lap Prest-O-Lite Trophy in 1909Indianapolis 500 – Joe Dawson winning the 1912 Indianapolis 500
33. Brazil – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes also called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called PindoramaBrazil – Megaliths in the Solstice Archaeological Park, in Amapá, erected between 500 and 2000 years ago, probably to carry out astronomical observations.
34. Afghanistan – Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, however, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire. Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. These tribes later migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as ArianaAfghanistan – History of Afghanistan
35. Ansar al-Sharia (Libya) – Ansar al-Sharia in Libya is a Salafist Islamist militia group that advocates the implementation of strict Sharia law across Libya. Ansar al-Sharia came into being in 2011, during the Libyan Civil War, until January 2015, it was led by its Amir, Muhammad al-Zahawi. The organization has deliberately targeted both Libyan and American civilians and took part in the 2012 Benghazi attack, the group has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, Turkey, the UAE, the United Kingdom and the United States. Ansar al-Sharia was formed during the Libyan Civil War and rose to prominence after the killing of Muammar Gaddafi, according to the New York Times, Western diplomats who watched said they were stunned by the scale and weaponry of the display. The militia went on to provide security to public property in eastern Libya. The group is reportedly the military arm of Al-Dawa wa Al-Islah, the logo of the Ansar al-Sharia is a pair of AK-47 assault rifles, a clenched fist with one finger pointed up, an open Koran, and a black flag. Ansar al-Sharia carried out destruction of Sufi shrines in Benghazi, which they regarded as idolatrous, in November 2011, Libyan Salafis engaged in a series of attacks on Sufi shrines all over the country. Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf, the president of the General National Congress denounced the attacks as disgraceful acts. Ansar al-Sharia used its online presence to denounce the 2013 capture and removal from Libya of al-Qaeda operative Abu Anas al-Libi, in January 2015, the group introduced Islamic religious police and a sharia court in parts of Benghazi. Witnesses said they saw vehicles with the logo at the scene of the assault. Witnesses also said they saw Ahmed Abu Khattala, a commander of Ansar al-Sharia, leading the embassy attack, according to NBC, the charges were filed under seal in Washington, D. C. in late July. Delta Force special operations personnel in a raid in Libya on 15 June 2014 and he is being transported to the United States aboard the USS New York transport dock and is expected to face trial in a U. S. criminal court. The group was forced out of its bases in Benghazi the next day, a few hours after the attack, Martyrs of February 17, together with Bou Salim Martyrs brigade, allegedly agreed to disband, however about 150-200 militiamen moved from Benghazi to Jebel Akhdar area. As of December 2012, the group existed, although it had adopted a low-key position. By March 2013, the group had returned to Benghazi and began patrolling hospitals and manning checkpoints, by late 2013, the group had opened up a branch in Derna, under the slogan A step toward building the Islamic state. The group also established a presence in the Libyan cities of Ajdabiya, in late 2014, the groups leader, Mohamed al-Zahawi, died of wounds he had received from the fighting. In the months that followed, many members of Ansar al-Sharia, including the majority of its organisation in Sirte, reportedly defected to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Libya. On 30 March 2015, the groups chief Sharia jurist, Abu Abdullah Al-Libi, pledged allegiance to ISIL, Ansar al-Sharia quickly announced that Abu Tamim al Libi has been selected as his replacementAnsar al-Sharia (Libya) – Logo & flag of Ansar al-Sharia
36. Savannah, Georgia – Savannah is the oldest city in the U. S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County. Established in 1733 on the Savannah River, the city of Savannah became the British colonial capital of the Province of Georgia, a strategic port city in the American Revolution and during the American Civil War, Savannah is today an industrial center and an important Atlantic seaport. It is Georgias fifth-largest city and third-largest metropolitan area, Downtown Savannah largely retains the original town plan prescribed by founder James Oglethorpe. Savannah was the host city for the sailing competitions during the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta. On February 12,1733, General James Oglethorpe and settlers from the ship Anne landed at Yamacraw Bluff and were greeted by Tomochichi, the Yamacraws, Mary Musgrove often served as an interpreter. The city of Savannah was founded on that date, along with the colony of Georgia, in 1751, Savannah and the rest of Georgia became a Royal Colony and Savannah was made the colonial capital of Georgia. By the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Savannah had become the southernmost commercial port of the Thirteen Colonies, British troops took the city in 1778, and the following year a combined force of American and French soldiers failed to rout the British at the Siege of Savannah. The British did not leave the city until July 1782, Savannah, a prosperous seaport throughout the nineteenth century, was the Confederacys sixth most populous city and the prime objective of General William T. Shermans March to the Sea. Early on December 21,1864, local authorities negotiated a surrender to save Savannah from destruction. Savannah was named for the Savannah River, which derives from variant names for the Shawnee. The Shawnee destroyed another Native people, the Westo, and occupied their lands at the head of the Savannah Rivers navigation on the fall line and these Shawnee, whose Native name was Ša·wano·ki, were known by several local variants, including Shawano, Savano, Savana and Savannah. Still other theories suggest that the name Savannah originates from Algonquian terms meaning not only southerners, Savannah lies on the Savannah River, approximately 20 mi upriver from the Atlantic Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 108.7 square miles. Savannah is the port on the Savannah River and the largest port in the state of Georgia. It is also located near the U. S. Intracoastal Waterway, Georgias Ogeechee River flows toward the Atlantic Ocean some 16 miles south of downtown Savannah. Savannahs climate is classified as humid subtropical, in the Deep South, this is characterized by long and almost tropical summers and short, mild winters. Savannah records few days of freezing temperatures each year, due to its proximity to the Atlantic coast, Savannah rarely experiences temperatures as extreme as those in Georgias interior. Nevertheless, the temperatures have officially ranged from 105 °F, on July 20,1986, down to 3 °FSavannah, Georgia
37. Paris Agreement – The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. It was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 at a ceremony in New York, as of March 2017,194 UNFCCC members have signed the treaty,141 of which have ratified it. The agreement went into effect on 4 November 2016, the head of the Paris Conference, Frances foreign minister Laurent Fabius, said this ambitious and balanced plan is a historic turning point in the goal of reducing global warming. One year on, the ratification of the Paris Agreement was celebrated by the Mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo by illuminating the Eiffel Tower, countries furthermore aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive for and driver of fossil fuel divestment, the Paris deal is the worlds first comprehensive climate agreement. The contribution that each country should make in order to achieve the worldwide goal are determined by all countries individually. Article 3 requires them to be ambitious, represent a progression over time, the contributions should be reported every five years and are to be registered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. Each further ambition should be more ambitious than the previous one, countries can cooperate and pool their nationally determined contributions. The Intended Nationally Determined Contributions pledged during the 2015 Climate Change Conference serve—unless provided otherwise—as the initial Nationally determined contribution, the level of NDCs set by each country will set that countrys targets. However the contributions themselves are not binding as a matter of law, as they lack the specificity, normative character. Furthermore, there will be no mechanism to force a country to set a target in their NDC by a specific date and no enforcement if a set target in an NDC is not met. There will be only a name and shame system or as János Pásztor, the U. N. assistant secretary-general on climate change, told CBS News, as the agreement provides no consequences if countries do not meet their commitments, consensus of this kind is fragile. A trickle of nations exiting the agreement may trigger the withdrawal of more governments, the negotiators of the Agreement however stated that the NDCs and the 2 °C reduction target were insufficient, instead, a 1.5 ̊C. The global stocktake will kick off with a dialogue in 2018. The implementation of the agreement by all member countries together will be evaluated every 5 years, the outcome is to be used as input for new nationally determined contributions of member states. The stocktake will not be of contributions/achievements of individual countries but an analysis of what has been achieved. The stocktake works as part of the Paris Agreements effort to create a ratcheting up of ambition in emissions cuts, while ratcheting up the ambition of NDCs is a major aim of the global stocktake, it assesses efforts beyond mitigation. The 5 year reviews will also evaluate adaptation, climate finance provisions, the specific climate goals are thus politically encouraged, rather than legally boundParis Agreement – Flag
38. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is the 45th and current President of the United States. Prior to entering politics he was a businessman and television personality, Trump was born and raised in Queens, New York City, and earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He then took charge of The Trump Organization, the estate and construction firm founded by his paternal grandmother, which he ran for four. During his real career, Trump has built, renovated, and managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos. Besides real estate, he started several ventures and has lent the use of his name for the branding of various products. He owned the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he hosted The Apprentice, as of 2017, Forbes listed him as the 544th wealthiest person in the world with a net worth of $3.5 billion. Trump first publicly expressed interest in running for office in 1987. He won two Reform Party presidential primaries in 2000, but withdrew his candidacy early on, in June 2015, he launched his campaign for the 2016 presidential election and quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 candidates in the Republican primaries. His final opponents suspended their campaigns in May 2016, and in July he was nominated at the Republican National Convention along with Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate. His campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention, many of the statements he made at rallies, in interviews, or on social media were controversial or false. Trump won the election on November 8,2016, in a surprise victory against Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. His political positions have been described by scholars and commentators as populist, protectionist, Trump was born on June 14,1946 at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Queens, New York City. He was the fourth of five born to Frederick Christ Fred Trump. His siblings are Maryanne, Fred Jr. Elizabeth, and Robert, Trumps ancestors originated from the village of Kallstadt, Palatinate, Germany on his fathers side, and from the Outer Hebrides isles of Scotland on his mothers side. All his grandparents, and his mother, were born in Europe and his mothers grandfather was also christened Donald. On a visit to his village, he met Elisabeth Christ. He died from the flu pandemic of 1918 and Elizabeth incorporated the family real estate business, Elizabeth Trump and Son, which would later become The Trump Organization. Trumps father Fred was born in the Bronx, and worked with his mother since he was 15 as a real estate developer, primarily in the New York boroughs of Queens and he eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks and apartmentsDonald Trump – Donald Trump
39. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
40. Charles de Gaulle – Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, in 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was an officer of the First World War, wounded several times. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions, during the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders, he was then appointed Under-Secretary for War. Refusing to accept his governments armistice with Nazi Germany, de Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and he led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the RPF party. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, when the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a presidency. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies and he restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations, De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and the exorbitant privilege of the US dollar. In his later years, his support for an independent Quebec, De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization. He died a year later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his Presidential memoirs unfinished, many French political parties and figures claim the Gaullist legacy. De Gaulle was ranked as Le Plus Grand Français de tous les temps, De Gaulle was born in the industrial region of Lille in the Nord departement, the third of five children. He was raised in a devoutly Catholic and traditional family and his father, Henri de Gaulle, was a professor of history and literature at a Jesuit college who eventually founded his own school. Henri de Gaulle came from a line of parliamentary gentry from Normandy and Burgundy. De Gaulles mother, Jeanne, descended from a family of entrepreneurs from LilleCharles de Gaulle – Charles de Gaulle in 1961
41. UK Threat Levels – The UK Threat Levels are the alert states that have been in use since 1 August 2006 by the British government to warn of forms of terrorist activity. Before then a colour-based alert scheme known as BIKINI state was used, the response indicates how government departments and agencies and their staffs should react to each threat level. The current threat level is Severe, which was upgraded from Substantial on 29 August 2014, since 24 September 2010, the Home Office has reported three different categories of terrorist threat, Threat from international terrorism. Terrorism threat related to Northern Ireland in Northern Ireland itself, terrorism threat related to Northern Ireland in Great Britain. The threat level informs decisions on security measures taken by public bodies, the police. Threat levels were produced by MI5s Counter-Terrorism Analysis Centre for internal use within the British government. Assessments known as Security Service Threat Reports or Security Service Reports were issued to assess the level of threat to British interests in a country or region. They had six levels, Imminent, High, Significant, Moderate, Low, the system was accordingly simplified and made easier to understandUK Threat Levels – UK Threat Level history
42. Counter-terrorism – Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism. If terrorism is part of an insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. Harcourt envisioned a permanent unit dedicated to the prevention of politically motivated violence through the use of techniques such as undercover infiltration. This pioneering branch was the first to be trained in counter-terrorism techniques and its name was changed to Special Branch as it had its remit gradually expanded to incorporate a general role in counterterrorism, combating foreign subversion and infiltrating organized crime. Law enforcement agencies, in Britain and elsewhere, established similar units, Counterterrorism forces expanded with the perceived growing threat of terrorism in the late 20th century. Most counter-terrorism strategies involve an increase in police and domestic intelligence. The central activities are traditional, interception of communications, and the tracing of persons, new technology has, however, expanded the range of military and law enforcement operations. Domestic intelligence is often directed at specific groups, defined on the basis of origin or religion, mass surveillance of an entire population raises objections on civil liberties grounds. Homegrown terrorists, especially lone wolves are often harder to detect because of their citizenship or legal status, good intelligence is at the heart of such preparation, as well as political and social understanding of any grievances that might be solved. Counterintelligence is a challenge with the security of cell-based systems, since the ideal. Financial tracking can play a role, as can communications intercept, in response to the growing legislation. United Kingdom The United Kingdom has had anti-terrorism legislation in place for more than thirty years, the Prevention of Violence Act 1939 was brought in response to an Irish Republican Army campaign of violence under the S-Plan. This act had allowed to expire in 1953 and was repealed in 1973 to be replaced by the Prevention of Terrorism Acts a response to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. From 1974 to 1989 the temporary provisions of the act were renewed annually, in 2000 the Acts were replaced with the more permanent Terrorism Act 2000, which contained many of their powers, and then the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005. The Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 was formally introduced into the Parliament November 19,2001 two months after the September 11,2001 attacks in the United States and it received royal assent and went into force on December 13,2001. On December 16,2004 the Law Lords ruled that Part 4 was incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights, but under the terms of the Human Rights Act 1998 it remained in force. The Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 was drafted to answer the Law Lords ruling and the Terrorism Act 2006 creates new offences related to terrorism, and amends existing ones. The Act was drafted in the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, since 1978 the UKs terrorism laws have been regularly reviewed by a security-cleared Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, whose reports are submitted to Parliament and published in fullCounter-terrorism – Yamam, one of Israel 's counterterrorism units.
43. Copts in Egypt – Copts in Egypt refers to Coptic people born in or residing in Egypt. Coptic people are the largest ethno-religious minority in Egypt, under Muslim rule, the ethnic Copts were cut off from the main stream of Christianity, and were compelled to adhere to the Pact of Umar covenant, thus assigned to Dhimmi status. Their position improved dramatically under the rule of Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century and he abolished the Jizya and allowed ethnic Copts to enroll in the army. Pope Cyril IV, 1854–61, reformed the church and encouraged broader Coptic participation in Egyptian affairs, khedive Ismail Pasha, in power 1863–79, further promoted the Copts. He appointed them judges to Egyptian courts and awarded them political rights, some ethnic Copts participated in the Egyptian national movement for independence and occupied many influential positions. Two significant cultural achievements include the founding of the Coptic Museum in 1910, some prominent Coptic thinkers from this period are Salama Moussa, Louis Awad and Secretary General of the Wafd Party Makram Ebeid. In 1952, Gamal Abdel Nasser led some army officers in a coup détat against King Farouk, Nassers mainstream policy was pan-Arab nationalism and socialism. The ethnic Copts were severely affected by Nassers nationalization policies, though they represented about 10–20% of the population, many Coptic intellectuals hold to Pharaonism, which states that Coptic culture is largely derived from pre-Christian, Pharaonic culture, and is not indebted to Greece. It gives the Copts a claim to a heritage in Egyptian history. Pharaonism was widely held by Coptic and Muslim scholars in the early 20th century, however, some Western scholars today argue that Pharaonism was a late development shaped primarily by Orientalism, and doubt its validity. Religious freedom in Egypt is hampered to varying degrees by discriminatory, Coptic Christians, being the largest religious minority in Egypt, are also negatively affected. Copts have faced increasing marginalization after the 1952 coup détat led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, until recently, Christians were required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches. Although the law was eased in 2005 by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles and these restrictions do not apply for building mosques. The Coptic community has been targeted by hate crimes resulting in Copts being victims of murder by Islamic extremists, the most significant was the 2000–01 El Kosheh attacks, in which Muslims and Christians were involved in bloody inter-religious clashes following a dispute between a Muslim and a Christian. Twenty Christians and one Muslim were killed after violence broke out in the town of el-Kosheh,440 kilometres south of Cairo, in 2006, one person attacked three churches in Alexandria, killing one person and injuring 5–16. The attacker was not linked to any organisation and described as psychologically disturbed by the Ministry of Interior, in May 2010, The Wall Street Journal reported increasing waves of mob attacks by Muslims against ethnic Copts. Despite frantic calls for help, the police arrived after the violence was over. The police also coerced the Copts to accept reconciliation with their attackers to avoid prosecuting them, Boutros Boutros-Ghali is a Copt who served as Egypts foreign minister under President Anwar SadatCopts in Egypt – President Nasser welcomes a delegation of Coptic bishops (1965)
44. Afghan National Army – The Afghan National Army is the main branch of the Afghan Armed Forces, responsible for ground warfare. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is trained by NATO forces, primarily the United States. The ANA is divided into six regional Corps, with the 201st in Kabul followed by the 203rd in Gardez, 205th in Kandahar, 207th in Herat, 209th in Mazar-i-Sharif, the current Chief of Staff of the ANA is General Qadam Shah Shahim. Afghanistans army traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by Ahmad Shah Durranis rise to power and it was reorganized in 1880 during Emir Abdur Rahman Khans reign. Afghanistan remained neutral during the First and Second World Wars, from the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan army was equipped by the Soviet Union. After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullahs government in 1992, the army fragmented into militias under various regional warlords, after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001, NATO nations revived the Afghan army. In 2010, there were more than 4,000 United States Armed Forces trainers, by 2014, most of Afghanistan became under government control with ISAF playing a training and supporting role. The majority of training of the ANA is to be undertaken in the newly established Afghan National Security University, NATO expanded the Afghan armed forces to 183,000 active personnel by 2016. Historically, Afghans have served in the army of the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughals. The current Afghan army traces its origin to the early 18th century when the Hotaki dynasty rose to power in Kandahar and defeated the Persian Safavid Empire at the Battle of Gulnabad in 1722. When Ahmad Shah Durrani formed the Durrani Empire in 1747, the Afghan army fought a number of battles in the Punjab region of India during the 18th to the 19th century. One of the battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat in which the Afghan army decisively defeated the Hindu Maratha Empire. The Afghans then fought with the Sikh Empire, until finally, in 1842, The British unsuccessfully tried to conquer Afghanistan, resulting in the massacre of Elphinstones army. In 1880 Amir Abdur Rahman Khan established a newly equipped Afghan Army with help from the British, the Library of Congress Country Study for Afghanistan states, When came to the throne, the army was virtually nonexistent. Further improvements to the army were made by King Amanullah Khan in the early 20th century just before the Third Anglo-Afghan War, King Amanullah fought against the British in 1919, resulting in Afghanistan becoming fully independent after the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. The Afghan Army was expanded during King Zahir Shahs reign, starting in 1933, periodic border clashes with Pakistan seem to have taken place between 1950 and 1961. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan Army received training, in February - March 1957, the first group of Soviet military specialists was sent to Kabul to train Afghan officers and non-commissioned officers. At the time, there seems to have been significant Turkish influence in the Afghan armed forces, in the early 1970s, Soviet military assistance was increasedAfghan National Army – Soldiers of the Afghan National Army, including Commandos standing in the front
45. Shah Wali Kot District – Shah Wali Kot District is situated in the northern part of Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. It borders Khakrez District to the west, Naish District and Oruzgan Province to the north, Zabul Province to the east and Daman, the district center is located in the most southern part of the district. The district has been known as a stronghold of the Taliban forces, on October 6,2008, at least 40 civilians attending a wedding were killed in a coalition airstrike. In June 2010 Afghan, Australian and United States forces conducted an offensive in the district, on August 16,2012, the crash of an US Black Hawk occurred within the region, later claimed as an attack by Taliban forcesShah Wali Kot District – Map of Kandahar districts
46. Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad – Prince Zeid bin Ra’ad Zeid al-Hussein is the current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, having taken up this post in September 2014. He also served as a political officer in UNPROFOR, in the former Yugoslavia. He served as Jordans Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2000 until 2007 and he was re-appointed Permanent Representative in 2010 and served until 2014, resigning shortly before his selection as High Commissioner. He is the son of Prince Raad bin Zeid, Lord Chamberlain of Jordan and he is the apparent first in line to the throne of the Kingdom of Iraq according to the mainstream claim, with the title of Crown Prince. Zeid was born in Amman, Jordan and he was educated at Reeds School, Surrey, in England, then at Johns Hopkins University in the United States, where he was a prominent member of the universitys rugby club and graduated B. A. in 1987. He was then a student at Christs College, Cambridge. In 1989 Prince Zeid received his commission as an officer in the Jordanian desert police and he then spent two years as a political officer in UNPROFOR, the UN force in the Former Yugoslavia. Zeid served as Jordans Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1996 to 2000, in August 2000 he was appointed Permanent Representative at the United Nations, serving until 2007. In 2006 he was nominated by Jordan as a candidate for selection as the next United Nations Secretary-General, from 2007 to 2010 he was Jordans Ambassador to the United States of America, then in 2010 returned to the UN as Jordans Permanent Representative. From 16 September 2010 to 7 March 2012, Zeid was the Chairman of the Country-Specific Configuration of the UN Peace Building Commission for Liberia and he also chaired the search committee for the selection of the second prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in 2011. With reference to the International Criminal Court, and from 1996 to 2010, he was, Chairman of the informal negotiations on the elements of the individual offenses falling under the crimes of, Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, and War Crimes. Chairman of the Working Group on the Crime of Aggression at the Review Conference of the Rome Statute in Kampala, during his two-year tenure, he issued a ground-breaking report on eliminating such abuse from all peacekeeping operations, which became known as the Zeid Report. Zeid delivered the Grotius Lecture at the 102nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law in April 2008 entitled, For Love of Country, Prince Zeid was a member of the Advisory Committee to the Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation. He was also a member of the World Banks Advisory Council for the World Development Report 2011, on June 6,2014, U. N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proposed that Prince Zeid replace Navi Pillay as the United Nations human rights chief based in Geneva. The nomination, which was approved by the 193-nation U. N. General Assembly. Full texts of all his statements are available at the website of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. He called on the community to combat the spread of the movement in Iraq and Syria, asking. The massacres, beheadings, rape and torture reveal only what a Takfiri state would look like, should this movement actually try to govern in the future, he saidPrince Zeid bin Ra'ad – Prince Zeid
47. Constitution of Australia – The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia. The most important is the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 became law on 9 July 1900, and entered into force on 1 January 1901. Other pieces of legislation have constitutional significance for Australia, even though the same person, Queen Elizabeth II, is the monarch of both countries, she acts in a distinct capacity as monarch of each. Under Australias common law system, the High Court of Australia and their decisions determine the interpretation and application of the constitution. However, the Constitution has continued to develop since then, with two laws having particularly significant impact on the status of the nation. However, impetus came from Britain and there was only lacklustre local support. These difficulties led to the failure of attempts to bring about federation in the 1850s and 1860s. The Federal Council could legislate on certain subjects, but did not have a permanent secretariat, the absence of New South Wales, the largest colony, also diminished its representative value. By the 1891 conference, significant momentum had been built for the federalist cause, under the guidance of Sir Samuel Griffith, a draft constitution was drawn up. However, these meetings lacked popular support, furthermore, the draft constitution sidestepped certain important issues, such as tariff policy. The draft of 1891 was submitted to colonial parliaments but lapsed in New South Wales, in 1895, the six premiers of the Australian colonies agreed to establish a new Convention by popular vote. The Convention met over the course of a year from 1897 to 1898, the meetings produced a new draft which contained substantially the same principles of government as the 1891 draft, but with added provisions for responsible government. To ensure popular support, the draft was presented to the electors of each colony, after one failed attempt, an amended draft was submitted to the electors of each colony except Western Australia. After ratification by the five colonies, the Bill was presented to the British Imperial Parliament with an Address requesting Queen Victoria to enact the Bill, finally, the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1900. Western Australia finally agreed to join the Commonwealth in time for it to be an member of the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1988, the copy of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 from the Public Record Office in London was lent to Australia for the purposes of the Australian Bicentenary. As a result, since Australia was still legally a colony and this was resolved by the Statute of Westminster 1931, adopted by the Commonwealth via the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942. The Statute of Westminster freed the Dominions, including the Commonwealth, legally, this is often regarded as the moment of Australias national independenceConstitution of Australia – Australia
48. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
49. Bucharest – Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River, Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture and its architecture is a mix of historical, interbellum, communist-era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the citys elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of Little Paris. Although buildings and districts in the city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic, in 2016, the historical city centre was listed as endangered by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census,1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, the urban area extends beyond the limits of Bucharest proper and has a population of about 1.9 million people. Adding the satellite towns around the area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has an urban zone of 2,183,091 residents. According to unofficial data, the population is more than 3 million, Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the industrial centres. The city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional shopping arcades, the Romanian name București has an uncertain origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, who was a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, in Romanian, the word stem bucurie means joy, and it is believed to be of Dacian origin. Other etymologies are given by scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveler, Evliya Çelebi. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a Bucharester, Bucharests history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the Citadel of București in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler, the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century. A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest, the Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the residence of the royal courtBucharest – Clockwise, from top: Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) • Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Român) • Palace of Justice (Palatul Justiției) • Grozăvești Bridge (Podul Grozăvești) • Victory Avenue (Calea Victoriei)
50. Citizenship of the United States – Citizenship in the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education, in Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization is granted explicitly to Congress. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U. S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, a U. S. citizen retains U. S. citizenship when becoming the citizen of another country, should that countrys laws allow it. Citizenship can be renounced by American citizens who hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U. S. Embassy. United States citizens have the right to reside and work in the United States, certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights, however, non-citizens, unlike citizens, may have the right taken away. For example, they may be deported if convicted of a serious crime, freedom to enter and leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to enter and leave the United States freely, certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. Unlike permanent residents, U. S. citizens do not have an obligation to maintain residence in the U. S. – they can leave for any length of time, voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only. States are not required to extend the franchise to all citizens, for example, several states bar citizen felons from voting, even after they have completed any custodial sentence. The United States Constitution bars states from restricting citizens from voting on grounds of race, color, previous condition of servitude, sex, failure to pay any tax, or age. Historically, many states and local jurisdictions have allowed non-citizens to vote, however, citizens are not compelled to vote. Freedom to stand for public office, most states have similar requirements, for example California requires that legislators have been citizens for three years, and the Governor have been a citizen for five years, upon taking office. Constitution requires that one be a natural born Citizen and a U. S. resident for fourteen years in order to be President of the United States, the Constitution also stipulates that otherwise eligible citizens must meet certain age requirements for these offices. Jury duty is imposed upon citizens. Johns Hopkins University political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg writes, The professional military has limited the need for citizen soldiers, in the United States today, everyone except those whose income is derived from tax-exempt revenue is required to file a federal income tax return. American citizens are subject to income tax on worldwide income regardless of their country of residence. Consular protection outside the United States, while traveling abroad, if a person is arrested or detained by foreign authorities, the person can request to speak to somebody from the U. S. Embassy or Consulate. Consular officials can provide resources for Americans incarcerated abroad, such as a list of attorneys who speak EnglishCitizenship of the United States – United States citizenship confers the right to acquire a U.S. passport. The one shown above is a post-2007 issued passport.
51. Portland, Oregon – Portland is a port and the largest city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette, the city covers 145 square miles and had an estimated population of 632,309 in 2015, making it the 26th most populous city in the United States. Approximately 2,389,228 people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area and its Combined Statistical Area ranks 17th with a population of 3,022,178. Roughly 60% of Oregons population resides within the Portland metropolitan area, named after Portland, Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the industry was a major force in the citys early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous cities in the world. After the citys economy experienced a boom during World War II. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its liberal political values, and the city has earned a reputation as a bastion of counterculture. According to a 2009 Pew Research Center study, Portland ranks as the eighth most popular American city, the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its planning and investment in public transportation. Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool and this climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the City of Roses for over a century. Keep Portland Weird is a slogan for the city. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula and these massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. The Chinook people occupying the land which would become Portland were first documented by Meriwether Lewis, before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail. In the early 1840s a new settlement began emerging ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River and this community was initially referred to as Stumptown and The Clearing because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file a land claim. For 25 cents Overton agreed to half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of BostonPortland, Oregon – Clockwise: View of Portland with Mount St. Helens in background; downtown cityscape; Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall; Pioneer Courthouse; Mt. Tabor Reservoir; Skyline Memorial Gardens
52. Hijab – A hijab is a veil traditionally worn by Muslim women in the presence of adult males outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest. The term can refer to any head, face, or body covering worn by Muslim women that conforms to a certain standard of modesty. Most often, it is worn by Muslim women as a symbol of modesty, according to the Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, modesty in the Quran concerns both mens and womens gaze, gait, garments, and genitalia. The Quran instructs Muslim women to dress modestly, some Islamic legal systems define this type of modest clothing as covering everything except the face, hands up to wrists, and feet. These guidelines are found in texts of hadith and fiqh developed after the revelation of the Quran but, some believe that the Quran itself does not mandate that women wear hijab. In the Quran, the term refers to a partition or curtain in the literal or metaphorical sense. The verse where it is used literally is commonly understood to refer to the curtain separating visitors to Muhammads house from his wives lodgings and this had led some to argue that the mandate of the Quran to wear hijab applied to the wives of Muhammad, and not women generally. In recent times, wearing hijab in public has been required by law in Iran, Saudi Arabia, other countries have passed laws banning some or all types of hijab in public or in certain types of locales. Women in different parts of the world have also experienced unofficial pressure to wear or not wear hijab in general, or in its certain forms, including physical attacks. The Quran instructs both Muslim men and women to dress in a modest way, but there is disagreement on how these instructions should be interpreted, the verses relating to dress use the terms khimār and jilbāb rather than ḥijāb. The clearest verse on the requirement of modest dress is surah 24, 30–31, the word ḥijāb in the Quran refers not to womens clothing, but rather a spatial partition or curtain. The Arabic word jilbab is translated as cloak in the following passage, ubay ibn Kab used to ask me about it. Allahs Apostle became the bridegroom of Zaynab bint Jahsh whom he married at Medina, after the sun had risen high in the sky, the Prophet invited the people to a meal. Allahs Apostle remained sitting and some people remained sitting with him after the guests had left. Then Allahs Apostle got up and went away, and I too, then he thought that the people must have left the place by then, so he returned and I also returned with him. Behold, the people were sitting at their places. So he went back again for the time, and I went along with him too. When we reached the door of Aishas room, he returned, thereupon the Prophet hung a curtain between me and him and the Verse regarding the order for Hijab was revealedHijab – Women wearing hijab
53. Zbigniew Brzezinski – Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski is a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist. He served as a counselor to President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1968 and was President Jimmy Carters National Security Advisor from 1977 to 1981. Brzezinski belongs to the realist school of international relations, standing in the tradition of Halford Mackinder. Control of the Panama Canal after 1999, in recent years, he has been a supporter of the Prague Process. His son, Mark Brzezinski, was the United States Ambassador to Sweden from 2011 to 2015, Zbigniew Brzezinski was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1928. His family, members of the nobility, bore the Trąby coat of arms, the town of Brzeżany is thought to be the source of the family name. From 1936 to 1938, Tadeusz Brzeziński was posted to the Soviet Union during Joseph Stalins Great Purge, in 1938, Tadeusz Brzeziński was posted to Canada. In 1939, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was agreed to by Nazi Germany, the 1945 Yalta Conference between the Allies allotted Poland to the Soviet sphere of influence. Some sources suggest this meant Brzezinskis family could not safely return to their country, after attending Loyola High School in Montreal Brzezinski entered McGill University in 1945 to obtain both his Bachelor and Master of Arts degrees. His Masters thesis focused on the various nationalities within the Soviet Union and he received his doctorate in 1953, the same year, he traveled to Munich and met Jan Nowak-Jezioranski, head of the Polish desk of Radio Free Europe. He later collaborated with Carl J. Friedrich to develop the concept of totalitarianism as a way to accurately and powerfully characterize and criticize the Soviets in 1956. As a Harvard professor, he argued against Dwight Eisenhowers and John Foster Dulless policy of rollback, the Polish protests followed by Polish October and Hungarian Revolution in 1956 lent some support to Brzezinskis idea that the Eastern Europeans could gradually counter Soviet domination. In 1957, he visited Poland for the first time since he left as a child and he developed his ideas he called peaceful engagement. In 1958 he became a United States citizen, despite his decades of residence in Canada and the presence of family members there, he never became a Canadian citizen. When in 1959 Brzezinski was not granted tenure at Harvard, he moved to New York City to teach at Columbia University, here he wrote Soviet Bloc, Unity and Conflict, which focused on Eastern Europe since the beginning of the Cold War. He also taught future Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who, like his wife, is of Czech descent, and he also became a member of the Council on Foreign Relations in New York and joined the Bilderberg Group. During the 1960 U. S. presidential elections, Brzezinski was an advisor to the John F. Kennedy campaign, urging a non-antagonistic policy toward Eastern European governments. Seeing the Soviet Union as having entered a period of stagnation, through Jan Nowak-Jezioranski, Brzezinski met with Adam Michnik, future Polish Solidarity activistZbigniew Brzezinski – Zbigniew Brzezinski
54. Lyndon B. Johnson – A Democrat from Texas, he previously served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and then as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two more as Senate Majority Whip, Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate and they went on to win a close election over Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20,1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22,1963 and he successfully ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican opponent Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. He is one of four people who have served as President, Vice President, Senator. Johnson was renowned for his personality and the Johnson treatment. Assisted in part by an economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration. With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968, American casualties soared and the peace process bogged down. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry antiwar movement based especially on university campuses in the U. S. and abroad. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots broke out in most major cities after 1965, while he began his presidency with widespread approval, support for Johnson declined as the public became upset with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as antiwar elements denounced Johnson, Republican Richard Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, historians argue that Johnsons presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27,1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a farmhouse on the Pedernales River. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, and three sisters, Rebekah, Josefa, and Lucia, the nearby small town of Johnson City, Texas, was named after LBJs cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Johnson had English, German, and Ulster Scots ancestry and he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and LouisianaLyndon B. Johnson – Johnson in 1964
55. Jimmy Carter – James Earl Jimmy Carter Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. In 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center, Carter was a Democrat who was raised in rural Georgia. He was a farmer who served two terms as a Georgia State Senator from 1963 to 1967, and one as the Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. He was elected President in 1976, defeating incumbent President Gerald Ford in a close election. On his second day in office, Carter pardoned all evaders of the Vietnam War drafts, during Carters term as President, two new cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department of Education, were established. He established an energy policy that included conservation, price control. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. On the economic front he confronted persistent stagflation, a combination of inflation, high unemployment. The end of his tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. In response to the Soviet move he ended détente, escalated the Cold War, Carter won the 1980 primary with 51. 13% of the vote but lost the general election in an electoral landslide to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan, who won 44 of 50 states. His presidency has drawn medium-low responses from historians, with many considering him to have accomplished more with his post-presidency work and he set up the Carter Center in 1982 as his base for advancing human rights. He has also traveled extensively to conduct negotiations, observe elections. Additionally, Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project, since surpassing Herbert Hoover in September 2012, he has been the longest-retired president in American history. He is also the first president to mark the 40th anniversary of his election and inauguration, in reference to current political views, he has criticized some of Israels actions and policies in regards to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and has advocated for a two-state solution. James Earl Carter, Jr. was born on October 1,1924, at the Wise Sanitarium in Plains and he is a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in Virginia in 1635. Numerous generations of Carters lived as farmers in Georgia. Carter is also a descendant of Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Cornell Universitys founder and of Richard Nixon, Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carters birth. His father, James Earl Carter, Sr. was a local businessman who ran a general store and had begun to invest in farmlandJimmy Carter – Jimmy Carter
56. Lucas Papademos – Lucas Demetrios Papademos is a Greek economist who was the Prime Minister of Greece from November 2011 to May 2012, leading a provisional government in the wake of the Greek debt crisis. He was previously the Governor of the Bank of Greece from 1994 to 2002 and he was a Visiting Professor of Public Policy at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and is a Senior Fellow at the Center for Financial Studies at the University of Frankfurt. Papademos was born in Athens to parents who came from the town of Desfina in Phocis, in 1975, he worked with Franco Modigliani on the NAIRU concept. He engaged in a career in academia, teaching economics at Columbia University from 1975 until 1984 and his work as an economist began in 1980, when he was appointed Senior Economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. He joined the Bank of Greece in 1985 as its Chief Economist, rising to the rank of Deputy Governor in 1993, during his time as Governor of the central bank, Papademos was involved in Greeces transition from the drachma to the euro as its national currency. After leaving the Bank of Greece in 2002, Papademos became the Vice President to Wim Duisenberg, in 2010 he served as an economic advisor to Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou. He was previously a member of the non-governmental group Trilateral Commission and he is a member of the Academy of Athens. He has also delivered addresses on the Greek debt crisis, lucas Papademos set two conditions upon which he would accept the offer of being Prime Minister of this provisional government. Both of these were vetoed by New Democracy, but after several days of negotiations they relented and accepted Papademos demands. This enabled Papademos to form a government made up of PASOK and New Democracy, the other two parliamentary parties, the Communist Party and the Coalition of the Radical Left, had refused Papandreous invitation to participate in the government. The provisional government also marks the first time that the far-right has played a part in any Greek government since the fall of the junta in 1974. Papademos also stated that his priority as Prime Minister would be to try to keep Greece within the Eurozone. In January 2012, Papademos warned that workers would have to accept cuts in their income in order for a default to be avoided. In late April 2012, Papademos announced that he would ask President Karolos Papoulias to dissolve the Hellenic Parliament, Papademos had intended to stand down shortly after this election, but it resulted in a hung parliament. Subsequently New Democracy, PASOK, and the anti-austerity SYRIZA - which had jumped into second place - attempted to form a government, emergency negotiations to attempt to avoid a return to the polls took place on 13 May, but were inconclusive. Negotiations in the aftermath of the election were unable to produce a government leading to a general election. As of 2011, Papademos has been married to Shanna Ingram for more than 30 years, of Dutch descent, as of 2012 she was the President of the charity group Association of Friends of Children with Cancer. Curriculum vitae at the ECB website BBC Profile Articles at BloombergLucas Papademos – Lucas Papademos Λουκάς Παπαδήμος
57. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, culture, education and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the later on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom, Athena, and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines, Satine, and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat commonAthens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
58. Mosul – Mosul is a major city in northern Iraq. Since October 2016 it has been the site of an operation led by the Iraqi Government, under Haider al-Abadi, in an effort to dislodge. The city has been under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since June 2014, and no westerner has entered the city until the latest initiative. The Battle of Mosul, an offensive to retake the city begun in October 2016, is the largest deployment of Iraqi forces since the 2003 invasion by U. S. Located some 400 km north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the Left Bank and the Right Bank, as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the direction of Tigris. Mosuls population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500, an estimated half million people fled Mosul in the second half of 2014 when the IS fought with government forces for control of the city. On November 17,2014, ISIS attacked the city of Mosul, ultimately killing seven civilians, while some residents returned, more fled in 2015 as fighting and violence increased, and US bombings pounded the city. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil, the city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. The University has since been closed, the Islamic States leadership in Mosul has kept the Medical College open but it is reported to be barely functional. The name of the city is first mentioned by Xenophon in his expeditionary logs in Achaemenid Assyria of 401 BC, there, he notes a small Assyrian town of Mépsila on the Tigris somewhere about where modern Mosul is today. Be that as it may, the name Mepsila is doubtless the root for the modern name, in its current Arabic form and spelling, the term Mosul, or rather Mawsil, stands for the linking point – or loosely, the Junction City, in Arabic. Mosul should not be confused with the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh and this area is known today as the town of Nebi Yunus and is now populated largely by Kurds. It is the only neighborhood in Mosul. The site contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he lived and died in the capital of ancient Assyria. Today, this area has been absorbed into the Mosul metropolitan area. The indigenous Assyrians still refer to the city of Mosul as Nineveh. The ancient Nineveh was succeeded by Mepsila after the fall of Assyria between 612-599 BC at the hands of a coalition of Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Cimmerians and Sagartians, the Assyrians largely abandoned the city, building new smaller settlements such as Mepsila nearbyMosul – Tigris River and bridge in Mosul
59. Law enforcement in the United Kingdom – Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in each of the legal systems of the United Kingdom, England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. Most law enforcement is carried out by police serving in regional police services within one of these jurisdictions. Police officers are granted powers to enable them to execute their duties. Their primary duties are the protection of life and property, preservation of the peace, in the British model of policing, officers exercise their powers to police with the implicit consent of the public. Policing by consent is the used to describe this. In England and Wales, the vast majority of attested constables enjoy full powers of arrest and search as granted by the Police, all police officers are constables in law, irrespective of rank. Although police officers have wide ranging powers, they are subject to the same laws as members of the public. However, there are additional legal restrictions on police officers such as the illegality of taking industrial action. There are 45 territorial police services as of 2013 that cover an area and have an independent police authority or local authority or joint police board. Some territorial police services host specialist bodies that operate in more than one area of the United Kingdom, National law enforcement bodies, including the National Crime Agency and British Transport Police. The Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 refers to these as special police forces, the National Crime Agency operates across the United Kingdom against organised crime and acts as the UK point of contact for foreign agencies. There are also non-police law enforcement agencies whose officers, while not police constables, miscellaneous police services, mostly having their foundations in older legislation or common law. Until the passing of Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003, the British Transport Police was such a force, the list of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom details the various services. Territorial police constables have certain powers of arrest in one of the UKs three legal jurisdictions than they were attested in. Detention under these powers, which in Scotland normally lasts for twelve hours, a constable from one legal jurisdiction has, in the other jurisdictions, the same powers of arrest as a constable of that jurisdiction would have. When a constable arrests a person in England & Wales, the constable is subject to the requirements of section 28, section 30, when a constable arrests a person in Northern Ireland, the constable is subject to the requirements of Article 30, Article 32 and Article 34. Referred to as aid, constables loaned from one force to another have the powers. Constables from the Metropolitan Police who are on protection duties in Scotland or Northern Ireland have all the powers, a constable who is taking a person to or from a prison retains all the powers, authority, protection and privileges of his office regardless of his locationLaw enforcement in the United Kingdom – Mounted officer of the Metropolitan Police at Buckingham Palace, London
60. The New York Times – The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B. Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
61. Prime Minister – A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss members of the cabinet. In most systems, the minister is the presiding member. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the minister is the presiding and actual head of government. In such systems, the head of state or the head of states official representative usually holds a ceremonial position. The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown. The first actual usage of the prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in 1625 he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers, the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century, the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII, William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I, Clarendon under Charles II and these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as the minister, the chief minister, the first minister and finally the prime minister. The power of ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the skills of holding high office. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse, Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful, late in Annes reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power. The monarch could no longer any law or impose any tax without its permission. It is at point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714, George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English governmentPrime Minister – The prime ministers of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.
62. South China Sea – The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres. The areas importance largely results from one-third of the worlds shipping sailing through its waters, the sea and its mostly uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are reflected in the variety of names used for the islands. South China Sea is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and this name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea, the International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as South China Sea. The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period also referred to the sea, Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature. There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions, during the Eastern Han dynasty, Chinas rulers called the Sea Zhang Hai. Fei Hai became popular during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai, became gradually widespread during the Qing Dynasty. In Southeast Asia it was called the Champa Sea or Sea of Cham. The majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941. Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai South China Sea and this was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the South Sea, 南海 Nánhǎi, in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, it was long called the South China Sea, with the part within Philippine territorial waters often called the Luzon Sea, Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines. However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute in 2011, a PAGASA spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines will continue to be called the Philippine Sea. In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed Administrative Order No, states and territories with borders on the sea include, the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore, and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China Sea include the Pearl, Min, Jiulong, Red, Mekong, Rajang, Pahang, Pampanga, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the South China Sea as follows, On the South. From Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa to Kiushan Tao on to the South point of Haitan Tao, the Mainland, the Southern limit of the Gulf of Thailand and the East coast of the Malay Peninsula. The sea lies above a drowned continental shelf, during recent ice ages global sea level was hundreds of metres lower, the South China Sea opened around 45 million years ago when the Dangerous Ground rifted away from southern China. Extension culminated in seafloor spreading around 30 million years ago, a process that propagated to the SW resulting in the V-shaped basin we see today, extension ceased around 17 million years agoSouth China Sea – The northeastern portion of the South China Sea
63. Montana – Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ is a state in the Western region of the United States. The states name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including Big Sky Country and The Treasure State, and slogans that include Land of the Shining Mountains and more recently The Last Best Place. Montana has a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It also borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total,77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas, coal and hard rock mining, lumber, the health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the states economy. Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning mountain, or more broadly, mountainous country. Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the mountainous region of the west. The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, also of Ohio, objected to the name, Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, with an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is slightly larger than Japan. It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California, the largest landlocked U. S. state, and the worlds 56th largest national state/province subdivision. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, the states topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montanas 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the western half. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the states south-central part are part of the Central Rocky MountainsMontana – Map of Montana
64. Professional wrestling throws – Professional wrestling throws are the application of professional wrestling techniques that involve lifting the opponent up and throwing or slamming them down. They are sometimes called power maneuvers, as they are meant to emphasize a wrestlers strength. Many of these moves are used as finishers by many wrestlers, many maneuvers are known by several different names. Professional wrestlers frequently give their new names that reflect their gimmick. Moves are listed under general categories whenever possible, an armbreaker is any move in which the wrestler slams the opponents arm against a part of the wrestlers body, usually a knee or shoulder. The wrestler stands beside their opponent to either side, crosses their arm against the opponents opposite hand in front of it. From this point, the wrestler places their leg in front of the opponents opposite leg, a wrestler dives from the ropes and lands on the opponents arm. The wrestler grabs one of the arms, jumps and connects both their knees against the opponents stretched arm. As the wrestler falls onto their back they forces the opponents arm down into both knees, thus damaging it, a move in which the wrestler uses their opponents momentum to the opponents disadvantage. The wrestler hooks the opponents arm and flips them over on to the mat, the wrestler may roll on to their side to give the move extra momentum. This move is performed when an opponent runs towards the wrestler facing them, despite its name, it actually comes from Mexican lucha libre, not Japanese puroresu. The wrestler grabs their opponents arm, then turns to face the other direction and it is essentially the same as the ippon seoi nage found in judo. An arm drag sees the wrestler being spun in front of the opponents body in a tilt-a-whirl. This arm drag sees the wrestler being held in a hold by the opponent. A move in which the wrestler goes behind an opponent, then puts their head under the opponents shoulder and they then lift their opponent up, and drops them tailbone-first on the wrestlers knee. Even though this move is a low blow, it is considered a legal move because the groin is not being targeted. Better known as a full nelson bomb, this sees the wrestling apply a full nelson hold to the opponent from behind. The wrestler then lifts the opponent into the air and falls into a seated position and it is applied frequently against a charging opponentProfessional wrestling throws – Jay Lethal performs a standard backbreaker.
65. Jared Kushner – Jared Corey Kushner is an American real estate investor and developer, publisher, and senior advisor to his father-in-law, President Donald Trump. Together with Chief of Staff Reince Priebus and Chief Strategist Steve Bannon, Kushner is said to be President Trumps most trusted advisor, showing unwavering loyalty to his father-in-law. He was principal owner of the estate holding and development company Kushner Companies and of Observer Media, publisher of the weekly. On January 9,2017, Kushner was named to be a Senior White House Adviser to his father-in-law, as a result, Kushner resigned as CEO of his familys real estate company and as publisher of the Observer. Kushner is the son of American real estate developer Charles Kushner and is married to Donald Trumps daughter Ivanka Trump. He was among the advisors of Trumps presidential campaign. Peter Thiel said If Trump was the CEO, Jared was effectively the operating officer. ”Kushner played the largest role in developing and running Trumps digital media strategy. In 2007, Kushner made the most expensive single-building property purchase in U. S. history, in 2011, Kushner brought in Vornado Realty Trust as a 50% equity partner in the ownership of the building. Kushner was born in Livingston, New Jersey, and is the son of Seryl Kushner. His paternal grandparents, Rae and Joseph Kushner, were Holocaust survivors who came to the U. S. from Poland in 1949 and his grandmother Rae Kushner was born in Novogrudek, in what is now Belarus. The Nazis killed her mother and a sister and her brother was killed in the escape. The remaining family made it to the Bielski camp, where they hid in the forest until the Soviets arrived and he has a brother, Joshua, and two sisters, Nicole and Dara. He is also a nephew of Murray Kushner, the owner of Kushner Real Estate Group, Kushner Real Estate Group is separate from Kushner Companies, which Murray Kushner started in 2000. Kushner was raised in a Modern Orthodox Jewish family in New Jersey and he graduated from the Frisch School, a private, coed yeshiva high school, in 1999. According to a spokeswoman for Kushner Companies, he was a student and a member of the debate, hockey. In 2003, Kushner graduated cum laude from Harvard College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in government, while a student at Harvard, Kushner was a member of the Fly Club and bought and sold buildings in Somerville, Massachusetts, earning a $20 million profit. In 2007, Kushner graduated from New York University where he earned a J. D. and he interned at Manhattan District Attorney Robert Morgenthaus office and Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP. Kushner is a real estate investor, and has increased the Kushner Companies presence in the New York City real estate market as a principal in his familys real estate companyJared Kushner – Jared Kushner, October 6, 2008
66. Federal Bureau of Investigation – The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nations prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Department of Justice, Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, although many of the FBIs functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint and these overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation and its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, in the fiscal year 2012, the Bureaus total budget was approximately $8.12 billion. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, the Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the breakage of the Oregon land fraud scandal at approximately the turn of the 20th Century, President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, on May 27,1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelts urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26,1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including veterans of the Secret Service. Its first Chief was Stanley Finch, Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. The bureaus first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the White Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act, in 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition, in the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenureFederal Bureau of Investigation – J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972.
67. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, and conducts research to improve understanding and stewardship of the environment. In addition to its employees, over 11,000 as of 2015, NOAA research. NOAA plays several roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the U. S. economy and into the larger global community. NOAA supplies information to its customers and partners pertaining to the state of the oceans and this is clearly manifest in the production of weather warnings and forecasts through the National Weather Service, but NOAAs information products extend to climate, ecosystems, and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services, NOAA is also the steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research, the five fundamental activities are, Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data, assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time. Engaging, advising, and informing the public and partner organizations with important information, managing resources for the betterment of society, economy and environment. NOAA formed a conglomeration of several existing agencies that were among the oldest in the federal government, NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No.4 of 1970. In 2007 NOAA celebrated 200 years of service with its ties to the United States Coast, the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps is a uniformed service of men and women who operate NOAA ships and aircraft, and serve in scientific and administrative posts. And in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library and this is done through a collection of national and regional centers,13 river forecast centers, and more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories, watches and they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, and more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming. The NWS operates NEXRAD, a network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements, watches. The National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe, healthy, in 1960 TIROS-1, NOAAs first owned and operated geostationary satellite was launched. Since 1966 NESDIS has managed polar orbiting satellites and since 1974 it has operated geosynchronous satellites, in 1979 NOAAs first polar-orbiting environmental satellite was launchedNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Two NOAA WP-3D Orions
68. SpaceX CRS-7 – SpaceX CRS-7, also known as SpX-7, was a private American rocket cargo resupply mission to the International Space Station, contracted to NASA, which launched and failed on June 28,2015. It disintegrated 139 seconds into the flight after launch from Cape Canaveral and it was the ninth flight for SpaceXs uncrewed Dragon cargo spacecraft and the seventh SpaceX operational mission contracted to NASA under a Commercial Resupply Services contract. The vehicle launched on a Falcon 9 v1.1 launch vehicle and it was the nineteenth overall flight for the Falcon 9 and the fourteenth flight for the substantially upgraded Falcon 9 v1.1. In January 2015, the launch was scheduled by NASA for no earlier than June 13,2015. This was adjusted to June 22,2015, then moved forward to June 19,2015, subsequently, the launch had been rescheduled to June 28,2015 at 14,21,11 UTC, from Cape Canaveral LC-40. The launch was scheduled to be the third controlled-descent and landing test for the Falcon 9s first stage. It would have attempted to land on a new autonomous drone ship named Of Course I Still Love You – named after a ship in the novel The Player of Games by Iain M. Banks. The spacecraft was planned to stay in orbit for five weeks before returning to Earth with approximately 1,400 pounds of supplies and waste. Performance was nominal until 139 seconds into launch when a cloud of vapor appeared, followed by a rapid loss of pressure in the liquid oxygen tank of the Falcon 9s second stage. The booster continued on its trajectory until the vehicle completely broke up several seconds later, the Dragon CRS-7 capsule was ejected from the exploding launch vehicle and continued transmitting data until it impacted with the ocean. SpaceX officials stated that it could have been recovered if the parachutes had deployed and it is assumed that the capsule crumpled and broke up on impact. Subsequent investigation traced the accident to the failure of a strut which secured a helium bottle inside the second stages liquid oxygen tank. With the helium pressurization system integrity breached, excess helium quickly flooded the liquid tank, causing it to overpressurize. NASA contracted for the CRS-7 mission from SpaceX and therefore determined the primary payload, date/time of launch, as of July 2013, the first International Docking Adapter, IDA-1, was scheduled to be delivered to the International Space Station on CRS-7. This adapter would have attached to one of the existing Pressurized Mating Adapters. The new adapter is intended to facilitate future docking of new U. S. human-transport spacecraft. A full listing of the cargo aboard the mission included the following items. CRS-7 would have brought a pair of modified Microsoft HoloLenses to the International Space Station as part of Project Sidekick, SpaceX calls the barge an autonomous spaceport drone ship, and this particular missions ASDS was named Of Course I Still Love YouSpaceX CRS-7 – Disintegration of the SpaceX CRS-7 launch vehicle approximately two minutes after liftoff as seen from a NASA tracking camera.
69. Falcon 9 – Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles, named for its use of nine first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX. The Falcon 9 versions are the Falcon 9 v1.0, Falcon 9 v1.1, and the current Falcon 9 Full Thrust, both stages are powered by rocket engines that burn liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene propellants. The first stage is designed to be reusable, while the stage is not. The Falcon 9 versions are in the medium-lift to heavy-lift range of launch systems, the current Falcon 9 can lift payloads of up to 22,800 kilograms to low Earth orbit, and up to 8,300 kilograms to geostationary transfer orbit. The first commercial mission to the ISS launched in October 2012. The initial version 1.0 design made five flights before it was retired in 2013, the version 1.1 design made a total of 15 flights beginning in 2013 before it was retired in January 2016. SpaceX has been flying an improved version with 30 percent higher performance —Falcon 9 Full Thrust—since December 2015 on the 20th Falcon 9 launch. This followed the 2013 upgrade which was 60 percent heavier —Falcon 9 v1. 1—that flew from September 2013 on the 6th Falcon 9 launch, Falcon 9 Full Thrust will be the base for the Falcon Heavy launch vehicle. Elon Musk announced that there will be an upgrade to the Falcon 9. This upgrade will increase the thrust on the engines to the maximum they can produce. There will also be some improvements to help recovery and reuse. This started with seed money from the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program in 2006, the contract was structured as a Space Act Agreement to develop and demonstrate commercial orbital transportation service including the purchase of three demonstration flights. The overall contract award was US$278 million to provide development funding for Dragon, Falcon 9, in 2011 additional milestones were added, bringing the total contract value to US$396 million. The space logistics delivery contract was worth US$1.6 billion for a minimum of 12 missions to carry supplies to, Musk has repeatedly said that, without the NASA money, development would have taken longer. SpaceX would like to extend a special thanks to the NASA COTS office for their continued support, the COTS program has demonstrated the power of a true private/public partnership and we look forward to the exciting endeavors our team will accomplish in the future. In 2011, SpaceX estimated that Falcon 9 v1.0 development costs were on the order of $300 million, NASA evaluated that development costs would have been $3.6 billion if a traditional cost-plus contract approach had been used. In 2014, SpaceX released total combined development costs for both the Falcon 9 and the Dragon capsule, NASA provided US$396 million while SpaceX provided over US$450 million to fund rocket and capsule development efforts. SpaceX originally intended to follow its light Falcon 1 launch vehicle with an intermediate capacity vehicle, in 2005, SpaceX announced it was instead proceeding with development of the Falcon 9, a fully reusable heavy lift launch vehicle, and had already secured a government customerFalcon 9 – A Falcon 9 v1.1 carrying a Dragon cargo spacecraft
70. Valparaiso Crusaders – The Valparaiso Crusaders is the name of the athletic teams from Valparaiso University, often referred to as Valpo, in Valparaiso, Indiana, United States. Other sports joined conferences in later years, VU plays its home football games, as well as mens and womens soccer games, at Brown Field, which has a seating capacity of 5,000 people and opened in 1919. Surrounding Brown Field is the Warren G. Hoger Track, home to the track, the basketball, swimming, and volleyball teams play at the adjacent Athletics-Recreation Center, which has a capacity of 5,000. The Crusaders baseball team plays at Emory G. Bauer Field, the tennis teams use the Valparaiso University Tennis Complex. The cross country teams compete at Sunset Hills Farm, after years of going without one, Valparaiso University pursued a mascot in 1931. The Uhlan was chosen over the Dunesmen and the Vandals, after debate in 1941 over choosing a mascot less proximate to the Nazi cause, the Crusader was chosen as the new mascot in 1942. The original illustrated mascot was penned by a Disney artist and patented in 1951, and used until 2010, owing to the Post-9/11 controversy over the “Crusaders” nickname, only Valpo and the College of the Holy Cross maintain Crusaders at the NCAA Division I level. The Valparaiso football program was started in 1919, as prior to this point the administration believed athletics were a distraction from academic pursuits, george Keogan, who also coached the mens basketball team, was the first coach. The first game was October 4 at Brown Field, a win over the Chicago YMCA team 26-0, the team had a 5-3 record that year. In 1943 and 1944, the Crusaders did not field a team due to World War II. The Crusaders resumed their football program in 1945 and that year, they joined their first conference, the Indiana Collegiate Conference, their home until 1976. The post-war years began a run of coaching stability. They hired Emory Bauer in 1946, Bauer would coach the team until 1967. Walt Reiner would also coach the team from 1957 until 1964, until 2006, only four other men would coach the Crusaders. This includes Stacy Adams who in 2005 became the universitys first African American head coach, in 1977, the Crusaders joined the Heartland Collegiate Conference. In 1990, the Crusaders moved to the Midwest Intercollegiate Football Conference, during their time in these conferences, they would lose more often than win. In 1993, the NCAA mandated that schools playing Division I basketball may only play football in Division I, the Crusaders along with five other schools formed the Pioneer Football League, where they remain today. Playing primarily against non-scholarship teams, the Crusaders reversed their fortunes and they won their first outright championship in 2003, when they won the PFL championship gameValparaiso Crusaders – Valparaiso Crusaders players in a huddle
71. Wichita State University – Wichita State University is a public research university in Wichita, Kansas, United States. It is the third-largest university governed by the Kansas Board of Regents, Wichita State University offers more than 60 undergraduate degree programs in more than 200 areas of study in six colleges. The Graduate School offers 44 masters degrees in more than 100 areas, Wichita State University also hosts classes at four satellite locations. WSU West is located in Maize and this 9-acre campus hosts 80–100 university classes each academic semester. WSU South began offering Wichita State University coursework at a new facility in Derby in January 2008, the WSU Downtown Center houses the universitys Center for Community Support & Research and the Department of Physical Therapy. A quarter-mile northeast of campus, the Advanced Education in General Dentistry building, built in 2011, houses classrooms and it is adjacent to the universitys 75, 000-square-foot Eugene M. Hughes Metropolitan Complex, where many of WSU noncredit courses are taught. Wichita State University began in 1886 as a private Congregational preparatory school, initially it was referred to as Young Ladies College, Wichita Ladies College, and Congregational Female College. It was part of a boom in college and university creation and was envisioned to admit women twelve years and older who were able to read, write, spell and recite the parts of speech. In early 1887, the leaders received a land from the developers of the adjacent Fairmount Neighborhood and in response. Envisioned to be the Vassar of the West, the streets of the neighborhoods were named after prominent womens colleges including Vassar. Support came mainly from the Plymouth Congregational Church to build it, in 1892, a corporation bought the property and named the preparatory school Fairmount Institute. It opened in September to men and women, with an emphasis on training in preaching or teaching and it closed because of financial difficulties. In 1895, on the site, Fairmount College opened collegiate classes for men and women with funding by the Congregational Education Society. Amid growing financial troubles, the colleges supporters tried to get the city of Wichita to buy it in 1925, a second referendum passed in 1926, and that fall it became the Municipal University of Wichita. It was the first municipal university west of the Mississippi, on July 1,1964, the school officially entered the state system of higher education as Wichita State University. WSU is one of three institutions in the state of Kansas, along with Kansas State University and the University of Kansas. The Main Campus is located at 1845 North Fairmount in northeast Wichita, is bounded between the streets of 17th St N, 21st St N, Hillside St, Oliver Ave. Research facilities include the National Institute for Aviation Research, biology research labs, the WSU Field Station, chemistry research labs, the campus includes the Edwin AWichita State University – Hubbard Hall
72. Wichita State Shockers – The Wichita State Shockers are the athletic teams at Wichita State University who compete in the NCAA Division I as members of the Missouri Valley Conference. The name reflects the universitys heritage, early students at what was then Fairmount College earned money by shocking, or harvesting, wheat in nearby fields. Early football games were played on a wheat field. Pep club members were known as Wheaties, tradition has it that in 1904, football manager and student R. J. Kirk came up with the nickname Wheatshockers, although the Wheatshockers name was never officially adopted by the university, it caught on among the fan base. Until 1948, the university used a nameless shock of wheat as its symbol, in 1948, junior Wilbur Elsea won the Kappa Pi honorary societys competition to design a mascot typifying the spirit of the school. Elsea, who had been a marine during World War II, decided that the school needed a mascot who gave an impression, with a serious. Once Elseas mascot was adopted, all that was needed was a name, the Oct.7,1948, issue of The Sunflower, the student newspaper, ran an advertisement urging students to submit names for the schools new mascot. It was freshman Jack Kersting who suggested the name, WuShock. In 1998, WuShock, also referred to as Wu, marked his 50th birthday by undergoing a redesign and getting a pumped-up physique, the mascots costume has changed over the years, as well. With the redesign, a new costume was introduced in fall 1998, in fall 1999, the head of the new costume underwent another redesign after a number of supporters suggested the mascot needed a more intimidating look. In 2006 it was decided to once again update the Wu costume, the general consensus was that many wanted the costume to more accurately reflect the depiction of WU in the schools logo. Many officials feel that a professional and intimidating mascot on the field will certainly bolster WSUs image. Nevertheless, Wichita managed to play in three bowl games,1,1948, they lost in the Raisin Bowl to Pacific. In December 1948, Wichita played in the Camellia Bowl, where they fell to Hardin-Simmons and they would not participate in another bowl game until 1961, when they lost to Villanova in the Sun Bowl. Wichita State also won four Missouri Valley Conference football titles, in 1954,1960,1961, and 1963. It flew into a mountain valley too narrow to enable it to back and smashed into a mountainside, killing 31 of the 40 players, administrators. President Richard Nixon sent the president of the university a note read, Our thoughtsWichita State Shockers – Wichita State Shockers
73. Jatinegara – Jatinegara is one of the Subdistrict of East Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia. Established in the 17th-century, the area of the Subdistrict Jatinegara was one of the oldest area of Jakarta, Jatinegara contains a number of buildings from the colonial period. The area is known as Pecinan or Chinatown since the majority of the traders are of Chinese descent In Jatinegara Market. This article describes both Jatinegara as an area and as a Subdistrict. There is also a village named Jatinegara located in Cakung Subdistrict. The name Jatinegara was derived from Jatina Nagara, a Malay term meaning the might of the state, in the 17th century, in the area of Jatinegara was a settlement for the princes of the Sultanate of Banten. During the Dutch colonial period, the area was named Meester Cornelis, Cornelis Senen was one of the most celebrated Malay preacher and schoolmaster at that time, a son of an indigenous Christians who had been resettled in Lontor Island, one of the. In 1656, Senen was granted land to the east of Ciliwung, with area of 5 square kilometers. As a landlord, he received the title Meester, the land was used mainly for forestry. Meester Cornelis Senen died in 1661, but his name stuck, during the 18th century, Meester Cornelis was a military territory, with residential areas, wide roads, and a rural character. A buffalo market, known for its Thursday Market, was built in the old area of Meester Cornelis in 1706, a fort was built in 1734. The commander of the established entertainment facilities around the fort. In 1746, an encampment for soldiers with malaria was built in area because of its higher altitude. An artillery school was built in 1805, in 1810, General Daendels established this territory as the center of defense against a possible attack by the British. The main point of this system was the Meester Cornelis fort. A British attack occurred in 1811, in 1820, the fort was transformed into a prison. Meester Cornelis Military School was opened in 1852 and closed in 1892 and it was not the first military school in the Dutch East Indies, but it was the most successful one. One third of the students were born in the colony, the majority came from the Netherlands, most students were from the middle classJatinegara – The post Meester Cornelis near Ciliwung
74. Jakarta – Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the worlds most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the economic, cultural and political centre. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, today, the city has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the countrys independence was declared in 1945. Jakarta is listed as a city in the 2012 Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing, and Bangkok. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their names, Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, Batavia, Djakarta. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta, the origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language. Jayakarta translates as victorious deed, complete act, or complete victory, Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York. In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten, initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavias canals, mansions. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, many green spaces. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles, the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, in 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre, through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Companys first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682Jakarta – (From top, left to right): Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque
75. Shia – Shia is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Shia Islam primarily contrasts with Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor, instead they consider Abu Bakr to be the correct Caliph. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shia as a collective or Shii individually, Shia Islam is the second-largest branch of Islam, in 2009, Shia Muslims constituted 10–13% of the worlds Muslim population. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, in 2012 it was estimated that perhaps 85 percent of Shias were Twelvers. Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The word Shia means follower and is the form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning followers of Ali, faction of Ali. Shia and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shiite or Shiite, as well as Shia, the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad. At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali, nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir, Imam and caliph by Muhammad, for the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran and history of Islam. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing, Shia search for the true meaning of the revelation to get the purpose of the life blood and the human destiny. Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone and they believe God chose Ali to be Muhammads successor, infallible, the first caliph of Islam. The Shias believe that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor by Gods command, Ali was Muhammads first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammads daughter Fatimah. Ali would eventually become the fourth Muslim caliph, after the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there that Shia Muslims believe Muhammad nominated Ali to be his successor. The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar at a place called Ghadir Khumm, located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia. Muhammad there stated, Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammads appointment of Ali as his successor, when Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammads closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali and his family accepted the appointment for the sake of unity in the early Muslim community. Alis rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, as a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate, the Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn AffanShia
76. Economy of China – Until 2015 China was the worlds fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates averaging 10% over 30 years. Due to historical and political facts of Chinas developing economy, Chinas public sector accounts for a share of the national economy than the burgeoning private sector. China is a hub for manufacturing, and is the largest manufacturing economy in the world as well as the largest exporter of goods in the world. China is also the worlds fastest growing market and second largest importer of goods in the world. China is a net importer of services products, China is the largest trading nation in the world and plays the most important role in international trade, and has increasingly engaged in trade organizations and treaties in recent years. China became a member of the World Trade Organization in 2001, China also has free trade agreements with several nations, including Australia, South Korea, ASEAN, New Zealand, Switzerland and Pakistan. On a per capita basis, China ranked 72nd by nominal GDP and 84th by GDP in 2015. The provinces in the regions of China tend to be more industrialized. As Chinas economic importance has grown, so has attention to the structure and this is in accord with the planning goals of the central government. The internationalization of the Chinese economy continues to affect the standardized economic forecast officially launched in China by the Purchasing Managers Index in 2005, at the start of the 2010s, China became the sole Asian nation to have a GDP above the $10-trillion mark. As Chinas economy grows, so does Chinas Renminbi, which undergoes the process needed for its internationalization, China initiated the founding of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in 2015. The rate of growth of the Chinese economy has started slowing with fears of an impending hard landing of the economy. The slowdown manifested in industrial regions as excess capacity in basic industries such as coal, steel, Economic development has generally been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and there are large disparities in per capita income between regions. See also, List of administrative regions by GDP, List of administrative regions by GDP per capita, there are 33 administrative divisions in China. Below are the top divisions in China ranked by GDP in 2015. In accordance with the One Country, Two Systems policy, the economies of the former British colony of Hong Kong, and Portuguese colony of Macau, are separate from the rest of China, see also, Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement with Hong Kong and Macau. See also, List of administrative divisions by Human Development Index, China, having been through a long period of economic downturn before 1978, has recently become one of the worlds major economic powers, following the implementation of economic reform from 1979. China shows a development potential from its remarkable economic growth rate in these yearsEconomy of China – Pudong in Shanghai in January 2014.
77. Credit rating – A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor, predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting. A credit reporting – in distinction to a credit rating – is an evaluation of an individuals credit worthiness. A sovereign credit rating is the rating of a sovereign entity. The country risk rankings table shows the ten least-risky countries for investment as of January 2013, Ratings are further broken down into components including political risk, economic risk. Euromoneys bi-annual country risk index monitors the political and economic stability of 185 sovereign countries, results focus foremost on economics, specifically sovereign default risk or payment default risk for exporters. Best defines country risk as the risk that country-specific factors could affect an insurers ability to meet its financial obligations. A rating expresses the likelihood that the party will go into default within a given time-horizon,1 year or above. In the past institutional investors preferred to consider long-term ratings, nowadays, short-term ratings are commonly used. Credit ratings can address a corporations financial instruments i. e. debt security such as a bond, Ratings are assigned by credit rating agencies, the largest of which are Standard & Poors, Moodys and Fitch Ratings. They use letter designations such as A, B, C, higher grades are intended to represent a lower probability of default. However, some studies have estimated the risk and reward of bonds by rating. Over a longer period, it stated the order is by and large, another study in Journal of Finance calculated the additional interest rate or spread corporate bonds pay over that of riskless US Treasury bonds, according to the bonds rating. Looking at rated bonds for 1973–89, the authors found a AAA-rated bond paid 43 basis points over a US Treasury bond, a CCC-rated junk bond, on the other hand, paid over 7% more than a Treasury bond on average over that period. Different rating agencies may use variations of a combination of lower-case and upper-case letters. The Standard & Poors rating scale uses upper-case letters and pluses and minuses, the Moodys rating system uses numbers and lower-case letters as well as upper case. While Moodys, S&P and Fitch Ratings control approximately 95% of the ratings business. DBRSs long-term ratings scale is similar to Standard & Poors and Fitch Ratings with the words high. It goes as follows, from excellent to poor, AAA, AA, AA, AA, A, A, A, BBB, BBB, BBB, BB, BB, BB, B, B, B, CCC, CCC, CCC, CC, CC, CC, C, C, C and DCredit rating – Standard & Poor's Foreign Rating for national governments.
78. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, land, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is also called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek, Latin, and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate, geology, and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, later, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare NostrumMediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
79. California State Route 1 – State Route 1 is a major north-south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U. S. state of California. At a total of just over 655.8 miles, it is the longest state route in California, Highway 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 near Dana Point in Orange County, Highway 1 also at times runs concurrently with US101, most notably through a 54-mile stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, and across the Golden Gate Bridge. The highway is designated as an All-American Road, SR1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s. However, portions of the route had several names and numbers over the years as more segments opened and it was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was officially designated as Highway 1. Highway 1 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, however, only a few stretches between Los Angeles and San Francisco have officially been designated as a scenic highway. The Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway, the entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 in Dana Point and US101 near Oxnard as the Pacific Coast Highway, the legislature has also designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned other names by the state. The legislature has relinquished state control of segments within Dana Point, Newport Beach, Santa Monica, and Oxnard. The route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the tourism industry. Segments of Highway 1 range from a rural road to an urban freeway. Because of the former, long distance thru traffic traveling between the metropolitan areas are instead advised to use faster routes such as US101 or I-5. At its southernmost end in Orange County, Highway 1 terminates at I-5 in Capistrano Beach in Dana Point and it then travels west into the city center. After leaving Dana Point, Highway 1 continues northwest along the coast through Laguna Beach, Highway 1 then enters Newport Beach, where it is known as simply Coast Highway. Upon entering Huntington Beach, Highway 1 regains the Pacific Coast Highway designation and it passes Huntington State Beach and the southern terminus of California State Route 39 before reaching Bolsa Chica State Beach and the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve. PCH then continues along the coast into Seal Beach, the city on its journey in Orange County. PCH enters Los Angeles County and the city of Long Beach after crossing the San Gabriel River, Highway 1 then continues northwest through the city to its junction with Lakewood Boulevard and Los Coyotes Diagonal at the Los Alamitos Circle, more than 2 miles from the coastCalifornia State Route 1 – Southbound PCH in Crystal Cove State Park near Laguna Beach
80. Legality of cannabis – The legality of cannabis varies from country to country. Possession of cannabis is illegal in most countries and has been since the beginning of widespread cannabis prohibition in the late 1930s, however, possession of the plant in small quantities has been decriminalized in many countries and sub-national entities in several parts of the world. For example, cannabis in Canada will be legal for use if legislation is passed in spring 2017. On 10 December 2013, Uruguay became the first country in the world to legalize the sale, cultivation, open sales are illegal, but not punishable, at coffeeshops in the Netherlands if certain rules are followed. The medicinal use of cannabis is legal in a number of countries, including Canada, medical cannabis in the United States is legal in 29 states as of December 2016. Some infractions are taken seriously in some countries than others in regard to the cultivation, use. A few jurisdictions have lessened penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, making it punishable by confiscation, routine drug tests to detect cannabis are most common in the United States, and have resulted in jail sentences and loss of employment even for medical use. In most European countries, privacy and labor laws prevent such testing for job applicants, simple possession can carry long jail sentences in some countries, particularly in parts of East Asia and Southeast Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to life imprisonment or execution. Cannabis has been in use for thousands of years, in India and Nepal, cannabis has long been used in religious rituals. Under the name cannabis, nineteenth century medical practitioners sold the drug, a 1905 Bulletin from the US Department of Agriculture lists twenty-nine states with laws mentioning cannabis. In 1925, a change of the International Opium Convention banned exportation of Indian hemp to countries that have prohibited its use, importing countries were required to issue certificates approving the importation, stating that the shipment was to be used exclusively for medical or scientific purposes. Around 1840, doctors came to believe that cannabis had a medical value, Marijuana was freely grown, sold, and used in the United States until it was criminalized in 1937. The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 made cannabis possession illegal in the United States, growers of hemp products were required to purchase an annual tax stamp, while hemp retailers were required to purchase stamps priced at $1 per annum. Mexico prohibited cannabis in 1925, following the International Opium Convention, in the late 1990s in California, Dennis Peron started a movement to legalize medical cannabis, opening the San Francisco Cannabis Buyers Club in 1992. It became the headquarters for an activist movement that drafted the Compassionate Use Act, Proposition 215 was passed into law with the support of billionaire and philanthropist George Soros in November 1996. However cannabis is still classified as a schedule I, on January 1,2013, an amendment to the Netherlands cannabis policy was introduced to combat drug-related crime and nuisance. The new rule requires cannabis coffee shop owners to monitor the identities of their customers to ensure that residents of the Netherlands purchase cannabis. Owners are expected to maintain adherence through procedures such as asking customers to produce documents to prove their statusLegality of cannabis – Cannabis sativa (left), Cannabis indica (center) and Cannabis ruderalis (right)
81. President of Brazil – The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup détat against Emperor Pedro II, since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory, the Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, a provisional measure comes into effect immediately, before Congress votes on it, and remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it. The 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days, if Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch. The provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period, or sooner, the President of Brazil serves for a term of office of four years, and may be reelected for a single consecutive term. This two-term limit, however, is not for life—a former President who has served for two terms may, at a later time, run again for office, as long as at least one term has elapsed. The current term of four years was established by the 5th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1994, and the permission for reelection, by the 16th Amendment, in 1997. Before that, the President had been barred from reelection for all of Brazils republican history, with the exception of the latter half of the Vargas Era. The office was limited to men until the Brazilian Constitution of 1937, as of 2015, the president earns a monthly salary of R$30,934.70, along with an undisclosed expense account to cover travel, goods and services while in office.1. The Palácio do Planalto in Brasília is the workplace of the President. The Residência Oficial do Torto, popularly known as Granja do Torto, is a located on the outskirts of the capital and is used as a country retreat by the president. The Palácio Rio Negro in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, is a retreat of the president. In addition, the presidency of the republic also maintains the Jaburu Palace in Brasília for use by the Vice President of the Republic as his or her official residence. In the 2000s, the government decided to establish Regional Offices of the Presidency of the Republic in certain key Brazilian cities. The presidency of the republic also maintains offices in Porto Alegre. For ground travel, the president uses the state car. A1952 Rolls Royce Silver Wraith is used by the president on ceremonial occasions, such as Independence Day commemorations, state visits, a modified version of the Airbus A319, air force designation VC-1A, is used to transport the president on all medium and long-range international flightsPresident of Brazil – Incumbent Dilma Rousseff since January 1, 2011
82. Health insurance coverage in the United States – The number of people without health insurance coverage in the United States is one of the primary concerns raised by advocates of health care reform. A person without health insurance is commonly termed uninsured, and this article uses the term in this sense as well and these changes took effect March 23,2012. The Commonwealth Fund reported in July 2014 that an additional 9.5 million people aged 19–64 had obtained health insurance, gallup reported in July 2014 that the uninsured rate among adults 18 and over fell from 18. 0% in Q32013 to 13. 4% by Q22014. According to the United States Census Bureau, in 2012 there were 48.0 million people in the US who were without health insurance, the causes of this rate of uninsurance remain a matter of political debate. Rising insurance costs have contributed to a trend in which employers are offering health insurance. Many of the uninsured are the poor or are unemployed. Others are healthy and choose to go without it, some have been rejected by insurance companies and are considered uninsurable. Some are without health insurance only temporarily, some choose faith-based alternatives to health insurance. The uninsured rate fell across all demographic groups. The Commonwealth Fund reported that the rate among adults 19-64 declined from 20% in Q32013 to 15% in Q22014. The United States Census Bureau annually reports statistics on the uninsured, the 2012 Census Bureau Health Insurance highlights summary report states that, In 2012, the percentage of people without health insurance decreased to 15.4 percent from 15.7 percent in 2011. The number of uninsured people in 2012 was not statistically different from 2011, both the percentage and number of people with health insurance increased in 2012 to 84.6 percent and 263.2 million, up from 84.3 percent and 260.2 million in 2011. The percentage of people covered by health insurance in 2012 was not statistically different from 2011. This is the second year that the percentage of people covered by private health insurance was not statistically different from the previous year’s estimate. The number of people covered by health insurance increased in 2012 to 198.8 million. The percentage and number of people covered by government health insurance increased to 32.6 percent and 101.5 million in 2012 from 32.2 percent and 99.5 million in 2011. The percentage and number of people covered by employment-based health insurance in 2012 were not statistically different from 2011, the percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2012 were not statistically different from 2011, at 16.4 percent and 50.9 million. The percentage and number of people covered by Medicare increased in 2012 to 15.7 percent and 48.9 million, since 2009, Medicaid has covered more people than MedicareHealth insurance coverage in the United States – Uninsured Americans in 2007, by income status
83. AFC Ajax – Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax, also AFC Ajax, Ajax Amsterdam or simply Ajax, is a Dutch professional football club based in Amsterdam. Historically, Ajax is the most successful club in the Netherlands, Ajax is historically one of the most successful clubs in the world, according to the IFFHS, Ajax were the seventh-most successful European club of the 20th century. The club is one of the five teams that has earned the right to keep the European Cup and to wear a multiple-winner badge, in 1972, they completed the continental treble by winning the Eredivisie, KNVB Cup, and the European Cup. It also won the first organized UEFA Super Cup in 1972 against Glasgow Rangers, Ajax is also one of three teams to win the continental treble and the Intercontinental Cup in the same season/calendar year, This was achieved in the 1971–72 season. Ajax, Juventus, Bayern Munich, and Chelsea are the four clubs to have won all three major UEFA club competitions. They have also won the Intercontinental Cup twice, the 1991–92 UEFA Cup, as well as the Karl Rappan Cup, Ajax plays at the Amsterdam Arena, which opened in 1996. They previously played at De Meer Stadion and the Amsterdam Olympic Stadium, Ajax was founded in Amsterdam on 18 March 1900. The club achieved promotion to the highest level of Dutch football in 1911 and had its first major success in 1917, winning the KNVB Beker, the following season, Ajax became national champion for the first time. The club defended its title in 1918–19, becoming the team to achieve an unbeaten season in the Netherlands Football League Championship. Throughout the 1920s, Ajax was a regional power, winning the Eerste Klasse West division in 1921,1927 and 1928. This changed in the 1930s, with the winning five national championships. In 1956, the first season of the Netherlands new professional league, the team were again Eredivisie champions in 1960 and won a third KNVB Cup in 1961. A year earlier, Johan Cruyff, who would go on to become the greatest Dutch footballer of all time, between them, Michels and Cruyff led Ajax through the most successful period in its history, winning seven Eredivisie titles, four KNVB Cups and three European Cups. Ajax won the Dutch championship in 1966,1967, and 1968, during the 1966–67 season, Ajax scored a record 122 goals in an Eredivisie season and also won the KNVB Cup to achieve its first league and cup double. In 1969–70, Ajax won a fourth Dutch league championship and second league and cup double in five seasons, winning 27 out of 34 league games, after this success, Michels departed to become manager of Barcelona and was replaced by the Romanian Ștefan Kovács. In Kovács first season, Ajax completed a treble of the European Cup, the Eredivisie, in 1973, Michels Barcelona broke the world transfer record to bring Cruyff to Catalonia. Kovács also departed to become manager of the France national team, in 1976–77, Ajax won its first domestic championship in four seasons and recorded a double of the Eredivisie and KNVB Cup two years later. The early 1980s saw the return of Johan Cruyff to the club, as well as the emergence of young players Marco van Basten, the team won back-to-back Eredivisie titles in 1982 and 1983, with all three playing a significant role in the latterAFC Ajax – Johan Cruijff played at Ajax between 1959–73 and 1981–83, winning 3 European Cups; his No. 14 is the only squad number Ajax has ever retired. Cruyff came back to manage the club from 1985–88.
84. Friends Arena – Friends Arena is a retractable roof multi-purpose stadium located next to the lake Råstasjön in Solna, just north of Stockholm City Centre. Since its opening it has served as Swedens national stadium for football, the main tenants of the stadium are Swedens national football team and Allsvenskan football club AIK, both relocated from their previous home at the Råsunda Stadium. The venue has a capacity of 65,000 at concerts and 50,000 seated at football matches. Friends Arena is the largest football stadium, and indoor venue and it was calculated to cost around 1.9 billion kronor to complete. The estimated cost before construction had begun was 2.3 billion kronor and it replaced Råsunda Stadium, Swedens former national arena for football. Råsunda will be torn down and will be the first stadium that hosted a FIFA World Cup in history to be removed, blocks of 700 flats and office buildings will be erected on the site. Swedbank acquired the rights to the new stadium in a 153 million kronor deal that will last until 2023. As such, the stadium was renamed Friends Arena, on 22 August 2012, Friends Arena unveiled the plans for the opening ceremony which took place on 27 October 2012. The theme for the show was Swedish Moments and it was directed by Colin Nutley, the stadium has a retractable roof, enabling events to take place during the winter season and to host indoor entertainment shows. The facade of the arena can be lit up in 17 million different color schemes, for example, the stadium is lit up in blue and yellow when Swedens national team is playing matches. Friends Arena is a UEFA Category 4 stadium, and the natural turf pitch measures 105 x 68 metres, in the middle of the stadium roof, a 240 square metres big media cube is placed where the attendance can follow what is happening. In addition,647 LED-screens are installed throughout the facility to enhance the guest experience, crown Princess Victoria of Sweden declared Friends Arena inaugurated at the opening ceremony which took place in the venue at 27 October 2012. The show, directed by famous Swedish director Colin Nutley, was entitled Svenska Ögonblick, artists like Agnes Carlsson, The Hives, Icona Pop, Loreen, First Aid Kit and Roxette performed in front of a crowd of 46,000 people. Furthermore,1,700,000 TV viewers watched the show live at SVT1. Swedish House Mafia made three acclaimed concerts during their One Last Tour in the arena, a total of approximately 115,000 people visited Friends Arena during the three sold-out concerts in November 2012. At 14 November 2012, the stadium hosted its first football game, zlatan Ibrahimović scored the first goal at Swedens new national stadium in the 4–2 victory against England. The game was seen by 49,967 people, which is the current attendance record for a sport event. A spectacular new record for Swedish bandy was set at the 2013 Swedish Bandy Championship Final, AIK played their first competitive football match at April 7,2013Friends Arena
85. Solna – Solna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in south-east Sweden, located just north of the Stockholm City Centre. Its seat is located in the town of Solna, which is a part of the Stockholm urban area, the municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. None of the area is considered rural, which is unusual for Swedish municipalities, Solna is the third smallest municipality in Sweden in terms of area. There are two parishes in Solna Municipality, Råsunda and Solna, Solna is divided into eight traditional parts with no administrative functions, Bergshamra, Haga, Hagalund, Huvudsta, Järva, Råsunda, Skytteholm and Ulriksdal. The largest districts are Råsunda, Hagalund and Huvudsta, with the Solna Centrum in between them, the final matches of both the 1958 FIFA World Cup and the 1995 FIFA Womens World Cup were played at Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium from 1937 to 2012. Solna has very low tax rates and has attracted a range of companies and authorities. Among the most important employers are the medical university Karolinska Institutet, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute are also located in Solna. As with all 290 municipalities of Sweden, Solna has a municipal assembly, an executive committee is appointed by its members. It was served by trams until 1959, trams returned after 54 years of absence when Tvärbanan was extended from Alvik to Solna centrum. A further extension will be opened in 2014, skanska has its head office in Solna. NextJet has its office in Solna. Mall of Scandinavia has opened in November 2015 and is located in Solna, the head office of Scandinavian Airlines and SAS Group is located in Solna. The airline head office was located on the property of Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sigtuna Municipality. Haga Park, part of the Royal National City Park, was initiated by king Gustav III, the city features three of Swedens royal palaces. Friends Arena, the Swedish national arena of association football, the Solna Church was constructed in the 12th century. For defensive purposes, it was built as a round church, the following football clubs are located in Solna, AIK Blue Hill KF Råsunda IS Vasalunds IF Solna Gymnasium is the senior high school/sixth form college of SolnaSolna – Solna City hall
86. Sweden – Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is also the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is also a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribeSweden – A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.
87. Association football – Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of EnglandAssociation football – The attacking player (No. 10) attempts to kick the ball beyond the opposing team's goalkeeper and between the goalposts and beneath the crossbar to score a goal
88. 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification process will decide 31 of the 32 teams which will play in the 2018 FIFA World Cup, with the host Russia qualifying automatically. All 210 remaining FIFA member associations are eligible to enter the qualifying process, for the first time in World Cup history, all national teams registered for the preliminary competition, although suspensions excluded some teams from participating in qualification. Bhutan, South Sudan, Gibraltar and Kosovo made their FIFA World Cup qualification debuts, while the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg on 25 July 2015, a number of qualification matches were played before that. The first began in Dili, Timor-Leste on 12 March 2015 as part of the AFCs qualification, matches were also played in CONCACAF prior to the main draw. Notes The number of participating in the final tournament is 32. It was decided that the same allocation as 2014 would be kept for the 2018 and 2022 tournaments, while all FIFA members entered the tournament, not all competed. Kuwait had a number of their qualifiers cancelled for a suspension that began while their campaign was underway. Updated as of matches played on 28 March 2017 Note, One team each from AFC, CONCACAF, CONMEBOL, Note, UEFA total includes +1 for Russia as hosts. The formats of the qualifying competitions depend on each confederation, knockout format, where two teams play home-and-away two-legged matches. In knockout format, the team that has the aggregate score over the two legs progresses to the next round. In the event that aggregate scores level, the away goals rule is applied. If away goals are equal, then thirty minutes of extra time are played, divided into two fifteen-minutes halves. If no goals are scored during extra time, the tie is decided by penalty shoot-out, the six winners advanced to the second round. Second round, A total of 40 teams were divided into eight groups of five teams to play home-and-away round-robin matches. The eight group winners and the four best group runners-up advanced to the round of FIFA World Cup qualification as well as qualified for the 2019 AFC Asian Cup finals. Third round, The 12 teams which advance from the round were divided into two groups of six teams to play home-and-away round-robin matches. The top two teams of each group qualify for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, and the two third-placed teams will advance to the fourth round. Fourth round, The two third-placed teams of each group from the round will play home-and-away over two legs2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – Confederation
89. Tennis – Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return, the player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society, the sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis and it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport of real tennis. The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s, two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s. Tennis is played by millions of players and is also a popular worldwide spectator sport. Historians believe that the ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France. Louis X of France was a player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, in due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe. Because of the accounts of his death, Louis X is historys first tennis player known by name. Another of the enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France. It wasnt until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and the game began to be called tennis, from the French term tenez, an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, during the 18th century and early 19th century, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. This in turn led to the codification of rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls. In 1872, along with two doctors, they founded the worlds first tennis club in Leamington Spa. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis, according to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield popularized this game enormouslyTennis – A tennis match at Wimbledon, the oldest and most prestigious tennis tournament.
90. Elections in France – Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may also be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question, France elects on its national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature The president is elected for a five-year term, directly by the citizens. The National Assembly has 577 members, elected for a term in single seat-constituencies directly by the citizens. The Senate has 348 members, elected for six-year terms, see Government of France for more details about these political structures. In addition, French citizens elect a variety of local governments, France does not have a full-fledged two-party system, that is, a system where, though many political parties may exist, only two parties are relevant to the dynamics of power. See politics of France for more details, Elections are conducted according to rules set in the Constitution of France, organisational laws, and the electoral code. The campaigns end at midnight the Friday before the election, then, on election Sunday, by law, no polls can be published, no electoral publication and broadcasts can be made. The voting stations open at 8 am and close at 6 pm in small towns or at 8 pm in cities and it has been alleged that this discourages voting in these places. For this reason, since the 2000s, elections in French possessions in the Americas, as well as embassies and consulates there, are held on Saturdays as a special exemption. With the exception of senatorial election, for there is an electoral college. For municipal and European elections, citizens aged 18 or older of other European Union countries may decide to vote in France, registration is not compulsory, but the absence of registration precludes the possibility of voting. Currently, all reaching the age of 18 are automatically registered. Citizens may register either in their place of residence or in a place where they have been on the roll of taxpayers for local taxes for at least 5 years, a citizen may not be legally registered in more than one place. Citizens living abroad may register at the responsible for the region in which they live. Only citizens legally registered as voters can run for public office, there are exceptions to the above rules. Convicted criminals may be deprived of their rights, which include the right to vote. In particular, elected officials who have abused public funds may be deprived of the right to run for public office for as long as 10 years. The application of rules in the case of certain politicians has been controversialElections in France – Scene inside a polling station during the French presidential election of 2007: election officials and a standard transparent ballot box.
91. Elections in South Korea – Elections in South Korea are held on national level to select the President and the National Assembly. Local elections are every four years to elect governors, metropolitan mayors, municipal mayors. The president is elected for a single five-year term by plurality vote. The National Assembly has 300 members elected for a term,253 in single-seat constituencies and 47 members by proportional representation. Since the 2016 legislative elections, South Korea has a three-party system, polling places are usually located in schools. During the absentee or early voting period, voters can vote at any polling place in the country, on election day, voters may only vote at polling places in their registered constituency. Korean voters mark paper ballots with a rubber stamp using red ink, there is one race per ballot paper, if there are multiple office up for election, ballot papers are color coded and voters are issued one ballot per race. Korea uses a central count model, after the polls close, ballot boxes are sealed and transported to the constituencys counting center. Traditionally, ballots were counted, but since around 2012. The scanners resemble cash sorter machines, sorting the ballots into stacks by how they are voted, stacks are then counted using machines resembling currency counting machines. Korean elections have been praised as a model of best practice, however, the legality of the introduction of optical scan technology has been challenged and there have been allegations of rigged counting. C. Korea, A history of the Korean people, 인명국사대사전 (Inmyeong guksa daesajeon, Unabridged biographical dictionary of Korean history. Overview of candidates, parties and outcomes of South Korean elections since 1952 Comment on the October 26,2005 by-election resultsElections in South Korea – South Korea
92. Elections in the Bahamas – Elections in the Bahamas take place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy. Since independence voter turnout has been high in national elections, with a low of 87. 9% in 1987. The countrys electoral law was passed on 31 December 1969 and was last amended in 1992, elections are run by the Parliamentary Registration Department, headed by a Parliamentary Commissioner. Appointed by the Governor-General, the Commissioner is responsible for voter registration, there is also an Electoral Broadcasting Council, which is responsible for ensuring that media reports are fair and not biased towards any party. The country has a bicameral Parliament with a House of Assembly, the House of Assembly has 38 elected members who are elected in single-member constituencies. Elections for the House are held five years. Voters must be aged 18 or over, hold Bahamian citizenship and they can disqualified if insane, imprisoned or under a death sentence. Until 1972 British citizens could vote if they had been resident for six months. Candidates must be at least 21 years old, citizens of the country and those with dual citizenship or an undischarged bankruptry are ineligible, as are those who have a criminal conviction, a history of electoral fraud, or are insane or under a death sentence. There has been two referendums and one opinion poll held within the last twenty years. The first, held in 2002, it asked five questions ranging from changes to the constitution to the setting up of a national commission on teaching. The first opinion poll, held in January 2013, asked whether they wanted to legalize online gambling. The second national referendum took place on June 7th,2016, all three referendums/opinion polls were rejected. Prior to the introduction of suffrage in 1961, elections in the Bahamas were dominated by the white oligarchy known as the Bay Street Boys. They were represented by the United Bahamian Party, which by gerrymandering the constituency boundaries, in the next elections in 1967 the UBP received more votes than the PLP, but they won the same number of seats. With the support of the sole Labour Party MP the PLP was able to form the countrys first black-led government. The PLP dominated national politics until the 1990s, winning every election until 1992 when they were defeated by the Free National Movement formed after a split within the PLP in 1971. The FNM won the elections in 1997 in which voter turnout hit a record 98. 5%Elections in the Bahamas – The Bahamas
93. Elections in the United Kingdom – Within each of those categories, there may be by-elections as well as general elections. Elections are held on Election Day, which is conventionally a Thursday, the Electoral Commission sets standards for and issues guidelines to Returning Officers and Electoral Registration Officers, and is responsible for nationwide electoral administration. The total number of names in the United Kingdom appearing in Electoral Registers published on 1 December 2010 and based on a qualifying date of 15 October 2010 was 45,844,691. In Scotland, anyone who will be aged 16 or over on polling day can register to vote as the age for voting in Scottish local elections and elections to the Scottish Parliament is 16. However, voters in Scotland under 18 are not entitled to vote in European Elections or UK General Elections, a person can still register at his/her ordinary address if he/she will be away temporarily. A person who has two homes may be able to register to vote at both addresses as long as they are not in the electoral area. Remand prisoners, voluntary patients in hospitals and people without a fixed place of residence can register to vote by making a declaration of local connection. Members of HM Forces and their family members have the option of registering as a service voter. British citizens residing outside the United Kingdom can register as an overseas voter provided that they were on the Electoral Register in the UK within the previous 15 years, the 15 years period begins when they no longer appeared in the electoral register, not the date they moved abroad. Overseas voters can vote in European Parliamentary and UK Parliamentary elections in the constituency of their last registered UK address. British citizens who are away overseas temporarily do not need to register as overseas electors, Crown servants and British Council employees employed in a post outside the UK can register by making a Crown Servant declaration, allowing them to vote in all UK elections. The right of Commonwealth and Irish citizens to vote is a legacy of the Representation of the People Act 1918, which limited the vote to British subjects. At that time, British subjects included the people of Ireland — then part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland — and all other parts of the British Empire. Though most of Ireland and the majority of the colonies became independent nations, in theory, members of the Royal Family who are not members of the House of Lords are eligible to vote, although in practice they do not exercise that right. In Great Britain, most electors are enrolled during the course of the annual canvass, canvass forms are sent to all households, and must be returned, otherwise a fine of £1000 can be imposed. Between December and early August, the registration procedure applies instead. Applications must be submitted individually using registration forms available from local Electoral Registration Officers or the Electoral Commissions website, application forms can be returned to the local Electoral Registration Officer by post, by fax or by e-mail as a scanned attachment. As of June 2014, as part of the Governments Digital By Default policy, voters in England, special category electors do not register through the annual canvass procedureElections in the United Kingdom – A pre-election husting at the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, England.
94. Elections in Kosovo – Parliamentary elections to the Assembly of Kosovo have been held four times since 1999 with the latest in December 2010. Kosovo, formerly a province of Serbia, came under UN administration in 1999, the Assembly elected in 2007 continued in office after the declaration of independence. Since the Kosovo War the country has four parliamentary elections. Under Kosovos Constitutional Framework, which established the PISG, elections were to be every three years for the Assembly. The Assembly then in turn elects a president and prime minister, the Assembly had 120 members elected for a three-year term,100 members elected by proportional representation, and 20 members representing national minorities. Under the new Constitution of 2008, the seats for Serbs and other minorities remains the same. The 2014 Parliamentary elections were held in Kosovo on 8 June 2014, in spite of this, Serbia carried out local elections in Kosovo in 2008, these were not recognized by UNMIK. The Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija is a government created by the Serbian minority in the Kosovo city of Mitrovica in response to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence. The first elections for the Assembly took place on May 11,2008 to coincide with the Serbian local elections,2008, in the Brussels agreement, the government of Serbia agreed to integrate Kosovo Serb political structures into the government of Kosovo. The elections which are basis for the Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija were not recognized by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo or the Republic of KosovoElections in Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo
95. Elections in Puerto Rico – Elections in Puerto Rico are guaranteed by Article VI of the Constitution of Puerto Rico and the Electoral Code of Puerto Rico for the 21st Century Act. All processes are overseen and managed in whole by the Puerto Rico State Elections Commission, citizens of the United States residing in Puerto Rico can not vote for their head of state, the President of the United States, due to the political status of Puerto Rico. Citizens cast their votes in colleges which are usually the nearest public school to where the voter declared as residence. Citizens are required by law to vote in secret, unless they have an impairment that does not allow them to. Those unable to travel to colleges due to medical impairments may vote at their place of residence or wherever they are convalescing, ballots are published in both English and Spanish regardless of whether English is an official language or not. Puerto Rico elects on state level a governor and a legislature, the islands governor is elected for a four-year term by the people. The Legislative Assembly has two chambers, the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate which is elected for a four-year term concurrently with the governor, in the 2008 elections, a fourth party participated, the Puertorriqueños por Puerto Rico. In 2012 six parties are expected to participate, the four as in 2008. To avoid vote splitting, the two parties will typically nominate only 6 members and smaller parties typically only nominate one. Additionally, parties may choose the order of its candidates in different districts. However, each voter is free to any candidate. Members of the opposition will be added to provide a minimum of 17 and 9 members of the House and Senate, in the last election,2 and 3 members were added to the House and Senate, respectively. Elections in Puerto Rico Adam Carrs Election ArchiveElections in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
96. Frank Deford – Benjamin Franklin Frank Deford III is an American sportswriter and novelist. He has written 18 books, nine of them novels, in 2012 he became the first magazine recipient of the Red Smith Award. M. Kiplinger Award for Distinguished Contributions to Journalism, defords archives are held by the University of Texas, where an annual lecture is presented in his name. He is an advocate for research and treatment of cystic fibrosis. Deford grew up in Baltimore, Maryland, the oldest of three sons, and attended the Calvert School and Gilman School in Baltimore. He is a graduate of Princeton University and now resides in Westport, Connecticut, with his wife, the former Carol Penner and they have two surviving children, Christian and Scarlet. Scarlet was adopted as an infant from the Philippines a few months after his daughter Alexandras death from cystic fibrosis at age 8 on January 19,1980, Deford has two grandchildren, Annabel and Hunter. Deford met his wife in Delaware and they were married in Newport, after graduation from Princeton in 1962, Deford began his career as a researcher at Sports Illustrated. His 1981 novel Everybodys All-American was named one of Sports Illustrateds Top 25 Sports Books of All Time and was made into a film of the same title. However, much of his fiction is set outside of the sports realm. His most recent novel is the acclaimed Bliss, Remembered, a 1930s romance between a pretty young American and the son of a German diplomat, the story is written from the point of view of the woman. He was also the screenwriter on the films Trading Hearts and Four Minutes, in 1989 Deford became editor-in-chief of The National, the first daily U. S. sports newspaper that ceased publication after only 18 months. After writing for Newsweek and Vanity Fair, Deford continues as Senior Contributing Writer at Sports Illustrated, Deford served as chairman of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation from 1982 until 1999 and remains chairman emeritus. He became an advocate after his daughter Alexandra was diagnosed with the illness in 1972. After she died at 8 on January 19,1980, he chronicled her life in the memoir Alex, the book was made into a movie starring Craig T. Nelson as Deford, Bonnie Bedelia as his wife Carol, and Gennie James as Alex. Member of the National Association of Sportscasters and Sportswriters Hall of Fame Six-time U. SFrank Deford – Frank Deford speaking at the Bridgeport Public Library in Bridgeport, Connecticut, September 21, 2007
97. Jared Martin – Jared Martin is an American film and television actor. Jared is best known for his role as Steven Dusty Farlow in Dallas, after graduating from the Putney School and Columbia University, where his roommate was Brian DePalma. He spent a summer apprenticing with Joseph Papps Shakespeare in the Park, after graduating, he worked for a couple of years at The New York Times as a copy boy and thumbnail book reviewer for the Sunday edition. He quit and joined a stock company in Cape May, New Jersey, then spent a season with Boston Classical Repertory. In 1965 he co-founded Group 6 Productions, a New York film, in 1966 he played the lead role in his former roommate DePalmas first feature film, Murder à la Mod. He continued acting off-Broadway and made a film that caught the eye of a casting director at Columbia Pictures. Martin may be best-known as Steven Dusty Farlow on Dallas and he later alternated between living in Rome and New York where he studied under Lee Strasberg and performed in Broadways Torch Song Trilogy. In 1988 he relocated to Toronto to star in The War of the Worlds, after W. O. W. was canceled in 1991 he spent the next 18 months traveling, writing, and working on photography. From 2004-07, he was Senior Lecturer at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia where he taught acting and directing. The Fantastic Journey Logans Run The Six Million Dollar Man The Waltons Dallas CHiPs The Incredible Hulk Hart to Hart Tales of the Gold Monkey Fantasy Island Knight Rider Airwolf Magnum, P. I. Murder, She Wrote One Life to Live War of the Worlds Jared Martin at the Internet Movie Database Jared Martin at AllMovieJared Martin – Martin with Christina Hart in The Fantastic Journey, 1977.
98. Roger Moore – Sir Roger George Moore KBE is an English actor. He is best known for playing the British secret agent James Bond in seven films between 1973 and 1985 and Simon Templar in The Saint between 1962 and 1969. Roger Moore was born on 14 October 1927 in Stockwell, London and he is the only child of Lillian Lily, a housewife, and George Alfred Moore, a policeman. His mother was born in Calcutta, India, of English origin and he attended Battersea Grammar School, but was evacuated to Holsworthy, Devon, during World War II. He was then educated at Dr Challoners Grammar School in Amersham and he then attended the College of the Venerable Bede at the University of Durham, but did not graduate. At 18, shortly after the end of World War II, on 21 September 1946, he was commissioned into the Royal Army Service Corps as a second lieutenant. He was given the service number 372394 and he eventually became a captain, commanding a small depot in West Germany. He later looked after entertainers for the forces passing through Hamburg. At RADA, Moore was a classmate of his future Bond costar Lois Maxwell, Moore chose to leave RADA after six months in order to seek paid employment as an actor. His film idol was Stewart Granger, at the age of 17, Moore appeared as an extra in the film Caesar and Cleopatra, meeting his idol on the set. Later Moore and Granger were both in The Wild Geese, though they had no scenes together, other actors in that show included Clive Morton and Betty Ann Davies. Although Moore signed a contract with MGM in 1954, the films that followed were not successes and, in his own words. He appeared in Interrupted Melody—billed third under Glenn Ford and Eleanor Parker—a biographical movie about an opera singers recovery from polio and that same year, he played a supporting role in The Kings Thief starring Ann Blyth, Edmund Purdom, David Niven and George Sanders. In the 1956 film Diane, Moore was billed again, this time under Lana Turner and Pedro Armendariz in a 16th-century period piece set in France with Moore playing Prince Henri. Moore was released from his MGM contract after two years following the critical and commercial failure of Diane. After that, he spent a few years mainly doing one-shot parts in television series and he signed another long-term contract to a studio, this time to Warner Bros. His starring role in The Miracle, a version of the play Das Mirakel for Warner Bros. showcasing Carroll Baker as a nun, had turned down by Dirk Bogarde. Eventually, Moore made his name in television, shot mainly in England at Elstree Studios and Buckinghamshire, some of the show was also filmed in California due to a partnership with Columbia Studios Screen GemsRoger Moore – Moore at the signing of his book, "Last Man Standing", September 2014
99. Barbara Smith Conrad – Barbara Smith Conrad is an American operatic mezzo-soprano of international acclaim. Born Barbara Smith, she was raised in Center Point near Pittsburg, in 1957, Barbara Conrad became the focus of a racial controversy revolving around her role in a student opera at The University of Texas at Austin. Pressure from the Texas Legislature forced her removal from the cast, Conrad continued her education at The University of Texas at Austin and received her Bachelor of Music degree in 1959. Barbara Conrad went on to perform with Metropolitan Opera, Vienna State Opera, Teatro Nacional in Venezuela, and many others. Today Conrad continues to complement her performing activities with artist residencies and master classes and she is the co-director and co-founder of the Wagner Theater Program, and maintains a private vocal studio in Manhattan. Conrad works closely with The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History at The University of Texas at Austin, Barbara Smith Conrad is the subject of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American Historys produced film When I Rise, directed by Mat Hames. The youngest of five children, Barbara Smith displayed a love, as early as age six, Barbara performed with her brother the complicated music of Mozart and traces her musical roots to her familys home in the east Texas community of Center Point. It was here that she and her siblings explored a variety of genres on the family piano. Barbara was admitted into the University of Texas at Austin in 1956 and she was part of the first class of African American undergraduate students to attend the university. In 1957 Barbara auditioned for, and was awarded, the role in the universitys production of the opera, Dido. Her role of Dido, the Queen of Carthage, placed her opposite a student as Aeneas. The casting of Barbara incited a campus-wide controversy that escalated to the Texas legislature, the president of the university was advised to remove her from the cast. Barbaras story was covered by news media, prompting a carte blanche offer from Harry Belafonte to underwrite her studies at the institution of her choice. Barbara, however, chose to remain at the University of Texas at Austin and she earned her Bachelor of Music degree from the University of Texas in 1959. After graduation, she joined Equity, the entertainment labor union, Equity already had a Barbara Smith registered. It was at time that she began using her fathers first name. She performed with the Metropolitan Opera for eight years, from 1982 to 1989, under the direction of some of the leading conductors, including Maazel, Bernstein. She has performed much of the concert repertoire with the worlds greatest orchestras, including the New York Philharmonic and the London, Boston, ClevelandBarbara Smith Conrad – When I Rise - Movie Poster.
100. Bill White (ice hockey) – William Earl White is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player and coach. White was one of the most notable defensive defencemen of the 1970s, after playing his junior hockey for the Toronto Marlboros of the Ontario Hockey Association, White turned professional in 1960. While with the Indians, White was instrumental in the strikes which led to the prominence of agent Alan Eagleson. During the 1970 season, White was traded to the powerful Chicago Black Hawks and he was also a member of the Canadian team in the 1972 Summit Series against the Soviets, playing eight games. Already missing significant time in the seasons due to injuries, White suffered a neck injury in the 1976 playoffs from which he sustained lingering nerve damage. White finished his NHL career with 50 goals,215 assists and 265 points in 604 games, at the time of his retirement, even though he had played only six full seasons with the Hawks, he was in the top five of all-time Black Hawk defence scorers. White replaced long-time Black Hawks coach Billy Reay as interim coach midway through the 1977 season and he later went on to coach his old junior team, the Toronto Marlboros. Bill Whites biography at Legends of Hockey Bill Whites career statistics at The Internet Hockey DatabaseBill White (ice hockey) – White in 1973
101. Roger Ailes – Roger Eugene Ailes is an American media consultant and television executive. He is the founder and former Chairman and CEO of Fox News, Ailes was a media consultant for Republican presidents Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, and for Rudy Giulianis first mayoral campaign. In 2016, he was an adviser to the Donald Trump campaign, Ailes was born and grew up in the factory town of Warren, Ohio, the son of Donna Marie and Robert Eugene Ailes, a factory maintenance foreman. Ailes suffers from hemophilia and was hospitalized as a youth. He attended the Warren city schools, and later was inducted into Warren High Schools Distinguished Alumni Hall of Fame and his father was abusive, and his parents divorced in 1960. He continued as Executive Producer for the show when it was syndicated nationally, in 1967, Ailes had a spirited discussion about television in politics with one of the shows guests, Richard Nixon, who took the view that television was a gimmick. Later, Nixon called on Ailes to serve as his Executive Producer for television, nixons successful presidential campaign was Ailess first venture into the political spotlight. His pioneering work in framing national campaign issues and making the stiff Nixon more likeable and accessible to voters was later chronicled in The Selling of the President 1968 by Joe McGinniss, in 1984, Ailes worked on the campaign to reelect Ronald Reagan. In 1987 and 1988, Ailes was credited with guiding George H. W. Bush to victory in the Republican primaries, Ailes scripted and produced the Revolving Door ad, as well as all of Bushs broadcast spots in the primary and general-election campaigns. Ailess TV ads for the 1988 Bush campaign were extensively examined in the documentary film Boogie Man. Ailess last campaign was the effort of Richard Thornburgh for U. S. Senate in Pennsylvania in November 1991. He announced his withdrawal from political consulting in 1992, days after the 9/11 attacks, Ailes advised President George W. Bush that the American public would be patient as long as they were convinced that Bush was using the harshest measures possible. The correspondence was revealed in Bob Woodwards book Bush At War, Ailes refused to release a copy of the memo he sent to Bush. Ailess career inspired novelist Jeff Gillenkirk to compose the novel, Pursuit of Darkness, National Public Radios Margot Adler called Pursuit of Darkness a gripping page-turner. There are games beyond games in this book—real insights into the machinations of Washington. On October 7,1996, Ailes became the founding CEO of Fox News, after the departure of Lachlan Murdoch from News Corporation, Ailes was named Chairman of the Fox Television Stations Group on August 15,2005. Riveras show drew about the ratings as A Current Affair in January 2007. Ailes decided to cancel Geraldo at Large to move Rivera back on Fox News Channel, Ailes also hired former CBS executive Dennis Swanson in October 2005 to be president of the Fox Television Stations GroupRoger Ailes – Roger Ailes
102. Jacque Fresco – Jacque Fresco, is an American futurist and self-described social engineer. Fresco is self-taught and has worked in a variety of related to industrial design. Fresco writes and lectures his views on sustainable cities, energy efficiency, natural-resource management, cybernetic technology, automation, Fresco advocates global implementation of a socioeconomic system which he refers to as a resource-based economy. Born March 13,1916, Jacque Fresco grew up in a Sephardi Jewish home in Bensonhurst in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, Fresco was a teenager during the Great Depression. Fresco spent time with friends discussing Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, science, Fresco attended the Young Communist League. After a discussion with the president during a meeting Fresco was physically ejected after loudly stating that Karl Marx was wrong. Fresco left home at the age of 14, hitchhiking and jumping trains as one of the so-called Wild Boys of the Road, Fresco later turned his attention to technocracy. Fresco worked at Douglas Aircraft Company in California during the late 1930s and he presented designs including a flying wing and a disk-shaped aircraft. Some of his designs were considered impractical at the time and Frescos design ideas were not adopted, Fresco resigned from Douglas because of design disagreements. In 1942, Fresco was drafted into the United States Army and he was assigned technical design duties for the Army Air Force at Wright Field design laboratories in Dayton, Ohio. One design he produced was a variable camber wing with which he attempted to optimize flight control by allowing the pilot to adjust the thickness of the wings during lift. Fresco did not adjust to life and was discharged. Fresco was commissioned by Earl Muntz, to housing that was low cost. Muntz invested $500,000 seed money in the project, Fresco along with his associates Harry Giaretto and Eli Catran conceived, designed and engineered a project house called the Trend Home. Fresco,32 years old at the time, came closest to traditional career success with this project, built mostly of aluminum and glass, it was on prominent display at Stage 8 of the Warner Bros. Sunset Lot in Hollywood for three months, the home could be toured for one dollar, with proceeds going to the Cancer Prevention Society. In the summer of 1948, a Federal Housing Administration official met Muntz about the project, the officials proposal, according to Muntz, would add a bureaucratic overhead negating the low production costs. Without Federal or further private funding the project did not make mass production and this experience led Fresco to the conclusion that society would have to be changed for his inventions to reach their potentialJacque Fresco – Jacque Fresco
103. Chris Cornell – He has released four solo studio albums, Euphoria Morning, Carry On, Scream, Higher Truth and live album Songbook. Cornell was born and raised in Seattle, Washington, and attended Christ the King Catholic elementary school and his parents are Ed Boyle and Karen Cornell. He has five siblings, older brothers Peter and Patrick, and younger sisters Katy, Suzy, Peter, Katy and Suzy all performed in the band Inflatable Soule in the 1990s. Peter was the frontman for the New York-based rock band Black Market Radio and released a new album, Champion. Katy performs as lead vocalist for the Seattle band Into the Cold, Cornell was a loner, however, he was able to deal with his anxiety around other people through rock music. During his teenage years, Chris spiralled in to depression, dropped out of school. Before becoming a musician, he worked at a seafood wholesaler and was a sous-chef at a restaurant named Rays Boathouse. In the early 1980s, Cornell was a member of a band called The Shemps that performed around Seattle. The Shemps also featured bassist Hiro Yamamoto, following Yamamotos departure from The Shemps, the band recruited guitarist Kim Thayil as its new guitarist. Cornell and Yamamoto stayed in contact, and after The Shemps broke up, Cornell and Yamamoto started jamming together, Soundgarden was formed in 1984 by Cornell, Thayil and Yamamoto with Cornell originally on drums and vocals. In 1985, the band enlisted Scott Sundquist as the drummer to allow Cornell to concentrate on vocals, the bands first recordings were three songs that appeared on a compilation for C/Z Records called Deep Six. In 1986, Sundquist, who by that point had a wife and he was replaced by Matt Cameron, the drummer for Skin Yard, who became Soundgardens permanent drummer. Soundgarden signed to Sub Pop, releasing the Screaming Life EP in 1987, the band subsequently signed with A&M Records, becoming the first grunge band to sign to a major label. In 1989, the released their second effort, and their first for a major label. Following the release of Louder Than Love, Yamamoto left the band to finish his masters degree in chemistry at Western Washington University. He was replaced by former Nirvana guitarist Jason Everman, Everman was fired following Soundgardens tour supporting Louder Than Love. In 1990, the band was joined by a new bassist, along with Alice in Chains, Nirvana, and Pearl Jam, Soundgarden became one of the most successful bands from Seattles emerging grunge scene in the early 1990s. With Shepherd, the new line-up recorded Badmotorfinger in 1991, the album brought the band to a new level of commercial success, and Soundgarden found itself amidst the sudden popularity and attention given to the Seattle music sceneChris Cornell – Cornell at the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival
104. Yale Lary – Robert Yale Lary, Jr. is a former American football player. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1979 and was selected for the NFL 1950s All-Decade Team. He has also inducted into the Texas A&M Athletic Hall of Fame, the Texas Sports Hall of Fame. Lary played 11 seasons in the National Football League, all with the Detroit Lions, from 1952 to 1953 and from 1956 to 1964, missing the 1954 and 1955 seasons due to military service. He played at the safety, punter, and return specialist positions, appeared in nine Pro Bowl games, and was a first-team All-NFL player five times. He led the NFL in punting three times, and at the time of his retirement in 1964, his 44.3 yard punting average ranked second in NFL history, trailing only Sammy Baugh. He also totaled 50 NFL interceptions for 787 return yards, both of which ranked fifth in NFL history at the time of his retirement. He also played baseball at Texas A&M, led his team to the 1951 College World Series, Lary was born in Fort Worth, Texas, in 1930. He attended North Side High School in Fort Worth, where he was a multi-sport athlete, Lary enrolled at Texas A&M University, where he played college football for the Texas A&M Aggies football team from 1949 to 1951. After the season, he was selected by the Associated Press as a defensive back on the 1951 All-Southwest Conference football team. Lary also starred in baseball as an outfielder for the Texas A&M baseball team and he set a Southwest Conference record for doubles and led the 1951 Texas A&M team to the Southwest Conference co-championship, a 20–9 record, and an appearance in the 1951 College World Series. Lary was selected by the Detroit Lions in the round, 34th overall pick. He signed with the Lions in June 1952, and played his entire NFL career for the Lions as a safety, punter, as a rookie, Lary played all 12 regular season games in the defensive backfield, intercepting four passes and recovering a fumble. He also returned 16 punts for an 11.4 yard average and 12 kickoffs for a 25.2 yard average, the Lions defeated the Cleveland Browns, 17–7, in the 1952 NFL Championship Game. In his second NFL season, Lary intercepted five passes in 11 regular season games, the Lions again defeated the Browns, 17–16, in the 1953 NFL Championship Game. Lary was selected to play in the 1953 Pro Bowl, Lary also played professional baseball in the summer during his first few years in the NFL. He had been offered a $20,000 bonus by the St. Louis Cardinals after his junior season, in January 1953, within days after the Lions NFL championship, Lary signed a contract to play professional baseball for the Beaumont Exporters of the Texas League. He appeared in at least seven games for Beaumont in 1953, Lary again played minor league baseball in the summer of 1953, batting.429 for the Lake Charles Lakers and also playing for the Macon PeachesYale Lary – Lary on a 1952 Bowman football card
105. Wilburn K. Ross – Wilburn Kirby Ross is a retired United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States militarys highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in World War II. Ross was born in Strunk, Kentucky, as a boy he would practice his marksmanship by placing a match in the crook of a tree and lighting it from a distance with a round from his.22 caliber rifle. He started working in mines at age 18, but he soon joined the United States Army. By October 30,1944, he was serving as a private in Company G, 30th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division. On that day, near Saint-Jacques, France, Ross manned a machinegun through repeated German assaults, during the incident, Ross noticed what he thought was the body of a deceased German soldier. This individual was in fact alive, and an American Lieutenant and this lieutenant later reported Ross acts of valor and recommended him for the Medal of Honor which was issued six months later, on April 14,1945. Ross reached the rank of Master Sergeant before retiring from the Army and he now lives in DuPont, Washington. The town named a community park after him and erected a memorial, private Ross official Medal of Honor citation reads, For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty near St. Jacques, France. With machinegun and small-arms fire striking the earth near him, he fired with effect on the assaulting force. Despite the hail of fire and the explosion of rifle grenades within a stones throw of his position, he continued to man his machinegun alone. When the eighth assault was launched, most of his supporting riflemen were out of ammunition and they took positions in echelon behind Pvt. Ross and crawled up, during the attack, to extract a few rounds of ammunition from his machinegun ammunition belt. After expending his last rounds, Pvt. Ross was advised to withdraw to the command post, together with 8 surviving riflemen. The Germans launched their last all-out attack, converging their fire on Pvt. Ross in a attempt to destroy the machinegun which stood between them and a decisive breakthrough. As his supporting riflemen fixed bayonets for a stand, fresh ammunition arrived and was brought to Pvt. Ross just as the advance assault elements were about to swarm over his position. He opened murderous fire on the enemy, killed 40 and wounded 10 of the attacking force, broke the assault single-handedly. His actions throughout this engagement were an inspiration to his comrades, List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War II List of living Medal of Honor recipients Full List of Living Recipients. Medal of Honor recipients - World War II, United States Army Center of Military HistoryWilburn K. Ross – Wilburn K. Ross (right), being congratulated by President John F. Kennedy
106. Daliah Lavi – Daliah Lavi is an Israeli actress, singer, and model. Lavi was born in Shavei Zion, British Mandate of Palestine, to Jewish parents from Germany and she studied ballet in Stockholm, Sweden, where she appeared in her first film Hemsöborna. Returning to Israel, her career took off in 1960, when she started appearing in a number of European and American productions. Fluent in several languages, she has also been in German-, French-, Italian-, Spanish-, however, her best-known role is probably as The Detainer/007 in Casino Royale. With the decline of her career, Lavi was discovered by record producer Jimmy Bowien and began a successful schlager singing career in Germany, with hits such as Oh. Willst du mit mir gehn. and Cest ça, la vie and she recorded German-language covers of Melanie Safkas Look What Theyve Done to My Song, Ma and Gordon Lightfoots If You Could Read My Mind. R. Harris und der Heiratsschwindler as Jill Howard Daliah Lavi at the Internet Movie Database Daliah Lavi infositeDaliah Lavi – Lavi live in concert at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, Germany (March 2009)
107. A. R. Penck – Penck is a German painter, printmaker, sculptor, and jazz drummer. He was born in Dresden, Germany, and studied together with a group of other neo-expressionist painters in Dresden and he became one of the foremost exponents of the new figuration alongside Jörg Immendorff, Georg Baselitz and Markus Lüpertz. Under the East German communist regime, they were watched by the police and were considered dissidents. In the late 1970s they were included in shows in West Berlin and were seen as exponents of free speech in the East and their work was shown by major museums and galleries in the West throughout the 1980s. They were included in a number of important shows including the famous Zeitgeist exhibition in the well-known Martin Gropius Bau museum, in the 1980s he became known worldwide for paintings with pictographic, neo-primitivist imagery of human figures and other totemic forms. He was included in many important shows both in London and New York City, pencks sculptures, though less familiar, evoke the same primitive themes as his paintings and drawings. They use common everyday materials such as wood, bottles, cardboard boxes, tin cans, masking tape, tinfoil, and wire, despite their anti-art aesthetic and the rough-and-ready quality of their construction, they have the same symbolic, archetypal anthropomorphic forms as his flat symbolic paintings. The paintings are influenced by Paul Klees work and mix the flatness of Egyptian or Mayan writing with the crudity of the black paintings by Jackson Pollock. The sculptures are reminiscent of the stone heads of Easter Island. Penck lives and works in Berlin, Düsseldorf, Dublin and New York City, penck - Galerie Michael Schultz features works of A. RA. R. Penck – Future of the soldiers (1995) by A.R. Penck
108. Leo K. Thorsness – Leo Keith Thorsness is a retired colonel in the United States Air Force who received the Medal of Honor for his actions in the Vietnam War. He was awarded the medal for an air engagement on April 19,1967 and he was shot down two weeks later and spent six years in captivity in North Vietnam as a prisoner of war. After his military service, Thorsness served one term in the Washington State Senate, Thorsness was born in Walnut Grove, Minnesota, where he earned the Eagle Scout award from the Boy Scouts of America. He is one of nine known Eagle Scouts who also received the Medal of Honor. The others are Aquilla J. Dyess and Mitchell Paige of the U. S. Marine Corps, Robert Edward Femoyer and Jay Zeamer, Jr. of the U. S. Army Air Forces, Arlo L. Olson, Benjamin L. Salomon of the United States Army, and Eugene B, fluckey and Thomas R. Norris of the United States Navy. In 2010, Thorsness received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and he attended South Dakota State College in 1950, where he met his future wife, Gaylee Anderson, also a freshman. They married in 1953 and had a daughter, Dawn, Thorsness enlisted in the Air Force in 1951 at the age of 19 because his brother was then serving in Korea. In 1954 he received his commission as an officer and his wings with a rating of pilot through the USAF Aviation Cadet program in Class 54-G. He later earned a degree from the University of Omaha in 1964. His initial assignment was as a pilot in the Strategic Air Command, on April 19,1967, Major Thorsness and his Electronic Warfare Officer, Captain Harold E. Johnson, flying F-105F AF Ser. 63-8301, led Kingfish flight on a Wild Weasel SAM suppression mission, the strike force target was JCS target 22.00, the Xuan Mai army training compound, near heavily defended Hanoi. Thorsness directed Kingfish 03 and 04, the element of F-105s, to troll north while he and his wingman maneuvered south. Thorsness located two SAM sites and fired a Shrike missile to attack one, whose radar went off the air and he destroyed the second with cluster bombs, scoring a direct hit. After this initial success, matters turned for the worse, Kingfish 02, crewed by Majors Thomas M. Madison and Thomas J. Sterling, flying aircraft F-105F AF Ser. 63-8341, was hit by fire and both crewmen had to eject. Unknown to Thorsness, Kingfish 03 and 04 had been attacked by MiG-17s flying a low-altitude wagon wheel defensive formation, the afterburner of one of the F-105s wouldnt light and the element had disengaged and returned to base, leaving Kingfish 01 to fight solo. 8301, though not designed for combat, responded well as Thorsness attacked the MiG and destroyed it with 20-mm cannon fireLeo K. Thorsness – Medal of Honor recipient Colonel Leo K. Thorsness
109. Moray Watson – Moray Watson is an English actor. Moray Watsons father was killed in Belgium in World War II and he was educated at Eton College. He met his future wife Pam Marmont at The Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art and they went on to marry in 1955 and had two children Emma in 1957 and Robin in 1959, both of whom went into the theatre. His father-in-law was the silent film star Percy Marmont, Watson made his first appearance on stage whilst still a student at the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art at a matinee performance in memory of Ellen Terry at Hythe, Kent. After appearances in repertory, he appeared on the West End stage, including The Doctors Dilemma, in 1963, he went to New York City to appear in The Private Ear and The Public Eye. He played the part of the Art Editor in the BBC series Compact for some years and he appeared in several films, including Operation Crossbow and The Grass Is Greener, in which he played opposite Cary Grant, Deborah Kerr, Robert Mitchum and Jean Simmons. Watson has a series of television credits to his name, most notably as Brigadier Arthur Maiford, M. C. in The Darling Buds of May, and George Frobisher in Rumpole of the Bailey. He also appeared as Sir Robert Muir in the Doctor Who story Black Orchid and he also appeared in the 1974 version of The Pallisers as Barrington Erle and in the Albert Campion mystery The Death of a Late Pig as the Chief Constable. He also played a Chief constable in the 1977 BBC series Murder Most English and Mr Bennet in the 1980 BBC series Pride, in addition to his long career on stage, television and film Moray Watson has undertaken three one man shows. The first in the 1970s was The Incomprable Max based on the life and work of Max Beerbohm, written for him by Sheila Ward, Years later in the early 2000s he took on Ancestral Voices, based on the diaries if James Lees Milne written by Hugh Massingberd. His final one man show was written and devised by himself based on his own life as an actor, entitled Looking Back and Dropping Names, Bennet The Sea Wolves as Breene Winston Churchill, The Wilderness Years as Major Desmond Morton The Walls of Jericho as Dr.3. 1.6 as The Judge The New Statesman - The Partys Over as Professor Eugene Quail A Murder of Quality as Maj. Harriman Haggard - Orlandos Revenge as Henry Nugent The Darling Buds of May as Brig, Moray Watson at the Internet Movie DatabaseMoray Watson – Moray Watson 2009
110. Mike Lowry – Michael Edward Mike Lowry served as the 20th Governor of the U. S. state of Washington from 1993 to 1997. Lowry was born and raised in St. John, Washington and he had a brief career working for the Washington State Senate and as a lobbyist for Group Health Cooperative before being elected to the King County Council in 1975. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Washingtons Seventh Congressional District in 1978, Lowry twice ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate. Lowry was elected governor in 1992 and served for a single term and his principal policy initiative was enactment of a statewide system of health insurance with premiums based on ability to pay. He was a candidate for Commissioner of Public Lands in 2000. More recently, Lowry has been active in building housing for Washingtons migrant farm workers. According to some reports, Lowry shaved off a beard he formerly sported specifically to avoid comparisons to the Palestinian leader, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Congressional Papers at the University of Washington library Oral history interview with Mike Lowry,2006 Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History ProjectMike Lowry – Michael Edward Lowry
111. Sam Mele – Sabath Anthony Sam Mele is a former right fielder, manager, coach and scout in Major League Baseball. As a manager, he led the Minnesota Twins to their first American League championship in 1965, Mele was the nephew of major league baseball players Tony and Al Cuccinello, but did not play baseball until he attended William Cullen Bryant High School. The high school gave up baseball after his year. Mentored by his uncle Tony, Mele gained major league attention, after high school, Mele attended New York University. In 1940, he broke his leg sliding into third base but, in 1941, he posted an average of.405. He also excelled as a basketball player, NYU basketball head coach Howard Cann called Mele one of the finest players he ever coached. In the summer of 1941, Mele also played baseball for the Burlington, Vermont team of the Northern League where he made contact with the Boston Red Sox and signed a five-figure contract. But before he could join the Sox, he first signed up for the United States Marine Corps in 1942 and was called in July 1943, as part of the V-12 Navy College Training Program, Mele played baseball for Red Rolfe at Yale University. He was sent to the Pacific Ocean where he was able to play baseball with Joe DiMaggio, Mele led the Navy league with a.358 average in 1944. In 1946, after the Marines, Mele joined the Red Sox in Sarasota, Florida before being sent to the Louisville Colonels and, later, Mele won the Eastern League Most Valuable Player award, leading the league in average, total bases and triples. The following year, the Boston Red Sox went into spring with uncertainty at the field position, but Mele won the job with a 5-for-5 performance. He also substituted well in center field when Dom DiMaggio was injured, along the way, he acquired the nickname Sam from his initials. Immediately after his career ended in the minor leagues in 1958. But in 1959, on July 4, Mele joined the Major League coaching staff of the Senators under manager Cookie Lavagetto when Billy Jurges departed to become skipper of the Red Sox. He followed the franchise when it moved to Bloomington, Minnesota, with the maiden edition of the Twins struggling at 19–30 on June 6,1961, Mele filled in as manager, winning two of seven games while Lavagetto took a leave of absence. Mele then formally succeeded to the job on June 23,1961, the Twins moved up two places in the standings under Mele, going 45–49 and finishing seventh. But fortified by young players such as Hall of Famer Harmon Killebrew, Jim Kaat, Zoilo Versalles and Bob Allison, the Twins challenged the powerful New York Yankees in 1962 before placing second. After finishing third in 1963, the team suffered through a season in 1964, leading to speculation that Mele would be replaced by his new third base coachSam Mele – Sam Mele
112. Guo Boxiong – Guo Boxiong was a retired general of the Peoples Liberation Army of China. He served as the Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chinas top military council, during the same period he also held a seat in the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, Chinas top decision-making body. He was expelled from the Communist Party on 30 July 2015, on July 25,2016, he was sentenced to life imprisonment for bribery. Guo was born in Liquan County, Shaanxi province, in August 1958, Guo, aged 16 and just finished middle school, began working at a military factory in Xingping, Shaanxi province. Guo joined the Peoples Liberation Army in 1961, two years later, he joined the Communist Party of China. Guo was trained at Chinas National Defense University and the Xian Army Academy in Peoples Liberation Army Military Academy where he graduated, Guo earned a series of promotions in the 1970s. In the 55th Division of the 19th Army, Guo rose from a soldier to chief of staff of the 55th Division by 1982, afterwards Guo became commander of the 47th Group Army for three years. In 1993 Guo became deputy commander of the Beijing Military Region, the heart of Chinas defense establishment, in September 1999, Guo became a member of the Central Military Commission, deputy chief of staff, and was also promoted to the rank of General. The Vice-Chairmanship of the CMC is the highest executive position given to military officers and he retired at the 18th National Congress in November 2012. After Guos retirement, Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and supreme commander of the PLA, Guo was subject of intense rumours surrounding possible involvement with corruption during his time in office, particularly in overseas Chinese media. Guo, along with his colleague of the same rank, retired General Xu Caihou, attended a new years gala in early 2014. However, shortly thereafter, in the summer of 2014, as part of the fallout of the Gu Junshan case, Xu was court-martialed and expelled from the party. After Xus fall, Guo was euphemistically referred to in Chinese-language media as the Northwest Wolf, sensing impending doom, friends from Guos hometown visited Guo in Beijing, urging him to clarify the situation to the authorities to avoid the same fate as Xu. In response, Guo reportedly said, some things cannot be easily clarified, in February 2015, Guos son, Guo Zhenggang, a rear admiral in the PLA Navy, and his wife, were detained for investigation by military authorities in connection to business and real estate dealings. This was followed by reports in international media that Guo himself was also undergoing investigation and he was duly expelled from the Communist Party of China and his case moved to military prosecution authorities for further processing. Guo was, remarkably, the member of the 17th Politburo of the Communist Party of China to be expelled from the Communist Party. On July 25,2016, Guo was sentenced to imprisonment for bribery. Guo Boxiong has a brother, Guo Boquan born in 1961, who, until 2015, headed up the Department of Civil Affairs of Shaanxi province and a former official in the city of WeinanGuo Boxiong – General Guo Boxiong
113. Ched Evans – Chedwyn Michael Ched Evans is a Welsh footballer who plays as a striker for League One club Chesterfield. Born in Rhyl, Denbighshire, Evans was signed by Manchester City from Chester Citys youth set up in 2002, Evans was loaned to Norwich City in 2007, where he scored 10 goals in 28 league appearances, before returning to his parent club. With first team opportunities at City limited he was sold to Sheffield United for £3 million in 2009. After an unspectacular first two seasons at Bramall Lane he scored 35 goals during the 2011–12 season and he also represented Wales at Wales under-21 and senior level, scoring on his debut for the national side in 2008, and making a total of 13 appearances. Evans was convicted of rape in April 2012 and spent two and a half years in prison and his conviction was quashed on 21 April 2016 by the Court of Appeal, and a retrial was ordered. On 14 October 2016, he was not guilty. Prior to the retrial, he joined Chesterfield, Evans began his playing career in Rhyl, before spending two seasons in Chester Citys youth set-up from where he moved to Manchester City in 2002 following the closure of Chesters youth team. During the 2006–07 season, Evans was a regular in the Academy and reserve teams and was also in the side reached the final of the 2006 FA Youth Cup. In May 2007, Evans signed his first professional contract with Manchester City, in September 2007 Evans came off the bench to make his senior debut in City’s 1–0 League Cup victory against Norwich City. With first choice opportunities at City limited Evans moved on loan to Norwich City in November of that year and he made his debut for Norwich the following week when he came on as a substitute in the 3–1 victory over Blackpool. His first goal for the club two games later, and just two minutes into his first start in a 2–1 victory over Plymouth Argyle at the start of December. Evans returned to Manchester City after his loan deal expired in January 2008, having made eight appearances. However, after talks between the two clubs at the end of January 2008, the deal was extended to allow Evans to stay with the Carrow Road club until the end of the season. Then Manchester City manager Sven-Göran Eriksson stated he had no plans to sell Evans, Evans played regularly for Norwich for the remainder of his loan spell and by the end of the season he had notched up 10 goals from 20 starts and eight substitute appearances. Evans made his Premier League debut for Manchester City in the game of the following season on 18 August, against Aston Villa. He was not chosen for the starting eleven but replaced Valeri Bojinov, Evans scored his first Premier League goal for Manchester City against Portsmouth on 21 September, scoring the fifth goal as City went on to win 6–0. With Citys acquisition of Craig Bellamy and later Emmanuel Adebayor, Roque Santa Cruz and Carlos Tevez, having bagged a brace for the Wales U21s during the midweek fixtures he then scored his first goal in Blades colours on his home debut, a 2–0 win over Watford. The following season Evans was a regular first team choice and his form and scoring rate began to improve, despite the going through a season of turmoilChed Evans – Evans before a Wales under-21 game
114. Yang Weize – Yang Weize is a former Chinese politician. He was the Communist Party Secretary of Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province, prior to that, he served as the party chief in the neighbouring city of Wuxi for seven years, and before that the Mayor of Suzhou. Yang was an member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Yang was born in Nantong, Jiangsu province in August 1962 and he traces his ancestry to the Changzhou area. His father was an administrator in the city of Nantong. Yang went to college at the Nanjing Marine Engineering Institute, where he studied marine and he began working in the Jiangsu provincial transportation department in August 1981. In 1998, he became the director of transportation. The next year, he was transferred to become Deputy Party Secretary of Suzhou, in 2004, Yang became the party chief of Wuxi, becoming first-in-charge of the southern Jiangsu city. By 2006, at age 44, he had earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee, Yang was said to have received praise from Zhou for his work in controlling the razing of local residential neighbourhoods near Zhous hometown. In 2011, he became the Party Secretary of the provincial capital Nanjing, as the citys two most prominent political leaders, Ji and Yang had an uneasy, often hostile relationship. Yang publicly criticized Ji over a rainwater diversion construction project in Nanjing led by the mayor, Ji was abruptly removed from his office of mayor in December 2013 to face a corruption investigation. Yang also served as the president of the committee of the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics, spearheading a strategy of using temporary venues for competition. After the dismissal of Ji Jianye, rumours about Yang himself being in trouble began circulating in late 2013. For much of 2014, Yang executed the partys anti-corruption and mass campaigns with great fervour in Nanjing. In addition, in preparation for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing, Yang called upon the city to embrace the slogan, work hard for one hundred days, between April and August, various clean-up initiatives took place across the city. During this time, Yang was said to have visited all the sporting venues, the one hundred day clean-up campaign earned Yang praise from local residents. In May, Yang said that Nanjing was open to the idea of hosting the 2019 Asian Games after organizers from Vietnam withdrew from hosting the event, in July 2014, state media announced the investigation into Chinas former security chief and Wuxi-area native Zhou Yongkang. Several days later, Lou Xuequan, former party chief of Luhe District of Nanjing, on December 13, the National Commemoration Ceremony for the Nanking Massacre took place in the city, attended by President Xi JinpingYang Weize – Yang Weize 杨卫泽
115. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama is an Indonesian politician serving as the 17th Governor of Jakarta since November 14,2014. Basuki was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on November 18,2014 and he was a legislator in the Indonesian Peoples Representative Council and Regent of East Belitung. He is also known by his Hakka Chinese nickname, Ahok, Basuki was also a Komisi II House of Representatives member for the 2009–2014 office term. However, he resigned from the position in 2012 to run for Lieutenant Governor Jakarta governor election, Basuki is the second governor with Chinese ancestry, and also the second Christian governor of Jakarta, following Henk Ngantung, who was governor during the period 1964–65. Basuki was born on 29 June 1966 and grew up in Manggar and he is the first son of Buniarti Ningsih and the late Indra Tjahaja Purnama. Basuki has three siblings, Basuri Tjahaja Purnama, Fifi Lety, and Harry Basuki, Basuki attended Trisakti University majoring in Mineral Resources & Technology. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Geological Engineering in 1989, after two years of working in the company, he decided to pursue a masters degree in Financial Management at Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Jakarta. He graduated as a Master of Business Administration, Basuki is married to Veronica Tan and the couple has three children, Nicolas Sean, Natania, and Daud Albeneer. Basuki entered politics in his region of Belitung. He ran in the 2005 East Belitung regent election with Khairul Effendi as his mate and was elected as regent with 37. 13% of the vote. Basuki believes that Indonesia is breaking with the past, that had a long and often violent history of prejudice and he is nicknamed The Father and The Law for strong actions against corruption. After a month in office, Basuki confronted key issues related to congestion, labor, corruption. Basuki resigned from his position as East Belitung regent on 11 December 2006 in order to run in the 2007 Bangka-Belitung gubernatorial election and he later credited former Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid, for convincing him to run for public office. Wahid supported Basukis candidacy and praised Ahoks healthcare reforms, Basuki was defeated by Eko Maulana Ali. In 2008, Basuki wrote a biography titled Merubah Indonesia In 2009, Basuki was elected to the House of Representatives and he was elected with 119,232 votes and was assigned to the Second Commission. In 2011, he created a controversy during a visit to his local constituency and he was recorded by the local media condemning local tin mining businesses for causing environmental damage. The comment was regarded as an insult by a local youth NGO, in 2011, Basuki considered to run as Jakarta governor as an independent. However, he decided not to run as he was pessimistic about his chances on getting 250 thousand signatures, however, he then ran along Joko Widodo in the 2012 election as his running mateBasuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama 鍾萬學
116. Mukhtar Ablyazov – Mukhtar Ablyazov is a Kazakh dissident, politician, economist, businessman, and banker. He is the founder and leader of ‘Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan’ and he is also the author of Ablyazov against Nazarbayev. Ablyazov is currently fighting extradition from France to Russia, in Russia, Ablyazov faces ill-treatment and unfair trial. In 1986, Ablyazov graduated from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, there he earned a degree in theoretical physics. After graduation, he worked as a researcher at the Kazakh National University. In 1987, Ablyazov married Shalabayeva Alma, in 1990, Ablyazov was enrolled in postgraduate studies in the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. For that reason, he was fired from his role as a researcher at the Kazakh National University. Ablyazov started working during the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of Kazakhstans Independence and his first job was the buying and selling of computers and copying machines. In 1991, Ablyazov registered his first company and called it Madina, in 1992, Ablyazov started his business by supplying all the regions of Kazakhstan with products such as salt, sugar, flower, matches, tea, chocolate, and medicine. In 1998, together with a consortium of Kazakh investors, Ablyazov acquired a loan to buy the shares in Bank TuranAlem in an auction for $72 million. He later paid back the loan, the bank later came to be known as BTA Bank. In 1997, Ablyazov was appointed as head of the state-owned Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company, KEGOC was a company close to buncruptcy at the time of his appointment as its head. In one year, he managed to make the company profitable. In 1998, as head of KEGOC, Ablyazov was named Minister for Energy, Industry, and Trade. ”Yet after a few years, “Ablyazov and the others had broken ranks, citing disenchantment with endemic corruption in Nazarbaevs inner circle. This opposition initiative, according to RFE/RL, “quickly drew the wrath of the regime. ”In July 2002, as one of the leaders of the DCK, Ablyazov was convicted of “abusing official powers as a minister”. Also sent to prison were his fellow would-be reformers and former Nazarbaev proteges Galymzhan Zhakiyanov, many observers, including the European Parliament and Amnesty International, considered the charges against Ablyazov to be politically motivated. His trial failed to meet international fair trial standards and it is alleged that Ablyazov was subject to torture, beatings and other ill-treatment while he was in prison. Unlike Ablyazov, Zhakiyanov refused a pardon, Sarsenbaev was released from prison and later became head of Ak Zhol, an opposition partyMukhtar Ablyazov – Logo of BTA Bank
117. Alexei Navalny – Alexei Anatolievich Navalny is a Russian lawyer, political and financial activist, and politician. Since 2009, he has gained prominence in Russia, and in the Russian and international media, as a critic of corruption and of Russian President Vladimir Putin. He has organized large-scale demonstrations promoting democracy and attacking political corruption, Putin, in 2012, The Wall Street Journal described him as the man Vladimir Putin fears most. A self-described nationalist democrat, Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member, in September 2013, he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came in second, with 27% of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, Navalny came to prominence via his blog, hosted on the website LiveJournal, which remains his primary method of communicating with the public. He created Russian Anti-corruption Foundation in 2011, Navalny has been arrested numerous times by Russian authorities, most seriously in 2012, when federal authorities accused him of three instances of embezzlement and fraud, all of which he denied. In July 2013, he was convicted of embezzlement and was sentenced to five years in a corrective labor colony, the cases are widely believed to be fabricated in retaliation for his political activity. The Memorial Human Rights Center recognized Navalny as a political prisoner, Navalny was released from prison a day after sentencing. The prison fine was suspended in October 2013.5 years, Alexei Navalny is of Russian and Ukrainian descent. His father Anatoliy Navalny is from Zalissia, a village in Ivankiv Raion, Kiev Oblast, Navalny grew up in Obninsk about 100 km southwest of Moscow, but spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine. Navalny graduated from the Peoples Friendship University of Russia in 1998 with a law degree and he then studied securities and exchanges at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation. In 2008, Navalny spent around 300,000 rubles on stocks of five oil and gas companies, Rosneft, Gazprom, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, as such, he began to aim at making the financial properties of these companies transparent. This is required by law, but there are allegations that some of the top managers of companies are involved in thefts and are obscuring transparency. Other activities deal with wrongdoings by Russian police, such as Sergei Magnitskys case, improper usage of states budget funds, quality of state services, in November 2010, Navalny published confidential documents about Transnefts auditing. According to Navalnys blog, about four billion dollars were stolen by Transnefts leaders during the construction of the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline. In December 2010, Navalny announced the launch of the RosPil project, the project takes advantage of existing procurement regulation that requires all government requests for tender to be posted online. Information about winning bids must be posted online as well, in May 2011, Navalny launched RosYama, a project that allowed individuals to report potholes and track government responses to complaints. In August 2011, Navalny publicized papers related to a real estate deal between Hungarian and Russian governmentsAlexei Navalny – Alexei Navalny in 2012
118. International Criminal Court – The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity. The ICC began functioning on 1 July 2002, the date that the Rome Statute entered into force, the Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICCs foundational and governing document. States which become party to the Rome Statute, for example by ratifying it, currently, there are 124 states which are party to the Rome Statute and therefore members of the ICC. However, Burundi has given notice that it will withdraw from the Rome Statute. The ICC has four organs, the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor. The President is the most senior judge chosen by his or her peers in the Judicial Division, the Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and initiates proceedings before the Judicial Division. The Registry is headed by the Registrar and is charged with managing all the functions of the ICC, including the headquarters, detention unit. The Office of the Prosecutor has opened ten official investigations and is conducting an additional nine preliminary examinations. The convention was signed by 13 states, but none ratified it, following the Second World War, the allied powers established two ad hoc tribunals to prosecute axis power leaders accused of war crimes. The International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. In 1948 the United Nations General Assembly first recognised the need for a permanent international court to deal with atrocities of the kind prosecuted after the Second World War. In his first book published in 1975, entitled Defining International Aggression, The Search for World Peace, following Trinidad and Tobagos proposal, the General Assembly tasked the ILC with once again drafting a statute for a permanent court. While work began on the draft, the United Nations Security Council established two ad hoc tribunals in the early 1990s, the creation of these tribunals further highlighted the need for a permanent international criminal court. To consider major substantive issues in the statute, the General Assembly established the Ad Hoc Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court. After considering the Committees report, the General Assembly created the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of the ICC to prepare a draft text. Finally the General Assembly convened a conference in Rome in June 1998, on 17 July 1998, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court was adopted by a vote of 120 to 7, with 21 countries abstaining. The seven countries that voted against the treaty were China, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Qatar, the United States, following 60 ratifications, the Rome Statute entered into force on 1 July 2002 and the International Criminal Court was formally establishedInternational Criminal Court – The current headquarters of the ICC in The Hague
119. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is a militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges. He was named as the architect of the 9/11 attacks in the 9/11 Commission Report. According to the prosecution, Sheikh Mohammed was a member of Osama bin Ladens al-Qaeda organization, by December 2006 he had been transferred to military custody at Guantanamo Bay detention camp. He was charged in February 2008 with war crimes and murder by a U. S. military commission at Guantanamo Bay detention camp which could carry the penalty if convicted. In 2012, a military prosecutor criticized the proceedings as insupportable due to confessions gained under torture. A2008 decision by the United States Supreme Court, also undermined the factual or legal ground for imprisoning Mohammed, according to official records, Sheikh Mohammed was born on 14 April 1965 in Balochistan, Pakistan. Some sources indicate his place of birth as Kuwait and his father was Sheikh Mohammed Ali Doustin Baluchi, a lay Deobandi preacher, who moved the family to Kuwait from Balochistan in the 1960s. In addition to Ramzi Yousef another nephew of KSM accused of involvment in terror plots is Ammar Al Baluchi, Mohammed is fluent in Balochi, Urdu, Arabic, and English. He grew up and spent his years in Kuwait, as did his nephew Ramzi Yousef. According to U. S. federal documents, in 1982 he had heard Abdul Rasul Sayyafs speech in which a call for jihad against the Soviets was declared, at age sixteen, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood. After graduating from school in 1983, Mohammad travelled to the United States and enrolled in Chowan University in Murfreesboro. He later transferred to North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, the following year he went to Peshawar, Pakistan, where he and his brothers, including Zahed, joined the mujahideen forces engaged in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. In 1992, he received a degree in Islamic Culture. By 1993, Mohammad had married and moved his family to Qatar and he began to travel to different countries from that time onward. S. However, on August 29,2009, The Washington Post reported from US intelligence sources that Mohammeds time in the U. S. contributed to his radicalisation. He stated that his contact with Americans, while minimal, confirmed his view that the United States was a debauched and racist country. Mohammed was in the Philippines in late 1994 and early 1995, he identified as a Saudi or a Qatari plywood exporter and used the aliases Abdul Majid. The news agency Adnkronos reported in 2009 that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, under a name, had traveled to Bosnia in 1995Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Shaikh Mohammed photographed by the Red Cross while in captivity in Guantanamo, July 2009
120. Northern Mali conflict – The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa. On 16 January 2012, several insurgent groups began fighting a campaign against the Malian government for independence or greater autonomy for northern Mali, an area known as Azawad. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, an organization fighting to make Azawad an independent homeland for the Tuareg people, had control of the region by April 2012. On 22 March 2012, President Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup détat over his handling of the crisis, mutinous soldiers, calling themselves the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, took control and suspended the constitution of Mali. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Malis three largest northern cities—Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu—were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days. On 5 April 2012, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA said that it had accomplished its goals, the following day, it proclaimed Azawads independence from Mali. The MNLA were initially backed by the Islamist group Ansar Dine, after the Malian military was driven from Azawad, Ansar Dine and a number of smaller Islamist groups began imposing strict Sharia law. The MNLA and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for a new state. Afterwards, the MNLA began fighting against Ansar Dine and other Islamist groups, including Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, by 17 July 2012, the MNLA had lost control of most of northern Malis cities to the Islamists. The government of Mali asked for military help to re-take the north. On 11 January 2013, the French military began operations against the Islamists, Forces from other African Union states were deployed shortly after. By 8 February, the Islamist-held territory had been re-taken by the Malian military, Tuareg separatists have continued to fight the Islamists as well, although the MNLA has also been accused of carrying out attacks against the Malian military. Fighting is still ongoing even though French forces are scheduled for withdrawal, a ceasefire agreement was signed on February 19,2015 in Algiers, Algeria but sporadic terrorist attacks still occur. In the early 1990s Tuareg and Arab nomads formed the Mouvement Populaire de l’Azaouad/Azawad Peoples Movement, the MNLA was an offshoot of a political movement known as the National Movement for Azawad prior to the insurgency. After the end of the Libyan Civil War, an influx of weaponry led to the arming of the Tuareg in their demand for independence for the Azawad. The strength of this uprising and the use of heavy weapons, though dominated by Tuaregs, the MNLA stated that they represented other ethnic groups as well, and were reportedly joined by some Arab leaders. The MNLAs leader Bilal Ag Acherif said that the onus was on Mali to either give the Saharan peoples their self-determination or they would take it themselves, another Tuareg-dominated group, the Islamist Ansar Dine, initially fought alongside the MNLA against the government. Unlike the MNLA, it did not seek independence but rather the imposition of Islamic law across Mali, thereafter, Mali has been in a constant struggle to maintain its territoryNorthern Mali conflict – French Mirage 2000 refuels over Africa on 2 February 2013.
121. War in Darfur – The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfurs non-Arabs. The other side is made up of groups, notably the SLM/A and the JEM, recruited primarily from the non-Arab Muslim Fur, Zaghawa. The African Union and the United Nations also have a joint peacekeeping mission in the region, estimates of the number of human casualties range up to several hundred thousand dead, from either combat or starvation and disease. Mass displacements and coercive migrations forced millions into refugee camps or across the border, former US Secretary of State Colin Powell described the situation as a genocide or acts of genocide. The Sudanese government and the JEM signed an agreement in February 2010. The JEM has the most to gain from the talks and could see semi-autonomy much like South Sudan, however, talks were disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army launched raids and air strikes against a village, violating the Tolu agreement. The JEM, the largest rebel group in Darfur, vowed to boycott negotiations, Darfur, Arabic for the home of the Fur—was not a traditional part of the states organized along the upper Nile valley but instead organized as an independent sultanate in the 14th century. It was first annexed to the Egyptian Sudan in 1875 and then surrendered by its governor Slatin Pasha to the Mahdia in 1883, subsequently, Darfur remained a province of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the independent Republic of the Sudan. There are several different explanations for the origins of the present conflict, one explanation involves the land disputes between semi-nomadic livestock herders and those who practice sedentary agriculture. Water access has also identified as a major source of the conflict. The Darfur crisis is also related to a second conflict, in southern Sudan, civil war has raged for decades between the northern, Arab-dominated government and Christian and animist black southerners. Yet another origin is conflict between the Islamist, Khartoum-based national government and two groups based in Darfur, the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were widely referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudans non-Arab citizens. The government was accused of deftly manipulat Arab solidarity to carry out policies of apartheid, american University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. The Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid, many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid. Alan Dershowitz labeled Sudan an example of a government that actually deserve the appellation apartheid, former Canadian Minister of Justice Irwin Cotler echoed the accusation. The rebels first military action was an attack on an army garrison on 25 February 2002. The government had been aware of a rebel movement since an attack on the Golo police station in June 2002War in Darfur – Arab Janjaweed tribes have been a major player in the conflict.
122. Mexican Drug War – The Mexican Drug War is the Mexican theater of the United States War on Drugs, involving an ongoing low-intensity asymmetric war between the Mexican Government and various drug trafficking syndicates. Since 2006, when the Mexican military began to intervene, the principal goal has been to reduce the drug-related violence. Additionally, the Mexican government has claimed that their focus is on dismantling the powerful drug cartels, rather than on preventing drug trafficking. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the entering the United States. Arrests of key leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, has led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually, by the end of Felipe Calderóns administration, the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U. S. markets. Towards the end of the 1960s, Mexican narcotic smugglers started to smuggle drugs on a major scale, during the 1970s and early 1980s, Colombias Pablo Escobar was the main exporter of cocaine and dealt with organized criminal networks all over the world. By the mid-1980s, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine, transporters from Mexico usually were given 35% to 50% of each cocaine shipment. This arrangement meant that organizations from Mexico became involved in the distribution, as well as the transportation of cocaine, currently, the Sinaloa Cartel and the Gulf Cartel have taken over trafficking cocaine from Colombia to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the various Mexican cartels continually shifts as new organizations emerge and older ones weaken and collapse, a disruption in the system, such as the arrests or deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the power vacuum. The fighting between rival drug cartels began in earnest after the 1989 arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, there was a lull in the fighting during the late 1990s but the violence has steadily worsened since 2000. The center-left PRI party ruled Mexico for around 70 years until 2000, during this time, drug cartels expanded their power and corruption, and anti-drug operations focused mainly on destroying marijuana and opium crops in mountainous regions. It is estimated that about 110 people died in Nuevo Laredo between January and August 2005 as a result of the fighting between the Gulf and Sinaloa cartels. The same year, there was another surge in violence in the state of Michoacán as the La Familia Michoacana drug cartel established itself, on December 11,2006, the newly elected President Felipe Calderón sent 6,500 Mexican Army soldiers to Michoacán to end drug violence there. As time passed, Calderón continued to escalate his anti-drug campaign, in there are now about 45,000 troops involved along with state. Mexico is a drug transit and producing country. It is the main supplier of cannabis and an important entry point of South American cocaineMexican Drug War – Mexican soldiers during a confrontation in Michoacán in August 2007
123. Xinjiang conflict – The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist conflict in Chinas far-west province of Xinjiang, whose northern region is known as Dzungaria and whose southern region is known as East Turkestan. The East Turkestan independence movement is led by Turkic Islamist organizations, most notably the Turkistan Islamic Party, during the 18th century, the Qing Dynasty created the province of Xinjiang. The wars played an important role in the East Turkestan independence movement, after the establishment of the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs who studied in Soviet Central Asia Russified their surnames. Urban Uyghurs sometimes select Russian names for their children in such as Qaramay. The Soviet Union supported the Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion against the Republic of China, many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, political, and economic ties with the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Many were educated in the Soviet Union, and a community of Russian settlers lived in the region, ehmetjan Qasim, a pro-Soviet Uyghur who led the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, was Soviet-educated, Stalins man and a communist-minded progressive. Kadeer and her family were friends with White Russian exiles in Xinjiang, many Uyghurs respected Russians. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch claim that Uyghur resentment of cultural repression is the cause of riots in Xinjiang. Some Han Chinese opponents of the movement view themselves as receiving second-class treatment by PRC policies regulating ethnic autonomy. The name Uyghur was associated with the Buddhist peoples in the Tarim Basin during the ninth century, Rebiya Kadeer calls Urumqi Uyghur land. The name Urumqi derives from the Mongolic Oirat language, Han and Hui mainly live in Dzungaria, separate from the Uyghur Tarim Basin. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were about 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang, according to an early-19th-century Xinjiang census, the population was 30 percent Han and 60 percent Turkic. In the 1953 census the percentages were six percent Han and 75 percent Uyghur, stanley W. Toops said that the current demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period. Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in the southern Xinjiang oases, critics have said that the governments response to Uyghur concerns do little to address the underlying issues. Uyghur views vary by oasis of residence, China has historically favored Turpan and Hami, Uyghurs in those oases allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China made the rulers of Turpan and Hami autonomous princes, Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to govern Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more prosperous, and sees China more positively than Kashgar. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated favourably by China with regard to religion, Kashgar, Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law, allowing Islamic education of Uyghur childrenXinjiang conflict – Xinjiang region in China
124. Insurgency in Northeast India – Some factions favour a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Northeastern India consists of seven states, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as amongst their native tribal people and migrants from other parts of India. Regional tensions eased off in late 2013, with the Indian, however, in late 2014 tensions again rose as the Indian government launched an offensive, which led to a retaliatory attack on civilians by tribal guerrillas. As of January 1,2015, major militant activities are being conducted in Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, the Indian general election,2014 had an 80% voter turnout in all northeastern states, the highest among all states of India. Indian authorities claim that this shows the faith of the people in Indian democracy. Despite this, a number of organizations listed as terrorist groups continue to promote an insurgency, the National Liberation Council of Taniland is active along the Assam – Arunachal Pradesh border, and its members belong to the Tani groups of people which are demanding Taniland. The Tani groups are Mongoloid people in India as well as the Luoba in China who live along the frontier of India, Assam has been a refuge for militants for a number of years, due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s, the insurgency status in Assam is classified as very active. The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of the ULFA, the United Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland was formed in 1989 as the Bodo Security Force, and aims to set up an autonomous region Bodoland. The Karbi Longri N. C. Hills Liberation Front is a militant group operating in the Karbi Anglong, the outfit claims to fight for the cause of Karbi tribes, and its declared objective is Hemprek Kangthim, meaning self-rule/self-determination of the Karbi people. In 2004, the UPDS renamed itself as the Karbi Longri North Cachar Hills Liberation Front, in 2014 the UPDS disbanded, following the mass surrender of all it cadres and leaders. The Dima Halam Daoga is a descendant of the Dimasa National Security Force, commander-in-Chief Jewel Gorlosa, refused to surrender and launched the Dima Halam Daogah. After the peace agreement between the DHD and the government in the year 2003, the group further broke out. The Black Widows declared objective is to create Dimaraji for the Dimasa people in Dima Hasao district only, however the objective of DHD is to include parts of Cachar, Karbi Anglong, and Nagaon districts in Assam, and sections of Dimapur district in Nagaland. In 2009 the group surrendered en masse to the CRPF and local police,193 cadres surrendering on 2009-09-12, the objective of the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation is to carve out a separate Kamtapur State. Manipurs long tradition of independence can be traced to the foundation of the Kangleipak State in 1110, the Kingdom of Manipur was conquered by Great Britain following the brief Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891, becoming a British protectorate. Manipur became part of the Indian Union on 15 October 1949, despite the fact that Manipur became a separate state of the Indian Union on 21 January 1972, the insurgency continuedInsurgency in Northeast India – Map of India and the Northeastern provinces
125. Papua conflict – The Indonesian Government restricts foreign access to the Papua and West Papua provinces due to sensitivities regarding its suppression of Papuan nationalism. The nationalist Indonesian government argued that it was the state to the whole of the Dutch East Indies. The Netherlands argued that the Papuans were ethnically different and that the Netherlands would continue to administer the territory until it was capable of self-determination. The legitimacy of the vote is hence disputed by independence activists, the Indonesian government is accused of human rights abuses, such as attacks on OPM-sympathetic civilians and jailing people who raise the West Papuan National Morning Star flag for treason. As of 2010,13,500 Papuan refugees live in exile in the independent state of Papua New Guinea. As a result, the Papua New Guinea Defence Force has set up patrols along PNGs western border to prevent infiltration by the OPM, additionally, the PNG government has been expelling resident border crossers and making a pledge of no anti-Indonesian activity a condition for migrants stay in PNG. Since the late 1970s, the OPM have made threats against PNG business projects. The PNGDF has performed joint border patrols with Indonesia since the 1980s, in 2004, the UK based Free West Papua Campaign was set up by exiled West Papuan leader Benny Wenda to encourage the UN to hold an Independence Referendum in West Papua. The Campaign has growing International support and the backing of notable figures such as Nobel Peace Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu, in 2012, the Campaign issued an arrest warrant for Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono for his state visit to the UK in October–November that year. Yudhoyono was protested against everywhere he went in London and regularly saw West Papuan National Flags of Independence which are illegal in Indonesia,15 August 1962, New York Agreement by Kingdom of the Netherlands, Republic of Indonesia and United Nations. Region of West Papua submitted by Netherlands to UN temporary authority, implementation of Indonesian governance was followed by sporadic fighting between Indonesian and pro-Papuan forces until 1969. 1966–67, Aerial bombing of Arfak Mountains, jan–Mar 1967, Aerial bombing of Ayamaru and Teminabuan areas. 1,500 alleged dead in Ayamaru, Teminabuan and Inanuatan, April 1969, Aerial bombing of Wissel Lake District,14,000 survivors escape into the jungle. July–August 1969, Act of Free Choice / PEPERA determines West Papua Region as sovereign territory of Republic of Indonesia, June 1971, Henk de Mari reported that 55 men from two villages in North Biak were forced to dig their own graves before being shot. Published in Dutch daily De Telegraaf Oct 1974, unknown,500 Papuan corpses were found in jungle Lereh District, south west of Sentani Airport, Jayapura region. 1974, In North Biak,45 Papuans were killed,1975, In Biak, at least 41 people from Arwam and Rumbin villages were killed. 1977–78, Aerial bombing of Baliem Valley, apr 1978, Six unidentifiable bodies were discovered in the Dosai district of Jayapura. May 1978, Five OPM leaders surrendered to save the village they were caught in and they were beaten to death with red hot iron bars and their bodies thrown into a pit latrinePapua conflict – Papua (province)
126. Balochistan conflict – Rich in natural resources like natural gas, oil, coal, copper, sulphur, fluoride and gold, this is the least developed province in Pakistan. Baloch want greater autonomy, increased royalties from resources and provincial revenue. In the 2010s, attacks against the Shia community by sectarian groups—though not always related to the political struggle—have risen. This insurgency has begun to weaken, in an article titled The End of Pakistans Baloch Insurgency Baloch analyst Malik Siraj Akbar reported that Baloch militants began killing their own commanders. As of May 2015, one foreign-based Baloch journalist calls anger towards Chief Minister Abdul Malik Baloch growing, Baloch militants have taken some reconciliation offers from the government and offered to hand in their weapons. In April 2016, four militant commanders and 144 militants had surrendered under reconciliation,600 rebels were killed and 1025 surrendered after accepting reconciliation as of August 2016. Baloch seperatists argue they are economically marginalised and poor compared to the rest of Pakistan, being crucial for Pakistans economic future, China has invested $46 Billion in the region. The Balochistan Liberation Army, designated as a terrorist organisation by Pakistan, since 2000 it has conducted numerous deadly attacks on Pakistani troops, police, and civilians. Other separatist groups include Lashkar-e-Balochistan and the Baloch Liberation United Front, in 2005, a rebellion by Baloch against the Islamic Republic of Iran began. The fight over the IRI Baloch region bordering Pakistan has not gained as much ground as the conflict in Pakistan, Human rights activists have accused nationalist militants and the Government of Pakistan of human rights abuses. Baloch militants have targeted minority communities such as Hazara Shia on the basis of their religious beliefs and this inter-communal violence led to Hazara refusing to bury their dead and demanding that the Pakistani government deploy even more troops for their protection. The governor took charge and accused security forces of being too scared or clueless to act, Baloch militant groups, who have pledged allegiance to ISIS, have also targeted moderate Sunnis who follow Sufi teachings. A recent attack on Sufis in Balochistan was the attack on the shrine of Shah Noorani in which 52 people, the News International reported in 2012 that a Gallup survey conducted for DFID revealed that the majority of Baloch do not support independence from Pakistan. Only 37 percent of Baloch were in favour of independence, amongst Balochistans Pashtun population support for independence was even lower at 12 percent. However, a majority of Balochistans population did favour greater provincial autonomy, the government has since taken democratisation steps, in 2013 provincial elections were held and a Grand Alliance of the Pakistan Muslim League and Pashtun and Baloch local parties were formed. The Gulf of Oman forms its southern border, mountains and desert make up much of the regions terrain. Most Balochis live in part that falls within Pakistans borders, Sunni Islam is the predominant religion. Stuart Notholt, in his Atlas of Ethnic Conflict, describes the unrest in Balochistan as a nationalist/self-determination conflict, the Baloch naitonalist struggle is centred on the Khanate of Kalat, established in 1666 by Mir AhmadBalochistan conflict – Balochs (pink), Pashtuns (green), Punjabis (brown), Sindhis (yellow)
127. Insurgency in the North Caucasus – The Insurgency in the North Caucasus is an armed conflict between Russia and militants associated with the Caucasus Emirate and, since June 2015, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant groups. It followed the end of the decade-long Second Chechen War on 16 April 2009. It attracts people from the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia, who participated in the conflict. The violence has mostly concentrated in the North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan. Occasional incidents happen in surrounding regions, like North Ossetia-Alania, Karachay-Cherkessia, Stavropol Krai, in late 1999, Russias Premier, Vladimir Putin, ordered military, police and security forces to enter the breakaway region of Chechnya. By early 2000, these forces occupied most of the region, high levels of fighting continued for several more years and resulted in thousands of Russian and Chechen casualties and hundreds of thousands of displaced persons. After his death, his successor, Dokka Umarov, declared continuing jihad to establish an Islamic fundamentalist Caucasus Emirate in the North Caucasus, Russias pacification policy in Chechnya has involved setting up a pro-Moscow regional government and transferring more local security duties to this government. An important factor in Russias apparent success in Chechnya has been reliance on pro-Moscow Chechen clans affiliated with regional President Ramzan Kadyrov, police and paramilitary forces under Kadyrovs authority have committed abuses of human rights, according to rulings by the European Court of Human Rights and others. Terrorist attacks in the North Caucasus appeared to increase substantially in 2007–2010, in the summer of 2009, more than 442 persons died in North Caucasus violence in just four months as compared to only 150 deaths reported in the entire year of 2008. In the period from 2010 to 2014, the number of casualties in the North Caucasus insurgency declined each year, the insurgency in the North Caucasus is a direct result of the two post-Soviet wars fought between Russia and Chechnya. The First Chechen War was a nationalist struggle, with secular and Islamist overtones, for independence from Russia and took place between 1994 and 1996. After a vicious struggle between Russian federal forces and Chechen separatist guerrillas, Chechnya was granted de facto independence per the terms of the Khasavyurt Accord, signed on 30 August 1996. What remained of the rebel units then withdrew into the inaccessible Vedeno. The republic remained a center of violence for many years. Reported casualties declined, with 26 security forces and 24 suspected militants being killed in 2014, Dagestan is the most religious, populous and complex of all the north Caucasian republics. It is double the size of Chechnya and consists of several ethnic groups. Dagestan has the highest levels of violence and extremism in the North Caucasus republics, the Russian Interior Ministry stated that of the 399 terrorist crimes committed in the North Caucasus in 2013,242 were in Dagestan. Along with Dagestan, Ingushetia bore the brunt of the violence in the North Caucasus in the Insurgencies early years, the Islamist insurgency in the republic sprang from the wars in neighbouring Chechnya in the 1990s and early 2000sInsurgency in the North Caucasus – Russian President, Dmitri Medvedev, meets with FSB head, Alexander Bortnikov, in March 2009, to discuss the ending of the counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya.
128. Sinai insurgency – Since 2011, the central authorities have attempted to restore their presence in the Sinai through both political and military measures. Egypt launched two military operations, known as Operation Eagle in mid-2011 and then Operation Sinai in mid-2012, in May 2013, following an abduction of Egyptian officers, violence in the Sinai surged once again. Following the 2013 Egyptian coup détat, which resulted in the ousting of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi, in 2014, elements of the Ansar Bait al-Maqdis group claimed allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and proclaimed themselves as the Sinai Province. Security officials say militants based in Libya have established ties with Sinai Province, since the start of the conflict, dozens of civilians were killed either in military operations or kidnapped and then beheaded by militants. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates, the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate, sufism was previously dominant in the region before militant jihadi ideas began to take hold. The Sinai peninsula has long known for its lawlessness, having historically served as a smuggling route for weapons. Security provisions in the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty of 1979 have institutionalized a diminished security presence in the area, moreover, the limited government-directed investment and development in Sinai has discriminated against the local Bedouin population, a population that values tribal allegiance over all else. The combination of Sinais harsh terrain and lack of resources have kept the area poor, following the January 2011 uprising that toppled Hosni Mubaraks regime, the country became increasingly destabilized, creating a security vacuum in the Sinai peninsula. Radical Islamic elements in Sinai exploited the opportunity, using the environment, in launching several waves of attacks upon Egyptian military. Since the 2011 uprising against the Mubarak regime in Egypt, there has been increasing instability in the Sinai Peninsula, in addition the collapse of the Libyan regime increased the quantity and sophistication of weapons being smuggled into the area. The situation provided local Bedouin with an opportunity to assert their authority, leading to clashes with Egyptian security forces, hard-line militant Muslims used Sinai as a launch-point for attacks against Israel and turned on the Egyptian state. Focusing on Egypts security establishment and the Sinais Arab Gas Pipeline, in August 2011, Operation Eagle was launched, in an effort to restore law and order, driving Islamist insurgents and criminal gangs out of North Sinais urban centers. As well as, attempting to severe the link between militant groups in the Sinai and Gaza, by augmenting its control over the Gaza border crossing. The operation had limited success, and a week into the operation, on 5 August 2012, an attack on the Rafah barracks shook the Egyptian military and population. Only a month into his term, President Mohamed Morsi sacked the defence minister. Operation Sinai was launched, aimed at eliminating armed Islamist groups, protecting the Suez Canal, during the operation,32 militants and suspects were killed and 38 arrested, while 2 civilians had been killed by early September 2012. In an increase in security forces came under near daily attack throughout July to August 2013. In 2013, the new authorities adopted an aggressive strategy, leading to mass arrestsSinai insurgency – Map of the Sinai Peninsula
129. American-led intervention in Syria – The United States began surveillance missions on Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant positions in Syria in September 2014. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria, on 6 November, a US airstrike struck Ahrar ash-Sham at its headquarters in Idlib. By 14 November 2014, it was revealed that the negotiations between al-Nusra, Jund al-Aqsa, ISIL and Ahrar ash-Sham had failed, following the start of the Arab Spring in 2011, protests in Syria against the Assad administration were suppressed and became violent. In 2012, the al-Nusra Front was established by the Islamic State of Iraq as the branch of al-Qaeda in Syria. The al-Nusra Front was eclipsed by its own creator, and al-Qaeda severed its ties to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in February 2014, after an eight-month power struggle. Prior to 2013, the CIA only supplied certain rebel groups of the Free Syrian Army with non-lethal aid, but later began providing training, cash, and intelligence to selected rebel commanders. One of the groups that the United States intended to train, there were indications that the Army of Mujahedeen was still being vetted for support. The United States was set to send 400 troops and hundreds of staff to countries neighboring Syria to train 5,000 opposition soldiers a year for the next three years. The countries taking part in the program were to include Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia. The Pentagon confirmed that it had selected 1,200 Syrian opposition members to begin training in March 2015, with 3,000 to complete training by the end of 2015. However, of that only about 200 actually began training. As of mid-2015, only a group of 54 such fighters had been deployed, in March 2015, the United Kingdom announced that it was sending around 75 military instructors to train Syrian opposition forces. The train-and-equip programme started on 9 May 2015, on 25 May, Turkey and the U. S. agreed in principle on the necessity to support these forces with air support. As of July 2016, extensive arms shipments were continuing, following the abduction of a number of foreigners in Syria, on 4 July 2014, the U. S. carried out an operation to rescue foreign hostages being held by ISIL. No prisoners were found in the building and the soldiers were engaged by ISIL forces dispatched from Raqqa. U. S. forces concluded that the hostages were no longer at the site, at least five ISIL fighters were killed and one U. S. soldier was wounded. Jordanian forces were reportedly involved in the operation, with one Jordanian soldier reportedly wounded. Later on, it was reported that the hostages had been moved 24 hours before the attempted rescue, following the mission, it was still unclear whether the operation failed due to bad intelligence or whether ISIL forces were alerted in advance of the missionAmerican-led intervention in Syria – Tomahawk missiles being fired from the warships USS Philippine Sea and USS Arleigh Burke at ISIL targets in Syria
130. Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Fighting from the Syrian Civil War has spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels have travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil. Killings, unrest, and kidnappings of foreign citizens across Lebanon have resulted, in mid-2011, seven people were killed and 59 wounded in a fight between gunmen in Tripoli. In May 2012, the spread to Beirut, and later to south and east Lebanon, while the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed in north Lebanon. As of January 2016 there have more than 800 fatalities. Among Lebanons political blocs the anti-Syrian Saudi-backed March 14 Alliance supports the Syrian rebels, and this has been rejected by the ruling March 8 alliance, which includes the Shia Hezbollah and allies such as the Maronite Free Patriotic Movement, among others. Pro-government protestors countered the actions by carrying posters of Nasrallah and it was reported that, sales of black market weapons in Lebanon have skyrocketed in recent weeks due to demand in Syria. In June 2011, clashes in the Lebanese city of Tripoli between members of the Alawite minority, loyal to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and members of the Sunni majority left seven people dead. Future Movement MP Okab Sakr was long suspected to be involved in aiding the insurgents in the Syrian civil war, at first he denied his involvement, but admitted it when Al Akhbar published audio tapes of him making arms deals with Syrian insurgents. Sakr later claimed the tapes were edited, and that he only provided Syrians with milk, Sunni extremists from Tripoli have been flocking to Syria to join the terrorist Al-Nusra Front. Hezbollah fighters have been deployed to protect border towns inhabited by Lebanese Shias from the rebels, the Lebanese Army has attempted to disassociate itself from the conflict in Syria, and to prevent clashes within Lebanon. From the inception of the violence began in Syria as a result of the Arab Spring. In June 2014, a joint brigade of Al-Nusra Front and ISIL troops invaded and briefly held the town of Arsal, leading to a major battle and it has long been expected that another major push would take place in Lebanon. By 22 June 2016, 95% of the territory controlled by militants had been recaptured by Lebanese army and their allies. Daily clashes were ongoing mainly near the town of Arsal, on 22 September, ISIL emir Imad Yassin was arrested from Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp. Clashes erupted between ISIL and Nusra Front in Arsal Barrens on 26 October after ISIL tried to infiltrate towards the Hamid valley. On 28 October, the Lebanese Army carried out a raid against ISIL in the Wadi Zarzour area of Jaroud Arsal, killing a number of militants and destroying a militant hideout. An ISIL commander Ahmad Youssef Amoun was arrested along with 10 other militants on 24 November after an operation by the Lebanese Army on a center of the group near Arsal. In the unrest of June 2011, at least 7 deaths were reported, a further 2-3 deaths occurred during the incidents of February 2012Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Controlled by the Lebanese Government
131. Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – Code-named Operation Decisive Storm, the intervention initially consisted of a bombing campaign on Houthi Rebels and later saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. Fighter jets and ground forces from Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia made their airspace, territorial waters and military bases available to the coalition. The United States provided intelligence and logistical support, including aerial refueling and it also accelerated the sale of weapons to coalition states. US and Britain have deployed their military personnel in the command and control centre responsible for Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen, Pakistan was called on by Saudi Arabia to join the coalition, but its parliament voted to maintain neutrality. On 21 April 2015, the Saudi-led military coalition announced an end to Operation Decisive Storm, the kingdom and its coalition partners said they would be launching political and peace efforts, which they called Operation Restoring Hope. However, the coalition did not rule out using force, saying it would respond to threats, the war has received widespread criticism and had a dramatic worsening effect on the humanitarian situation, that reached the level of a humanitarian disaster or humanitarian catastrophe. On 1 July UN declared for Yemen a level-three emergency – the highest UN emergency level – for a period of six months, Human rights groups repeatedly blamed the Saudi-led military coalition for killing civilians and destroying health centers and other infrastructure with airstrikes. The de facto blockade left 78% of the Yemeni population in urgent need of food, water, aid ships are allowed, but the bulk of commercial shipping, on which the country relies, is blocked. In one occasion, coalition jets prevented an Iranian Red Crescent plane from landing by bombing Sanaa International Airports runway, as of 10 December, more than 2,500,000 people had been internally displaced by the fighting. Many countries evacuated more than 23,000 foreign citizens from Yemen, more than 1,000,000 people fled Yemen for Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Oman. Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, running unopposed for president, won the 2012 Yemeni elections, the Houthis, a Zaidi Shia movement and militant group thought to be backed by Iran, took control of the Yemeni government through a series of actions in 2014 and 2015. Saudi Arabia and other countries denounced this as an unconstitutional coup détat, Saudi media claim that Saleh or his son had approached Riyadh seeking such a deal. By September 2014, Houthi fighters captured Sanaa, toppling Hadis government, soon after, a peace deal was concluded between the Hadi government and the Houthis, but was not honored by either party. The deal was drafted with the intent of defining a power-sharing government, a conflict over a draft constitution resulted in the Houthis consolidating control over the Yemeni capital in January 2015. After resigning from his post alongside his prime minister and remaining under house arrest for one month. Upon arriving in Aden, Hadi withdrew his resignation, saying that the actions of the Houthis from September 2014 had amounted to a coup against him. By 25 March, forces answering to Sanaa were rapidly closing in on Aden, during the Houthis southern offensive, Saudi Arabia began a military buildup on its border with Yemen. In response, a Houthi commander boasted that his troops would counterattack against any Saudi aggression and would not stop until they had taken Riyadh, the Saudi capitalSaudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – Controlled by Houthis
132. 2013 – January 16–20 – Thirty-nine international workers and one security guard die in a hostage crisis at a natural gas facility near In Aménas, Algeria. February 12 – North Korea conducts its third nuclear test, prompting widespread condemnation. February 15 – A meteor explodes over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1, 489-1,492 people and it is the most powerful meteor to strike Earths atmosphere in over a century. The incident, along with a flyby of a larger asteroid. February 21 – American scientists use a 3D printer to create a living lab-grown ear from collagen, in the future, it is hoped, similar ears could be grown to order as transplants for human patients suffering from ear trauma or amputation. February 28 – Benedict XVI resigns as pope, becoming the first to do so since Gregory XII in 1415, march 24 – Central African Republic President François Bozizé flees to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after rebel forces capture the nations capital, Bangui. March 25 – The European Union agrees to a €10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus, the bailout loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. The deal precipitates a banking crisis in the island nation, march 27 – Canada becomes the first country to withdraw from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. April 2 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate the trade of conventional weapons. April 15 – Two Chechen Islamist brothers explode two bombs at the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States, killing 3, july 1 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup détat, august 14 – Following the military coup in Egypt, two anti-coup camps are raided by the security forces leaving 2,600 dead. The raids were described by Human Rights Watch as one of the world’s largest killings of demonstrators in a day in recent history”. August 21 –1,429 are killed in the Ghouta chemical attack during the Syrian Civil War, september 21 – al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least 62 civilians and wounding over 170. October 18 – Saudi Arabia rejects a seat on the United Nations Security Council, jordan takes the seat on December 6. November 5 – The Mars Orbiter Mission is launched by India from its launchpad in Sriharikota, november 8 – Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical cyclones on record, hits the Philippines and Vietnam, causing devastation with at least 6,241 dead. November 24 – Iran agrees to limit their nuclear development program in exchange for sanctions relief, December 7 – Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization delegates sign the Bali Package agreement aimed at loosening global trade barriers. December 14 – Chinese spacecraft Change 3, carrying the Yutu rover, becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon since 1976 and the third ever robotic rover to do so. December 15 – Fighting between ethnic Dinka and Nuer members of the presidential guard break out in Juba, South Sudan, plunging the country into civil war2013 – April 24: Savar building collapse.
133. 2012 – February 19 – Iran suspends oil exports to Britain and France, following sanctions put in place by the European Union and the United States in January. February 21 – Greek government-debt crisis, Eurozone finance ministers reach an agreement on a second, march 13 – After 244 years since its first publication, the Encyclopædia Britannica discontinues its print edition. March 22 – The President of Mali, Amadou Toumani Touré, is ousted in a coup détat after mutinous soldiers attack government offices, april 6 – The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declares the independence of Azawad from Mali. April 12 – Mutinous soldiers in Guinea-Bissau stage a coup détat and take control of the capital city and they arrest interim President Raimundo Pereira and leading presidential candidate Carlos Gomes Júnior in the midst of a presidential election campaign. April 13 – Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, a North Korean Earth observation satellite, the United States and other countries had called the impending launch a violation of United Nations Security Council demands. The launch was planned to mark the centenary of the birth of Kim Il-sung, april 26 – Former Liberian President Charles Taylor is found guilty on 11 counts of aiding and abetting war crimes and crimes against humanity during the Sierra Leone Civil War. May 2 – A pastel version of The Scream, by the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, sells for US$120 million in a New York City auction, may 12 – August 12 – The 2012 World Expo takes place in Yeosu, South Korea. May 22 – Tokyo Skytree, the tallest self-supporting tower in the world at 634 metres high, is opened to the public, june 5–6 – The centurys second and last solar transit of Venus occurs. The next pair are predicted to occur in 2117 and 2125, june 24 – Lonesome George, the last known individual of the Pinta Island tortoise subspecies, dies in Galápagos National Park, thus making the subspecies extinct. July 4 – CERN announces the discovery of a new particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson after experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, July 27 – August 12 – The 2012 Summer Olympics are held in London, England, United Kingdom. July 30–31 – In the worst power outage in world history, August 6 – Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory missions rover, successfully lands on Mars. The move is met with fierce criticism from other countries. September 11–27 – A series of terrorist attacks are directed against United States diplomatic missions worldwide, as well as missions of Germany, Switzerland. In the US, opinions are divided whether the attacks are a reaction to a YouTube trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims. In Libya, among the dead is US ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, october 16 – Seven paintings worth $25 million are stolen from the Kunsthal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. November 14–21 – Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defense against the Palestinian-governed Gaza Strip, in the following week 140 Palestinians and five Israelis are killed in an ensuing cycle of violence. November 25 – December 9 – Typhoon Bopha, known as Pablo in the Philippines, the typhoon causes considerable damage in the island of Mindanao. November 29 – The UN General Assembly approves a motion granting Palestine non-member observer state status, December 8 – In Qatar, the UN Climate Change Conference agrees to extend the Kyoto Protocol until 20202012 – Etta James
134. 2011 – January 4 – Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi dies after setting himself on fire a month earlier, sparking anti-government protests in Tunisia and later other Arab nations. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring, January 9 –15 – Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July. January 14 – Arab Spring, The Tunisian government falls after a month of increasingly violent protests, January 24 –37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia. February 22 – March 14 – Uncertainty over Libyan oil output causes crude oil prices to rise 20% over a period following the Arab Spring, causing the 2011 energy crisis. March 11 – A9. 0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840, tsunami warnings are issued in 50 countries and territories. Emergencies are declared at four power plants affected by the quake. March 15 Arab Spring, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain declares a state of emergency as troops from the Gulf Co-operation Council are sent to quell the civil unrest. Arab Spring, The Syrian Civil War begins, april 29 – An estimated two billion people watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London. May 1 – U. S. President Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, may 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The bailout loan will be split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. May 21 – Grímsvötn, Icelands most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe, may 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia. June 4 – Chiles Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia, june 5 – Arab Spring, Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh travels to Saudi Arabia for treatment of an injury sustained during an attack on the presidential palace. Protesters celebrate his transfer of power to his Vice-President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, june 12 – Arab Spring, Thousands of Syrians flee to Turkey as Syrian troops lay siege to Jisr ash-Shugur. June 28 – Food and Agriculture Organization announces the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest from the world, July 7 – The worlds first artificial organ transplant is achieved, using an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells. July 9 – South Sudan secedes from Sudan, per the result of the referendum held in January. July 12 – The planet Neptune completes its first orbit since it was discovered in 1846, July 14 – South Sudan joins the United Nations as the 193rd member. July 20 Goran Hadžić is detained in Serbia, becoming the last of 161 people indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the United Nations declares a famine in southern Somalia, the first in over 30 years2011 – Gerry Rafferty
135. 2009 – Asunción, the capital of Paraguay, becomes the American Capital of Culture and Vilnius and Linz become the European Capitals of Culture. Slovakia adopts the euro as its currency, replacing the Slovak koruna. January 21 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a war it had with Hamas. However, Intermittent air strikes by both sides continue in the weeks to follow, january 26 The first trial at the International Criminal Court is held. Former Union of Congolese Patriots leader Thomas Lubanga is accused of training soldiers to kill, pillage. The Icelandic government and banking system collapse, Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns, february 1 Patriarch Kirill of Moscow is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church following the death of his predecessor, Alexy II in 2008. Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir is appointed as the new Prime Minister of Iceland, february 26 – Former Serbian president Milan Milutinović is acquitted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia regarding war crimes during the Kosovo War. March 2 – The President of Guinea-Bissau, João Bernardo Vieira, is assassinated during an attack on his residence in Bissau. March 4 – The International Criminal Court issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur, al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002. March 7 – NASAs Kepler Mission, a space photometer that will search for planets in the Milky Way galaxy, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. March 17 – The President of Madagascar, Marc Ravalomanana, is overthrown in a coup détat, april 1 – Albania and Croatia are admitted to NATO, becoming the newest members of the organization. April 6 – A6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes near LAquila, Italy, killing nearly 300, april 21 – UNESCO launches The World Digital Library. May 18 – Following more than a quarter-century of fighting, the Sri Lankan Civil War ends with the military defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. May 25 – North Korea announces that it has conducted a successful nuclear test in North Hamgyong Province. The United Nations Security Council condemns the reported test, june 1 – Air France Flight 447, en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 on board. June 11 – The outbreak of the H1N1 influenza strain, commonly referred to as swine flu, is deemed a global pandemic, june 18 – NASA launches the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS probes to the Moon, the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998. June 28 – The Military of Honduras ousts Honduran President Manuel Zelaya in a coup détat, june 30 – Yemenia Flight 626 crashes off the coast of Moroni, Comoros, killing all but one of the 153 passengers and crew. July 15 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 crashes near Qazvin, Iran, july 16 – Icelands national parliament, the Althingi, votes to pursue joining the EU2009 – 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
136. 2008 – January 14 – At 19,04,39 UTC, the MESSENGER space probe is at its closest approach during its first flyby of the planet Mercury. January 21 – Stock markets around the world plunge amid growing fears of a U. S. recession, january 24 – A peace deal is signed in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, ending the Kivu conflict. February 4 – Iran opens its first space center and launches a rocket into space, february 5 – U. S. stock market indices plunge more than 3% after a report shows signs of economic recession in the service sector. The S&P500 fall 3. 2%, The Dow Jones Industrial Average drops 370 points, february 13 – Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd delivers a formal apology to the Stolen Generations. February 17 – Kosovo formally declares independence from Serbia, with a response from the international community. March–April – Rising food and fuel prices trigger riots and unrest in the Third World, march 2 – Venezuela and Ecuador move troops to the Colombian border, following a Colombian raid against FARC guerrillas inside Ecuadorian territory, in which senior commander Raúl Reyes is killed. March 9 – The first European Space Agency Automated Transfer Vehicle, march 24 – Bhutan holds its first-ever general elections following the adoption of a new Constitution which changed the country from an absolute monarchy to a multiparty democracy. March 25 – African Union and Comoros forces invade the island of Anjouan. April 22 – Surgeons at Londons Moorfields Eye Hospital perform the first operations using bionic eyes, may 3 – Cyclone Nargis passes through Myanmar, killing over 100,000 people. May 12 – An earthquake measuring 7.9 Moment magnitude scale strikes Sichuan, China, may 23 The Union of South American Nations, an intergovernmental organization between states in South America, is founded. The International Court of Justice awards Middle Rocks to Malaysia and Pedra Branca to Singapore, may 25 – NASAs Phoenix spacecraft becomes the first to land on the northern polar region of Mars. May 28 – The Legislature Parliament of Nepal votes overwhelmingly in favor of abolishing the countrys 240-year-old monarchy, may 30 – The Convention on Cluster Munitions is adopted in Dublin. June 11 The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is launched, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper formally apologizes, on behalf of the Canadian government, to the countrys First Nations for the Canadian Indian residential school system. June 14 – Expo 2008 opens in Zaragoza, Spain, lasting to September 14, with the topic Water, July 2 – Íngrid Betancourt and 14 other hostages are rescued from FARC rebels by Colombian security forces. July 21 – Radovan Karadžić, the first president of the Republika Srpska, is arrested in Belgrade, Serbia, on allegations of war crimes, august 6 – President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi of Mauritania is deposed in a military coup détat. August 7 – Georgia invades the breakaway state of South Ossetia, august 8–24 – The 2008 Summer Olympics take place in Beijing, China. September 20 – A suicide truck bomb explosion destroys the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing at least 60, September 28 – SpaceX Falcon 1 becomes the worlds first privately developed space launch vehicle to successfully make orbit. October 21 – The Large Hadron Collider is officially inaugurated and it is a collaboration of over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories2008 – First-ever photograph of the "unseen side" of Mercury, taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft on January 14
137. 2007 – 2007 was designated as International Heliophysical Year. January 1 Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union, while Slovenia joins the Eurozone, adam Air Flight 574 disappeared from Jakartas radar. A week later it was founded that the aircraft has crashed into the Makassar Strait, january 8 – Russian oil supplies to Poland, Germany, and Ukraine are cut as the Russia–Belarus energy dispute escalates, they are restored three days later. February 2 The IPCC publishes its fourth assessment report, having concluded that climate change is very likely to have a predominantly human cause. February 3 – A truck bomb explodes in Baghdad, Iraq, killing at least 135 people, february 26 – The International Court of Justice finds Serbia guilty of failing to prevent genocide in the Srebrenica massacre, but clears it of direct responsibility and complicity in the case. March 1 – The fourth International Polar Year, a $1.73 billion research program to both the North Pole and South Pole, is launched in Paris. March 23 – Naval forces of Irans Revolutionary Guard seize Royal Navy personnel in disputed Iran-Iraq waters, march 27 – Latvian Prime Minister Aigars Kalvītis and Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov sign a border treaty between Latvia and Russia, officially demarcating the border between the two. April 3 – French high speed train, the TGV, reaches a top speed of 574.8 km/h. April 18 – A series of attacks take place across Baghdad, Iraq, April 24 – Gliese 581 c, a potentially Earth-like extrasolar planet habitable for life, is discovered in the constellation Libra. April 26-27 – Ethnic Russian riot in Tallinn and other cities in Estonia against the moving of the Bronze Soldier, may 17 – The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Moscow Patriarchate re-unite after 80 years of schism. May 20 – Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum of Dubai makes the largest single donation in modern history. June 5 – NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft makes its second fly-by of Venus en route to Mercury, july 7 – Live Earth Concerts are held throughout 9 major cities around the world to raise environmental awareness. July 17 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054 overruns the runway of São Paulo–Congonhas Airport and crashes, killing all 187 and 12 others on the ground. July 24 – Five Bulgarian nurses were released from Libyan prison after eight, august 4 – The Phoenix spacecraft is launched toward Mars to study its north pole. August 14 – Multiple suicide bombings kill 572 people in Qahtaniya, august 15 – An 8.0 earthquake strikes Peru, killing at least 450 people, injuring more than 1,500, and causing tsunami warnings in the Pacific Ocean. September 6 – Israeli Air Force airplanes attack a suspected nuclear reactor in Syria in an airstrike, september 14 – The SELENE spacecraft launches, with its objective being to study the Moon. September 20 – The Universal Forum of Cultures opens in Monterrey, october 28 – The Vatican beatifies 498 Spanish victims of religious persecution from before and during the Spanish Civil War. November 6 – A suicide bomber kills at least 50 people in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, november 14 – High Speed 1 from London to the Channel Tunnel is opened to passengers2007 – Yvonne De Carlo
138. 2006 – 2006 was designated as, International Year of Deserts and Desertification International Aspergers Year January 1 – Russia cuts the shipment of natural gas to Ukraine over a price dispute. January 12 – A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, January 15 – NASAs Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a nine-year journey. February 3 – Egyptian passenger ferry, MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98, sinks in the Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia, february 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines killing an estimated 1,126 people, march 9 – NASAs Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturns moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars, march 16 – The United Nations General Assembly votes overwhelmingly to establish the United Nations Human Rights Council. March 28 – A scramjet jet engine, HyShot III, designed to fly at seven times the speed of sound, is tested at Woomera. April 11 The European Space Agencys Venus Express spaceprobe enters Venus orbit, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirms that Iran has successfully produced a few grams of low-grade enriched uranium. May – The Human Genome Project publishes the last chromosome sequence, may 27 – The 6.4 Mw Yogyakarta earthquake shakes central Java with an MSK intensity of IX, leaving more than 5,700 dead and 37,000 injured. June 3 – Montenegro declares independence after a May 21 referendum, the state union of Serbia and Montenegro is dissolved on June 5, leaving Serbia as the successor state. June 9 – July 9 – The 2006 FIFA World Cup begins in Germany, June 28 Israel launches an offensive in the Gaza Strip in response to rocketfire by Hamas into Israeli territory. The United States Armed Forces withdraws its forces in Iceland, thereby disbanding the Iceland Defense Force, July 1 – The Qinghai–Tibet Railway launches a trial operation, making Tibet the last province-level entity of China to have a conventional railway. July 6 – The Nathu La pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years, July 12 – Israeli troops invade Lebanon in response to Hezbollah kidnapping two Israeli soldiers and killing three others. Hezbollah declares open war against Israel two days later, august 22 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border in Ukraine, killing all 171 people on board. August 24 – The International Astronomical Union defines planet at its 26th General Assembly, september 19 – The Royal Thai Army overthrows the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup détat. September 29 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides with a jet over the Amazon rainforest. October 9 – North Korea claims to have conducted its nuclear test. October 13 – South Korean Ban Ki-moon is elected as the new Secretary-General of the United Nations,5,1948 by Jackson Pollock becomes the most expensive painting after it is sold privately for $140 million2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
139. 2003 – 2003 was designated the, International Year of fresh water. January 22 – The last signal from NASAs Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, January 30 – Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so. February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all seven astronauts on board. February 4 – The leaders of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reconstitute the country into a loose state-union between Montenegro and Serbia, marking an end to the 85 year old Yugoslav state. February 15 – Millions of people take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States. February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government, february 27 – Former Bosnian Serb leader Biljana Plavšić is sentenced by the U. N. ICTY to 11 years in prison for war crimes committed during the Bosnian War. March 8 – Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum, march 12 Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper. The World Health Organization issues an alert on severe acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong. March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U. S. march 23 – Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum. April 9 – U. S. forces seize control of Baghdad, april 12 – Hungary approves joining the European Union in a referendum. April 14 – The Human Genome Project is completed, with 99% of the human genome sequenced to 99. 99% accuracy. April 29 – The United States announces the withdrawal of troops stationed in Saudi Arabia, may 11 Benvenuto Cellinis Cellini Salt Cellar table sculpture is stolen from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Lithuania approves joining the European Union in a referendum, may 12 – In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 30 people are killed in multiple bombings at a housing compound, mostly foreign expatriates. May 17 – Slovakia approves joining the European Union in a referendum, may 23 – Dewey, the first deer cloned by scientists at Texas A&M University, is born. May 28 – Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists, is born, june 8 – Poland approves joining the European Union in a referendum. June 14 – The Czech Republic approves joining the European Union in a referendum, june 30 – Warring parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo sign a peace accord, bringing an end to the Second Congo War, which left millions dead. July 5 – Severe acute respiratory syndrome is declared to be contained by the World Health Organization, july 18 – The Convention on the Future of Europe finishes its work and proposes the first European Constitution. July 24 – The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands, led by Australia, august 11 The Second Liberian Civil War comes to end after President Charles Taylor resigns and flees the country2003 – Richard Crenna
140. 2002 – 2002 was designated as, International Year of Ecotourism International Year of Mountains January 1 The Open Skies mutual surveillance treaty, initially signed in 1992, officially enters into force. The Euro is officially introduced in the Eurozone countries, the former currencies of all the countries that use the Euro ceased to be legal tender on February 28. January 3 – The Israeli Navy seizes a cargo ship trafficking 50 tons of weapons to the Palestinian National Authority, January 18 – The Sierra Leone Civil War comes to a conclusion with the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front by government forces. February 6 – Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom celebrates her Golden Jubilee, February 8–24 – The 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Salt Lake City, Utah. February 12 – The trial of Slobodan Milošević, the former President of Yugoslavia, February 19 – NASAs 2001 Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system. February 22 – UNITA guerilla leader Jonas Savimbi is killed in clashes against government troops led by Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos in Moxico Province and his death leads to the end of the Angolan Civil War on April 4. March 1 – The Envisat environmental satellite is launched, with its purpose being the recording of information on environmental change, April 2 – Israeli forces besiege the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, when militants took shelter there. The siege would last for 38 days, April 15 – Air China Flight 129 crashes into a hillside during heavy rain and fog near Busan, South Korea, killing 129 people. April 25 – South African Mark Shuttleworth blasts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on the Soyuz TM-34, may 9 – A remote-control bomb explodes during a holiday parade in Kaspiysk, Russia, killing 44 people and injuring at least 130 more. May 20 – East Timor regains its independence after 26 years of occupation by Indonesia since 1975, may 31–June 30 – The 2002 FIFA World Cup begins in South Korea and Japan, which is won by Brazil. June 6 – An object with a diameter of 10 meters collides with Earth over the Mediterranean. June 10 – The first direct electronic communication experiment between the systems of two humans, is carried out by Kevin Warwick in the United Kingdom. June 24 – A passenger train collides with a train in Dodoma Region, Tanzania, killing 281 people. July 1 The Rome Statute comes into force, thereby establishing the International Criminal Court, a Russian passenger jet and cargo plane collide over the town of Überlingen, Germany, killing 71 people. July 9 – The Organization of African Unity is disbanded and replaced by the African Union, august 26 – Earth Summit 2002 begins in Johannesburg, South Africa, aimed at discussing sustainable development by the United Nations. September 10 – Switzerland joins the United Nations as the 190th member state after rejecting a place in 1986, september 19 – General Robert Guéï leads an army mutiny in an attempt to overthrow Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo, plunging the country in to civil war. September 25 – The Vitim event, a bolide impact, occurs in Irkutsk Oblast. September 26 – The Senegalese passenger ferry Joola capsizes in a storm off the coast of the Gambia, september 27 – East Timor is admitted to the United Nations as the 191st member state2002 – Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft
141. 2001 – 2001 was designated as, International Year of Volunteers January 1 – Kolkata officially restores name from Calcutta, West Bengal, India. January 10 – The U. S. Federal Trade Commission approves the merger of America Online and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner. January 13 – A7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people, January 15 – Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online. January 20 George W. Bush is sworn in as President of the United States, impeachment proceedings against Philippine President Joseph Estrada, accused of playing Jueteng, end preeminently and trigger the second EDSA People Power Revolution or People Power II. His Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeds him as the 14th President of the Republic, January 23 – The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident occurs. January 26 – The 7.7 Mw Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X, leaving 13, 805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured. January 31 – The Congressional Budget Office of the United States forecasts a $5,600,000,000,000 budget surplus for the next 10 years, February 9 – The submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Japanese fishing vessel Ehime-Maru near Hawaii. February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the region of 433 Eros. February 13 – A6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, February 16 – Iraq disarmament crisis, British and U. S. forces carry out bombing raids, attempting to disable Iraqs air defense network. February 18 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years, February 20 – The 2001 UK foot-and-mouth crisis begins. February 28 – The Great Heck rail crash occurs, march 2 – The Taliban begins destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas. March 4 – A bomb explodes at BBC Television Centre in London, march 23 The deorbit of Russian space station Mir is carried out near Nadi, Fiji, with Mir falling into the Pacific Ocean. The World Wrestling Federation purchases rival organization World Championship Wrestling for an estimated US$7 million. March 24 - The first release of Mac OS X is released as the successor to Mac OS9 and the Mac OS X Public Beta, which would not cease to function until May 14. April 1 Hainan Island incident, A Chinese fighter jet bumps into a U. S. EP-3E surveillance aircraft, the U. S. crew is detained for 10 days and the F-8 Chinese pilot, Wang Wei, goes missing and is presumed dead. Former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, in the Netherlands, the Act on the Opening up of Marriage goes into effect. The Act allows same-sex couples to marry legally for the first time in the world since the reign of Nero, april 28 – Soyuz TM-32 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying the first space tourist, American Dennis Tito. May 6 – Space tourist Dennis Tito returns to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-31, may 7 – In Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, an attempt is made to reconstruct the Ferhadija mosque. However, the results in mass riots by Serb nationalists2001 – September 11 attacks
142. 1998 – 1998 was designated as the International Year of the Ocean. January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation, January 4 – Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 4 January 1998 in Algeria, Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. January 6 – The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is launched into orbit around the Moon, January 8 – Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to life in prison for planning the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993. January 11 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria, January 12 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. January 14 – Ralph Guarino is arrested for attempting to rob a Bank of America bank in the World Trade Center. January 17 – The Drudge Report breaks the story about U. S. President Bill Clintons alleged affair with Monica Lewinsky, January 20 – Nepalese police intercept a shipment of 272 human skulls in Kathmandu. January 22 – Suspected Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski pleads guilty, and accepts a sentence of life without the possibility of parole, January 28 Gunmen hold at least 400 children and teachers hostage for several hours, at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines. Stade de France, as well for sports venues of France, officially opened in Saint-Denis, suburb of Paris. February 3 – Cavalese cable car disaster, a United States military pilot causes the deaths of 20 people near Trento, Italy, february 4 – The 5.9 Mw Afghanistan earthquake shakes the Takhar Province with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. With 2,323 killed, and 818 injured, damage is considered extreme, february 7–22 – The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan. February 16 – China Airlines Flight 676 crashes into an area near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport. February 28 – A massacre in Likoshane, FR Yugoslavia starts the Kosovo War, march 1 – Titanic becomes the first film to gross US$1 billion. March 2 Data sent from the Galileo probe indicates that Jupiters moon Europa has an ocean under a thick crust of ice. In Austria, Natascha Kampusch is abducted by Wolfgang Přiklopil, march 5 – NASA announces that the Clementine probe orbiting the Moon has found enough water in polar craters to support a human colony and rocket fueling station. March 11 – Danish parliamentary election,1998, Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen is re-elected, march 13 – The High-Z Supernova Search Team becomes the first team to publish evidence that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. March 23 – The 70th Academy Awards ceremony, hosted for the 6th time by Billy Crystal, is held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, Titanic wins 11 Oscars including Best Picture. March 24 – First Computer-assisted Bone Segment Navigation, performed at the University of Regensburg, march 26 – Oued Bouaicha massacre in Algeria,52 people are killed with axes and knives,32 of the killed are babies under the age of 2. March 27 – Sildenafil, sold as Viagra and developed by Pfizer, is approved as the first oral treatment for erectile dysfunction in the USA by the Food, march 31 – Netscape released Mozilla source code under an open source license1998 – New rubles