|Topics in the news|
|Topics in the news|
1. Turkey – Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The Aegean Sea is to the south. The Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location between Europe and Asia has retained its strategic importance throughout history. Turkey has been inhabited by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia in 1243 when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. The empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Suspended by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1878, parliament were restored with the Young Turk Revolution on 24 July 1908. Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina on 6 October 1908. During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. Turkey's official language is a Turkic language spoken natively by 84.5 % of the population. According to polls, between 78.1% and 81.3% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities.Turkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
2. Parliamentary system – In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a different person from the head of government. The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in Sweden. As King George I he chose ministers of the government; however, he initially spoke no English. This shifted first minister, who de facto chaired the cabinet. During his reign, Parliament's role in deciding who the king could ask to form a government gradually increased. Later, the Great Reform Act of 1832 was accompanied by increasing parliamentary dominance, with Parliament always deciding, prime. Another possibility is unicameralism with just one parliamentary chamber. Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems. The Westminster system is usually found in the Commonwealth of countries which were influenced by the British political tradition. The plenary session of parliament is more important than committees. The Australian House of Representatives is elected using instant-runoff voting, while the Senate is elected using proportional representation through transferable vote. Regardless of which system is used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a closed list. The Western parliamentary model tends to have a more consensual debating system, usually has semi-circular debating chambers. Consensus systems have more of a tendency to use proportional representation with open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber.Parliamentary system – The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
3. Aleppo – Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. For centuries, Aleppo was the Syrian region's largest city and the Ottoman Empire's third-largest, after Constantinople and Cairo. Aleppo is an ancient metropolis, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world; it may have been inhabited since the 6th millennium BC. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. The city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. In the 1940s, it lost its main access to the sea, Antioch and Alexandretta, also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks. Since the Battle of Aleppo started in 2012, the city has suffered massive destruction, has been the worst-hit city in the Syrian Civil War. Modern-day English-speakers commonly refer to the city as Aleppo. It was known in antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea. During the Crusades, again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923-1946, the name Alep was used. Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this.Aleppo – Ancient City of Aleppo Aleppo Citadel • The entrance to al-Madina Souq Great Mosque of Aleppo • Baron Hotel Saint Elias Cathedral • Queiq River Panorama of Aleppo at night
4. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. In 2016, the Indian economy was the world's sixth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing parity. Following economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, inadequate public healthcare. It has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River.India – Flag
5. State-sponsored terrorism – State-sponsored terrorism is government support of violent non-state actors engaged in terrorism. Because of the pejorative nature of the word, the identification of particular examples are usually subject to political dispute. India has been accused by Pakistan, Sri Lanka of supporting terrorism and carrying out "economic sabotage" in their respective countries. The first batch of Tigers were trained in Establishment 22 based in Chakrata, Uttarakhand. The second batch, including LTTE intelligence chief Pottu Amman, trained in Himachal Pradesh. Prabakaran visited the first and the second batch of Tamil Tigers to see them training. Eight other batches of LTTE were trained in Tamil Nadu. Thenmozhi Rajaratnam alias Dhanu, who carried out the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi and Sivarasan—the key conspirator were among the militants trained by RAW, in Nainital, India. These Indian trained groups later carried out some of the most devastating terrorist attacks in Sri Lanka. Brahamdagh Bugti stated in a 2008 interview that he would accept aid from India in his terrorist activities in Baluchistan. In August 2013 US Special Representative James Dobbins said Pakistan's fears over India's role in Afghanistan were “not groundless". Another cable dating back to 2009 showed that UAE officials believed India was secretly supporting Tehreek-e-Taliban insurgents and separatists in northwest Pakistan. Former United States President George W. Bush has described the Iranian regime the "world's primary state sponsor of terror." The'Lavon Affair' refers to a failed Israeli covert operation, code named'Operation Susannah', conducted in Egypt in the Summer of 1954. The bombs were timed to detonate several hours after closing time.State-sponsored terrorism – A mural in Belfast graphically depicting the collusion between British security forces and Ulster loyalist groups.
6. Golf – Golf, unlike most ball games, does not require a standardized area. The game is played on a course with an arranged progression of either 18 holes. A putting green containing the actual hole or cup. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed ball. Others cite chuiwan as a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries. The game is thought to have been introduced during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France. The Persian chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in a year earlier. To many golfers, the Old Course at a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. The levels of grass are varied to allow for putting in the case of the green. This is commonly called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee.Golf – A golfer in the finishing position after hitting a tee shot
7. Justin Rose – Justin Peter Rose is an English professional golfer who plays most of his golf on the PGA Tour, while keeping his membership on the European Tour. At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, he won gold at the men's individual tournament. In March 2012, as a result he re-entered the world top 10. After finishing second to Tiger Woods in the 2013 Arnold Palmer Invitational, Rose rose to a career high ranking of 3rd. He was a plus three handicap by 14. Rose played as a 17-year-old. At the age of 17, he burst at 1998 Open Championship at Royal Birkdale. Rose holed a dramatic shot on the 18th hole to finish in a tie for fourth. Rose won the silver medal for the low amateur. He turned professional. He works as an ambassador to the STRI's Golf Environment Awards, hosting receptions for winners. He married a former international gymnast, in December 2006. A riverside flat in the London suburb of Putney. Kate gave birth to their first child, Leo, in February 2009. In January 2012, they had Lottie.Justin Rose – Justin Rose
8. Michele Scarponi – Michele Scarponi is an Italian professional road bicycle racer, currently riding for UCI ProTeam Astana. In 2006, Scarponi was implicated in the Operación Puerto doping case. Despite Scarponi's Liberty Seguros -- Würth cycling team folding, Scarponi was able to secure a contract with Acqua & Sapone. Despite a promising start to the 2007 season, Scarponi was again implicated in the Operación Puerto case. On 8 Scarponi confessed his role in the case. On 15 Scarponi was provisionally suspended. With the rider completing his ban, Diquigiovanni–Androni announced on 13 June 2008 that they had signed Scarponi for the coming two seasons. In 2009, Scarponi also won 2 stages in the Giro d'Italia. In 2010, he awarded a second-place finish in the Tirreno-Adriatico. He also finished fourth overall in the Giro d'Italia. Scarponi also achieved a victory in the Settimana Ciclistica Lombarda. In 2011, Scarponi moved to Lampre -- ISD where he won the Volta a Catalunya. Then in the Giro d'Italia he finished second overall behind Alberto Contador. Contador was later stripped from the title, therefore assigned to Scarponi. He then later finished 4th overall with Canadian Ryder Hesjedal taking the overall win.Michele Scarponi – Scarponi at the 2014 Tour de San Luis
9. Aaron Hernandez – Aaron Josef Hernandez is a former American football tight end and convicted murderer. He was recognized as an All-American. Hernandez was drafted in the fourth round of the 2010 NFL Draft. He was released by the Patriots immediately after his arrest for the murder of Odin Lloyd. On August 2013, he was indicted by a grand jury for the murder of Odin Lloyd, a semi-professional football player, in June 2013. On May 2014, he was indicted for the 2012 double homicide of Daniel de Abreu and Safiro Furtado. Aaron Hernandez was born to Dennis Hernandez, of Puerto Rican descent, Terri Valentine-Hernandez, of Italian descent. Dennis died from hernia surgery in January 2006 when Aaron was 16. According to Aaron's mother, his father's death greatly affected the younger Hernandez, leading him to rebel against authority figures. Hernandez played for the Rams as a wide receiver. His 31 career touchdowns tied the state record. He was considered the tight end recruit in 2007 by Scout.com. As a freshman in 2007, he started three games for the Florida Gators. Hernandez finished the season for 151 yards and two touchdowns. Hernandez was recognized as a first-team All-American by the Associated Press, College Football News and The Sporting News.Aaron Hernandez – Hernandez with the Patriots in 2011
10. Rosey (wrestler) – He is the real-life brother of the current WWE United States Championship Roman Reigns A member of the Anoaʻi family, a renowned Samoan wrestling family. Anoaʻi. Along with his late cousin's Eddie Fatu and Matt Fatu, was trained at the Wild Samoan Training Facility headed by Afa Anoaʻi. Following his training, he competed in Afa's World Xtreme Wrestling promotion. He began competing as the Samoan Gangsta Party. The team had a brief stint in Extreme Championship Wrestling. Throughout the mid-1990s, Anoaʻi competed in independent promotions, winning various tag team championships. In 2001, Anoaʻi was assigned to Heartland Wrestling Association in Cincinnati, Ohio. The duo won the HWA Tag Team Championship. After signing with WWE in 2002, Anoaʻi and Fatu were called up to the Raw roster. Known as the 3-Minute Warning, they were utilised as enforcers for then-General Manager Eric Bischoff. After two years of teaming, they disbanded shortly after losing the championship. Anoaʻi was then released in March 2006. Aside from professional wrestling, Anoaʻi runs a restaurant. Anoaʻi is part of the Anoaʻi family.Rosey (wrestler) – Anoaʻi as Rosey at SummerSlam 2005
11. War in Donbass – The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. Prior to a change of the top leadership in August 2014, the separatists were largely led by Russian citizens. During the middle of 2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% and 80% of the combatants. These events followed the reported shelling of Ukrainian positions from the Russian side of the border over the course of the preceding month. Head of the Security Service of Ukraine, Valentyn Nalyvaichenko said that the events of 22 August were a "direct invasion by Russia of Ukraine". Ukrainian officials described these events by Russia. Russian President Vladimir Putin justified the incursion as'defending the Russian-speaking population in the Donbass'. As a result of this, DPR and LPR insurgents regained much of the territory they had lost during the preceding government military offensive. A deal to establish a ceasefire, called the Minsk Protocol, was signed on 5 September 2014. Violations of the ceasefire on both sides were common. The ceasefire completely collapsed in January 2015, including at Debaltseve. A new ceasefire, called Minsk II, was agreed to on 12 February 2015. Immediately following the signing of the agreement, separatist forces launched an offensive on Debaltseve and forced Ukrainian forces to withdraw from it. In the months after the fall of Debaltseve, minor skirmishes continued along the line of contact, but no territorial changes occurred. A new ceasefire of 1 September 2016 reduced combat until 9 September, when Ukrainian authorities reported the death of a soldier.War in Donbass – Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk, 9 March 2014
12. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
13. Land mine – A mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both. The name originates from the ancient practice of military mining, where tunnels were dug under enemy fortifications or troop formations. Nowadays, in common parlance, land mines generally refer to devices specifically manufactured as anti-vehicle weapons. The use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons. They can remain many years after a conflict has ended, harming the economy and civilians. To date, 162 nations have signed the treaty. To act as area-denial weapons. As of 2013, the only governments that still laid land mines were Syria in its civil war. Land mines continue to injure at least 4,300 people every year, even decades after the ends of the conflicts for which they were placed. The invention of this detonated "enormous bomb" was credited to one Lou Qianxia of the 13th century. The wad of the mine was made of hard wood, carrying three different fuses to the touch hole. Boiling oil is next left there for some time before being removed. The fuse is compressed into it to form an explosive mine. A trench five feet in depth is dug. The fuse is connected to a device which ignites them when disturbed.Land mine – Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
14. Luhansk – The city of Luhansk or Lugansk, formerly known as Voroshilovgrad, functions as the administrative center of Luhansk Oblast in easternmost Ukraine. The city itself is also designated as city of oblast significance. Population: 425,848 . Luhansk has been controlled by the forces of the Luhansk People's Republic since 2014. After the rebels captured Luhansk the administration of Luhansk Oblast was moved to Sievierodonetsk. The city traces its history to 1795 when the British industrialist Charles Gascoigne founded a factory near the Zaporizhian Cossacks settlement Kamianyi Brid. The settlement around the factory was known as Luganskiy Zavod. In 1882 Luganskiy Zavod was merged with the town of Kamianyi Brid into the city of Luhansk. Located in the Donets Basin, Luhansk developed into an industrial center of Eastern Europe, particularly as a home to the major locomotive-building company Luhanskteplovoz. The city was occupied by Nazi Germany between February 14, 1943. On November 1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovgrad in honour of Soviet military commander and politician Kliment Voroshilov. On March 1958, with the call of Khrushchev not to give names of living people to cities, the old name was reinstated. After the death of Voroshilov on December 2, 1969, the name changed again to Voroshilovgrad. Finally, on May 1990, a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city back its original name. During the 2014 protests in Eastern Ukraine, separatists seized governmental buildings in the region, proclaiming the Luhansk People's Republic.Luhansk – (During 2014 and 2015 Luhansk has been the scene of much fighting and most of these structures are damaged to some extent)
15. Yonhap – Yonhap News Agency is South Korea's largest news agency. It is a publicly funded company, based in South Korea. Yonhap provides news articles, other information to newspapers, TV networks and other media in South Korea. Yonhap was established through the merger of Hapdong News Agency and Orient Press. It also has a services-exchange agreement with North Korea's Korean Central News Agency agency, signed in 2002. Yonhap was elected twice to the board of the Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies. Yonhap is South Korea's only agency large enough to have more than 60 correspondents abroad and 580 reporters across the nation. Its largest shareholder is the Korea News Agency Commission. In 2003, the South Korean government passed a law giving systematic assistance to the agency, to reinforce staff and provide equipment. In the legislation, it was also been given the role of “promoting the country's image” to an international audience. The head of the Yonhap agency is usually affiliated with the government, which critics say harms press influences news-gathering. However. It is affiliation, rather than press laws, said to be the cause of any limitations, though the agency does criticise the government. Yonhap employs the largest number after the Korean Broadcasting System at home. It claims producing the greatest amount of foreign dispatches among Korean media.Yonhap – Yonhap News Agency
16. North Korea – North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation's capital as well as its largest city. To northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. The country is bordered to the south with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone separating the two. The earliest human artifacts found in North Korea have been dated to 8000 BC. There were three kingdoms flourishing on the peninsula in the 1st BC. The name Korea is derived from the Kingdom of Goguryeo, also spelled as Koryŏ, one of East Asia's greatest empires. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. No official peace treaty was ever signed. Both states were accepted in 1991. The DPRK officially formally holds elections. Critics regard it as a dictatorship. Various outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around his family. International organizations have assessed human violations in North Korea as belonging to a category of their own, with no parallel in the contemporary world. Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world movement.North Korea – Jikji, the first known book printed with movable metal type in 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris
17. American people – Americans are citizens of the United States of America. The country is home to people of many national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with citizenship and allegiance. Although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, expatriates may also claim an American identity. See Names for United States citizens. It also includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia, Latin America has also had impact. Pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States, people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora. The United States of America is a diverse country, ethnically. "Some other race" is also an option in other surveys. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, North Africa.American people – John F. Kennedy (Irish)
18. Kenya – Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community. Largest city is Nairobi. Kenya had a population of approximately 45 million people in July 2014. Kenya has a humid tropical climate on its Indian Ocean coastline. The climate is especially closer to Mount Kenya, which has snow permanently on its peaks. This gives way to forested hilly areas in the neighbouring western region. The north-eastern regions along the border with Somalia and Ethiopia are semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes. Kenya has several heritage sites such as Lamu and numerous beaches, including in Diani, Bamburi and Kilifi, where international yachting competitions are held every year. The African Great Lakes region, which Kenya is a part of, has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic period. By the first millennium AD, the Bantu expansion had reached the area from West-Central Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of the nation's residents. Arab presence in coastal Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period; European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century. The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, which starting in 1920 gave way to the Kenya Colony. Kenya obtained independence in December 1963. Following adoption of a new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties, governed by elected governors.Kenya – A giraffe at Nairobi National Park, with Nairobi's skyline in background
19. French presidential election, 2017 – The first round of the 2017 French presidential election will be held on 23 April 2017. Should no candidate win an outright majority, a run-off between the top two will be held on 7 May 2017. Incumbent president François Hollande of the Socialist Party declined to do so on 1 December 2016. The Socialist Party will hold a presidential primary in January 2017. Fillon will be the party's nominee for the presidential race. The leader of the far-right National Front, is the third significant frontrunner in the presidential race. In May 2015, the Union for a Popular Movement changed its name to The Republicans. On 1 President François Hollande announced he will not run for a second and final term. The decision is not completely unexpected due to Hollande's low approval ratings. In his announcement, Hollande stated that he did not want to further divide the left. In June 2016 it was announced that the Socialist Party would choose their candidate in an open primary, as happened in 2011. French legislative election, 2017French presidential election, 2017 – France
20. President of France – The President of the French Republic, is the executive head of state of the French Fifth Republic. The current President of France is François Hollande, who took office on 15 May 2012. Hollande has announced that he will stand down in the upcoming 2017 presidential election. President Chirac was first again in 2002. At that time, there was no limit on the number of terms, so Chirac chose not to. Article was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 16 May 2007. François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac are the only Presidents to date who have served a full two terms. In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed nominations from more than 500 elected officials, mostly mayors. Furthermore, each official may nominate only one candidate. There are exactly 45,543 elected officials, including 33,872 mayors. Spending and financing of political parties are highly regulated. There is a cap on spending, government public financing of 50 % of spending if the candidate scores more than 5 %. If the candidate receives less than 5% of the vote, the government funds €8,000,000 to the party. Official time is given to candidates on public TV. An independent agency regulates election and financing.President of France – Presidential emblem
21. Pope Francis – He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and nightclub bouncer before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He was accused of handing two priests to the National Reorganization Process during the Dirty War, but the lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998, was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March. Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor, commitment to interfaith dialogue. He maintains that the church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, euthanasia, contraception, homosexuality, ordination of women, priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores, a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italy's Piedmont region.Pope Francis – Pope Francis
22. Christian – A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. "Christian" derives from a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach. While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance. The term "Christian" is used adjectivally to describe anything associated in a proverbial sense "all, noble, good, Christ-like." According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world's largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue. About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic, while more than a third are Protestant. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the world's Christians. Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in territories. Million Christian live as a minority. Christians have made a myriad contributions in a broad and diverse range including the sciences, arts, politics, literatures and business. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used meaning" anointed." In European languages, equivalent words to Christian are likewise derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.Christian – Set of pictures for a number of famous Christians from various fields.
23. Nazism – Nazism subscribed to theories of Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as Nordic race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of "racial purity". The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both international socialism and free market capitalism. The Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers' Party to broaden its appeal. The full name of Adolf Hitler's party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. The shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word "national". It derived from Ignaz, being a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria, the area from which the Nazis emerged. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the party's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi". The NSDAP briefly soon generally avoided while in power. On was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the term spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a common name for the ideology the party advocated; a rarer alternative spelling, though representing a common pronunciation, is Naziism. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics. Far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements.Nazism – Foreground, left to right: Führer Adolf Hitler; Hermann Göring; Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels; Rudolf Hess
24. Communism – Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include the political ideologies grouped around both. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to this analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production. There are historical groups, as well as theorists, whose beliefs have subsequently been described as communist. German philosopher Karl Marx saw primitive communism as the original, hunter-gatherer state of humankind from which it arose. For Marx, only after humanity was capable of producing surplus, did private property develop. The idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece. Examples include the Spartacus slave revolt in Rome. However, Spartacus’s revolt was not a real communist movement, but rather a fight for human rights. Similar clashes took place without leading to an establishment of communist governments. The Civil War against slavery in America is a good example. The real movement took place in 490 -- 520 CE, in territories that comprise present-day Iran. It was organized by a religious activist named Mazdak, for whom the movement was named. At another, small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, religious orders shared their land and other property. Communist thought has also been traced back to the work of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More.Communism – Vladimir Lenin after his return to Petrograd
25. Dictator – A dictator is a ruler who wields absolute power. A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency. They may be apolitical. Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now. A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. As late as the second half of the 19th Century, the term "Dictator" had positive implications. For example, when creating a provisional executive in Sicily in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator". During the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was also the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski. Past that time, however, "Dictator" assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, "dictatorship" is often associated with oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse for political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators have come to favor increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours for themselves. In The Great Dictator, Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself.Dictator – Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943.
26. Terrorism – Terrorism is, in its broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological aim. It is classified as a violent crime. In modern times, terrorism is therefore illegal under anti-terrorism laws in most jurisdictions. A broad array of political organizations have practiced terrorism to further their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups, ruling governments. The symbolism of terrorism can exploit human fear to help achieve these goals. According to data from the Global Terrorism Database, more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism claiming over 140,000 lives have been recorded from 2000 to 2014. "Terrorism" comes from the French terrorisme, originally referred specifically to state terrorism as practiced by the French government during the 1793 -- 1794 Reign of Terror. The French terrorisme in turn derives from the Latin verb terrere meaning "to frighten". The Jacobins, coming in 1792, are said to have initiated the Reign of Terror. After the Jacobins lost power, the word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev, who described himself as a "terrorist". Nechayev founded the terrorist group "People's Retribution" in 1869. The lack of consensus as to what a terrorist is can affect policies designed to deal with terrorists. Others view them as criminals that should be tried in civil courts.Terrorism – United Airlines Flight 175, which had been taken over by hijackers, hits the South Tower of the former World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, in New York City, United States.
27. San Bartolomeo all'Isola – The Basilica of St. Bartholomew on the Island is a titular minor basilica, located in Rome, Italy. It was founded by Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor. Its Cardinal priest has been November 2016. In Roman times, the Temple of Aesculapius stood on the site of the modern church. The entire Isola Tiberina had actually been covered in marble in an effort to make the look like a ship. The prow can still be seen today. Emperor Otto built this church, initially dedicated to his Adalbert of Prague. It was renovated upon the arrival of the relics of the apostle Bartholomew. The relics were sent from Benevento, where they had arrived from Armenia in 809. The relics are located within an ancient Roman porphyry bathtub under the main altar. The wellhead bears the figures of the Savior, Adalbert and Bartholomew and Otto III. The church was reconstructed, with its present Baroque façade, in 1624, to designs of Orazio Torriani. Further restorations were undertaken in 1852. The interior of the church preserves two lion supports that date from the earliest reconstruction of the basilica. The inscriptions found in S. Bartolomeo, a valuable source illustrating the history of the Basilica, have been published by Vincenzo Forcella.San Bartolomeo all'Isola – Façade of San Bartolomeo all'Isola on the Tiber Island
28. Muslim – A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows or practises the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. Muslims consider the Quran to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to messenger Muhammad. They also follow the sunnah practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts called hadith. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits". A female Muslim is sometimes called a Muslimah. Most Muslims will accept anyone who has publicly pronounced the declaration of faith as a Muslim. The shahadah states: the God and Muhammad is the last messenger of the God. The testimony authorized in the Quran can found in Surah 3:18 states. "There is no god except God", which in Arabic, is the exact testimony which God Himself utters, also those who possess knowledge utter. A female adherent is a muslima. Its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The Arabic muslimun is the stem IV participle of the triliteral S-L-M. A female Muslim can variously be called in their Arabic form of Muslimah, also spelled Muslima, Muslimette, Muslimess or, simply, the standard term: Muslim. General alternative designations given to Muslims include mosquegoer, masjidgoer, or archaic, dated and obsolete terms such as Muslimite or Muslimist. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim".Muslim – Afghan Muslims praying inside Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
29. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe. Greece's population is approximately million as of 2015. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, Africa. Greece consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands. The Aegean Sea lies to the south. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. The establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church in the first century transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is one of the most visited the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.Greece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
30. Refugee camp – A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations. There are also camps for internally displaced persons. Some camps also house environmental - and economic migrants. Camps with over a thousand people are common, but as of 2012 the average-sized camp housed around 11,400. They are usually run by a government, the United Nations, international organizations, or NGOs. Refugee camps generally develop in an impromptu fashion with the aim of meeting human needs for only a short time. Facilities that feel more permanent are often prohibited by host country governments. If the return of refugees is prevented, a humanitarian crisis can continue. According to UNHCR, the majority of refugees worldwide do not live in refugee camps. At the end of 2015, some 67 per cent of refugees around the world lived in private accommodations. This can be partly explained by the high number of Syrian refugees renting apartments in urban agglomerations across the Middle East. Worldwide, slightly over a quarter of refugees was reported to be living in planned/managed camps. In urban locations, the overwhelming majority of refugees lived compared with less than 1 per cent who lived in a planned/managed camp. A small percentage of refugees also live in self-settled camps. The average size is recommended by the UNHCR to be 45 sqm per person of accessible camp area.Refugee camp – Refugee camp (located in present-day eastern Congo-Kinshasa) for Rwandans following the Rwandan Genocide of 1994.
31. American Airlines – American Airlines, Inc. commonly referred to as American, is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passenger-kilometres flown, the second largest by number of destinations served. Regional service is operated under the name of American Eagle. American operates out of ten hubs located in New York-LaGuardia. American operates its primary base to the maintenance locations located at its hubs. Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in Dallas is American's largest passenger carrying hub handling 51.1 million passengers annually with an average of 140,000 passengers daily. The company as of 2015 employs over 113,300 people. Through American Airlines Group, it is publicly traded under NASDAQ: AAL with a capitalization of over $40.99 billion as of 2015. American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty miniature airlines. The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. The former was first formed with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001. Due to a downturn in the industry, American Airlines and AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, US Airways acquired American Airlines.American Airlines – 1927 American Airways FC-2
32. San Francisco – San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area. It is located on the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the smallest county in the state. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. As of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the independent homestead, near a anchorage around what is Portsmouth Square. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later.San Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
33. Dallas – Proper ranks ninth in the U.S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. The city's prominence arose as a center for the oil and cotton industries, its position along numerous railroad lines. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 1,197,816. The United States Census Bureau's estimate for the city's population increased to 1,300,092 as of July 2015. In 2014, the metropolitan economy surpassed Washington, DC to become the fifth largest in the United States, over $504 billion. As of June 2016, the metropolitan count has increased to 3,523,400 jobs. The city's economy is primarily based on banking, commerce, telecommunications, technology, energy, healthcare and medical research, logistics. The city is home to the third-largest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the nation. Later, France never established much settlement. In 1836, the Republic with majority Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico to become a distinct nation. In 1839, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. John Neely Bryan established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841. The origin of the name is uncertain. Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 1856.Dallas – Top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Dallas skyline, Old Red Museum, NorthPark Center, Dallas City Hall, Dallas Museum of Art, Winspear Opera House, Perot Museum of Nature and Science, State Fair of Texas at Fair Park, Dallas Union Station, the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, and the American Airlines Center
34. Baby transport – Various methods of transporting children have been used in different cultures and times. These methods include prams, infant car seats, portable bassinets, strollers, slings, backpacks, bicycle carriers. The heavy prams, which had become popular during the Victorian era, were replaced by lighter designs during the latter half of the 1900s. William Kent developed an early stroller in 1733. In 1733, the Duke of Devonshire asked Kent to build a means of transport that would carry his children. Kent obliged by constructing a shell shaped basket on wheels that the children could sit in. This was richly meant to be pulled by a goat or small pony. These included adding a brake to carriages, a model which folded, designs for an umbrella hanger. By 1840, the carriage became extremely popular. Queen Victoria bought three carriages from Hitchings Baby Store. The carriages of those days were held together by expensive brass joints. These sometimes became heavily ornamented works of art. Models were also named after royalty, Princess and Duchess being popular names, well as Balmoral and Windsor. In June 1889, William H. Richardson patented his idea of the reversible stroller. The bassinet was designed so it could face in towards the parent.Baby transport – A travois being used to transport infants
35. Salman of Saudi Arabia – Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is King of Saudi Arabia, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and the head of the House of Saud. Salman served for 48 years from 1963 to 2011. Salman was then appointed as Minister of Defence. Salman was also named the Crown Prince following the death of his brother Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. He was crowned as the new King of Saudi Arabia on 23 January 2015 following the death of King Abdullah. He is reported to be the 25th son of Ibn Saud. His six brothers make up what is referred to as the Sudairi Seven. Salman was raised in the Murabba Palace. Salman studied modern science. He was first appointed as deputy governor of Riyadh Province in 1954 when he was 19 years old and held the post until 1955. Salman was appointed governor of Riyadh Province on 4 February 1963. His tenure lasted from 1963 to 2011. As governor, Salman contributed to the development of Riyadh into a major urban metropolis. Salman served as an important liaison to attract tourism, foreign investment to his country. Salman favored economic relationships with the West.Salman of Saudi Arabia – Salman as Governor of Riyadh in 2007
36. Price of oil – Heavier, crude oils lacking in tidewater access -- such as Western Canadian Select -- are less expensive than lighter, sweeter oil -- such as WTI. It was explained by the rising demand in countries like China and India. On December 2008, WTI crude oil spot price fell to US$30.28 a barrel, the lowest since the financial crisis of 2007 -- 2010 began. The price sharply rose to US$82 a barrel in 2009. By February 2009 it sank beneath $40 a barrel. On 31 the Brent price hit $100 a barrel for the first time since October 2008, on concerns about the political unrest in Egypt. For about three and half years the price largely remained in the $90 -- range. In the middle of 2014, price started declining demand in the emerging countries. The glut -- caused by multiple factors -- spurred a sharp downward spiral in the price of oil that continued through February 2016. Indeed, bankruptcies "in the oil and industry could surpass levels seen in the Great Recession." As the global economy expands, so does demand for crude oil. In particular, political events can have a strong influence on the price. Historical examples include OPEC's 1973 embargo in reaction to the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Financial academics have had very few tools to study such political events compared to what is available on economic aspects of oil price formation. Both political instability in oil producing countries and conflicts with other countries can destabilise the oil price.Price of oil – Weekly reports on crude oil inventories or total stockpiles in storage facilities like these tanks have a strong bearing on oil prices
37. International relations – In practice International Relations and International Affairs forms a separate academic program or field from Political Science, the courses taught therein are highly interdisciplinary. Prior to this the European organization of political authority was based on a vaguely religious order. Contrary to popular belief, Westphalia still embodied layered systems of sovereignty, especially within the Holy Roman Empire. The centuries of roughly 1500 to 1789 saw the rise of the independent, sovereign states, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. Such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state. The term republic increasingly became its synonym. The same claim to sovereignty was made for both forms of nation-state. The European system supposing the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas, Asia via colonialism and the "standards of civilization". The international system was finally established during the Cold War. However, this is somewhat over-simplified. While the nation-state system is considered "modern", many states have not incorporated the system and are termed "pre-modern". Further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence on full sovereignty, can be considered "post-modern". The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states is disputed. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, is dealt with in more detail below. IR theory, however, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences.International relations – The Palace of Nations. In 2012 alone, the Palace of Nations hosted more than 10 000 intergovernmental meetings. Geneva (Switzerland) is the city that hosts the highest number of international organisations in the world.
38. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament. The name Holland is also incorrectly used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" literally influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 % of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below level are man-made. Since the 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 % of the country's current land mass. With a density of 408 people per km2 -- 505 if water is excluded -- the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, Taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. England at 420 people per km2 is also more densely populated when the total area of the Netherlands including water is used. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. This is partly due to the fertility of the mild climate. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union.Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
39. War crime – A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the law of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred. Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law. Additionally, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. Twelve villagers were smoked out, had their throats cut. He was hanged at the scene of the crime having been convicted of striking a blow to the head of John Fowler with an axe. Accordingly, states retain different values with regard to wartime conduct. Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Protocol III relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. A small number of military personnel of the First World War were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes. Several nations, most notably the United States, China, Israel, have criticized the court.War crime – Criminology and penology
40. Arms trafficking – Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the illegal trafficking or smuggling of contraband weapons or ammunition. What constitutes legal trade in firearms varies widely, depending on local and national laws. The 1999 Report of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms provides a more refined and precise definition, which has become internationally accepted. Ammunition and explosives also form an integral part of small arms and light weapons used in conflict. The suppression of gunrunning is one of the areas of increasing interest in the context of international law. The small arms market has been estimated at 10-20 % of the total global arms trade. Numerous other documentaries about arms trafficking are linked on this film's YouTube page. In the Grand Theft series, the player gains access to weaponry through illegal arms trading. In Grand Theft Auto V, all arms are available through the Ammunation gun stores. One of these underbosses, Cassandra, asks Lincoln Clay to hijack truck loaded with guns from the Dixie Mafia to be sold. Federation of American Scientists. "Arms Trafficking Data and Market". Havocscope Black Markets. CIA. Central American Arms Trafficking Report.Arms trafficking – A tower of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya
41. Lumber – Lumber, or timber is wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may also refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable and unwanted furniture. Lumber may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. Lumber has many other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, because 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and Britain, the timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes felled trees, before they are milled into boards, which are called lumber. Timber there also describes lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension. The latter includes the partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction. Remanufactured lumber is the result of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2x4 into two ten-foot 1x4s is considered resawing.Lumber – Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
42. Charles Taylor (Liberian politician) – After being removed for embezzlement, he eventually arrived in Libya, where he was trained as a guerilla fighter. Following Doe's execution, Taylor gained control of a large portion of the country and became one of the most prominent warlords in Africa. Following a peace deal that ended the war, Taylor was elected president in the 1997 general election. Domestically, opposition to his regime grew, culminating in the outbreak of the Second Liberian Civil War. By 2003, Taylor had lost control of much of the countryside and was formally indicted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Taylor resigned, as a result of growing international pressure, went in Nigeria. In 2006, the newly elected President, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, formally requested his extradition. Taylor was detained then at the Penitentiary Institution Haaglanden in The Hague awaiting trial by the Special Court. He was found guilty in April 2012 of all eleven charges levied including terror, rape. In May 2012, Taylor was sentenced to 50 years in prison. Taylor was born in Arthington, a town near the capital of Monrovia, Liberia, on 28 January 1948, to Nelson and Bernice Taylor. Taylor took the name "Ghankay" on, possibly to gain favor with indigenous Liberians. His mother was a member of the Gola ethnic group, part of the 95% of the people who are indigenous to Liberia. According to most reports, his father was an Americo-Liberian who worked as a teacher, judge. In 1977, Taylor earned a degree at Bentley College in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States.Charles Taylor (Liberian politician) – Newsboard documenting the Charles Taylor case.
43. Second Liberian Civil War – The group's shelling of the city resulted in the deaths of many civilians. Thousands of people were displaced as a result of the conflict. The First Liberian Civil War ended with 1997 in which Charles Taylor took power. The civil war began in April 1999, when Liberian dissidents under the banner of the Organization of Displaced Liberians invaded Liberia from Guinea. Guinea became LURD's main source of financial support. By July 2000, the dissident groups had coalesced as the LURD led by Sekou Conneh. The dissidents were thought to be mostly Mandinka and Krahn fighters of ULIMO-K. Simultaneous September 2000 counter-attacks on Sierra Leone by RUF -- still loyal to Taylor and Guinean dissidents -- achieved initial success. By January 2001, however, Taylor’s forces were pushed back inside Sierra Leone and Liberia. The insurgents were posing a major threat to the Taylor government. Liberia was now engaged in a three-way conflict with Sierra Leone and the Guinea Republic. By the beginning of 2002, both of these countries were supporting LURD, while Taylor was supporting various opposition factions in both countries. By supporting -- practically creating -- the Revolutionary United Front, Taylor also drew the enmity of the British and Americans. Taylor was forced to declare a state of emergency. In May, less than 20 kilometres from the capital, apparently prompted panic in Monrovia.Second Liberian Civil War – A technical with a mounted machine gun, Monrovia.
44. Emmanuel Macron – Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French senior civil servant, politician and former investment banker. On August 2014 he was appointed as the Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs in the Second Valls Government. He resigned on 30 August 2016, allegedly in order to launch a centrist bid in the 2017 presidential election. On 16 Macron declared that he would stand for president of France as an independent. Born in Amiens, Macron is the son of Jean-Michel Macron, Françoise Macron-Noguès, MD.. He studied piano for ten years. He was educated in Amiens before he continued at the élite high school Lycée Henri-IV in Paris. He studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Macron worked in the French Ministry of Economy between 2004 and 2008. In 2007, he served as deputy rapporteur for the Commission to improve French growth headed by Jacques Attali. He left at Rothschild & Cie Banque. While at Rothschild, he closed a high-profile deal between Nestlé and Pfizer which made a millionnaire. Macron was a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009. During an interview on BFM TV, he said that he wasn't a member of the PS any more. From 2012 to 2014, he was deputy general of the Élysée, a senior role in President Hollande's staff.Emmanuel Macron – Emmanuel Macron in 2015
45. Marine Le Pen – An attorney by profession, she is the youngest daughter of longtime FN leader Jean-Marie Le Pen. She is the aunt of Marion Maréchal-Le Pen. She then became the second president of the party. In 2012, she placed third behind François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy. She finally expelled her father from the party on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements. Le Pen was ranked among the most influential people in 2011 and 2015 by the Time 100. In 2016, she was ranked as second-most influential MEP in the European Parliament by Politico, just behind the President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz. Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen was born on 5 August 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. She is the youngest of the three daughters of a former paratrooper, with his first wife Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized 25 April 1969, at La Madeleine by Father Pohpot. Her godfather was Henri Botey, a relative of her father. She has two sisters: Yann and Marie Caroline. In 1976, Marine survived a bomb attack on the family as they slept in their beds. She was eight when a bomb meant for her father exploded in the stairwell outside the family's apartment. The blast ripped a hole into the outside wall of the building.Marine Le Pen – Marine Le Pen in 2014.
46. Riot police – Riot police are police who are organized, deployed, trained or equipped to confront crowds, protests or riots. Riot police are used for a variety of different purposes. In some cases, riot police may function by violently breaking up protests and suppressing dissent or civil disobedience. In recent decades, observers have noted the increasing militarization of protest policing, with police deploying snipers, flashbang grenades and guns with plastic bullets. Riot police often use special equipment termed gear to help protect themselves and attack others. Riot gear typically includes personal armor, batons, riot shields and riot helmets.Riot police – Rank of Icelandic National Police officers in full riot gear during the 2008 Icelandic lorry driver protests
47. Alternative for Germany – The Alternative for Germany is a right-wing populist and Eurosceptic political party in Germany. As of September 2016, the AfD had gained representation in ten of the 16 German state parliaments. The party is currently led by Jörg Meuthen. Their manifesto was endorsed by 68 economists, business leaders, half of whom were professors and three-quarters of whom had academic degrees. In February 2013 the group decided to found a new party to compete in the 2013 federal elections. The Free Voters leadership declined to join forces, according to a leaked email from Bernd Lucke. Advocating the abolition of the Euro, Alternative for Germany took a more radical stance than the Free Voters. Likewise, the Pirate Party of Germany opposed any coalition at their 2013 spring convention. Bernd Lucke, Konrad Adam were elected as speakers. The AfD federal board also chose three deputy speakers, Alexander Gauland, Patricia Casale. The party elected the three assessors Irina Smirnova, Beatrix Diefenbach and Wolf-Joachim Schünemann. Joachim Starbatty along with Jörn Kruse, Helga Luckenbach, Dirk Meyer and Roland Vaubel were elected to the party's scientific advisory board. Between 12 May 2013 the AfD founded affiliates in all 16 German states in order to participate in the federal elections. On 15 the Young Alternative for Germany was founded in Darmstadt as the AfD's youth organisation. In June 2013, Bernd Lucke gave a question and session organised by the Conservative Party-allied Bruges Group think tank in Portcullis House, London.Alternative for Germany – Konrad Adam (left), Frauke Petry and Bernd Lucke during the first AfD convention on 14 April 2013 in Berlin
48. Party conference – The terms party conference, political convention, party congress usually refer to a general meeting of a political party. The conference is attended by certain delegates who represent the membership. Caucus may also refer to the organization of all party members as a whole. The definitions of all of these terms vary greatly, depending on the situation in which they are used. Chairmanship — Chosen from within the body's membership to preside over its business. Secretary — Responsible for keeping minutes of the conference's proceedings. Policy committees — Responsible for setting and maintaining review of current party policy, preparing proposals for presentation to the full conference. Besides annual or biennial conventions, parties often hold special conventions to elect new leaders. Communist parties convene a congress to elect a Central Committee, which in turn sets up a Politburo. A Communist conference would have no such official powers. The Party Chairperson and Executive Board are elected. British Labour Party conference elects the National Executive Committee. Unique to the UK, the Liberal Democrat Party Conference decides policy, voted on by the membership. The membership also elects the Federal Executive. In the United States, the term conference is used to refer to the equivalent of parliamentary groups in other countries.Party conference – The chairman 's table at the Scottish Green Party 's Autumn conference in November 2007. Note the agenda displayed on the screen behind.
49. Cologne – Cologne is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-largest city in Germany. It is located with more than ten million inhabitants. Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less from Belgium. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. The University of Cologne is one of Europe's largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory from which it gets its name. The French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes in Europe. Cologne was one of one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Up until World War II the city had also by the British. The bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland; it hosts more than thirty museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, the Photokina.Cologne – From top to bottom, left to right: Hohenzollern Bridge by night, Great St. Martin Church, Colonius TV-tower, Cologne Cathedral, Kranhaus buildings in Rheinauhafen, MediaPark
50. Earth Day – Earth Day is an annual event, celebrated on April 22, on which day events worldwide are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. It is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network and celebrated in more than 193 countries each year. On Earth the landmark Paris Agreement is scheduled to be signed by the United States, China, some 120 other countries. This day of nature's equipoise was later sanctioned in a proclamation signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations. A separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work. Numerous communities celebrate an entire week of activities focused on the environmental issues that the world faces. More importantly, it "brought million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform." Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day into a day of action to provoke policy changes. In the winter of 1969–1970, a group of students met at Columbia University to hear Denis Hayes talk about his plans for Earth Day. Among the group were Fred Kent, Pete Grannis, Kristin and William Hubbard. This group agreed to head up the New York City activities within the national movement. Fred Kent took the lead in recruiting volunteers. "The big break came when Mayor Lindsay agreed to shut down Fifth Avenue for the event. A giant cheer went up in the office" according to Kristin Hubbard.Earth Day – U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking to an estimated 40–60,000 at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
51. Science – Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, physics reached their modern shapes. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of techniques for making poisonous plants edible, buildings such as the Pyramids. They were mainly theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides.Science – Maize, known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.
52. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
53. Coal – Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen. This involves geological processes that take place over time. The extraction of coal, its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change. Coal is extracted by coal mining. Since 1983, the world's top producer has been China. In 2011 China produced million tonnes of coal -- 49.5 % of 7,695 million tonnes world coal production. In 2011 large producers were United States, India, European Union and Australia. In Old Turkic languages, kül is "cinders", öčür is "quench". The compound "charcoal" in Turkic is kül, literally "quenched ashes, cinders, coals" with elided anlaut ö - and inflection affixes - ülmüş. The word took in the thirteenth century. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed.Coal – Anthracite coal
54. Fossil fuel – Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of their fossil fuels sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels include natural gas. Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. Non-fossil sources in 2006 included nuclear 8.5%, hydroelectric 6.3%, others amounting to 0.9%. World energy consumption was growing about 2.3% per year. The use of fossil fuels raises serious environmental concerns. A global movement towards the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Over geological time, this organic matter, mixed with mud, got buried under heavy layers of sediment. Despite these heat driven transformations, the embedded energy is still photosynthetic in origin. There is a wide range of organic, or hydrocarbon, compounds in any given fuel mixture. The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting viscosity, etc.. Some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only very low boiling, gaseous components. Others such as gasoline or diesel contain much higher boiling components.Fossil fuel – Coal, one of the fossil fuels.
55. Taliban – The Taliban, alternatively spelled Taleban, is an Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country. Until his death in 2013, Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates. The group later regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In its / 11 insurgency, the group has been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their political goals. Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban from Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to Iran. The Taliban is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, the plural of ṭālib. This is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban", rather than "an American Talib". In the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban.Taliban – Darul Uloom Deoband, India
56. Afghanistan – Afghanistan /æfˈɡænᵻstæn/, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. Its territory covers 652,000 km2, making the 41st largest country in the world. The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began in the 18th century. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country. It remained peaceful during Zahir Shah's forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of civil wars that continues to this day. The Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul - ` alam. The suffix" - stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." An important site of many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan.Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
57. Afghan National Army – The Afghan National Army is the main branch of the Afghan Armed Forces, responsible for ground warfare. It is being heavily assisted by the United States and NATO. The current Chief of Staff of the Afghan National Army is Lieutenant General Qadam Shah Shahim. Afghanistan's army traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed to power. It was reorganized during Emir Abdur Rahman Khan's reign. Afghanistan remained neutral during the First and Second World Wars. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan army was equipped by the Soviet Union. After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullah's regime in 1992, the army fragmented into militias under regional warlords. This was followed in the mid-1990s. To dissolve illegal armed groups, the Karzai administration began offering cash and vocational training to encourage members to join the army. The majority of training of the ANA is to be undertaken in the newly established Afghan National Security University. As of July 2013, the entire country of Afghanistan is under Afghan control with ISAF supporting role. Historically, Afghans have served in the army of the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, the Mughals. One of the famous battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat in which the Afghan army decisively defeated the Hindu Maratha Empire. The Afghans then fought with the Sikh Empire, until Sikh conquests stopped.Afghan National Army – Soldiers of the Afghan National Army, including Commandos standing in the front
58. Mazar-e-Sharif – Mazar-i-Sharif or Mazar-e-Sharif is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of 693,000. Mazar-e Sharif, along with Kandahar in the south, makes Afghanistan an important strategic location in Asia. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines well as the Muslim and Hellenistic archeological sites. In 2006, the discovery of Hellenistic remains was announced. Mazar-i-Sharif is the Regional Hub located to Uzbekistan and Tajikstan. The Mazari Sharif Airport in the city has been heavily used during the latest 2001-present war. However, most Muslims believe that the grave of Ali is at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq. According to tradition, the city of Mazari Sharif owes its existence to a dream. Like many historical figures his exact location of birth can not be confirmed. His Baha' Walad was descended from the first caliph Abu Bakr and was influenced by the ideas of Ahmad Ghazali, brother of the famous philosopher. Baha' Walad's sermons were published and still exist as Divine Sciences. Rumi completed six books of mystical poetry and tales called Masnavi before he died in 1273. Although later rebuilt, Mazar stood in the shadow of its Balkh. Thus the ruler of North Central Afghanistan decided to shift the capital of the city of Mazar-e-Sharif. The Mazar-i-Sharif means "the noble shrine".Mazar-e-Sharif
59. Balkh Province – Balkh is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country. It is has a population of about 1,245,100, multi-ethnic and mostly a Persian-speaking society. The city of Mazar-i-Sharif serves as the capital of the province. The Mazar-e Sharif International Airport and Camp Marmal sit on the eastern edge of Mazar-i-Sharif. The name of the province is derived from the ancient city near the modern town. Home to the blue mosque, it was once destroyed by Genghis Khan but later rebuilt by Timur. The city of Mazar-e-Sharif has been an important stop on the trade routes from the Far East to the Middle East, Europe. The area of Balkh Province was considered a part of various historical regions in history including Ariana and Greater Khorasan. It serves today as Afghanistan's second but main gateway to the other being Shir Khan Bandar in neighboring Kunduz Province. The province covers an area of 16,840 km2. Nearly half of the province is semi-mountainous terrain while half of the area is made up of flat land. The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2200–1700 BCE, located in present-day Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centered on the upper Amu Darya, in area covering ancient Bactria. Its sites were named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. According to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-European tribes who moved south-west into north-western India around 2500 -- 2000 BCE.Balkh Province – Aerial view of a road leading to Mazar-i-Sharif in Balkh Province
60. Federal Security Service – It is headquartered in Lubyanka Square, Moscow's centre, in the main building of the former KGB. The Director of the FSB since 2008 is army general Aleksandr Bortnikov. The two structural components of the former KGB that remain administratively independent of the FSB are the State Guards. The FSB is mainly responsible for internal security of the fight against organized crime, terrorism, drug smuggling. Since 2003, when the Federal Border Guards Service was incorporated to the FSB, it has also been responsible for overseeing border security. The FSB is engaged mostly in domestic affairs, while espionage duties are responsibility of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service. However, the FSB also includes the FAPSI agency, which conducts electronic surveillance abroad. All intelligence agencies in Russia work under the guidance of FSB, if needed. The FSB employs about 66,200 uniformed staff, including about 4,000 special forces troops. It also employs about 160,000–200,000 border guards. The Federal Security Service is one of the successor organisations of the Soviet Committee of State Security. In January 1992, the Ministry of Security took over domestic and security responsibilities. Following the 1993 constitutional crisis, the Ministry of Security was reorganized on 21 December 1993 into the Federal Counter-Intelligence Service. The FSK was headed by Sergei Stepashin. The FSB reforms were rounded out by decree No.Federal Security Service – The FSB headquarters at Lubyanka Square
61. Russia – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
62. Khabarovsk – The city also became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia in 2002. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, after Vladivostok. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 577,441. The fort was named after the local tribe whom Khabarov's people called "Achans". Already on October 8 the fort was unsuccessfully attacked by joint forces of Achans and Duchers, while many Russians were away fishing. Similar campaign was waged later in winter against the Ducher chief Nechiga, farther away from Achansk. Once the ice on the Amur broke in the spring of 1652, Khabarov's people destroyed their fort and sailed away. The exact location of Khabarov's Achansk has long been a subject for the debate among Russian historians and geographers. The most widely accepted point of view is probably that of B.P. . B.P. As to the Cape Kyrma ruins, thought by Maack to be the remains of Achansk, B.P. Polevoy identified them as the remains of another ostrog - namely, Kosogorsky Ostrog, where Onufriy Stepanov stayed a few years later. After the Treaty of Nerchinsk, the area became an uncontested part of the Qing Empire for the next century and a half. Modern historical maps of the Qing period published in China mark the site of future Khabarovsk as Bólì.Khabarovsk – Monument to Yerofey Khabarov in Khabarovsk
63. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The group first proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate and began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions. ISIL is headed and run by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Before their deaths, he had two deputy leaders, Abu Muslim al-Turkmani for Iraq and Abu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, both ethnic Turkmen. Advising al-Baghdadi is a cabinet of senior leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria are controlled by local governors. Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a shura council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. While al-Baghdadi has told followers to "advise me when I err" in sermons, according to observers "any threat, opposition, or even contradiction is instantly eradicated". In 2014 The Wall Street Journal estimated that eight million people live in areas controlled by ISIL. Al-Raqqah in Syria has been under ISIL control since 2013 and in 2014 it became the group's de facto capital city. Civilians, as well as the Islamic State itself, have released footage of some of the human rights abuses. Since December 2013, ongoing clashes have occurred throughout western Iraq between tribal militias, Iraqi security forces, ISIL.Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
64. Neo-nazi – Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive the far-right-wing tenets of Nazism. The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of these movements. Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, racism, ableism, xenophobia, homophobia, antiziganism, antisemitism, initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. Neo-Nazi activity is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries, as well as international networks. In some European and Latin American countries, laws have been enacted that prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, racist, anti-Semitic or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism. The far-right party was the Austrian National Democratic Party, until it was banned for violating Verbotsgesetz 1947. The Freedom Party of Austria served as a shelter for ex-Nazis almost from its inception. In 1980, scandals undermined Austria's two main parties, the economy stagnated. Jörg Haider became leader of the FPÖ and offered partial justification for Nazism, calling its employment policy effective. Professor Ali Mazrui, however, identified the FPÖ as neo-Nazi in a BBC world lecture. Haider, who in 2005 left the Freedom Party and formed the Alliance for Austria's Future, was killed in a traffic accident in October, 2008. Barbara Rosenkranz, the Freedom Party's candidate for the Austrian presidential election, 2010, is controversial for having made allegedly pro-Nazi statements. Rosenkranz is married to Horst Rosenkranz, a key member of a banned neo-Nazi party, known for publishing far-right books.Neo-nazi – Neo-Nazi march in Leipzig, Germany on October 17, 2009
65. Elizabeth II – Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand since 1952. Elizabeth was born as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the presumptive. She began serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. Elizabeth's historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. She has seen constitutional changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. She has also reigned through various conflicts involving many of her realms. She is the world's oldest monarch as well as Britain's longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently head of state following the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. Support for the monarchy remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 April 1926 during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Elizabeth, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.Elizabeth II – The Queen in March 2015
66. Sports Direct – Sports Direct International plc is a British retailing group. Established by Mike Ashley, the company is the United Kingdom's largest sports-goods retailer and operates roughly 670 stores worldwide. The company owns a large number of sporting trades predominantly under the SportsDirect.com brand. Other retailers owned by the company include USC and Lillywhites. The company operates under low margins. Fashion brands owned include Donnay, Slazenger, Firetrap, Dunlop, Everlast, Kangol, Karrimor and Lonsdale. His holding has been 61.7 percent since October 2013. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. The company was founded by Mike Ashley in 1982 under the name of Mike Ashley Sports. In 1984, by 1992 the Company had 12 stores. 1995/96 saw the stores change to Sports Soccer along with the re-location of head office and warehouse in Dunstable. The number of retail stores had now increased to 50, along with the acquisition of the Donnay tennis and brand. Ashley incorporated the business in 1999. By 2000, the business had formed a joint venture in Belgium, with 22 stores trading as Disport. By 2003, the number of retail stores had increased to 150.Sports Direct – Sports Direct in the former Lillywhite's shop on the Headrow in Leeds
67. Bob's Stores – Bob's Stores is a chain of 35 retail stores in the northeastern United States owned by Versa Capital Management. Founded by Bob Lapidus in 1954, the chain expanded gradually until it was acquired by TJX in 2003. The chain targets moderate-income customers with a selection of workwear, activewear. In 1954, Bob Lapidus opened Bob's Surplus on Main Street in Middletown, Connecticut. His original strategy was to "Treat all customers with dignity and they will return again and again". As Bob's Surplus increased in popularity, its location was hindering its growth; in 1962, Lapidus moved the store to a larger building across the street. In 1967, the store was forced to move again after a fire destroyed the building. In 1975, the second Bob's Surplus was opened in Enfield, Connecticut; the third store was opened in Hamden, Connecticut, in 1981. In 1990, the chain had expanded to five stores; that year, it was acquired by the Melville Corporation. Bob's expanded rapidly under the corporation; by March 1, 1996, the chain had grown to 34 stores across the northeastern United States. Despite the growth, Bob's Stores remained most popular in its origin state of Connecticut. In 1997, Melville sold all of its chains except CVS Pharmacy; Bob's Stores was sold to the chain's management and Citicorp Venture Capital. In 1999, the upper executive level of the chain experienced numerous changes in personnel. In 2000, Bob's Stores created its first website. In 2003, Bob's Stores went bankrupt.Bob's Stores – Shopper's World in Framingham, Massachusetts.
68. Mpumalanga – Mpumalanga /əmˌpuːməˈlɑːŋɡə/, is a province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literally "the place where the sun rises" in the Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu languages. Mpumalanga lies in eastern South Africa, bordering Swaziland and Mozambique. It constitutes 6.5 % of South Africa's area. The capital is Nelspruit. Before 1994, Mpumalanga was part of Transvaal Province. The southern half of the Kruger National Park is in the latter region. The Drakensberg exceeds heights of 2000 m in most places, with this central region of Mpumalanga being very mountainous. These regions have small pockets of Afromontane forest. The Lowveld is relatively flat with rocky outcrops. The Lebombo Mountains form a low range in the far east, on the border with Mozambique. The Lowveld is underlaid by African Cratonic Basement rocks of ages in excess of billion years. The Highveld is mostly Karoo Sequence rock of a younger, Carboniferous to Permian age. Mpumalanga is the only South African province to border two provinces of Mozambique, well as all four districts of Swaziland. The Lowveld is subtropical, proximity to the warm Indian Ocean.Mpumalanga – Flag
69. South Africa – South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world with close to 53 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. It is the only country that borders both the Indian Ocean. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of Asian, multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, among the highest number of any country in the world. Regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising racial segregation. Since 1994, all linguistic groups have had political representation in the country's democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "Rainbow Nation" to describe the country's newly multicultural diversity in the wake of segregationist apartheid ideology. The World Bank classifies a newly industrialised country. Its economy is the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa.South Africa – Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
70. United States Navy – The U.S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage. The U.S. Navy has the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, three new carriers under construction. The service has 101,199 in the Navy Reserve. It has more than 3,700 aircraft in active service as of February 2016. It played a major role by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers. It played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U.S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in such areas as East Asia, the Mediterranean, the Middle East. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy. The Department of the Navy is a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The mission of the Navy is to maintain, equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, equipment of naval combat and service elements. U.S. Navy training manuals state the mission of the U.S..United States Navy
71. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet – The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine supersonic, all-weather carrier-capable multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft. The Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations and, since 1986, by the U.S. Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels. The F/A-18 has a top speed of Mach 1.8. It can carry a wide variety of bombs and missiles, including air-to-air and air-to-ground, supplemented by the 20-mm M61 Vulcan cannon. It is powered by two General Electric F404 turbofan engines, which give the aircraft a high thrust-to-weight ratio. The F/A-18 has excellent aerodynamic characteristics, primarily attributed to its leading edge extensions. The fighter's primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defense, Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses, air interdiction, close air support, aerial reconnaissance. The Hornet first saw combat action during the 1986 United States bombing of Libya and subsequently participated in the 1991 Gulf War and 2003 Iraq War. The F/A-18 Hornet provided the baseline design for the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, its larger, evolutionary redesign. In August 1973, Congress mandated that the Navy pursue a lower-cost alternative to the F-14. The Air Force competition specified a day fighter with no strike capability. On 2 May 1975, the Navy announced its selection of the YF-17. On 1 March 1977, Secretary of the Navy W. Graham Claytor announced that the F-18 would be named "Hornet". On the F-18, the two companies agreed to evenly split component manufacturing, with McDonnell Douglas conducting final assembly. McDonnell Douglas would build the wings, stabilators, forward fuselage; while Northrop would build the center and aft fuselage and vertical stabilizers.McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet – F/A-18 Hornet
72. Celebes Sea – It has a total surface area of 110,000 square miles, to a maximum depth of 20,300 feet. The sea opens southwest into the Java Sea. The Celebes Sea is a piece of an ancient basin that formed 42 million years ago in a locale removed from any landmass. By million years ago, earth crust movement had moved the basin close enough to the Indonesian and Philippine volcanoes to receive emitted debris. The border between the Sulu Sea is at the Sibutu-Basilan Ridge. Deep sea trenches and seamounts, combined with active volcanic islands, result in complex oceanographic features. It has been agreed that north of the line will be under the jurisdiction of the Philippines and Indonesia be south of the boundary line. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Celebes Sea as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago. The IHO defines its limits as follows: On the North. The Southern limit of Sulu Sea and the Southwest coast of Mindanao. On the East. On the South. The North coast of Celebes between tanjung Puisan and tanjung Binar and thence a line to Tanjung Mangkalihat in Borneo, the Northern limit of Makassar Strait. On the West. The East coast of Borneo between Tanjung Mangkalihat and Tanjong Labian, the Southern limit of the Sulu Sea.Celebes Sea – Celebes Sea
73. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has a population of approximately million. It is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.Philippines – King Philip II of Spain.
74. USS Carl Vinson – The ship was launched in 1980, underwent Refueling and Overhaul between 2005 and 2009. Carl Vinson's callsign is "Gold Eagle". The seal of USS Carl Vinson shows an eagle, talons extended, carrying a banner in its beak. The eagle also represents the power that resides in the ship's aircraft. The eagle flies in the form of a stylized letter "V," the initial of Congressman Carl Vinson. The "V" also represents the ship's hull when viewed bow-on. Inscribed on the banner that the eagle carries is the Latin phrase "Vis Per Mare" which means "Strength through the Sea." In October 2009, the US Navy announced that Carl Vinson would be the flagship of the newly established Strike Group 1, based in San Diego. The ship, under the command of Captain Bruce H. Lindsey, departed Norfolk for San Diego on 12 January 2010. Accompanying the carrier was Carrier Air Wing Seventeen, Destroyer Squadron 1 and the guided missile cruiser Bunker Hill. As of May 2015, the ship is under the command of Captain Douglas C. Verissimo. On 15 March 1980 the ship was launched/christened. Congressman Carl Vinson became the first person to witness a ship's launching in his honor. After sea trials, it was delivered to the Navy on 26 February 1982.USS Carl Vinson – USS Carl Vinson underway in the Pacific Ocean.
75. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
76. Public Prosecutor General (Germany) – The office of the Public Prosecutor General is located in Karlsruhe. Besides its role in appellate cases, the Public Prosecutor General offences under the Völkerstrafgesetzbuch. The Public Prosecutor General also represents Germany in certain administrative cases. The Federal Minister of Justice proposes the Public Prosecutor General with the approval of the Bundesrat to the President of Germany for appointment. In 1977, then-Public Prosecutor General Siegfried Buback was assassinated by the leftist extremist Red Army Faction. Official websitePublic Prosecutor General (Germany) – Offices of the German Public Prosecutor General in Karlsruhe
77. Put option – The purchase of a put option is interpreted as a negative sentiment about the future value of the underlying. Put options are most commonly used in the market to protect against the decline of the price of a stock below a specified price. In this way the buyer of the put will receive at least the price specified, even if the asset is currently worthless. The put yields a positive return only if the price falls below the strike when the option is exercised. If the option is not exercised by maturity, it expires worthless. The most obvious use of a put is as a type of insurance. Another use is for speculation: an investor can take a short position in the underlying stock without trading in it directly. Puts in particular, may be useful for hedging. Note that by put-call parity, a European put can be replaced by selling an appropriate forward contract. The terms for exercising the option's right to sell it differ depending on style. They are traded on many other instruments such as interest rates or commodities. The buyer either believes that the underlying asset's price will fall by the exercise date or hopes to protect a long position in it. The buyer's prospect of gain is limited to the option's strike price less the underlying's spot price and the premium/fee paid for it. The writer believes that the underlying security's price will rise, not fall. The writer sells the put to collect the premium.Put option – Payoff from buying a put.
78. Borussia Dortmund – Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, commonly known as Borussia Dortmund, BVB, or simply Dortmund, is a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia. Dortmund plays in the top tier of the German football league system. Dortmund is one of the most successful clubs in German history. Borussia Dortmund was founded in 1909 from Dortmund. Borussia Dortmund have won eight German championships, three DFB-Pokals, five DFL-Supercups, one UEFA Champions League, one Intercontinental Cup. Their Cup Winners' Cup win in 1966 made the first German club to win a European title. Since 1974, Dortmund have played their home games at Westfalenstadion, named after its region of Westphalia. Dortmund has the highest average attendance of any association football club in the world. Borussia Dortmund's colours are yellow, giving the club its nickname die Schwarzgelben. Dortmund holds a long-standing rivalry with Ruhr neighbours Schalke 04, known as the Revierderby. In terms of Deloitte's annual Football Money League, Dortmund is the second biggest sports club in the world. The Borussia is Latin for Prussia but was taken from Borussia beer from the nearby Borussia brewery in Dortmund. The team began playing in black shorts. In 1913, they donned today.Borussia Dortmund – Borussia Dortmund in 1913
79. Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde – This area forms the judicial arrondissement of Brussels, the location of a Court of First Instance, a Labour Court. It was reformed as part of the sixth Belgian state reform. All electoral arrondissements now coincide with the Belgian provinces. The Brussels-Capital Region has formed its own electoral district since July 2012. Before the splitting, the Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde was an exception since Halle-Vilvoorde is part of the province of the other part being the Arrondissement of Leuven. Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde was one of the main topics of the 2007 -- 2011 Belgian political crisis. The lists for the European elections were composed of both Dutch and French-language parties, while the area is partly monolingual Halle-Vilvoorde and bilingual Brussels. In 2003, the Court of Arbitration ruled the BHV district to be unconstitutional, due to the unequal voting rights. It was abolished as part of the 2012 Belgian state reform. At that time, French was the only language in politics, administration, justice, the army and all education to the disadvantage of Dutch speakers. Some Dutch speakers therefore decided to raise their children in French. Belgium, as a unitary state, consisted with several arrondissements. Each arrondissement also served as an electoral district, however some of them were later grouped together. One of the nine provinces was Brabant, which consisted of the arrondissements of Brussels, Leuven and Nivelles. Furthermore, nothing in the judicial structure was reformed, leaving the judicial arrondissement of Brussels unchanged.Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde – This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. Discussion of this nomination can be found on the talk page. (August 2011)
80. Libya – The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the proven oil reserves of any country in the world. Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The large city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited since the late Bronze Age. Ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire. Libya was an early center of Christianity. In the sixteenth century, the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted from 1911 to 1943. During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign. The Italian population then went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951.Libya – The temple of Zeus in the ancient Greek city of Cyrene.
81. Chad – Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is the fifth largest country in Africa in terms of area. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the second-largest in Africa. The N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are French. Chad is home to over 200 different linguistic groups. The religions of Chad are Islam, followed by Christianity. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved in great numbers. France incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown by his general Idriss Déby. A lack of agriculture let the country persist in poverty.Chad – Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem-Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
82. Guinea-Bissau – Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres with an estimated population of 1,704,000. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term. Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place.Guinea-Bissau – PAIGC forces raise the flag of Guinea-Bissau in 1974.
83. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both an Indian Ocean coastline. Its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is largest city, as well as its leading economic center. Iran is heir to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning in 3200 -- 2800 BC. The area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant political power in the region. The empire reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Rashidun Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Sunni Islam. Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, thinkers. Through the late 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the Majles. Following a d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West but grew increasingly autocratic.Iran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
84. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
85. Venezuela – Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, the islands of Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east. Venezuela's territory covers around 916,445 km2 with an estimated population 7007310283370000000♠31028337. The territory currently known as Venezuela was colonized from indigenous peoples. It gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political autocracy, remaining dominated until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution officially changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, federal dependencies. Venezuela also claims all Guyanese west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed the Zona en Reclamación. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s. Venezuela under Hugo Chávez suffered "one of the worst cases of Dutch Disease in the world" due to the Bolivarian government's large dependence on oil sales. Poverty and inflation began to increase into the 2010s. Nicolás Maduro was elected in 2013 after the death of Chavez.Venezuela – The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar
86. Caracas – Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas Area, the largest city of Venezuela. Terrain suitable for building lies between 910 m above sea level. Libertador is the Capital District. The Distrito Capital had a population of 2011, while the Metropolitan District of Caracas was estimated at 3,273,863 as of 2013. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 5,243,301. Businesses that are located in the city include service companies, malls, among others. It has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is also Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters, shopping centers. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas, are reported to both have among the highest per capita murder rates in the world, with 116 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Other violent crimes go unsolved. The low class neighborhoods that cover the hills around Caracas are dangerous at all times. At the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples.Caracas
87. Colombia – Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti. It is a constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Tairona. The Spanish initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá. By 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s but then decreased from 2005 onward. Colombia thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run.Colombia – San Agustín Archaeological Park
88. Hassan Rouhani – Hassan Rouhani is the seventh President of Iran and has been in office since 2013. Rouhani is also a lawyer, former diplomat. Rouhani has expressed official support for upholding the rights of religious minorities. In 2013, Rouhani appointed former industries minister Eshaq Jahangiri as his first vice-president. On 7 Rouhani registered for the presidential election, held on 14 June 2013. Rouhani said that, if elected, he would prepare a "civil rights charter", improve rocky relations with Western nations. He is frequently described as a moderate. Rouhani was elected on 15 June, defeating Tehran mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates. Rouhani took office on 3 August 2013. In 2013, TIME magazine named him in its list of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. His name is also spelled as Hasan Rouhani, Hassan Rohani, Hasan Rohani, Hasan Rowhani. Rouhani was later changed his last name to Rouhani, which means "spiritual" or "cleric". It is not clear when he officially changed his last name. Hassan Rouhani was born on 12 November 1948 in Sorkheh, into a religious family. He started religious studies first at Semnan Seminary before moving on to the Qom Seminary in 1961.Hassan Rouhani – Hassan Rouhani حسن روحانی
89. Executive Office of the President – The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, currently Denis McDonough. The size of the White House staff has grown to include an array of policy experts in various fields. During Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP, which reported directly to the president. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. But it laid the groundwork for the organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors. Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the nineteenth century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president", two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, the size of the staff expanded to thirty-one, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary.Executive Office of the President – The Eisenhower Executive Office Building at night.
90. Surgeon General of the United States – The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States. The Surgeon General's staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General. The U.S. Surgeon General is confirmed by the Senate. The current Surgeon General is Vivek Murthy, confirmed on December 2014. The Surgeon General also has informal duties, such as educating the American public about health issues and advocating healthy lifestyle choices. The office also periodically issues health warnings. Perhaps the best known example of this is the Surgeon General's warning label, present on all packages of American tobacco cigarettes since 1966. A similar warning has appeared on alcoholic beverages labels since 1988. In 1798, Congress established a network of hospitals that cared for sick and disabled seamen. The Marine Hospital Fund became the Marine Hospital Service -- predecessor to today's United States Public Health Service. The service became a separate bureau of the Treasury Department with its own staff, administration, the position of Supervising Surgeon. Some Surgeons General are notable for advocating controversial proposals on how to reform the U.S. health system. On Rear Admiral Luther Terry, M.D. published a landmark report saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking nationwide anti-smoking efforts. His committee defined cigarette smoking of nicotine as not an addiction.Surgeon General of the United States – Incumbent Vice Admiral Vivek H. Murthy since December 18, 2014
91. Vivek Murthy – Vivek Hallegere Murthy is an American physician, a vice admiral in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the 19th Surgeon General of the United States. Murthy, founder of nonprofit Doctors for America, succeeded Boris Lushniak, Acting Surgeon General since 2013. Murthy is the youngest active duty officer in federal uniformed service. Murthy was born to immigrants from Karnataka, India. He then attended college at Harvard University, where he graduated magna laude with a bachelor's degree in Biochemical Sciences. He completed his residency at Women's Hospital. While a Harvard freshman in 1995, Murthy co-founded VISIONS Worldwide, which he led for eight years. The nonprofit organization focused on HIV/AIDS education in the U.S. and India. In 1997, he co-founded Swasthya Community Health Partnership to help women to be health providers and educators to rural Indians. Murthy completed his residency at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. Murthy has also managed Women's Hospital for over a decade. He has cared for thousands of patients as an internal physician. He also continues to practice medicine. He is also a president of Doctors for America, medical students supporting comprehensive health reform. He has managed staff and hundreds of volunteers, executed national and local initiatives around coverage and prevention.Vivek Murthy – Vivek H. Murthy
92. Parliament of Pakistan – The Parliament of Pakistan,; is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a federal legislature that consists of the Senate as upper house and the National Assembly, as lower houses. According to the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the President of Pakistan is also a component of the Parliament. The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the house, or sooner, in case the Member resigns. The Parliament meets at the Parliament House building in Islamabad, where debating chambers for both houses are present. Until 1960, the Parliament House was located in Karachi. Parliament House of Pakistan is the only parliament in the world that runs completely on self-generated solar power. The National Assembly of Pakistan is the lower house of the parliament. The National Assembly has 342 seats, 272 of which are directly elected, 60 are reserved for religious minorities. The National Assembly of Pakistan is the country's legislative body. It embodies the will of the people to let themselves be governed under the multi-party Federal Parliamentary System. The National Assembly makes laws for the Federation in respect of the powers enumerated in the Federal Legislative list. Only the National Assembly, through its Public Accounts Committee, scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the government. The Members of the National Assembly are to be elected with law.Parliament of Pakistan – Parliament House Building
93. Prime Minister of Pakistan – The Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic". This position places its holder in control over all matters of internal and foreign policy. The incumbent Prime Minister is Nawaz Sharif–a presiding figure of the conservative Pakistan Muslim League. The Prime Minister is elected by the members of the National Assembly and therefore is usually the leader of the party in the parliament. Powers of the Prime Minister have significantly grown by each branch. The position was absent during years of 1960 -- 1977-85 due to imposed martial law. In each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister. The Constitution envisages a scheme of affairs in which the President of Pakistan is the head of state who represents the "unity of the Republic." The system of government in Pakistan is based on codified constitution which sees the Prime Minister as "chief executive of the Republic." As in most of the parliamentary democracies, a head of state's duties are mostly ceremonial. The Prime Minister of Pakistan has the responsibility for executive power. The official residence and workplace of the Prime Minister is the Prime Minister's Secretariat -- the cabinet secretariat located in the northeast Islamabad. The Prime Minister is the Chief Executive who exercise authority of the Government of Pakistan. After gaining the vote of confidence, the Prime Minister is invited by the President to form the government. In practice, the Prime Minister nominates to form the Cabinet as in-charge of the important ministries of the Government of Pakistan.Prime Minister of Pakistan – Incumbent Nawaz Sharif since 5 June 2013
94. Nawaz Sharif – Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif is the 20th and current Prime Minister of Pakistan, in office since June 2013. He previously served as the Prime Minister from November 1990 to October 1999. Sharif is the president of Pakistan Muslim League, which holds a parliamentary majority since 2013. As owner of a leading conglomerate, he is also one of the country's wealthiest people. Sharif studied business before entering politics in the later 1970s. In 1981, Sharif was appointed by the military government as the Minister of Finance for the province of Punjab. In 1990, Sharif led the conservative alliance, IJI, to victory, leading him to become the Prime Minister. Sharif's first administration came to an end when then President Ghulam Ishaq Khan attempted to dismiss Sharif on corruption charges. Both men were ultimately persuaded to step down by army chief Abdul Waheed Kakar. Sharif led the Muslim League in Pakistan's National Assembly. His government amendment the constitution to restrict's the powers of the presidency to dismiss governments. His second administration is notable for holding Pakistan's nuclear tests in response to neighbouring India's nuclear tests as part of the tit-for-tat policy. When Western countries suspended foreign aid, Sharif froze the country's foreign currency reserves to prevent further capital flight, but this only worsened economic conditions. With foreign debt, Sharif's second term also saw tussles with the judiciary and the military. Sharif was summoned after making a speech in parliament criticising recent decisions by Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah.Nawaz Sharif – Nawaz Sharif نواز شریف
95. Supreme Court of Pakistan – The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It also has a number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. The court has a number of de jure powers, outlined in the Constitution. Through several periods of constitutional suspensions, the court has also established itself as a de facto check on military power. It has the appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts, as well as original jurisdiction over a few types of cases. Part VII, Chapter 2 of the Constitution deals with the powers, composition, rules, responsibilities of the Supreme Court. An important function of the branch is to provide checks and balances to the power of the other branches of government. The Supreme Court under Pervez Musharraf is an exception to this rule of constitutional authority. That court took oath not under a military Legal Framework Order. De power refers to powers that a court has under the law, though they may not be carried out or have full effect in practice. The Supreme Court of Pakistan has the explicit de power to block the exercise of certain Presidential reserve powers. The Court also has the power to overturn parliamentary legislation by declaring such orders or laws to be unconstitutional. The Supreme Court thus provides, in principle, an important safeguard against the abuse of laws that could potentially have politically repressive consequences. Since in 1970, Bengali Chief Justice Hamoodor Rahman published the reports of Hamoodur Rahman Commission, formed to investigate the fall of East-Pakistan.Supreme Court of Pakistan – Supreme Court of Pakistan in Islamabad
96. Parchment – Parchment is a material made from processed animal skin and used—mainly in the past—for writing on. Parchment is most commonly made of calfskin, goatskin. It was historically used for writing documents, the pages of a book. Parchment is limed, dried under tension. It is thus different from leather. It may be called animal membrane by museums that wish to avoid distinguishing between "parchment" and the more restricted term "vellum". The term "parchment" originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, occasionally, goats. The parchment evolved from the name of the city of Pergamon, a thriving center of parchment production during the Hellenistic period. This however is a myth; parchment had elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon. In the 2nd BC a great library was set up in Pergamon that rivaled the famous Library of Alexandria. Writing on prepared animal skins had a long history, however. Though the Babylonians impressed their cuneiform on clay tablets, they also wrote on parchment from the 6th century BC onward. Early Islamic texts are also found on parchment. New techniques in milling allowed it to be much cheaper than parchment; it was still made of textile rags and of very high quality. With the advent of printing in the later century, the demands of printers far exceeded the supply of animal skins for parchment.Parchment – Central European (Northern) type of finished parchment made of goatskin stretched on a wooden frame
97. Manuscript – A manuscript is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some automated way. More recently, it is understood to be an author's written, word-processed copy of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same. Before the arrival of printing, all books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, illustrations. Manuscripts may be in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, full-page illustrations. Historically, manuscripts were produced in form of books. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived. In India, the palm manuscript, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Manuscripts in Tocharian languages, written on palm leaves, survived in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. Ironically, the manuscripts that were being most carefully preserved in the libraries of antiquity are all lost. Originally, all books were in form. In China, later other parts of East Asia, printing was used for books from about the 7th century.Manuscript – Christ Pantocrator seated in a capital "U" in an illuminated manuscript from the Badische Landesbibliothek, Germany.
98. United States Declaration of Independence – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast. A committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term "Declaration of Independence" is not used in the document itself. John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. But Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was signed. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside, widely distributed and read to the public. The copy used for this printing may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, signed primarily on August 2. The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made his policies. This has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language", containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history". The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive.United States Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
99. Harvard University – Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. James Bryant Conant began to liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College. Harvard's $37.6 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The University's large endowment allows it to offer financial aid packages. Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, several foreign heads of state, 242 Marshall Scholars. To date, 13 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or staff. Harvard was formed by vote of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was initially called "New College" or "the college at New Towne". In 1638, the college became home to British North America's known press. In 1639, the college was renamed Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge. He had left his library of some 400 books. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. In the early years the College trained many Puritan ministers.Harvard University – Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere, 1767
100. Chichester – Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England. It is its county town. It was important in Anglo-Saxon times. It is home to some of the oldest churches and buildings in Great Britain. Chichester has three tiers of local government. It is a centre for culture in the county, with a theatre, museum and art galleries. The South Downs provide opportunities for outdoor pursuits. The centre stands on the foundations of the Romano-British city of Noviomagus Reginorum, capital of the Civitas Reginorum. The original Roman wall was over 6 1/2 feet thick with a steep ditch. It was then replaced by a thinner Georgian wall. The city was home to some Roman baths, found down Tower Street when preparation for a new car park was under way. The Novium, preserving the baths was opened on 8 July 2012. An amphitheatre was built outside the city walls, close to the East Gate, in around 80 AD. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it was renamed after his son, Cissa. It was the chief city of the Kingdom of Sussex.Chichester – The Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, Chichester
101. ISIL – This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The group first began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, military authority over all Muslims worldwide. In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions. ISIL is run by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Before their deaths, he had two deputy leaders, Abu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, both ethnic Turkmen. Advising al-Baghdadi is a cabinet of senior leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria are controlled by local governors. Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. While al-Baghdadi has told followers to "advise me when I err" in sermons, according to observers "any threat, opposition, or even contradiction is instantly eradicated". In 2014 The Wall Street Journal estimated that million people live in areas controlled by ISIL. In 2014 it became the group's de facto capital city. Civilians, well as the Islamic State itself, have released footage of some of the human rights abuses. Since December 2013, ongoing clashes have occurred between tribal militias, Iraqi security forces, ISIL.ISIL – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
102. Francois Hollande – François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande is a French politician, President of the French Republic since taking office in 2012. Hollande was born in Rouen and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Hollande began his political career before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After a brief stint as a municipal councillor for Ussel, he was elected as the country's inaugural First Secretary of the Socialist Party. During his tenure, Hollande legalized same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. Hollande has sent troops to the Central African Republic. On December 2016, Hollande announced he would not seek re-election in the upcoming 2017 presidential election. François Hollande was born in Rouen. The oldest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller. When Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a highly exclusive suburb of Paris. He studied at HEC Paris, then attended the Institut d'études politiques the École nationale d'administration. He graduated from the ENA in 1980 and chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. He lived as a university student. Immediately after graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit. Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's ultimately unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party.Francois Hollande – François Hollande
103. General Motors – General Motors Company LLC, was formed in 2009 after the bankruptcy of General Motors Corporation. The new company purchased the majority of the assets of "old GM", including the name "General Motors". General Motors produces vehicles in 37 countries under twelve brands: Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac, Holden, HSV, Opel, Vauxhall, Wuling, Baojun, Jie Fang, Ravon. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors also holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea. General Motors employs 212,000 people and does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into five business segments: GM North America, Opel Group, GM Financial. General Motors operates through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn, Pontiac, Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization. In March 2016, General Motors bought a San Francisco self-driving start-up, to develop self-driving cars that could be used in ride-sharing fleets. The company was formed on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation. GM acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland, several others.General Motors – The GM Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan.
104. Government of Venezuela – Venezuela is a federal presidential republic. The chief executive is President of Venezuela, both head of government. Executive power is exercised by the President. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly. A simple majority of the Assembly can override these objections. The voting age in Venezuela is 18 and older. Voting is not compulsory. The president is elected for a six-year term. A president may be re-elected perpetually of 15 February 2009. The president appoints the Vice President. The president makes appointments to it with the involvement of the National Assembly. Cabinet officials include: Minister of Foreign Affairs, responsible for the foreign relations of Venezuela. In February 2010 the Ministry of Planning and Development was merged with the Ministry of Finance to form the Ministry of Planning and Finance. Hi world The National Assembly has 165 seats. Members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms.Government of Venezuela – Venezuela
105. America – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.America – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
106. Virtu Financial – Virtu Financial is one of the largest high-frequency trading and market making firms. It provides two-sided quotations and trades on over 230 exchanges, markets, dark pools. Virtu uses high-frequency trading strategies to trade large volumes of securities. On March 2014, Virtu Financial filed for its initial public offering, yet repeatedly delayed its IPO. On April 2015 Virtu Financial successfully priced its IPO which began trading as a NASDAQ-listed public company on April 16, 2015. Virtu's CEO since October 2013, co-founded Virtu with Viola in 2008. Cifu serves as the Panthers' alternate governor. The company suggested standards for electronic firms that call market makers. Virtu was ranked in 2011. Virtu has Singapore. It expanded its European headquarters in September, 2013. Virtu Financial Ireland Limited is regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland. Vincent Viola co-founded Madison Tyler at Goldman Sachs. Virtu acquired a unit that handles NYSE Amex stocks from Cohen Capital Group LLC in December 2011. The deal gave a designated market-maker license for New York Stock Exchange companies.Virtu Financial – Virtu Financial
107. KCG Holdings – KCG Holdings, Inc. is an American global financial services firm engaging in market making, high-frequency trading, electronic execution, institutional sales and trading. Global growth firm General Atlantic, with a 25 % stake in GETCO, made an additional equity investment at the time of the merger. Knight Capital Group had about 1400 employees at the time of the merger. In August 2012 a technological/managerial "breakdown" caused nearly putting the firm out of business. In December 2012, it agreed to be acquired by Getco LLC. The merger was approved by the respective unitholders of both companies on June 25, 2013. In January 2015, KCG Holdings announced it would be selling its foreign exchange trading platform KCG Hotspot to BATS Global Markets for $ million. Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Inc. v. Manning, a 2016 Supreme Court case involving naked short selling claims against KCG and Merrill Lynch, among others. KCG WebsiteKCG Holdings – KCG Holdings
108. UK Green Investment Bank – It is owned by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. It has a secondary office in London. As a result of the Climate Change Act 2008, the United Kingdom became legally committed to significantly reducing its carbon emissions by 2050. More importantly, the Act committed the UK to generating a significantly higher percentage of its energy by 2020. House of Commons committee on climate change was established to study and recommend ways of meeting the country's obligations. In 2009, two reports were published advocating the creation of a state-backed bank to provide financing to green projects. These proposals were then contained for the 2010 UK General Election. The Fiscal year 2010 British budget contained the first mention of a "green investment bank" scheme, earmarked with # 2 billion. Environmentalists engaged in public demonstrations demanding a quicker implementation of the plans. However, non-government environmentalists criticised the scheme because it lacked ambition. Mr Porritt claimed he examined 75 policies on which the government had committed finding little or no progress in 55. The government claimed that the economic recession had affected environmental policies. Lucas argued that without these powers, "it would be a fund –, a pot of money that, once used up, is gone forever.". Criticism also centred on the location of the institution. Clegg added that legislation would "ensure the independence of the institution."UK Green Investment Bank – UK Green Investment Bank plc
109. Australia – Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Its largest urban area is Sydney. An additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories. The population of million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia has the world's 13th-largest economy and per capita income. With the human development index globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times. The adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. These first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists and hunter-gatherers.Australia – Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia
110. Macquarie Group – Headquartered in Sydney, Macquarie is the ranked mergers and acquisitions advisor in Australia. Macquarie is regulated as the owner of Macquarie Bank Limited, an authorised deposit taker. After presenting his report in London, Mr Owens was offered the role of implementing it by Baron Keith of Castleacre. Mr Owens became Executive Chairman of Hill Samuel Australia and founded the company in Gold Fields House in Sydney's Circular Quay. The company's first three employees were Stan Owens, Blair Hesketh and Geoff Hobson Later Chris Castleman and Bill Clarke joined. David Clarke and Mark Johnson were introduced to HSA and became joint Managing Directors. In 1971 HSA secured Australia's biggest mandate for corrugated manufacturer John Lysaght Australia. In response to changes evolving from the deregulation of financial markets, Hill Samuel Australia commenced work on a proposal to become a bank. In 1983 Stan Owens died and was succeeded by David Clarke. Macquarie Bank opened its doors in Sydney. A bank was opened in Brisbane in November 1986. In 2007, the Federal Court approved the restructure of the Macquarie group into a non-operating holding structure. The NOHC and ultimate parent of the Macquarie group, Macquarie Group Limited, is ASX listed. Macquarie Group is regulated as the owner of an authorised deposit taker. The funds own assets that deliver services including transport, utilities.Macquarie Group – 1 Martin Place, Sydney: global headquarters
111. Tesla Motors – The company also produces battery charging equipment. Tesla first gained widespread attention following its production of the first electric sports car, in 2008. The company's second vehicle, an electric luxury sedan, debuted in 2012 and is built at the Tesla Factory in California. In Q1 2013, Tesla released its stock profits from its NASDAQ ticker symbol. As of November 2016, the Model S ranks after the Nissan Leaf. The Model S was then followed by a crossover SUV. Tesla has installed a network of high-powered Superchargers for Tesla cars. The company also operates a Destination Charging program, under which shops, other venues are offered fast chargers for their customers. Tesla builds the Gigafactory 1 near Reno, Nevada where Panasonic builds 21-70 cells for Tesla batteries. Tesla also manufactures the Tesla Powerwall and Powerpack batteries for industry. Tesla Motors is named after physicist Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Roadster uses an AC motor descended directly from Nikola Tesla's original 1882 design. Between March 2012, Tesla sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in 31 countries. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011. In December 2012, Tesla employed almost 3,000 full-time employees.Tesla Motors – Tesla's global corporate headquarters in Palo Alto, California
112. Tesla Model S – The Tesla Model S is a full-size all-electric five-door, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla Motors, introduced in June 2012. EPA rated its consumption for a combined fuel economy of 89 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent. In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S, which now looks more like the Model X. The 60, 60D, 70, 70D, 75, 75D, 90D and 100D versions are available. 70D Model S owners have the option to unlock the 75 capacity via a software update, adding up to 19 miles per charge. Owners have a US$ anytime option to unlock the full 75 kWh capacity via a software update. In August 2016, Tesla introduced the P100D to be the new top-level model. The P100D model has a 100kWh battery, a 0–60 mph time of 2.5 seconds and over 300 miles of EPA rated range. Global Model S sales passed the 150,000 unit milestone in November 2016, with the U.S. as the leading market with 57% of global sales. Leading country markets are Norway, China, Switzerland. The Model S also ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. in 2015. As of November 2016, the Model S ranked as the world's second best selling plug-in electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf. In 2015, Driver named the Car of the Century. After declining to recommend the Model S in 2015 due to reliability issues, one year later Consumer Reports added the car to the magazine's recommended list. The Model S was styled by Franz von Holzhausen, who previously worked for Mazda North American Operations.Tesla Model S – Tesla Model S
113. Tesla Model X – The prototype was unveiled in Los Angeles on February 9, 2012. The Model X was developed from the full-sized platform of the Tesla Model S; both are being produced at the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. First deliveries of the Model X began in September 2015. Global sales passed the 10,000 mark in August 2016, with most cars delivered in the United States. As of September 2016, global deliveries totaled more than 16,000 units. Initially Tesla planned for deliveries to commence in early 2014. In November 2013, Tesla said it expected to begin the second quarter of 2015. In November 2014, Tesla again announced that Model X deliveries would begin in the third quarter of 2015. Deliveries began on September 2015. Among the reasons for delay were problems with the falcon-wing doors and cooling the motors when hauling trailers. Many believe this is one of the reasons for the delay of the Model X. The lawsuit was settled in September 2016. The first person to reach this 10 point would be given this model for free. The Model X 60D can hit zero to 60 miles per hour in six-seconds with a top speed of 130 mph. The battery can be upgraded to 75kWh.Tesla Model X – Tesla Model X
114. Capital punishment in the United States – Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 31 states and the federal government. Its existence can be traced to the beginning of the American colonies. There were no executions in the entire country between 1977. In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down punishment statutes in Furman v. Georgia, reducing all death sentences pending at the time to life imprisonment. Subsequently, the court affirmed the legality of capital punishment in the 1976 case Gregg v. Georgia. Since then, more than 1,400 offenders have been executed, including 28 in 2015. From 1930 to 2002, there were 4,661 executions in the first 20 years. Additionally, the United States Army executed 135 soldiers between 1955. The Bill of Rights in 1789 included the Eighth Amendment which prohibited unusual punishment. The Fourteenth Amendment adopted in 1868 also requires a due process of law for deprivation of life by any state. Three states abolished the death penalty during the 19th century: Michigan in 1846, Wisconsin in 1853 and Maine in 1887. Hawaii abolished the death penalty in 1948 and Alaska both before their statehood. Puerto Rico the District of Columbia in 1981. Puerto Rico and Michigan are the only two U.S. jurisdictions to have explicitly prohibited punishment in their constitutions: in 1952 and 1964, respectively. In Furman v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court considered a group of consolidated cases.Capital punishment in the United States – The United States first legalized and used lethal injection as a method of execution.
115. Arkansas – Arkansas is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States. Most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business, government. The corner such as the Fayetteville -- Springdale -- Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, education, economic center. The largest city in the eastern part of the state is Jonesboro. The largest city in the southeastern part of the state is Pine Bluff. The Territory of Arkansas was admitted as the 25th state on June 1836. Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the Civil Rights movement in the mid-20th century. Arkansas relies on aircraft, poultry, steel, tourism, cotton, rice. The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, theaters, novels, television athletic venues across the state. Physicist William L. McMillan, a pioneer in research; have all lived in Arkansas. The name Arkansas derives from the same root as the name for the state of Kansas.Arkansas – View from the Ozark Highlands Scenic Byway in Boxley Valley
116. Australian nationality law – Australian nationality law determines, and, not an Australian citizen. The status of Australian nationality or Australian citizenship was created by the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 which came into force on 26 January 1949. The 1948 Act was amended many times, notably in 1973, 2002. The Australian Citizenship Act 2007 replaced the 1948 Act, commencing on 1 July 2007. On 13 Australia acceded on the Reduction of Statelessness and to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. Australian passports are issued to Australian citizens by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. A person by application in Australia. The process of acquiring citizenship by application is referred to as "naturalisation". The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 codified the common law rules. Australia followed with the passing of the Nationality Act 1920, which codified the concept of a British subject in Australia, effective from 1 January 1921. With the exception of the Irish Free State, had a single status of British subject. However, the status of other British subjects in Australia differed from the status of those who were not British subjects. Aborigines became Australian citizens under the 1948 Act in the same way as other Australians. The same applied to Torres Strait Islanders and the indigenous population of the Territory of Papua. A citizen of Commonwealth continued to evolve.Australian nationality law – Australia N series ePassport information page
117. Supreme Court of Russia – It also supervises the work of lower courts. Its predecessor is the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union. There are 115 members of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court judges are appointed by the Federation Council. The Supreme Court consists of the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Military Panel, which deal with respective cases. Those cases in which the Supreme Court is the original jurisdiction are heard by the panels. Appeals of the decisions of the panels are brought to the Cassation Panel. Whereas a panel reviews the decisions of lower courts, an appeal is brought to the Presidium of the Supreme Court. Plenary sessions of the Supreme Court are held at least once every four months. A plenary session must be attended by the Prosecutor General of Russia. Courts strictly follow such recommendations. It comprises members of the Supreme Court itself, academics, law enforcement officers. The members of the Academic Consultative Council are elected at plenary sessions of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation has original jurisdiction in certain cases. The Supreme Court may also hear criminal cases by their discretion.Supreme Court of Russia – Emblem of the Supreme Court
118. Jehovah's Witnesses – Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. They prefer to use their own translation, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, although their literature occasionally quotes and cites other translations. The name Jehovah's witnesses was adopted in 1931 to distinguish themselves from other Bible Student groups and symbolize a break with the legacy of Russell's traditions. Jehovah's Witnesses are best known for their door-to-door preaching, distributing literature such as The Watchtower and Awake!, refusing military service and blood transfusions. They consider use of the name Jehovah vital for proper worship. They reject Trinitarianism, inherent immortality of the soul, hellfire, which they consider to be unscriptural doctrines. They do not observe other holidays and customs they consider to have pagan origins incompatible with Christianity. Adherents commonly refer to their body of beliefs as "the truth" and consider themselves to be "in the truth". They consider secular society to be morally corrupt and under the influence of Satan, most limit their social interaction with non-Witnesses. Disciplinary actions include their term for formal shunning. Baptized individuals who formally leave are considered disassociated and are also shunned. Disfellowshipped and disassociated individuals may eventually be reinstated if deemed repentant. The religion's position regarding conscientious objection to military service and refusal to salute national flags has brought it into conflict with some governments. Consequently, some Jehovah's Witnesses have been persecuted and their activities are banned or restricted in some countries. Persistent legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses have influenced legislation related to civil rights in several countries.Jehovah's Witnesses – International headquarters in Brooklyn, New York
119. Government of India – It is located in the capital of India. There is a bicameral Parliament with the Rajya Sabha as an upper house. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, 24 high courts,; all inferior to the Supreme Court. Similar to individual state governments each consist of executive, legislative and judicial branches. The legal system as applicable to the individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law. The full name of the country is the Republic of India. This is the name that appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases. The Union Government, Central Government or Government of India are often used in an unofficial capacity to refer to the Government of India. Because the seat of government is in New Delhi, "New Delhi" is commonly used as a metonym for the Central Government. Legislative power in India is exercised by a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha, the Lok Sabha. The latter is considered the House of the people. The Parliament does not have complete sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court of India. However, it does exercise some control over the executive branch. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha can only be dissolved when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house.Government of India – The Parliament of India in the background.
120. Public Health Foundation of India – The Public Health Foundation of India, is an autonomous foundation located in New Delhi, India. Capacity building efforts are urgently required to address its emerging public health challenges. It aims to undertake and evaluate multi-sectoral interventions to positively influence those determinants. It also involves the study of health systems, management practices as channels for delivery of health services for all sections of the population. These diverse disciplines need to establish synergistic links in delivering health care in prioritized sectors. It is also essential to advance a trans-disciplinary agenda which informs policy and empowers programs. There is a constant need for surveillance, evaluation. The interventions proposed need to be evidence based, resource sensitive. The Public Health Foundation of India was conceptualised to growing concern over the emerging public health challenges in India. The Foundation is managed by a fully empowered, independent, board, represented by multiple constituencies. The chairman of the board is N.R. Narayana Murthy. Board members include: Montek Singh Ahluwalia, others. PHFI and IIPHs influence global public health. In India almost 12 state governments, including Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Ministry of Science and Technology and Planning Commission.Public Health Foundation of India – Public Health Foundation of India
121. Florida – Florida /ˈflɒrɪdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Florida is the 22nd most extensive, the 8th most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the capital. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies to tropical in the south. The American alligator, American crocodile, manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was racial segregation after the American Civil War. Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues. The state's economy relies mainly on tourism, transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renown for amusement parks, orange crops, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto water sports. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be settled by Europeans.Florida – St. Augustine is the oldest city in the U.S., established in 1565 by Spain.
122. Terrorism in the United States – September 6, 1901: President William McKinley assassinated by Michigan born Russian-Polish anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, in Buffalo, New York. October 1, 1910: Los Angeles Times bombing. The Los Angeles Times building in Los Angeles was destroyed by dynamite, killing 21 workers. The bomb was apparently placed due to the paper's opposition to unionization of its employees; the McNamara brothers were found guilty. November 24, 1917: A bomb explodes in a Milwaukee police station, killing nine officers and a civilian. Anarchists were suspected. September 18, 1969: The Federal Building in New York City was bombed by radical leftist Jane Alpert. October 7, 1969: Fifth floor of the Armed Forces Induction Center in New York City was devastated by explosion attributed to radical leftist Jane Alpert. November 12, 1969: A bomb was detonated in the Manhattan Criminal Court building in New York City. Jane Alpert, 3 other militant radical leftists were arrested hours later. They claim almost 50 successful bombings. March 1, 1971: The radical leftist group Weather Underground exploded a bomb in the United States Capitol to protest the U.S. invasion of Laos. June 13, 1974: The 29th floor of the Gulf Tower in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was bombed with dynamite at 9:41 pm resulting in no injuries. No suspects have ever been identified. November 7, 1983: U.S. Senate bombing.Terrorism in the United States – Oklahoma City bombing aftermath on April 26, 1995
123. Akron – The name derived from the Greek word" ἄκρον" signifying high point. Due to Eliakim Crosby founding "North Akron" in 1833, "South" was added to the city's name until the two merged in 1836. Neighboring settlements Kenmore and Ellet were annexed in 1929. The Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area covers Summit and Portage counties, in 2010 had a population of 703,200. Akron is also part of OH Combined Statistical Area, which in 2013 had a population of 3,501,538, ranking 15th. Creating the first Joint Economic Development Districts, it did so with Springfield, Coventry, Copley, also Bath with Fairlawn. Residents of Akron are called "Akronites". Akron has had many nicknames, two of which are "Rubber City" and "City of Invention". Akron is home to the All-American Soapbox Derby, WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens, Akron City Hospital, Alcoholics Anonymous. Residents Frank and Charles Menches have a disputable claim of inventing the hamburger thus the national festival is hosted in the city. A creature often referred to as the Kenmore Grassman is reported through history. With a increase of 201.8 % during the 1910s, it became the nation's fastest-growing city. Three civil unrest events took place during the riot of 1900, rubber strike of 1936, the Wooster Avenue riots of 1968. Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois and President Bill Clinton both gave speeches on race relations in the city.Akron – Akron, Ohio
124. Ohio – Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ is an Eastern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. Largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River. The name originated from the Iroquois ohi-yo', meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted as the 17th state on March 1, 1803. Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes". Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their state. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. To the north, Lake Erie gives 312 miles of coastline, which allows for numerous cargo ports. Much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia.Ohio – The Ohio coast of Lake Erie.
125. United States Armed Forces – The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Coast Guard. From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national identity was forged in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the Founders were suspicious of a military force. It played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The U.S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. As of 2016, the United States spends about $ billion annually to fund Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The United States was also the world's eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U.S. military dates to 1775, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. These forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Marines, respectively. The United States President is the U.S. military's commander-in-chief.United States Armed Forces – The U.S. Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia in October 2001.
126. Dominique de Villepin – Villepin rose through the ranks of the French right as one of Jacques Chirac's protégés. Villepin came into the international spotlight as foreign minister to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, which culminated with a speech to the UN. He has enjoyed a modest return to public favour for his public critique of President Sarkozy's style of "imperial rule." Villepin has written poetry, several historical and political essays, along with a study of Napoleon Bonaparte. He is an honorary member of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. He was spent some time in Venezuela, where his family lived for four years. Villepin graduated in 1971. Villepin has three children: Marie, Victoire. Villepin's family derives from the middle class. He speaks French, English and Spanish. He also holds degrees in French literature from the universities of Panthéon-Assas and Paris X Nanterre. In 1993 Villepin became chief of staff of the Foreign Minister in Édouard Balladur's cabinet, Chirac's political heir apparent. Villepin advised the president to hold an general election in 1997, while the French National Assembly was overwhelmingly dominated by the president's party. Chirac's party went on to lose the elections. It was turned down.Dominique de Villepin – Dominique de Villepin
127. Guardian Council – The Guardian Council of the Constitution is an appointed and constitutionally-mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It has also increased the influence the Islamic Revolutionary Guard has on the cultural life of the country. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts resulting in their dismissal. The Majlis has no legal status without the Guardian Council. Any bill passed by the Majlis must be approved by the Guardian Council to become law. According to Article 96 of the constitution, the Guardian Council holds power over all legislation approved by the Majlis. It can nullify a law based on two accounts: being against the constitution. While all the members vote on the laws being compatible with the constitution, only the six clerics vote on them being compatible with Islam. If any law is rejected, it will be passed back for correction. If the Council of Guardians can not decide on a case, it is passed up to the Expediency Council for a decision. Chapter 6 of the Constitution explains its interworkings with the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Articles 91-97 all fall in the legislative Chapter 6. The Council of Guardians also functions similar to a constitutional court. The authority to interpret the constitution is vested in the Council. Interpretative decisions require a three-quarters majority.Guardian Council – Guardian Council شورای نگهبان
128. Astan Quds Razavi – Astan Quds Razavi is a Bonyad, or autonomous charitable foundation, in Mashhad, Iran. It is the administrative organization which manages the Imam Reza shrine and various institutions which belong to the organization. The administrative apparatus of Astan Quds Razavi is considered the longest-lasting organization since the martyrdom of Imam Reza about 1200 years ago. The main resource of the institution is endowments, estimated to have annual revenue of $210 billion. The Astan Quds Razavi is a major player in the economy of the city of Mashhad. The foundation rents out space to bazaaris and hoteliers. Ayatollah Abbas Vaez-Tabasi, had been the head of Astan-e-Qods from the revolution until his death in 2016.Astan Quds Razavi – Astan Quds Razavi Institute
129. Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf – Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer current serving as the Mayor of Tehran. He was formerly Iran's Chief of commander of Revolutionary Guards' Air Force from 1997 to 2000. Ghalibaf lost to Hassan Rouhani, in second place with 6,077,292 of the votes. Ghalibaf was also a candidate in the 2005 presidential election. Ghalibaf holds a Ph.D. in political geography from Tarbiat Modares University. Ghalibaf is also a pilot, certified to fly certain Airbus aircraft. Ghalibaf began his military career in 1980. Ghalibaf was chief commander of Nasr Troops from 1983 to 1984. Four years later, Ghalibaf became chief of the Iranian Police Forces after the previous commander was dismissed following the 1999 student protests. Ghalibaf was also appointed during a campaign to combat smuggling in 2002. In September 2005, Ghalibaf was elected by the City Council of Tehran. Ghalibaf is also a professor at the University of Tehran. At the age of 19, Ghalibaf was one of the commanders of the defense forces during the Iran -- Iraq War. Shortly afterwards Ghalibaf was named commander of the Rasulollah division. By the time he was twenty-two, Ghalibaf was already commander of the Nasr Troops.Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf – Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf محمدباقر قالیباف
130. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad – Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is an Iranian politician, the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013. He was also the main political leader of the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, a coalition of conservative political groups in the country. An engineer and teacher from a poor background, Ahmadinejad joined the Office for Strengthening Unity after the Iranian Revolution. Appointed a provincial governor, he was removed after the election of President Mohammad Khatami and returned to teaching. Tehran's council elected him mayor in 2003. He took a religious hard line, reversing reforms of previous moderate mayors. During his presidency, Ahmadinejad was viewed as a controversial figure within Iran, as well as internationally. He has been criticized domestically for his economic policies and disregard for human rights. He supports Iran's nuclear program. His election to a second term in 2009 was widely disputed and caused widespread protests domestically and drew significant international criticism. Limited to two terms under the current Iranian constitution, Ahmadinejad supported Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei's campaign for president. On 15 June 2013, Hassan Rouhani was elected as Ahmadinejad's successor and assumed office on 3 August 2013. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was born on 28 October 1956 near Garmsar, in the village of Aradan, in Semnan province. His mother, Khanom, was a Sayyida, an honorific title given to those believed to be direct bloodline descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Sabor is Persian for thread painter, a once common occupation within the Semnan carpet industry.Mahmoud Ahmadinejad – Mahmoud Ahmadinejad محمود احمدینژاد
131. Jeremy Corbyn – Jeremy Bernard Corbyn is a British politician, the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition. He has been Member of Parliament for Islington North since 1983 and was elected Labour Leader in 2015. Ideologically, he identifies as a democratic socialist. Born in Chippenham, Wiltshire, Corbyn attended Adams' Grammar School and later North London Polytechnic, though he did not complete his degree. Before entering politics he worked as a representative for various trade unions. He supports a foreign policy of nuclear disarmament. He was elected Leader of the Labour Party on 12 September 2015, with a landslide vote of 59.5% in the first round of the ballot. On September 2016, following a contest, he retained leadership of the party with an increased share of 61.8 %. Corbyn was born in Chippenham and brought up in nearby Kington St Michael in Wiltshire. He is the youngest of the four sons of Naomi, a maths teacher, David Benjamin Corbyn, an electrical engineer and expert in power rectifiers. His brother Piers Corbyn is a weather forecaster. Corbyn was educated at Castle House Preparatory School, an independent school near Newport, Shropshire, before attending Adams' Grammar School as a day student. While still at school, he became active in The Wrekin constituency Young Socialists, his local Labour Party, the League Against Cruel Sports. He achieved two E-grade A-Levels before leaving school at 18. Corbyn joined the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1966 whilst at school.Jeremy Corbyn – Corbyn in April 2014
132. Labour Party (United Kingdom) – The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Labour later served from 1940 to 1945, after which it formed a majority government under Clement Attlee. Labour was also to 1970 under Harold Wilson and from 1974 to 1979, first under Wilson and then James Callaghan. Having won 232 seats in the 2015 general election, the party is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The party also does not contest elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly. The Labour Party holds observer status in the Socialist International. In September 2015, Jeremy Corbyn was elected Leader of the Labour Party. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and largely middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. In the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party won only 44,325 votes. The leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of left-wing organisations -- trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to coordinate attempts to represent the working-class population. In the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary.Labour Party (United Kingdom) – Keir Hardie, one of the Labour Party's founders and its first leader
133. Philippine presidential election, 2016 – The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2016 was held on Monday, May 9, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election. This was the presidential election in the Philippines since 1935 and the sixth sextennial presidential election since 1986. President Benigno Aquino III is ineligible for re-election, pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Therefore, this election determined the 16th President. The position of president and president are elected separately, thus the two winning candidates could come from different political parties. Rodrigo Duterte led the preliminary count with 38.5% of the vote. They were proclaimed on May 30, in the House of Representatives. According to the Constitution of the Philippines, the election is held every six years on the second Monday of May. The incumbent president is term limited. The incumbent vice president may run for two consecutive terms. The vice presidential election is a separate election, is held on the same rules, voters may split their ticket. Both winners will serve six-year terms commencing on the noon of June 30, 2016 and ending on the same day six years later. Roxas eventually accused Binay of electoral fraud in the Presidential Electoral Tribunal, citing that some of his votes were recorded as null votes. Team PNoy won nine Senate seats against UNA's three. In March 2014, PDP-Laban withdrew from UNA, a week after Binay resigned as party chairman, due "with its leaders".Philippine presidential election, 2016 – Makati City Hall (taller building to the right) as viewed from the Pasig River; the allegedly overpriced annex is the building to the left.
134. Bongbong Marcos – Ferdinand "Bongbong" Romualdez Marcos Jr. is a Filipino politician and former senator in the 16th Congress of the Philippines. Marcos is dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos and of former First Lady Imelda Romualdez-Marcos. Marcos was also Deputy Minority Leader during his second term in the House of Representatives. In 2010, he was elected under the Nacionalista Party. Senator Marcos is a member of several other committees. On October 2015, he announced his candidacy for Vice President of the Philippines in the 2016 election. With a difference of 0.64 percent difference, he suffered a narrow and controversial loss to Leni Robredo. Ferdinand R. Marcos Jr. was born to then Representative Ferdinand E. Marcos and Imelda Remedios Visitacion Romualdez. Marcos studied in Manila where he obtained his kindergarten and elementary education, respectively. The film was released before the 1965 Philippine Elections in which his father, senator at that time, was elected President of the Philippines. In 1970, he was studied at Worth School an all-boys Benedictine institution. Thereafter, Marcos pursued his undergraduate degree. Marcos graduated from Oxford University in England. The political career of Bongbong Marcos started as Vice Governor of Ilocos Norte at the young age of 23. In 1983, Marcos led a group of young Filipino leaders on a diplomatic mission to China to mark the 10th anniversary of Philippine-Chinese relations.Bongbong Marcos – The Honorable Bongbong Marcos
135. Supreme Court of the Philippines – The Supreme Court of the Philippines, is the highest court in the Philippines. It is composed of fifteen Justices, including the Chief Justice. Pursuant to the Constitution, the Supreme Court has "administrative supervision over the personnel thereof". Until 1945, the Court met in Cavite. An constitutional requirement, though less precise in nature, is that a judge "must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, independence." Beginning with the 1935 Constitution, Supreme Court Justices are obliged to retire upon reaching the mandatory age of 70. Alicia Austria-Martinez who retired at 68 due to health reasons. The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines provides that: "Article VIII. Since, 1901, it was only incumbent Associate Justice Alicia Austria-Martinez who resigned for health reasons. In Bar Council's en banc deliberations, Reynato Puno ruled: "The court merely noted it. We don’t have to approve it... it is her right.” During the JBC hearing, a JBC member said "Austria-Martinez had wanted to retire earlier because of health reasons. We were told she had health problems even when she was in the CA.” Retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Artemio Panganiban stated: "I am saddened that Justice Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez has opted to retire early from the Supreme Court due to'health reasons.'Supreme Court of the Philippines – The Members of the Court (2012 Annual Report)
136. Vice President of the Philippines – The Vice President of the Philippines is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the President. The Vice President currently holds office at the Quezon City Reception House in Quezon City. The text of the 1987 Constitution refers with a dash connecting the two words. However, the office is usually referred to today without the dash, as the Vice President. The known vice president claiming to be part of a government was Mariano Trías, whose term started on March 22, 1897. This Supreme Council had no sovereignty, was just used for bargaining with the Spanish. This council was replaced later, with no such position existing during the country's declaration of independence in 1898, which had a dictatorial government. Officially, it too had no vice president. Trias instead served in Pedro Paterno, as finance minister and war minister, respectively. Trias is not considered a Philippine Vice President as the Supreme Council did not proclaim any sovereign state. The 1935 Constitution of the Philippines may be appointed by the President to a cabinet position. The first person elected under the constitution was Sergio Osmeña. Prior to independence in 1946, that portfolio was Secretary of Public Instruction, which had once been reserved only for the Vice Governor-General. Vice President Osmena held that position during World War II. After independence, the highest-ranking position became that of Secretary of Foreign Affairs, given to Vice President Elpidio Quirino.Vice President of the Philippines – Incumbent Jejomar Binay since June 30, 2010
137. Leni Robredo – Maria Leonor "Leni" Santo Tomas Robredo is a Filipino lawyer and social activist, the 14th and current Vice President of the Philippines. Robredo is the second woman to serve as Vice President from Bicol. Prior to the accident, her involvement in public life was as social activist. Maria Leonor Santo Tomas Gerona was born on April 1964 in Naga, Camarines Sur, Philippines. Robredo was the first of three children born to Salvacion Sto. Tomas. Gerona was educated at the Universidad de Sta. Isabel in Naga City, graduating from high school in 1982. Robredo then graduated from the School of Economics of the University of the Philippines Diliman in 1986. Here Robredo met then-Program Director Jesse Robredo, who would eventually become her husband. From 1998 to 2008, she became the coordinator of a Naga-based alternative legal support group. Later, the group's focus shifted to include helping rural women to acquire capital in order to become competitive markets. In addition, Robredo founded an organization that provides training and livelihood opportunities for women, in 1989. In 2012, she was named the chairperson of the Liberal Party in Camarines Sur. Robredo ran during the Philippine general elections of 2013.Leni Robredo – Leni Robredo in 2013
138. Paul Ryan – Ryan is a member of the Republican Party who has served as the U.S. Representative for Wisconsin's 1st congressional district since 1999. He was the Republican Party nominee for Vice President of the United States, running in the 2012 election. Ryan, together with Democratic Senator Patty Murray, negotiated the landmark Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013. Ryan is the first person from Wisconsin to hold this position. Paul Davis Ryan was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, the youngest of four children of Elizabeth A. "Betty" and Paul Murray Ryan, a lawyer. His mother is of German and English ancestry. One of Ryan's paternal ancestors settled prior to the Civil War. Stanley M. Ryan, was appointed U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Wisconsin. Ryan attended St. Mary's Catholic School in Janesville, where he played on the seventh-grade team. He thus became prom king. As president Ryan was a representative of the student body on the school board. Following his second year, Ryan took a job working the grill at McDonald's. He played basketball in a Catholic recreational league.Paul Ryan – Paul Ryan
139. Tom Perez – Thomas Edward "Tom" Perez is an American politician, consumer advocate, civil rights lawyer, the current United States Secretary of Labor. A member of Perez has served as the Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice. Born in New York, he is a graduate of Brown University and Harvard Law School. He was then elected in 2002 serving as the council's president from 2005, until the end of his tenure in 2006. Perez was disqualified for not having 10 years of legal experience in Maryland. On March 2013, he was nominated by President Barack Obama to be the United States Secretary of Labor, replacing outgoing Secretary Hilda Solis. Perez was sworn in on July 23, 2013. He has announced on Twitter his candidacy for Chair of the Democratic National Committee on December 15, 2016. Thomas Edward "Tom" Perez was raised in Buffalo, New York, to parents Grace and Rafael Pérez, who were both first-generation Dominican immigrants. Grace, came to the United States in 1930 after her father, Rafael Brache, was appointed as the Dominican Republic's Ambassador to the United States. She remained in the U.S. after Ambassador Brache was declared persona non grata for speaking out against Dominican President Rafael Trujillo's regime. He was the youngest of five sisters, all of whom but Perez followed their father in becoming physicians. His father died of a attack when Perez was 12 years old. He graduated in 1979. He received his Bachelor of Arts from Brown University in 1983.Tom Perez – Thomas Perez
140. Karen Handel – Karen C. Handel is an American business consultant and former elected official. Karen Handel was a candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor in 2010, losing the primary runoff to Nathan Deal. Lost in the May 20, 2014 Republican primary, coming in third. She grew up in Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Handel then went to work for Hallmark Cards. Later, Handel served to Vice-President Dan Quayle's wife, Marilyn, where she worked to promote breast cancer awareness and research. She worked at major companies including global eye care company Ciba Vision and international accounting firm KPMG. Handel served as president and CEO of Commerce. Handel had run unsuccessfully in 2002. She also implemented verification of citizenship when registering to vote as required by the Help America Vote Act. Handel defended that implementation in the face of lawsuits from the ACLU and the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education fund. Legal battles over the issue are considered likely. She ran in the 2010 election. Handel announced in December 2009 that she would resign as secretary of state in order to focus on the gubernatorial race full-time.Karen Handel – Karen Handel
141. President of Venezuela – The president is the commander-in-chief of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces. Re-election has been unlimited since 2009. The office of President has existed since 1811, when Venezuela declared independence from the Spanish Crown; the first president was Cristóbal Mendoza. From 1821 to 1830, the Venezuelan executive was absorbed by the Colombian government in Bogotá. When the State of Venezuela became independent from the union, the office of the president was restored under José Antonio Páez. Every head of state of Venezuela since then has held the title of President. As a republic with a presidential executive, Venezuela grants significant powers to the president. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces. To direct the activity of the Government. To remove the Executive Vice-President and the Cabinet Ministers. To sign and ratify international treaties, agreements or conventions. To direct the National Armed Forces in his capacity as Commander-in-Chief, establish their contingent. To order the restriction of guarantees in the cases provided for under the Constitution. To issue executive orders having the force of law, subject to authorization in advance by an enabling act. To call special sessions of the National Assembly.President of Venezuela – Incumbent Nicolás Maduro since April 19, 2013
142. China – China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed based in the capital of Beijing. The country's urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China has been characterized as a potential superpower. Mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, South China seas. China emerged in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, reformed numerous times. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is largest by purchasing power parity. China is also second-largest importer of goods. China has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.China – Yinxu, ruins of an ancient palace dating from the Shang Dynasty (14th century BCE)
143. South Thailand insurgency – The South Thailand insurgency is an ongoing conflict centered in southern Thailand. Incidents blamed on southern insurgents have occurred in Bangkok and Phuket. The insurgency escalated further. On 19 a military junta ousted Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup. The junta implemented a major shift by replacing Thaksin's earlier approach with a campaign to win over the "hearts and minds" of the insurgents. Despite little progress in curbing the violence, the junta declared that peace would come to the region by 2008. By March 2008, however, the toll surpassed 3,000. But by the end of 2010 insurgency-related violence had increased, confounding the government's optimism. Finally in March 2011, the government could not be solved in a few months. However, these groups have been largely sidelined by the group currently spearheading the insurgency. It is against talks with other insurgent groups. It has largely been successful. Estimates of the strength of the insurgency vary greatly. In 2004 General Pallop Pinmanee claimed that there were only 500 hardcore jihadists. Other estimates say there as many as 15,000 armed insurgents.South Thailand insurgency – Original arms of the PULO and GMIP
144. Narathiwat Province – Narathiwat is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Yala and Pattani. To the south it borders the Malaysian state of Kelantan. The southern line ends in this province, one of the nation's five provinces that borders Malaysia. The province is relatively fertile. Narathiwat has an area of 4,475 square kilometers. Five percent of the area is jungle and mountains and has a tropical climate. Narathiwat province is located on the Malay Peninsula. The Bang Nara enters the Gulf of Thailand at the town of Narathiwat. The most popular in the province, is near the estuary. Budo – Su-ngai Padi National Park is located within the Sankalakhiri mountain range. Established in 1974, the park covers an area of 294 km², extending into neighbouring Yala and Pattani province. The main attraction is Pacho Waterfall. The former name of Narathiwat was Menara, meaning a'minaret' in Malay, the pre-Islamic name is unknown. This was changed to Narathiwat by King Rama VI in 1915.Narathiwat Province – Narathiwat นราธิวาส
145. Pattani Province – Pattani is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Narathiwat, Yala, Songkhla. The name Pattani is the Thai adaptation of the Malay name Patani, which can mean "this beach" in Patani Malay language. Historically, Pattani Province was the centre of the Malay Sultanate of Patani Darul Makrif. For centuries a tributary state of Siam, Pattani has been governed by Siam since its conquest in 1785. Siamese rule was officially acknowledged by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 negotiated with the British Empire. Pattani is one of the four provinces of Thailand where the majority of the population are Malay Muslim. They make up about 88 percent of its population. The people speak the Patani Malay language, although most also speak Thai. The Pattani Malays are similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia. Pattani is on the Malay Peninsula, with the coast of the Gulf of Thailand to the north. The south is dominated by the Sankalakhiri mountain range, which includes Budo-Su-ngai Padi National Park, on the border with Yala and Narathiwat. The seal of the province shows the cannon called Phraya Tani, known as Sri Pattani in Malay, cast in Pattani Province. It is now in Bangkok. The provincial flower is the Ironwood.Pattani Province – Pattani Grand Mosque
146. Songkhla Province – Songkhla is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Satun, Phatthalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Yala. To the south it borders Kedah and Perlis of Malaysia. In contrast to most other provinces, the Songkhla is not the largest city in the province. The much newer city of Hat Yai, with a population of 359,813, is considerably larger, with twice the population of Songkhla. This often leads to the misconception that Hat Yai is the provincial capital. The province is on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand. The highest elevation is Khao Mai Kaeo at 821 meters. In the north of the province is Songkhla Lake, the largest natural lake in Thailand. This shallow lake has a south-north extent of 78 kilometers. At its mouth on the Gulf near the city of Songkhla, the water becomes brackish. Songkhla Province hosts two national parks. San Kala Khiri covers 214 km² of mountain highlands on the Thai-Malay border. Khao Nam Khang, is also in the boundary mountains. Communist guerrillas inhabited this region until the 1980s.Songkhla Province – Songkhla สงขลา
147. Thailand – Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around million people. Largest city is Bangkok. Most populous city is Bangkok. Its maritime boundaries include Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the world's 20th largest by nominal GDP and the 27th largest by GDP at PPP. It became a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, tourism are leading sectors of the economy. It is considered a middle power around the world. The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma. A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.Thailand – The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya.
148. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United Nations is in Manhattan, experiences extraterritoriality. Main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna. The organization is financed from its member states. The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference in April -- June 1945; the UN began operation. The organization participated in major actions in the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the state of Israel in 1947. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions with varying degrees of success. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is an office held by South Korean Ban Ki-moon since 2007. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with other agencies to participate in the UN's work. A number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between countries.United Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.
149. Democratic Republic of the Congo – The Democratic Republic of the Congo, also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1908 to 1960 it was called the Belgian Congo. It is the second-largest country in Africa by area, eleventh largest in the world. The Congolese Civil Wars, which began in 1996, devastated the country. These wars ultimately resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. Besides the capital, the other major cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi, are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting in 2012. According to the Human Development Index, DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 187 countries. The country's name was restored by former president Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997. Their propagation was accelerated to Iron Age techniques. The people living in southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper.Democratic Republic of the Congo – Village attacked by Arab-Swahili slavers near Nyangwe, end of 19th century
150. 21st Century Fox – Twenty-First Century Fox Inc. is an American multinational mass media corporation based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was one of two companies formed from the 2013 spin-off of the publishing assets of News Corporation, as founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1979. The "new" News Corporation, holds Murdoch's print interests. 21st Century Fox was formed from News Corporation. In February 2012, Natalie Ravitz accepted a position to become Rupert Murdoch’s Chief of Staff at News Corporation. The move also came in the wake of a series of scandals that had damaged the reputation of the company's publishing operations in the United Kingdom. Its logo was officially unveiled on May 2013, featuring a modernized version of the iconic Fox searchlights. However, the 21st Century Fox brand does not extend to the 20th Century Fox division. The formation of 21st Century Fox was officially finalized on June 2013. It formally began trading on July 1, 2013. The deal, rejected by Time Warner's board of directors in July 2014, would have also involved the sale of CNN to ease antitrust issues. On August 2014, 21st Century Fox announced it had withdrawn its bid for Time Warner. Fox would use the money from the sale, along with $ billion it received from Goldman Sachs, to attempt another bid for Time Warner. On September 2015, 21st Century Fox announced a for-profit joint venture with the National Geographic Society. 21st Century Fox holds a 73 stake in the company.21st Century Fox – 1211 Avenue of the Americas: Current headquarters of 21st Century Fox
151. Fox News – Fox News Channel is an American basic cable and satellite news television channel, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group subsidiary of 21st Century Fox. As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 American households receive the Fox News Channel. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of New York City, New York. The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched to 17 million cable subscribers. It grew during the late 2000s to become a dominant cable news network in the United States. Rupert Murdoch is the current chairman and acting CEO of Fox News. Fox News Channel has been accused of biased promoting the Republican Party. Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News Channel employees have responded that reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting. In February 1996, after former U.S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut million households were able to watch FNC; however, it was absent from the media markets of New York City and Los Angeles. Rolling coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines.Fox News – Saint Anselm College Quad with the "Fox-Box", from which the network reported live during the 2004 and 2008 New Hampshire primaries
152. Bill O'Reilly (political commentator) – William James "Bill" O'Reilly Jr. is an American television host, author, journalist, syndicated columnist, political commentator. He is the host of the political commentary program The O'Reilly Factor on the Fox News Channel. From 1989 to 1995, he was anchor of the news magazine program Inside Edition. O'Reilly is widely considered a conservative commentator, although some of his positions diverge from conservative orthodoxy. O'Reilly is registered as a member of the Independence Party of New York, was formerly registered as a Republican and characterizes himself as a traditionalist. O'Reilly is the author of over a dozen books, hosted The Radio Factor until early 2009. O'Reilly is of Irish descent, along with a small amount of English ancestry. Some of his father's ancestors lived in County Cavan, Ireland, since the early eighteenth century, on his mother's side, he has ancestry from Northern Ireland. The O'Reilly family lived in a small apartment in Fort Lee, New Jersey, when their son was born. In 1951 his family moved to Levittown, on Long Island. O'Reilly has a sister, Janet. He attended St. Brigid parochial school in Westbury, Chaminade High School, a private Catholic boys high school in Mineola. Bill O'Reilly played Little League baseball and was the goalie on the Chaminade varsity hockey team. During his high school years, O'Reilly met future pop-singer icon Billy Joel, whom O'Reilly described as a "hoodlum". He used to slick it back like this.Bill O'Reilly (political commentator) – Bill O'Reilly at a Hudson Union Society event in September 2010
153. Dubai – Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the only two emirates to have power over critical matters of national importance in the country's legislature. The city of Dubai heads up the Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area. Dubai is to host World Expo 2020. Dubai has emerged as a global city and hub of the Middle East. It is also a major hub for passengers and cargo. Oil was not discovered until 1966. Oil revenue first started to flow in 1969. The emirate's Western-style model of business drives its economy with the main revenues now coming from tourism, aviation, financial services. Dubai was recently named the best destination for Muslim travellers by Salam Standard. Dubai has recently attracted attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. The city has become iconic in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. Dubai has been criticised for human violations concerning the city's largely South Asian workforce. As of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive after Geneva.Dubai – Clockwise from the top: skyline with Burj Khalifa; Burj Al Arab; satellite image showing Palm Jumeirah and The World Islands; Dubai Marina; and Sheikh Zayed road.
154. United Arab Emirates – In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. The country is a federation of seven emirates, was established on December 2nd, 1971. The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by an absolute monarch; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates. The UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world, while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Nevertheless, the country remains principally reliant on its export of petroleum and natural gas. The UAE is criticised for its human rights record, including the specific interpretations of Shari'a used in its legal system. The UAE's rising international profile has led some analysts to identify it as a regional and middle power. It appears the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BCE. In ancient times, Al Hasa was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar was an important port, used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire.United Arab Emirates – Dubai in 1950; the area in this photo shows Bur Dubai in the foreground (centered on Al-Fahidi Fort); Deira in middle-right on the other side of the creek; and Al Shindagha (left) and Al Ras (right) in the background across the creek again from Deira
155. Emirates (airline) – Emirates is an airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The airline is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group, wholly owned by the government of Dubai's Investment Corporation of Dubai. Cargo activities are undertaken by Emirates SkyCargo. Emirates launched the longest non-stop commercial flight to Auckland on 1 March 2016. During the mid-1980s, Gulf Air began to cut back its services to Dubai. With $ million in start-up capital it was required to operate independently of government subsidy. Pakistan International Airlines provided training facilities in its academy. The airline was headed by the airline's present chairman. In the years following its founding, the airline expanded both its destinations. In October 2008, Emirates moved all operations to Terminal 3. Emirates is one of the few airlines to operate an all-wide-body aircraft fleet. As of September 2016, Emirates is the largest Airbus A380 operator with a further 59 in orders. Since their induction, Airbus A380 planes have become an integral part of Emirates fleet, especially on long-haul heavily trafficked routes. Emirates is the world's largest Boeing 777 operator. During the mid-1980s, Gulf Air began to cut back its services to Dubai as it was concerned it was providing regional feeder flights for other carriers.Emirates (airline) – Emirates Boeing 727-200 at Dubai International Airport (1991)
156. Andean – The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a continuous range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m. The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau. These ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes are the world's highest mountain outside of Asia. Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level. The world's highest volcanoes are including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is often considered to be part of the Andes. The cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope". The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Andes are the result of plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate.Andean – Aerial photo of a portion of the Andes between Argentina and Chile
157. Landslide – Landslides can occur in underwater, called a submarine landslide, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up sub-surface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released. Landslides occur when the slope changes to an unstable condition. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors, acting alone. Slope material that becomes saturated with water may develop into a debris mud flow. The resulting slurry of mud may pick up trees, houses and cars, thus blocking bridges and tributaries causing flooding along its path. They are entirely different processes. Muddy-debris flows in alpine areas often claim human lives. Muddy-debris flows can start as a result of shallow landslides can dam stream beds, resulting in temporary water blockage. The solid–liquid mixture can reach densities of up to 2,000 kg/m3 and velocities of up to 14 m/s. Earthflows are downslope, viscous flows of saturated, fine-grained materials, which move at any speed from slow to fast. Typically, they can move to 20 km/h. Though these are a lot like mudflows, overall they are covered with solid material carried along by flow from within. They are different from fluid flows which are more rapid.Landslide – The Mameyes Landslide, in the Mameyes neighborhood of barrio Portugués Urbano in Ponce, Puerto Rico, which buried more than 100 homes, was caused by extensive accumulation of rains and, according to some sources, lightning.
158. Manizales – Manizales capital of the Department of Caldas, is a city and municipality in central Colombia, near the Nevado del Ruiz volcano. Presently, the city is the main center for an important hub for higher educational institutions. Manizales was founded on October 1849, The city was founded by a group of twenty antioquians, who came from Neira and Salamina. It is the capital city of the smallest Colombian departments. Even though Manizales has this very difficult topography, there are many coffee plantations in its fertile lands. The city is located near the volcano Nevado del Ruiz, which has an altitude of 5,321 meters. Manizales is in the basin of the Chinchiná sub-basin of the Guacaica River. Its natural threats are earthquakes, volcanic eruptions. Under the Köppen classification, it has a subtropical highland climate. Monthly averages are quite uniform. It receives a year with October being wettest. Its economy has traditionally been the cultivation and production of coffee. These companies manufacture products such as liquor, shoes, rubber, chocolate, banks, detergents and soaps, packaged coffee, software and metallurgy, among others. The universities are attended by students among others. The sector has thrived, mostly to the tune of call centers, has become one of the city's primary economic activities.Manizales – Manizales, Caldas
159. Hellenic Army – The Hellenic Army, formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece. Along with the Hellenic Navy, it makes up the Hellenic Armed Forces. It is currently the largest branch of the three. The army is headed by the chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff, which in turn is under the command of Hellenic National Defence General Staff. The motto of the Hellenic Army is Ἐλεύθερον τὸ Εὔψυχον, "Freedom Stems from Valour", from Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War. The Hellenic Army is also "lead nation" of, the Balkan Battle Group, a combined-arms rapid-response force under the EU Battlegroup structure. The contribution to international security and peace. The contribution to activities of social aid and the support of state services for the confrontation of emergency situations. The Hellenic Army traces its origin to the regular units established during the Greek War of Independence. An infantry regiment and a small artillery battery, were established in April 1822, were commanded by European Philhellenes. In May 1825, the command of the entire regular forces entrusted to the French Colonel Charles Fabvier. Under Fabvier, the regular corps for the first time came to include cavalry, military music detachments, with Lord Byron's aid, military hospitals. After Kapodistrias' assassination in the subsequent internal turmoil over the next two years, however, the regular army all but ceased to exist. The first king of the Bavarian prince Otto, initially relied on a 4,000-strong German contingent. The royal government dissolved the irregular forces that had largely fought the War of Independence.Hellenic Army – Demetrios Ypsilantis was commander of the tactical Greek forces during the Battle of Petra, final battle of the Greek War of Independence
160. Bell UH-1 Iroquois – The Bell UH-1 Iroquois is a military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-blade main and tail rotors. The UH-1 was the first turbine-powered helicopter to enter production in 1960 for the United States military, more than 16,000 have been built since. The Iroquois was originally designated HU-1, hence the Huey nickname, which has remained in common use, despite the official redesignation to UH-1 in 1962. The UH-1 first saw service in combat operations during the Vietnam War, with around 7,000 helicopters deployed. The Bell 204 and 205 are Iroquois versions developed for the civil market. In 1952, the Army identified a requirement for a new helicopter to serve as medical evacuation, instrument trainer, general utility aircraft. The Army determined that current helicopters were too large, underpowered, or complex to maintain easily. In November 1953, revised military requirements were submitted to the Department of the Army. On 23 February 1955, the Army announced its decision, selecting Bell to build three copies of the Model 204 for evaluation, designated as the XH-40. Two more prototypes were built in 1957, the Army had previously ordered six YH-40 service test aircraft, even before the first prototype had flown. The helicopter quickly developed a nickname derived from its designation of HU-1, which came to be pronounced as "Huey". The reference became so popular that Bell began casting the name on the helicopter's anti-torque pedals. The official U.S. Army name was almost never used in practice. After September 1962, the designation for all models was changed to UH-1 under a unified Department of Defense designation system, but the nickname remained. The Army indicated the need for improved follow-on models even as the first UH-1As were being delivered.Bell UH-1 Iroquois – UH-1 Iroquois
161. Elassona – Elassona is a town and a municipality in the Larissa regional unit in Greece. During antiquity Elassona was called Oloosson - Ὀλοοσσών and was a town of the ancient "Perrhaebi", known today as Thessaly. It is situated at the foot of Mount Olympus. Elassona is bypassed by the GR-3. Under the law 3448/15-3-2006, Tsaritsani got separated from the municipality and declared a commune. The loss of its population and land leaves the remaining municipality with an adjusted 2001 census population of 12,056 and a land area of 291.097 km². The province of Elassona was one of the provinces of the Larissa Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present municipality. It was abolished in 2006. The rivers Elassonitis and Titarisio flow through Elassona and they both flow into the Pineios River, Thessaly's longest river. These two parts of the city are connected by four bridges, one of, an ancient stone arch bridge. The other part is near the Kefalovrysi Lake. Elassona is linked with the old GR-3 and is bypassed to the east. Elassona.gr - Elassonas guide Elassona.com.gr - Elassonas province Elassona on GTP Travel Pages Elassona on GTP Travel PagesElassona – Elassona Ελασσόνα
162. New England Patriots – The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston region. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a member of the American Football Conference East division. The Patriots are also headquartered at Gillette Stadium. An original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues. The team changed its name after relocating in 1971. The Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001, then moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season. The Patriots' rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. On November 1959, Boston executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League. Locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston team's official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the "Boston Patriots". Immediately thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the "Pat Patriot" logo. They never had a regular stadium. Nickerson Field, Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League. They did play in one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season. They lost to the San Diego Chargers 51–10 in that game.New England Patriots – Patriot fans rally in front of Boston City Hall following the Super Bowl XXXVIII championship
163. Murder of Odin Lloyd – The murder of Odin Lloyd occurred on June 17, 2013, in North Attleborough, Massachusetts. Prior to his death, Lloyd had been a linebacker for the Boston Bandits, since 2007. Hernandez was charged with the murder. Ninety minutes after his arrest, Hernandez was released by the Patriots. On June 2013, two other men, Carlos Ortiz and Ernest Wallace, were also arrested in connection with Lloyd's death. Prosecutors say both men were with Hernandez when they drove to the place of the murder. On August 2013, Hernandez was indicted by a grand jury for the murder of Odin Lloyd. Nearly eight months later, Ortiz and Wallace were also indicted for the murder in the same crime. June is currently awaiting trial of Daniel de Abreu and Safiro Furtado. On June 2016, Ortiz changed his not guilty plea and pleaded guilty to accessory after the fact. In exchange for his plea, prosecutors dropped the charge against Ortiz. June was also sentenced to serve four-and-one-half to seven years in prison. Odin Leonardo John Lloyd was spent a few years in Antigua, before moving to Dorchester, Massachusetts. June was the first-born child and only son of Ursula Ward. Lloyd has at least an uncle, who stated that he last saw Lloyd on the Sunday before his death.Murder of Odin Lloyd – Odin Lloyd
164. Disappearance of Etan Patz – Ramos was the missing child to be pictured on milk cartons. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan designated the anniversary of Etan's disappearance as National Missing Children's Day in the United States. In 2010, the case was reopened by the New York County District Attorney's office. In 2012, the FBI discovered no new evidence. Pedro Hernandez, was charged and indicted later that year on charges of second-degree murder and first-degree kidnapping. In 2014, the case went through a series of hearings to determine if Hernandez's statements before receiving the Miranda warning were legally admissible at trial. His trial ended in a mistrial in May when one of the twelve jurors held out. A retrial began on October 2016. Ramos was wearing a blue shirt, blue jeans, blue sneakers. Ramos never reached the stop. At school, Etan's teacher did not report it to the principal. When Etan did not come home at the end of the day, his mother called the police. At first, detectives considered the Patzes as possible suspects, but quickly determined they had no involvement. An intense search began that evening, using a team of bloodhounds. The search continued for weeks.Disappearance of Etan Patz – Etan Patz photographed September 16, 1978
165. SoHo – Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and is part of the West End of London, England. Since the 1980s, the area has undergone considerable gentrification. It is now predominantly a fashionable district of upmarket restaurants and offices, with only a small remnant of sex industry venues. Record shops cluster in the area with shops such as Blackmarket Records, Sister Ray and Vinyl Junkies. On many weekends, Soho is busy enough to warrant closing off some of the streets to vehicles. The name "Soho" first appears in the 17th century. Most authorities believe that the name derives from a former cry. The Soho name has been imitated by other restaurant districts such as Soho, Hong Kong; Soho, Málaga; SOHO, Beijing and Palermo Soho, Buenos Aires. Manhattan, gets its name from its location SOuth of HOuston Street, but is also a reference to London's Soho. Apart from Oxford Street, all of these roads are 19th-century metropolitan improvements, so they are not Soho's original boundaries. It has never been an administrative unit, with formally defined boundaries. Soho is part of the West End electoral ward which elects three councillors to Westminster City Council. In 1536, the land was taken by Henry VIII as a royal park for the Palace of Whitehall. In the 1660s the Crown granted Soho Fields to Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans. Frith began the development.SoHo
166. Manhattan – Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, the city's historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683, as one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Multinational conglomerates are based in the borough. It is historically documented to have been purchased for 60 guilders which equals today. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is also the most densely populated U.S. county. On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan is the smallest borough in terms of area. The name "Manhattan" derives as written in the 1609 logbook of an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY". The area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. A European presence in New Netherland began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island.Manhattan – View from Midtown Manhattan, facing south toward Lower Manhattan
167. Muhammadu Buhari – Muhammadu Buhari GCFR is the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. The Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government. Buhari unsuccessfully ran in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 general elections. In December 2014, Buhari emerged for the March 2015 general elections. He won the election, defeating the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan. This marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost in a general election. Buhari was sworn in on 29 May 2015. He has stated that he can not change the past. Buhari has described himself as a "converted democrat". Muhammadu Buhari was born on 17 December 1942, in Katsina State, to his father Adamu and mother Zulaihat. Buhari is the twenty-third child of his father. He was raised by his mother, after his father died when he was about four years old. Buhari attended primary school before proceeding to Katsina Model School in 1953, to Katsina Provincial Secondary School from 1956 to 1961. He joined the Nigerian Army by enrolling in 1961. In February 1964, the college was renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy.Muhammadu Buhari – Muhammadu Buhari
168. Lagos – Lagos /ˈleɪɡɒs/ is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the largest in Nigeria, well as on the African continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and also one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere. Lagos, the capital of Nigeria since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State, after its creation. However, the capital was later moved to Ikeja in 1976, while the federal capital also moved to Abuja in 1991. This conurbation houses about 85 % of the state's total population. The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed; In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about million people. Lagos was originally inhabited in the 15th century, who called it "Oko". Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to the larger Lagos Island. Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese. The present-day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori, who migrated along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo.Lagos – Clockwise from top: Victoria Island skyline from the Gulf of Guinea, Lekki-Ikoyi Link Bridge, Apapa Port, National Arts Theatre, Iganmu, The Ikeja City Mall, and The Lagos Island CBD.
169. Bharatiya Janata Party – The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. The BJP is a right-wing party, with close ideological and organisational links to the Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although initially unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted in office; this was the non-Congress government to do so. In the 2004 general election, for the next ten years the BJP was the principal party. Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi leads the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of August 2016, the alliance governs 15 states. The official ideology of the BJP is "integral humanism", first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions. The BJP advocates social conservatism and a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a largely neoliberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare.Bharatiya Janata Party – Syama Prasad Mookerjee, founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh
170. L.K. Advani – Lal Krishna Advani is an Indian politician and a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party. He served from 1998 to 2004. Additionally, Advani served as Deputy Prime Minister of India under Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Advani was the Leader of the Opposition in 14th Lok Sabha. He began his political career as a volunteer of a right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation. In 2015 Advani was awarded India's second highest civilian honor. L. K. Advani was born in Karachi to parents Kishanchand D. Advani and Gyani Devi. Advani hails from the Lohana caste. Advani then enrolled in D G National College in Hyderabad, Sindh. His family settled down in Bombay, where he graduated in Law from the Government Law College of the Bombay University. L K Advani married Kamla Advani in February 1965. Advani has a son, a daughter, Pratibha. Pratibha Advani produces serial shows, also supports her father in his political activities. Kamla Advani wife died on 6 April 2016 due to old age. He joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in 1942.L.K. Advani – L. K. Advani
171. Uma Bharati – Uma Bharti is an Indian politician and cabinet minister for water resources, river development and Ganga rejuvenation in the Union Government of India. In 1989, Bharti retained it in elections conducted in 1991, 1998. In 1999, she switched constituencies and won the Bhopal seat. She is occasionally addressed by the Hindu honorific Sādhvī, a respectful Sanskrit title for a female renunciant. She was present at the demolition of the Babri Masjid, was later indicted by the Liberhan Commission for her role in the incident. In the 2003 Assembly polls, she led the BJP to a three-fourths majority in the Madhya Pradesh Vidhān Sabhā. She defeated her Congress opponent from the Malehra seat by a 25% margin. Bharti resigned in August 2004 when an warrant was issued against her regarding the 1994 Hubli riot case. Uma Bharti was born on 3 May 1959 in Dunda, Tikamgarh District in the state of Madhya Pradesh to a family of peasants. She attended school up until the sixth standard. As a child, she displayed considerable interest in religious texts like the Bhagvad Gita which led to her being seen as a "spiritual" child. Bharti began to give a child, which brought her with Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia, who would later become her political mentor. She describes herself in her youth as a "religious missionary". With the support of Vijaya Raje Scindia, Bharti became involved with the Madhya Pradesh state BJP while still in her twenties. In 1984, she contested Lok Sabha elections for the first time, but lost in the Congress wave that followed the assassination of Indira Gandhi.Uma Bharati – Uma Bharti
172. Murli Manohar Joshi – Joshi later became the Union Human Resources Development minister in the National Democratic Alliance government. Joshi is best known on Hindu socio-politics and for his affiliation with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, of which he had been a pracharak. He had his early education in Chandpur, District Bijnore and Almora. He completed his B.Sc. from Meerut College and M.Sc. from Allahabad University. Here one of his teachers was Professor Rajendra Singh, who later became the RSS Sarsanghchalak. Joshi did his doctorate from Allahabad University. The subject of his doctoral thesis was spectroscopy. Joshi published a research paper in Hindi, a first of its kind. After completing his PhD, he started Physics at Allahabad University. During the period in India, he was in jail from 26 June 1975 until the Lok Sabha elections in 1977. Joshi was elected Member of Parliament from Almora. When the Janata Party came to power forming the non-Congress government in Indian history, he was elected General Secretary of the Janata Parliamentary Party. After the fall of the government, his party formed the Bharatiya Janata Party or the BJP. He first later became Party Treasurer. As General Secretary of BJP, Joshi was directly in charge of Bihar, Bengal and North-Eastern States.Murli Manohar Joshi – Murli Manohar Joshi
173. Babri Masjid – The Babri Masjid, was a mosque in Ayodhya, India. Located in Faizabad district, it was one of the largest mosques in the Uttar Pradesh state. According to the mosque's inscriptions, it was built on orders of the Mughal emperor Babur. The mosque was located on a hill known as Ramkot. According to a section of Hindus, the Mughals destroyed a structure marking the birthplace of Rama to build the mosque, a claim denied by the Muslims. Starting in the 19th century, there were several conflicts and court disputes between Hindus and Muslims over the mosque. On 6 the demolition of the Babri Masjid by Hindu nationalist groups triggered riots all over India, leading to around 2,000 deaths. The name "Babri Masjid" comes from the name of the Mughal emperor Babur, said to have ordered its construction. Before the 1940s, it was called Masjid-i-Janmasthan, including in the official documents such as revenue records. The Mughals, were great patrons of art and architecture and many fine tombs, mosques and madrasas. These have a distinctive style which bears influences of "later Tughlaq" architecture. The Babri Mosque followed the architectural school of Jaunpur Sultanate. When viewed from the west side, it resembled the Atala Masjid in Jaunpur. The architecture of the mosque is completely a replica of the mosques in the Delhi Sultanate. This was the forerunner of the Indo Islamic style adopted by Akbar.Babri Masjid
174. Ayodhya – Ayodhya, also known as Saket, is an ancient city of India, believed to be the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana. It is adjacent to Faizabad city at the south end in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Ayodhya used to be the capital of the ancient Kosala Kingdom. It has an average elevation of 93 meters. Owing to the belief as the birthplace of Rama, Ayodhya has been regarded as one of the seven most important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. The Ayodhya dispute concerns the activism by the Hindu groups to rebuild a Rama's temple at the site. Ayodhya is on the right bank of the river 8; km from Faizabad. This town is closely associated with seventh incarnation of Vishnu. According to the Ramayana, the city was founded by Manu, the first man in the universe according to the Vedas. Other sources hold that it was founded by King Ayudh. It was said to be the capital of the Solar dynasty, of which Rama was the most celebrated king. At the time it was known as Kaushaldesa. It is predominantly a religious destination with its historical significance and sacred temples. The Atharvaveda described Ayodhya as "a city being prosperous as paradise itself." Its first king was Ikshvaku, of the Solar dynasty and eldest son of Vaivasvata Manu.Ayodhya – Ram Paidi ghat on Sarayu river, Ayodhya.
175. Jakarta – Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, yet the metropolis' suburbs still continue beyond it. Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it became the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. After the country's declaration of independence in 1945, the city—then called Djakarta—retained its status as capital of Indonesia. Jakarta is listed as Network research. Based on the global monitor in 2014, economic growth in Jakarta ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Bangkok. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta. The name was used after the Sultanate of Banten seized the port from Hindu Sunda kingdom circa 1527. The European spelling named Jayakarta as Jacatra. The origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language. "Jayakarta" translates as "complete victory". It can also translates as "victorious city". In 1619 the VOC captured the port city.Jakarta – (From top, left to right): Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque
177. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – He was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on 18 November 2014. Basuki is well known by Ahok. He was also a Komisi II Indonesian People's Representative Council member for the 2009 -- 2014 term. However, Basuki resigned from the position in 2012 to run for Vice Governor of Jakarta. Previously Basuki is Regent of East Belitung. He is the second Christian governor of Jakarta, following Henk Ngantung, governor during the period 1964 -- 65. He grew up in Manggar, East Belitung. Basuki is the first son of his father, the late Indra Tjahaja Purnama. He has three siblings, Basuri Tjahaja Purnama, Harry Basuki. He attended Trisakti University majoring in Mineral Resources & Technology. After two years working in the company, Basuki decided to pursue master's degree at Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Jakarta. Basuki graduated as a Master of Business Administration. He entered politics in his region of Belitung. Basuki was elected as regent with 37.13 % of the vote. He resigned from his position as East Belitung regent on 11 December 2006 in order to run in the 2007 gubernatorial election then failed.Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama 鍾萬學
178. Quran desecration – Intentionally insulting the Quran is regarded by Muslims as blasphemous. Most traditional schools of Islamic law require wudu before a Muslim may touch the Holy Quran. Muslims must always treat the printed book with reverence, which may even extend to excerpts of text. Disposal of worn copies is also of concern to Muslims. Respect for the written text of the Holy Quran is an important element of religious faith in Islam. Desecrating a copy of the Quran is punishable by imprisonment in some countries and has been punishable by death in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and Pakistan. A US military investigation confirmed four instances of Quran desecration by US personnel, fifteen instances of desecration by Muslim prisoners. According to CBC News, "The statement did not provide any explanation about why the detainees might have abused their own Holy books." In May 2005, a report in Newsweek, claiming that it was U.S. interrogators who desecrated the Quran at the Guantanamo Bay base, further sparking Muslim unrest. In 2007, Nigerian Christian teacher Christianah Oluwatoyin Oluwasesin was stabbed to death after allegations that she had desecrated a Qu'ran. He later cancelled the plans; however, on March 20, 2011, he oversaw the burning of a Quran. In response, Muslims in Afghanistan rioted and 12 people were killed. In February 2012, protests broke out at the US military Bagram Air Base. Protesters shouted "Death to America" and burned US flags. At least 30 people were killed and hundreds injured.Quran desecration – Quran
179. Anies Baswedan – Anies Rasyid Baswedan is an Indonesian academician and the former Minister of Education and Culture of Indonesia. Baswedan was Rector of Paramadina University in Jakarta, Indonesia when appointed by Joko Widodo for the position. Baswedan is the chairman of Indonesia Mengajar. As a student, Baswedan was actively involved during Suharto's authoritarian regime. Baswedan is now highly respected young leader in Indonesia. Baswedan is also known as one of Indonesia's youngest university presidents. No less than million people watched the debate. The case had wide media coverage for weeks. More than million facebookers marched for the support of the two commissioners. He was elected by the Team to be the spokesperson. His systematic, diplomatic remarks during the continuous press conferences at the times of crisis had helped to clarify facts and reduce political tension. He is not affiliated with any political groups. Baswedan accepted the invitation to participate as one of the 45 declarators in the launching of a new organization called Nasional Demokrat. The 45 declarators were coming from professional backgrounds. He declined to join the organization.Anies Baswedan – Anies Baswedan
180. European Commission – The Commission operates as a cabinet government, with 28 members of the Commission. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014. The procedural languages of the Commission are English, French and German. The Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet. The High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg. In 1958 the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community. However their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the executives and the Council. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom. Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. The Rey Commission campaigned for a more European Parliament.European Commission – President Delors, one of the most notable presidents in the Commission's history
181. TF1 – TF1 is a private national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. TF1's average share of 24 % makes it the most popular domestic network. It's also considered to be the most viewed channel in Europe. Flagship series include CSI, The Voice and House M.D. Together with France Télévisions, TF1 co-managed the international French news channel France 24 but has since sold its share. TF1 had possessed the satellite-network TPS, which have been sold to the Canal+ Group. Radio-PTT Vision began operations on 26 April 1935 as the first station in France, using a 30-line mechanical television system based on the Nipkow disk. However, broadcasts using the Nipkow system continued alongside the new electronic system until 10 April 1938. The adoption of the electronic standard marked the advent of electronic television to obtain much better image quality. RN Télévision abruptly stopped broadcasts on 3 September 1939 following the entry of France into the Second World War. Television broadcasts resumed in occupied France on 7 May 1943 under the control of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht. Fernsehsender Paris stopped broadcasts on August 1944, one week before the liberation of Paris. Radiodiffusion française thus began the growth of television as an accepted mass medium in France. On 30 July 1949 a television licence fee was introduced. This period marked the introduction of commercial advertising on Première chaîne de l'ORTF which began on 1 October 1968.TF1 – July 25, 1964 - January 5, 1975
182. Flag of Europe – The Flag of Europe, or European Flag is the flag of Europe. It consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on an azure background. It was first adopted in 1955 by the Council of Europe to represent the European continent as a whole. The flag was designed in 1955, officially launched later that year by the Council of Europe as a symbol for the whole of Europe. The flag is not mentioned in the EU's treaties, its incorporation being dropped along with the European Constitution, but it is formally adopted in law. The Council of Europe has a distinctive "Council of Europe Logo" to uniquely identify the organisation, which employs a lower-case "e" in the centre. However, the flag is sometimes use for example representing Europe as a pro-democracy banner. It has partly inspired other flags, such as those of other European organisations and those of sovereign states where the EU has been heavily involved. The search for a symbol began in 1950 when a committee was set up in order to look into the question of a European flag. A clear theme for circles emerged. Due to the cross symbolism, this was rejected by Turkey. Kalergi then suggested adding a crescent to the cross design, to overcome the Muslim objections. Another organisation's flag was the European Movement, which had a large green E on a white background. A further design was one based on the Olympic rings: eight silver rings on a blue background. It was rejected due to the rings' similarity with "dial", "chain" and "zeros".Flag of Europe – Flag of Europe next to Flag of France on Villa Schutzenberger, seat of the European Audiovisual Observatory, an institution within the Council of Europe
183. Frauke Petry – Frauke Petry is a German politician, party chairwoman of the Alternative for Germany party since 4 July 2015. Petry is a chemist and small businesswoman by education and professional background. She grew up in Schwarzheide in Brandenburg near Saxony up to 1989. In 1992 her family moved in Westphalia. She is described by political scientist Cas Mudde. Petry describes herself as supporting policies of "national self-determinism." Bernd Lucke's wing did not have the majority. On the subject of the political spectrum, Petry has said, "left are terms that haven't fitted for a long time." She believes sharia is incompatible with the "liberal order of state" and has said that the majority within her AfD favors a liberal-conservative policy. She initially answered that the German Border police must do their jobs by "hindering illegal entry of refugees." Petry then cited existing German law which states that the police may "use firearms if necessary" to "prevent illegal border crossings". The reporter followed up on her response, using the Schiessbefehl which means "order to shoot". Boris Palmer has said, "Greece alone won't be capable. This can only be achieved by European border troops. And it's perfectly normal for them to be armed, as it is at almost every border."Frauke Petry – Frauke Petry in 2015.
184. Alliance 90/The Greens – Alliance'90/The Greens, often simply Greens, is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. The focus of the party is on ecological, social sustainability. Its leaders are Cem Özdemir. In the 2013 federal elections, the party came fourth with 63 out of 630 seats in the Bundestag. The Green Party was initially founded in West Germany as Die Grünen in January 1980. It rose out of the anti-nuclear energy, new social movements of the late 20th century. Grüne Liste Umweltschutz were the names of other states in the Federal Republic of Germany. These groups took part in several elections. Most of them merged in 1980. In 1993 it renamed after the merger with East Berlin's Greens and Alliance' 90. The Hamburg branch of the Green Party was called Grün-Alternative Liste Hamburg from its foundation in 1982 until 2012. In 1984 it became the official Hamburg branch of The Greens. In the 1970s, environmentalists and peace activists politically organised amongst thousands of action groups. The Greens was founded January 13, 1980 in Karlsruhe to give this movement political and parliamentary representation. Opposition to pollution, use of nuclear power, certain aspects of industrialised society were principal campaign issues.Alliance 90/The Greens – The 1990 GDR's Green Party logo
185. CDU/CSU – Both parties share a parliamentary group in the Bundestag known as Union faction. The CSU is only organised and contests elections in Bavaria, while the CDU operates in the other 15 states of Germany. The CSU also reflects the particular concerns of the largely rural, Catholic south. Both CSU are share a common youth organisation, the Young Union. Both parties sit in the European People's Party Group in the European Parliament. The CDU's foundation however was the result of a major re-organisation of the centre-right political camp compared to the Weimar Republic. However, the CDU was and still is significantly stronger in Catholic-dominated areas than in Protestant areas of Germany. On their political stances, the CDU and the CSU usually only differ slightly. The CSU is usually considered a bit more regionalist. The socially conservative CSU have sometimes led to conflicts in the past. With a vote of one abstention, the CSU deputies decided to separate in the Bundestag. The decision had been initiated by CSU chairman Strauss, then himself a Bundestag deputy. The official reasons were to create a more effective opposition and gain more speaking time in parliament. Strauss therefore coined the term Vierte Partei.CDU/CSU – CDU/CSU
186. House of Commons – In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the upper house of parliament. The leader of the party in the House of Commons usually becomes the prime minister. It has the power to give a vote of no confidence. Knights of the shire, elected from each county, were usually landowners, while the borough members were often from the merchant classes. These members represented subjects of the Crown who were not Lords Temporal or Spiritual, who themselves sat in the House of Lords. The House of Commons gained its name because it represented communities. After the Reformation, these bishops were those of the Church of England. Since the 19th century, the Canadian Houses of Commons have become increasingly representative, as suffrage has been extended. Both bodies are now elected via universal suffrage.House of Commons – The Canadian House of Commons on Parliament Hill in Ottawa
187. Utah – The Utah Railway is a class III railroad operating in Utah and Colorado, owned by Genesee & Wyoming Inc. In addition, the Utah Railway was the first to equip its air brakes with fourteen-pound tension springs instead of the seven-pound springs. These gondolas were known as "Battleships". A manufacturer of copper products, sold the Utah Railway in 2002 to Genesee & Wyoming Inc. a railroad holding company. The company still hauls a significant amount of coal; of the 90,000 carloads hauled each year, over two thirds are coal. In addition, switching services are provided in elsewhere. The earliest logo spelled out on the locomotives and cabooses, "Utah Coal Route" on the drop-bottom gondolas. On paper, however, the logo for many years was a black circle with a white background. The image in these circular logos changed over the years. The 1948 logo included the words "Utah Railway" surrounding a gondola with the initials "U.C.R.". The 1999 logo was the words "Utah Railway: Since 1912". In later years the symbol of the Utah Railway Company was the beehive, also the Utah symbol. Genesee & Wyoming corporate website Trainweb's Utah Railway UtahRails.net Utah Railway pageUtah – Former Union Pacific CA-1 Caboose on display in Helper. The Utah Railway purchased eight of these cabooses from the UP between 1918 and 1927.
188. Jason Chaffetz – Jason E. Chaffetz is the U.S. representative for Utah's 3rd congressional district, first elected in 2008. Chaffetz is a member of the Republican Party. Chaffetz is also the chairman on Oversight and Government Reform. Chaffetz was born in Los Gatos, California, was raised in Arizona and Colorado with his younger brother Alex. His father, John A. Chaffetz, was Jewish, his mother, Margaret A. Wood, was a Christian Scientist. He converted from Judaism during his last year of college. He graduated with a B.A. in communications. While in college, he was a Democrat. Despite their political affiliations, he remains close to his half-brother and the Dukakis family. While a student at BYU, he was Utah co-chairman of Dukakis' 1988 presidential campaign. After college, he worked for a multi-level marketing company, Nu Skin International. Chaffetz became a Republican in 1990, when Reagan visited Chaffetz's employer, Nu Skin, as a motivational speaker. However, his political views had been drifting more to the right even while working for Dukakis. In 2003, he was not accepted because "better qualified applicants existed." In 2004, he was the manager for Utah gubernatorial candidate Jon Huntsman.Jason Chaffetz – Jason Chaffetz
189. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is an American politician, businessman, television personality, the President-elect of the United States. Trump is scheduled to take office as the 45th President on January 20, 2017. In 1971, Trump took control of Elizabeth Trump & Son, later renamed The Trump Organization. During his career, he has built, renovated or managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos, golf courses. Trump has lent the use of his name to brand various products. Trump became a fixture of television as he hosted The Apprentice on NBC from 2004 to 2015. As of 2016, Forbes listed Trump with a net worth of $4.5 billion. He withdrew before voting began. Trump ultimately decided against it. In June 2015, Trump quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 contenders in the Republican primaries. In July he was formally nominated at the Republican Convention. Trump's campaign received international attention. Many of his statements on social media, at campaign rallies were controversial or false. Anti-Trump protests occurred during his campaign and after the election. He won the general election on November 2016, gaining a majority of the U.S.Donald Trump – Donald Trump
190. Washington State University – Washington State University is a public research university based in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. It is ranked in America with high research activity as determined by the U.S. News & World Report. The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Vancouver, all founded 27 years ago in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched WSU Online. These campuses award primarily master's degrees. Sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Total enrollment for WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students. This includes 1,751 international students. The school colors are crimson and gray. Nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. Washington State College was established after statehood. The institution was one of the land-grant colleges created under the 1862 federal Morrill Act signed by President Abraham Lincoln. The federal land grants for the new institution included 90,000 acres of federal land for a school of science. After an extended search for a location, the state's land-grant college opened in Pullman on January 13, 1892.Washington State University – Washington State University
191. Near-Earth object – A near-Earth object is any small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth. By definition, a solar system body is a NEO if its closest approach to the Sun is less than 1.3 astronomical unit. It is now widely accepted that collisions in the past have had a significant role in shaping the geological and biological history of the Earth. NEAs have orbits that lie partly between 0.983 and 1.3 AU away from the Sun. When an NEA is detected it is submitted to the IAU's Minor Planet Center for cataloging. Some NEAs' orbits intersect that of Earth's so they pose a collision danger. The United States, European Union, other nations are currently scanning for NEOs in an effort called Spaceguard. In 2006, it was estimated that 20% of the mandated objects had not yet been found. As of 9 December 2016, there have been 874 NEAs larger than 1 km discovered, of which 157 are potentially hazardous. The inventory is much less complete for smaller objects, which still have potential for large scale, though not global, damage. Potentially hazardous objects are currently defined based on parameters that measure the object's potential to make threatening close approaches to the Earth. Mostly objects with an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 0.05 AU or less and an absolute magnitude of 22.0 or brighter are considered PHOs. Objects that cannot approach closer to the Earth than 0.05 AU, or are smaller than about 150 m in diameter, are not considered PHOs. This makes them an attractive target for exploration. As of 2016, three near-Earth objects have been visited by spacecraft.Near-Earth object – Radar-imaging of (388188) 2006 DP14
192. Catalina Sky Survey – Catalina Sky Survey is a project to discover comets and asteroids, to search for near-Earth objects. More specifically, CSS is to search for any potentially hazardous asteroids that may pose a threat of impact. The Siding Spring Survey was closed in 2013 due to loss of funding. The Siding Spring Survey, used a 0.5 meter f/3 Uppsala Schmidt telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. All sites use common software, written by the CSS team. The cameras are cooled to approximately 100 ° C so their dark current is about 1 electron per hour. The 1.5-m can reach objects fainter than 21.5 V in that time. CSS typically operates every clear night with the exception of a few nights centered on the full moon. The southern hemispheres' SSS in Australia ended in 2013 after funding was discontinued. In 2008 564 NEOs were found. Asteroid 2014 AA, January 1, 2014 Struck Earth on January 2, 2014. The CSS team is headed by Eric Christensen of the University of Arizona. The full CSS team is: Robert H. McNaught Gordon J. Garradd The CSS has helped with Astronomy Camp showing campers how they detect NEOs. Catalina Sky Survey Website Overview and historyCatalina Sky Survey – Main topics
193. Tennis – Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, as "lawn tennis". It had both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport of real tennis. The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Tennis is also a popular worldwide spectator sport. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread all over Europe. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall.Tennis – A tennis match at Wimbledon, the oldest and most prestigious tennis tournament.
194. Serena Williams – Serena Jameka Williams is an American professional tennis player. The Women's Tennis Association has ranked her world No. 1 in singles on six separate occasions. Williams achieved this ranking for the sixth time on February 2013. In total, she has been world No. 1 for 309 weeks, which ranks her 3rd in the Open Era among female tennis players. Williams holds the most major titles in singles, doubles, mixed doubles combined amongst active players, male or female. She is also the most recent player, together with her sister Venus Williams, to have held all four Grand Slam women's doubles titles simultaneously. She is also the only tennis player to have won 10 Grand Slam singles titles in two separate decades. She has won an all-time record of 12 Grand Slam singles titles on hardcourt. Williams also holds an all-time record for the most singles matches won with matches. She has won 14 Grand Slam doubles titles with her sister Venus, the pair are unbeaten in Grand Slam doubles finals. Williams is also a five-time winner of the WTA Tour Championships in the singles division. Serena has also won three in women's doubles -- an all-time record shared with her sister, Venus. The arrival of the Williams sisters has been credited with ushering on the women's professional tour. She was the highest paid female athlete in 2016, earning $ million in money endorsements. In December 2015, she was named Sportsperson of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine.Serena Williams – Williams at the 2015 Wimbledon Championships
195. Grand Slam (tennis) – The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. Each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on grass. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the Australian in 1905. However, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924/25, the time when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. In doubles, one player may achieve it with different partners. The term "Grand Slam" without qualification refers to winning the four majors in a single year. Also, is known as a "Super Slam". Together, all four Majors in all three disciplines are called a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles. No male or female player has won year although a "career boxed set" has been achieved by three female players. The slam for winning all of the tricks in the whist family card games is attested from early in the 17th century. Grand slam in contrast to small slam or little slam for all but one, dates from early in the 19th century. This use was inherited by a modern development of whist defined in 1925 that became very popular in Britain and America by 1930. Grand slam has been used since 1930 when Bobby Jones won the four major championships, two British and two American. Tony Wilding of New Zealand won all three of those earlier majors in one year – 1913.Grand Slam (tennis) – Basics
196. Australian Open – The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. It features singles; men's, women's and mixed doubles and junior's championships; as well as wheelchair, legends and exhibition events. Prior to 1988 the tournament had been played on grass. Since 1988 two types of hardcourt surfaces have been used at blue Plexicushion from 2008. The Australian Open typically has high attendance, only to the US Open. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre. The tournament then became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities: Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Brisbane, Perth, Christchurch and Hastings. Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a major championship by the International Lawn Tennis Federation at a 1923 meeting. The committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time. In 1972, it was decided to stage each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city. The tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club until the move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988. The new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyong's capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an immediate success, with a 90 increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong. Because of Australia's geographic remoteness, very few foreign players entered this tournament in the 20th century.Australian Open – Inside Rod Laver Arena prior to an evening session in 2007
197. Egypt – It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם. The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed more centralised society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.Egypt – The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
198. Ushabti – The ushabti was a funerary figurine used in Ancient Egypt. The figurines frequently carried a hoe on their shoulder and a basket on their backs, implying they were intended to farm for the deceased. They were usually written on by the use of hieroglyphs typically found on the legs. Called “answerers,” they carried inscriptions asserting their readiness to answer the gods' summons to work. The practice of using ushabtis originated in the Old Kingdom with the use of life-sized reserve heads made from limestone, which were buried with the mummy. Most ushabtis were of minor size, many produced in multiples – they sometimes covered the floor around a sarcophagus. Exceptional ushabtis are of larger size, or produced as a one of-a-kind master work. Produced in huge numbers, ushabtis, along with scarabs, are the most numerous of all ancient Egyptian antiquities to survive. Otherwise, they might better be defined by the generic term, funerary figurines. The shabtis were servant figures that carried out the tasks required of the deceased in the underworld. It was necessary for the owner's name to be inscribed on an ushabti, along with a phrase sending them to action, written in the hieratic script. The figure will come wherever you bid me." The shawabti were a distinct class of funerary figurines within the area of Thebes during the New Kingdom. The ushabti remained in use until Ptolemaic times. Ushabti inscriptions often contain the 6th chapter of the Book of the Dead, translated as: "Illumine the Osiris, whose word is truth.Ushabti – Memphis, 500 BC - Troop of funerary servant figures ushabtis in the name of Neferibreheb, Louvre-Lens
199. Valley of the Kings – The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of West Valley. It was the principal place of the royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. A new centre has recently been opened. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains. The quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging to the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound. The occasional layer of shale also caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered. Builders took advantage of available geological features when constructing the tombs. The problems of construction can be seen with tombs of his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14. When looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended the partly-excavated tomb started by his father. The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis, probably due to the quality of the rock being excavated.Valley of the Kings – Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, west of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location)
200. Luxor – Luxor is a city in Upper Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate. The population numbers 487,896, with an area of approximately 416 square kilometres. Thousands of tourists from all around the world arrive contributing greatly to the economy of the modern city. Montuhotep II who united Egypt after the troubles of the intermediate period brought stability to the lands as the city grew in stature. A Hittite prince from Anatolia even came to marry with the widow of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun. However, as the city of the god Amon-Ra, Thebes remained the religious capital of Egypt until the Greek period. His great temple, at Karnak north of Thebes, was the most important temple of Egypt right until the end of antiquity. Later, the city was attacked by Assyrian emperor Assurbanipal who installed the Libyan prince on Psamtik I. The city of Thebes fell in significance. Aswan and Luxor have the hottest summer days of any other city in Egypt. Aswan and Luxor have nearly the same climate. Luxor is one of sunniest and driest cities in the world. High temperatures are above 40 ° C during summer while average low temperatures remain above 22 ° C. During the coldest month of the year, high temperatures remain above 22.0 ° C while average low temperatures remain above 5 ° C. The climate of Luxor has precipitation levels lower than even most other places in the Sahara, with less than 1 mm of annual precipitation.Luxor – Top: First pylon in Precinct of Amun-Re, 2nd left: Night view in Luxor Temple, 2nd right: Colossi of Memnon Statue, Middle left: Pillars of Great Hypostyle Hall ancient site, Middle right: Hatshepsut Temple in Deir el-Bchari, 4th left: Statue of Ramses Ⅱ in Karnak Temple, 4th right: Needle Monument in Karnak Temple, Bottom: View of Pillars of Great Hypostyle Hall ancient site
201. Post Holdings – Its Post Consumer Brands business manufactures, sells branded and private label cereal products. Its active business markets and distributes protein beverages, bars and gels. Its Private Brands business dried fruits, baking and snacking nuts, cereal and granola. On December 2012, Post Holdings acquired Attune Foods, a marketer of premium organic cereals and snacks under the Attune, Uncle Sam and Erewhon brands. Post combined this business with Attune Foods. On January 2014, Post Holdings acquired private label pasta manufacturer Dakota Growers Pasta Company. On February 2014, Post Holdings acquired Golden Boy Foods and Dymatize Enterprises. Golden Boy Foods is a manufacturer of private label other nut butters, as well as dried fruits and snacking nuts. Dymatize Enterprises is a marketer of premium protein powders, bars and nutritional supplements. On February 2014, Post Holdings announced it has reached an agreement to acquire PowerBar, Musashi and related worldwide assets from Nestlé. Post completed the acquisition on October 2014. On November 2014, Post Holdings acquired American Blanching Company, a manufacturer of private label peanut butter. On January 2015, Post Holdings announced that it was purchasing competitor MOM Brands, makers of the Malt-O-Meal line of cereals, for $1.15 billion. Post completed the acquisition on May 2015.Post Holdings – Post Holdings, Inc.
202. Weetabix Limited – This article describes the company. For their breakfast cereal of the same name, see Weetabix. The company also produces Puffins cereal and Snackimals snacks through their Barbara's Bakery division. Founded in England in 1932, the company holds a Royal Warrant from Queen Elizabeth II. See History of Weet-Bix The food product was originally invented in Australia in the 1920s by Bennison Osborne. The first Directors of the Company were Arthur Stanley Scrutton. For the purpose of differentiating between the various countries, it was decided that the product, when introduced into the United Kingdom, should be known as "Weetabix". On 13 August 1936, with the approval of the Board of Trade, the Company name was changed to Weetabix Limited. In November 2003, the company was bought from Weetabix Limited, by the American private equity firm HM Capital of Dallas. The company does not have the rights to the product in Australia, New Zealand or South Africa. In these countries, the brand is still known as Weet-Bix and is still made by Sanitarium Health Food Company. Alpen was invented in 1971, when the marketing director went on holiday in France and tasted a local delicacy. It has won three Queen's Awards for Export, lastly in 2004. The company is headquartered in Burton Latimer, Kettering, Northamptonshire, England, its 75-acre site is next to the A14 junction with the A6. It also has factories in Corby and Ashton-under-Lyne.Weetabix Limited – Weetabix Ltd
203. Bright Food – Bright Food is a multinational food and beverages manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai, China. It is the second-largest China-based food company measured by 2011 revenues. The company is wholly owned by the Chinese state. Bright Food has four listed subsidiaries. Bright Dairy & Food Co. Ltd. Shanghai First Provisions Store Co. Ltd. Shanghai Maling Aquarius Co. Ltd. and Shanghai Haibo Co. Ltd. In July 2010 Bright Food agreed to acquire a 51 per stake in the New Zealand-based dairy producer Synlait for US$58 million. However, as of September 2015, Bright Foods hold a 39.12% in Synlait. In August 2011 Bright Food agreed to acquire a 75 per stake in the Australia-based food producer Manassen Foods for A$530 million. In May 2012 Bright Food agreed to acquire a 60 per stake in the British breakfast cereals manufacturer Weetabix Limited in a # 1.2 billion deal. In May 2014, Bright Food agreed to acquire a 56 per cent stake for the sum of 2.5 Billion USD. In October 2014 Bright Food agreed to acquire a stake in Italian olive oil producer Salov, which includes the Filippo Berio and Sagra Brands. In 2010 Bright Food had a 5.7 per share of China's dairy market, ranking fourth. Hangzhou Wahaha Group "A Bright future for Chinese industry". China Daily. 18 May 2012.Bright Food – Bright Food (Group) Co., Ltd.
204. Nueva Ecija – Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the city of Palayan. Nueva Ecija borders, from the south clockwise, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya and Aurora. The land's very first settlers came to the East, North and West and vast southern plains. The Great Pampanga River nourished wild, fruit-bearing trees, teeming woodlands that sheltered animals. These first settlers included tribes of Ilongots or Italons, Abaca and Buquids. Settlements were built along the banks following the river's undulations. The Ilongots, meaning people of the forest, were the fierce headhunters and animist tribes who occupied the mountainous terrain of Sierra Madre and Caraballo. The hunting communities were nestled along the riverbanks of Rio Grande's tributaries in the north. Abaca and Italon were subgroups of Ilongots river settlers. Ilongots survived mainly by hunting. Food production was a secondary occupation. The agriculture-based community of Caraclans and Buquids were settled in Bongabon and Pantabangan in the northeast. When the waves of Malay migrations took place between 300-200 B.C. intrepid traders set up settlements along Luzon's western coast. These early settlements formed the nucleus of the Pampango Empire, consolidated by Balagtas.Nueva Ecija – General Manuel Tinio, former governor of Nueva Ecija
205. Saudi Arabia – Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2, Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab world after Algeria. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. Riyadh is the country's capital, located in the center of the Arabian Peninsula, most populous city in the country. The country has attracted criticism for its restrictions on women's rights and usage of capital punishment. The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: parts of Southern Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines. The Kingdom has a total population of million, of which million are foreigners. The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. Petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia has since become the world's largest oil producer and exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves, the sixth largest gas reserves. However, the economy of Saudi Arabia is the least diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, lacking any significant service or production sector. Saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power. In addition to the GCC, it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC.Saudi Arabia – Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia
206. Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk – The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-bladed, twin-engine, medium-lift utility helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. Sikorsky submitted the S-70 design for the United States Army's Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System competition in 1972. This was followed by the fielding of electronic warfare and special operations variants of the Black Hawk. Improved UH-60L and UH-60M utility variants have also been developed. Modified versions have also been developed for the U.S. Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard. In addition to U.S. Army use, the UH-60 family has been exported to several nations. Black Hawks have served during conflicts in other areas in the Middle East. The Army also initiated the development of a new, common turbine engine for its helicopters that would become the General Electric T700. Based on experience in Vietnam, the Army required significant performance, survivability and reliability improvements from both UTTAS and the new powerplant. The Army released its UTTAS request for proposals in January 1972. The RFP also included air transport requirements. Transport aboard the C-130 limited the UTTAS cabin height and length. Four prototypes were constructed, with the first YUH-60A flying on 17 October 1974. The Army selected the UH-60 for production in December 1976. Deliveries of the UH-60A to the Army began in October 1978 and the helicopter entered service in June 1979.Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk – UH-60 Black Hawk
207. Ma'rib Governorate – Ma'rib is a governorate of Yemen. It is located 173 kilometers to the northeast of Sana'a. The population of Ma'rib Governorate comprises 1.2% of the country's total population. The city of Ma ` rib was established after the discovery of oil deposits in 1984. Ma'rib Governorate's area is approximately 17,405 square kilometers, divided among 14 districts. Ma ` District is the biggest district by area. Ma'rib's population in 2004 was 241,619. The governorate's climate varies based on elevation. In the plain regions, the climate is hot in the summers and moderate in the winters. The desert regions are cold and dry in the winters. The amount of rainfall is usually small, especially in the eastern parts. Most parts of Ma ` rib Governorate suffer from drought, given rainfall. Agriculture is the main livelihood for the governorate's residents. Important agricultural products are fruit, grains, vegetables. There are also many types of small plants that grow in the rainy seasons.Ma'rib Governorate – Marib dam, Yemen
208. Sikorsky S-70 – The Sikorsky S-70 is a medium transport/utility helicopter family manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. Improved versions of the UH-60 have been developed since. Some military versions are produced under various S-70 model designations. The family was developed to meet a US Army requirement to replace the UH-1 Iroquois family of utility medium-lift helicopters in 1972. Three YUH-60A prototypes were constructed, with the first flying in October 1974. They were evaluated against the Boeing-Vertol YUH-61A. The YUH-60A entered service as the UH-60A Black Hawk with the US Army in 1979. After entering service, the helicopter was modified including mine laying and medical evacuation. An variant was developed to conduct electronic warfare and special operations aviation developed the MH-60 variant to support its missions. The improved model was developed in the early 2000s. Alternatively, it can carry 2,600 lb of sling load 9,000 lb of cargo. The S-70 is equipped with advanced electronics, such as the Global Positioning System. The United States Navy received the SH-60F Ocean Hawk in 1988. The United States Air Force received the MH-60G Pave Hawk in 1982. The United States Coast Guard received the HH-60J Jayhawk in 1992.Sikorsky S-70 – S-70 series
209. Tunceli Province – Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It's population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds. The province was originally named Dersim Province, incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. The name of Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name. The adjacent provinces are Erzincan to the north and west, Bingöl to the east. The province has a population of 76,699. It has the lowest density of any province in Turkey, just 9.8 inhabitants/km ². Tunceli is the only province of Turkey with an Alevi majority. Tunceli is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. The history of the province stretches back to antiquity. Seemingly, it was referred to as ` Daranis' before him. One theory as to the origin of the name associates with the Persian Emperor Darius. More likely hypothesis, says the name Daranalis or Daranaghis comes from the historical Armenian province of Daron, of which Dersim belonged. The area that would become Dersim province formed part of Urartu, Media, the Greater Armenian region of Sophene. Sophene was later contested by their respective successors, the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires.Tunceli Province – Location of Tunceli Province in Turkey
210. Sabratha – Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata, in the Zawiya District of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis. From 2001 to 2007 it was the capital of the former Sabratha wa Sorman District. It lies on the Mediterranean coast about 66 km west of modern Tripoli. The extant archaeological site was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982. Sabratha's port was established, perhaps about 500 BC, as a Phoenician trading-post that served as a coastal outlet for the products of the African hinterland. The Phoenicians gave it the Lybico-Berber name'Sbrt'n', which suggests that there may have been a native settlement built there prior to the Phoenicians' arrival. Sabratha became part of the short-lived Numidian Kingdom of Massinissa before being Romanized and rebuilt in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. The Emperor Septimius Severus was born nearby in Leptis Magna, Sabratha reached its monumental peak during the rule of the Severans. The city was badly damaged by earthquakes during the 4th century, particularly the quake of AD 365. It was rebuilt on a more modest scale by Byzantine governors. The town was site of a bishopric. Within a hundred years of the Arab conquest of the Maghreb, trade had shifted to other ports and Sabratha dwindled to a village. The public baths, Olive Press building and'Harbor' can be observed as being most damaged as the buildings have crumbled due to storms and unsettled seas. This Erosion of the coast of Ancient Sabratha can be seen yearly with significant differences in beach layout and recent crumbled buildings. Breakwaters set in the vicinity of the Harbor and Olive press are inadequate and too small to efficiently protect the Ancient City of Sabratha.Sabratha – UNESCO World Heritage Site
211. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. Once appointed, justices have tenure unless they resign, are removed after impeachment. In modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. The Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court is sometimes colloquially referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789. Its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the only court specifically established by the Constitution, all the others were created by Congress. The Court first convened on February 2, 1790, by which time five of its six initial positions had been filled. Nothing did. They had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, everyone went home." The sixth member was not confirmed until May 12, 1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was also made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four judges in 1789.Supreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
213. Pennsylvania State Police – The Pennsylvania State Police is the state police force of Pennsylvania, responsible for statewide law enforcement. The department became the uniformed police organization of its kind in the United States and a model for other state police agencies throughout the nation. PSP enlisted members are referred to as "troopers". As of October 2016, the police have 4,233 state troopers, 5 % of them being women, more than 1,850 civilian support staff. The state academy is located in Hershey, Pennsylvania. The current commissioner is Colonel Tyree C. Blocker, nominated by Governor Tom Wolf, was confirmed by the Pennsylvania Senate. Colonel Blocker replaced Marcus Brown who recently resigned as commissoner. After resigning, former Colonel Brown was named to Governor Wolf's office of Homeland Security as the new director. Colonel Brown lost the senate vote 28 to 22. In 1924 a State Police academy was built in Dauphin County, Hershey, PA on Coca Avenue. The current location is located only a few miles from the original site. Once accepted into the State Police Academy recruits endure a rigorous 27 week period. Recruits are only permitted to go home on certain designated weekends. Recruits who show any other type of deficiencies may be restricted from going home.Pennsylvania State Police – A Ford Expedition used by the Pennsylvania State Police.
214. Marseille – Marseille, also known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France. Marseille is now the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture, together with Košice, Slovakia, in 2013. It will be the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France, the Metropolis of Aix-Marseille-Provence. Marseille is the second largest city after Paris and Lyon. Further east still are the Sainte-Baume, the French Riviera. Beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m Mont Sainte Victoire. The airport lies on the Étang de Berre. The city's main thoroughfare stretches eastward to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank Fort Saint-Jean on the north. The commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde. The station -- Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles -- is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière. Marseille warm to hot, mostly dry summers.Marseille – Clockwise from top: Notre-Dame de la Garde • Old Port • La Joliette with CMA CGM Tower • Calanque of Sugiton
215. Fresno, California – Fresno, the county seat of Fresno County, is a city in the U.S. state of California. Fresno is in the center of the San Joaquin Valley and is the largest city in the Central Valley, which contains the San Joaquin Valley. It is approximately 220 miles northwest of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, Sacramento, or 185 miles south of San Francisco. The name Fresno means "ash tree" in Spanish, an ash leaf is featured on the city's flag. The county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry, Scottsburg and Elkhorn Springs. The San Joaquin River flooded on December 24, 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding also destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQeen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont, Clovis and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church then formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.Fresno, California – An 1897 photo of K Street High School, which was replaced by Fresno High School in 1896. The school later became Emerson Elementary School and was demolished ca. 1930.
216. National Front (France) – The National Front is a socially conservative, nationalist political party in France. Its major policies include economic protectionism, opposition to mass immigration. As anti-European Union party, the FN has opposed the European Union since its creation. Party representatives reject this and suggest other ways of looking at the left -- right axis. The party was founded in 1972 to unify a variety of nationalist movements of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011. His daughter, was elected as the current leader. While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the major force of French nationalism. In the run-off, he finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac. Due to the electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited, despite its significant share of the vote. They, again, came out in 1st place in the last regional elections with a historic result of nearly 28 % of the votes. Marine Le Pen would lead the first round of the 2017 presidential elections, according to various polls. As of 2015, the FN has established itself as one of the largest political forces in France. In the 1965 presidential election, Le Pen unsuccessfully attempted to consolidate the right-wing vote around the presidential candidate Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour. During early 1970s, the French far-right consisted mainly of small extreme movements such as Occident, Groupe Union Défense, the Ordre Nouveau.National Front (France) – Jean-Marie Le Pen (2001), the long-time leader of the FN.
217. Immigration to France – France received immigrants in successive waves during the 19th and 20th centuries. They were rapidly assimilated into French culture when European. Post-war governments wanted to promote immigration and so promoted the notion of France as an "inclusive" nation with "universal" values. Among them, about million are of European origin, 15 million of Maghrebi origin, 8 million of Sub-saharan African origin and 400,000 of Turkish origin. The region with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Île-de-France, where 40% of immigrants live. Other regions with immigrant populations are Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Including grandparents, about 40 % of newborns in France between 2008 had at least one foreign-born grandparent. Successive waves of immigrants during the 20th centuries were rapidly assimilated into French culture. France's population dynamics began to change in the middle of the 19th century, as France joined the Industrial Revolution. The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants with especially large numbers arriving from Poland, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Spain. In the wake of the First World War, in which France suffered million casualties, significant numbers of workers from French colonies came. By 1930, the Paris region alone had a African Muslim population of 70,000. Right after the Second World War, immigration to France significantly increased. These migrants consisted of those who were loyal to those married to French colonists. Following the partition of Vietnam, professionals from South Vietnam continued to arrive in France.Immigration to France – A French biometric residence permit issued to non-EU citizens
218. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
219. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. Prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the "Head of Her Majesty's Government" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers. Under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. The Prime Minister also acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad.Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – Incumbent David Cameron since 11 May 2010
220. Theresa May – Theresa Mary May, PC, MP is a British politician, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since July 2016. She has been the Member of Parliament for Maidenhead since 1997. May has been characterised as a liberal conservative. She is Leader of the Conservative Party after Margaret Thatcher. The daughter of May grew up in Oxfordshire. She was also Chairman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003. Leadsom's withdrawal from the election on 11 July led as leader the same day. She was appointed Prime Minister two days later, the second woman to hold both offices. On becoming Prime Minister, May became the first woman to have held two of the Great Offices of State. Born on October 1956 in Eastbourne, Sussex, May is the only child of Zaidee Mary and Hubert Brasier. Her father was a Church of England clergyman, chaplain of an Eastbourne hospital. He later became vicar of Enstone with Heythrop and finally of St Mary's to the east of Oxford. May's mother was a strong supporter of the Conservative Party. May was educated primarily with a short spell at an independent Catholic school. At the age of 13, May won a place in Wheatley.Theresa May – The Right Honourable Theresa May MP
221. House of Commons of the United Kingdom – The House of Commons of the United Kingdom is the lower house of the country's parliament. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. The House is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past-the-post and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of over-riding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords. The Lower House may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are sometimes phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were considered confidence issues, even though not explicitly phrased as such. In particular, important bills that form a part of the Government's agenda were formerly considered matters of confidence, as is the annual Budget. Parliament normally sits for a maximum term of five years. Formerly, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament until the maximum term had elapsed, with the permission of the Monarch. By this second mechanism, the government of the United Kingdom can change without an intervening general election.House of Commons of the United Kingdom
222. Labour Party (UK) – The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Labour later served from 1940 to 1945, after which it formed a government under Clement Attlee. Labour was also to 1970 under Harold Wilson and first under Wilson and then James Callaghan. Having won 232 seats in the 2015 general election, the party is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The party also organises in Northern Ireland, but does not contest elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly. The Labour Party holds status in the Socialist International. In September 2015, Jeremy Corbyn was elected Leader of the Labour Party. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and largely middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. In the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. The leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with left-wing groups. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of left-wing organisations -- unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to coordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population. It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary.Labour Party (UK) – Keir Hardie, one of the Labour Party's founders and its first leader
223. Liberal Democrats (UK) – The Liberal Democrats are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. At the 2015 general election, the party was reduced to eight MPs. Nick Clegg resigned as leader and Tim Farron won the subsequent leadership election. The party currently has nine MPs following the Richmond Park by-election. The Alliance was led by David Steel and Roy Jenkins; Jenkins was replaced by David Owen. The two parties had their own policies and emphases, but produced a joint manifesto for the 1983 and 1987 general elections. Following disappointing results in the 1987 election, Steel proposed to merge the two parties. The new party was initially named Social and Liberal Democrats with the unofficial short form The Democrats being used from September 1988. The name was subsequently changed to Liberal Democrats in October 1989, frequently shortened to Lib Dems. The new party logo, the Bird of Liberty, was adopted in 1989. The then-serving Liberal MP Paddy Ashdown was elected leader in July 1988. At the 1989 European Elections, the party received only 6% of the vote, putting them in fourth place after the Green Party. They failed to gain a single Member of the European Parliament at this election. Over the next three years, the party recovered under Ashdown's leadership. They performed better in by-elections -- including at Kincardine & Deeside in 1991.Liberal Democrats (UK) – Paddy Ashdown: Leader from 1988 to 1999
224. Democratic Party (United States) – The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats' dominant worldview was once classical liberalism, while, especially in the rural South, populism was its leading characteristic. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and southern conservative-populist anti-business wings. The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s the business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after 1970. White evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964. After 2000, professional women moved toward the party as well. The Northeast and West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there. Overall the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, with a smaller minority of conservative Democrats. The party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy.Democratic Party (United States) – Andrew Jackson was the first Democratic President of the United States
225. Republican Party (United States) – The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Businessman Donald Trump of New York, will become the Republican president on January 20, 2017. The Republican Party's current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' modern liberalism. The Republican Party's platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, restrictions on labor unions. In addition to economic themes there are important traditional values, usually with a ethical foundation. The party also holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures. Specifically, 68 out of 98 partisan state legislative chambers have Republican majorities. According to CBS news, "The Republican National Committee says the acronym "GOP" dates back to 1875, at which time it meant'Gallant Old Party'." The main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The name was partly chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The official convention was held on July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan. The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. With the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states.Republican Party (United States) – Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican U.S. President (1861–1865).
226. United States House of Representatives – The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. Since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof and is therefore traditionally the leader of the controlling party. Other floor leaders are chosen depending on whichever party has more voting members. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates. The issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation. The Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. Its implementation was set for March 1789. The House began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time.United States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
227. Tom Price (U.S. politician) – Thomas Edmunds "Tom" Price is an American physician and politician, the U.S. Representative for Georgia's 6th congressional district, serving since 2005. A member of the Republican Party, Price's district serves the northern suburbs of Atlanta. He previously served as chairman of the Republican Study Committee and the Republican Policy Committee. Price currently serves as chairman of the House Budget Committee. Price was born in the Michigan capital, Lansing. He grew up in Dearborn, where he attended Adams Jr. High and Dearborn High School. He graduated with an M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Health System. He completed his residency at Emory University in Atlanta, decided to settle in the suburb of Roswell, where he still lives. He is a past President of the Roswell Rotary Club and has served on the Boards of the North Fulton Chamber of Commerce. He ran an orthopedic clinic in Atlanta for 20 years before returning to Emory as assistant professor of orthopedic surgery. Price also was the director of the orthopedic clinic at Atlanta's Grady Memorial Hospital. In 1996, State Senator Sallie Newbill decided not to run for re-election. Price was the Republican nominee for Georgia's 56th senate district.Tom Price (U.S. politician) – Tom Price
228. Atlanta – Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States. A small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. Atlanta is "world city", exerting a significant impact upon commerce, finance, research, technology, education, media, art, entertainment. It ranks 36th among world 8th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $270 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors including logistics, professional and business services, information technology. Topographically, Atlanta is marked by dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. A Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta. The initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would then be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. By 1842, the town was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed "Atlantica-Pacifica,", shortened to "Atlanta". The town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847.Atlanta – From top to bottom left to right: Atlanta skyline seen from Buckhead, the Fox Theatre, the Georgia State Capitol, Centennial Olympic Park, Millennium Gate, the Canopy Walk, the Georgia Aquarium, The Phoenix statue, and the Midtown skyline
229. Georgia (U.S. state) – Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. Named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. The state's northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi River in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery.Georgia (U.S. state) – A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
230. Runoff election – The two-round system is a voting system used to elect a single winner where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. The two-round system is used around the world for the election of legislative bodies and directly elected presidents. For example, it is used in presidential departmental elections. In Italy, it is used to elect mayors, but also to decide which coalition receives a bonus in city councils. The two-round system is known as run-off voting in the United States, where the second round is known as a run-off election. Run-off voting is also sometimes used as a generic term to describe any system involving a number of rounds of voting, with eliminations after each round. Others include instant run-off voting. However the subject of this article is the two-round system. For example, candidates for political leadership, when there are more than two, use an exhaustive ballot system, often called a run-off voting system. It is like a run-off system, except the one candidate must win a simple majority. Candidates with the fewest votes or candidates who want to move their support to other candidates may also move to remove themselves from the next vote. In both rounds of an election conducted using voting, the voter simply marks an "X" beside favorite candidate. In the second round, because there are only two candidates, one candidate will achieve an absolute majority. Under these systems it is sufficient for a candidate to receive a plurality of votes to be elected in the second round. This system can be coupled with a circonscriptions when an area can provide multiple seats.Runoff election – An example of runoff voting. Runoff voting involves two rounds of voting. Only two candidates survive to the second round.
231. Zambia – The city is Lusaka, in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated mainly around Lusaka to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, Zambia became the British protectorate of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed with the advice of the British South Africa Company. On 24 Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating closely with the United States to conflicts in Rhodesia, Angola, Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991 beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata. Sata died on 28 the second Zambian president to die in office. Guy Scott served briefly as interim president until new elections were held on January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries.Zambia – A statue of Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone on the Zambian side of Victoria Falls.
232. Hakainde Hichilema – Hakainde Hichilema is a Zambian businessman and politician serving as President of the opposition United Party for National Development. He is a presidential candidate having contested five times in 2008, 2011, 2015 and 2016. Hichilema was born in a village in Monze District in present-day Zambia. He graduated with a BA in Economics and Business Administration. He thereafter pursued an MBA in Finance and Business Strategy at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom. He served as the chief executive officer of both Coopers and Lybrand Zambia and Grant Thornton Zambia. He is a member of the opposition United Party for a political party. Following the death of Anderson Mazoka in 2006, he was elected as the party's new President. He also served as the leader of the United Democratic Alliance, an alliance of three opposition political parties. He received the endorsement of former President Kenneth Kaunda. The election was held on 28 September 2006 and Hichilema took third place with about 25% of the vote. Hichilema ran as the UPND candidate in the 2008 election, called following the death of President Levy Mwanawasa. He came 3rd with 19.7% of the vote. In June 2009, Hichilema's party, the UPND, formed a pact with Michael Sata's Patriotic Front to contest the 2011 election together. However, indecision on accusations of tribalism from both sides resulted in the collapse of the pact in March 2011.Hakainde Hichilema – Hakainde Hichilema
233. Treason – In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign. Treason against the king was known as high treason against a lesser superior was petty treason. A person who commits treason is known as a traitor. Oran's Dictionary of the Law defines treason as"... citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, seriously injure the." The term "traitor" is often used by white supremacists, or directed at people in inter-racial relationships with regard to miscegenation. At times, the term "traitor" has been used as a political epithet, regardless of any verifiable action. In a civil insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors. In certain cases, as with the German Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a large group of people can be a political message. Treason is on many occasions a separate charge from ` Treasonable Felony' in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged, drawn and burnt at the stake, although beheading could be substituted by royal command. Those penalties were abolished in 1814, 1973 respectively. The penalty was used against people who could reasonably be called traitors, although most modern jurists would call it excessive. Many of them would just be considered dissidents. Political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God. Kings were considered chosen by God.Treason – A 17th century illustration of Guy Fawkes. Guy Fawkes tried to assassinate James I of England. He failed and was convicted of treason and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.
234. Kenosha – Kenosha /kɛˈnoʊˌʃɑː/ is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, Wisconsin, United States. Kenosha lies on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. With an estimated population of July 1, 2013, it is the fourth-largest city in Wisconsin and the fourth-largest city on Lake Michigan. The city is part of the United States Census Bureau's Chicago Combined Statistical Area. Paleo Indians settled in the area at least 13,500 years ago. The Potawatomi originally named the ginoozhe ` place of the pike'. The early name by the Ojibwa Indians is reported as Masu-kinoja. This describes the place of spawning trout as "trout come all at same time". There were thousands of fish entering the rivers from Lake Michigan. Harvesting these fish provided food for the coming months. The white settlers were part of the Western Emigration Company. They arrived in Jr. who sought to purchase enough land for a town. Churches followed by 1835, with platting completed in 1836. As the first post office was established, the community was first known as Pike Creek in 1836. In 1837 the village was renamed Southport.Kenosha – Kenosha's Lakefront
235. Wisconsin – Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous. Its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers, particularly famous for cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, tourism are also major contributors to the state's economy. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current official in 1845. The Algonquin word for its original meaning have both grown obscure. Most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks. Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation.Wisconsin – Wisconsin in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, approximate state area highlighted.
236. H-1B visa – The H-1B is a non-immigrant visa in the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act, section 101. It allows U.S. employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in specialty occupations. Likewise, the foreign worker must possess at least its equivalent and licensure, if required to practice in that field. Work-authorization is strictly limited by the sponsoring employer. The duration of stay is three years, extendable to six years. This is backed up by the Immigration and Nationality Act 106a). This exception originated with the American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act of 2000 section 104a. The maximum duration of the H-1B visa is ten years for exceptional United States Department of Defense project related work. A time increment of less than three years has sometimes applied to citizens of specific countries. Despite a limit on length of stay, no requirement exists that the individual remain for any period in the job the visa was originally issued for. This is known provided the new employer sponsors another visa, which may or may not be subjected to the quota. Under current law, visa has no stipulated period in the event the employer-employee relationship ceases to exist. The current law otherwise provided each fiscal year. Laws exempt up to 20,000 foreign nationals holding a master's or higher degree from U.S. universities from the cap on H-1B visas. In addition, excluded from the ceiling are government research facilities.H-1B visa – H-1B number issued each year for 2006-2008
237. Kuphus – Kuphus is a genus of shipworms, marine bivalve molluscs in the family Teredinidae. There are two extinct species in the genus, Kuphus fistula. The extant species is Kuphus polythalamia, the longest bivalve mollusc in the world. Members of this genus secrete calcareous tubes. Based only on the calcareous tube, this species was thought by Linnaeus to be a worm, so he placed it in the genus Serpula. Despite the fact that Kuphus polythalamia is now known to be a mollusc, its common name is the giant worm. Since 1981 however, the name "giant worm" has also been applied to the hydrothermal vent species Riftia pachyptila, indeed a worm, an annelid. Large, calcareous tubes were occasionally washed up on beaches. Linnaeus described the species in 1758. He named it Serpula arenaria, a name which in 1767 he changed to Serpula polythalamia. In 1770, Guettard introduced the name Kuphus for the genus, realising that the animal was not a worm but a mollusc. This meant that, according to the ICZN rules, the specific name became Kuphus polythalamia. Fossils of Kuphus polythalamia have been found dating back to the Oligocene. They came including Indonesia, Pakistan, Jamaica, Grenada, South Africa and Somalia. Fossils of Kuphus incrassatus, have been found in rocks in Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Florida and Mississippiand.Kuphus – Fossil "worm" tube, possibly Kuphus sp.
238. Pipeline transport – Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe. The latest data, in 2014, gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles of pipeline in 120 countries of the world. The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline was in three countries. Pipeline and Gas Journal’s worldwide survey figures indicate that 118,623 miles of pipelines are planned and under construction. Of these, 88,976 miles represent projects in the planning and phase; 29,647 miles reflect pipelines in various stages of construction. Any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pneumatic tubes using compressed air can be used to transport solid capsules. Oil pipelines are made from plastic tubes which are usually buried. The oil is moved by pump stations along the pipeline. Natural gas are lightly pressurised into liquids known as Natural Gas Liquids. Natural gas pipelines are constructed of steel. Accidents have been rare. Hydrogen transport is the transportation of hydrogen through a pipe. District teleheating systems use a network of insulated pipes which transport heated water, pressurized hot water or sometimes steam to the customer. There have been various accidents.Pipeline transport – An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline.
239. Williams Partners – The Williams Companies, Inc. is an energy company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its business is natural gas processing and transportation, with additional petroleum and electricity generation assets. Its common stock is a component of the S&P 500. The company relocated in 1919. The company went public under the Williams Brothers name. As it diversified in the 1970s, it was renamed Inc.. Since 1997, their identity has been simplified to "Williams". In 1966, Williams bought the then-largest petroleum products pipeline in America, known as the Great Lakes Pipe Line Company, for about $ million. In 2001, Williams acquired Barrett Resources, which provided them with national gas reserves. In 2002, the company found itself due to changed market conditions and the large debt of its subsidiary Williams Communications Group. In 2010, the company underwent a major restructuring that included a reorganization of its extensive pipeline holdings in Williams Partners LP. On October 2010, Williams Partners L.P. announced that Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Steve Malcolm would retire at the end of the year. The Board of Directors at Williams said it had elected Alan Armstrong to succeed Malcolm as CEO effective January 2011. Armstrong had served since 2002. On February 2011, Williams' board of directors had approved pursuing a plan to separate the company's businesses into two stand-alone, publicly traded corporations.Williams Partners – The Williams Companies, Inc.
240. Olefins – In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond. Olefine are used interchangeably. Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n. Alkenes have two hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding alkane. Ethylene, with the International Union of Applied Chemistry ethene, is the organic compound produced on the largest scale industrially. Aromatic compounds are often drawn as cyclic alkenes, but their structure and properties are different and they are not considered to be alkenes. This double bond is stronger than a single covalent bond and also shorter, with an average bond length of 1.33 ångströms. Each carbon of the double bond uses its three sp2 hybrid orbitals to form sigma bonds to three atoms. This bond lies outside the main C–C axis, with half of the bond on one side of the molecule and half on the other. As a consequence, substituted alkenes may exist as one of two isomers, called cis or trans isomers. More complex alkenes may be named with the E–Z notation for molecules with three or four different substituents. These two isomers of butene are slightly different in their chemical and physical properties. A 90° twist of the C=C bond requires less energy than the strength of a pi bond, the bond still holds. This contradicts a common textbook assertion that the p orbitals would be unable sustain such a bond. In truth, the misalignment of the p orbitals is less than expected because pyramidalization takes place.Olefins – A 3D model of ethylene, the simplest alkene.
241. Louisiana – Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are the local government's equivalent to counties. The largest by land area is Plaquemines. Louisiana is bordered to the south. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp. These contain a southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibis and egrets. There are also fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of orchids and carnivorous plants. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named La Louisiane.Louisiana – Louisiana entrance sign off Interstate 20 in Madison Parish east of Tallulah.
242. Nova Chemicals – It was later renamed to NOVA Corporation. In 1998 it merged with TransCanada Pipelines Limited. NOVA Chemicals' products are used in a wide variety including food and electronics packaging, industrial materials, appliances and a variety of consumer goods. The Company operates two business units and holds a 50% interest in a major joint venture with INEOS Group Limited, called INEOS NOVA. The business is built on its feedstock cost advantage in Alberta, proprietary Advanced SCLAIRTECH and gas-phase polyethylene technology. Corunna Olefins, which includes the Corunna, Ontario, ethylene flexi-cracker. Polyethylene, which produces and sells PE and includes both the Alberta and Ontario based PE assets. In addition, the Polyethylene segment catalysts. Performance Styrenics sells expandable polystyrene in North America and specialty Polymers. This unit also has interests in EPS-based downstream ventures and businesses for end-use consumer and industrial applications. INEOS NOVA is a 50:50 joint venture between NOVA Chemicals and INEOS that sells styrene, solid polystyrene and EPS. Until September 2007, NOVA Chemicals operated a commodity styrenics business unit known as STYRENIX, which manufactured and sold styrene and SPS in North America. It also sold SPS and EPS in Europe through NOVA Innovene, its 50:50 joint venture with INEOS. On October 2007, NOVA Chemicals and INEOS expanded their European joint venture to include the North American styrene and SPS businesses of both companies. NOVA Chemicals longer reports the results of its STYRENIX business unit but rather its interest in INEOS NOVA.Nova Chemicals – NOVA Chemicals Corporation
243. People's Republic of China – China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed based in the capital of Beijing. The country's urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China has been characterized as a potential superpower. Mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, South China seas. China emerged in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, reformed numerous times. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is largest by purchasing power parity. China is also second-largest importer of goods. China has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.People's Republic of China – Yinxu, ruins of an ancient palace dating from the Shang Dynasty (14th century BCE)
244. Guizhou – Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its city is Guiyang. During the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, the 矩 was changed to the more refined 貴. The region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital now known as Guiyang. From around BCE to the emergence of the Qin Dynasty, northwest Guizhou was part of the State of Shu. During the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu conquered the control later passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state followed by Cao Wei and the Jin Dynasty. During the 9th centuries in the Tang Dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou and married native women. Their descendants are known in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at later times. They still speak an archaic dialect. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women. It was during the following Ming Dynasty, again led by Han Chinese, that Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413. The Ming established many garrisons from which to pacify the Yao and Miao minorities during the Miao Rebellions. Chinese-style agriculture flourished with its surrounding provinces into Guizhou. Wu Sangui was responsible for the Ming in Guizhou and Yunnan during the Manchu conquest of China.Guizhou – Guizhou in 1655.
245. Switzerland – Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: Romansh. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz; Suisse; Svizzera; and Svizra or. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages. The English Switzerland is a compound containing an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, also in use since the 16th century. The name originates as an exonym, applied pars pro toto to the troops of the Confederacy. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica.Switzerland – Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
246. Portugal – Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe. To the south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. The republic also includes autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been continuously settled, fought over since prehistoric times. The Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic and the Suebi Germanic peoples. For the following centuries Portugal would be part of Muslim Al Andalus. In 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, thus firmly establishing Portuguese independence. In the 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. The Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted marking the end of the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left today.Portugal – Citânia de Briteiros, in the Minho Province, is the best preserved Iron Age and Castro culture site in Portugal.
247. Lisbon – Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. It is continental Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. It lies on the River Tagus. The westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. It is recognised as a global city because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international tourism. The city is the 7th-most-visited city with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. The city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area. It is also the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled from the 5th century, Lisbon was captured in the 8th century. In 1147, since then it has been a major political, cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been confirmed officially -- in written form.Lisbon – Clockwise, from top: Praça do Comércio, Parque Eduardo VII, Padrão dos Descobrimentos, Torre de Belém, the Sé de Lisboa, and Parque das Nações.
248. Rumphi District – Rumphi is a district in the Northern Region of Malawi. The capital is Rumphi. The district covers an area of 4,769 km.² and has a population of 128,360. Rumphi has produced some notable residents of http://www.nyasatimes.com one of Malawi's top online and print newspaper. Gabadhinyo Mhango, soccer playerRumphi District – Notable residents 
249. Lake Malawi – It is the ninth largest lake in the world and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. It is home to more species of fish including about 1000 species of cichlids. Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake; permanent stratification of the oxic-anoxic boundary are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. Lake Malawi is between 560 kilometres and 580 kilometres long, about 75 kilometres wide at its widest point. The total area of the lake is about 29,600 square kilometres. The lake has shorelines on western Mozambique, southern Tanzania. The lake lies in a valley formed by the opening of the East African Rift, where the tectonic plate is being split into two pieces. This is called a divergent plate tectonics boundary. It is variously estimated at about 40,000 years old or about one to million years. The lake is about 350 kilometres southeast of another of the great lakes of the East African Rift. The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the southern end of the lake. The Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. David Livingstone named it "Lake Nyasa". Rhoades's crew found the Hermann von Wissmann in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disabled the German boat with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres.Lake Malawi – View from orbit
250. United States Army – The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. The service is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, military thinking influenced the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian tactics and organizational skills. Washington lost a series of battles around New York City in 1776 and Philadelphia in 1777. With the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained army. The War of 1812, last American war against Great Britain was a mixed success. Both sides, the United States and Great Britain, returned to the geographical status quo. Warships, however, were never returned to the nation captured from.United States Army – Storming of Redoubt #10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of America.
251. Leonardtown, Maryland – Leonardtown is a town in and the county seat of St. Mary's County, Maryland, United States. The population was 2,930 at the 2010 census. Leonardtown is perhaps most famous for the national oyster-shucking championship that occurs annually at the St. Mary's County fairgrounds. The College of Southern Maryland maintains a growing satellite campus within city limits, including an aquatic center. An upscale development located in the Breton Bay area is just outside town, notable for swimming pool. Leonardtown's population is growing due to the town's proximity to the Washington, DC area. An upscale supermarket opened during 2007. Two recently constructed hotels are open for business within city limits. An old order community is a few miles to the northwest where community members sell furniture, crafts, produce, other homemade/home grown products. The Leonardtown Wharf park opened for both locals and tourists in May 2008. Leonardtown is located at 38°17′43″N 76°38′17″W. Records indicate that by 1654, county court was conducted at the house of John Hammond in the area known as "Newtown" or "Newtowne Hundred". He further ordered that one lot be set aside for a county courthouse to be built at an expense not to exceed 12,000 pounds of tobacco. At this time, Newtown was promptly renamed Seymour Town in honor of Governor John Seymour. Nearly 20 years later, Seymour Town was renamed again to Leonard Town in honor of Benedict Leonard Calvert, Maryland's Governor during this period.Leonardtown, Maryland – Maryland Historic Society's Leonardtown Marker
252. Pacific Ocean – The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. He named Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific starting in 1519. Magellan called the Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan until the eighteenth century. Sailing east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands and Papua New Guinea.Pacific Ocean – Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507).
253. Island country – An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 2011, 46 of the 193 UN member states are island countries. The percentage of island countries that are democratic is higher than that of continental countries. Historically they have been more prone to political stability than their continental counterparts. Island countries have often been the basis of maritime conquest and historical rivalry between other countries. Island countries are more susceptible to attack on air lines of communication. Many island countries are also vulnerable to predation by foreign invaders, although their isolation also makes them a difficult target. Powerful countries, such as the United Kingdom may develop a navy of their interests sometimes known as a power. Many island countries rely heavily on fish for their main supply of food. Some are turning to renewable energy -- such as wind power, biodiesel from copra oil -- to combat the rise in oil prices. Some low-lying island countries are slowly being submerged by the rising water levels of the Pacific Ocean. Change also impacts island countries by causing natural disasters such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, drought. In 2011, the Center for Climate Change Law held a conference attended by 272 registrants from 39 island nations titled Legal Issues for Threatened Island Nations. Many island countries rely heavily on imports and are greatly affected by changes in the global economy. The dominant industry for many island countries is tourism.Island country – Island countries in the world
254. Vanuatu – Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu, is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. Vanuatu was first inhabited by Melanesian people. The first Europeans to visit the islands were a Spanish expedition led by Portuguese Fernandes de Queirós, who arrived in 1606. An independence movement arose in the 1970s, the Republic of Vanuatu was founded in 1980. Vanuatu's name is derived from the word vanua, which occurs in several Austronesian languages, the word tu. Together the two words indicated the independent status of the new country. The prehistory of Vanuatu is obscure; archaeological evidence supports the theory that people speaking Austronesian languages first came to the islands about 3,300 years ago. Pottery fragments have been found dating to 1300–1100 BC. The Spanish established a short-lived settlement on the side of the island. The name Espiritu Santo remains to this day. Europeans did not return until 1768, when Louis Antoine de Bougainville rediscovered the islands. In 1774, Captain Cook named a name that would last until independence in 1980. During the 1860s, planters in need of labourers, encouraged a indentured labour trade called "blackbirding". At the height of the trade, the adult male population of several of the islands worked abroad. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the current population of Vanuatu is greatly reduced compared to pre-contact times.Vanuatu – James Cook landing at Tanna island, c. 1774
255. BP – BP P.L.C. also referred to by its former name, British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. It also has renewable energy interests in biofuels and power. The company has around 17,200 service stations worldwide. Its largest division is BP America in the United States. In Russia BP owns a 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the world's largest publicly traded oil and gas company by hydrocarbon reserves and production. BP is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1935, it in 1954 British Petroleum. In 1959, in 1965 it was the first company to strike oil in the North Sea. British Petroleum acquired control of Standard Oil of Ohio in 1978. Formerly majority state-owned, the British government privatised the company in stages between 1987. British Petroleum acquired ARCO and Burmah Castrol in 2000, becoming BP plc in 2001. From 2003 to 2013, BP was a partner in the joint venture in Russia. BP has been directly involved in several environmental safety incidents. Million gallons of Corexit oil dispersant were used in the cleanup response, becoming the largest application of such chemicals in US history.BP – William Knox D'Arcy
256. Alaska North Slope – The region also includes the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which itself has been the subject of controversy surrounding the possibility of drilling within its boundaries. The petroleum extracted from the region is transferred south by means of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System on the Pacific Ocean. Under the North Slope is an ancient seabed – the source of the oil. It runs to a point just west of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Alaska North Slope is a more expensive crude. Since 1987, Alaska North Slope crude production has been in decline. They argue that there are financial opportunities for refineries capable of blending, refining "stranded" crude blends, like Western Canadian Select. Within the North Slope, only a surface "active layer" of the tundra thaws each season; most of the soil is permanently frozen year-round. On top of this permafrost, water settles into pools and ponds. Much of the region is located in North Slope Borough. NASA Earth Observatory newsroom. 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2009-12-22.Alaska North Slope – Map from the US Bureau of Land Management showing structures that create the oil fields in Alaska
257. Deadhorse Airport – Deadhorse Airport is a public airport located in Deadhorse on the North Slope of Alaska. It can be accessed from Fairbanks via the Elliott and Dalton highways. It is sometimes also called Prudhoe Airport. Deadhorse Airport has one 6,500 x 150 ft. paved runway. Bristow Helicopters provides transportation services to the Alaska oil and gas and related support industries.Deadhorse Airport – Deadhorse Airport Prudhoe Airport
258. Nepal – Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia with a population of 26.4 million. It is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language. Kathmandu is largest city. Modern Nepal is a parliamentary republic. Nepal is bordered by China to the south, east, west. It borders neither the Indian state of Sikkim respectively. Nepal is home to eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Its southern Madhesh region is humid. The country has an area of 147,181 square kilometres, making the world's 93rd largest country by area. It is also the 41st most populous country. Nepal has a diverse cultural heritage. The Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era that founded Hinduism, the country's predominant religion. Nepal was the world's last monarchy. The founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. The main minorities are Christians.Nepal – Lumbini, listed as the birthplace of Gautama Buddha by the UNESCO World Heritage Convention
259. United States Vice President – The executive power of both the president is granted under Article Two, Section One of the Constitution. The Office of the Vice President of the United States organizes the vice president's official functions. As the president of the United States Senate, the president votes only when it is necessary to break a tie. The Vice President-elect since the 2016 election, is scheduled to succeed Biden on January 20, 2017. The creation of the office of president was a direct consequence of the creation of the Electoral College. Delegates to the Philadelphia Convention gave a number of presidential electors equal to that state's combined share of House and Senate seats. Yet the delegates were worried that each elector would only favor his own state's favorite candidate, resulting in deadlocked elections that would produce no winners. The delegates expected that each elector's second vote would go to a statesman of national character. Creating this new office forced electors to cast their second ballot. The process for selecting the Vice President was modified by the Twelfth Amendment. Electors cast distinct votes for President and Vice President, instead of two votes for President. This was to prevent the mishaps of the 1800 elections. Other statutorily granted roles include the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Electoral College. As President of the Senate, the president oversees procedural matters and may cast a tie-breaking vote.United States Vice President – Incumbent Joe Biden since January 20, 2009
260. Mike Pence – Michael Richard "Mike" Pence is an American politician. Pence is the Vice President-elect of the United States, well as the 50th and current Governor of Indiana. Pence is scheduled to take office as the 48th Vice President on January 2017. Pence served from 2009 to 2011. He signed bills intended to restrict abortions, including one that prohibited abortions if the reason for the procedure was the fetus's race, disability. Pence was forced to sign an additional bill acting as an amendment intended to protect LGBT people. His family were Irish Catholic Democrats. His maternal grandmother's parents were from County Clare. He graduated in 1977. While at Hanover, he joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, where he became the president. After graduating from Hanover, he was an admissions counselor at the college from 1981 to 1983. He also stated that he was originally inspired get involved by people such as John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.. While in college, he became an born-again Christan through his future wife. After graduating from school in 1986, he was an attorney in private practice. Pence ran unsuccessfully in 1990.Mike Pence – Mike Pence
261. DPRK – North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation's capital as well as its largest city. To northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. The country is bordered to the south with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone separating the two. The earliest human artifacts found in North Korea have been dated to 8000 BC. There were three kingdoms flourishing on the peninsula in the 1st BC. The name Korea is derived from the Kingdom of Goguryeo, also spelled as Koryŏ, one of East Asia's greatest empires. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. No official peace treaty was ever signed. Both states were accepted in 1991. The DPRK officially formally holds elections. Critics regard it as a dictatorship. Various outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around his family. International organizations have assessed human violations in North Korea as belonging to a category of their own, with no parallel in the contemporary world. Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world movement.DPRK – Jikji, the first known book printed with movable metal type in 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris
262. Cleveland – Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. Cleveland's economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, biomedical. Cleveland is also home of Fame. Residents of Cleveland are called "Clevelanders". Cleveland has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleaveland oversaw the plan before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 1814. In spite of harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. Ohio City remained an independent municipality by Cleveland in 1854. The city's geographic location as transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center.Cleveland
263. Facebook – Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California, United States. Facebook gradually added support for students at various other universities, eventually to high school students as well. The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students. Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, laptops, tablet computers, smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, occupation, schools attended and so on. In groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people. Because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen. On July 2015, Facebook became the fastest company in the Standard & Poor's 500 Index to reach a cap of $ billion. Facebook has more than billion active users as of March 2016. As of April 2016, Facebook was the most popular social networking site in the world, based on the number of active user accounts. Facebook deems users from the ages of 13 to 18 as being a minor and therefore, sets their profiles to share its content with friends only. Zuckerberg wrote a program called "Facemash" on October 28, 2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore. To accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvard's computer network and copied private dormitory ID images.Facebook – Facebook login/signup screen
264. Federal Bureau of Investigation – Operating under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Justice, the FBI is concurrently a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. Criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. These overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation. Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D.C. In the fiscal 2012, the Bureau's total budget was approximately $ billion. The 1901 assassination of President McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Justice Department had been tasked with regulating interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its shortage until the Oregon land scandal erupted around the start of the 20th century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to create an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation with its own staff of special agents.Federal Bureau of Investigation – J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972.
265. Indiana – Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U.S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted as the 19th U.S. state on December 11, 1816. Before becoming a territory, varying cultures of historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land". It also stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out by chipping, knapping and flaking. The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization.Indiana – State sign, Interstate 65
266. Michigan – Michigan /ˈmɪʃᵻɡən/ is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The name Michigan is the French form of meaning "large water" or "large lake". Michigan is the tenth most populous with the 11th most extensive total area. Its largest city is Detroit. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula, to which the name Michigan was originally applied, is often noted to be shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan. The two peninsulas are connected by the Mackinac Bridge. As a result, it is one of the leading U.S. states for recreational boating. Michigan also has 64,980 inland ponds. A person in the state is never more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline. The area was organized until 1800 when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Eventually, in 1805, the Michigan Territory was formed, which lasted until it was admitted into the Union as the 26th state. The state of Michigan soon became an important center of trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination. When the European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bod éwadmi.Michigan – Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm Lamprecht
267. New York – New York is a state in the northeastern United States, is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, seventh-most densely populated U.S. state. New York is Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont to the east. The New York City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State. Nearly 40 % lives on Long Island. Both New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, future King James II of England. The next four most populous cities in the state are Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography. Western New York straddles Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, tourist destination. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward for trade and proselytizing. The British annexed the colony in 1664. The Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, its ideals of freedom, democracy, opportunity.New York – British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.
268. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. Pennsylvania is the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading. The state capital is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary.Pennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
269. Petrobras – The company's name translates to Brazilian Petroleum Corporation — Petrobras. The company was ranked # 58 in the most recent 500 list. However, Brazil accounted for 97 % of Petrobras' worldwide reserves on 31 December 2014. Of these reserves, 62.7% were located in the offshore Campos Basin. The largest prospect for the company is the Lula oil field in the Santos Basin. In 2015, the company produced million barrels of oil equivalent per day, of which 89 % was petroleum and 11 % was natural gas. Reserves held outside of Brazil accounted in 2014. The majority of these reserves are in South America; the company has assets in Uruguay. Petrobras owns refineries in Argentina. The company also owns exploration blocks through joint ventures has production in Nigeria, Benin, Gabon, Namibia. The privately held shares are traded on BM&F Bovespa, where they are part of the Ibovespa index. Petrobras is a major supporter of the arts in Brazil. In 1953, Brazil only produced 2,700 barrels of oil per day. Petrobras began processing shale in 1953, developing Petrosix technology for extracting oil from oil shale. An industrial retort began processing shale in the 1990s.Petrobras – Petrobras headquarters in downtown Rio de Janeiro.
270. Norway – The sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Until 1814, the Kingdom included the Faroe Islands, Iceland. It also included Shetland and Orkney until 1468. It also included the following provinces, now in Sweden: Jämtland, Härjedalen, Särna-Idre and Bohuslän. Norway has a population of 5,213,985. The country shares a eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet, the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution. The Kingdom is established as a merger of petty kingdoms. Norway has both political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act.Norway – The helmet found at Gjermundbu near Haugsbygd, Buskerud, is the only Viking Age helmet that has been found.
271. Statoil – Statoil ASA, is a Norwegian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway. It is a fully integrated company with operations in thirty-six countries. The company has about 23,000 employees. Statoil was formed with the oil and gas division of Norsk Hydro. As of 2013, the Government of Norway is the largest shareholder in Statoil with 67% of the shares, while the rest is public stock. The interest is managed by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. The company is led from Stavanger, while most of their international operations are currently led from Fornebu. Statoil is the largest operator on the continental shelf, with 60 % of the total production. The company also has processing plants at Kolsnes, Mongstad, Tjeldbergodden, Melkøya. Statoil has offices that are looking for possible ventures in the countries of Mexico, the United Arab Emirates. The company has processing plants in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany. In 2006, Statoil was given approval to implement the world's largest carbon project as a means to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere. In September 2007, the Brazilian oil company Petrobras signed a deal aimed at expanding exploration, sub-sea, biofuels cooperation. After the merger with Hydro, Statoil became a partner in Brazil's offshore Peregrino field, which came on-stream in 2011. Under the agreement Statoil became a partner on six offshore licenses, well as expanding biofuels production.Statoil – Statoil is operator of Statfjord in the Norwegian North Sea
272. President of Paraguay – His honorific title is Excelentísimo Señor. The Presidential seat is the Palacio de los López, in Asunción. The Presidential residence is the Mburuvichá Roga, also in Asunción. Once Presidents leave office, they are granted by the Constitution of Paraguay the speaking-but-non-voting position of Senator for life. First Lady of Paraguay Presidency of the Republic of ParaguayPresident of Paraguay – Incumbent Horacio Cartes since 15 August 2013
273. Horacio Cartes – Horacio Manuel Cartes Jara is a Paraguayan businessman, current President of Paraguay, as of the Paraguayan general election, 2013. He is a member of the Colorado Party. Cartes owns about two dozen businesses in his Grupo Cartes conglomerate including tobacco, soft drinks, banking. The young Horacio studied aviation mechanics in the United States. At the age of 19, he started a currency business which grew into the Banco Amambay. Over the following years, Cartes helped establish 25 companies including Tabesa, the country's biggest cigarette manufacturer, a major fruit juice bottling company. In 1986, Cartes spent 60 days during a currency fraud investigation. The case was eventually dropped. Cartes was imprisoned for seven months in 1989. He was eventually cleared by a court. In 2000, the anti-drug police seized a plane carrying marijuana on his ranch. Cartes' name appears in the Offshore leaks files in connection with a Cook Islands financial entity linked to Cartes' Paraguayan bank Banco Amambay. A classified WikiLeaks cable from 2010 mentioned Cartes by the DEA. He was not registered as a voter. He said he wanted to counter the swing to the left in Latin American politics.Horacio Cartes – Horacio Cartes
274. Congress of Paraguay – Paraguay's bicameral Congress consists of a 45-member Senate and an 80-member Chamber of Deputies. It serves as the legislative branch of the Paraguayan state. Both chambers of Congress are elected concurrently by means of a proportional representation system. Deputies are elected on a nationwide basis. Chamber of Deputies of Paraguay Senate of Paraguay Politics of Paraguay List of legislatures by country http://www.senado.gov.py/ Senate http://www.diputados.gov.py/ Chamber of DeputiesCongress of Paraguay – Congress of the Republic of Paraguay Congreso de la República de Paraguay
275. Constitution of Paraguay – The Republic of Paraguay is governed under the constitution of 1992, the country's sixth since independence from Spain in 1811. After further voyages of conquest, Paraguay became another of Spain's South American colonies. Paraguay finally gained its independence in 1811. The Constitutional Governmental Regulations, approved by the Congress of Paraguay two years after its independence from Spain in October 1813. The Constitutional Governmental Regulations contained seventeen articles, providing by headed by two consuls, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia and Fulgencio Yegros. The framers also provided for a legislature of 1,000 representatives. In 1841 Carlos Antonio López, asked the legislature to revise the Constitutional Governmental Regulations. Three years later, a new constitution granted López powers as broad as those Francia had used to govern. Only the President could order that they be promulgated and enforced. The constitution placed no restrictions beyond limiting his term of office to ten years. The constitution also included no guarantee of civil rights. There was no mention of the liberty in the entire text. Despite this limitation, Congress subsequently named López dictator for life. He died after twenty-one years of unchallenged rule. The constitution was based on principles of popular sovereignty, a bicameral legislature consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of Representatives.Constitution of Paraguay – Paraguay
276. Paraguay – Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the country from north to south. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Paraguay is one of the two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Paraguay is the smallest landlocked country in the Americas. The indigenous Guaraní had been living in Paraguay for at least a millennium before the Spanish conquered the territory in the 16th century. Spanish settlers and Jesuit missions introduced Christianity and Spanish culture to the region. Paraguay was a peripheral colony of the Spanish Empire, with few urban centers and settlers. Following independence from Spain in 1811, Paraguay was ruled by a series of dictators who generally implemented isolationist and protectionist policies. Multi-party elections were organized and held for the first time in 1993. Paraguay joined Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay to found a regional economic collaborative. As of 2009, Paraguay's population was estimated to be at around million, most of whom are concentrated in the region of the country. The capital and largest city is Asunción, of which the metropolitan area is home to nearly a third of Paraguay's population. In contrast to most Latin American nations, Paraguay's indigenous language and culture, Guaraní, remains highly influential. In each census, residents predominantly identify as mestizo, reflecting years of intermarriage among the different ethnic groups. Guaraní is recognized as an official language alongside Spanish, both languages are widely spoken in the country.Paraguay – José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Paraguay's first president.
277. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The capital is Sacramento. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, largest after New York City. The state also has the nation's most populous county, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. A major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. The Spanish Empire then claimed it in their New Spain colony. The western portion of Alta California then was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. If it were a country, California would be the 35th most populous. Fifty-eight percent of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the state's economy, California's industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land rich in gold. They were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. This conventional wisdom that maps were drawn to reflect this way, lasted as late as the 1700's. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
278. Palestinian prisoners of Israel – Palestinian prisoners of Israel refers in this article to Palestinians imprisoned in Israel in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The future of Palestinian prisoners detained by Israel is considered central to progress in Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations. In December 4,772 security prisoners were serving terms in Israeli jails. Of these, 552 were sentenced to life terms. As of April 2013, there were approximately 4,700 security prisoners in Israeli jails, 169 of them held without having been charged. Most of the prisoners are Palestinian men from the West Bank and Gaza area, convicted of participating in terror attacks. The Guardian's Jerusalem correspondent, estimated that one-fifth of the population has at one time been imprisoned since 1967. About 100,000 had been held in administrative detention. According to B'Tselem, there was a decline, starting in the number of Palestinians held in administrative detention. Less than 20 were held to October 2001. However, with the start of the Second Intifada, particularly after Operation Defensive Shield, the numbers steadily rose. In April 2003 alone there were more than 5,500 arrests. In 2007, the number of Palestinians under administrative detention averaged about 830 including women and minors under the age of 18. In 2010, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics reported that there were "over 7,000" Palestinians of them 264 under administrative detention. Most of the prisoners are held in Israel.Palestinian prisoners of Israel – Marwan Barghouti, a leader of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militia, convicted by Israeli court on five counts of murder and sentenced to five life sentences and forty years in prison.
279. Palestinians – Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless lacking citizenship in any country. The history of a distinct national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars. "Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by Palestinian Arabs in a limited way until World War I. Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period. Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization is an organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before the international community. Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. Herodotus also employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the'Syrians of ` Palestinian-Syrians', an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians. Herodotus makes other inhabitants of Palestine. The Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern word, used either as a ethnonym. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples", particularly the Philistines. Among Semitic languages, Akkadian Palaštu is used of its 4 city states. Plištim is usually translated Philistines. The Arabic Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers. It appears to have been used since as early as the 7th century CE. The Arabic Falasteen, published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians".Palestinians
280. Hunger strike – Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not solid food. Fasting was used as a method of protesting injustice in pre-Christian Ireland, where it was known as Troscadh or Cealachan. It had specific rules by which it could be used. The fast was often carried out on the doorstep of the home of the offender. Scholars speculate this was due to the high importance the culture placed on hospitality. Allowing a person to die at one's doorstep, for a wrong of which one was accused, was considered a great dishonor. Others say that the practice was for one whole night, as there is no evidence of people fasting to death in pre-Christian Ireland. The fasts were primarily undertaken to get justice for a perceived wrong. There are legends of the patron saint of Ireland, using the hunger strike as well. This Indian practice is ancient, going back to around 400 to 750 BC. This can be known since it appears in the Ramayana, composed around that time. The actual mention appears in Sarga 103. Bharata has gone to ask the exiled Rama to rule the kingdom. Bharata tries none of which work, at which point he decides to do a hunger strike. Rama, however, is quickly able to persuade him to abandon the attempt.Hunger strike – Clipping from World Magazine, September 6, 1914.
281. Philippine peso – The Philippine peso is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos. As a former colony of the United States, the country used English on its currency, with the word "peso" appearing until 1967. Since the adaptation of Filipino language for coins, the term "piso" is now used. The peso is usually denoted by the symbol "₱". Other ways of writing the Philippine sign are "PHP", "PhP", "Php", "P$", or just "P". The"" symbol is assigned U +20 B1. The symbol can be accessed by typing in "20b1" and then pressing the Alt and X buttons simultaneously. Banknotes are minted and printed at the Security Plant Complex of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas in Quezon City. The inconvenience of barter later led to the use of some objects as a medium of exchange. The teston became the de facto unit of trade between Spaniards and Filipinos in 1574. The native Tagalog name for the coin was salapi. Value equivalents of the monetary systems were usually difficult to comprehend and hindered trade and commerce. An attempt to remedy the monetary confusion was made in 1848, under the second Isabelline monetary system. Overseeing the conversion was Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero, governor general in the period 1857-60.Philippine peso – Banknotes of the Philippine peso (2010 New Generation Currency).
282. Coordinated Universal Time – Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated to UTC or CUT, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of solar time at 0 ° longitude; it does not observe daylight saving time. It is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on January 1960. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. No consensus has yet been reached. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of UT1. See the "Current number of leap seconds" section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date. The official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC. This abbreviation arose by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers originally proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC. The compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets by UTC offset. The westernmost zone uses UTC − 12, being twelve hours behind UTC; the easternmost time zone, theoretically, uses UTC +12, being twelve hours ahead of UTC.Coordinated Universal Time – Key concepts
283. 2017 Atlantic hurricane season – The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season is a future event in the annual formation of tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere. The season will officially end on November 30, 2017. These dates historically describe each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. These agencies include the Tropical Storm Risk Consortium of the University College London, Colorado State University. The forecasts include monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes within a particular year. Some of these forecasts also take into consideration what happened in previous seasons and -- 16 El Niño event. The first forecast for the year was issued on December 13. They anticipated that the 2017 season would be a near-average season, with a prediction of 14 named storms, 3 major hurricanes. They also predicted an ACE index of around 101 units. The following list of names will be used for named storms that form in the North Atlantic in 2017. Retired names, if any, will be announced in the spring of 2018. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2023 season. This is the same list used with the exception of the name Irma, which replaced Irene.2017 Atlantic hurricane season – Image of Hurricane Gonzalo shortly after peak strength on October 2014
284. 2017 Pacific typhoon season – The season runs throughout 2017, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The scope of this article is limited to the north of the equator between 100 ° E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center are given a number with a "W" suffix. These agencies included the Tropical Storm Risk Consortium of University College London, Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau. The names of tropical cyclones are retired, by both PAGASA and the Typhoon Committee. Unused names are marked in gray. A tropical cyclone is named when it is judged to have sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h. The next 24 names on the list are listed here along with their international numeric designation, if they are used. PAGASA will use its own naming scheme, that will either develop within or move into their self-defined area of responsibility. The names are scheduled to be used again during 2021. All of the names are the same except for Lannie, Salome and Yasmin, which replaced the names Labuyo, Santi and Yolanda after it was retired. The tables also provide an overview of a systems intensity, duration, any deaths or damages associated with the system.2017 Pacific typhoon season – Image of Hurricane Gonzalo shortly after peak strength on October 2014
285. European migrant crisis – The unauthorized national entrants came mostly from Muslim-majority countries of the regions of Western Asia, South Asia, Africa, Western Balkans. By religious affiliation, the overwhelming majority of entrants were Muslim, with a small component of non-Muslim minorities. According to Eurostat, EU member states received over 1.2 million first time asylum applications a number more than double that of the previous year. Four states received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications with Hungary, Sweden, Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for "public policy or national security" reasons. By default, the first state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the seeker then moves to another member state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered. Further clauses on this topic are found in directive 2001/51/EC. Humanitarian visas are given to refugees who want to apply for asylum. The laws on migrant smuggling ban helping migrants to pass any national border if the migrants are without other permission to enter. This has caused many airlines to refuse passage to migrants without visas, including through international flights inside the Schengen Area. After being refused passage, many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 amounts to 7 % of the total population of the 28 EU countries. Prior to 2014, the number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in 1992, 2013. In 2014 it reached 626,000.European migrant crisis – Migrants being stopped at the Greek – Macedonian border near Gevgelija by the Macedonian Police, 24 August 2015.
286. Territorial disputes in the South China Sea – There is a further dispute in the waters near the Indonesian Natuna Islands which by most definitions are not part of the South China Sea. China abide by its ruling, insisting that any resolution should be with other claimants. The disputes involve both maritime boundaries and islands. Maritime boundary along the Vietnamese coast between PRC, Taiwan, Vietnam. Maritime boundary north of Borneo between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan. Maritime boundary, land territory, the islands of Sabah, including Ambalat, between Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines. Maritime boundary and islands in the Luzon Strait between Taiwan. The area may be rich in oil and natural gas deposits; however, the estimates are highly varied. In the years following the announcement by the ministry, the claims regarding the South China Sea islands intensified. However, other sources claim that the proven reserve of oil in the South China Sea may only be about billion tons. The South China Sea is dubbed by China as the "second Persian Sea." The Philippines began exploring the areas west of Palawan for oil in 1970. Exploration in the area began in Reed Bank/Tablemount. in 1976, gas was discovered following the drilling of a well. However, China's complaints halted the exploration. These oil fields supply 15% of annual oil consumption in the Philippines.Territorial disputes in the South China Sea – Territorial monument of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) on Southwest Cay, Spratly Islands, defining the cay as part of Vietnamese territory (to Phước Tuy Province). Used since 22 August 1956 until 1975, when replaced by another one from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (successor state after the Fall of Saigon)
287. Sport – SPORT was an American sports magazine. What made SPORT the most distinctive from Sports Illustrated, however, was that it was a monthly magazine as opposed to SI's weekly distribution. SPORT was published continually between August 2000, when its then-owner, British publisher EMAP PLC, made the decision to close the money-losing title. Launched in September 1946, Macfadden's SPORT magazine broke new ground, as national sports publication, but also in its editorial innovations. The emphasis was not on the elements of human drama that lay beneath. SPORT was an icon in the league of LIFE, The Saturday Evening Post. It continued to thrive for a quarter-century or so, as SI struggled to find the right blend of spectator and participatory sports. Ogden Nash wrote his poem "Line-Up for Yesterday" for the magazine in 1949. But by the early 1970s, SPORT eventually wound up in the hands of Downe Communications. In 1976, its family of magazines that included Ladies Home Journal and Redbook, was acquired by The Charter Company. Under Downe and Charter, gradually SPORT lost its way, its distinctive voice, circulation declined. In 1980, SPORT was purchased from the Charter Company through an entity known as MVP Sports. Beeler quickly named Don Hanrahan, a former publisher under Downe, to return to that role. Beeler and Hanrahan also solidified SPORT's historic role of awarding of the MVP Awards for the Super Bowl, World Series, NBA Championship Series. Circulation practices were re-validated.Sport
288. Elections in Bulgaria – Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected directly by the people. The National Assembly has 240 members, elected for a four-year term with a 4 % threshold. Parliamentary elections have been held since 1879. This, in practice, gave a monopoly on power. Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic. All elections since 1990 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term with a 4 % threshold. The last were held in 2016. On October 2015 the question was if Bulgaria should introduce electronic voting. On November 2016 voters were asked three questions. Regional referendums have been held as well.Elections in Bulgaria – Bulgaria
289. Elections in Hong Kong – Election in Hong Kong take place when certain political offices in the government need to be filled. Hong Kong has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has the chance of gaining power alone. The Chief Executive of Hong Kong has to work with several parties to form a coalition government. The Government held consultations with the public on how the law should be changed. It entered into force on 30 October 2009. In Hong Kong, legislative elections are held every four years, in years evenly divisible by four. The most recent election was held on 4 September 2016. This system sustains multiple political parties. There are 29 functional constituencies. The District Council FC returns 5 members by proportional system. The other FCs return members with the post method. There are instant-runoff voting. Five new directly elected Functional Constituency seats are created. The plan attracted criticism from Pan-Democrats; even its allies in the legislature expressed reservations about the workability of the plan. The Bar Association severely criticised the plan, expressing concern over the constitutionality of the proposals, particularly the reasonableness to participation.Elections in Hong Kong – Politics and government of Hong Kong
290. Elections in Armenia – Elections in Armenia gives information on election and election results in Armenia. Armenia elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people. The National Assembly has 131 members, elected for a four-year term, 90 by proportional representation. Electoral calendar Electoral system Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Armenia Adam Carr's Election Archive Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of ArmeniaElections in Armenia – Armenia
291. Elections in Ecuador – Elections in Ecuador is about information on elections and election results in Ecuador. Ecuador elects on national level a legislature. The President of his vice-president are elected on one ballot for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress has 100 members elected for a four-year term in the 22 provinces. National electoral calendar 2017 Adam Carr's Election Archive Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues, issue brief from the Center for Economic and Policy ResearchElections in Ecuador – Ecuador
292. Ecuadorian general election, 2017 – Elections in Ecuador is about information on elections and election results in Ecuador. Ecuador elects on national level a legislature. The President of his vice-president are elected on one ballot for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress has 100 members elected for a four-year term in the 22 provinces. National electoral calendar 2017 Adam Carr's Election Archive Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues, issue brief from the Center for Economic and Policy ResearchEcuadorian general election, 2017 – Ecuador
293. Elections in The Gambia – Elections in The Gambia gives information on election and election results in Gambia. Gambia elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people. The National Assembly has 48 members elected for a five-year term and 4 members appointed. Gambia is a one party dominant state in power. Opposition parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Following the December 2016 elections, the elections committee declared Adama Borrow winner of the elections. Incumbent president Yahya Jammeh accepted defeat on December 2. Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carr's Election Archive African Elections DatabaseElections in The Gambia – The Gambia
294. Elections in TurkeyElections in Turkey – Turkey
295. Elections in France – France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may also be called to consult the French citizenry directly on especially one which concerns amendment to the Constitution. The Parliament has two chambers. The National Assembly has 577 members, elected directly by the citizens. The Senate has 348 members, elected for six-year terms. See Government of France for more details about these political structures. In addition, French citizens elect a variety of local governments. See politics of France for more details. Elections are conducted according to rules set in the Constitution of France, the electoral code. Elections are held on Sundays. The voting stations open at 8 am and close at 6 pm depending on prefectoral decisions. It has been alleged that this discourages voting in these places. For municipal and European elections, citizens aged older of other European Union countries may decide to vote in France. The absence of registration precludes the possibility of voting.Elections in France – Scene inside a polling station during the French presidential election of 2007: election officials and a standard transparent ballot box.
296. Elections in Algeria – Algeria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the people. People's National Assembly has 380 members, elected by proportional representation. Eight seats in the national assembly are reserved for Algerians abroad. The Council of the Nation has 96 members elected by communal councils and 48 members appointed by the president. According to the Organization in Europe, Algerian elections are generally free and fair. According to a US Embassy cable, the 2009 presidential elections were "heavily controlled", with the official turnout figure "exaggerated" by at least 45 %. The legislative election is scheduled for 2017. These elections were marked to date. The National Liberation Front, obtained the largest number of seats, with 136. It was followed by its two governing partners, the National Rally for Democracy, with 61, the Islamist Movement of Society with 52 seats. The latter parties gained seats at the expense of the FLN, which lost 38 seats with its result in 2002. Islah, lost heavily, maintaining only 3 seats, versus 43 in the previous parliament. Independents, with 33 seats, a number of smaller parties shared the rest of the seats. The Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb also issued a video participation in the elections "a great sin".Elections in Algeria – Algeria
297. Elections in Niue – Niue is fully responsible for internal affairs. New Zealand retains some responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with Niue. The Niue Constitution Act 1974 vests executive authority in Her Majesty the Queen in Right of New Zealand and the Governor-General of New Zealand. The constitution specifies that in everyday practice, it is exercised by a Cabinet of the Premier of three other ministers. Ministers must be members of the Niue Assembly, the nation's legislative assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The monarch is hereditary; her representative in relation to Niue is appointed by the monarch. The New Zealand high commissioner is appointed by, acts solely as a diplomatic agent of, the New Zealand Government. The cabinet is appointed by the Speaker of the Niue Assembly and collectively responsible to Parliament. The Assembly has 20 members elected for a three-year term, 14 representatives of the villages. Candidates must have been electors, resident for twelve months. The speaker is elected from among the members. In Niue, political parties have never played an important role. There is, to elections therefore run as independents. The only party ever to have existed, the Niue People's Party, disbanded in 2003.Elections in Niue – Niue
298. Elections in South Korea – Elections in South Korea are held on national level to select the President and the National Assembly. Local elections are held every four years to elect governors, metropolitan mayors, provincial and municipal legislatures. The president is directly elected by plurality vote. The National Assembly has 300 members elected for a four-year term, 47 members by proportional representation. Since the 2016 legislative elections, South Korea has a three-party system, with one major third party. Korea: A history of the Korean people. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2. Lee, Il-cheong. 인명국사대사전 (Inmyeong guksa daesajeon, Unabridged biographical dictionary of Korean history. Seoul: Goryeo Munhaksa. Lee, Ki-baik. A new history of Korea. Seoul: Ilchokak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0.Elections in South Korea – South Korea
299. South Korean presidential election, 2017 – The 19th South Korean presidential election is scheduled to be held on or before 20 December 2017. Under present law, the election will be decided in a single round on a first-past-the-post basis. Incumbent President Park Geun-hye can not seek re-election. The president-elect will take office on 25 February 2018. In the interim, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn will act as interim president. Park Geun-hye of the conservative Saenuri Party won the presidential election in 2012, succeeding Lee Myung-bak from the same party. Commentators described the result as leaving a lame duck president whereas she may not run again under South Korean one-term presidency rule. The Korea Times stated that "the drama of deals and power struggles for next year's election has already begun". On 9 Park was impeached by parliament by a vote of 234 for and 56 opposed. The Constitutional Court now has up to 180 days to review the motion of impeachment. Park will be formally removed from office if at least six of the Constitutional Court's nine justices support her impeachment. Should it accede, a presidential election will be held within 60 days. In the interim, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn will act as interim president. Potential candidates are listed below by their party-political affiliation.South Korean presidential election, 2017 – South Korea
300. Elections in the Bahamas – Elections in the Bahamas take place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy. Since independence turnout has been generally high in national elections, with a low of 87.9 % in 1987 and a high of 98.5 % in 1997. The country's electoral law was last amended in 1992. Elections are run by the Parliamentary Registration Department, headed by a Parliamentary Commissioner. Appointed by the Governor-General, the Commissioner is responsible for registration. There is also an Electoral Broadcasting Council, responsible for ensuring that reports are fair and not biased towards any party. The country has a bicameral Parliament with a House of Assembly and Senate. The House of Assembly has 38 elected members who are elected in single-member constituencies. Elections for the House are held every five years. Voters must be aged 18 or over, lived for three months in the constituency. They can disqualified if insane, imprisoned or under a sentence. Until 1972 British citizens could also vote if they had been resident for six months. There has been one opinion poll held within the last twenty years. The first, held in 2002, it asked five questions ranging from changes to the constitution to the setting up of a national commission on teaching. The first poll, held in January 2013, asked individuals whether they wanted to legalize online gambling.Elections in the Bahamas – The Bahamas
301. Elections in Iran – Iran elects on national level a head of state and head of government, a legislature, an "Assembly of Experts". Also City and Village Council elections are held every four years throughout the country. The president is elected for a four-year term by the people. The Parliament or Islamic Consultative Assembly has 290 members, elected for a four-year term in multi- and single-seat constituencies. Elections for the Assembly of Experts are held every eight years. All candidates have to be approved by the Guardian Council. See Politics of Iran for more details. Until January 2007, when it was raised to 18, the age was 15 years, the lowest globally at the time. The most recent local elections were held on 14 June 2013, simultaneously for the first time. The most recent Assembly of Experts elections were held on 26 February 2016. The 2013 presidential election was held on 14 June 2013. Hassan Rouhani was elected to succeed outgoing President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.Elections in Iran – Iran
302. Elections in Lebanon – Elections in Lebanon are allotted to occur every four years. The positions are constitutionally allocated by religious affiliation. In 2014, the Parliament extended its own term. Lebanon's national legislature is called the Assembly of Representatives. Since the elections of 1992 removed the built-in majority previously enjoyed by Christians. The term is four years. Seats in the Parliament are confessionally elected by universal suffrage. Each religious community has an allotted number of seats in the Parliament. In practice, this system has led to charges of gerrymandering. . The following table sets out the confessional allocation of seats in the Parliament after the Taif Agreement. Before the next election, the electoral law will be reformed. Presidential elections are indirect, with the President being elected to a 6-year term by the Parliament. The last elections took place on June 2009. An anti-Syrian bloc led by Saad Hariri, captured control of the legislature winning 71 of the 128 available seats.Elections in Lebanon – Lebanon
303. Elections in Switzerland – Elections in Switzerland gives information on election and election results in Switzerland. Switzerland elects on national level a head of state, a legislature. The Federal Assembly has two chambers. The National Council has 200 members, elected by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies, the cantons. One of the members of the Federal Council assumes the honorific title of President of the Confederation for a one-year term. Switzerland has a multi-party system with numerous parties. A world-unique characteristic of Switzerland is that all the executives, from federal to municipal level, often include members from all main parties. Elections to the National Council conclude on Sunday of October. The new Federal Assembly takes office at the start of the following year.Elections in Switzerland – Switzerland
304. Erin Moran – Erin Marie Moran is an American actress, best known for playing Joanie Cunningham on the sitcom Happy Days and its spin-off Joanie Loves Chachi. Moran was cast as Jenny Jones in the series Daktari, which ran from 1966 to 1969. In 1968, she made her feature-film debut in How Sweet It Is! with Debbie Reynolds. She appeared to Jonah and Watermelon Man. She made regular appearances in 1972. She made guest appearances in The Courtship of Eddie's Father, My Three Sons, Bearcats! and Family Affair. As a young child, she was also on the television Gunsmoke. In 1974, Moran was cast to play Joanie Cunningham on the sitcom Happy Days. She played the feisty younger sister of Richie Cunningham. Moran continued the role in 1982 alongside Scott Baio. After Joanie Loves Chachi's cancellation in 1983, she returned for its final season. Moran has made other television guest appearances, including The Love Boat, Murder, She Wrote and Diagnosis: Murder. In 2007, she made an appearance Not Another B Movie. In 2008, she was a contestant on VH1's show Celebrity Fit Club. The suit claimed that cast members had not been paid for merchandising revenues owed under their contracts.Erin Moran – Erin Moran signs autographs on the red carpet at the 62nd Annual Mother Goose Parade in San Diego County, in 2008.
305. Magdalena Abakanowicz – Magdalena Abakanowicz is a Polish sculptor and fiber artist. She is notable for her use of textiles as a sculptural medium. Abakanowicz currently works in Warsaw. Magdalena Abakanowicz was born to a noble family. Her mother descended from Polish nobility. Her father came from a Polonized Tatar family, which traced its origins to the 13th century Mongol chieftain. He fled Russia after the October Revolution. The Russian invasion of 1920 forced her family to flee their home, after which they moved to the city of Gdańsk. When she was nine Nazi Germany occupied Poland. Her family endured the war years living on the outskirts of Warsaw. Under Soviet control, the Polish government officially adopted Socialist realism as the only acceptable form which should be pursued by artists. Originally conceived by Joseph Stalin in the 1930s, Socialist realism, in nature, had to be'national in form' and'socialist in content'. After her graduation from the Liceum in 1949, Abakanowicz attended the Gdańsk Academy of Fine Arts, then located in the town of Sopot. In 1950, Abakanowicz moved back to Warsaw to begin her studies at the Academy of the leading art school in Poland. Her years at 1950 -- 1954, coincided with some of the harshest assaults made on art by the Soviet leadership.Magdalena Abakanowicz – Nierozpoznani ("The Unrecognised Ones") (2002) in the Cytadela park, Poznań, Poland (whole installation)
306. Cuba Gooding Sr. – Gooding also had a brief career on Motown Records during the early-1980s. In the same year, samples from the song also featured prominently in Bizarre Inc's single "Playing With Knives". Born in New York, Gooding is a son of his wife Addie Alston. The elder Gooding was a native of Barbados who married a woman there. His father died when Cuba was eleven years old. Gooding and his wife, singer Shirley Gooding have four children: actors Cuba Gooding Jr. Omar Gooding, April Gooding and musician Tommy Gooding. Gooding Sr. later became a minor actor himself. Gooding Sr. separated from his wife in 1974. In 1995, the Goodings remarried, some 21 years after they separated. In one of Cuba Gooding Jr.'s movies, there is a scene where "Radio" is listening to The Main Ingredient. Gooding released a single called "Politics" in September 2007. He also is developing a film project called Everybody Plays the Fool: The Cuba Gooding Story. The film highlights three generations of the Gooding Family: Dudley "Cuba" Gooding, Cuba Gooding Sr. Cuba Gooding Jr. and Omar Gooding. In 1999 he, along with David James wrote the international hit, "Back and Forth" by the Supakings. Cuba was added by popular demand to the Beach Music Super Collaboration CD, performing the Charles Wallert composition, "Meant To Be In Love".Cuba Gooding Sr. – Gooding at a performance in San Diego, California, September 25, 2008
307. Allan Holdsworth – Allan Holdsworth is a British guitarist and composer. He has also become associated with playing an early form of guitar synthesizer called the SynthAxe, a company which he endorsed in the 1980s. I don't think anyone can do much with the guitar as Allan Holdsworth can." He first recorded in 1969 with the band ` Igginbottom on their lone release, ` Igginbottom's Wrench. In 1971 Holdsworth joined an improvisational band featuring keyboardist Alan Gowen, future King Crimson percussionist Jamie Muir and bassist Laurie Baker. They would never release any recorded material. During the middle part of the decade, he went on to work with various progressive rock and jazz fusion artists. These included Soft Machine, Pierre Moerlen's Gong and Jean-Luc Ponty. Holdsworth has often since expressed his enjoyment of the experience gained in particular his time spent with drummer Tony Williams. This angered Holdsworth, who says he wishes it was never made public. As the 1970s wore on, he was recruited by Yes founder Bill Bruford to play on his 1978 debut album, Feels Good to Me. Shortly afterwards, Bruford formed the progressive rock U.K. with keyboardist/violinist Eddie Jobson and bassist John Wetton; Holdsworth was brought in on the recommendation of Bruford. Whilst U.K. continued with different musicians, Bruford returned to the core line-up of his band now simply named Bruford, with Holdsworth retained as guitarist. Holdsworth's significant collaborator was jazz pianist Gordon Beck, with whom he first played on Beck's Sunbird album in 1979. The Things You See, followed in 1980, was a largely similar effort but without percussion or bass.Allan Holdsworth – Holdsworth in 2007
308. Henry Hillman – Henry L. Hillman is an American billionaire businessman, investor, civic leader, philanthropist. Hillman is chairman of a family office and investment company headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, owned by the Hillman family. Hillman chairs the board of trustees of Hillman Family Foundations. Which manages 18 named foundations. Henry Lea Hillman was raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Hillman was the fifth child and second son of John Hartwell Hillman, Juliet Cummins Lea Hillman. He attended Shady Side Academy in Pittsburgh, Princeton University, where he earned an A.B. degree in geology in 1941. Hillman became a Naval aviator in 1942, serving until after the war's end in 1945. In January 1946, he joined Pittsburgh Coke & Chemical, which sold coke, merchant pig iron, such coal-derived byproducts as activated carbon. J. H. Hillman & Sons was the shareholder of this publicly traded firm. As a director, Henry expanded the company's manufacture and sale of finished chemicals and plasticizers. Hillman became president of Pittsburgh Coke in 1955. He served until 1988. The death of his father in 1959 put Hillman in charge of Hillman family holdings, which he expanded many fold. The Hillman Company was the largest single venture investor in the country during the early 1980s.Henry Hillman – Hillman Hall of Minerals and Gems, at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh
309. Dan Rooney – Daniel Milton "Dan" Rooney is the former United States Ambassador to Ireland, who served from July 3, 2009 until his resignation in 2012. Rooney is chairman of the Pittsburgh Steelers American team in the National Football League, founded by his father, Art. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame to the game. He is also co-founder of The Ireland Funds. He was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh Steelers' owner Art Rooney. Rooney attended North Catholic High School where he excelled as the team's quarterback. Rooney was also the coach for the St. Peter's Elementary school team, quarterbacked by future CIA Director and lifelong friend Michael Hayden. He was mentored by Fran Fogerty, Ed Kiely. These men assisted in teaching the business of football. After graduating from Duquesne University Rooney knew football was what he wanted to pursue. Rooney then met his future wife in the office of the Steelers where she was currently working. The couple got married soon after. By early 1969 he personally selected the coaching hire of Chuck Noll. During his tenure, Rooney has implemented a philosophy and style that emphasizes open, practical and efficient management. The results have been obvious: since 1972, the Steelers have won 6 Super Bowl Championships.Dan Rooney – Ambassador Rooney
310. Michael Ballhaus – Michael Ballhaus, A.S.C. is a German cinematographer. In 1990, he was the Head of the Jury at the 40th Berlin International Film Festival. Ballhaus was born in the son of actors Lena Hutter and Oskar Ballhaus. Ballhaus was influenced by friend Max Ophüls, appears as an extra in Ophüls last film Lola Montès. He won the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Cinematography for Goodfellas. Ballhaus released his documentary together with Ciro Cappelari in May 2009. Helga Ballhaus, née Betten, appeared in a handful of films, including several directed by Fassbinder; she died in 2006. Their Florian is also a cinematographer. In 2011, he married German-American director Sherry Hormann. Michael Ballhaus is a nephew of film actor Carl Balhaus.Michael Ballhaus – Ballhaus in Berlin in September 2007
311. Tom Coyne (music engineer) – Tom Coyne is an American mastering engineer. Tom Coyne was bred in Union, NJ. He graduated in 1972. He attended Kean College where he received a degree in Commercial Design. In the six months Coyne worked at Dick Charles, he soon began cutting his own after hours. For the next ten years, Coyne primarily cut records for dance bands with his big record being "Ladies Night" by Kool and the Gang. In 1994, Coyne was offered a job by Lee Hulko who now operated Sterling Sound. In 1998, Coyne, Ted Jensen, Greg Calbi, the UK based Metropolis bought Sterling Sound from Lee Hulko. Coyne has over 35 category wins. Sterling Sound is located in New York City, occupying the top floor of the Chelsea Market in the Meatpacking District. It was designed by FM Design. 2016 Selamanya Cinta - Shila Amzah feat. - Kool & the GangTom Coyne (music engineer) – Tom Coyne at Sterling Sound
312. J. Geils – John Warren Geils Jr. known professionally as J. Geils, is an American musician. Born in New York City, Geils grew up in New Jersey, where he graduated from Bernards High School. He studied engineering at Northeastern University and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Geils is primarily known as a blues-rock and guitarist. He was the lead founder of The J. Geils Band. He has also recorded with several jazz musicians. After the band dissolved, Geils founded KTR Motosports, in Ayer, Massachusetts, to service vintage cars. He remains active in it. Since 1982, Geils has resided in Groton, Massachusetts. The town honored him by proclaiming J. Geils Day on December 2009.J. Geils – Geils performing in concert
313. Arnold Clark – Sir John Arnold Clark is a Scottish billionaire businessman. In April 2015, the company celebrated its 60th year in business. John Arnold Clark was born in Glasgow. Clark started opening his first showroom in 1954 in Glasgow's Park Road. In December 2003, Clark was knighted, for services for his community work in Scotland. Arnold Clark Automobiles is now Europe's largest independently owned family-run dealership, with over 300 new and used car dealerships spread throughout Great Britain. The company sells over 200,000 cars per year, has an annual turnover of over # 3.5 billion. The group currently has some trading under the Harry Fairbairn subsidiary. GTG Training was purchased by the Arnold Clark Group in December 2003. A new custom built GTG Training, was officially opened in the regenerated Clydeside area of Glasgow in September 2007. There are three GTG training centres. One in Edinburgh and the most recent in Wolverhampton. Arnold Clark was an official provider for the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games. ArnoldClark.com Harry Fairbairn Racing yacht DrumArnold Clark – Sir Arnold Clark at his original Park Road branch in Glasgow
314. Fishman (wrestler) – José Ángel Nájera Sánchez, is a retired Mexican luchador or professional wrestler best known under the ring name Fishman. Nájera was retired shortly afterwards. Three of his sons are all luchadors enmascarados known by their ring names Black Fish, El Hijo del Fishman and El Único de Ciudad Juárez. Nájera was born in Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico with his family relocating to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua while he was still very young. It has not been confirmed if González is the mother of three of Nájera's sons that have all followed him into a career in libre. Nájera's sons are as such their birth names are nt revealed per lucha libre traditions. Wearing in what was described as "underwear and old boots" Nájera lost the match. Fishman continued his training for several months before he began working as a full-time luchador. Instead of working as Goliath Reyes Fishman created the masked Titán, complete with a colorful jacket that his mother helped him create. Paired it with the popularity of super heroes such as Batman and Superman Fishman came up with the character "Fishman". Fishman designed a gold-and-black-colored mask with a design, inspired by the shape of a ray wrapped around his face. Fishman's more brutal style, common in Juárez but not so in Mexico City, almost immediately made him a rudo with the fans. Promotional support came on October 3, 1973 where EMLL decided he should won the Mexican National Welterweight Championship defeating El Marquez for the championship. On December 1974 Fishman unmasked a wrestler known as the Durango Kid after beating him in a Luchas de Apuestas match. His run as the Mexican National Welterweight Champion lasted over two-and-a-half year before it was vacated on March 1975.Fishman (wrestler) – Fishman being honored in the ring in 2009
315. Hans Georg Dehmelt – Their technique was used for high precision measurement of the electron magnetic moment. At the age of ten Dehmelt enrolled in the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, a Latin school in Berlin, where he was admitted on a scholarship. After graduating in 1940, he volunteered in the German Army, which ordered him to attend the University of Breslau to study physics in 1943. After a year of study he was captured during the Battle of the Bulge. He received his Ph.D. in 1950, both from the University of Göttingen. He was then invited as a postdoctoral associate emigrating in 1952. Dehmelt became an assistant professor in Seattle, Washington in 1955, an associate professor in 1958, a full professor in 1961. In the 1960s, his students worked on spectroscopy of hydrogen and helium ions. The electron was finally isolated with David Wineland, who continued work on trapped ions at NIST. In 1979 Dehmelt led a team that took the first photo of a single atom. He continued work on ion traps until his retirement in October 2002. In May 2010, he was honoured as one of Washington’s Nobel laureates by Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden at a special event in Seattle. The couple had a son, Gerd. Later Dehmelt married a practising physician. Davisson-Germer Prize in 1970.Hans Georg Dehmelt – 1901–1925
316. Glenn O'Brien – Glenn O'Brien is an American writer, largely on the subjects of art, music and fashion. He has published a book with that title. He has published the arts and literature magazine Bald Ego from 2003-2005. O'Brien was born in Cleveland, Ohio, where he attended the Jesuit St. Ignatius High School. O'Brien edited the Georgetown Journal, founded by Condé Nast. O'Brien later studied film at Columbia Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. In his early years, he was a member of Andy Warhol's Factory. He was the first editor of Interview from 1971 to 1974. After his departure, he returned as editor several times, with a nearly 20-year association with the title. He was a critic for the publication in the punk era, with the influential column "Glenn O'Brien's Beat". In 1980-1981, he wrote the screenplay for a film to be called starring Jean-Michel Basquiat, with post-production managed by O'Brien and Maripol. In the late 1970s, O'Brien coined the now popular title "editor-at-large" after briefly being made Editor-In-Chief of High Times magazine. For 10 years, he wrote a monthly column for ArtForum Magazine. He edited Sex. In January 2008, he was named Editorial Director of Brant Publications, which includes Interview Magazine well as Art in America and Antiques.Glenn O'Brien – Glenn O'Brien
317. Bob Cerv – Robert Henry Cerv is a former American baseball player. Prior to his professional career, he was a collegiate baseball and player at the University of Nebraska. Following the 1956 season, Cerv was sold to the Kansas City Athletics, where he became a regular. He also finished 4th in the MVP voting that year. He did all of this while playing injured part of the season. Cerv also participated in the Home Run Derby, where he defeated Frank Robinson. He followed up with 20 homers and 87 RBIs. In May 1960 Cerv was traded back for Andy Carey. Following the 1960 season, he was drafted in the expansion draft. In May 1961 he was traded back to the Yankees, where he was a substitute and hitter. In June 1962 he was sold to the Houston Colt.45s, who released him in August. In his career Cerv had 105 home runs, including 12 hit homers. He also had a. 276 batting average at bats. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-ReferenceBob Cerv – Bob Cerv
318. David Peel (musician) – His raw, acoustic "rock" with lyrics about marijuana and "bad cops" appealed mostly to hippies. In 1968, Peel was contracted by Elektra Records when he was first recorded two "envelope pushers" for the label. His album Have a Marijuana peaked on the Billboard Charts. Peel was rediscovered by John Lennon in 1971 as the early seventies continued its swing towards the revolution. Lennon befriended Peel when David was playing with his ragtag hippie band in Greenwich Village. Lennon produced The Pope Smokes Dope for Peel. This album since has been sought after by collectors worldwide. In the summer of 1970, Peel performed at Washington Square Park along with Ira Gewirtz. Peel appeared with Lennon in Ann Arbor, Michigan on December, 1971. In 1976 the independent labels Orange Records and Auravox Records released An Evening With David Peel. Mix was finalized by Ron St. Germain at Ultrasonic recording studios in Hempstead, NY. Peel has been associated with the "shock" - performer GG Allin. In the additional studio recordings on the CD, Muruga Booker played his "electric drum" on the comeback hit "Junk Rock". In 2011 David Peel Signed with Global Recording Artists. In 2012 The David Peel Anthology was released.David Peel (musician) – David Peel
319. Don Rickles – Donald Jay "Don" Rickles is an American stand-up comedian, actor and voice actor. Best known as an comic, Rickles is also an actor, playing both comedic and dramatic roles on film. Rickles received widespread exposure with David Letterman. His family spoke Yiddish at home. He grew up in the Jackson Heights area. Rickles was honorably discharged in 1946. Two years later, intending to be a dramatic actor, Rickles then played bit parts on television. Frustrated by a lack of acting work, he began performing stand-up comedy in clubs in New York, Los Angeles. Rickles became known as an comedian when he responded to his hecklers. He incorporated them into his act. When he began his career in the early 1950s, Rickles started calling ill-mannered members of the audience "puck". His style was similar to that of Jack E. Leonard, though Rickles denies Leonard influenced his style. Rickles added, "Make yourself at Frank. Hit somebody!" Sinatra, whose pet name for Rickles was "bullet-head," enjoyed him much that he encouraged other celebrities to see Rickles' act and be insulted by him.Don Rickles – Don Rickles in 1973
320. Arthur Bisguier – Arthur Bernard Bisguier is an American chess Grandmaster, chess promoter, writer. Bisguier has won two U.S. Junior Championships, three U.S. Open Chess Championship titles, the 1954 United States Chess Championship title. Bisguier played in five chess Olympiads. Bisguier also played in two Interzonal tournaments. On March 2005, the United States Chess Federation proclaimed him "Dean of American Chess". He was graduated from the Bronx High School of Science. Bisguier was taught chess by his father, a mathematician. In 1944, aged 15, Bisguier was third at the Bronx Empire Chess Club. In 1946, aged 17, Bisguier came fifth in the U.S. Open followed by seventh place in 1948. Later that year, he took the U.S. Junior Championship and was invited to the New York City 1948–49 International Tournament. As he gained in strength, he was coached by Master Alexander Kevitz. In 1949 he retained the U.S. Junior Championship title, also won the Manhattan Chess Club Championship.Arthur Bisguier – Arthur Bisguier, in 2009 at the National Open, Las Vegas, Nevada
321. Paul O'Neill (rock producer) – Paul O'Neill is an American music composer, lyricist, producer, songwriter. O'Neill quickly graduated to folk guitar gigs at downtown clubs. It was there that he first met engineer Dave Wittman who had the ability to capture on tape the sounds O'Neill was hearing in his head. Paul ended up shelving the project because he was not happy with final results. Specifically, he worked as the personal assistant of manager David Krebs. "I wanted to merge them into a new style," O'Neill says. "We were very fortunate," he says. "It was one of the only labels left that still did an "old school" kind of development." My original concept was; "We were going to do six rock operas, maybe one or two regular albums." However, when Romanov got temporarily put on the back burner, the first installment of the Christmas trilogy, Other Stories became TSO's debut album. Fueled by the socially conscious single "Christmas Eve/Sarajevo 12/24", the album went double platinum. More platinum certifications followed with 1998's the final installment of the Christmas trilogy, The Lost Christmas Eve in 2004. In the midst of completing the trilogy, TSO released the gold certified Beethoven's Last Night. But TSO really cemented its following in concert. I want people to walk out of our shows speechless and...still not believing what they have seen was possible."Paul O'Neill (rock producer) – Paul O'Neill
322. Roy Sievers – Roy Edward Sievers is an American former professional baseball player. Signed by the St. Louis Browns in 1947, Sievers debuted in the major leagues on April 21, 1949. He played as a first baseman/left fielder. From 1949 through 1965, Sievers played for the St. Louis Browns, the original Washington Senators, Chicago White Sox, finally the new Senators. He threw right-handed. Sievers won TSN Rookie of the Year awards in 1949, batting.306 with 16 home runs and 75 RBI. For the next three years he suffered shoulder and arm injuries that limited his playing time to 134 games. He was traded to the Washington Senators before the 1954 season. In Washington, Sievers played at least 144 games during five consecutive years and made the AL All-Star team three times. His most productive season came in 1957, when he led the league in home runs, RBI, total bases, batting.301. He finished third with four first-place votes and 205 points -- Mickey Mantle got six and 233, Ted Williams five and 209. On April 1960, Sievers went to the Chicago White Sox in the same trade that sent Earl Battey and Don Mincher to Washington. From 1962-64, Sievers remained productive with the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League. In the 1964 midseason, his contract was sold to the AL expansion Senators, playing his final game on May 1965. Sievers is the oldest member of the expansion Senators team.Roy Sievers – Roy Sievers in St Louis 1995
323. Yevgeny Yevtushenko – Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko is a Soviet and Russian poet. He is also a novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, publisher, director of several films. He has Russian, German, Ukrainian Belarusian and Tatar roots. His maternal great-grandfather Joseph Baikovsky belonged to szlachta, while his wife was of Ukrainian descent. They were exiled after a rebellion headed by Joseph. One of their daughters - Maria Baikovskaya - married Ermolai Naumovich Yevtushenko, of Belarusian descent. He served as a soldier in the Imperial army and as an officer in the Red Army during the Civil War. His paternal ancestors were Germans who moved to the Russian Empire in 1767. A teacher of Baltic German descent, married Anna Plotnikova of Russian nobility. Both of Yevtushenko's grandfathers were arrested in 1937. Aleksandr Rudolfovich Gangnus, was a geologist, as was Zinaida Ermolaevna Yevtushenko, who later became a singer. The boy accompanied his father on geological expeditions to Kazakhstan in 1948, to Altai, Siberia, in 1950. Young Yevtushenko wrote his first chastushki while living in Zima, Siberia. "His parents were divorced when was 7 and he was raised by his mother." "By age 10 he had cranked out his first poem.Yevgeny Yevtushenko – Yevgeny Yevtushenko in 2009
324. Gilbert Baker (artist) – His grandmother owned a woman's clothing store. He served from 1970 to 1972. He was stationed in San Francisco at the beginning of the gay rights movement. After his honorable discharge from the military, he taught himself to sew. He used his skill to create banners for anti-war protest marches. It was during this time that he became friends with Harvey Milk. Baker has designed displays for Dianne Feinstein, the Premier of China, the presidents of France, Venezuela and the Philippines, many others. He also designed creations for San Francisco Gay Pride. In 1984, he designed flags for the Democratic National Convention. In 1994, Baker moved to New York City, where he now continued his creative work and activism. He created the world's largest flag in celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots that took place in 1969. After the commemoration, he sent sections of this flag around the world. Due to his creation of the flag, Baker has used the drag queen name "Busty Ross". The colors on the Rainbow Flag reflect the diversity of the LGBT community. The design has undergone several revisions to first remove then re-add colors due to widely available fabrics.Gilbert Baker (artist) – The six-colour version of the pride flag is the most commonly used version. The original version from 1978 had two additional stripes — hot pink and turquoise which were removed due to manufacturing needs.
325. William Thaddeus Coleman Jr. – William Thaddeus Coleman Jr. is an American attorney and politician. As an attorney, Coleman and Thurgood Marshall have played a major role in significant civil rights cases. Since the death of Otis Ray Bowen, Coleman is the oldest living former U.S. Cabinet member. Coleman was born to William Thaddeus Coleman Sr. and Laura Beatrice Coleman in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu international honor society in 1941. Coleman is also a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He was the first African American to serve as a Supreme Court law clerk. Coleman was hired by the New York law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison in 1949. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He met off the coast of Cuba. Castro denied any involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy during Coleman's three-hour questioning. Coleman reported the results of his investigation and interview with Castro directly to Chief Justice Earl Warren. In 1969, he was a member of the U.S. delegation to the twenty-fourth session of the United Nations General Assembly. Coleman was also a member of the National Commission on Productivity.William Thaddeus Coleman Jr. – William Coleman
326. James Rosenquist – James Rosenquist is an American artist and one of the protagonists in the pop-art movement. Rosenquist was a 2001 inductee into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame. He grew up as an only child. Louis and Ruth Rosenquist, of Swedish descent, were amateur pilots and moved from town to town to look for work, finally settling in Minneapolis. His mother, also a painter, encouraged her son to have an artistic interest. At the age of 21, he moved to New York City on scholarship to study at the Art Students League. It's also to be harsh on one's self. You just don’t paint colors for the silliness of it all. - James Rosenquist From 1957 to 1960, he earned his living as a billboard painter. This was perfect training, as it turned out, for an artist about to explode onto the pop scene. Rosenquist deftly applied sign-painting techniques to the large-scale paintings he began creating in 1960. Like other pop artists, Rosenquist adapted the visual language of advertising and culture to the context of fine art. Rosenquist achieved international acclaim with the room-scale painting F-111. Rosenquist has said the following in the Pop Art movement: "They called me a Pop artist because I used recognizable imagery. The critics like to group people together.James Rosenquist – Photo of James Rosenquist in his Aripeka, Florida studio, 1988. Photo by Russ Blaise
327. Rosie and the Originals – Rosie and the Originals were an American 1960s group best known for their single, "Angel Baby." Hamlin was born in Klamath Falls, Oregon, to a Mexican mother and an Anglo-American father. She spent part of her childhood between Anchorage, Alaska and California, before her family moved to National City, California. She started singing with a band at thirteen. The studio was owned by an airplane mechanic who had taken part of his hangar to make it. Finally, after taking the master to a store, they convinced a manager to play it in the booth of the store's music department. "Angel Baby" made its radio debut in November 1960, before the group had even received their contract. When the contract finally came, Hamlin found that she was ineligible to collect record royalties from the song because she was not listed as the songwriter. Although Hamlin secured the copyright in 1961, decades of battles over royalties followed. In 1961, "Angel Baby" was also released on London Records. The British release slightly edited the intro. After leaving Highland Records, Hamlin recorded a full-length album with guitarist Noah Tafolla for Brunswick Records and toured with the label's other artists. Hamlin and Tafolla married and had two children together. Their son, Joey Tafolla, is well known Jag Panzer guitarist. In 1963, Hamlin retired from singing to spend time with her family.Rosie and the Originals – Rosie & the Originals
328. Donald Harvey – Donald Harvey is an American serial killer who claims to have murdered 87 people, though official estimates are that he has from 37 to 57 victims. Harvey claimed he started out killing to "ease the pain" of patients. As time progressed, he became a self-described "angel of death". Harvey is currently serving 28 life sentences in Toledo, Ohio having pleaded guilty to murder charges to avoid the death penalty. His number is A199449. It was at this time that marijuana became a very important part of his life. He used the drug into his forties, when he stopped due to his frequent heart palpitations. He later confessed that during the ten-month period he worked at this hospital, he killed at least a dozen patients. Harvey is insistent that he killed out of a sense of empathy for the sufferings of those who were terminally ill. He has also admitted that many of the killings he committed were due to anger at the victim. Harvey is notable for having kept his crimes from coming to light for over 17 years. The true extent of his crimes may never be known since so many were undetected for long. Cyanide and arsenic were his favorite methods, with Harvey administering them via food, IV. The majority of Harvey's crimes took place at the Marymount Hospital in London, Kentucky, the Cincinnati V.A. Medical Hospital, Cincinnati's Drake Memorial Hospital.Donald Harvey – Mug shot of Donald Harvey
329. Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov – Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov is a Soviet, Russian and American theoretical physicist whose main contributions are in the field of condensed matter physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2003. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1948. From 1965 to 1988, he worked at the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics. He has been a professor at Moscow State University since 1965. He served as a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1987 to 1991. In 1991, he became a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In two works in 1952 and 1957, Abrikosov explained how magnetic flux can penetrate a class of superconductors. This class of materials is known as type-II superconductors. The accompanying arrangement of magnetic flux lines is called the Abrikosov vortex lattice. Since 1991, he has been working at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. Abrikosov is an Argonne Distinguished Scientist at the Condensed Matter Theory Group in Argonne’s Materials Science Division. Abrikosov was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1966, the Fritz London Memorial Prize in 1972, the USSR State Prize in 1982. In 1989 he received the Landau Prize from the Academy of Sciences, Russia. Two years later, in 1991, Abrikosov was awarded the Sony Corporation’s John Bardeen Award.Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov – Alexei Abrikosov
330. Roger Wilkins – Roger Wilkins is an African-American civil rights leader, professor of history, journalist. Wilkins grew up in Michigan. He was educated at Crispus Attucks Elementary School in Kansas City, then Creston High School in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He left the Post in 1974 to work for the New York Times, followed five years later by a brief stay at the now-defunct Washington Star. In 1980 he became a radio commentator, work he still does today for National Public Radio. Wilkins was American Culture at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia until his retirement in 2007. During his tenure at George Mason, Wilkins arguably, one of the most preeminent professors in residence at that time. Wilkins is the nephew of Roy Wilkins, a past executive director of the NAACP. Wilkins is married to Patricia King, Professor of Law at Georgetown University. A Man's Life: An Autobiography. 1982, reprinted 1991. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22673-8. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. Edited by Wilkins and Fred Harris.Roger Wilkins – Roger Wilkins speaking at a US Department of Justice meeting.
331. Julian Stanczak – Julian Stanczak is an American painter and printmaker of Polish origin. The artist works in Seven Hills, Ohio with his wife, Barbara Stanczak, an accomplished sculptor. Julian Stanczak was born in 1928. At the beginning of World War II, Stanczak was forced into a Siberian camp, where he permanently lost the use of his right arm. He had been right-handed. In 1942, aged thirteen, Stanczak escaped from Siberia to join the Polish army-in-exile in Persia. After deserting from the army, he spent his teenage years in Uganda. In Africa, Stanczak learned to paint left-handed. He then spend some years in London, before moving in 1950. He settled in Cleveland, Ohio. In 2007, Stanczak was interviewed by Brian Sherwin for Myartspace. During the interview Stanczak recalled his experiences with the loss of his right arm and how both influenced his art. Stanczak explained, "The transition from using my left hand as main hand, was very difficult. In the search for Art, you have to separate what is logical. I did not want to be bombarded daily by the past, - I looked through non-referential, abstract art."Julian Stanczak – Artists
332. Trial – One form of tribunal is a court. The tribunal, which may occur before a judge, other designated trier of fact, aims to achieve a resolution to their dispute. Where the trial is held before a group of members of the community, it is called a trial. Where the trial is held solely before a judge, it is called a trial. Hearings before administrative bodies are typically not referred to as trials. Trials can also be divided at issue. A criminal trial is designed to resolve accusations brought against a person accused of a crime. In common law systems, most criminal defendants are entitled to a trial held before a jury. The rules of criminal procedure provide rules for criminal trials. A civil trial is generally held to settle civil claims -- non-criminal disputes. In some countries, the government can both be sued in a civil capacity. The rules of civil procedure provide rules for civil trials. Although administrative hearings are not ordinarily considered trials, they retain many elements found in more "formal" trial settings. When the dispute goes to judicial setting, it is called an administrative trial, to revise the administrative hearing, depending on the jurisdiction. The types of disputes handled in these hearings is governed by the civil trial law.Trial – Trial of Jean II, Duke of Alençon, October 1458.
333. Sam Rainsy – Sam Rainsy is a Cambodian politician who most recently served as the Minority Leader. Rainsy was a Member of Parliament for Kampong Cham from 1998 until his removal in 2015. Rainsy was previously the MP for Siem Reap until 1995 when he was expelled from the National Assembly. From 2000 to 2002 and again from 2012 to 2014, he was the chairperson of the Council of Asian Democrats. He faced criminal defamation charges after accusing the Cambodian People's Party and Funcinpec of corruption in the formation of the current coalition government. Rainsy has also accused Prime Minister Hun Sen of involvement in the 2004 murder of SRP-affiliated leader Chea Vichea. In September 2010, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for charges widely believed to be politically motivated. In 2012, the Sam Rainsy Party merged with the Human Rights Party to form the Cambodia National Rescue Party. Following his resignation from the Sam Rainsy Party to lead the newly formed party, Kong Korm succeeded him as party leader in November 2012. He returned to Cambodia on July 2013 where thousands of his supporters waited along the roads. The opposition boycotted parliament in September 2013, until July 2014. Sam Rainsy was born in Phnom Penh on March 1949. Rainsy moved to France in 1965, then worked as an investment manager and executive director in a variety of Parisian financial companies. Rainsy was expelled from the party after losing a vote of no-confidence in 1994. In 1995, Rainsy founded the Khmer Nation Party, which changed its name to the Sam Rainsy Party to avoid registration issues.Sam Rainsy – Sam Rainsy សម រង្ស៊ី MP
334. Zhou Yongkang – Zhou Yongkang is a retired senior leader of the Communist Party of China. He was a State Councilor of the State Council from 2003 to 2008 and also a member of the Party Secretariat of the Central Committee. Zhou served from 2002 -- 07, before being promoted to the PSC. He retired in 2012. In late 2013, Zhou was placed for alleged abuse of power and corruption, a decision state media announced in July 2014. Following his investigation, he was expelled from the Communist Party of China. On June 2015, he was convicted of bribery, abuse of power and the intentional disclosure of state secrets by the Intermediate Court in Tianjin. His family members were said to have taken 129 million yuan in bribes. Zhou was sentenced to life in prison. Born Zhou Yuangen in December 1942, he is a native in Jiangsu province. Xiqiantou is located 18 kilometers outside Wuxi city proper. The majority of Xiqiantou residents were surnamed "Zhou". He took on the surname of his mother because his father, whose surname was Lu, was a ` live-in son-in-law' of his maternal grandparents. Upon joining the Zhou household when he married, Zhou Yongkang's father became known as Zhou Yisheng. He was the eldest of three sons.Zhou Yongkang – Zhou Yongkang
335. Guo Boxiong – Guo Boxiong was a retired general of the People's Liberation Army of China. He served between 2002 and 2012. During the same period he also held a seat in the Politburo of the Communist Party of China's top decision-making body. He was expelled from the Communist Party on 30 July 2015. On July 2016, he was sentenced to life imprisonment for bribery. Guo was born in Shaanxi province. In August 1958, Guo, aged just finished middle school, began working at a military factory in Xingping, Shaanxi province. Guo joined the People's Liberation Army in 1961. Two years later, he joined the Communist Party of China. Guo was trained at the Xi'an Army Academy in People's Liberation Army Military Academy where he graduated. Guo earned a series of promotions in the 1970s. In the 55th Division of the 19th Army, Guo rose from a soldier by 1982. Afterwards Guo became commander of the 47th Group Army for three years. In 1993 Guo became deputy commander of the heart of China's defense establishment, in 1997 commander of the Lanzhou Military Region. In September 1999, Guo was also promoted to the rank of General.Guo Boxiong – General Guo Boxiong
336. Geert Wilders – Geert Wilders is a Dutch politician, the founder and leader of the Party for Freedom. Wilders is the parliamentary group leader of his party in the Dutch House of Representatives. Raised a Roman Catholic, Wilders left the church at his coming of age. His travels to Israel as a young adult, well as to Arab countries, helped form his political views. He was elected to the Utrecht city council in 1996, later to the House of Representatives. Wilders has campaigned to stop what he views as the "Islamisation of the Netherlands". He has compared the Quran to Mein Kampf and has campaigned to have the book banned in the Netherlands. He advocates ending immigration from Muslim countries, supports banning the construction of new mosques. His controversial 2008 film about his views on Islam, Fitna, received international attention. He has been described in the media as populist and labeled far-right, although this is disputed by other observers. Wilders was born in the city of Venlo, in the southeast Netherlands. He is the youngest of four children, was raised Catholic. He was born to a Dutch father and a mother born in colonial Indonesia, whose ancestors were Dutch Indonesian. Wilders received his secondary education at the Mavo and Havo middle school and high school in Venlo. Wilders' goal after he graduated from secondary school was to see the world.Geert Wilders – Wilders delivering a speech in 2010
337. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – She was the country's second female president, the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. Arroyo is also the first duly elected female Vice President of the Philippines. Arroyo was a former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University where Benigno Aquino III was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, was sworn in on June 30, 2004. On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage. But released on bail in July 2012. She was rearrested while in the hospital on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds in October 2012. On July 19, 2016, she was acquitted by the Supreme Court by a voting of 11-4. She is a member of the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language. She was born as Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo Macapagal Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga, with her two older siblings from her father's first marriage. At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City.Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
338. Nur Misuari – Nur Misuari is a Moro revolutionary and politician, founder and leader of the Moro National Liberation Front. Nur Misuari was born on March 3, 1939 in Tapul, Sulu, Philippines. The fourth of his parents came from Kabinga-an, Tapul Island. His father was Saliddain Misuari, who worked as a fisherman, his mother was Dindanghail Pining. Misuari's father moved their family from Tapul to Jolo, Sulu when he was still young. Misuari studied from 1955 to 1958. Misuari's family experienced financial difficulties and could not afford to send him to college. Misuari initially took up a degree in liberal arts, intending to pursue medicine. He became active in many of the university's extra-curricular activities, particularly in debate. He finished his master's degree in Asian studies in 1964 at the Asian Center of the University of the Philippines. In 1964, Misuari founded a radical student group called the Bagong Asya. Together with Jose Maria Sison, he also founded the Kabataan Makabayan. Until 2016, Misuari had five wives, his first wife was Desdemona Tan, who died of illness in Islamabad, Pakistan. The elder sister of the deceased Desdemona, Eleonora Tan then became his second wife. His fourth wives are Maimona Palalisan.Nur Misuari – Nur Misuari in 2009.
339. Liviu Dragnea – Liviu Nicolae Dragnea is a Romanian engineer and politician. He graduated in 1987. Dragnea's political career began in 1996, when he was elected a councilor in Turnu Măgurele. In 2000, he became president of the Teleorman County Council, being re-elected in 2004, 2012. He is a member of the party's Teleorman County chapter. In 2006, he led the PSD's campaign at the 2007 European Parliament election. Following the resignation of Gabriel Oprea, Dragnea was named Interior Minister. He announced his priorities as being the safety of children in the safety of citizens on the street, decentralisation and administrative reform. He resigned, citing a lack of resources and funds to implement his plans. Also, his brief tenure was rocked by an arms theft from a depot in Ciorogârla. He became general of the PSD in July 2009. At the December 2012 parliamentary election, Dragnea won a seat with 71.5 % of the vote. Simultaneously, he left the county leadership. In early 2013, he left the party general position, soon becoming executive president. Following a reshuffle in December 2014, he lost the deputy premiership but retained the Regional Development portfolio.Liviu Dragnea – Dragnea at a Social Democratic Youth meeting in Otopeni, September 2009
340. Lionel Messi – Lionel Andrés "Leo" Messi is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club FC Barcelona and captains the Argentina national team. With Barcelona Messi has won four UEFA Champions League titles, as well as four Copas del Rey. Messi has scored over 500 senior career goals for country. Raised in central Argentina, he was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency as a child. At age 13, Messi relocated to Spain to join Barcelona, who agreed to pay for his medical treatment. After a fast progression through Barcelona's academy, he made his competitive debut aged 17 in October 2004. His uninterrupted campaign came in the 2008 -- 09 season, during which he helped Barcelona achieve the first treble in Spanish football. At 22 years old, he won FIFA World Player of the Year award by record voting margins. Three successful seasons followed, including an unprecedented fourth. Messi again struggled during the following two seasons twice finishing second for the Ballon d'Or behind Cristiano Ronaldo, his perceived career rival. Messi is his country's all-time leading goalscorer. His style of play as a left-footed dribbler drew comparisons with compatriot Diego Maradona, who declared the teenager his successor. Messi was then convicted of fraud committed from 2007 to 2009, for which he received a fine and a suspended prison sentence. A lifelong supporter of Newell's Old Boys, he joined the Rosario club when he was six years old. However, his future as a professional player was threatened when, at age 10, he was diagnosed with a growth deficiency.Lionel Messi – Messi with Barcelona during the UEFA Super Cup in August 2015
341. Ched Evans – Chedwyn Michael "Ched" Evans is a Welsh footballer who plays as a striker for League One club Chesterfield. Born in Rhyl, Denbighshire, Evans was signed by Manchester City from Chester City's youth set up in 2002 and he subsequently progressed through the ranks. Evans was loaned to Norwich City in 2007, where he scored 10 goals in 28 league appearances, before returning to his parent club. With first team opportunities at City limited he was subsequently sold to Sheffield United for £3 million in 2009. After an unspectacular first two seasons at Bramall Lane he scored 35 goals during the 2011–12 season. Evans was wrongly convicted of rape in April 2012 and spent two and a half years in prison. His conviction was quashed on 21 April 2016 by the Court of Appeal, a retrial was ordered. On 14 Evans was found not guilty. Prior to the retrial, he joined Chesterfield. In May 2007, Evans signed his first professional contract with Manchester City. In September 2007 Evans came off the bench to make his senior debut in City’s 1–0 League Cup victory against Norwich City. With first choice opportunities at City limited Evans moved on loan to Norwich City in November of that year, agreeing a deal until 1 January 2008. He made his debut for Norwich the following week when he came on as a substitute in the 3–1 victory over Blackpool. Evans returned to Manchester City after his initial loan deal expired in January 2008, having made eight appearances and scored two goals. Then Manchester City manager Sven-Göran Eriksson stated that he would not be leaving the summer window.Ched Evans – Evans before a Wales under-21 game
342. Bob McDonnell – Robert Francis "Bob" McDonnell is an American Republican politician, the 71st Governor of Virginia. McDonnell also served on the executive committee of the Republican Governors Association. McDonnell was a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army Reserve. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1992 to 2006, was Attorney General of Virginia from 2006 to 2009. McDonnell was elected Governor of Virginia after using the campaign slogan "Bob's for Jobs." McDonnell succeeded Democrat Tim Kaine, term-limited by Virginia law. After taking office as governor, McDonnell advocated privatization and promoted offshore drilling for Virginia. McDonnell's governorship ended with a 55% to 32% approval to disapproval rating among registered voters. On January 2014, Maureen, were indicted for receiving improper gifts and loans from a Virginia businessman. They were convicted on most counts by a federal jury on September 4, 2014. However, he was free on bond during the subsequent appeals process. On June 27, 2016, the United States Supreme Court unanimously vacated McDonnell's conviction and remanded the case back to a lower court. McDonnell was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Emma B. Meta and Lt. Col. John Francis McDonnell USAF Ret.. His paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, his maternal grandparents were from Alsace-Lorraine in what was then the German Empire.Bob McDonnell – McDonnell in February 2010
343. Yang Weize – Yang Weize is a former Chinese politician. He was the Communist Party Secretary of capital of Jiangsu Province, from 2011 to 2015. Prior to that, he served in the neighbouring city of Wuxi for seven years, before that the Mayor of Suzhou. Yang was an alternate member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Yang was born in Jiangsu province in August 1962. He traces his ancestry to the Changzhou area. His father was a administrator in the city of Nantong. Yang went at the Nanjing Marine Engineering Institute where he studied marine and seaport engineering. He began working in the Jiangsu provincial department in August 1981. In 1998, he became the provincial director of transportation. He was transferred to become Deputy Party Secretary of Suzhou, later Mayor. In 2004, Yang became the chief of Wuxi, becoming first-in-charge of the southern Jiangsu city. At age 44, he had earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee. Yang was said to have received praise from Zhou in controlling the razing of local residential neighbourhoods near Zhou's hometown. In 2011, he became the Party Secretary of the provincial Nanjing.Yang Weize – Yang Weize 杨卫泽
344. Mukhtar Ablyazov – Mukhtar Ablyazov is a Kazakh dissident, politician, economist, businessman, banker. He is the leader of a political party which directly opposes the authoritarian rule of Nursultan Nazarbayev. He is also the author of Ablyazov against Nazarbayev. Ablyazov is currently fighting extradition from France to Russia. In Russia, Ablyazov faces ill-treatment and unfair trial. In 1986, Ablyazov graduated from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. There he earned a degree in theoretical physics. After graduation he worked as a junior researcher at the Kazakh National University. In 1987, Ablyazov married Shalabayeva Alma. In 1990, Ablyazov was enrolled in postgraduate studies in the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. For that reason, he was fired from his role as a junior researcher at the Kazakh National University. Ablyazov started working during the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of Kazakhstan's Independence. His first job was the buying and selling of computers and copying machines. In 1991, Ablyazov called "Madina,", the name of his first daughter. In 1992, Ablyazov started his business by supplying all the regions of Kazakhstan with products such as sugar, flower, matches, tea, medicine.Mukhtar Ablyazov – Logo of BTA Bank
345. Leila de Lima – Leila Norma Eulalia Josefa Magistrado de Lima is a Filipino lawyer, human rights activist and politician. De Lima eventually will serve as a Philippine senator in the Philippines' 17th Congress. De Lima is the eldest daughter of Norma Magistrado. De Lima was raised in Iriga of the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. Julie de Lima, married Communist Party of the Philippines founder Jose Maria Sison, making him Leila de Lima's uncle by marriage. She completed her basic education at the La Consolacion Academy, where she graduated as Valedictorian. De Lima graduated in 1980 with an AB History degree. De Lima finished her Bachelor of Laws degree in 1985. She began her legal career to Supreme Court associate justice Isagani Cruz from 1986 to 1989. De Lima joined the Jardeleza Sobreviñas Diaz Hayudini and Bodegon Law Offices in 1989 where she served as a junior associate. De Lima worked from 1991 to 1993. She joined the Philippine government as a clerk and secretary of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. De Lima resigned in 1995 to return to private practice. De Lima then joined Roco, Buñag, Kapunan and Migallos firm as its Junior Partner. De Lima was also a professor of law at the San Beda College of Law during her private practice.Leila de Lima – Leila de Lima
346. Rodrigo Duterte – Duterte is the fourth of Visayan descent. At 71 years old, he is the oldest person to assume superseding Sergio Osmeña and Fidel Ramos, respectively. He was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms totaling more than 22 years in office. Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug criminals. He denied any involvement in the said vigilante groups. He has said he personally killed while as Davao Mayor in 1988. His domestic policy has focused on combating illegal trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War. His administration has also vowed to pursue an "foreign policy" that would reject any meddling by foreign governments. He was born on March 1945, in Maasin. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Xiamen, Fujian. Duterte's father was acting mayor of Danao, Cebu and subsequently the provincial governor of Davao province. Rodrigo's cousin Ronald, on the other hand, served from 1983 to 1986. Ramon Duterte, also held the position from 1957 to 1959. The Dutertes consider the Almendras clan as relatives. He also has relatives through his mother's side.Rodrigo Duterte – Rodrigo R. Duterte
347. Elena Udrea – Elena Gabriela Udrea is a Romanian politician. A member of the People's Movement Party, she was a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies from 2008 to 2016. In successive Emil Boc cabinets, she served as Tourism Minister from 2008 from 2009 to 2012. Udrea was completed secondary studies at the city's Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu National College. She then attended the faculty of Law and Public Administration at Bucharest's Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, graduating in 1996. In 2005, Udrea began studies at the Carol I National Defence University, receiving a master's degree in Military Science in 2007. She abandoned the endeavor in 2012. Udrea worked as a lawyer in Bucharest to February 2005 resuming the practice of law that December. At Dimitrie Cantemir, she has authored or co-authored five works on geopolitics and globalisation. Udrea began her political activity as a legal adviser to the Social Democratic Party. She joined that year becoming a Bucharest city councillor in June 2004, during the period of the Justice and Truth Alliance. She during that time was president of the council's committee on law and discipline. In October 2005 she resigned from the PNL, joining the Democratic Party in February 2006. In December, she was elected the party's executive secretary, becoming a vice-president of a year later. In these capacities, she spoke approvingly of the president, for instance ahead of the 2008 local election.Elena Udrea – Udrea at the 2013 PD-L convention
348. Gheorghe Nichita – Gheorghe Nichita is a Romanian politician, who has served as the mayor of Iaşi since 2003, suspended over allegations of corruption. A member of Nichita is the national vice-president of the party, the leader of the party's county organization. In 1995-2000, Nichita was a member of the Democratic Party. In 2000-2003, he was also a member of the city council. Nichita made two unsuccessful runs in 1996, 2000. In 2004, he was then re-elected in 2008 and 2012. A court ruled he would be investigated under judicial control, meaning he is banned from leaving the city and has to report to police. On 9 Gheorghe Nichita had been placed under house arrest. Gheorghe Nichita is suspected that he abused his position by using local police officers on rivals and his girlfriend. Three local police officers were also detained. Prosecutors said Nichita abusively obtained confidential information, using police and hall employees, for personal gain. On 22 Nichita was suspended from his job as mayor of the city. Gheorghe Nichita's blog Gheorghe Nichita va fi primar interimar al Iasului Gheorghe Nichita, în an electoral: 70.000 RON, în depozite, şi o maşină nou-nouţă, în garajGheorghe Nichita – Nichita in 2014
349. Marian Vanghelie – Following his electoral victory, he was re-accepted in PSD, although his PNA files were not closed. Vanghelie's return into the Social Democratic party brought up to two the number of district mayoral seats the PSD held to in Bucharest. Best described as a populist, Vanghelie started his political career in the year 2000, when he was elected mayor in the same sector. Although he was not particularly well-known, Vanghelie made a name through his populism. He promotes himself as a tell-it-like-it-is, if not particularly well-educated everyman, out to help the simple people. His wife Charlotte have a son, Alexandru. He has Paul. His father, Jewish, emigrated to Israel, where he is a businessman. Povestea lui Vanghelie, un primar de nota 5Marian Vanghelie – Vanghelie speaking to a Social Democratic Youth audience in Otopeni, September 2009
350. Alexei Navalny – Alexei Anatolievich Navalny is a Russian lawyer, political and financial activist, politician. Since 2009, he has gained prominence in Russia, in the Russian and international media, of Russian President Vladimir Putin. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal described him as "the man Vladimir Putin fears most". Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member and the leader of the political party Progress Party, formerly People's Alliance. In September 2013, he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came with 27 % of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee. Navalny came to prominence via his blog, hosted on the website LiveJournal, which remains his primary method of communicating with the public. In July 2013, he was sentenced to five years in a corrective labor colony. Russia's Memorial Human Rights Center recognized Navalny as a political prisoner. Navalny was released after sentencing. The fine was suspended in October 2013. Navalny is of Ukrainian descent. His father Anatoliy Navalny is from Zalissia, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Navalny spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine. Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia with a law degree.Alexei Navalny – Alexei Navalny in 2012
351. Rolf Harris – Rolf Harris is an Australian entertainer whose career has encompassed work as a musician, singer-songwriter, composer, comedian, actor, painter and television personality. During the 1970s, he became a popular personality in the UK, later presenting shows such as Rolf's Cartoon Club and Animal Hospital. In 2005, he painted an official portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. He lived in Bray, Berkshire, England, for more than six decades. Harris's career as a popular entertainer was ended by his conviction and imprisonment for sexual offences. As a result, he was stripped of many of the honours he had been awarded during his career, including the OA and CBE. Since 2014, he has been serving a sentence of nine months, at HMP Stafford. Harris was born on 30 March 1930 in Bassendean, Perth, Western Australia, to Agnes Margaret and Cromwell Harris, who had both emigrated from Cardiff, Wales. He grew up in Wembley, Western Australia. He was named after Rolf Boldrewood, the pseudonym of an Australian writer whom his mother admired. After his later fame, Harris was often referred to as "the boy from Bassendean" within Australia. As a child he owned a dog called Buster Fleabags, about whom he later wrote a book. He painted a portrait of the then Lieutenant Governor of Western Australia, Sir James Mitchell, for the 1948 Archibald Prize. He won the 1949 Claude Hotchin prize for oil colours with his landscape "On a May Morning, Guildford". As an young adult he was a swimmer.Rolf Harris – Harris in November 2010
352. International Criminal Court – The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, war crimes. The ICC began functioning on 1 the date that the Rome Statute entered into force. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as governing document. States which become party for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC. Currently, there are 124 states which are party to the Rome Statute and therefore members of the ICC. However, Burundi, Gambia have given formal notice that they will withdraw from the Rome Statute. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Registry. The President is the most senior judge chosen by her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and proceedings before the Judicial Division. The Office of the Prosecutor is also conducting an additional nine preliminary examinations. None ratified it and the convention never entered into force. Following the Second World War, the allied powers established two hoc tribunals to prosecute axis power leaders accused of war crimes. The International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. Benjamin B.International Criminal Court – The current headquarters of the ICC in The Hague
353. Laurent Gbagbo – Laurent Gbagbo was the President of Côte d'Ivoire from 2000 until his arrest in April 2011. Gbagbo ran unsuccessfully for President against Félix Houphouët-Boigny at the start of multi-party politics in 1990. He also won a seat in 1990. Gbagbo claimed victory after head of a military junta, barred other leading politicians from running in the October 2000 presidential election. The Ivorian people took to the streets, toppling Guéï. Gbagbo was then installed as President. Following the 2010 presidential election, Gbagbo challenged the count, alleging fraud. He called from nine of the country's regions. After a short period of civil conflict, Gbagbo was arrested by backers of Alassane Ouattara, supported by French Forces of "Operation Unicorn". In November 2011, he was extradited to the International Criminal Court, becoming the first head of state to be taken into the court's custody. Laurent Gbagbo was born on 31 May 1945 in the village near Gagnoa in the then French West Africa. He became an opponent of the regime of President Félix Houphouët-Boigny. He was imprisoned from 31 March 1971 to January 1973. In 1979, he obtained his doctorate at Paris Diderot University. In 1980, he became Director of the Institute of History, African Archeology at the University of Abidjan.Laurent Gbagbo – Laurent Gbagbo
354. ICTY – The tribunal is an hoc court, located in The Hague, Netherlands. The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, passed on 25 May 1993. The maximum sentence it can impose is imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. Goran Hadžić, was arrested on 20 July 2011. Any appeal proceedings initiated since 1 July 2013 have been for International Criminal Tribunals. The Court was originally proposed by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. In 1993, the ICTY built its internal infrastructure. 17 states have signed an agreement with the ICTY to carry out custodial sentences. 1993-94: In the first year of its existence, the Tribunal laid the foundations for its existence as a judicial organ. Together these rules established a legal system for the Tribunal. However after the first year the first ICTY judges had adopted all the rules for court proceedings. 1994-95: The ICTY established its offices within the Aegon Insurance Building in The Hague and detention facilities in Scheveningen in The Hague. The ICTY hired now many staff members.ICTY – Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, including the proposed Statute of the International Tribunal, approved by UN Security Council Resolution 827.
355. Wu Changshun – Wu Changshun is the former police chief of the municipality of Tianjin, China. He has 35 patents and utility models to his credit. He was the chief of the police force for some eleven years. He was placed under investigation by the Communist Party's anti-corruption agency. Wu was expelled from the party in February 2015. Wu was born into a farming family in rural Tianjin, his father worked on a farming cooperative, while his mother was a homemaker. Wu was the second of five children. Wu spent his childhood at the Wu courtyard where he lived with his extended family. As a child, he enjoyed playing football. He attended No. 28 Middle School in Tianjin, where he completed middle school in 1970. Thereafter, Wu joined the Tianjin police force as a trainee at the age 16. Wu joined the Communist Party of China in September 1973. In September 1998 Wu was appointed as the Deputy Party Secretary of Tianjin Public Security Bureau. In February 2003, 32 years after he joined the force, Wu became the chief commissioner of Tianjin. Wu would serve in the role of the city's top cop for over ten years.Wu Changshun – Traffic lights found in Tianjin, patented by Wu Changshun
356. Mohamed Morsi – He was the first democratically elected head of state in Egyptian history. The constitutional declaration was called for an act that his opponents called an "Islamist coup". These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, brought millions of protesters to the streets in the 2012 Egyptian protests. On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation. The military suspended the constitution and established a new administration headed by the chief justice. His death sentence was overturned, so he will receive a retrial. His father was a housewife. Morsi told journalists that he remembers being taken on the back of a donkey. In the late 1960s, Morsi earned a BA with high honors in 1975. Morsi fulfilled his military service from 1975 to 1976 serving in the chemical unit. Morsi then earned an MS in 1978. Morsi then earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. While living in the United States, Morsi became an Asst.Prof. At the California State University, Northridge from 1982 to 1985. An expert on metal surfaces, also worked for NASA in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines.Mohamed Morsi – Mohamed Morsi محمد مرسى
357. Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar, is an Estonian politician, one of the founding members of Popular Front of Estonia and the Centre Party. He has served as the acting Prime Minister of Estonia, Minister of the Interior, Communications and Mayor of Tallinn. He was born into a rural family of Elmar and Marie Savisaar residing in Vastse-Kuuste. In 1949 his parents wanted to leave the local kolkhoz with their livestock, this resulted in a physical conflict. Both were arrested on charges of seizing public property, an assault. Elmar Savisaar was sentenced Marie Savisaar 5 years in prison. Marie Savisaar gave birth while serving the sentence. It has been theorized that Elmar Savisaar is not his biological father. They returned to Vastse-Kuuse. After graduating from high school, Savisaar continued his studies at the University of Tartu. In 1973, he graduated with a degree in history. In 1980, he wrote his candidate thesis on the topic "Social Philosophical Foundations of the Global Models of the Club of Rome". From 1980 to 1988, Savisaar worked in the Soviet governmental institutions dealing with the planning of economy. During 1988 -- 1989, he was the academic director for the company "Mainor". In April he co-established the Popular Front which became the first political mass organization after 1920.Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar
358. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi is a former Libyan political figure. He is the second son of late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and his second wife Safia Farkash. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD from London School of Economics. He was a part of his father's inner circle, performing public relations and diplomatic roles on behalf of his father. He publicly turned down his father's offer of the country's second highest post and held no official government position. He remained in the custody of the de facto independent authorities of Zintan. In July 2016 it was reported that he had been released. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering science from Tripoli's Al Fateh University in 1994. However, there is another report stating that he is an architect. He earned an MBA from Vienna's IMADEC business school in 2000. He presented a thesis on "The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions: from'soft power' to collective decision-making?" Professor Joseph Nye of Harvard University is also thanked for having read portions of the manuscript and providing advice and direction. Speaking in Sabha on 20 August 2008, Gaddafi said that he would no longer involve himself in state affairs. He noted that he had previously "intervene due to the absence of institutions", but said that he would no longer do so. He dismissed any potential suggestion that this decision was due to disagreement with his father, saying that they were on good terms.Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in a military aircraft in Zintan after he had been captured by Libyan soldiers.
359. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is a militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges. He was named as "the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks" in the 9/11 Commission Report. According to the prosecution, Sheikh Mohammed was a member of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization, leading al-Qaeda's propaganda operations from around 1999 until late 2001. By December 2006 he had been transferred to military custody at Guantanamo Bay detention camp. In 2012, a former military prosecutor criticized the proceedings as insupportable due to confessions gained under torture. A revised Military Commissions Act was passed by Congress in 2009 to address court concerns. Sheikh Mohammed has used at least fifty aliases. According to official records, Sheikh Mohammed was born on 14 April 1965 in Balochistan, Pakistan. Some sources indicate his place of birth as Kuwait. It is believed that he belongs to the Baloch ethnic group and is fluent in Balochi, Urdu, Arabic, English. He grew up and spent his formative years in Kuwait, as did his nephew Ramzi Yousef. According to U.S. federal documents, in 1982 he had heard Abdul Rasul Sayyaf's speech in which a call for jihad against the Soviets was declared. At age sixteen, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood. After graduating from high school in 1983, Mohammad travelled to the United States and enrolled in Chowan University in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. He later transferred to North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University and received a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering in 1986.Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Shaikh Mohammed photographed by the Red Cross while in captivity in Guantanamo, July 2009
360. Graham Spanier – He is currently president emeritus, professor of human development and family studies; sociology, demography, family; and community medicine. Spanier had a post-presidential sabbatical leave following his resignation as president of Penn State in November 2011. As of October 2014, Spanier is also under indictment in Pennsylvania in connection with the scandal. His father had previously escaped Nazi Germany in 1936; much of his father's extended family perished during the Holocaust. The family moved on the south side of Chicago living there until 1956. Spanier's father worked in a nuts, screws warehouse loading and unloading trucks; his mother worked in a clerical position. The family moved to the suburb of Highland Park, where Spanier graduated in 1966. His father retired from that position in 1975. He has revealed that his father was physically violent with all three of his children. His Anita told The New York Times that Graham received the most violent beatings, leaving him with lifelong complications. "I've had to have four operations to correct serious deformities inside my head from beatings my father gave me," he said. “They had to rebuild me from the inside out.” Spanier was president of a Junior Achievement company that produced a weekly show called "Variety" targeted to Chicago-area youth. Along with Brian Ross, Spanier co-founded a radio service that covered the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Spanier attended Iowa State University, where he continued his education to earn a master's degree.Graham Spanier – Graham Spanier
361. Bill Cosby – William Henry "Bill" Cosby, Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, actor, author. He was also a regular on the children's series The Electric Company during the show's first two seasons. Throughout the 1970s, he occasionally returned to film later in his career. After attending Temple University in the 1960s, he received his bachelor's degree there in 1971. In 1976 he earned his Doctor of Education degree, also from UMass. His dissertation discussed the use of the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools. The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an African-American family. Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations since about 2000. He has denied the allegations. Most of the acts alleged by his accusers fall outside the statutes of limitations for legal proceedings. He has been charged with three felony counts of aggravated indecent assault in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. He was released on $1 million bail. Cosby is scheduled to go on or before June 5, 2017. Cosby was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is one of four sons of Anna Pearl, William Henry Cosby Sr. who served as a mess steward in the U.S. Navy.Bill Cosby – Cosby before receiving the U.S. Navy Lone Sailor Award at the National Building Museum, Washington, D.C. in 2010
362. List of ongoing armed conflicts – The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence. This list of armed conflicts is for the sole purpose of identifying present-day conflicts and the death toll associated with each conflict. The guidelines of inclusion are: Armed conflicts consist in the use of armed force between governmental or non-governmental alike. Interstate, non-state armed conflicts are listed. For violence against protesters not escalating into armed conflict, see List of ongoing protests. Fatality figures include battle-related deaths well as civilians intentionally targeted by the parties to an armed conflict. Listed conflicts are at least 1 death in current or past calendar year. Fatality totals may be unavailable due to a lack of information. A figure with a plus sign indicates that at least that many people have died – the actual toll could be higher. Location refers to the state where the main violence takes place, not to the warring parties. Italics indicate unrecognized states. Only states with military activity are listed, past states and states where conflicts are no longer active are omitted. Conflicts in the following list have caused year. Conflicts in the following list have caused year. Conflicts causing at least 1,000 deaths in one year are considered wars by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.List of ongoing armed conflicts – Major wars, 10,000+ deaths in current or past year
363. Boko Haram insurgency – The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. By 2015, Shekau's faction became ISIL's West Africa branch. In 2013, over 1,000 people died as a result of the conflict. The violence escalated dramatically with 10,849 deaths. In 2014, the insurgency spread to neighboring Cameroon, Chad, Niger thus becoming a regional conflict. In 2015, a offensive forced Boko Haram to retreat into the Sambisa Forest. The insurgency took place between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities. Boko Haram has been called the world's deadliest terrorist group, in terms of the number of people it has killed. Sir Frederick Lugard, assumed office in 1912. The aftermath of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of, Cameroon, to French, British mandates. Cameroon was divided in British parts, the latter of, further subdivided into southern and northern parts. A large part of the areas affected by the insurgency. Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as back as 1953. This was a major factor in the resulting civil war. After Maitatsine's death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more.Boko Haram insurgency
364. Kivu conflict – The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo also became involved in the conflict. Until March 2009, the main group against the FARDC was the rebel Tutsi forces formerly under the command of Laurent Nkunda. CNDP is sympathetic to the Tutsi-dominated government of Rwanda. It was opposed by the FDLR, by United Nations forces. Laurent Nkunda was an officer in the Second Congo War. He soon retreated with some of RCD-Goma troops to the Masisi forests in Nord Kivu. The organisation Global Witness says that Western companies sourcing minerals are buying them from traders who finance government troops. Minerals, such as cassiterite, coltan, used for electronic equipment and cell phones, are an important export for the Congo. The extent of the problem is not known. About 150,000 Kinyarwanda-speaking people were reported to have fled from Sud-Kivu to Nord-Kivu by DRC army. In January 2006, Nkunda's troops clashed with DRC army forces, also accused by the MONUC. Further clashes took place around the town of Sake. As June 2006, Nkunda became subject to United Nations Security Council restrictions. During both the second rounds of the contested and violent 2006 general election, Nkunda had said that he would respect the results. On 2006-12-07, RCD-Goma troops attacked DRC army positions in Nord Kivu.Kivu conflict – Eastern DR Congo map
365. ADF insurgency – The insurgency began in 1995, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The ADF was formed by an ultra conservative Ugandan Muslim, belonging to the Tablighi Jamaat group. Mukulu was baptised as a Catholic, later converting to Islam, adopting a Muslim name and becoming radicalised. He reportedly spent the early 1990s in Khartoum, Sudan, coming with Osama bin Laden. ADF merged with the remnants of another rebel group, the National Army during the years following the fall of Idi Amin. ADF-NALU's initial goal was to overthrow Ugandan president's Yoweri Museveni government, replacing it with an fundamentalist state. The group went on to recruit former officers of the Ugandan army, well as volunteers from Tanzania and Somalia. The insurgence remained unaffected by government talk efforts, as members married local women. According to intelligence sources, ADF has collaborated with Lord's Resistance Army. Receiving training and logistic support, with limited direct involvement from al-Shabaab's side. Alleged sponsors of the faction include Sudanese Islamist politician Hassan al-Turabi and former DRC president Mobutu Sese Seko. Formed in 1989, ADF carried out its first attacks in 1995. The conflict gradually intensified, culminating in the 1998 Kichwamba Technical College attack, which left 80 people dead, with 80 more being abducted. By 2002, continuous pressure from the Ugandan Army forced ADF to relocate most of its activities into the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo. On 13 ADF perpetrated its first large scale attack on the towns of Bwera and Mpondwe-Lhubiriha in Kasese district, Uganda.ADF insurgency – A FIB soldier during an operation against the ADF in Beni.
366. Ituri conflict – While the two groups had fought since early as 1972, the conflict itself lasted from 1999 to 2003. A low level armed conflict continues to the present day. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front while the Union of Congolese Patriots claimed to be fighting for the Hema. The conflict was accompanied by large-scale massacres perpetrated by members of both ethnic factions. In 2006, the BBC reported that as many as 60,000 people had died since 1998. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, becoming refugees. In June 2003, the European Union began Operation Artemis, sending a French-led force to Ituri. The EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia. Despite this, however, fighting and massacres continued in the countryside. In December 2003, fighting decreased significantly. Ethnic tension between the Lendu and Hema can be traced to the colonial period when the area was part of the Belgian Congo. The colonial administrators favored the Hema, resulting in education and wealth disparities between the two groups. This divergence continued into modern times. Despite this, the two peoples have largely extensively intermarried. While the northern Hema speak Lendu, the southern Hema speak Hema.Ituri conflict – Internally displaced refugees in Bunia with MONUC personnel, 2004
367. Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The Lord's Resistance Army insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign waged by the Lord's Resistance Army rebel group since 1987. Currently, there is low-level activity in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. The movement is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims the "spokesperson" of God and a spirit medium. It aims to establish a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and Acholi tradition. One of Africa's longest running, has resulted in a humanitarian crisis. By 2004, the LRA had abducted more than 20,000 children, while an estimated 100,000 civilians killed. The NRA in their efforts to liberate the entire country meted out a lot of atrocities on the people of Acholi. This act spurred some Acholis to resist the medieval acts. By August of that year, a popular insurgency had developed in northern regions that were occupied by the new government forces. Former Uganda People's Democratic Army commander Odong Latek convinced Kony to adopt conventional warfare tactics, primarily surprise attacks on civilian targets, such as villages. The LRA also occasionally carried out large-scale attacks to protect the populace. Until 1991 the LRA raided the populace for supplies, which were carried away by villagers who were abducted for short periods of time. As the LRA was armed with modern weaponry, the bow-and-arrow groups were overpowered. The creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he longer had the support of the population. In response the LRA mutilated numerous Acholi whom they believed to be government supporters.Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The conflict forces many civilians to live in internally displaced person (IDP) camps
368. Northern Mali conflict – Mutinous soldiers, calling the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, took control and suspended the constitution of Mali. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Mali's three largest northern cities -- Gao and Timbuktu -- were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days. On 5 April 2012, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA called off its offensive. It proclaimed Azawad's independence from Mali. The MNLA were initially backed by the Islamist group Ansar Dine. After the Malian military was driven from Azawad, a number of smaller Islamist groups began imposing strict Sharia law. The MNLA and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for an new state. By 17 the MNLA had lost control of most of northern Mali's cities to the Islamists. The government of Mali asked for military help to re-take the north. On 11 the French military began operations against the Islamists. Forces from other African Union states were deployed shortly after. By 8 the Islamist-held territory had been re-taken by the Malian military, with help from the international coalition. Tuareg separatists have continued to fight the Islamists well, although the MNLA has also been accused of carrying out attacks against the Malian military. Fighting is still ongoing even though French forces are scheduled for withdrawal. Sporadic terrorist attacks still occur.Northern Mali conflict – French Mirage 2000 refuels over Africa on 2 February 2013.
369. South Sudanese Civil War – The South Sudanese Civil War is a conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. In December 2013, a political struggle broke out between President Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar. The president accused ten others of attempting a coup d'état. Machar fled, calling for Kiir to resign. Fighting broke out between the SPLM -- in opposition, igniting the civil war. Ugandan troops were deployed to fight against the rebels. The United Nations has peacekeepers in South Sudan. In January 2014 the first agreement was reached. Fighting still would be followed by several more ceasefire agreements. Negotiations were mediated by "IGAD +". A agreement known as the "Compromise Peace Agreement" was signed in Ethiopia under threat of United Nations sanctions for both sides in August 2015. Machar was appointed vice president. Following a second breakout of fighting within Juba, Machar went to exile in the Sudan. Up to 300,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the war, including notable atrocities such as the 2014 Bentiu massacre. Although both men have supporters from across South Sudan's ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has had ethnic undertones.South Sudanese Civil War – A South Sudanese man holding a HK G3
370. War in Darfur – The government responded by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. Estimates of the number of human casualties range up to several thousand dead, from either combat or starvation and disease. Coercive migrations forced millions into refugee camps or across the border, creating a humanitarian crisis. Former US Secretary of State Colin Powell described the situation as a genocide or acts of genocide. The JEM signed a ceasefire agreement in February 2010, with a tentative agreement to pursue peace. The JEM could see semi-autonomy much like South Sudan. However, talks were disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army launched raids and air strikes against a village, violating the Tolu agreement. The largest rebel group in Darfur, vowed to boycott negotiations. It was first then surrendered by its governor Slatin Pasha to the Mahdia in 1883. Subsequently, Darfur remained the independent Republic of the Sudan. There are different explanations for the origins of the present conflict. One explanation involves those who practice sedentary agriculture. Water access has also been identified as a major source of the conflict. The Darfur crisis is also related to a second conflict. In southern Sudan, civil war has raged for Christian and animist black southerners.War in Darfur – Arab Janjaweed tribes have been a major player in the conflict.
371. Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile – The conflict is intertwined with the War in Darfur, since in November 2011 SPLM-N established a loose alliance with Darfuri rebels, called Sudan Revolutionary Front. In January 2015, fighting intensified as Omar al-Bashir’s government tried to regain control of rebel-held territory ahead of April 2015 general elections. Although South Kordofan and Blue Nile are north of the international border separating South Sudan, many of their residents identify with the South. Many residents fought during the long civil war. At least 15 Sudanese tanks entered Abyei town on 20 May, beginning large-scale fighting in Abyei. By 22 May, had seized control of the town and most of Abyei's residents had fled south toward Bahr el Ghazal. Both the government of Southern Sudan accused one another of violating the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The agreement details the mechanism by which the Abyei council to replace the one dissolved by president Omer Hassan al-Bashir in May 2011. Its chief must be approved by the Northern National Congress Party. The deputy however, would be endorsed by SPLM. Three of the five heads of the departments of the administrative council would be nominated by the NCP. A service would be established for the region, with the size and composition determined by a joint committee co-chaired by northern and southern officials. However, the spokesman of Philip Aguer, told the press that the statement from the NCP senior official was incorrect. The Northern army said that SPLA stole weapons prompting a response. The SPLA claimed that the Northern army attempted to disarm their units by force.Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile – Map of Sudan (after 2011)
372. Sudanese nomadic conflicts – Sudanese nomadic conflicts are non-state conflicts between rival nomadic tribes taking place in the territory of Sudan and, since 2011, South Sudan. Conflict between nomadic tribes in Sudan is common, with fights breaking out including grazing land, cattle and drinking water. Over the years, clashes between ethnic militias have resulted in a large number of casualties and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. Fighting in 2008 between the Rizeigat tribes claimed around 70 lives. Sudanese police attempted as they were doing so were attacked by around 3,000 Rizeigat horsemen. The attack killed 75 police officers, between 89 and 109 from the Misseriya. Ibrahim Mahmoud Hamad, has pledged to bring those responsible for the fighting to justice and to take steps to disarm civilians. The United Nations Mission in Sudan, which earlier in May deployed 120 peacekeepers to Jonglei state to prevent tribal conflict, is also investigating. In the meantime Sudanese authorities have asked both tribes to move at least 5 km from each other to avoid fresh outbreaks of fighting. Whilst fighting in the area appears to have calmed down, there are concerns over security for the February national general election. Eleven protective soldiers were also killed. The dead were searching for amidst severe shortages after barges which were shipping aid to them were attacked the previous June. People were pursued with some bodies becoming tangled in fishing nets. The majority of the dead were women, with entire families claimed to have been "wiped out". The toll was predicted to rise.Sudanese nomadic conflicts – Sudan (orange) and South Sudan (green) shown within Africa
373. Mexican Drug War – Since 2006, when intervention with the Mexican military began, the government's principal goal has been to put down the drug-related violence. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually