|Topics in the news|
|Topics in the news|
1. Free Syrian Army – The Free Syrian Army is a faction in the Syrian Civil War. From July 2012 onward, infighting weakened the FSA, while jihadist groups became dominant within the armed opposition. There were reports that some units had split from the army. Video footage showed civilians helping defecting soldiers, shot for refusing orders. Desertion of soldiers to the Syrian Army was allegedly documented in videos. Early November two FSA units in the Damascus area confronted regime forces. In an effort to weaken the pro-Assad forces, the FSA released a statement which announced that a temporary military council had been formed. In October 2011, an American official said the Syrian military might have lost perhaps 10,000 to defections. FSA was then armed with rifles, light and heavy machine guns, explosive devices. Their largest concentrations were in surrounding areas. The US International Business Times stated that the FSA counted 15,000 ex-Syrian soldiers. In the early days of their existence, 90 % of the FSA consisted of Sunni Muslims, a small minority were Kurds and Palestinians. An anonymously speaking U.S. official however estimated in December 2011 1,000 to 3,500 defectors in total. Turkey would allow the FSA to encouraged foreign intervention in the Syrian Civil War. On 6 General Mustafa al-Sheikh of the Syrian Army defected from the government forces to join the FSA.Free Syrian Army – Rebel fighters from the "First Battalion" under the Free Syrian Army take part in a military training on May 4, 2015, in the rebel-held countryside of the northern city of Aleppo.
2. Al-Bab – Al-Bab is a Syrian city administratively belonging to the Aleppo Governorate. Al-Bab has an area of 30 square kilometres. Al-Bab has an altitude of 471 metres. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, it had a population of 63,069 in 2004. Its inhabitants much more ethnically homogeneous than those of its neighbour city Manbij. Al-Bāb in Arabic means the door. According to Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in 1226, the name is a shortening of Bāb Bizāʻah. Bizāʻah is a town located about 10 kilometres east of Al-Bāb. Al-Bab was conquered under caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. It received its name, meaning "the Gate", during Islamic rule as it served as the adjacent town of Buza'ah. According to Yaqut al-Hamawi in 1226, it was a small town in the district of Aleppo. In the town were markets filled with a type of product called kirbas which were exported to Damascus and Egypt. Abu al-Fida writes that al-Bab was a small town with a market, a bath, a mosque. Until April 2012, Al-Bab had been relatively unscathed by the civil war. However, allegedly on 20 the Syrian Army opened fire on protesters in the city, sparking the growth of the rebel movement in Al-Bab.Al-Bab – Mount Simeon District
3. ISIL – This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The group first began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, military authority over all Muslims worldwide. In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions. ISIL is run by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Before their deaths, he had two deputy leaders, Abu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, both ethnic Turkmen. Advising al-Baghdadi is a cabinet of senior leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria are controlled by local governors. Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. While al-Baghdadi has told followers to "advise me when I err" in sermons, according to observers "any threat, opposition, or even contradiction is instantly eradicated". In 2014 The Wall Street Journal estimated that million people live in areas controlled by ISIL. In 2014 it became the group's de facto capital city. Civilians, well as the Islamic State itself, have released footage of some of the human rights abuses. Since December 2013, ongoing clashes have occurred between tribal militias, Iraqi security forces, ISIL.ISIL – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
4. Exoplanet – An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun. Starting in 1988, as of 6 December 2016, there have been 3,545 exoplanets in 597 multiple planetary systems confirmed. HARPS has discovered about a hundred exoplanets while the Kepler telescope has found more than two thousand. Kepler has also detected a few thousand candidate planets, of which about 11% may be false positives. On average, there is at least one planet per star, with a percentage having multiple planets. About 1 in 5 Sun-like stars have an "Earth-sized" planet in the habitable zone. The least massive planet known is Draugr, the mass of the Moon. Some are far out that it is difficult to tell whether they are gravitationally bound to the star. There have also been a few possible detections of extragalactic planets. The nearest exoplanet is Proxima Centauri b, orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun. The discovery of exoplanets has intensified interest in the search for extraterrestrial life. The study of planetary habitability also considers a wide range of other factors in determining the suitability of a planet for hosting life. The rogue planets in the Milky Way possibly number in the billions. The exoplanet convention is an extension of the system used for naming multiple-star systems as adopted by the International Astronomical Union. For exoplanets orbiting a single star, the name is normally formed by adding a lower case letter.Exoplanet – Artist's view gives an impression of how commonly planets orbit the stars in the Milky Way.
5. Circumstellar habitable zone – The bounds of the CHZ are based on the amount of radiant energy it receives from the Sun. Most such planets, being super-Earths or gas giants, are more massive than Earth, because such planets are easier to detect. Billion of these may be orbiting Sun-like stars. The CHZ is also of particular interest to the emerging field of habitability of natural satellites, because planetary-mass moons in the CHZ might outnumber planets. In subsequent decades, the CHZ concept began to be challenged as a primary criterion for life, so the concept is still evolving. Since the discovery of evidence for liquid water, substantial quantities of it are now thought to occur outside the circumstellar habitable zone. In the same year, Harlow Shapley wrote "Liquid Water Belt", which described the same theory in scientific detail. Both works stressed the importance of liquid water to life. In 1993, astronomer James Kasting introduced the term "circumstellar zone" to refer more precisely to the region then known as the habitable zone. Numerous mass objects orbit within, or close to, this range and as such receive sufficient sunlight to raise temperatures above the freezing point of water. However their atmospheric conditions vary substantially. The entire orbits of the Moon, numerous asteroids also lie within various estimates of the habitable zone. Only at Mars' lowest elevations is atmospheric temperature sufficient for water to, if present, exist in liquid form for short periods. For example, atmospheric pressures can reach 1,115 Pa and temperatures above zero Celsius for 70 days in the Martian year. Despite indirect evidence in the form of seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes, no confirmation has been made of the presence of liquid water there.Circumstellar habitable zone – Natural defenses against space weather, such as the magnetosphere depicted in this artistic rendition, may be required for planets to sustain surface water for prolonged periods.
6. South Sudan – South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa that gained its independence from Sudan in 2011. Its current capital is Juba, also its largest city. It was planned that the city would be changed to the more centrally located Ramciel in the future before civil war broke out. It includes the swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was lasted until 1983. A Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote. It is a member state of the African Union, of the East African Community, of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. The Nilotic people of South Sudan -- others -- first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century. The Azande, Avukaya and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century -- established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region. Azande are the third-largest ethnic group in South Sudan while the Bari are fourth-largest. In the 18th century, this domination continued into the 20th century. Its ignoring the Black south.South Sudan – John Garang de Mabior led the Sudan People's Liberation Army until his death in 2005.
7. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United Nations is in Manhattan, experiences extraterritoriality. Main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna. The organization is financed from its member states. The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference in April -- June 1945; the UN began operation. The organization participated in major actions in the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the state of Israel in 1947. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions with varying degrees of success. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is an office held by South Korean Ban Ki-moon since 2007. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with other agencies to participate in the UN's work. A number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between countries.United Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.
8. Sehwan Sharif – Sehwan is a city located in Jamshoro District in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Sehwan town is of great antiquity and stands on the west bank of the Indus, 80 miles north-west of Hyderabad. It is possible that the Sehwan originates from the kingdom of Raja Dahir which even extended to Punjab under the name "Shivi". It was significant enough during the 8th century to be conquered by Muhammad bin Qasim in 711, two centuries later by Mahmud of Ghazni. It finally fell to his Akbar. Before this, it was the capital of the Thatta Kingdom under Juni Bek. The city is known for its Sufi patron saint Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar who lived here in the 13th century. The famous mausoleum of Shahbaz Qalandar attracts hundreds of thousands of faithfuls every year. Another famous place is the inverted city, which may be the Debal Bandar of Raja Dahir. The largest fresh lake in Pakistan, is a short distance from Sehwan Sharif. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar Sehwan Sharif Airport Jamshoro District Village RadhanSehwan Sharif – The tomb of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar at Sehwan Sharif, Sindh, Pakistan
9. Indian Space Research Organisation – The Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the Government of Republic of India headquartered in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is to "harness technology for national development", while pursuing planetary exploration. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalised space activities in India. It is managed by the Department of Space, which reports to the Prime Minister of The Republic of India. ISRO built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed by SLV-3. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO successfully used an cryogenic engine in a launch of the GSAT-14. On June 2016 ISRO successfully set a record with launch of 20 satellites in one being a satellite from Google. Later, Indian scientists like C.V. Raman and Meghnad Saha contributed to scientific principles applicable in space sciences. However, it was the period after 1945 which saw important developments being made in coordinated space research in India. Studies were carried out at independent locations. In 1950, the Department of Atomic Energy was founded with Homi Bhabha as its secretary.Indian Space Research Organisation – Vikram Sarabhai, the father of India's Space Programme
10. Vitaly Churkin – Vitaly Ivanovich Churkin is a Russian diplomat. Ambassador Churkin has served as Russia's Permanent Representative since 2006. He is fluent in Russian, Mongolian, French and English. Churkin was born in Moscow, Russia. At age 11, he played Kolya Yemelyanov in the Lev Kulidzhanov movie, Sinyaya Tetrad, about Vladimir Lenin. In 1964, he acted about paramedics. Subsequently he was Director of the Information Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. He was Deputy Foreign Minister from 1992 to 1994. Churkin was Russia's Ambassador to the Ambassador to Canada from 1998 to 2003. Subsequently he served as Ambassador-at-Large from 2003 to 2006. He has been the Chairman of the Senior Officials of the Arctic Council. This was reported as the first time in history a Soviet official testified before a Congressional committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. Churkin's performance led as Vitaly "Charmyourpantsoff". In 2008 during the Russo-Georgian War Churkin proposed a resolution imposing weapons embargo on Georgia. The draft was officially introduced on 9 September 2009.Vitaly Churkin – Vitaly Churkin
11. Syrian Civil War – The Syrian government has since then refused efforts to negotiate with what it describes as armed terrorist groups. The factions receive substantial support from foreign actors, leading many to label the conflict a proxy war waged by both regional and global powers. Syrian opposition groups seized control of the area surrounding parts of southern Syria. Over time, factions of the Syrian opposition split from their original moderate position to pursue an Islamist vision for Syria, as al-Nusra Front and ISIL. In the north, Syrian government forces largely withdrew allowing the Kurdish YPG to proclaim de facto autonomy. International organizations have accused other opposition forces of severe human rights violations and of many massacres. The conflict has caused a refugee crisis. On 1 a formal start of the mediated Geneva Syria peace talks was fighting continues. Syria became an independent republic in 1946, although democratic rule ended followed by two more coups the same year. A popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the power to civilians. From 1958 to 1961, a brief union with Egypt replaced Syria's parliamentary system with a highly centralized presidential regime. The Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch government came through a successful coup d'état in 1963. For the several years Syria went in leadership. In March 1971, an Alawite, declared President, a position that he held until his death in 2000. On 31 January 1973, Assad implemented the new Constitution which led to a national crisis.Syrian Civil War – Pro-regime demonstration in Latakia, heartland of Assad's Alawite people
12. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights – The organisation is run from his home in Coventry by Rami Abdulrahman, a Syrian Sunni Muslim who owns a clothes shop. Born Osama Suleiman, he has used it publicly ever since. After being imprisoned three times in Syria, Abdulrahman has not returned since. In 2012 Süddeutsche Zeitung described the organization with a single permanent worker, Rami Abdulrahman. The United Nations, nongovernmental organisations say that SOHR is an accurate source. SOHR has been described as being "pro-opposition" or anti-Assad. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is of the opinion that SOHR is a one-man operation that acts as a front for spreading anti-governmental messages into western media. Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently Syrian Observatory for Human Rights – websiteSyrian Observatory for Human Rights – Seal of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
13. Syrian Armed Forces – The Syrian Arab Armed Forces are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic. According to the Syrian constitution, the President of Syria is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The military is a conscripted force; there are many women in the armed forces. Before the start of the Syrian Civil War, the military service period was being decreased over time. The French Mandate force, which would later become the Syrian army, was established in 1920 with the threat of Syrian − Arab nationalism in mind. Although the unit's officers were all French, it was, in effect, the first indigenous modern Syrian army. In 1925, this force was designated as the Special Troops of the Levant. After the Allies takeover, the army was designated the Levantine Forces. French Mandate authorities maintained a gendarmerie to police Syria's rural areas. This paramilitary force was used to combat political foes of the Mandate government. In 1938, the Troupes Spéciales numbered around 306 officers. A majority of the Syrian troops were of rural background and ethnic origin, mainly Alawis, Druzes, Kurds, Circassians. By the end of 1945, the army numbered the gendarmerie some 3,500. The Syrian Armed Forces were involved in a number of military coups. Between 1967, a series of military coups destroyed the stability of the government and any remaining professionalism within the armed forces.Syrian Armed Forces – Part of a Syrian SA-6 site built near the Beirut-Damascus highway, and overlooking the Bekaa Valley, in early 1982.
14. Homs – Homs, previously known as Emesa, is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. It is located 162 kilometres north of Damascus. Located on the Orontes River, Homs is also the central link between the Mediterranean coast. Its population reflects Syria's religious diversity, composed of Sunni and Alawite and Christian. It is close to the Krak des Chevaliers castle, a world heritage site. Homs did not emerge into the historical record at the time of the Seleucids. It later became the capital of a kingdom ruled by the Emesani dynasty who gave its name. Originally a center of worship for the sun El-Gabal, it later gained importance in Christianity under the Byzantines. Homs was made capital of a district that bore its current name. Throughout the Islamic era, Muslim dynasties contending for control of Syria sought due to the city's strategic position in the area. Homs began to decline under the Ottomans and only in the 19th century did the city regain its economic importance when its industry boomed. During Mandate rule, the city became a center of insurrection and, after independence in 1946, a center of Baathist resistance to the first Syrian governments. In the ongoing civil war, Homs became an opposition stronghold and the Syrian government launched a military assault against the city in May 2011. The following Siege of Homs left thousands dead. The war in the city ended in 2015 when rebels evacuated the city, resulting in a victory.Homs – Homs city landmarks City centre and the Old Clock Tower • New Clock Tower Square • Dablan Street • Krak des Chevaliers • Khalid ibn al-Walid Stadium • Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque • New Clock Tower • City landscape from Rooftops
15. Afghan National Police – The Afghan National Police is the primary police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The agency is under the responsibility of Afghanistan's Ministry of Interior, headed by Nur ul-Haq Ulumi. The ANP has about 157,000 active members as of September 2013, expected to reach 160,000 by the end of 2014. The Afghan police traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed to power. It was reorganized in 1880 during Emir Abdur Rahman Khan's reign. The current ANP was rebuilt in late 2001. Various government agencies from the United States well as Germany's Bundespolizei and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence Police provided most of the early training. As of 2009, it is being trained under NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan. Police officers in Afghanistan are largely illiterate. Approximately 17 percent of them tested positive for illegal drugs in 2010. They were widely accused of demanding bribes. Attempts to build a Afghan police force were faltering badly, according to NATO officials. A quarter of the officers quit every year, making the Afghan government's goals of substantially building up the force even harder to achieve. Traditionally, police officers were poorly paid, frequently held in contempt by the communities they served. Compounding these factors, over two decades of unrest had also resulted in an rate conservatively estimated at over 70 % for police recruits.Afghan National Police – Afghan police (c. 1879)
16. Taliban – The Taliban, alternatively spelled Taleban, is an Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country. Until his death in 2013, Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates. The group later regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In its / 11 insurgency, the group has been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their political goals. Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban from Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to Iran. The Taliban is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, the plural of ṭālib. This is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban", rather than "an American Talib". In the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban.Taliban – Darul Uloom Deoband, India
17. Rudaw Media Network – Rudaw Media Network is an Iraqi Kurdish media group funded by the Kurdistan Democratic Party. It publishes in Kurdish, English, Arabic and Turkish. Rudaw Media Network has been banned due to its partisan news. US Department of State has described Rudaw Media Network as KDP-affiliated outlet. Rudaw is a Kurdish media network supported by Rudaw Company. The network aims to impart information about Kurdistan and the Middle East. Rudaw is based in the capital city of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. An online platform that covers Kurdish issues in both Kurdish dialects. The website also publishes information in English, Turkish and Arabic. A radio channel that broadcasts on shortwave across the Middle East. Audiences all over the world can listen online. Published with hard copies sold in the Kurdistan Region and Europe. In the Kurdistan edition, stories of interest to the local population are covered. The European edition features issues of interest to the Kurdish diaspora. A Kurdish news channel that broadcasts to the Middle East, Europe and the U.S.Rudaw Media Network – Rudaw Media Network
18. Nagorno-Karabakh Republic – Nagorno-Karabakh, officially the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Artsakh Republic or Republic of Artsakh, is an unrecognised republic in the South Caucasus. The region is under the control of ethnic Armenian separatists. The dispute created the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. During the fall of the Soviet Union, the region re-emerged between Armenia and Azerbaijan. In 1991, the neighbouring Shahumian region resulted in a declaration of independence. Ethnic conflict led to the 1991 -- 1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War, which ended with a ceasefire that left the current borders. The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is a semi-presidential democracy with a unicameral legislature. Its reliance on Armenia means that in many ways it functions facto as part of Armenia. The country averaging 1,097 metres above sea level. The population is predominantly Christian, most being affiliated with the Armenian Apostolic Church. Historical monasteries are popular with tourists, mostly from the Armenian diaspora, as most travel can take place only between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh is a semi-presidential democracy, whereby the executive power resides with both the Prime Minister. The president is directly elected for a maximum of five-year terms. The current President is Bako Sahakyan. In the most recent presidential elections, held on 19 July 2012, Sahakyan was reelected to a second term.Nagorno-Karabakh Republic – The NKR National Assembly in Stepanakert
19. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918. The country was incorporated as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are internationally recognized pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh, found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a semi-presidential republic. The country is a member state for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan holds membership in 38 international organizations. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006. Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. All major political forces in the country are secularist.Azerbaijan – Petroglyphs in Gobustan dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value"
20. Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested. Azerbaijan has not exercised political authority over the region since the advent of the Karabakh movement in 1988. The region is usually equated with the administrative borders of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast comprising an area of 4,400 square kilometres. The historical area of the region, however, encompasses approximately 8,223 square kilometres. The prefix Nagorno- derives from the Russian attributive adjective nagorny, which means "highland". The Azerbaijani names of the region include the similar adjectives "dağlıq" or "yuxarı". The name Karabakh comprises two words, "kara" and "bagh". Thus Karabakh literally means "black garden". The name first appears in Georgian and Persian sources of the 13th and 14th centuries. Karabagh, an acceptable alternate spelling of Karabakh, denotes a kind of patterned rug originally produced in the area. Urartian inscriptions use the name Urtekhini for the region. Ancient Greek sources called the area Orkhistene. Nagorno-Karabakh falls within the lands occupied by peoples known to modern archaeologists as the Kura-Araxes culture, who lived between the two rivers Kura and Araxes. The ancient population of the region consisted of various autochthonous local and migrant tribes who were mostly non-Indo-Europeans.Nagorno-Karabakh – Snow-covered Lesser Caucasus south of the Greater Caucasus. About 1800 the eastern side of the Lesser Caucasus was ruled by the Ganja Khanate in the north and the Karabagh Khanate in the south. The Karabagh Khanate extended east into the lowlands, hence the name Nagorno- or Highland- Karabagh.
22. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
23. Heidelberg – It is a city situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. The fifth-largest town in the State of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Mannheim and Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. In 2015, over 156,000 people lived in the city. A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Heidelberg is the location among its most reputable universities. It is a popular destination due to its romantic and picturesque cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle and the baroque style Old Town. It is on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald. Heidelberg is bordered by the Gaisberg mountains. The Neckar here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of 445 meters. The Neckar flows into the Rhine approximately 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated along the Bergstraße, a road running through the Odenwald hills. It is on European walking E1. Alongside the Philosophenweg on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in 2000. It is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe. The Rhein-Neckar-Kreis rural district has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district.Heidelberg – Heidelberg, with Heidelberg Castle on the hill and the Old Bridge over river Neckar
24. Terrorism – Terrorism is, in its broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological aim. It is classified as a violent crime. In modern times, terrorism is therefore illegal under anti-terrorism laws in most jurisdictions. A broad array of political organizations have practiced terrorism to further their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups, ruling governments. The symbolism of terrorism can exploit human fear to help achieve these goals. According to data from the Global Terrorism Database, more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism claiming over 140,000 lives have been recorded from 2000 to 2014. "Terrorism" comes from the French terrorisme, originally referred specifically to state terrorism as practiced by the French government during the 1793 -- 1794 Reign of Terror. The French terrorisme in turn derives from the Latin verb terrere meaning "to frighten". The Jacobins, coming in 1792, are said to have initiated the Reign of Terror. After the Jacobins lost power, the word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev, who described himself as a "terrorist". Nechayev founded the terrorist group "People's Retribution" in 1869. The lack of consensus as to what a terrorist is can affect policies designed to deal with terrorists. Others view them as criminals that should be tried in civil courts.Terrorism – United Airlines Flight 175, which had been taken over by hijackers, hits the South Tower of the former World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, in New York City, United States.
25. Krewe of Endymion – The Krewe of Endymion is one of only three Super Krewes, is the largest of the parades participating in the New Orleans Mardi Gras. Many people begin saving their viewing spots for this parade several days before the parade actually rolls. It was named after Endymion, from Greek mythology. The parade is immediately followed with a party called the Endymion Extravaganza. It was held at the now demolished Rivergate Convention Center. The Krewe returned in 2012. During the 2010s, the krewe has had over 20,000 guests at its Extravaganza. The first Endymion parade rolled in the Gentilly neighborhood near the New Orleans Fair Grounds horse racing facility. Endymion is the only remaining parade in the New Orleans city limits which does not use the Uptown route. Benson was the first celebrity Grand Marshal not from the industry. Endymion websiteKrewe of Endymion – The St. Augustine High School "Marching 100" marching in Endymion.
26. New Orleans Mardi Gras – Usually there is each day; many days have several large parades. The most elaborate parades take place the last five days of the Mardi Gras season. In the final week, many events occur throughout surrounding communities, including parades and balls. The parades in New Orleans are organized by social clubs known as krewes; most follow route each year. The earliest-established krewes were the Mistick Krewe of Comus, the earliest, Rex, the Krewe of Proteus. Major krewes follow route each year. Day traditionally concludes with the "Meeting of the Courts" between Rex and Comus. Their men celebrated it as part of an observance of Catholic practice. The date of the first celebration of the festivities in New Orleans is unknown. A 1730 account by Marc-Antione Caillot celebrating with music and dance, costuming. An account from 1743 that the custom of Carnival balls was already established. Wearing of masks in the streets on Mardi Gras took place. Enforcement waned. In 1833 a rich plantation owner of French descent, raised money to fund an official Mardi Gras celebration. All of the mischief of the city is wide awake in active operation.New Orleans Mardi Gras – Revelers on St. Charles Avenue, 2007
27. United States House of Representatives – The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. Since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof and is therefore traditionally the leader of the controlling party. Other floor leaders are chosen depending on whichever party has more voting members. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates. The issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation. The Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. Its implementation was set for March 1789. The House began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time.United States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
28. Republican Party (United States) – The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Businessman Donald Trump of New York, will become the Republican president on January 20, 2017. The Republican Party's current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' modern liberalism. The Republican Party's platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, restrictions on labor unions. In addition to economic themes there are important traditional values, usually with a ethical foundation. The party also holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures. Specifically, 68 out of 98 partisan state legislative chambers have Republican majorities. According to CBS news, "The Republican National Committee says the acronym "GOP" dates back to 1875, at which time it meant'Gallant Old Party'." The main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The name was partly chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The official convention was held on July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan. The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. With the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states.Republican Party (United States) – Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican U.S. President (1861–1865).
29. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law requires insurers to charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. In 2011, the Congressional Budget Office projected that the ACA would lower future deficits and Medicare spending. Its implementation faced challenges from some state governments, conservative advocacy groups, labor unions, small business organizations. The law has caused a significant reduction in the percentage of people without insurance. The CDC reported that the percentage of people without insurance fell to 8.9 % during the January -- June 2016 period. According to the Kaiser Foundation, cost increases in the employer market continued to moderate. As implementation began, first opponents and then most others adopted the term "Obamacare" to refer to the ACA. The ACA includes provisions to take effect between 2020, although most took effect on January 2014. The complexity of changes was unprecedented in the US health system. Not all provisions took full effect. Others were discarded before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions. States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. The law provides a 5 % "disregard", making the effective income limit for Medicaid 138 % of the poverty level.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The President and White House Staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
30. Medicaid – Medicaid in the United States is a social health care program for families and individuals with limited resources. Medicaid is the largest source of funding for people with low income in the United States. States are not required to participate in the program, although all have since 1982. Medicaid recipients may include low-income adults, their children, people with certain disabilities. Poverty alone does not necessarily qualify someone for Medicaid. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act significantly expanded federal funding of Medicaid. Beginning in the 1980s, many states received waivers from the federal government to create Medicaid managed care programs. Under managed care, Medicaid recipients are enrolled in a private plan, which receives a fixed monthly premium from the state. The plan is then responsible for providing for all or most of the recipient's healthcare needs. All but a few states use managed care to provide coverage to a significant proportion of Medicaid enrollees. As of 2014, 26 states have contracts with managed care organizations to deliver long-term care for the elderly and individuals with disabilities. The states pay a capitulated rate per member to the MCOs that provide comprehensive care and accept the risk of managing total costs. Nationwide, roughly 80% of enrollees are enrolled in managed care plans. The annual cost of care will vary state depending on state approved Medicaid benefits, as well as the state specific care costs. A state by state listing was provided.Medicaid – Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (Medicaid administrator) logo
31. Health insurance – Health insurance is insurance against the risk of incurring medical expenses among individuals. The benefit is administered by a central organization such as a government agency, not-for-profit entity. It includes insurance for losses from accident, medical expense, accidental death and dismemberment". A health policy is: A contract between an insurance provider and an individual or his/her sponsor. The contract can be mandatory for all citizens in the case of national plans. Provided by an self-funded ERISA plan. The company generally advertises that they have one of the big insurance companies. However, in an ERISA case, that company "doesn't engage in the act of insurance", they just administer it. Therefore, ERISA plans are not subject to state laws. ERISA plans are governed under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Labor. The specific benefits or coverage details are found in the Summary Plan Description. An appeal must go through the company, then to the Employer's Plan Fiduciary. If still required, the Fiduciary's decision can be then file a lawsuit in federal court. The insured person's obligations may take several forms: Premium: The amount the policy-holder or their sponsor pays to the health plan to purchase health coverage. Deductible: The amount that the insured must pay out-of-pocket before the health insurer pays its share.Health insurance – Life Expectancy of the total population at birth from 2000 until 2011 among several OECD member nations. Data source: OECD's iLibrary
32. Quezon City – Quezon City is the most populous city in the Philippines. It is one of the cities that make up the National Capital Region of the Philippines. Quezon City should not be confused with Quezon Province, also named after the president. It is the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area and most populated local unit in the country. Quezon City also hosts the University of the Philippines Diliman–the national university–and Ateneo de Manila University. The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national shrine located in Quezon City. The park is an ellipse bounded by the Elliptical Road. Its main feature is a mausoleum containing the remains of Manuel L. Quezon, his wife, First Lady Aurora Quezon. Before Quezon City was created, its land was settled by the individual towns of San Francisco del Monte, Novaliches, Balintawak. In the 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila. It is believed that his earlier trip to Mexico influenced his vision. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City. Instead of opposing it, Caloocan residents willingly gave land in the belief it will benefit the country's new capital. During the Second World War, Japanese forces occupied Quezon City in 1942. This caused the territorial division of Caloocan into two non-contiguous parts, the North half being sub-rural.Quezon City – (From top, left to right): Eastwood City, Quezon Memorial Circle, aerial view of Quezon City, EDSA Shrine, Katipunan Avenue
33. People Power Revolution – The People Power Revolution was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that began in 1983 and culminated on February 22–25, 1986. There was a sustained campaign of civil resistance against electoral fraud. The revolution led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines. Corazon Aquino was proclaimed after the revolution. Ferdinand E. Marcos was elected president in 1965, defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal by a very slim margin. During this time, Marcos was very active in the intensification of tax collections. His government claimed that they "built more roads than all his predecessors combined, more schools than any previous administration." On September 1972, citing more than 15 bombing incidences and an intensifying armed communist insurgency, he declared martial law by virtue of presidential proclamation. Martial law was ratified during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Former press secretary and a former communist incarcerated during the martial law, argued that the liberal and communist parties provoked martial law imposition. The constitution was approved by 95 % of the voters in the constitutional plebiscite. Marcos also shut down media establishments critical of the Marcos government. Marcos also ordered the immediate arrest of his political critics. I am not a communist, never never will be." In 1978, while still in prison, Aquino founded his political party, Lakas ng Bayan to run for office in the Interim Batasang Pambansa.People Power Revolution – People Power Revolution
34. Ferdinand Marcos – Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino lawyer, politician, World War II veteran and kleptocrat, President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled as a dictator under martial law until 1981. While his regime started an unprecedented number of infrastructure monuments, it also became infamous for its corruption and brutality. United States Army documents described the claim "fraudulent" and "absurd". He was elected President in 1965. By the end of 1985, GDP stood at $30.7 following two years of economic contraction. All in all despite the 1984-1985 recession, GDP per capita grew from 1964 to 1985. Martial law was ratified during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, excesses of human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. Marcos was succeeded by widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's kleptocracy made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin. He was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan.Ferdinand Marcos – Marcos in 1982.
35. Rodrigo Duterte – Duterte is the fourth of Visayan descent. At 71 years old, he is the oldest person to assume superseding Sergio Osmeña and Fidel Ramos, respectively. He was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms totaling more than 22 years in office. Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug criminals. He denied any involvement in the said vigilante groups. He has said he personally killed while as Davao Mayor in 1988. His domestic policy has focused on combating illegal trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War. His administration has also vowed to pursue an "foreign policy" that would reject any meddling by foreign governments. He was born on March 1945, in Maasin. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Xiamen, Fujian. Duterte's father was acting mayor of Danao, Cebu and subsequently the provincial governor of Davao province. Rodrigo's cousin Ronald, on the other hand, served from 1983 to 1986. Ramon Duterte, also held the position from 1957 to 1959. The Dutertes consider the Almendras clan as relatives. He also has relatives through his mother's side.Rodrigo Duterte – Rodrigo R. Duterte
36. Leila de Lima – Leila Norma Eulalia Josefa Magistrado de Lima is a Filipino lawyer, human rights activist and politician. De Lima eventually will serve as a Philippine senator in the Philippines' 17th Congress. De Lima is the eldest daughter of Norma Magistrado. De Lima was raised in Iriga of the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. Julie de Lima, married Communist Party of the Philippines founder Jose Maria Sison, making him Leila de Lima's uncle by marriage. She completed her basic education at the La Consolacion Academy, where she graduated as Valedictorian. De Lima graduated in 1980 with an AB History degree. De Lima finished her Bachelor of Laws degree in 1985. She began her legal career to Supreme Court associate justice Isagani Cruz from 1986 to 1989. De Lima joined the Jardeleza Sobreviñas Diaz Hayudini and Bodegon Law Offices in 1989 where she served as a junior associate. De Lima worked from 1991 to 1993. She joined the Philippine government as a clerk and secretary of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. De Lima resigned in 1995 to return to private practice. De Lima then joined Roco, Buñag, Kapunan and Migallos firm as its Junior Partner. De Lima was also a professor of law at the San Beda College of Law during her private practice.Leila de Lima – Leila de Lima
37. Atlanta – Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States. A small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. Atlanta is "world city", exerting a significant impact upon commerce, finance, research, technology, education, media, art, entertainment. It ranks 36th among world 8th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $270 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors including logistics, professional and business services, information technology. Topographically, Atlanta is marked by dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. A Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta. The initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would then be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. By 1842, the town was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed "Atlantica-Pacifica,", shortened to "Atlanta". The town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847.Atlanta – From top to bottom left to right: Atlanta skyline seen from Buckhead, the Fox Theatre, the Georgia State Capitol, Centennial Olympic Park, Millennium Gate, the Canopy Walk, the Georgia Aquarium, The Phoenix statue, and the Midtown skyline
38. Georgia (U.S. state) – Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. Named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. The state's northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi River in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery.Georgia (U.S. state) – A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
39. Democratic National Committee – The Democratic National Committee is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party. The committee coordinates strategy to support Democratic Party candidates throughout the country for local, national office. It organizes the Democratic National Convention held every four years to formulate the party platform. While it provides support for party candidates, it does not have direct authority over elected officials. Its chairperson is elected by the committee. It conducts fundraising to support its activities. The DNC was established at the 1848 Democratic National Convention. The DNC's main counterpart is the Republican National Committee. The DNC is responsible for coordinating party organizational activity. When the president is a Democrat, the party generally works closely with the president. There are state committees in every state, well as local committees in most cities, wards, towns. The chairperson of the DNC is elected by vote of members of the Democratic National Committee. Primary elections, in particular, are invariably conducted according to their own laws. Of the process of nominating a presidential candidate, the DNC's role in actually selecting candidates to run on the party ticket is minimal. All DNC members are superdelegates to the Democratic National Convention whose role can influence a primary race.Democratic National Committee – Chicago delegation to the January 8, 1912 Democratic National Committee
40. Keith Ellison – Keith Maurice Ellison has been the U.S. Representative for Minnesota's 5th congressional district since 2007. Ellison is a member of the Minnesota Democratic Party affiliate. The district centers on Minneapolis and surrounding suburbs. He also serves on Financial Services. He is also the first African American to have been elected to the U.S. House from Minnesota. In November 2016, several United States senators and progressive groups, including Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, supported Ellison for chair of the Democratic National Committee. Ellison and three of his brothers became lawyers; his other brother became a doctor. One of Ellison's brothers is also the pastor of the Baptist "Church of the New Covenant" in Detroit. I had begun to ask myself about the social circumstances of the country, issues of change. When I looked at my spiritual life, I looked at what might inform social change, justice in society... I found Islam." While there, he wrote several articles in support of Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam. Ellison graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1990. A high school mathematics teacher, had four children between 1989 and 1997.Keith Ellison – Keith Ellison
41. United States Secretary of Labor – Seven women have served as Secretary of Labor, more than any other position. Thomas Perez is the current U.S. Secretary of Labor. He took office after being confirmed on July 23, 2013. Parties Democratic Republican As of December 2016, there are the oldest being George P. Shultz. The most recent Secretary of Labor to die was William Usery Jr. on December 2016. United States Deputy Secretary of Labor List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Hall of the Secretaries of Labor: Portraits and BiographiesUnited States Secretary of Labor – Incumbent Thomas Perez since July 23, 2013
42. Tom Perez – Thomas Edward "Tom" Perez is an American politician, consumer advocate, civil rights lawyer, the current United States Secretary of Labor. A member of Perez has served as the Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice. Born in New York, he is a graduate of Brown University and Harvard Law School. He was then elected in 2002 serving as the council's president from 2005, until the end of his tenure in 2006. Perez was disqualified for not having 10 years of legal experience in Maryland. On March 2013, he was nominated by President Barack Obama to be the United States Secretary of Labor, replacing outgoing Secretary Hilda Solis. Perez was sworn in on July 23, 2013. He has announced on Twitter his candidacy for Chair of the Democratic National Committee on December 15, 2016. Thomas Edward "Tom" Perez was raised in Buffalo, New York, to parents Grace and Rafael Pérez, who were both first-generation Dominican immigrants. Grace, came to the United States in 1930 after her father, Rafael Brache, was appointed as the Dominican Republic's Ambassador to the United States. She remained in the U.S. after Ambassador Brache was declared persona non grata for speaking out against Dominican President Rafael Trujillo's regime. He was the youngest of five sisters, all of whom but Perez followed their father in becoming physicians. His father died of a attack when Perez was 12 years old. He graduated in 1979. He received his Bachelor of Arts from Brown University in 1983.Tom Perez – Thomas Perez
43. Syria – Largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Yazidis. Sunni Arabs make up the largest group in Syria. Largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In the Islamic era, Damascus was a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. A large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949 -- 71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, terminated by the 1961 Syrian d'état. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur. In the past, others believed that it was derived from the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon. The area designated by the word has changed over time. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of gyps and burnt lime.Syria – Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
44. Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War – Most parties involved in the war in Syria receive various types of support from foreign entities based outside Syria. Since July 2015, Turkey also actively opposes further expansion of the Syrian Kurdish forces along its border. Investigations by reporters suggest that Russia is helping to keep the Syrian economy afloat by transporting hundreds of tonnes of banknotes by airplane. Western diplomats repeatedly criticized Russia's support of the Syrian government; Russia stressed that its actions did not violate international law. In June 2012, Russian president Vladimir Putin said Russia did not support "any side from which the threat of a civil war may emerge". The Russian Orthodox Church spokesman called the intervention by Russia in Syria a "holy fight" against terrorism. Russia claimed the attacks were against the ISIL positions. In autumn 2015, the U.S. ruled out military cooperation in Syria. However, on October 2015, the U.S. and Russia signed a secret technical memorandum of understanding to avoid air incidents over Syria. But I think it’s important to remember that you’ve got a global coalition organized. Russia is the outlier." Iran has provided significant support for Syria in the Syrian Civil War. This is said to include technical support, $9bn in financial support. Ali Khamenei, was reported in September 2011 to be vocally in favor of the Syrian government. Hezbollah has long been an ally of Syria led by the Al-Assad family.Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War – Russian (Lavrov, Putin) and US (Kerry) representatives meet, in the United Nations headquarters in New York, to discuss the situation in Syria on 29 September 2015
45. Iraqi Air Force – The IQAF also acts as a support force for the Iraqi Navy and the Iraqi Army and it allows Iraq to rapidly deploy its developing Army. The Iraqi Air Force was founded with only a few pilots. The force used both Soviet and British aircraft throughout the 1960s. When Saddam Hussein came in 1979, the force grew very quickly when Iraq ordered more Soviet and French aircraft. Its downfall came during the Gulf War and continued while coalition forces enforced no-fly zones. The remains of Iraq's air force were destroyed during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After the invasion, the IQAF was rebuilt, receiving most of its training and aircraft from the United States. The Royal Iraqi Air Force considered its founding day as 22 April 1931, when the first pilots flew in from training in the United Kingdom. The original five pilots were Natiq Mohammed Khalil al-Tay, Mohammed Ali Jawad, Musa Ali. In the years following Iraqi independence, the Air Force was still dependent on the Royal Air Force. The following year, the Air Force showed some growth, increasing its number of pilots to 127. The German units were Special Staff F and Fliegerführer Irak. However a lack of replacements resulted in their departure, following which the coup was defeated by British forces. A roughly 1946 order of battle for the Air Force can be found in Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. Even though the RIrAF now had some modern aircraft, the RIrAF played a small role in the first war against Israel.Iraqi Air Force – An Iraqi Air Force De Havilland Vampire FB.52, before delivery in 1953
46. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The group first proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate and began referring to itself as Islamic State or IS in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions. ISIL is headed and run by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Before their deaths, he had two deputy leaders, Abu Muslim al-Turkmani for Iraq and Abu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, both ethnic Turkmen. Advising al-Baghdadi is a cabinet of senior leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria are controlled by local governors. Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a shura council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. While al-Baghdadi has told followers to "advise me when I err" in sermons, according to observers "any threat, opposition, or even contradiction is instantly eradicated". In 2014 The Wall Street Journal estimated that eight million people live in areas controlled by ISIL. Al-Raqqah in Syria has been under ISIL control since 2013 and in 2014 it became the group's de facto capital city. Civilians, as well as the Islamic State itself, have released footage of some of the human rights abuses. Since December 2013, ongoing clashes have occurred throughout western Iraq between tribal militias, Iraqi security forces, ISIL.Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – A joint US– Iraqi Army training exercise near Ramadi in November 2009. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.
47. Baghdad – Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. Located along the Tigris River, the city became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several academic institutions, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Center of Learning". Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with an estimated population of 1,200,000 people. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgency attacks. The Baghdad is pre-Islamic. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. The name dād "given by", translating to "Bestowed by God" or "God's gift". In Old Persian the first element is related to Slavic bog "god", while the second can be traced to dadāti. A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, meaning "gift of Mithra". The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the etymological origins. When al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the official name on coins, other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name.Baghdad – Zumurrud Khaton tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD), photo of 1932.
48. JC Penney – The J. C. Penney Company, doing business as JCPenney, is a department store with 1,014 locations in 49 U.S. states and Puerto Rico. Most JCPenney stores are located in suburban shopping malls. Before 1966, most of its stores were located in downtown areas. Certain stores are located in power centers. The company has been an retailer since 1998. It has streamlined its distribution while undergoing renovation improvements at store level. James Cash Penney was born in Hamilton, Missouri. After graduating from high school, Penney worked for a local retailer. He relocated at the advice of a doctor hoping that a better climate would improve his health. In 1898, Penney went to work for Thomas Callahan and Guy Johnson, who owned dry stores called Golden Rule stores in Colorado and Wyoming. In 1899, Callahan sent Penney to Evanston, Wyoming, to work in another Golden Rule store. Callahan and Johnson asked Penney to join them in opening a new Golden Rule store. Penney opened the store on April 1902. He purchased full interest in all three locations when Callahan and Johnson dissolved their partnership in 1907. In 1909, Penney moved his headquarters to Salt Lake City, Utah to be closer to banks and railroads.JC Penney – J.C. Penney mother store in Kemmerer, Wyoming in September 2007.
49. Federal Intelligence Service (Germany) – The Federal Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst is the foreign intelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office. Its headquarters are in Berlin. The BND has 300 locations in foreign countries. In 2005, the BND employed around 10 % of them Bundeswehr soldiers; those are officially employed by the Amt für Militärkunde. The budget of the BND for 2015 was €615,577,000. The BND acts as an early system to alert the German government to threats to German interests from abroad. It depends heavily on wiretapping and electronic surveillance of international communications. As Germany's overseas intelligence service, the BND gathers both military and civil intelligence. While the Strategic Reconnaissance Command of the Bundeswehr also fulfills this mission, it is not an service. There is close cooperation between the KSA. The BND is a successor to the Gehlen Organization. The most central figure in its history was its first president. Its main purpose was to collect information on the Red Army. After the war Gehlen worked in West Germany. In 1946 he set up an agency informally known as the Gehlen Organization or simply "The Org" and recruited some of his former co-workers.Federal Intelligence Service (Germany) – Entrance to the Headquarters in Pullach
50. Afghanistan – Afghanistan /æfˈɡænᵻstæn/, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. Its territory covers 652,000 km2, making the 41st largest country in the world. The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began in the 18th century. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country. It remained peaceful during Zahir Shah's forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of civil wars that continues to this day. The Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul - ` alam. The suffix" - stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." An important site of many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan.Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
51. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. In 2016, the Indian economy was the world's sixth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing parity. Following economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, inadequate public healthcare. It has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River.India – Flag
52. Kansas – Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. Its largest city is Wichita. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Thus, the area was a hotbed of chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. On January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland. Kansas is one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans. Kansas with its 213,000 km2 is the 15th most extensive and with the 34th most populous of the 50 United States. Residents of Kansas are called "Kansans", officially. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 1232 m. For millennia, the land, currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541.Kansas – Samuel Seymour's 1819 illustration of a Kansa lodge and dance is the oldest drawing known to be done in Kansas.
53. Guatemala – With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populous state in Central America. Largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved in 1841. From the mid to 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping economic reforms. A military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. Guatemala's abundance of biologically unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is also known for its rich and distinct culture, characterized by a fusion of Spanish and Indigenous influences. The name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees". This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC.Guatemala – Tikal Mayan ruins.
54. Guatemalan Army – The Guatemalan Armed Forces consists of the National Army of Guatemala, the Guatemalan National Defense Navy, the Guatemalan Air Force, the Presidential Honor Guard. The Ministry of National Defence is the agency of the Guatemalan government responsible for the budget, training and policy of the armed forces. Based in Guatemala City, the Defence Ministry is heavily guarded, the President of Guatemala frequently visits. As of 2014 the Minister of National Defence is Major General Manuel Augusto López Ambrosio. The Minister of Defense is responsible for policy. Day-to-day operations are the responsibility of the military chief of staff and the national defense staff. Guatemala is a signatory to the Rio Pact and was a member of the Central American Defense Council. The President of the Republic is commander-in-chief. Prior to 1945 the Defence Ministry was titled the Secretariat of War. It is equipped from France. The air force operates three air bases; the navy has two port bases. The Guatemalan army has a special forces unit known as the Kaibiles. In 2011, a Guatemalan court convicted four members of the Kaibiles, of killing more than 200 civilians in the Dos Erres massacre in 1982. Each man was sentenced to 6,050 years in prison. The Armed Forces today number at around 39,000 active personnel.Guatemalan Army – A Kaibil unit patrolling in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
55. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament. The name Holland is also incorrectly used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" literally influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 % of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below level are man-made. Since the 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 % of the country's current land mass. With a density of 408 people per km2 -- 505 if water is excluded -- the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, Taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. England at 420 people per km2 is also more densely populated when the total area of the Netherlands including water is used. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. This is partly due to the fertility of the mild climate. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union.Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
56. Human Rights Watch – Human Rights Watch is an American-founded international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. The organization's annual expenses totaled $ million in 2011 and $69.2 million in 2014. Helsinki Watch adopted a practice of publicly "naming and shaming" abusive governments with policymakers. Americas Watch was founded in 1981 while civil wars engulfed Central America. Asia Watch, Middle East Watch were added to what was known as "The Watch Committees". In 1988, all of these committees were united under one umbrella to form Human Rights Watch. Pursuant to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Human Rights Watch opposes violations of what it considers human rights. This includes capital discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. HRW advocates freedoms of the press. These reports are used for drawing international attention to abuses and pressuring governments and international organizations to reform. HRW has reported various violations of the laws of war and international humanitarian law. Human Rights Watch also are in need of financial assistance. Human Rights Watch presents the Human Rights Defenders Award to activists around the world who demonstrate leadership and courage in defending human rights. The award winners work closely in investigating and exposing human rights abuses. Human Rights Watch was one of six international NGOs that founded the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers in 1998.Human Rights Watch – Current executive Director Kenneth Roth speaking at the 44th Munich Security Conference 2008
57. Travel visa – A visa is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter and temporarily remain within, or to leave that country. A visa is most commonly a sticker endorsed in other travel document. Some countries do not require visas for short visits. Some countries require that their citizens, well as foreign travelers, obtain an "exit visa" to be allowed to leave the country. Uniquely, the special territory of Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty. Some countries -- such as those in the Schengen Area -- have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in 2015. Some countries do not require a visa such as a result of reciprocal treaty arrangements. A visitor may also be required to pass security and/or health checks upon arrival at the border. In Western Europe in early 20th century, passports and visas were not generally necessary for moving from one country to another. The relatively high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used. Passports and visas became usually necessary travel documents only since World War I. Long before that, in ancient times, passports and visas were usually the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents. Private passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, submitting them to the appropriate authority.Travel visa – A United States visa. Issued by the Consulate General of the United States of America in Milan, Italy. (2014)
58. Work permit – A work permit is the permission to take a job within a foreign country. It may also be a permit given to minors allowing them to work legally under labor laws. Currently, every EU country has a different process for granting work permits to nationals of non-EU countries. To address this issue, the European Commission began work on developing an EU-wide process for the entry of non-EU nationals into the work force. In October 2007, they adopted a proposal to introduce a work permit similar to the United States' "Green Card" program, called the "Blue Card". It is similar with the exception that it will require an employment contract in place prior to migration. This new card will centralize the issuing from Brussels. The procedure to get a permit is quite elaborate since the applicant should prove that no French jobseeker fitted the position. Each of these generally requires a job offer from a UK employer. The UK has stopped accepting work permits in other categories. The UK work system is currently being replaced by a new points-based immigration system. In general, the United States does not require work permits for adult citizens. However, certain aliens are required to have an Employment Authorization Document from the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services of the Department of Homeland Security. The federal government of the United States does not require proof-of-age certificates for a minor to be employed. However, the possession of an certificate constitutes a good faith effort to comply with minimum age requirements of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.Work permit – Applying for working papers, 1908
59. Deportation – Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. Definitions of deportation apply equally to foreigners. Transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, and, if found guilty, punished. The Occupying Power shall not transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. All countries possess permanent residency. In 1954, the executive branch of the U.S. government implemented a program created in response to public hysteria about immigration and immigrants from Mexico. Operation Wetback led from the United States. Already in natural law of the 18th century, philosophers agreed that expulsion of a nation from the territory that it historically inhabits is not allowable. Deportation often requires a specific process that must be validated by senior government official. Deportation can also happen within a state, when a group of people is forcibly resettled to a different part of the country. If ethnic groups are affected by this, it may also be referred to as transfer. The rationale is often that these groups might assist the enemy in insurrection. For example, the American state of Georgia deported 400 female mill workers on the suspicion they were Northern sympathizers. Some historians have estimated the number of deaths from the deportation to be as high as 1 among some populations.Deportation – Prisoners and gendarms on the road to Siberia, 1845
60. Law enforcement in Malaysia – The Royal Malaysia Police is the main agency tasked with maintaining order in Malaysia. The force is a centralised organisation with responsibilities ranging to intelligence gathering. Its headquarters is located at Kuala Lumpur. The constitution, control, employment, recruitment, fund, duties and powers of the police force is specified and governed by the Police Act 1967. An occupied by the Ministry of Home Affairs, RMP have two departments involved in the administration. All departments are led with the rank of Commissioner of Police. The Malaysian Government utilises the services of several auxiliary police, police cadet forces. It is in effect the guard of Malaysia. The agency are there any plans for it be integrated into the Malaysian Armed Forces. Its members are part of the Malaysian Civil Service and report directly to the Prime Minister's Department. The department responsible for administrating the nation’s indirect tax policy. In other words, KDRM administers seven thirty-nine subsidiary laws. Apart from this,KDRM implements eighteen laws for other government agencies. The Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission is a agency in Malaysia that investigates and prosecutes corruption in the public and private sectors. The MACC is currently headed by Chief Commissioner Datuk Abu Kassim Bin Mohamed.Law enforcement in Malaysia – The police officers at Johor Bahru Square, Johore Bahru wearing different uniforms.
61. North Korea – North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation's capital as well as its largest city. To northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. The country is bordered to the south with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone separating the two. The earliest human artifacts found in North Korea have been dated to 8000 BC. There were three kingdoms flourishing on the peninsula in the 1st BC. The name Korea is derived from the Kingdom of Goguryeo, also spelled as Koryŏ, one of East Asia's greatest empires. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. No official peace treaty was ever signed. Both states were accepted in 1991. The DPRK officially formally holds elections. Critics regard it as a dictatorship. Various outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around his family. International organizations have assessed human violations in North Korea as belonging to a category of their own, with no parallel in the contemporary world. Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world movement.North Korea – Jikji, the first known book printed with movable metal type in 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris
62. Nerve agent – Nerve agents are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs. The disruption is caused by blocking an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. The use of dangerous gases in warfare is forbidden already in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and Geneva Protocol of 1925. The primary portal of entry into the body is the respiratory system. As their name suggests, nerve agents attack the nervous system of the human body. All such agents function the same way: by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine in the synapse. ACh gives the signal for muscles to contract, thus, if it cannot be broken down, muscles are prevented from relaxing. Initial symptoms following exposure to nerve agents are a runny nose, constriction of the pupils. Soon after, the victim will experience nausea and drooling. As the victim continues to lose control of their bodily functions, they will involuntarily salivate, lacrimate, urinate, experience gastrointestinal pain and vomiting. Blisters and burning of the eyes and/or lungs may also occur. This phase is followed by initially myoclonic jerks followed by status epilepticus. Death then comes at the neuromuscular junction of the diaphragm. The effects of nerve agents increase with continued exposure. Survivors of nerve poisoning almost invariably suffer chronic neurological damage.Nerve agent – Chemical form of the nerve agent tabun, the first ever synthesized
63. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is an American politician, businessman, television personality, the President-elect of the United States. Trump is scheduled to take office as the 45th President on January 20, 2017. In 1971, Trump took control of Elizabeth Trump & Son, later renamed The Trump Organization. During his career, he has built, renovated or managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos, golf courses. Trump has lent the use of his name to brand various products. Trump became a fixture of television as he hosted The Apprentice on NBC from 2004 to 2015. As of 2016, Forbes listed Trump with a net worth of $4.5 billion. He withdrew before voting began. Trump ultimately decided against it. In June 2015, Trump quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 contenders in the Republican primaries. In July he was formally nominated at the Republican Convention. Trump's campaign received international attention. Many of his statements on social media, at campaign rallies were controversial or false. Anti-Trump protests occurred during his campaign and after the election. He won the general election on November 2016, gaining a majority of the U.S.Donald Trump – Donald Trump
64. State (United States) – A U.S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. No approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 38 million, in area from 1,214 square miles to 663,268 square miles. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state. State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. Each provides for a government, consisting of three branches: executive, judicial. States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution; among them ratifying constitutional amendments. Over time, the U.S. Constitution has been amended, the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did. Their residents are represented in a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.State (United States) – U.S. states
65. Legalization of cannabis – The legality of cannabis varies from country to country. Possession of cannabis has been since the beginning of widespread cannabis prohibition in the late 1930s. However, possession of the plant in small quantities has been decriminalized in several parts of the world. For example, Cannabis in Canada will be legal for recreational use after legislation is passed in spring 2017. On 10 Uruguay became the first nation in the world to legalize the sale, cultivation, distribution of cannabis. Open sales at "coffeeshops" in the Netherlands if certain rules are followed. The medicinal use of cannabis is legal in a number including Canada, the Czech Republic and Israel. Medical cannabis in the United States is legal in 29 states as of December 2016. Some infractions are taken more seriously to the cultivation, use, possession or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. A few jurisdictions have lessened penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, making it punishable by a fine, rather than imprisonment. Drug tests to detect cannabis have resulted in jail sentences and loss of employment. Cannabis has been for thousands of years. In India and Nepal cannabis has long been used in religious rituals. Under the cannabis, nineteenth century medical practitioners sold the drug, popularizing the word among English-speakers. A 1905 Bulletin from the US Department of Agriculture lists twenty-nine states with laws mentioning cannabis.Legalization of cannabis – World laws governing medical cannabis legality.
66. Cannabis – Cannabis is a genus of flowering plant that includes three species or subspecies, sativa, indica, ruderalis. The plant is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils, as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of the principal psychoactive constituent. Many plants have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC, obtained by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and oil, are extracted from the plant. Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally. In 2014 there were an estimated million cannabis users. This percentage has not changed significantly between 2014. Cannabis is an annual, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately digitate, with serrate leaflets. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions northwest of the Himalayas.Cannabis – Cannabis
67. Justice Department (United States) – The current Attorney General is Loretta Lynch. The U.S. Attorney General was initially a part-time job. This grew with the bureaucracy. On February 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice. Both the Senate and House passed the bill. President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill on June 22, 1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1870. Prior to the Civil War, in February of 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. The law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred from the Department of Interior. A facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the project. On Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over one million square feet of space. The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served for the entire building contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside.Justice Department (United States) – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
68. South Africa – South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world with close to 53 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. It is the only country that borders both the Indian Ocean. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of Asian, multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, among the highest number of any country in the world. Regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising racial segregation. Since 1994, all linguistic groups have had political representation in the country's democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "Rainbow Nation" to describe the country's newly multicultural diversity in the wake of segregationist apartheid ideology. The World Bank classifies a newly industrialised country. Its economy is the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa.South Africa – Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
69. Immigration to South Africa – According to official South African statistics, as of 2011, 2.2 million foreigners live in South Africa. Coloureds are mixed-race people primarily descended from the earliest settlers, the indigenous peoples. The 2014 HSBC Expat Experience Report ranked South Africa 14th in their table based on expat experiences. Immigration assumptions by Statistics South Africa to South Africa based on race. Negative numbers represent net migration from South Africa to other countries. Immigrants can choose between permanent residence permits. Work permit options include the general work permit, the quota work permit. Companies, wishing to employ a large number of foreign employees can apply for a corporate permit for South Africa. Cape Town's growing process outsourcing industry regularly makes use of this work permit option in order to legally employ foreign nationals for customer service positions. Spouses of South Africans or permanent residency holders are often encouraged to apply for a life partnership or spouse permit. Business, study endorsements can be added to this permit. For foreigners wishing to retire in South Africa, financially independent permit can be issued. Study permits can be issued to foreigners of any age wishing to study at one of South Africa's accredited learning institutions. When entering South Africa for the first time foreign passports are stamped with a permit, valid for 90 days. A man was burnt to death near Reiger Park on the East Rand.Immigration to South Africa – Population of South Africa By Nationality and Place of Birth
70. Philippine – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has a population of approximately 100 million. It is the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.Philippine – King Philip II of Spain.
71. Leni Robredo – Maria Leonor "Leni" Santo Tomas Robredo is a Filipino lawyer and social activist, the 14th and current Vice President of the Philippines. Robredo is the second woman to serve as Vice President from Bicol. Prior to the accident, her involvement in public life was as social activist. Maria Leonor Santo Tomas Gerona was born on April 1964 in Naga, Camarines Sur, Philippines. Robredo was the first of three children born to Salvacion Sto. Tomas. Gerona was educated at the Universidad de Sta. Isabel in Naga City, graduating from high school in 1982. Robredo then graduated from the School of Economics of the University of the Philippines Diliman in 1986. Here Robredo met then-Program Director Jesse Robredo, who would eventually become her husband. From 1998 to 2008, she became the coordinator of a Naga-based alternative legal support group. Later, the group's focus shifted to include helping rural women to acquire capital in order to become competitive markets. In addition, Robredo founded an organization that provides training and livelihood opportunities for women, in 1989. In 2012, she was named the chairperson of the Liberal Party in Camarines Sur. Robredo ran during the Philippine general elections of 2013.Leni Robredo – Leni Robredo in 2013
72. Liberal Party (Philippines) – It was the ruling party of the Philippines. Abad, Jr. Franklin Drilon, Mar Roxas, Benigno Aquino III. The Party was founded by Manuel Roxas, the first President of the Third Philippine Republic. It was formed from what was once the "Liberal Wing" of the old Nacionalista Party. Two more Presidents of the Philippines elected into office came from the LP: the redoubtable Diosdado Macapagal. During the days leading to his declaration of martial law, Marcos would find his old party to his quest for one-man rule. Not even the party continued to fight the dictatorship despite the costs. Many of its members would be prosecuted and even killed during this time. This ironically cost the party dearly, losing for it the elections of 1992. Days later, the Supreme Court proclaimed the true president of the party leaving the Atienza wing expelled. The party is in centre of the political spectrum. It likes to distance itself from the political extremes on the right.Liberal Party (Philippines) – Liberal Party
73. The New York Times – The New York Times has won more than any other news organization. The New York Times is ranked 39th in the world by circulation. Following industry trends, its circulation has fallen to fewer than one million daily since 1990. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". The New York Times is owned by The New York Times Company. Jr. the Publisher and the Chairman of the Board, is a member of the Ochs-Sulzberger family that has controlled the paper since 1896. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the International New York Times. The paper's motto, "That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. The newspaper shortened its name in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the 1890s. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his presidential campaign. The New York Times was acquired in 1896. Under Ochs' guidance, expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, reputation.The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
74. CNN – The Cable News Network is an American basic cable and satellite television channel, owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first all-news television channel in the United States. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. to distinguish the American channel from its international sister network, CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over million U.S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U.S. channel extends throughout Canada. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in territories. As of February 2015, CNN is available to approximately 96,289,000 cable, telco television households in the United States. The Cable News Network was launched on June 1, 1980. By Ted Turner the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, specialized closed-circuit channels. The company has several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts. On October 1987, Jessica McClure, an 18-month-old toddler, fell down a well in Midland, Texas. The event helped make its name.CNN – Replica of the newsroom at CNN Center.
75. Los Angeles Times – The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in the fourth most widely distributed newspaper in the country. The Times is currently owned by Tronc, Inc. formerly known as Tribune Publishing. The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T.J. Caystile. Unable to pay the bill, Cole and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S.J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made a financial success. In an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. The efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.Los Angeles Times – Front page from October 21, 2008
76. New York Daily News – The New York Daily News is an American newspaper based in New York City. It is the fourth-most widely circulated daily newspaper in the United States. It was the first U.S. daily printed in tabloid format. As of 2014, it is headquartered at 4 New York Plaza in Lower Manhattan. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. His cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune founder Joseph Medill. On his back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 1919. By August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625. Still, readership steadily grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. Prominent cartoonists have included Bill Gallo, Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor.New York Daily News – The August 21, 2014 front page
77. The Hill (newspaper) – The Hill is an American political newspaper published in Washington, D.C. since 1994. It is published by Capitol Hill Publishing, owned by Inc.. Focusing on politics, business and international relations, The Hill coverage includes Congress, the White House and federal campaigns. The Hill's first editor was a former correspondent in the Washington bureau of The New York Times. In 2003, Hugo Gurdon, previously a foreign correspondent, became The Hill's editor in chief. Gurdon turned The Hill into a daily during congressional sessions. In 2014, Gurdon was replaced by his managing editor, Bob Cusack. The newspaper has the largest circulation of any Capitol Hill publication, with more than 24,000 print readers. James Carville Ron Christie David Keene Josh Marshall Byron York Official websiteThe Hill (newspaper) – The Hill
78. Daily Mail – The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982. Irish editions of the daily paper were launched in 1947 and 2006 respectively. It had an daily circulation of 1,510,824 copies in November 2016. Its website has more than million unique visitors per month. Switched to a compact format on 3 May 1971, the 75th anniversary of its founding. On this date it also absorbed the Daily Sketch, published by the same company. Circulation figures according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations in March 2014 show daily sales of 1,708,006 for the Daily Mail. The current chairman and main shareholder, is that the circulation be maintained. The Mail has been edited by Paul Dacre since 1992. The Daily Mail, devised by his brother Harold, was first published on 4 May 1896. It was an immediate success. 19th-century Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, dismissed the Daily Mail as "a newspaper produced by office boys for office boys." At the end of the Boer Wars, the circulation was over a million, making it the largest in the world. From the beginning, the Mail also set out to entertain its readers with human interest stories, serials, competitions.Daily Mail – Daily Mail front page in August 2010.
79. BBC – The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. The BBC operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Britain's first public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important civil communications. A Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform, entertain". The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired. The BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was also required to source all news from external wire services.BBC – BBC Television Centre at White City, West London, which opened in 1960 and closed in 2013
80. Politico – Politico is an American political-journalism organization based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally. It distributes content via television, the Internet, The Politico newspaper, podcasts. Its coverage in Washington, D.C. includes the U.S. Congress, lobbying, the presidency. Frederick J. Ryan Jr. served as its chief executive officer. Robert L. Allbritton is publisher. In October 2013, longtime editor of The Politico, took over as CEO and president. In 2015, Politico launched a European edition called Politico Europe. The newspaper has a circulation of approximately 40,000, distributed for free in Washington, D.C. and Manhattan. The newspaper prints up to five issues a week while Congress sometimes publishes one issue a week when Congress is in recess. It carries advertising, including a large help-wanted section listing Washington political jobs. Politico is a partner with several news outlets that distribute its video, print and audio content. Partners include CBS News, Allbritton Communications's ABC station WJLA and cable channel NewsChannel 8, radio station WTOP-FM, Yahoo! News election coverage. Journalists are encouraged to promote their work elsewhere. Though Politico seeks to break the traditional mold, it expects to make much of its money initially from Washington, D.C. -- focused newspaper advertising.Politico – The February 15, 2007, front page of The Politico
81. BuzzFeed – BuzzFeed is an American private Internet media company based in New York City. BuzzFeed was founded as a viral lab focusing on tracking viral content, by Jonah Peretti and John S. Johnson III. Co-founder and chairman of The Huffington Post, started as a co-founder and investor in BuzzFeed and is now the executive chairman as well. The company has grown into a global media and company providing coverage on a variety of topics including politics, DIY, animals and business. In late 2011 Ben Smith of Politico was hired as Editor-in-Chief to expand the site into serious journalism, reportage. In August 2014, BuzzFeed raised $ million from the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, more than doubling previous rounds of funding. The site was reportedly valued by Andreessen Horowitz. BuzzFeed generates its revenue through native advertising that matches its own editorial content, does not rely on banner ads. Buzzfeed also uses its familiarity with social media to target conventional advertising like Facebook. In August 2015, NBCUniversal made a $200 million investment in Buzzfeed. In December 2014, growth firm General Atlantic acquired $50M in secondary stock of the company. In October 2016, BuzzFeed raised $200 million at a valuation of roughly $1.7 billion. BuzzFeed's first acquisition was in 2012 when the company purchased a startup founded by Rob Fishman, initially focused on optimizing Facebook ads. On October 2014, BuzzFeed announced its next acquisition, taking hold of Torando Labs. The Torando team was to become BuzzFeed's first data team.BuzzFeed – Jonah Peretti founded BuzzFeed in November 2006.
82. Breitbart News – Breitbart News Network is a right-wing or far-right American news, opinion and commentary website founded in 2007 by conservative commentator and entrepreneur Andrew Breitbart. It also has a daily radio program on the Sirius XM Patriot channel called Breitbart News Daily. Breitbart is headquartered in Los Angeles, California, with bureaus in Texas, London, Jerusalem. Co-founder Larry Solov is the owner and CEO, while Joel Pollak is the senior editor-at-large, Alexander Marlow is managing-editor. The owners of Breitbart deny their website has any connection to the alt-right, or has ever supported any racist or white supremacist views. Breitbart has been described as a "potent voice" for Donald Trump's presidential campaign, the political scientist Matthew Goodwin described Breitbart as being "ultra-conservative" in orientation. Andrew Breitbart launched breitbart.com as a news aggregator in 2005. The website's initial growth was largely fueled by links from the Drudge Report. In 2007, Breitbart launched a video blog, Breitbart.tv. We were sick of the anti-Israel bias of the mainstream media and J-Street." As part of that commitment, he founded Breitbart.com, a website designed to become "the Huffington Post of the right." Breitbart has exclusively re-posted the Anthony Weiner sexting scandal, the resignation of Shirley Sherrod, the ACORN 2009 undercover videos controversy. Following Breitbart's death in 2012, the site was redesigned, bringing the formerly distinct "Big" websites under one umbrella website at Breitbart.com. There is also Breitbart News Daily, a program, broadcast on Sirius XM radio. Breitbart, the website's founder, died in March 2012.Breitbart News – The logo of Breitbart
83. One America News Network – One America News Network is an American cable news television channel, owned by Herring Networks, Inc.. The network is headquartered in San Diego, California, operates a news bureau in Washington, D.C. Envisioned as a conservative-oriented news network, OAN's stated focus is delivering a credible source of national and international news 24/7. OAN features news political talk shows, along with network documentary-style reports. Its coverage attempts to maintain objectivity while its political talk shows illustrate a conservative view. The channel was launched on July 4, 2013. One America has limited national carriage on Verizon FiOS and AT&T U-verse, along with a number of regional cable providers, including GCI. As of 2015, it is available in 15 million homes. An independent and family-owned national video programming company owns and operates OAN and sister channel AWE. When the network began in 2013 it had a limited partnership with The Washington Times. The move ended OAN's relationship with The Washington Times, which provided analysis, well as a lease space arrangement, for the network. There is nothing wrong with Fox. The problem is that if you take the channel lineup, the sources of national news tend to lean to the left…and all we have is Fox.” One America News – the network's flagship newscast airs daily around the clock. Sarah Palin was named as an interim host.One America News Network – The original logo representation of the channel
84. The Washington Times – The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper. It is published as a broadsheet at Washington, D.C.. Its slogan being, "America's Newspaper," The Washington Times covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics. A tabloid edition aimed at a national audience is also published. A typical issue includes sections for world and national news, business, politics, editorials and opinion pieces, local news, sports, travel. It is currently owned by diversified conglomerate Operations Holdings, a wholly owned subsidiary of the church. The chief aide of church founder and leader Sun Myung Moon, was the founding president and the founding chairman of the board. Moon asked a rabbi and college professor who had written on the Holocaust, to serve on the board of directors. The newspaper's first publisher was James R. Whelan. At the time of founding of the Times Washington had the Washington Post. Massimo Introvigne, in his 2000 book The Unification Church, said that the Post had been "the most anti-Unificationist paper in the United States." A large percentage of the staff came from the Washington Star. Although USA Today used color in the same way, it took several years for the Washington Post, others to do the same. It ran television commercials highlighting this fact. Later, this practice was abandoned.The Washington Times – The Washington Times
85. ABC News – ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company, owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. Television broadcasting was suspended, however, during World War II. ABC news broadcasts have continued as the network expanded nationwide, a process that took many years beginning with its launch in 1948. However, through the early 1970s, ABC News' programs consistently ranked third in viewership behind news programs on CBS and NBC. In June 1998, ABC News, ITN sold their respective interests in Worldwide Television News to the Associated Press. 20/20 ABC World News Tonight America This Morning This Week What Would You Do? Formerly known as ABC Radio News, ABC News Radio feeds, with newscasts on the hour to its affiliates. ABC News Radio is the largest commercial radio organization in the US. Satellite News Channel was a joint venture between Group W that started on June 21, 1982 as a satellite-delivered cable television network. However, this channel had difficulty getting clearance from cable systems, so ABC News and Group W decided to sell it to CNN. CNN ceased Satellite News Channel's operations on October 1983. SNC was either replaced on most cable systems. Group W would eventually shut down 7 years later, in 1999. It was offered on mobile phones. It delivered breaking news, wide range of entertainment and lifestyle programming.ABC News – ABC News
86. CBS News – CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS. The president of CBS News is David Rhodes. CBS operates a 24-hour network called CBSN, the first live anchored 24-hour streaming news network, exclusively online and on smart devices. In December 1930 CBS chief William S. Paley hired journalist Paul W. White away from United Press as CBS's editor. Paley authorized White to interrupt programming if events warranted. CBS disregarded an embargo when it broke the story of the Lindbergh kidnapping in 1932, using on-the-air reporting. Radio networks scooped print outlets with news of the 1932 presidential election. In March 1933 White was named vice president and general manager at CBS. As the first head of CBS News, he began to build an organization that soon established a legendary reputation. In 1935 White sent him to London in 1937 to run CBS Radio's European operation. White led a staff that would come to include Charles Collingwood, William L. Shirer, Eric Sevareid, John Charles Daly, Joseph C. Harsch Cecil Brown, Elmer Davis, Quincy Howe, H. V. Kaltenborn and Robert Trout. "CBS was getting its ducks in a row for the biggest news story in history, World War II", wrote radio historian John Dunning. Most of the newscasts featured Hubbell reading a script with only occasional cutaways to a map or still photograph. When Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 1941, WCBW, took to the air at 8:45 p.m. with an extensive special report.CBS News – Douglas Edwards on the CBS news set in 1952.
87. NBC News – NBC News is a division of the American broadcast network NBC. The division operates under a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, all owned by Comcast. The group's various operations report to the president of Deborah Turness. NBC News aired the first news program on February 21, 1940. The group's broadcasts are aired from 30 Rockefeller Center, NBC's headquarters in New York City. The division Meet The Press. NBC News also offers 70 years of historic footage from the NBCUniversal Archives online. NBC News operates a 24-hour cable network known as MSNBC, which includes the organization's flagship daytime news operation, MSNBC Live. The network shares staff and editorial control with NBC News. The first American television newscast in history was made by NBC News on February 21, 1940, anchored by Lowell Thomas and airing weeknights at 6:45 p.m. Due to wartime restrictions, there were no live telecasts of the 1944 conventions, although films of the events were reportedly shown over WNBT the next day. NBC's share in New York was double that of any other outlet. The Camel News Caravan, anchored by John Cameron Swayze, debuted on NBC. Lacking the graphics and technology of later years, it nonetheless contained many of the elements of modern newscasts. .NBC News – 1959–72 logo
88. The Wall Street Journal – The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published a week by a division of News Corp.. The newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The Wall Street Journal is the largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. The newspaper has won 39 Pulitzer Prizes through 2015 and derives its name from Wall Street in the heart of the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. The Journal has been printed continuously by Charles Dow, Charles Bergstresser. They were later aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was officially launched. It was the first of several indices of stock and bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time, initially written by Charles Dow. His predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of independent financial reporting -- a novelty in the early days of business journalism. In 1921, America's financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before the stock crash that greatly affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007. In 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize, for William Henry Grimes's editorials.The Wall Street Journal – April 28, 2008 front page
89. Bloomberg News – Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. As of 2015, John Micklethwait served as editor-in-chief. The Bloomberg News agency was established with a team of six people. Winkler was first editor-in-chief. In 2010, Bloomberg News included more than 2,300 reporters in 72 countries and 146 new bureaus worldwide. Bloomberg Business News was conceived as a way of expanding the services offered through the terminals. The secretary's spurned boyfriend calls to tip you off. You get an independent verification that the story is true. Then the phone rings. We will return all the terminals we currently rent from you."' "What would you do?" Winkler asked. "Go with the story," Bloomberg replied. "Our lawyers will love the fees you generate." Winkler recalls the time at which he became willing to help Bloomberg build his news organization.Bloomberg News – Bloomberg News
90. Fox News – Fox News Channel is an American basic cable and satellite news television channel, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group subsidiary of 21st Century Fox. As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 American households receive the Fox News Channel. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of New York City, New York. The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched to 17 million cable subscribers. It grew during the late 2000s to become a dominant cable news network in the United States. Rupert Murdoch is the current chairman and acting CEO of Fox News. Fox News Channel has been accused of biased promoting the Republican Party. Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News Channel employees have responded that reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting. In February 1996, after former U.S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut million households were able to watch FNC; however, it was absent from the media markets of New York City and Los Angeles. Rolling coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines.Fox News – Saint Anselm College Quad with the "Fox-Box", from which the network reported live during the 2004 and 2008 New Hampshire primaries
91. Time (magazine) – Time is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It was founded for decades was dominated by Henry Luce, who built a highly profitable stable of magazines. A European edition also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney, Australia. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian edition. As of 2015, its circulation was 3,036,602. Richard Stengel was the managing editor to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs has been the managing editor since October 2013. Time magazine was created by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States. The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They used the slogan "Take Time -- It's Brief". It set out to tell the news for many decades the magazine's cover depicted a single person.Time (magazine) – The first issue of Time (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker Joseph G. Cannon.
92. Associated Press – The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. English-language news services, such as the British Broadcasting Corporation, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States. Some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time; documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. The revelations led in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as the Associated Press. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish -- American War, there was a new incentive to print on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy, integrity.Associated Press – The AP headquarters in October 2008, located at 450 West 33rd Street, in New York City.
93. War in North-West Pakistan – The armed conflict began in 2004, when tensions, rooted in the Pakistan Army's search for al-Qaeda fighters in Pakistan's mountainous Waziristan area, escalated into armed resistance. Pakistan's actions were presented to the international War on Terror. Clashes further allied with the Arab fighters, in 2008 -- 10. The TNSM established in 1992 allied with the TTP and LeI. Various names have been applied by the authors and historians. War in North-West Pakistan is the most commonly used name in English. It has also been called the War in Waziristan. On the other hand, Farrukh Saleem, termed the war as the "Fourth Generation War" or the "4G War". In the aftermath of Battle of Tora Bora, formal deployment was begun by the Pakistan Army, at the behest of the Pakistan Government, in 2002. The conservative parties, most notably the Pakistan Muslim League, were very critical of such troop deployments in the region. The XI Corps, under its commander Lieutenant-General Jan Aurkzai, entered the Tirah Valley since Pakistan's independence in 1947. The army troops later moved into the Shawal Valley of North Waziristan, eventually entering South Waziristan. A monitoring base was established by the Special Service Group in 2003. Criticism of the United States grew in Peshawar by a massive communist party in 2003, demanding an end to the operations. In 2004, the troubles mounted as the Tribes repeated PAF's flights in the region as an act of subjugation.War in North-West Pakistan – The Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, aflame after being bombed in September 2008. For a map of the current military situation in Pakistan, see here.
94. Lahore – Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the 32nd most populous urban city in the world. The city is located near the border with India. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2014. Lahore is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Lodis, Marathas and the Delhi Sultanate. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire, serving for a number of years. The city then became capital of the Sikh Empire, before becoming the capital of the Punjab under British rule. Following the Partition of British India, Lahore became the capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore is one of Pakistan's most cosmopolitan cities. It exerts a cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is home to Pakistan's film industry Lollywood, is a major centre of Qawwali music. The Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques.Lahore – Clockwise from left: Lahore Fort, Minar e Pakistan, Wapda House Quaid-e-Azam Library and Badshahi Mosque
95. Iraqi Police – The Iraqi Police is the uniformed police force responsible for the enforcement of civil law in Iraq. "IP" refers to "ISF" to the broader Iraqi security forces. The current commander of the Federal Police Forces is Lieutenant General Raed Shaker Jawdat. The Iraqi Police has some links with the pre-war Iraqi police service. The prewar service was low in repression priority and was professional. Therefore, the police was expected to be a useful instrument also after the invasion. The civil disorder caused this project to be abandoned. Following the emergency stipend payment, the U.S. Army military police conducted emergency training. In the south the British forces began to establish local police forces in coordination with Shiite religious leaders. In the first four months, over 4,000 officers were trained. In 2003 recruitment, applicants were mostly former soldiers and police officers who served under the Baathist rule. At the end of 2003, Iraqi Police formally totalled 50,000 officers. The Iraqi Police is under the command of Major General Hussein Jassim Alawadi. The Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq is a U.S. military organisation tasked to train, mentor and equip all Iraqi civilian security forces. MNSTC-I also has the goal of training their counterparts in the Iraqi government of Iraq to assume their role.Iraqi Police – Iraqi Police in training
96. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
97. Giant panda – The giant panda, also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the red panda. Though it belongs to the Carnivora, the giant panda's diet is over 99 % bamboo. Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, even meat in the form of birds, rodents or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, bananas along with specially prepared food. The giant panda also in neighbouring Shaanxi and Gansu. As a result of farming, other development, the giant panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived. The giant panda is a reliant vulnerable species. A 2007 report showed 239 pandas living in another 27 outside the country. As of December 2014, 49 giant pandas lived outside China living in 18 zoos in 13 different countries. Some reports also show that the number of giant pandas in the wild is on the rise. In March 2015, Mongabay stated that the giant panda population had increased by 268, or 16.8 %, to 1,864 individuals. In 2016, the IUCN reclassified the species to "vulnerable". While the dragon has often served as China's national symbol, internationally the giant panda appears at least commonly.Giant panda – Giant panda
98. Bao Bao – Bao Bao is a female giant panda cub who lives at the National Zoo in Washington D.C. Bao Bao is one of only several hundred giant pandas alive today in captivity, among fewer than 2,000 giant pandas in the world. She was born at the National Zoo in Washington D.C.. The cub of Tian Tian, Bao Bao is a result of artificial insemination of Mei Xiang on March 23, 2013. In 2013, there were an unusually high number of giant cub births in zoos around the world. Bao Bao will be sent to China when she is 4 years old. Bao Bao's public debut at the National Zoo was on January 2014. Bao Bao does not consistently respond as an adult panda would - even to her mother Mei's unique bleat. Bao Bao has moved inside when called more often, instead of remaining in her favorite trees, resting. Bao Bao has learned to follow Mei outside most days, so is rarely carried out now. Bao Bao is now being trained in targeting behaviors; she was touching her nose to a target at about 5 months. Now Bao Bao can follow one partway inside from the outdoor yard. Bao Bao has started sampling it - another major milestone. Fruitsicles are her preferred rewards over cooked sweet potato, diluted apple juice. She celebrated her first birthday with a giant birthday cake made of frozen fruits and vegetables.Bao Bao – Bao Bao in April 2014 climbing a tree
99. China – China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed based in the capital of Beijing. The country's urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China has been characterized as a potential superpower. Mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, South China seas. China emerged in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, reformed numerous times. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is largest by purchasing power parity. China is also second-largest importer of goods. China has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.China – Yinxu, ruins of an ancient palace dating from the Shang Dynasty (14th century BCE)
100. Oil pipeline – Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe. The latest data, in 2014, gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles of pipeline in 120 countries of the world. The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline was in three countries. Pipeline and Gas Journal’s worldwide survey figures indicate that 118,623 miles of pipelines are planned and under construction. Of these, 88,976 miles represent projects in the planning and phase; 29,647 miles reflect pipelines in various stages of construction. Any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pneumatic tubes using compressed air can be used to transport solid capsules. Oil pipelines are made from plastic tubes which are usually buried. The oil is moved by pump stations along the pipeline. Natural gas are lightly pressurised into liquids known as Natural Gas Liquids. Natural gas pipelines are constructed of steel. Accidents have been rare. Hydrogen transport is the transportation of hydrogen through a pipe. District teleheating systems use a network of insulated pipes which transport heated water, pressurized hot water or sometimes steam to the customer. There have been various accidents.Oil pipeline – An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline.
101. Met Office – The Met Office is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency and fund of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The chief scientist is Professor Stephen Belcher. The Met Office makes meteorological predictions across all timescales from weather forecasts to change. The National Meteorological Library and Archive are part of the Met Office. The Met Office was established in 1854 under Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy as a service to mariners. FitzRoy established a network of 15 coastal stations from which visual gale warnings could be provided for ships at sea. The Met Office started in 1861 to provide weather forecasts to newspapers. Publication of forecasts recommenced in April 1879. In 1936 the Met Office split to the Royal Navy being provided by its own forecasting services. It became an executive agency of the Ministry of Defence in a quasi-governmental role, being required to act commercially. Following a machinery of change, the Met Office became part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills on 18 July 2011. It has a worldwide presence -- including offices in Gibraltar and on the Falklands. Royal Navy weather forecasts are generally provided by naval officers, not Met Office personnel. The Shipping Forecast is broadcast on BBC Radio 4, for those traversing the seas around the British Isles.Met Office – Former Met Office building in Bracknell, Berkshire before relocation to Exeter, since demolished
102. Wales – Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Bristol Channel to the south. It has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country has a changeable, maritime climate. The whole of Wales was incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 -- 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. National feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. Two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and in the nearby valleys. Wales' 2010 gross value added was # billion. The language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness.Wales – Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
103. Scotland – Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. . Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Other urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 6 MEPs. Scotland is also the British -- Irish Parliamentary Assembly. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. The Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period.Scotland – Edinburgh Castle. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of this early settlement is unclear.
104. England – England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated to the south. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain mostly comprises low plains, especially in southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the south west. The capital is London, the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.England – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
105. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
106. Labour Party (UK) – The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Labour later served from 1940 to 1945, after which it formed a government under Clement Attlee. Labour was also to 1970 under Harold Wilson and first under Wilson and then James Callaghan. Having won 232 seats in the 2015 general election, the party is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The party also organises in Northern Ireland, but does not contest elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly. The Labour Party holds status in the Socialist International. In September 2015, Jeremy Corbyn was elected Leader of the Labour Party. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and largely middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. In the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. The leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with left-wing groups. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of left-wing organisations -- unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to coordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population. It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary.Labour Party (UK) – Keir Hardie, one of the Labour Party's founders and its first leader
107. UK Independence Party – The UK Independence Party is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Newton Abbot, Devon and currently led by Paul Nuttall. At Westminster, UKIP has one Member of Parliament in the House of Commons and three representatives in the House of Lords. It has 20 Members of the European Parliament, making the jointly the largest party in the Parliament. It has six Assembly Members in the National Assembly for Wales and has 488 councillors in UK local government. UKIP has been identified by political scientists as part of the broader European radical right. Its ideological approach is that of right-wing populism, employing populist rhetoric to distinguish itself from the political establishment. Promoting nationalist agenda, it characterises the latter approach as a civic nationalism, although the accuracy of this description has been disputed. Influenced by Thatcherism, it promotes economically liberal policies while appealing to traditional social values. UKIP was founded as the Anti-Federalist League, a single-issue Eurosceptic party. Renamed UKIP in 1993, the party adopted a wider platform, influenced by its ideological heritage on the right-wing of the Conservative Party. The party's early growth was slow and largely eclipsed by the Eurosceptic Referendum Party. At the 2015 general election, the party gained the third-largest vote seat in the House of Commons. Governed by National Executive Committee, UKIP is divided with an additional one representing Gibraltar. UKIP began as the Anti-Federalist League, a political party established by the historian Alan Sked.UK Independence Party – A UKIP campaign bus, 2004
108. Paul Nuttall – Paul Andrew Nuttall MEP is a British politician and leader of the UK Independence Party. Born in Bootle in Merseyside, he was completed his A-Levels at Hugh Baird College in Bootle. Nuttall lectured at Liverpool Hope University between 2004 and 2006 after his graduation. In 2004, he did not complete it. Nuttall is a Catholic. In 2015, while appearing on BBC TV's Question Time, Nuttall stated that he was one of the survivors of the Hillsborough disaster in 1989. He grew up during the 1980s. On November 2016 Nuttall became leader of the UK Independence Party with 62.2 % of the vote. He contested the parliamentary seat of Bootle at the 2005 general election, polling 4.1 % of the vote. In 2009, he was elected to the European Parliament. At the 2010 general election, Nuttall came fourth, polling 6.1 % of the vote. Labour's candidate Debbie Abrahams held the seat, while Nuttall increased the UKIP vote share by almost two percentage points, retaining his deposit. In 2015, Nuttall came second behind Labour, with a 10.9 % vote share. On moral issues, more than any other political party, are more in line with Catholic thought. Whether it's on same-sex marriage, we are absolutely 100 per cent behind the Catholic Church."Paul Nuttall – Paul Nuttall MEP
109. Conservative Party (UK) – The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the governing party, having won a majority of seats in the House of Commons after the 2015 general election. The party's leader Theresa May is currently serving as Prime Minister. It is the largest party in local government with 8,702 councillors. In the 1920s, the Liberal vote greatly diminished and the Labour Party became the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers led governments including Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher's tenure led to wide-ranging economic liberalisation. The Conservatives are the joint-second largest British party in the European Parliament, with twenty MEPs, sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The party is a member of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe Europarty and the International Democrat Union. The party is the second-largest in the Scottish Parliament and third-largest in the Welsh Assembly. The party is also organised in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The Conservative Party traces its origins to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger. They were known as "Pittites". After Pitt's death the term "Tory" came into use. This was an allusion to a political grouping which had no organisational continuity with the Pittite party.Conservative Party (UK) – Sir Robert Peel, twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and founder of the Conservative Party, as well as the 'most considered' first Prime Minister of the UK.
110. French presidential election, 2017 – The first round of the 2017 French presidential election will be held on 23 April 2017. Should no candidate win an outright majority, a run-off between the top two will be held on 7 May 2017. Incumbent president François Hollande of the Socialist Party declined to do so on 1 December 2016. The Socialist Party will hold a presidential primary in January 2017. Fillon will be the party's nominee for the presidential race. The leader of the far-right National Front, is the third significant frontrunner in the presidential race. In May 2015, the Union for a Popular Movement changed its name to The Republicans. On 1 President François Hollande announced he will not run for a second and final term. The decision is not completely unexpected due to Hollande's low approval ratings. In his announcement, Hollande stated that he did not want to further divide the left. In June 2016 it was announced that the Socialist Party would choose their candidate in an open primary, as happened in 2011. French legislative election, 2017French presidential election, 2017 – France
111. Yannick JadotYannick Jadot – References 
112. Raqqa – It is located 40 kilometres east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The city was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, al-Raqqah was the sixth largest city in Syria. In 2013, the city was captured by the Islamic State of the Levant. ISIL went on to make the city its headquarters in Syria in 2014. As a result, the city has been hit from the Syrian government, Russia, several other countries. Most non-Sunni religious structures in the city have been destroyed by ISIL, most notably the Shi'ite Uwais al-Qarni Mosque. The modern city traces its history by the Seleucid king Seleucus I Nicator. Seleucus II Callinicus renamed it after himself as Kallinikos. In Roman times, it was part of the province of Osrhoene, but had declined by the 4th century. Rebuilt by the Byzantine emperor Leo I in 466, it was named Leontopolis after him, but the name Kallinikos prevailed. The city played an important role in the Byzantine Empire's relation with Sassanid Persia and the wars fought between two states. By treaty, it was recognized as one of the cross-border trading posts between the two empires. In the 6th century, Kallinikos became a center of Assyrian monasticism. Dayra d'Mār Zakkā, or the Saint Zacchaeus Monastery, situated on Tall al-Bi'a, became renowned.Raqqa – Al-Raqqah skyline • The Euphrates Al-Raqqah city walls • Baghdad gate Qasr al-Banat Castle • Uwais al-Qarni Mosque
113. ISIS – Isis is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt. Later her worship spread throughout the Roman Empire and the greater Greco-Roman world. Isis was worshipped as the ideal wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers. Isis is often depicted as the mother of the falcon-headed deity associated with king and kingship. Isis is also known as protector of the goddess of children. The Isis means "Throne". Her headdress is a throne. As the personification of the throne, she was an important representation of the pharaoh's power. The pharaoh was depicted as her child, who sat on the throne she provided. She conceived Horus with him. Isis was instrumental in the resurrection of Osiris when he was murdered by Set. Using her magical skills, she restored his body after having gathered the body parts, strewn about the earth by Set. This myth became very important during the Greco-Roman period. For example, it was believed that the Nile River flooded every year because of the tears of sorrow which Isis wept for Osiris.ISIS – Isis depicted with outstretched wings (wall painting, c. 1360 BCE)
114. Houthis – In 2003, the Houthi's slogan "God is great, death to Israel curse victory for Islam", became the group's trademark. The group is now led by Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, brother of the first leader, reportedly killed by Saleh's Yemeni army forces in 2004. The Houthis had some role in the 2011 Yemeni Revolution, participating in the street protests and coordinating with other opposition groups. Houthis also had joined National Dialogue Conference in Yemen, part of the Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative. Yemen's government, the forces of Saudi Arabian-led coalition, have been attacked by the Islamic State militant group. The Houthis belong to the Shia tribesmen of North Yemen who are renowned for their ruggedness sharpshooting abilities, bravery in combat. This is while they are also disregarded as being ignorant or backward, by more metropolitan Yemenis, such as Sana'anis or Adenites. They have been known for being very moderate and are the closest to Sunni Islam of all the Shi'a sects. "the Believing Youth", was founded in Saada Governorate by either Mohammed al-Houthi, or his brother Hussein al-Houthi. The Believing Youth established school clubs and summer camps in order to "promote a Zaidi revival" in Saada. By 1994–1995, 15–20,000 students had attended BY summer camps. BY-affiliated youth adopted anti-Jewish slogans which they chanted after Friday prayers. "The security authorities thought that if the Houthis chanted ` Death to America', they could be chanting ` Death to the president". 800 BY supporters were arrested in Sana'a in 2004. President Ali Abdullah Saleh then invited Hussein al-Houthi to a meeting in Sana'a, but Hussein declined.Houthis – Yemen's former president Ali Abdullah Saleh has openly allied with Houthis
115. Mocha, Yemen – Mocha or Mokha is a port city on the Red Sea coast of Yemen. Until Aden and Hodeida eclipsed it in the 19th century, Mocha was the principal port for Yemen's Sana'a. Mocha is famous for being the major marketplace for coffee from the 15th century until the 18th century. Even after other sources of coffee were found, Mocha beans continued to be prized for their distinctive flavor -- and remain even today. The coffee itself was transported from places inland to the port in Mocha, where it was shipped abroad. Mocha reached its zenith in the 17th century, owing to its trade in coffee. The city boasted of a wall that enclosed a citadel, as well as a labyrinth of thatched huts that surrounded the wall from without. Of these, some four-hundred were Jewish households who occupied in trade. He also found a number of European ships in the harbor: three French, four English, one Portuguese. In the 18th century, a plague decimated half of the city's population, from which time the city really recovered. East India companies maintained factories at Mocha, which remained a major emporium and coffee exporting port until the early 19th century. In August 1800 Phoenix visited. Her captain, took the opportunity to prepare a chart of the mouth of the Red Sea. In December 1820, ships and troops belonging to the British East India Company attacked the North and South Forts, destroying them. The action was in pursuit of British demands on the government of the city.Mocha, Yemen – European factories at Mocha in the late 17th century
116. Yemen – Yemen, officially known as the Republic of Yemen, is an Arab country in Western Asia, occupying South Arabia, the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 km2. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km. Although Yemen's stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been since February 2015. Because of this, Yemen's capital has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden, on the southern coast. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established. Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged to 16th centuries the Rasulid dynasty being the most prosperous. The country was divided in the early century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.Yemen – Sabaean gravestone of a woman holding a stylized sheaf of wheat, a symbol of fertility in ancient Yemen
117. Amnesty International – Amnesty International is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to mobilise public opinion to put pressure on governments that let abuse take place. Amnesty considers punishment to be "the irreversible denial of human rights". Amnesty International was founded by English lawyer Peter Benenson. Researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar. The government was authoritarian in nature and strongly anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done." Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. The "Appeal for Amnesty" was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. Benenson ensured that all three political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Liberal Party. On 30 September 1962, it was officially named "Amnesty International". Between the "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961" and September 1962 the organisation had been known simply as "Amnesty".Amnesty International – 1986 Faroe postage stamp celebrating Amnesty's 25th anniversary – Painting by 11-year-old Rannvá Kunoy
118. Populism – Political politicians often use the terms populist and populism as pejoratives against their opponents. Such a view sees populism as merely empathising with the public, in order to increase appeal across the political spectrum. Populism is most common in democratic nations. The term has also been used as a label for new parties whose classifications are unclear. In recent years, academic scholars have produced definitions that facilitate populist comparison. In the United States, populism has generally been associated with the left, whereas in European countries, populism is more associated with the right. Cas Mudde says, "Many observers have noted that populism is inherent to representative democracy; after all, do populists not juxtapose'the pure people' against'the corrupt elite'?" Most recently, many observers have categorized the rise of Donald Trump in the U.S. in nature. Populism has taken left-wing, even centrist forms, as well as forms of politics that bring together groups and individuals of diverse partisan views. Subsistence peasant movements, such as the Eastern European Green Rising militias, which followed World War I. Intellectuals who romanticize hard-working farmers and peasants and build radical agrarian movements like the Russian narodniki. Populist democracy, including calls for more political participation through reforms such as the use of popular referenda. Politicians' populism marked for "the people" to build a unified coalition. Reactionary populism, such as the white backlash harvested by George Wallace. Populist dictatorship, such as that established by Getúlio Vargas in Brazil.Populism – Il Quarto Stato by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo, 1901
119. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, the most widely spoken uralic language in the world. Largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha - global city. Urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended in 1000 converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic. As a substantial actor in several technological sectors, it is both the world's 36th largest exporter and importer of goods. Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a tuition-free university education. Hungary joined part of the Schengen Area since 2007. Hungary is a member of NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group.Hungary – Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
120. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has a population of approximately million. It is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.Philippines – King Philip II of Spain.
121. Turkey – Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The Aegean Sea is to the south. The Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location between Europe and Asia has retained its strategic importance throughout history. Turkey has been inhabited by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia in 1243 when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. The empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Suspended by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1878, parliament were restored with the Young Turk Revolution on 24 July 1908. Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina on 6 October 1908. During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. Turkey's official language is a Turkic language spoken natively by 84.5 % of the population. According to polls, between 78.1% and 81.3% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities.Turkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
122. Politics of Turkey – Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Its current constitution was adopted on 7 November 1982 after the constitutional referendum. The function of head of state is performed by the president. A president is elected every five years according to the current constitution. He/she must be over 40 years old and hold a bachelor's degree. The current president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was Directly elected in 2014. Executive power rests with the president, the Council of Ministers. Most ministers are members of Parliament. The prime minister is approved through a vote of confidence in the parliament. The Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government of Turkey. He is the leader of the leader of the cabinet. Legislative power is invested in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey, representing 81 provinces.Politics of Turkey – Turkey
123. Hijab – The term can further refer to any body covering worn by Muslim women that conforms to a certain standard of modesty. Most often, it is worn as a symbol of privacy. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, modesty in women's "gaze, gait, garments, genitalia." The Qur'an admonishes Muslim women to dress modestly. Some legal systems define this type of modest clothing as covering everything except the face, knees. Some believe that the Qur'an itself does not mandate that women wear hijab. In the Qur ` the term hijab refers to a curtain in the literal or metaphorical sense. The verse where it is used literally is commonly understood to refer to the curtain separating visitors to Muhammad's house from his wives' lodgings. This had led some to argue that the mandate of the Qur'an to wear hijab applied to the wives of Muhammad, not women generally. In recent times, wearing hijab in public has been required in Iran, the Indonesian province of Aceh. Other countries have passed laws banning all types of hijab in certain types of locales. The Quran instructs both Muslim men and women to dress in a modest way, but there is disagreement on how these instructions should be interpreted. The verses relating to dress use the terms khimār and jilbāb rather than ḥijāb. The clearest verse on the requirement of modest dress is surah 24:30–31, telling women to draw their khimār over their bosoms. O Prophet!Hijab – Women wearing hijab
124. Luis Videgaray Caso – He also was General Coordinator of his campaign for the presidential election. In September 2016, a week after the visit of U.S. Republican Presidential candidate Donald J. Trump to Mexico City to meet with President Peña Nieto, Videgaray resigned as finance minister. Until June 21, 2011 Videgaray was President of the Institutional Revolutionary Party of the State of Mexico. Native of Videgaray Caso is older brother of Mexican TV host Eduardo Videgaray Caso. He obtained a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from the Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology. He graduated with the thesis "Failure of the market, incentives: Case of the mexican port's privatization". He received his Doctorate in Economics, specializing in Public Finances at MIT with the thesis “The fiscal response to oil shocks”. Later, he taught classes in the Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology, in the Ibero-American University. In 1987 he was part of the Revolutionary Juvenile Front of the PRI party. From September 2005 to March 2009 he was Secretary of Finance, Planning and Administration in the State of Mexico Government. Between 2008 and 2009 he became National Coordinator of the states’ Finance Secretaries. In his own words, the three columns of his administration were "more capacity to generate more resources, modernization of the administration". During this period, several actions of fiscal discipline and modernization of the public sector were executed. For the first time, this entity obtained an rank.Luis Videgaray Caso – Luis Videgaray Caso
125. Gauteng Division – The main seat of the division is at Pretoria, while a local seat at Johannesburg has concurrent jurisdiction over the southern parts of Gauteng. Dunstan Mlambo has been November 2012. Both courts ceased to exist as a result of the British victory in the Second Anglo-Boer War. The Transvaal Provincial Division's area of jurisdiction was established their own supreme courts. In 2001 some districts in North West were placed under the Bophuthatswana Division in Mafikeng. In 2009 the Transvaal and Witwatersrand divisions were renamed South Gauteng High Courts, respectively. Decisions handed down up to 2009 Decisions handed down at Pretoria since 2009 Decisions handed down at Johannesburg since 2009Gauteng Division – The Palace of Justice in Pretoria
126. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court. It was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and it entered into force on 1 July 2002. As of March 2016, 124 states are party to the statute. Among other things, the statute establishes the court's functions, jurisdiction and structure. The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, the crime of aggression. Those crimes "shall not be subject to any statute of limitations". The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, crime of aggression. On 17 July 1998, the Rome Statute was adopted by a vote of 120 to 7, with 21 countries abstaining. Because the way each delegation voted was officially unrecorded, there is some dispute over the identity of the seven countries that voted against the treaty. The treaty entered into force on 1 July 2002; the ICC can only prosecute crimes committed on or after that date. The Rome Statute is the result of multiple attempts for the creation of a supranational and international tribunal. At the end of 19th century, the international community took the first steps towards the institution of permanent courts with supranational jurisdiction. The Nuremberg trials marked a crucial moment in legal history, after that, some treaties that led to the drafting of the Rome Statute were signed. In the resolution there was a hope for an effort from the Legal UN commission in that direction. The General Assembly, after the considerations expressed from the commission, established a committee to draft a statute and study the related legal issues.Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – Headquarters of the International Criminal Court in The Hague
127. International Criminal Court – The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, war crimes. The ICC began functioning on 1 the date that the Rome Statute entered into force. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as governing document. States which become party for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC. Currently, there are 124 states which are party to the Rome Statute and therefore members of the ICC. However, Burundi, Gambia have given formal notice that they will withdraw from the Rome Statute. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Registry. The President is the most senior judge chosen by her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and proceedings before the Judicial Division. The Office of the Prosecutor is also conducting an additional nine preliminary examinations. None ratified it and the convention never entered into force. Following the Second World War, the allied powers established two hoc tribunals to prosecute axis power leaders accused of war crimes. The International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. Benjamin B.International Criminal Court – The current headquarters of the ICC in The Hague
128. Constitution of South Africa – The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the country of South Africa. The country's fifth, was drawn up by the Parliament elected in 1994 in the first non-racial elections. Section came into effect on 4 February 1997, replacing the Interim Constitution of 1993. Since 1996, the Constitution has been amended by seventeen amendment acts. The Constitution is formally entitled the "Constitution of the Republic of 1996." An integral part of the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa was the creation of a non-discriminatory constitution for the country. One of the disputed issues was the process by which such a constitution would be adopted. Formal negotiations began at the Convention for a Democratic South Africa. The parties agreed on a process whereby a negotiated transitional constitution would provide for an constitutional assembly to draw up a permanent constitution. The CODESA negotiations broke however, after the second plenary session in May 1992. In April 1993, the parties returned in what was known as the Multi-Party Negotiating Process. The Constitutional Assembly was responsible for drawing up a final constitution within two years. The Interim Constitution contained 34 constitutional principles with which the new constitution was required to comply. Now in Chapter Two of the Constitution of South Africa, was largely written by Kader Asmal and Albie Sachs. The constitutional text was to be tested against these principles by the newly established Constitutional Court.Constitution of South Africa – South Africa
129. Chief Executive of Hong Kong – The position was created to replace the Governor of Hong Kong, the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom during British rule. The Chief Executive holds the title "The Honourable", ranks first in the Hong Kong order of precedence. The current Chief Executive is Leung Chun-ying who took office on 1 July 2012. Article 47 further requires that the Chief Executive be a person of integrity, dedicated to his or her duties. The functional constituencies correspond to various sectors of the economy and society, each of which hold an internal election for a set number of electors. In the first election of the Chief Executive, the Committee consisted of only 400 members Election Committee. Since the second term, the Election Committee was enlarged to its current size. The elected Chief Executive must then be appointed by the Premier of the Central People's Government. According to Article 46 the term of office of the Chief Executive is five years who may not serve more than two consecutive terms. The position is also responsible for the policy address made to the public. The Executive Council of Hong Kong is an organ for assisting the Chief Executive in policy-making. The council is consulted before making important policy decisions, dissolving the Legislative Council. Article 52 stipulates circumstances under which the Chief Executive must resign. The line is spelled out in Article 53. In case the position becomes vacant, a new Chief Executive would have to be elected.Chief Executive of Hong Kong – Incumbent The Hon Leung Chun-ying since 1 July 2012
130. Donald Tsang – He was praised both as Chief Executive in the mid-2000s and as Financial Secretary in the late 1990s. He was made a Knight Commander of the Most Order of the British Empire in June 1997 hours before the handover. Tsang assumed the office of Chief Executive of Hong Kong in 2005. Donald Tsang was born in Hong Kong on 7 October 1944, during the Japanese occupation. Tsang is the eldest of the five sons and one daughter. Katherine Tsang is chairperson of Standard Chartered Hong Kong. Heung resigned as a result. He is well known for his preference of wearing bow-ties. Bow-Tie Tsang, is widely known among Hongkongers. According to a interview, this preference started somewhere between 1988 -- 1993, when Tsang's office was adjacent to Deputy Political Adviser Stephen Bradley, who himself wore bow-ties. He felt comfortable with a bow-tie Bradley gave him, saying that its design brings fewer hurdles to its wearer than a necktie. He is well known for keeping koi. Tsang had a pond built for them at a cost of HK$300,000. His other hobbies include swimming, hiking. Tsang has also received honorary doctorates from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the University of Hong Kong.Donald Tsang – Tsang at the World Economic Forum, 2012
131. Hong Kong – Macau lies across the delta to the west, the Chinese province of Guangdong borders the territory to the north. Hong Kong was later occupied during World War II until British control resumed in 1945. Under the principle of "two systems", Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China. Except in military defence and foreign affairs, Hong Kong maintains its independent executive, legislative and judiciary powers. In addition, Hong Kong develops relations directly with international organisations in a broad range of "appropriate fields". The Hong Kong dollar, is the world's 13th most traded currency. However, while Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it suffers from the most severe inequality among developed economies. It has the world's longest life expectancy. Over 90% of the population makes use of well-developed public transportation. Seasonal pollution with origins from neighbouring industrial areas of Mainland China, which adopts loose emissions standards, has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates. Hong Kong was officially recorded in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking to encompass the entirety of the island. Before 1842, the name referred to the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Accurate romanisation systems for Cantonese were available and in use at the time. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Hong Kong developed Victoria Harbour.Hong Kong – The Cenotaph in Hong Kong commemorates those who died in service in WWI and WWII.
132. Hate crime – A hate crime is a prejudice-motivated crime, which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain social group. Examples of such groups are almost exclusively limited to: sex, ethnicity, disability, language, nationality, physical appearance, religion, gender identity or sexual orientation. Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are often called "bias incidents". Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, offensive graffiti or letters. A hate law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence. The verb "to lynch" is attributed to the actions of an 18th-century Virginia Quaker. Originally the term referred to extrajudicial organized but unauthorized punishment of criminals. It later evolved to describe outside of "ordinary justice." The murders of Christopher Newsom and the Wichita Massacre were not classified as "hate crimes" by U.S. investigative officials or the media. In conservative commentators David Horowitz, Michelle Malkin and Stuart Taylor Jr. did describe these events as "hate crimes against whites by blacks." This is believed to be based in the history of African slavery in this country. One of the biggest eras of hate crimes took place during the Civil Rights Movement. During the 1950's and 1960's, hundred of lives were taken due to such acts. Members of this social class faced violence from groups such as other groups who were committed to segregation. Other frequently reported bias motivations were antisemitism, anti-white, Islamophobia, against a person's perceived sexual orientation.Hate crime – Postcard of the Duluth lynchings of African-American men on June 15, 1920
133. Olathe, Kansas – Olathe is a city in, is the county seat of, Johnson County, Kansas, United States. Located in northeastern Kansas, it is also the fourth most populous city in the state, with a population of 125,872 recorded by the 2010 census. Olathe is also the fourth-largest city in the Kansas City metropolitan area. It is bordered by the cities of Lenexa to the north, Gardner to the southwest. Olathe was founded by Dr. John T. Barton in the spring of 1857. He staked two quarter sections of land as the site. He later described his ride to friends: "...the prairie was covered with verbena and other wild flowers. I kept thinking that I should name the Beautiful." Purportedly, Barton asked a Shawnee interpreter how to say "Beautiful" in his native language. The interpreter responded, "Olathe." Olathe was incorporated as a city in 1857. While Olathe was not the first city established in Johnson County, it was named the seat in October 1859. The city's early days were filled with violence, as pro-slavery forces from nearby Missouri often clashed with local abolitionists. These conflicts were known on a large scale as Bleeding Kansas.Olathe, Kansas – Olathe City Hall
134. Barack Obama – Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician and the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to be elected to that office and the first president born outside the contiguous United States. Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He then defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the general election, was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Nine months after his inauguration, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Obama was re-elected president in November 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney, was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013. His mother, Ann Dunham, born in Wichita, Kansas, was of mostly English ancestry. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo from Nyang'oma Kogelo, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship. There he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964 where he remarried; he visited Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971. He was killed in an automobile accident in 1982 when his son was 21 years old.Barack Obama – Barack Obama
135. Emmanuel Macron – Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French senior civil servant, politician and former investment banker. On August 2014 he was appointed as the Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs in the Second Valls Government. He resigned on 30 August 2016, allegedly in order to launch a centrist bid in the 2017 presidential election. On 16 Macron declared that he would stand for president of France as an independent. Born in Amiens, Macron is the son of Jean-Michel Macron, Françoise Macron-Noguès, MD.. He studied piano for ten years. He was educated in Amiens before he continued at the élite high school Lycée Henri-IV in Paris. He studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Macron worked in the French Ministry of Economy between 2004 and 2008. In 2007, he served as deputy rapporteur for the Commission to improve French growth headed by Jacques Attali. He left at Rothschild & Cie Banque. While at Rothschild, he closed a high-profile deal between Nestlé and Pfizer which made a millionnaire. Macron was a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009. During an interview on BFM TV, he said that he wasn't a member of the PS any more. From 2012 to 2014, he was deputy general of the Élysée, a senior role in President Hollande's staff.Emmanuel Macron – Emmanuel Macron in 2015
136. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The new agency became operational on October 1958. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. This led to an agreement that a federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. Many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.NASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
137. European Southern Observatory – The European Southern Observatory is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO has provided astronomers to the southern sky. The organisation receives annual member state contributions of approximately $131 million. Its observatories are located in northern Chile. ESO has operated some of the largest and most technologically advanced telescopes. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is the world's largest ground-based astronomy project to date. It was completed by Europe, North America, East Asia and Chile. Currently under construction is the European Extremely Large Telescope. It will become the world's largest optical reflecting telescope when operational in 2024. ESO's observing facilities have produced several astronomical catalogues. Its findings include the discovery of the most distant gamma-ray evidence for a black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. In 2004, the VLT allowed astronomers to obtain the first picture of an planet orbiting a brown dwarf 173 light-years away. It was pursued by Oort, who gathered a group of astronomers in Leiden to consider it on June 21 that year. Thereafter the subject was further discussed at the Groningen conference in the Netherlands. At the time, all reflector telescopes with an aperture of 2 metres or more were located in the northern hemisphere.European Southern Observatory – ESO golden-anniversary celebrants
138. Earth – According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about billion years ago. Earth gravitationally interacts with other objects in space, the Moon. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis 366.26 times, creating sidereal year. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water. The remaining 29 % is mass -- consisting of continents and islands -- that together has many lakes, rivers, other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all the species of life that ever lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely; most species have not been described. Over billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humanity has developed diverse cultures; politically, the world is divided into about 200 sovereign states. The English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe.Earth – " The Blue Marble " photograph of Earth, taken during the Apollo 17 lunar mission in 1972
139. Planet – The planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, religion. Several planets in the Solar System can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition is controversial because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit. The planets were thought by Ptolemy to orbit Earth in epicycle motions. Some shared such features as ice caps and seasons. Planets are generally divided into two main types: smaller rocky terrestrials. Under IAU definitions, there are eight planets in the Solar System. Six of the planets are orbited by one or more natural satellites. More than thousand planets around other stars have been discovered in the Milky Way. On December 2011, the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-sized extrasolar planets, Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, orbiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-20. A 2012 study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1.6 bound planets for every star in the Milky Way. Around one in five Sun-like stars is thought to have an Earth-sized planet in its habitable zone.Planet
140. Goldilocks zone – The bounds of the CHZ are based on Earth's position in the Solar System and the amount of radiant energy it receives from the Sun. Most such planets, being super-Earths or gas giants, are more massive than Earth, because such planets are easier to detect. 11 billion of these may be orbiting Sun-like stars. The CHZ is also of particular interest to the emerging field of habitability of natural satellites, because planetary-mass moons in the CHZ might outnumber planets. In subsequent decades, the CHZ concept began to be challenged as a primary criterion for life, so the concept is still evolving. Since the discovery of evidence for liquid water, substantial quantities of it are now thought to occur outside the circumstellar zone. In the same year, Harlow Shapley wrote "Liquid Water Belt", which described the same theory in further scientific detail. Both works stressed the importance of liquid water to life. In 1993, astronomer James Kasting introduced the term "zone" to refer more precisely to the region then known as the habitable zone. Mass objects orbit within, or close to, this range and as such receive sufficient sunlight to raise temperatures above the freezing point of water. However their atmospheric conditions vary substantially. The entire orbits of numerous asteroids also lie within various estimates of the habitable zone. Only at Mars' lowest elevations is atmospheric temperature sufficient to, if present, exist in liquid form for short periods. For example, atmospheric pressures can reach 1,115 temperatures above zero Celsius for 70 days in the Martian year. Despite indirect evidence in the form of seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes, no confirmation has been made of the presence of liquid water there.Goldilocks zone – Natural defenses against space weather, such as the magnetosphere depicted in this artistic rendition, may be required for planets to sustain surface water for prolonged periods.
141. Eastern Sports Club – Eastern Sports Club, is a football and basketball club in Hong Kong. The club was established as Eastern Athletic Association. In 2012 it changed its name to Eastern Salon Football Team due to sponsorship reasons. In 1981/82 season the club was managed by World Cup winner Bobby Moore. Notable English players Alan Ball played during 1982/83 season, Graham Paddon in 1982 -- 1984. It was renowned the names "Great Eastern" and "Eastern Dynasty". In the 2013/14 season, Eastern was promoted back as the champion of Second Division League. In April 2016, Eastern won the 2015 -- Hong Kong Premier League under the guidance of Chan Yuen-ting. With Eastern's victory, the club became the first men's professional association team to win a domestic, top flight championship under the management of a woman. Chan only lost one game in the 2015–16 season since being appointed. As 13 December 2016. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.Eastern Sports Club – Eastern Sports Club
142. Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C. – Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao Football Club is a professional Chinese football club that participates in the Chinese Super League under the license of the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Guangzhou, Guangdong, their home stadium is the Tianhe Stadium which has a seating capacity of 58,500. Their majority shareholders are the Evergrande Real Estate Group and the e-commerce company Alibaba Group. They were founded in 1954, won several second tier titles before they became professional in 1993. Their results improved, leading to a runners-up spot in China's top tier. In 2009 the club were embroiled in a match-fixing scandal and they were punished with relegation. The Evergrande Real Estate Group decided to purchase the club and pumped significant funds into the team. They immediately won promotion and gained their first top tier title in the 2011 season. The club is the only Chinese football club to win AFC Champions League twice, in 2013 and 2015. The club is also the first Chinese club to participate in the FIFA Club World Cup, making its first appearance in 2013. In June 1954, the local Guangzhou sports body founded Guangzhou FC to take part in the recently formed Chinese national football league. They entered the club in the 1955 league season and named Luo Dizhi as their first manager. He guided them to an eighth spot finish in their debut campaign. The league had grown to incorporate a second tier and their debut season performance final standing relegated them to the second division. They were not re-established until April 1961 and were allowed to take part in the top tier.Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C. – Guangzhou won China League One for the first time in 2007
143. 2024 Summer Olympics – The 2024 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event. Bidding for the games started in 2015, with five candidate cities in contention, but Hamburg and Rome subsequently withdrew. The three remaining candidate sites are Budapest, Los Angeles, Paris. The host of the Summer Olympic Games is scheduled to be announced at the 130th International Olympic Committee Session in Lima, Peru, on 13 September 2017. The candidature process was announced at the same time as the names of the five candidates cities on 16 September 2015. Hamburg withdrew its bid per a referendum held on 29 November 2015, while, citing fiscal difficulties, Rome withdrew on 21 September 2016. On 10 June 2014, the USOC met in Boston to confirm the shortlist of cities drawn up for the 2024 Olympics. On 13 the USOC announced its shortlist for potential host cities: Boston, Washington. Forty of the 47 national governing bodies took part in the poll and all 40 answered positively to the question. During the closed door meeting each of the four cities were given two hours to present their city's bids. On 1 September 2015 the USOC announced that Los Angeles was chosen for the United States bid for the 2024 Summer Games. Baku, Azerbaijan Baku submitted a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and submitted a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Baku failed to become a candidate both times. Upon failing to become a candidate for the 2020 Games, it was stated that Baku would "come back again next time even stronger". Baku National Stadium also hosted the 2015 European Games.2024 Summer Olympics – Summer Games
144. Budapest – It has a population of about 1.8 million within the administrative limits in 2016. The history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Hungarians arrived in the 9th century. Their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–42. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century. It also became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I. Budapest is an Alpha- global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, tourism. Its district hosts the Budapest Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and companies. It is the highest ranked Central and Eastern Europe city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index. It has the world's largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building. Over 40 universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Central European University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. "Budapest" is the combination of the city names Buda and Pest, which were united into a single city in 1873. One of the first documented occurrences of the combined name "Buda-Pest" was in the book "Világ" written by Count István Széchenyi. The origins of the names Buda and Pest are obscure. According to chronicles from the Middle Ages, the Buda comes from the name of its founder, Bleda, brother of the Hunnic ruler Attila.Budapest
145. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
146. Los Angeles – Situated in Southern California, Los Angeles is known for its mediterranean climate, as a major center of the American entertainment industry. Los Angeles lies in a coastal basin surrounded by mountains reaching up to and over 10,000 feet. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The city experienced rapid growth with the discovery of oil. Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The city's inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos. It has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The men's event was watched by over million people worldwide. The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called meaning "poison place". Missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary.Los Angeles
147. Milo Yiannopoulos – He wrote previously using the pseudonym Milo Andreas Wagner. He founded an tabloid magazine about technology, which he sold to Daily Dot Media in 2014. He rose to notability that year when he began to provide media coverage and commentary surrounding the Gamergate controversy. Yiannopoulos has been called a spokesperson for the alt-right. Yiannopoulos considers sympathizer with the movement. Yiannopoulos was permanently banned for what the company cited as "engaging in the targeted abuse or harassment of others". Yiannopoulos was raised in a small town in Kent in southern England. His mother is British. His father is Greek. He is a practising Catholic. He was educated at Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys. He attended the University of Manchester, dropping out without graduating. Yiannopoulos then attended Cambridge, where he studied English literature before dropping out. He originally became interested in technology journalism whilst investigating women in computing in 2009. He also appeared on Sky News discussing social media, on BBC Breakfast discussing Pope Benedict XVI's visit to the United Kingdom.Milo Yiannopoulos – Milo Yiannopoulos at LeWeb13 Conference
148. Verizon Communications – The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but is incorporated in Delaware. Bell Atlantic came into existence in 1984 with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia, with each area having a separate operating company. As part of the rebranding that the Baby Bells took in the mid-1990s, all of the operating companies assumed the Bell Atlantic name. In 1997, Bell Atlantic expanded into New York and the New England states by merging with fellow Baby Bell NYNEX. In addition, Bell Atlantic moved their headquarters from Philadelphia into the old NYNEX headquarters and rebranded the entire company as Bell Atlantic. Bell Atlantic, the surviving company, changed its name to "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas and horizon. As of 2016, Verizon is one of three companies that had their roots in the former Baby Bells. The other two, like Verizon, exist as a result of mergers among fellow former Baby Bell members. One, SBC Communications, bought out its former parent AT&T Corporation and assumed the AT&T name. The other, CenturyLink, was formed initially in 2011 by the acquisition of Qwest. Bell Atlantic Corporation was created as one of the original Regional Bell Operating Companies in 1984, during the breakup of the Bell System. In 1994, Bell Atlantic became the first RBOC to entirely drop the original names of its original operating companies. In 1996, CEO and Chairman Raymond W. Smith orchestrated Bell Atlantic's merger with NYNEX. When it merged, it moved its corporate headquarters from Philadelphia to New York City. NYNEX was consolidated into this name by 1997.Verizon Communications – Verizon service van
149. Yahoo! – Yahoo Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. Yahoo was incorporated on March 1995. Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early internet era in the 1990s. Marissa Mayer, a former Google executive, serves as CEO and President of the company. It is globally known for its Web portal, search engine Yahoo! Search, related services, including Yahoo! Directory, Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! News, Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo! Groups, Yahoo! Answers, advertising, online mapping, video sharing, fantasy sports, its social media website. It is one of the most popular sites in the United States. According to news sources, roughly million people visit every month. Yahoo itself claims it attracts "more than half a billion consumers every month in more than 30 languages".Yahoo! – Jerry Yang and David Filo, the founders of Yahoo
150. Restaurant Brands International – Restaurant Brands International is a Canadian multinational fast food company. Both chains retain their existing operations and headquarters in Oakville and Miami respectively. The merger focused primarily on providing financial efficiencies for both companies. The company is majority-owned by the Brazilian investment company 3G Capital -- the previous owner of Burger King -- holding a 51 % stake. The company began trading on December 15, 2014. News of the proposal caused Tim Hortons' shares to increase by 28 percent. On August 2014, Burger King officially confirmed its intent to acquire Tim Hortons Inc. in a deal totalling CDN$12.5 billion. 3G Capital co-founder Alex Behring denied that the merger was tax-related, creating value through accelerated expansion." 3G Capital holds a 51 % stake in Restaurant Brands International. Berkshire Hathaway, who partially funded the merger, holds a 4.8% stake. Burger King CEO Daniel Schwartz serves with previous Tim Hortons CEO Marc Caira being vice-chairman and director. Company websiteRestaurant Brands International – Tim Hortons' corporate headquarters in Oakville, Ontario, Canada
151. Burger King – Burger King, often abbreviated as BK, is an American global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. Headquartered in the unincorporated area of Florida, the company was founded in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida-based restaurant chain. In late-2010, 3G Capital of Brazil acquired a majority stake in a deal valued at US$3.26 billion. The new owners promptly initiated a restructuring of the company to reverse its fortunes. Beginning in the early-1980s, the company's advertising began to lose focus. A series of less successful advertising campaigns created by a procession of advertising agencies continued for the next two decades. While highly successful, some of CP+B's commercials were derided for cultural insensitivity. The Burger King menu has expanded to a larger and more diverse set of products. In 1957, the "Whopper" was the major addition to the menu; it has since become Burger King's signature product. Conversely, BK has introduced many products which failed to catch hold in the marketplace. Some of these failures in the United States have seen success in foreign markets, where BK has also tailored its menu for regional tastes. From 2002 to 2010, Burger King aggressively targeted the 18 -- 34 male demographic with larger products that often carried large amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats. This tactic would eventually cast a negative pall on its earnings. As of September 2016, Burger King reported it had 15,243 outlets in 100 countries. BK has historically used several variations of franchising to expand its operations.Burger King – An example of the 20/20 concept interior at a Burger King in Cork, Ireland
152. Popeyes Louisiana Kitchen – Popeyes Louisiana Kitchen is an American multinational chain of fried chicken fast food restaurants founded in 1972 in New Orleans, Louisiana. About thirty locations are company-owned, the rest franchised. As of January 2014, Popeyes has over 2,000 restaurants worldwide according to their website. Copeland started franchising his restaurant in 1976, beginning in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and over the next ten years added approximately 500 outlets. B.P. Newman of Laredo, Texas, acquired various franchises in Texas and surrounding states. Two hundred additional locations were added during a period of slower expansion. By 1990, Copeland Enterprises was in default on $391 million in debts, in April 1991 the company filed for bankruptcy protection. AFC went public in 2001 with initial public offering of $142,818,479. On December 29, 2004, AFC sold Church's to Arcapita, formerly Crescent Capital Investments, retaining Popeyes. Popeyes had continued to license the seasonings, recipes and techniques from DF&S for a yearly'spice royalty', before buying them outright for $43 million. DFS will remain the main supplier for Popeyes until at least 2029. Copeland would claim facetiously that he was "too poor" to afford an apostrophe. The chain later acquired rights to use Popeye the Sailor for marketing. In late November 2006, AFC announced the mutual termination of their licensing contract with King Features Syndicate, effectively ending their association with the Popeye characters.Popeyes Louisiana Kitchen – Popeyes restaurant in Houston, Texas, United States
153. US$ – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units. The circulating money consists of Federal Reserve Notes. The U.S. dollar is money. It is the currency is the world's primary reserve currency. In many others it is the de facto currency. Anthony dollar. Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U.S.C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued. These coins are both designated as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper dollar. The pure dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle.US$ – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
154. Direct Factory Outlets – Direct Factory Outlets, abbreviated as DFO, is the name for a no-frills group of discount shopping centres in Australia. They are large-floor warehouse buildings containing partitioned stores where retail outlets sell excess or previous seasons' stocks at reduced prices. Its model is to build a cheap but air-conditioned mall. ACCC chief Graeme Samuel holds a $50 million interest in Austexx through a blind trust. Valued in early 2010 the business was put up with a number of retail investment funds expressing interest. By five legal challenges to DFO developments have been made by the Shopping Centre Council of Australia, all being unsuccessful. The South Wharf centre was under a A$500 million debt, with work on completing the centre stopped after workers placed bans over non-payment. The group of banks appointed insolvency specialists KordaMentha as advisers, with the entire group facing receivership. Negotiations continued until a deal was struck on Thursday 19 August, the four banks extending their funding to allow the South Wharf development to be completed. The ten DFO shopping complexes will then be sold off separately to repay the $1 billion owed to the banks. Outlet mall Direct Factory OutletsDirect Factory Outlets – DFO Brisbane Airport
155. Melbourne – Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second-most populous city in Australia. Melbourne consists of 31 municipalities. It has a population of 4,529,500 as of 2015, its inhabitants are called Melburnians. During the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the world's largest and wealthiest cities. After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the nation's interim seat of government until 1927. It is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region, ranks among the top 30 cities in the world in the Global Financial Centres Index. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a major centre for street art, music and theatre. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics. The main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo. Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, the main regional train and coach terminus is Southern Cross Station. Melbourne is also home to Australia's most extensive freeway network and has the world's largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of white settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 20,000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes: the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong.Melbourne – (From top left to bottom right) Melbourne City Centre, Flinders Street Station, Shrine of Remembrance, Federation Square, Melbourne Cricket Ground, Royal Exhibition Building.
156. Essendon Airport – Essendon Airport is a 305 ha public airport serving scheduled commercial, corporate-jet, charter and general aviation flights. It is located next in the northern suburb of Essendon Fields of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The airport is 8 km south-east from Melbourne Tullamarine Airport. In 1970, Tullamarine Airport replaced Essendon as Melbourne's main airport. The area of the airport was originally known after an early landowner. The airport was proclaimed by the Commonwealth Government as Essendon Aerodrome. The Aero Club remained until the late 1940s when it transferred to Moorabbin Airport. Originally the airport had grass runways with the first tenants moving in including H.J. Larkin, Captain Matthews, Bob Hart and Major Harry Shaw. The 1920s period saw the pioneering aviation flights of Sir Charles Kingsford Smith who visited the airport on several occasions. The airport was extended during the 1930s. The grass was finally upgraded to concrete tarmac in 1946. Essendon became Melbourne's first international airport in February 1950. The first international commercial flight arrived from New Zealand a year later. In the 1950s Essendon Airport was too small for the larger pure jets, such as the Boeing 707. Expansion was impossible.Essendon Airport – Fokker F27 Friendship of Ansett Airlines at Essendon Airport in 1970
157. Indonesia – Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest country, with more than thousand islands. The world's most populous island of Java contains more than half of the country's population. Indonesia's form of government includes president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. Its capital and most populous city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has natural resources like natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are Japan, the surrounding countries of Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia also take a part to support Africa and Asian nations to oppose against any colonialism or neocolonialism.Indonesia – A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
158. Jakarta – Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, yet the metropolis' suburbs still continue beyond it. Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it became the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. After the country's declaration of independence in 1945, the city—then called Djakarta—retained its status as capital of Indonesia. Jakarta is listed as Network research. Based on the global monitor in 2014, economic growth in Jakarta ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Bangkok. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta. The name was used after the Sultanate of Banten seized the port from Hindu Sunda kingdom circa 1527. The European spelling named Jayakarta as Jacatra. The origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language. "Jayakarta" translates as "complete victory". It can also translates as "victorious city". In 1619 the VOC captured the port city.Jakarta – (From top, left to right): Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque
159. National Front (France) – The National Front is a socially conservative, nationalist political party in France. Its major policies include economic protectionism, opposition to mass immigration. As anti-European Union party, the FN has opposed the European Union since its creation. Party representatives reject this and suggest other ways of looking at the left -- right axis. The party was founded in 1972 to unify a variety of nationalist movements of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011. His daughter, was elected as the current leader. While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the major force of French nationalism. In the run-off, he finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac. Due to the electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited, despite its significant share of the vote. They, again, came out in 1st place in the last regional elections with a historic result of nearly 28 % of the votes. Marine Le Pen would lead the first round of the 2017 presidential elections, according to various polls. As of 2015, the FN has established itself as one of the largest political forces in France. In the 1965 presidential election, Le Pen unsuccessfully attempted to consolidate the right-wing vote around the presidential candidate Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour. During early 1970s, the French far-right consisted mainly of small extreme movements such as Occident, Groupe Union Défense, the Ordre Nouveau.National Front (France) – Jean-Marie Le Pen (2001), the long-time leader of the FN.
160. Marine Le Pen – An attorney by profession, she is the youngest daughter of longtime FN leader Jean-Marie Le Pen. She is the aunt of Marion Maréchal-Le Pen. She then became the second president of the party. In 2012, she placed third behind François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy. She finally expelled her father from the party on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements. Le Pen was ranked among the most influential people in 2011 and 2015 by the Time 100. In 2016, she was ranked as second-most influential MEP in the European Parliament by Politico, just behind the President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz. Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen was born on 5 August 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. She is the youngest of the three daughters of a former paratrooper, with his first wife Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized 25 April 1969, at La Madeleine by Father Pohpot. Her godfather was Henri Botey, a relative of her father. She has two sisters: Yann and Marie Caroline. In 1976, Marine survived a bomb attack on the family as they slept in their beds. She was eight when a bomb meant for her father exploded in the stairwell outside the family's apartment. The blast ripped a hole into the outside wall of the building.Marine Le Pen – Marine Le Pen in 2014.
161. Sunni Islam – Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the exemplary behavior of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. This contrasts with the Shi'a view, which holds that Muhammad intended his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib to succeed him. As of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism. Its adherents are referred to as as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". Sunnī, also commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition". The Muslim use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and divisions. The first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunnis believe that the companions of Muhammad were the best of Muslims. Support for this view is also found in the Quran, according to Sunnis.Sunni Islam
162. Headgear – Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing, worn on one's head. Some styles of bonnets had peaks so large that they effectively prevented women from looking left without turning their heads. Bonnets worn by boys are generally distinguished from hats by being soft and having no brim -- this usage is now rare. Caps are generally soft and often have no brim or just a peak. For many centuries women wore a variety of head-coverings which were called caps. An ochipok is part of Ukrainian costume. Some headgear, such as the crown, tiara, have evolved into jewelry. These headgear are worn as a symbol of nobility or status. Kokoshnik is part of traditional dress, often worn by nobility. A circlet is a round band worn around the head and over the hair. Fillets could be made from woven bands of fabric, leather, beads or metal. Fillets are especially prevalent in archaic to renaissance dress. Hairnets are used to prevent loose hair from contaminating work areas. A snood is a net or bag pinned or tied on at the back of a woman's head for holding the hair. Scarves are used to keep it tidy.Headgear – A collection of headgear
163. Rinkeby – Rinkeby is a district in Rinkeby-Kista borough, Stockholm, Sweden. Rinkeby had 15,051 inhabitants in 2007. Rinkeby is noted with immigrant ancestry. 89.1% of the population of Rinkeby had a first- or second-generation immigrant background as of 2007. A sociolect called Rinkeby Swedish has been named after Rinkeby. The district was a part of the Rinkeby borough until 1 January 2007, when it was merged with Kista borough to form the Rinkeby-Kista borough. The neighbourhood was part of the Million Programme. The Stockholm metro Rinkeby was opened in 1975. In 2010, Rinkeby was the scene of attacks against the local police station. After making journalistic contact with inhabitants, "the team gets surrounded by ill-tempered men. The police is present but disappear for unclear reasons prior to the attack" that followed, which included hits and kicks. Giza, EgyptRinkeby – Rinkeby as seen from the air, 1988
164. Stockholm – It is also the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media, economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at Stockholm City Hall. The Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for its decoration of the stations; it has been called the longest gallery in the world. Sweden's national arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. The national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city. Hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Thousands of years later, the lands became fertile, some life moved back to the North. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears with the legendary king Agne. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word fortification.Stockholm – Aerial view of the Old Town, Skeppsbron, Stockholm City Hall, Hötorget buildings, Ericsson Globe and Stockholm Palace.
165. Austria – Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. The territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; its highest point is 3,798 m. Local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. From the time of the Reformation, many German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia emerged for rule of a greater Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919. In the 1938 Anschluss, Austria was annexed to Nazi Germany. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by Austria's former democratic constitution was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. Largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724.Austria – First appearance of the word "ostarrichi", circled in red. Modern Austria honours this document, dated 996, as the founding of the nation.
166. Ukraine – Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. Two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near another during World War II. Following independence, Ukraine declared a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited military partnership with NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych was against Ukraine joining NATO. These events formed the background by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. Both are still ongoing as of December 2016. On 1 Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union. It remains one of the world's largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, judicial branches.Ukraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC
167. Dmytro Firtash – Dmytro Vasylovych Firtash Firtash was born on 2 May 1965 in Bohdanivka, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union, now Synkiv, Ukraine. As a middleman for the natural gas giant Gazprom, he funneled money into the campaigns of pro-Russia politicians in Ukraine. Dmytro Firtash is a Ukrainian businessman, philanthropist. Firtash is head of the board of directors of Group DF. Since the Maidan revolution of 2014, Firtash has not yet returned to Ukraine. The current status of titles within Ukraine are not clear; specifically those not directly related to his own business holdings. To date, Firtash has retained ownership of his assets including those areas presently under Russian control. Firtash is wanted on charges of bribery relating to his business in the titanium industry. In November 2016 the Anti-Corruption Prosecutor's Office of Spain put Firtash on the wanted list for alleged money laundering. He controls much of Ukraine's titanium business. Firtash gained control of previously state-owned titanium assets in 2004. Firtash also owns several chemical plants. In May 2011, he took over Nadra Bank. It has since restructured its foreign debt with significant write-offs. He was elected President of a joint representative agency of employers at the national level, on 29 November 2011.Dmytro Firtash – Dmytro Firtash Дмитро́ Фі́рташ
168. United States dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units. The circulating money consists of Federal Reserve Notes. The U.S. dollar is money. It is the currency is the world's primary reserve currency. In many others it is the de facto currency. Anthony dollar. Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U.S.C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued. These coins are both designated as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper dollar. The pure dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle.United States dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
169. Bribery – Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery. If the rebate was done to influence them to look favorably on the electric utility's rate increase applications, however, that would be bribery, unlawful. The bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. In economics, the bribe has been described as rent. Bribery in bureaucracy has been viewed as a reason for the higher cost of production of goods and services. One must be careful of differing social and cultural norms when examining bribery. Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. Tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies, while in others the two concepts may not be interchangeable. In some Spanish-speaking countries, bribes are referred to as "mordida". In Arab countries, bribes may be called baksheesh or "shay". French-speaking countries often use the expressions "dessous-de-table", "pot-de-vin", or "commission occulte". While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative connotation, the expression "dessous-de-table" can be often understood as a commonly accepted business practice. In German, the common term is Schmiergeld. The forms that bribery take are numerous.Bribery – Photo of cash found in Congressman William J. Jefferson 's freezer in the August 2005 raid was shown to jurors on 8 July 2009
170. Titanium – Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, chlorine. Titanium was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The metal is extracted by the Kroll and Hunter processes. Titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride, used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene. The two most useful properties of the metal are the highest strength-to-density ratio of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is less dense. There are five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant. Titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It is a strong metal with low density, quite ductile, metallic-white in color. The relatively high point makes it useful as a refractory metal. It has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity. Commercial grades of titanium are less dense.Titanium – Titanium, 22 Ti
171. Israel Defense Forces – The Israel Defense Forces, commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force, navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The Israel Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world in many ways. Differences include the mandatory conscription of its structure, which emphasizes close relations between the force. Since its founding, the IDF has been specifically designed to match Israel's unique security situation. The IDF is one of Israeli society's most prominent institutions, influencing the country's economy, culture and political scene. In 1965, the Israel Defense Forces was awarded the Israel Prize for its contribution to education. The Uzi submachine gun was invented in Israel and used by the IDF until December 2003, ending a service that began in 1954. The IDF traces its roots to Jewish paramilitary organizations in the New Yishuv, starting with the Second Aliyah. The first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. It was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, was mainly created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade. The order called for the establishment of the Israel Defense Forces, the abolishment of all other Jewish armed forces.Israel Defense Forces – Major-Gen. Ariel Sharon (left), during the Battle of Abu-Ageila, June 1967
172. Palestinians – Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless lacking citizenship in any country. The history of a distinct national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars. "Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by Palestinian Arabs in a limited way until World War I. Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period. Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization is an organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before the international community. Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. Herodotus also employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the'Syrians of ` Palestinian-Syrians', an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians. Herodotus makes other inhabitants of Palestine. The Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern word, used either as a ethnonym. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples", particularly the Philistines. Among Semitic languages, Akkadian Palaštu is used of its 4 city states. Plištim is usually translated Philistines. The Arabic Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers. It appears to have been used since as early as the 7th century CE. The Arabic Falasteen, published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians".Palestinians
173. Hebron – Hebron is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 meters above level. The city is divided into two sectors: H1, controlled by roughly 20 % of the city, administered by Israel. All security arrangements and travel permits for local residents are coordinated between the Palestinian Authority and Israel via military administration of the West Bank. The settlers are governed by the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron. In Judaism it is considered the second-holiest city after Jerusalem, while Islam regards it as one of the four holy cities. It is the location of the major dairy product manufacturer, al-Junaidi. The old city of Hebron is characterized by narrow, winding streets, old bazaars. The city is home to the Palestine Polytechnic University. Hebron is attached to cities of ad-Dhahiriya, Dura, Yatta, the surrounding villages with no borders. Hebron Governorate is the largest Palestinian governorate with its population of 600,364. In the proper Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance. The Arabic term derives from the Qur ` anic epithet for Abraham, al-Rahman "Beloved of the Merciful" or "Friend of God". Arabic Al-Khalil thus precisely translates the ancient Hebrew toponym Ḥebron, understood as ḥaber. Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications covering some 24 -- 30 dunams centered around Tel Rumeida.Hebron – Downtown Hebron
174. Illegal immigration in the United States – The United States Department of Homeland Security has estimated that million unauthorized immigrants lived in the United States in January 2012. According to DHS estimates, "the number of illegal immigrants has gradually declined to closer to 11 million." For Fiscal Year 2015, DHS reports that the number of new visa overstays was 527,127. For FY 2015, DHS conducted a total of returns. For the same period, ICE removed or returned 235,413 individuals. As of 2015, illegal immigration to the United States continued to decline to its peak in the year 2000. In 2012, an estimated million people live in families in which the head of household or the spouse is in the United States without authorization. Illegal immigrants arriving recently before 2012 tend to be better educated than those who have been in the country a decade or more. A quarter of all immigrants who have arrived before 2012 have at least some college education. Illegal immigrants work in many sectors of the U.S. economy. Earnings do increase somewhat the longer an individual is in the country. As of 2006, the following data table shows a spread of distribution of locations where illegal immigrants reside by state. Separate from the total number of illegal immigrants is the pace of this total. The DHS releases yearly reports from which the rate of illegal immigration can be estimated. The most recent data is from FY 2015.Illegal immigration in the United States – A warning sign at the international boundary between the United States and Canada in Point Roberts, Washington.
175. Mehriban Aliyeva – According to the Los Angeles Times, Mehriban Aliyeva is widely considered to be in line to succeed her husband as President of Azerbaijan. Mehriban Aliyeva was born into a family described as "the single most powerful family in Azerbaijan." Her grandfather was noted Azerbaijani writer Mir Jalal Pashayev. Her uncle Hafiz Pashayev was Azerbaijan's first Ambassador to the United States. Aliyeva's father Arif Pashayev is Rector in Baku and her mother, Aida Imanguliyeva was a prominent philologist and arabist. Mehriban Aliyeva married Ilham Aliyev, the son of Heydar Aliyev, in Baku on 22 December 1983. Two articles in The Times in 2005 described her as "former eye doctor." The Aliyevs have two daughters, a son Heydar. Leyla is the editor of Baku magazine, published by Azerbaijani Russian businessman Aras Agalarov, is married to his son Emin Agalarov. In 1995, she established the Azerbaijani Culture Friends Foundation. With financial support from Chevron, the foundation gave lifetime awards to six representatives of Azerbaijani art and culture. The foundation also sponsored performances by Antonio Vivaldi and George Gershwin. The Heydar Aliyev Foundation also sponsors projects including helping to finance renovations at the Louvre Museum, Palace of Versailles, Strasbourg Cathedral. Also in 2004, Aliyeva became a designated UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador, to honor her work promoting musical traditions. In Azerbaijan's 2005 parliamentary elections, she was elected with 94 % of the vote.Mehriban Aliyeva – Mehriban Əliyeva
176. Armenia – Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia. Armenia is a unitary, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. By the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. In the 1st BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion. In between the 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 14th centuries. During World War I, Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics.Armenia – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map c. 450 BC, with Armenia shown in the center
177. Semi-presidential system – There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the premier-presidential system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament. The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet. This subtype is used in Burkina Faso, France, Georgia, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, Niger, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Sri Lanka and Ukraine. Under the president-parliamentary system, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the assembly majority. The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the support of the parliament majority for his choice. This form of semi-presidentialism is much closer to pure presidentialism. It is used in Armenia, Georgia between 2004 and 2013, Mozambique, Namibia, Russia, Taiwan and Ukraine between 1996 and 2005, again from 2010 to 2014. It was used in Germany during the Weimarer Republik, as the constitutional regime between 1919 and 1933 is called unofficially. The powers that are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. It is up to the president to decide, how much "autonomy" he leaves to "his" prime minister to act on his own. Semi-presidential systems may sometimes experience periods in which the President and the Prime Minister are from differing political parties. This is called "cohabitation", a term which originated in France when the situation first arose in the 1980s. In most cases, cohabitation results from a system in which the two executives are not elected at the same time or for the same term.Semi-presidential system – Presidential republics with a full presidential system.
178. Presidential system – The United States, for instance, has a presidential system. The executive is elected and often titled "president" and is not responsible to the legislature and which cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss it. The legislature may have the right, in extreme cases, to dismiss the executive, often through impeachment. The president has a fixed term of office. Elections can not be triggered by a vote of confidence or parliamentary procedures. Although in some countries there is an exception, which provides for the removal of a president, found to have broken a law. The executive branch is unipersonal. Members of the cabinet must carry out the policies of legislative branches. Departmental chiefs are not members of the legislature. However, presidential systems often need legislative approval of executive nominations to various lower governmental posts. A president generally can not dismiss judges. The president can often pardon or commute sentences of convicted criminals. Countries that feature a presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of President. For example, a dictator, who may not have been legitimately elected may be and often is called a president. Likewise, leaders of one-party states are often called presidents.Presidential system – Presidential republics with a full presidential system.
180. Ecuadorian general election, 2017 – Elections in Ecuador is about information on elections and election results in Ecuador. Ecuador elects on national level a legislature. The President of his vice-president are elected on one ballot for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress has 100 members elected for a four-year term in the 22 provinces. National electoral calendar 2017 Adam Carr's Election Archive Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues, issue brief from the Center for Economic and Policy ResearchEcuadorian general election, 2017 – Ecuador
181. Guillermo LassoGuillermo Lasso – Guillermo Lasso
182. Frog – A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting over 85 % of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Besides living on dry land, the adults of some species are adapted for living underground or in trees. The skin of the frog is glandular, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic. Frogs typically lay their eggs in water. The eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have internal gills. They have highly rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets. The cycle is completed when they metamorphose into adults. A few species bypass the tadpole stage. Omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frogs are extremely efficient at converting what they eat into mass. They are an important food source of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats.Frog
183. Vietnam – Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated million inhabitants as of 2014, it is the eighth-most-populous Asian country. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Malaysia across the South China Sea to the southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975. Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, from 111 BC to AD 939. An Vietnamese state was formed following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, eventually expelling the French in 1954. Thereafter, Vietnam was divided politically into South Vietnam. Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. Vietnam remained politically isolated. In 1986, the government initiated a series of political reforms which began Vietnam's path into the world economy. By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with all nations. Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. It is also a historical member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.Vietnam – A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c.800 BC.
184. Tawi-Tawi – Tawi-Tawi is an island province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The capital of Tawi-Tawi is Bongao, per Batas Pambansa Blg. 24 enacted on April 4, 1979. To the northeast lies the province of Sulu. Province was named after its main island. Tawi-Tawi is the Sinama form of jawi-jawi, Malay for "tree;" the island is known for having an abundance of this tree. Early Spanish accounts give the name of the island as Tauitaui, Tavi-Tavi or Tavitavi. Sibutu remained until 1900. Tawi-Tawi was previously part of the province of Sulu. On September 11, 1973, pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 302, the new province of Tawi-Tawi was officially created, separate from Sulu. 24. The province lies at the southwestern tip of the country, situated between the Celebes Sea in the south. Tawitawi Island itself has an area of 580.5 square kilometres. The province has two seasons: wet. The climate is generally moderate.Tawi-Tawi – Seal
185. Philippine Coast Guard – It is an agency attached to the Department of Transportation of the Philippines. The Philippine Coast Guard is the oldest and only humanitarian armed service in the Philippines. The Captain of the Port was designated as Bureau Director. The lighthouse service was placed under the Bureau. The Bureau of Navigation took over its functions. A Coast Guard unit was activated within the Philippine Navy to implement these functions. Its coast guard functions were transferred from the navy. The transformation of the PCG into a non-military organization has significance. The new law also strengthened increasing demands for marine resources, technological advancement and climate change. Further, the law has defined the PCG's rightful niche in the bureaucracy in nation building. These Sea Marshals maintain a security presence aboard these ferries. Accordingly, Commander Noel O Monte PCG was designated as its first Commander holding office at the former PADC Hangar Nr. 3, Domestic Airport Complex, Pasay City. After six months of intensive rehabilitation, it was commissioned into Coast Guard service on 26 June 1999 as PCG -- 251. On the first helicopter, a MBB BO-105CB was acquired from PADC and commissioned with the tail number PCG -- 1636.Philippine Coast Guard – Coast Guard patrol boat PCG Pampanga (SARV 003) in formation in the Celebes Sea during joint military exercises with the Philippine Navy with the United States Coast Guard and the U.S. Navy, July 2012
186. Abu Sayyaf – The group is considered very violent, was responsible for the Philippines' worst terrorist attack, the bombing of Superferry 14 in 2004, which killed 116 people. The name of the group is derived from the Arabic abu, sayyaf. As of 2012, the group was estimated to have between 200 and 400 members, down from 1,250 in 2000. They use mostly improvised explosive devices, mortars, automatic rifles. In 2002, fighting Abu Sayyaf became a mission of the American military's Operation Enduring Freedom and part of the Global War on Terrorism. The group was founded by Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani, led after his death in 1998 by his younger brother Khadaffy Janjalani, killed in 2007. On 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Totoni Hapilon swore an oath of loyalty to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL. In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people to ransom, in the name of ISIL. In the early 1970s, the Moro National Liberation Front was the main Muslim rebel groups fighting in Basilan and Mindanao in the southern Philippines. Abdurajik then went to Afghanistan to fight against the Soviet Union and the Afghan government during the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Both Abdurajik Abubakar and his younger brother who succeeded him were natives of Isabela City, currently one of the poorest cities of the Philippines. Located on the North-Western part of the island of Basilan, Isabela is also the capital of Basilan province, across the Isabela Channel from the Malamwi Island. MNLF had moderated into an established political government, the ARMM. It was established in 1989, fully institutionalised by 1996 and which eventually became the ruling government in southern Mindanao. Khalifa had married a local woman, Alice "Jameelah" Yabo, By 1995 Abu Sayyaf was active in large scale bombings and attacks in the Philippines.Abu Sayyaf – Isnilon Totoni Hapilon in 2000.
187. Tripoli – Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya. Tripoli, with its metropolitan area, has a population of about million people. Tripoli includes the Port of the country's largest commercial and manufacturing centre. It is also the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is also located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled the country in this barracks. Tripoli was founded by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea. Due to the city's long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. "Tripoli" may also refer to the Tripoli District. Tripoli is also known as Tripoli-of-the-West, to distinguish it from its Phoenician city Tripoli, Lebanon known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham meaning "Levantine Tripoli". It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean, describing its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli English pronunciation: / ˈtrɪpəli / is a Greek name that introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli. In Arabic: طرابلس it is called Ṭarābulus. "pura" meaning a fortress, castle, city or town. Hence, in Sanskrit "Tripura" also means "Three Cities".Tripoli – Top:: That El Emad Towers; Middle: Martyrs' Square; Bottom left: Marcus Aurelius Arch; Bottom right: Souq al-Mushir – Tripoli Medina
188. Southern Front (Syrian rebel group) – The Southern Front is a Syrian rebel alliance consisting of 58 or 54 Syrian opposition factions, established on 13 February 2014 in southern Syria. By June 2015, Southern Front controlled about 70 percent of Daraa Governorate, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Since its formation, rebels said, operation rooms have been added inside Syria to improve coordination between units. The coalition is "described as the best organized of the mainstream opposition". The Southern Front is an alliance of 54 rebel groups, ranging to moderately religious. The relation between Syrian armed rebel group Free Syrian Army has been described differently by different news sources. Remarks of news sources about such relation are in some cases more or in other cases incompatible. Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad wrote on 10 October 2015: "Saudi Arabia is increasing its deliveries to Syrian rebels. That concerns three different groups: Jaish al-Fatah, the Southern Front." This resulted in the “Southern Front” being formed on 13 February 2014. At the same time a provincial council was established. This political program is intended to undercut support for more extreme interpretations of Islam, spreading". Around that time, almost 40 small rebel groups joined the First Corps in the south. On 1 the Hamza Division, Syria Revolutionaries Front southern command and 1st Artillery Regiment merged under the command structure of the First Army. As of February 2015, Southern Front operations were executed through seven so-called'Southern Front operation rooms'.Southern Front (Syrian rebel group) – The Syrian Independence flag flanked by an AK-47 on each side
189. Daraa Governorate – Dara`a Governorate is one of the fourteen Governorates of Syria. It covers an area of 3,730 km ². It is bordered to the south, Quneitra Governorate to the west, Rif Dimashq Governorate to the north and Al-Suwayda Governorate to the east. The governorate has a population of 998,000. The capital is the city of Daraa. Several clashes have occurred within the governorate throughout the civil war. The governorate is divided into 3 districts: a Izra' These are further divided into 17 sub-districts. Druze in Syria Daraa and As-Suwayda offensive Official Site of Daraa Governorate edaraa The First Complete website for daraa news and servicesDaraa Governorate – Map of Syria with Dar'a highlighted
190. Conservative Political Action Conference – The Conservative Political Action Conference is an annual political conference attended by conservative activists and elected officials from across the United States. CPAC is hosted by the American Conservative Union. More than 100 other organizations contribute in various ways. In 2011, ACU took CPAC on the road with its first Regional CPAC in Orlando, Florida. Since then ACU has hosted regional CPACs in Chicago, San Diego. Political front runners take the stage at this convention. The conference was founded as a small gathering of dedicated conservatives. The 2010 CPAC featured co-sponsorship from GOProud. The 2011 CPAC was Donald Trump's first speaking appearance at CPAC. His appearance at CPAC was organized by GOProud, in conjunction with GOPround supporter Roger Stone, close with Trump. GOPround pushed at CPAC's presidential poll. For the 2012 conference, the ACU board voted to not invite the John Birch Society to the 2012 conference. The 2011 CPAC speech Trump gave is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party. The 2015 CPAC featured Jamila Bey who became the first atheist activist to address CPAC's annual meeting. The 2016 CPAC featured co-sponsorship for the first time from the Log Cabin Republicans.Conservative Political Action Conference – President George W. Bush waves to the crowd at CPAC 2008, alongside American Conservative Union chairman David Keene.
191. Simon & Schuster – It is one of the largest English-language publishers, now known as the "Big Five". It publishes over 2,000 titles annually under 35 different imprints. Crossword puzzles first became a popular feature in newspapers. In 1924, a crossword puzzle devotee, asked Simon whether there was a book of these puzzles that she could give to a friend. Simon, with Schuster, launched a company to exploit the opportunity. At the time, Schuster was editor of an automotive trade magazine and together they pooled $8,000 to start the company. Crossword puzzles were indeed the craze of 1924. Simon & Schuster continues to be the preeminent U.S. publisher of crossword puzzle books. To attract attention, the book came with a pencil attached. This "fad" publishing would turn into a philosophy for the new house. Simon & Schuster set out to exploit current trends that published books with commercial appeal. Simon called this, "planned publishing." Instead of signing authors with a planned manuscript, they then hired writers to carry them out. In the 1930, the publisher moved to what was known at 386 Fourth Avenue. With Robert Fair de Graff, Simon & Schuster founded Pocket Books, America's first paperback publisher.Simon & Schuster – Middle 20th century HQ, Broadway
192. Seattle – Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States and the seat of King County, Washington. The city is situated on Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada -- United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of handling as of 2016. The Seattle area was previously inhabited before the first permanent European settlers. Growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle for aircraft manufacturing. The Seattle area developed as a technology center beginning with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. In 1994, Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle. The stream of new software, Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Seattle has a musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, to the Central District. The scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is also the birthplace of the alternative rock subgenre grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay. The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest.Seattle – Downtown Seattle from Queen Anne Hill
193. Amazon.com – Amazon.com, often simply Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company, founded in July 5, 1994, by Jeff Bezos and based in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the world by total sales and market capitalization. The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV—and is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its in-house brand AmazonBasics. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2016, Dutch and Polish language versions of the German Amazon website were launched. In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of D. E. Shaw & Co. a Wall Street firm, moved to Seattle. He began to work on a business plan for what would eventually become Amazon.com. Jeff Bezos incorporated the company as "Cadabra" on July 5, 1994. Bezos changed the name to Amazon a year later after a lawyer misheard its original name as "cadaver". In September 1994, Bezos purchased the URL Relentless.com and briefly considered naming his online store Relentless, but friends told him the name sounded a bit sinister. The domain is still owned by Bezos and still redirects to the retailer. The company went online as Amazon.com in 1995. Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, "There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But you know, McDonald's got copied.Amazon.com – amazon.com homepage
194. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
195. World Food Programme – The World Food Programme is the food assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security. According to the WFP, it provides assistance to an average of million people in 75 countries each year. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee. The WFP was formally established on a three-year experimental basis. In 1965, the programme was extended to a continuing basis. The WFP is governed by an Executive Board which consists of representatives from 36 member states. Ertharin Cousin is the current Executive Director, appointed jointly by the UN Secretary General and the Director-General of the FAO for a five-year term. She heads the Secretariat of the WFP. The European Union is a permanent observer in the WFP and, as a major donor, participates in the work of its Executive Board. The WFP has a staff of about 11,500 people, the majority of whom work in remote areas. The WFP strives to eradicate malnutrition, with the ultimate goal in mind of eliminating itself. Food-for-work programmes help promote environmental and economic stability and agricultural production. Million children received school meals or take-home rations. The WFP has scaled up its use of cash and vouchers as food assistance tools. Million people received assistance in 2013.World Food Programme – A 2009 Russian stamp featuring the WFP logo.
196. Famine – A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. Some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. It remains to be the most affected area in the world. And due to change, the conditions only fluctuate more and more. Predicting the seasons, well as when to expect rain to help plant more crops seems to be a challenge. Most increased efforts towards this continent. The cyclical occurrence of famine has been a mainstay of societies engaged since the dawn of agriculture itself. These capitalist landowners paid their labourers with money, thereby increasing the commercialization of rural society. In the emerging competitive market, better techniques for the improvement of labour productivity were increasingly valued and rewarded. It was in the farmer's interest to produce much as possible on their land in order to sell it to areas that demanded that product. They produced every year if they could. Subsistence peasants were also increasingly forced to commercialize their activities because of increasing taxes. Taxes that had to be paid to central governments in money forced the peasants to produce crops to sell.Famine – Photograph showing starving children during the Russian famine of 1921
197. Unity State – Unity, sometimes known as Western Upper Nile was one of the 10 states of South Sudan. Unity state was in the Greater Upper Nile region. It had an area of 38,837 square kilometres. Unity was inhabited predominantly by two ethnic groups, the Dinka. The capital of Unity state was Bentiu. Before an administrative reorganization in 1994, the state was sometimes called Western Upper Nile. The counties of Unity were: Payinjiar. The larger towns were Bentiu, Mayom and Leer. Other towns were Ganyliel. Agriculture was the state's economic activity. The people of the state were nomadic agro-pastoralists who engaged in both rearing of livestock, especially cattle. Farming was conducted during the rainy season although some cultivation also occurs during summer. Vegetables therefore lacked access to markets for their produce. Some NGOs introduced farmers for market. Southern Sudan's first oil reserves were discovered here during the 1970s.Unity State – Location in South Sudan.
198. Southern California – Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's 10 southernmost counties. The more extensive 10-county definition, including Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used based on historical political divisions. Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States. The eight- and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas, Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of California's population. Located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada. Located south of the region is the Mexico–United States border. Within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. The motion picture, television, music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood's name. Headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, Sony also run major record companies as well.Southern California – Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
199. Texas – Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S. and El Paso. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal. The origin of Texas, is from the word, "Tejas", which means ` friends' in the Caddo language. Due to geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the U.S. southern and southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas' area is desert. Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, the coastline. The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. After the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle.Texas – Sam Rayburn Reservoir
200. Tornado – They are often referred to as cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name any closed low pressure circulation. Most tornadoes travel a few miles before dissipating. Various types of tornadoes include the multiple vortex waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped current, connecting to a large cumulonimbus cloud. They are generally classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air frequently develop in tropical areas close to the equator, are less common at high latitudes. Tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, steam devil. Downbursts are frequently confused with tornadoes, though their action is dissimilar. Tornadoes have been observed and documented on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the Tornado Alley region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes. The Fujita scale tornadoes by damage has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale. An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. The strongest category, can deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes.Tornado – A tornado near Anadarko, Oklahoma. The funnel is the thin tube reaching from the cloud to the ground. The lower part of this tornado is surrounded by a translucent dust cloud, kicked up by the tornado's strong winds at the surface. The wind of the tornado has a much wider radius than the funnel itself.
201. San Antonio – It was the fastest growing of the top 10 largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. The city is on the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion known as the Texas Triangle. San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. The city has characteristics of other urban centers in which there are sparsely populated areas and a low density rate outside of the city limits. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. Growth along the Interstate Interstate 10 corridors to the north, west and east make it likely that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is by a 1691 Spanish expedition in the area. Notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Kelly Air Force Base operated out until 2001 when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB. The remaining portions of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, aerospace complex. They named "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years before any Spanish settlement took place. He was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there. He directed the governor of Coahuila and Texas, to establish the mission complex. Construction did not start until 1718.San Antonio – From top to bottom and Left to Right: 1. San Antonio downtown from the Tower of The Americas at night. 2. The Riverwalk 3. The McNay Museum of Art 4. The Tower Life Building 5. Bexar County courthouse 6. San Antonio Public Library 7. The Tower of the Americas at night 8. The Alamo
202. Louisiana – Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are the local government's equivalent to counties. The largest by land area is Plaquemines. Louisiana is bordered to the south. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp. These contain a southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibis and egrets. There are also fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of orchids and carnivorous plants. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named La Louisiane.Louisiana – Louisiana entrance sign off Interstate 20 in Madison Parish east of Tallulah.
203. Malaysia – Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia. East Malaysia shares a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. With a population of over million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. Located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. Less in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, indigenous peoples.Malaysia – "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
204. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute – Stockholm International Peace Research Institute is an independent international institute in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established on 6 May 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, the interested public. SIPRI is based in Stockholm, also has a presence in Beijing. In 1964, Prime Minister of Sweden Tage Erlander put forward the idea of establishing a institute to commemorate Sweden's 150 years of unbroken peace. The Swedish Riksdag decided that the Institute be established on 1 July 1966 with the legal status of an independent foundation. All SIPRI research is based exclusively on open sources. SIPRI's organisation consists of a Governing Board, Director, support staff. An Advisory Committee serves as a consultative body to the Institute. The Governing Board takes decisions on important matters concerning the research activities, financial administration of the Institute. Other matters are decided by the Director. The Research Staff Collegium advises the Director on research matters. The staff of about 50 persons is international. The researchers represent academic disciplines. Located in Sweden, the Institute offers a unique platform for researchers from different countries to work in close cooperation. The Institute also hosts guest researchers who work on issues related to the SIPRI research programme.Stockholm International Peace Research Institute – SIPRI's headquarters in Solna outside Stockholm.
205. Arms industry – It consists of a commercial industry involved in servicing of facilities. Arms-producing companies, also referred to as arms dealers, defense contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms mainly for the armed forces of states. Departments of government also operate in the arms industry, buying and selling weapons, munitions and other military items. The arms industry also provides other logistical and operational support. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimated in 2012 that 2012 military expenditures were roughly 1.8 trillion United States dollars. This represents a relative decline from 1990 when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry. The combined arms sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms trade. According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009. Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries also have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by its citizens. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many countries and regions affected by political instability. The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries. Contracts to supply a given country's military are awarded by governments, making arms contracts of substantial political importance.Arms industry – Workers assemble Browning-Inglis Hi-Power pistols at the John Inglis munitions plant, Canada, April 1944
206. Cold War – The USSR was a Marxist -- Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and police, who in turn were ruled by a dictator or a small committee. The Party controlled the press, the military, all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press and independent organizations. A neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement; it sought good relations with both sides. They were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years in 1945. The Berlin Blockade was the major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded. The USSR and USA competed for the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets. The escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade beginning in 1979. The "Able Archer" NATO military exercises. The United States increased diplomatic, economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika and glasnost and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan.Cold War – Photograph of the Berlin Wall taken from the West side. The Wall was built in 1961 to prevent East Germans from fleeing and to stop an economically disastrous drain of workers. It was a symbol of the Cold War and its fall in 1989 marked the approaching end of the war.
207. Middle East – The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The derived noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the 20th century. The history of the Middle East dates back with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more widely known when naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in the National Review, a British journal. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. The Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. The first official use by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis.Middle East – The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
208. NATO – The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides. Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members' spending is supposed to amount to 2 % of GDP. The course of the Cold War led with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 2004. The Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a receptive hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. Talks for a military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The creation of NATO can be seen as the institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation.NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
209. Jewish Community Center – A Jewish Community Center or Jewish Community Centre is a general recreational, social and fraternal organization serving the Jewish community in a number of cities. JCCs promote Jewish heritage through holiday celebrations, Israel-related programming, Jewish education. However, they are open to everyone in the community. The Hebrew Young Men's Literary Association was first set up in Baltimore, Maryland to provide help for Jewish immigrants. The first YMHA was founded in New York City in its first president being Lewis May. The first headquarters were the Harvard Rooms, located at 42nd Street and Sixth Avenue. A YWHA was first established to the YMHA in 1888. The New York YMHA and YWHA now operate together as the 92nd Street Y. The independent YWHA was set up in 1902. In 1917 these organizations were later renamed Jewish Community Centers, though some retain the YWHA or YMHA designation. In the New York City area, many retained the designation into the 1990s. An example of the objectives of Jewish Community Centers can be seen within the New Bedford, Massachusetts branch's Constitution. To provide children of New Bedford. To serve the spiritual, intellectual, physical welfare of its members. To fulfill the great ideals of American citizenship.Jewish Community Center – The indoor pool at the YMHA in Winnipeg, Manitoba
210. Albuquerque, New Mexico – Albuquerque is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. The high-altitude city serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County, it is situated in the central part of the state, straddling the Rio Grande. The Albuquerque metropolitan statistical area has a population of 907,301 according to the United States Census Bureau's most recently available estimate for 2015. Albuquerque is the 60th-largest United States metropolitan area. The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, the Rio Grande flows through the city, north to south. Albuquerque is also the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the world's largest such gathering of hot-air balloons from around the globe. The event takes place during the first week of October. Albuquerque was named in honor of Francisco, Duke of Alburquerque, viceroy of New Spain from 1653 to 1660. The growing village soon to become Albuquerque was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdes. Francisco's title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the Spanish province of Badajoz, near Portugal. The name has two theories of origin which denote either Latin or Arabic roots. The first of which derived from the Latin albus quercus meaning "white oak". This name was probably in reference to the prevalence of cork oaks in the region, which have a white wood when the bark is removed. Alburquerque is still a center of the Spanish cork industry, the town coat-of-arms features a white cork oak. Another theory suggests that it may come from the Arabic Abu al-Qurq, which means "father of the cork ".Albuquerque, New Mexico – Francisco, Duke of Alburquerque
211. Judaism – Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel. With between 14.5 and million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, forms of organization. Modern branches such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Orthodox Judaism maintains that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. Special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary. The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East during the Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. Judaism's texts, values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have also indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Jews include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism.Judaism – Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
212. Russia – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
213. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. The five boroughs -- Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island -- were consolidated into a single city in 1898. New York served as the capital of the United States until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, environmental sustainability. Several sources have ranked the most photographed city in the world. The names of many of the city's bridges, parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. On, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. He named it "Nouvelle Angoulême". He returned to Spain in August.New York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
214. President of the United States – The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The President is considered to be one of the world's most powerful political figures, as the leader of the only global superpower. The office of President holds significant soft power both in the United States and abroad. Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is further empowered to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is enrolled. The president also directs the domestic policy of the United States. Since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the Federal Government as a whole. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third term. In all, 43 individuals have served 44 presidencies spanning 56 four-year terms. On January 2009, Barack Obama became the 44th and current president. On November 2012, he was re-elected. His second term ends at noon on January 2017.President of the United States – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
215. United States Army – The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. The service is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, military thinking influenced the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian tactics and organizational skills. Washington lost a series of battles around New York City in 1776 and Philadelphia in 1777. With the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained army. The War of 1812, last American war against Great Britain was a mixed success. Both sides, the United States and Great Britain, returned to the geographical status quo. Warships, however, were never returned to the nation captured from.United States Army – Storming of Redoubt #10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of America.
216. H. R. McMaster – Lieutenant General Herbert Raymond McMaster is an American soldier, a career officer in the U.S. Army. His current assignment is Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center and Deputy Commanding General, Doctrine Command. His previous assignment was commander of the Maneuver Center of Excellence at Ft. Benning, Georgia. McMaster previously served as Director of Combined Joint Interagency Task Force-Shafafiyat at ISAF Headquarters in Kabul, Afghanistan. McMaster graduated in 1980 where he served with the rank of cadet captain. He is a 1984 graduate of West Point, where he played rugby. It harshly criticizes high-ranking officers of that era, arguing that they inadequately challenged Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and President Lyndon Johnson on their Vietnam strategy. The book is on the official list of the Marine Corps. During the Gulf War in 1991 he was a captain commanding Eagle Troop of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment at the Battle of 73 Easting. "At 4:10 p.m. Eagle Troop received fire from an Iraqi infantry position in a cluster of buildings at UTM PU 6801. Bradleys returned fire, silenced the Iraqi guns, continued east with the two tank platoons leading. The 12 M1A1 tanks of Eagle Troop destroyed 30 trucks in 23 minutes with no American losses. At about 4:20 Eagle surprised an Iraqi company set up in a reverse slope defence on the 70 Easting. Captain McMaster, leading the attack, immediately engaged that position, destroying the first of the eight enemy tanks to his front.H. R. McMaster – McMaster in 2014 as deputy commander, Army Training and Doctrine Command and director, Army Capabilities Integration Center
217. National Security Advisor (United States) – The current Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs is Susan Rice, who assumed the role on July 1, 2013. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs is appointed by the President by the Senate. In 1949, the NSC became part of the president's executive office. Robert Cutler became the first National Security Advisor in 1953. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the senior NSC staff. Robert Cutler also held the job twice, both times under Dwight D. Eisenhower. 2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff. WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009. Www.whitehouse.gov/nscNational Security Advisor (United States) – Incumbent Susan Rice since July 1, 2013
218. Coordinated Universal Time – Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated to UTC or CUT, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of solar time at 0 ° longitude; it does not observe daylight saving time. It is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on January 1960. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. No consensus has yet been reached. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of UT1. See the "Current number of leap seconds" section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date. The official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC. This abbreviation arose by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers originally proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC. The compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets by UTC offset. The westernmost zone uses UTC − 12, being twelve hours behind UTC; the easternmost time zone, theoretically, uses UTC +12, being twelve hours ahead of UTC.Coordinated Universal Time – Key concepts
219. European migrant crisis – The unauthorized national entrants came mostly from Muslim-majority countries of the regions of Western Asia, South Asia, Africa, Western Balkans. By religious affiliation, the overwhelming majority of entrants were Muslim, with a small component of non-Muslim minorities. According to Eurostat, EU member states received over 1.2 million first time asylum applications a number more than double that of the previous year. Four states received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications with Hungary, Sweden, Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for "public policy or national security" reasons. By default, the first state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the seeker then moves to another member state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered. Further clauses on this topic are found in directive 2001/51/EC. Humanitarian visas are given to refugees who want to apply for asylum. The laws on migrant smuggling ban helping migrants to pass any national border if the migrants are without other permission to enter. This has caused many airlines to refuse passage to migrants without visas, including through international flights inside the Schengen Area. After being refused passage, many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 amounts to 7 % of the total population of the 28 EU countries. Prior to 2014, the number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in 1992, 2013. In 2014 it reached 626,000.European migrant crisis – Migrants being stopped at the Greek – Macedonian border near Gevgelija by the Macedonian Police, 24 August 2015.
220. Territorial disputes in the South China Sea – There is a further dispute in the waters near the Indonesian Natuna Islands which by most definitions are not part of the South China Sea. China abide by its ruling, insisting that any resolution should be with other claimants. The disputes involve both maritime boundaries and islands. Maritime boundary along the Vietnamese coast between PRC, Taiwan, Vietnam. Maritime boundary north of Borneo between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan. Maritime boundary, land territory, the islands of Sabah, including Ambalat, between Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines. Maritime boundary and islands in the Luzon Strait between Taiwan. The area may be rich in oil and natural gas deposits; however, the estimates are highly varied. In the years following the announcement by the ministry, the claims regarding the South China Sea islands intensified. However, other sources claim that the proven reserve of oil in the South China Sea may only be about billion tons. The South China Sea is dubbed by China as the "second Persian Sea." The Philippines began exploring the areas west of Palawan for oil in 1970. Exploration in the area began in Reed Bank/Tablemount. in 1976, gas was discovered following the drilling of a well. However, China's complaints halted the exploration. These oil fields supply 15% of annual oil consumption in the Philippines.Territorial disputes in the South China Sea – Territorial monument of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) on Southwest Cay, Spratly Islands, defining the cay as part of Vietnamese territory (to Phước Tuy Province). Used since 22 August 1956 until 1975, when replaced by another one from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (successor state after the Fall of Saigon)
221. 2017 Asian Winter Games – The 2017 Asian Winter Games will be the 8th edition of the Asian Winter Games. They will be hosted in Obihiro, Japan. These Games were originally scheduled for 2018. Sapporo and Obihiro were named as the sole bidding cities. The hosting contract was signed by the president of the Japanese Olympic Committee. It will be the third time that Sapporo will host the event and fourth time in Japan. Previously the city held the Games in 1990. Before hosting the first Asian Winter Games, the city was also the host of the 1972 Winter Olympics. On January 2011, Sapporo was awarded the right to host the Games. The decision was announced during the 2011 Asian Winter Games in Astana, Kazakhstan. The bid was announced with no other bidding city. The total cost is expected to be ¥ billion. 64 events across 11 sport disciplines, are scheduled in the 2017 Asian Winter Games program. The three skating sports are figure skating, short track speed skating. The five skiing sports are alpine, cross-country, ski jumping, snowboarding.2017 Asian Winter Games – Sapporo Dome for the opening and closing ceremonies, ice hockey and speed skating
222. Alan Colmes – Alan Samuel Colmes is an American radio and television host, liberal political commentator for the Fox News Channel, blogger. From 1996 to 2009, he served on Fox News Channel. In addition to broadcasting, he contributes to AOL News. He is the author of Red, White & Liberal: How Left Is Right Is Wrong and Thank the Liberals for Saving America. He was born in New York City. His grandparents emigrated from the Ukraine. Colmes went to Hofstra University, where he graduated in 1971 with a Bachelor of Arts degree from its School of Communications. While at Hofstra, Colmes worked at its station WRHU. He began his career in stand-up comedy. His career took off when WABC hired him for the morning drive time slot. He was billed as "W. Alan B. Colmes," as in the station's call sign. His tenure there would be short when NBC announced in 1988 it would close its radio division. When WNBC went off the air for the last time on October 1988, Colmes' was the last voice heard. He has been syndicated nationally, starting with his involvement with Daynet, a venture created by other regional radio hosts.Alan Colmes – Colmes in September 2014
223. David Waddington, Baron Waddington – David Charles Waddington, Baron Waddington, GCVO, PC, QC, DL is a British politician. He then served from 1992-97. Waddington was educated at two independent schools in North West England: Cressbrook School in Kirkby Lonsdale and Sedbergh School. It is alleged this was because Kiszko's team made significant mistakes. Firstly, they did not seek an adjournment when the Crown delivered thousands of pages of unused material on the first morning of the trial. Secondly, it has also been alleged that, in court, Waddington maintained the defence of diminished responsibility which Kiszko had never authorised. Waddington states that this assertion runs counter to what Kiszko's new counsel told the Court of Appeal. His authority properly obtained." Kiszko was finally released in 1992 after the Court of Appeal was told forensic evidence showed that he could not have been the murderer. Coincidentally, Kiszko's appeal was first lodged on the day Waddington was announced as the new Home Secretary in 1989. Waddington stood several times before finding success. He fought Farnworth at the 1955 general election, Heywood and Royton in 1966. He was first elected at a by-election in Nelson and Colne caused by the death of Labour MP Sydney Silverman. He was subsequently elected for the broadly-similar Ribble Valley constituency in 1983. On December 1990 he was created a life peer as Baron Waddington, of Read in the County of Lancashire.David Waddington, Baron Waddington – Secretary of State for the Home Department
224. Kenneth Arrow – Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow is an American economist, writer, political theorist. He is the joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972. To date, he is the youngest person to have received this award, at 51. In economics, he is a figure in post-World War II economic theory. Many of his former graduate students have gone on to win themselves. His most significant works are his contributions to social theory, notably "Arrow's impossibility theorem", his work on general equilibrium analysis. He has also provided foundational work including endogenous growth theory and the economics of information. Arrow was born in New York City. His father, Harry, was from Podu Iloaiei. The Arrow family has Jewish origins. His family was very supportive of his education. Growing up during the Great Depression, he embraced socialism in his youth. His views retained a left philosophy. He attended Columbia University, for his graduate studies. While there, he was greatly influenced by him.Kenneth Arrow – National Medal of Science award ceremony, 2004
225. Mildred Dresselhaus – Dresselhaus has won numerous awards including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the National Science Medal, the Vannevar Bush Award. She was born Mildred Spiewak on November 1930 in Brooklyn. She received a PhD in 1958. She then spent two years before moving to Lincoln Lab as a staff member. And in 2005 she was awarded the 11th Annual Heinz Award in the category of Technology, Employment. In 2008 she was awarded the Oersted Medal. IEEE Medal of Honor - 2015 In 2000–2001, she was the director of the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy. From 2003-2008, she was the chair of the governing board of the American Institute of Physics. Dresselhaus has devoted a great deal of time to supporting efforts to promote increased participation of women in physics. In 2012 Dresselhaus was co-recipient of the Enrico Fermi Award, along with Burton Richter. On May 2012, Dresselhaus was awarded the Kavli Prize "for her pioneering contributions to the study of phonons, electron-phonon interactions, thermal transport in nanostructures." In 2014, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Dresselhaus is particularly noted on graphite, graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, low-dimensional thermoelectrics. Her group has made frequent use of electronic band structure, the photophysics of carbon nanostructures. There are physical theories named after Dresselhaus.Mildred Dresselhaus – Mildred Dresselhaus at the White House in 2012
226. Larry Coryell – Larry Coryell is an American jazz guitarist known as the "Godfather of Fusion". Coryell was born in Galveston, Texas. He graduated in Richland, Washington, where he played in local bands the Jailers, the Rumblers, the Royals, the Flames. He also played from nearby Yakima, Washington. He then moved to Seattle to attend the University of Washington. He played while living in Seattle. In September 1965, Coryell moved to New York City where he became part of Chico Hamilton's quintet, replacing Gabor Szabo. In 1968, he recorded with Gary Burton. Also during the mid-1960s he played with his first recorded band. His music during the early-1970s combined the influences of rock, jazz, eastern music. Julie's poetry was featured on the back cover of Ram. She was an important part of his career, as inspiration, appearance at recording sessions. She wrote a book including Chick Corea, John McLaughlin. He formed The Eleventh House in 1973. The ensemble toured widely.Larry Coryell – Larry Coryell 2009, at "Jazz im Palmengarten", Frankfurt am Main.
227. Omar Abdel-Rahman – His prosecution grew out of investigations of the World Trade Center 1993 bombings. The group is responsible for many acts including the November 1997 Luxor massacre, in which 58 foreign tourists and four Egyptians were killed. Abdel-Rahman was born in the city of al-Gamalia, Egypt, on May 3, 1938. He lost his eyesight when he was probably due to childhood diabetes. He studied a Braille version of the Qur ` an as a child, was sent to an Islamic boarding school. He developed an interest in the works of the Islamic purists Ibn Taymiyah and Sayyid Qutb. He later earned a Doctorate in Tafsir from the prestigious Al-Azhar University in Cairo. Soon after leaving university, Abdel-Rahman began preaching against the regime of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. Abdel-Rahman became one of the most outspoken Muslim clerics to denounce Egypt's secularism. Omar has Aisha Zohdi. His sons include Asim Abdulrahman. Mohammed was captured in 2003. He was later released in 2010. Ahmed was killed in 2011. During the 1970s, Abdel-Rahman developed close ties with two of Egypt's most militant organizations, Al-Gama' a al-Islamiyya.Omar Abdel-Rahman – Omar Abdel-Rahman
228. Clyde Stubblefield – Clyde Stubblefield is a drummer best known for his work with James Brown. His pattern on James Brown's "Funky Drummer" is among the world's most sampled musical segments. Stubblefield was featured in Copyright Criminals, which addressed the creative and legal aspects of sampling in the music industry. Stubblefield grew up in Chattanooga, Tennessee. As a youngster his sense of rhythm was influenced around him. He was inspired to pursue drumming after seeing drummers for the first time in a parade. He played professionally as a teenager. In early 1960s he toured with Otis Redding. In 1965 he joined the James Brown band. Over the next six years the band had two drummers, John "Jabo" Starks who had joined the band two weeks earlier. Starks' style was influenced by the music he grew up with in Mobile, Alabama. The two drummers had no formal training. According to Stubblefield, "We just played what we wanted to play We just put down what we think it should be." The two "laid the foundation for modern funk drumming in the process." Stubblefield has lived since 1971.Clyde Stubblefield – Clyde Stubblefield
229. Robert Michel – Robert Henry "Bob" Michel is an American Republican Party politician, a member of the United States House of Representatives for 38 years. Michel was also Minority Whip for 6 years. A graduate of Bradley University in Illinois, Michel was raised in Peoria, Illinois. He was raised in Peoria, Illinois, where he attended Peoria High School. Michel awarded two Bronze Stars, the Purple Heart, four battle stars. After the war, Michel attended Bradley University in Peoria, graduating in 1948. From 1949 to 1956, he worked as an administrative assistant to U.S. Representative Harold Velde. During his 38 years in the House, although Michel was never part of the party, Michel nonetheless was noted for his bipartisanship in striking bargains. He was good friends with Democrats such as Speaker Thomas "Tip" O'Neill and Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski. Michel was served until his retirement on January 3, 1995. He served through the 96th Congress. Later, Michel served through 103rd Congresses. Reagan travelled to campaign for him successfully. He stirred a controversy in 1988 when he said he missed the shows.Robert Michel – Michel as Minority Leader
230. Michael Novak – Michael Novak is an American Catholic philosopher, journalist, novelist, diplomat. In 1993 he was honored with an honorary degree at Universidad Francisco Marroquín due to his commitment to the idea of liberty. In 1994 Novak was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, which included a million-dollar purse awarded at Buckingham Palace. Novak writes articles focused on capitalism, religion, the politics of democratization. He is currently George Frederick Jewett Scholar in Religion, Philosophy, Public Policy at the American Enterprise Institute. He has supported many Republican candidates in recent years. He was born in 1933 to a Slovak-American family, the son of Irene Sakmar and Michael J. Novak. Novak was married to a professional artist and illustrator, who died of cancer in August 2009. They have four grandchildren. He attended Harvard University to study religion, intending to obtain a doctorate in philosophy of religion. He stated that he thought the department was too focused on analytic philosophy, neglecting religion. Novak began work as a writer. The result was The Open Church, a journalistic account of the events of the second session of the Council. Apostolic delegate Egidio Vagnozzi advised US Churchmen to silence him. Early in his career, he published two novels: The Tiber Was Silver and Naked I Leave.Michael Novak – Michael Novak in July 2004 at Washington Foreign Press Center.
231. George Steele – William James "Jim" Myers, better known by his ring name George "The Animal" Steele, is an American retired professional wrestler, author and actor. Steele's career lasted until 1988 though he made occasional wrestling appearances into the 1990s and 2000s. He portrayed actor Tor Johnson in Tim Burton's film Ed Wood. Myers was raised in Madison Heights, Michigan. During high school, Steele found success in baseball, basketball and football. In 1961, Steele was with the Grand Rapids Shamrocks 1st place Western Division. There Steele would eventually become a member of the Michigan Coaches Hall of Fame. Sammartino had liked the character Myer's developed of a wild man with incredible strength. However, Steele had him drop the mask, well as title of The Student. Looking to hide his real name, Myers opted for the alias "George Steele". At halftime, Myers approached that he was looking for a name. He states in an interview available on YouTube that he was in Pittsburgh when he was looking for a name. Someone suggested Jim Steele since he was in the "Steel City". He suggested George, what he eventually went with. Working well with Sammartino, Steele was invited for a full run in the WWF.George Steele – George Steele in 2009.
232. Dick Bruna – Dick Bruna is a Dutch author, artist, illustrator and graphic designer. Bruna is best illustrated, now numbering over 200. His best known creation is a small rabbit drawn with heavy graphic lines, simple shapes and primary colors. Other recurring characters include the kind pig lady and Snuffy the dog. Additionally, Bruna has also created stories for characters such as Lottie, Hettie Hedgehog. Aside from his prolific catalog of children's books, Bruna also illustrated and designed book covers, posters and promotional materials for his father's publishing company A.W. Bruna and Zoon. His most popular designs graced the covers of the Zwarte Beertjes series of books. Among his designs those for Simenon's Maigret are quite famous. They are typified by graphic silhouettes of a pipe on various backgrounds. Dick Bruna's father eventually became the largest publisher in Netherlands. His company, A.W. Bruna & Zoon, had a bookstand at virtually every one of the country's abundant railway stations. Bruna had different plans. Dick Bruna always remained a close collaborator.Dick Bruna – Dick Bruna
233. Jannis Kounellis – Jannis Kounellis is a Greek contemporary artist based in Rome. He studied in art college in Athens in Rome. From the years of 1960–1966, Kounellis went through a period of only exhibiting paintings. In some of his first exhibitions, Kounellis began stenciling numbers, words onto his canvases often reflecting advertisements and signs seen on the street. In 1960 he began to introduce found sculptural objects such as actual street signs into his work, exhibiting at Galleria La Tartaruga. This newfound convergence of painting, performance was Kounellis' way out of traditional art. By 1961 he began to paint on newspaper to reflect his feelings towards modern society and politics. In 1963, Kounellis introduced found objects among them live animals but also fire, earth, burlap sacks, gold. He replaced the canvas with bed frames, doorways, simply the gallery itself. Kounellis' work from the 1980s, which also consisted of performances using unusual materials, traveled all over Europe. In 1974 Jannis Kounellis performs in Berlin at the ADA -- Aktionen der Avantgarde. His work has become integral to international museums' collections. In 1967, Kounellis became associated with Arte Povera, a movement theorized by curator Germano Celant as a major shift to installations. Examples of artists who substantiated this basis of Arte Povera as a movement include Alighiero Boetti, Luciano Fabro, Giulio Paolini, Emilio Prini. To solidify the movement, Germano Celant curated another show, ` Arte Povera', exhibited at the De' Foscherari gallery in Bologna in 1968 with similar artists;.Jannis Kounellis – Jannis Kounellis
234. Stuart McLean – Stuart McLean, OC is a Canadian radio broadcaster, humourist, monologist, author, best known as the host of the CBC Radio program The Vinyl Cafe. He is often described as a "story-telling comic", though he has written serious stories. He is known for his ability to alter his popular stories to make them distinctive on every show. McLean was born to Australian immigrant parents. He graduated from Sir George Williams University with a B.A. degree in 1971. During the 1990s he was a frequent guest and sometimes host of Morningside with Peter Gzowski. The role went to Ralph Benmergui. As a summer show, McLean created a radio program called The Vinyl Cafe in 1994. By autumn 1997 the show was broadcast every Sunday at noon. McLean's books of stories from The Vinyl Cafe have won the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour three times. Since 1998, McLean has taken The Vinyl Cafe on the road across Canada and the United States. McLean retired in 2004 as a professor at the School of Journalism after 30 years at the former Polytechnical Institute. The Vinyl Cafe stopped producing new episodes following McLean's diagnosis with melanoma in November 2015.Stuart McLean – Stuart McLean on stage at the Centennial Concert Hall in Winnipeg, Manitoba
235. Al Jarreau – Alwin "Al" Lopez Jarreau is an American jazz singer. He was born in the fifth of six children. His website refers to the name of the street where he lived. His mother was a church pianist. He and his mother performed at PTA meetings. Jarreau was Badger Boys State delegate for Lincoln High School. At Boys State, Jarreau, was elected governor. Jarreau went on to attend Ripon College, where he also sang with a group called the Indigos. He graduated in 1962 in psychology. In 1967, Jarreau joined forces with acoustic guitarist Julio Martinez. The duo became the attraction at a small Sausalito night club called Gatsby's. This success contributed to Jarreau's decision to make his life and full-time career. In 1968, he made his primary occupation. In 1969, Jarreau and Martinez headed south, where Jarreau appeared as Dino's, The Troubadour, Bitter End West. Television exposure came from Johnny Carson, Mike Douglas, Merv Griffin, David Frost.Al Jarreau – Al Jarreau
236. Sione Lauaki – Sione Tuitupu Lauaki is a Tongan rugby union footballer who plays for Bayonne. He previously played for the All Blacks. Epalahame Lauaki, is a 2nd row rugby league footballer previously playing for Hull in the Super League competition. He attended Waitakere College in Auckland where he made the first XV in 1998. He later moved to Kelston Boys High School, where he also played in the first XV. He was instrumental in their Gallaher Shield win in 2003. He was the fourth All Black to come after Adrian Clarke, Ken Carrington and the great Michael Jones. While playing for the combined Pacific Islanders team in 2004 he scored Test match tries against Australia, South Africa. He was one of the two Pacific Islanders rugby team players picked for the All Blacks, the other being winger, Sitiveni Sivivatu. He has played loose forward with whom he made his debut in 2005 against Fiji. His final match for New Zealand was in 2008 against Samoa. During his time with the All Blacks he scored three tries. In Super Rugby he played for the Chiefs. He racked up 70 caps for the team, having scored 14 tries during his Super Rugby career. Lauaki went on to play for ASM Clermont Auvergne at the start of the 2010-11 Top 14 season.Sione Lauaki – Sione Lauaki
237. Mike Ilitch – Michael Ilitch, Sr. is an American entrepreneur, founder and owner of the international fast food franchise Little Caesars Pizza. He owns the Detroit Red Wings of Major League Baseball. Ilitch has been at the center of Detroit's downtown redevelopment efforts; he relocated his business headquarters there. He also owns Olympia Entertainment. A first generation American of Macedonian descent, he is married to Marian Bayoff Ilitch. Ilitch was born to Macedonian immigrants Sotir and Sultana Ilitch. His Sotir was a tool-and-die maker. A graduate of Cooley High School in Michigan, Ilitch entered the U.S. Marine Corps for four years. He was forced out of his playing career due to a injury. After leaving baseball, Ilitch started a business in 1959. They have expanded into other restaurants, sports teams, other enterprises. As of 2012, the family's entities remain privately held. In 1999, the Ilitches established Ilitch Holdings, Inc. to provide their various enterprises with technical services. They hold the titles of chairman and chairwoman, respectively. The combined total revenues for these enterprises in 2007 reportedly exceeded $ billion.Mike Ilitch – Ilitch presenting No Hitter Awards to Justin Verlander and Alex Avila in 2011
238. Hal Moore – Harold Gregory "Hal" Moore, Jr. is a retired United States Army lieutenant general and author. In 2007, Moore's driver wrote a book on Moore's personal religious journey titled A General's Spiritual Journey. In 2013, author Mike Guardia published the full-length biography of Moore's life and career titled Hal Moore: A Soldier Once... and Always. He was born on February 1922, in Bardstown, Kentucky, the eldest of four children born to Harold, Sr. and Mary Moore. His father was an agent whose territory covered western Kentucky and his mother was a homemaker. Because he was interested in obtaining an appointment to the U.S. Moore finished high school at night while working days and graduated from St. Joseph Preparatory School in Bardstown with the class of 1940. He attended George Washington University at night for two years, working while waiting on an appointment to West Point. During his time at George Washington University Moore was initiated into the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. Moore soon found Representative Eugene Cox of Georgia's 2nd Congressional District, with an open appointment to West Point. He left Cox's office with the West Point appointment. Moore received his appointment to the U.S. Military Academy shortly after the United States entered into World War II. During his plebe summer at Pine Camp, Moore was the top scorer in his company. He just barely, or as he put it, "an academic trip from hell."Hal Moore – Moore at the U.S. Military Academy in May 2010
239. Packy (elephant) – Packy is an Asian elephant at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon, United States. He is famous for having been the first elephant born in the Western Hemisphere in 44 years. Currently, he is the oldest Asian elephant in North America. Belle, was wild-born in Thailand, around 1952. Thonglaw, was born in Cambodia around 1947. Both were brought to Morgan Berry, an elephant trainer in Seattle, Washington, in 1959. Belle became pregnant with Packy at the Woodland Park Zoo. This went undiscovered for a year. Meanwhile, 5-year-old Pet, were being transferred between Seattle and Portland every year. In January 1962, Belle went into false labor, so staff decided to release the news to the public. Citizens eagerly anticipated the birth. Then, late at night on April Belle entered labor. On April 1962, at 5:58 a.m. after 21 months of pregnancy and five hours of labor, Belle gave birth to a male calf. Ten days later, following a contest sponsored by a local radio station, he was named "Packy". Life magazine devoted 11 pages to Packy in its issue of May 11, 1962.Packy (elephant) – Two unidentified elephants at the Oregon Zoo
240. Tara Palmer-Tomkinson – Tara Palmer-Tomkinson also known as T P-T, is an English socialite, "it girl", television presenter, model and charity patron. Her activities have been well-covered by the tabloid press. Palmer-Tomkinson's parents are Patricia Palmer-Tomkinson. Her father has represented his country as a skier at Olympic level. Palmer-Tomkinson was educated in Dorset. After she left school, she worked briefly for Rothschilds bank. In the mid to late 1990s, a weekly column for The Sunday Times appeared under her name. However, this was actually ghostwritten by author Wendy Holden based on Palmer-Tomkinson's "phoned during the preceding week." She similarly "contributed" to The Spectator, The Mail on Sunday, GQ, Eve, Harpers and Queen, Tatler, InStyle and The Observer sporadically. In September 2007, The Naughty Girl's Guide to Life, co-authored with Sharon Marshall, was published by Sphere. It was serialised in The Sunday Times Style magazine. In October 2010, Inheritance, was published by Pan Books. However, this also was ghostwritten. In 2002, Palmer-Tomkinson made an appearance on the British television series I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!, finishing runner up.Tara Palmer-Tomkinson – Tara Palmer-Tomkinson
241. Tom Raworth – Thomas Moore Raworth, known as Tom Raworth, is a poet and visual artist who has published over forty books of poetry and prose since 1966. His work has been published in many countries. Raworth is a key figure in the British Poetry Revival. He lives in Hove, England. Raworth grew up in Welling, the neighbouring town. He was educated at St.Stephen's Primary School, Welling, Kent; Academy, Blackheath, London S.E. 3. ; University of Essex, Colchester, Essex.He left school at the age of sixteen and worked at a variety of jobs. He also founded Matrix Press at this time, publishing small books by Dorn, David Ball, others. These ventures into publishing made a major contribution to the new American poetry of the 1960s. The Relation Ship, won the Alice Hunt Bartlett Prize. Donald Davie encouraged Raworth to resume his formal education. Raworth attended the University of Essex from 1967 -- 70, though he never completed the course he had originally signed up for. Raworth studied Spanish for a year and then translated the work of other Latin American poets for his M.A.. In 2007 he was awarded the Antonio Delfini prize in Modena, Italy. He now lives in Brighton, Sussex.Tom Raworth – Tom Raworth, photographed by Gloria Graham during the video taping of Add-Verse, 2003
242. Hans Rosling – Hans Rosling is a Swedish medical doctor, academic, statistician, public speaker. He is the Professor of co-founder and chairman of the Gapminder Foundation, which developed the Trendalyzer software system. He rose after producing a Ted Talk in which he promoted the use of data to explore development issues. Rosling was born in Uppsala, Sweden. In 1972 he studied public health at St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. He became a licensed physician to 1981 he served as District Medical Officer in Nacala in northern Mozambique. He supervised more than ten Ph.D. students. Outbreaks occur among rural populations in Africa where a diet dominated by insufficiently processed cassava results in simultaneous malnutrition and high dietary cyanide intake. Rosling's research has also focused on other links between economic development, agriculture, health. He has been adviser to WHO, UNICEF and several aid agencies. In 1993 he was one of the initiators of Médecins Sans Frontières in Sweden. At Karolinska Institutet he was head of the Division of International Health from 2001 to 2007. As chairman of the Karolinska International Research and Training Committee he started health research collaborations in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. He co-authored a textbook on Global Health that promotes a fact-based world view. Rosling presented the television documentary The Joy of Stats, broadcast in the United Kingdom by BBC Four in December 2010.Hans Rosling – Rosling at the 2012 Time 100 gala
243. Svend Asmussen – Svend Asmussen is a jazz violinist from Denmark, known as "The Fiddling Viking". A Swing style virtuoso, he played and recorded with many of the greats of Jazz, including Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman and Stephane Grappelli. He played publicly until 2010 when he had his career spanning 8 decades. Asmussen was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, started taking violin lessons at the age of 7. At age 16 he first began to emulate his style. He started leaving his formal training behind for good. Early in his career he worked with artists such as Josephine Baker and Fats Waller. Asmussen later was greatly influenced by Stuff Smith, whom he met in Denmark. In the late 1950s, Asmussen formed the trio Swe-Danes with guitarist Ulrik Neumann. The group also toured the United States. Asmussen also worked with Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington. Asmussen was invited by Ellington to play with Stéphane Grappelli and Ray Nance. In 1966 Asmussen appeared alongside Grappelli, Jean-Luc Ponty in a jazz Violin Summit in Switzerland, issued as a live recording. He made an appearance at the 1967 Monterey Jazz Festival, which included a celebrated summit with him, Ray Nance and Jean-Luc Ponty. In 1969 he guested on "Snakes in a Hole," an album by the jazz-rock band Made in Sweden.Svend Asmussen – Svend Asmussen on the cover of the Swedish weekly Se 1945
244. Richard Hatch (actor) – He began his theatrical career with the Los Angeles Repertory Theater. Though the role was only for one season, he won Germany's Bravo Youth Magazine Award for the role. Following this, Hatch had a recurring role on the series Mary Hartman, also for one season. By this time, he regularly appeared in teen-oriented magazines such as Teen Beat, 16 Magazine, Tiger Beat. He then gained a starring role in Battlestar Galactica, which aired for a single season before cancellation. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for the role. Throughout the 1980s, he made guest appearances as Hotel, Murder She Wrote, The Love Boat, Fantasy Island. In 1984, Hatch appeared in several episodes of Dynasty, at the top of the ratings at the time. In 1990, he appeared on Santa Barbara, originating the character Steven Slade. Roles were becoming few and far between. His prominent role would be as Tom Zarek in the reimagined version of Battlestar Galactica, in which he made semi-regular appearances from 2004-09. He has made Prisoners of the Lost Universe. Hatch starred in Party Line. He attempted to revive Battlestar Galactica. Jack Stauffer appeared in the trailer with Hatch.Richard Hatch (actor) – Hatch at San Diego Comic-Con in July 2010
245. Irwin Corey – "Professor" Irwin Corey is an American comic, film actor and activist, often billed as "The World's Foremost Authority". He introduced his unscripted, improvisational style of stand-up comedy at the well-known San Francisco club, the hungry i. Lenny Bruce once described Corey as "one of the most brilliant comedians of all time". He was born in Brooklyn, New York. Corey then enrolled himself at Belmont High School in Los Angeles. During the Great Depression Corey worked for the Civilian Conservation Corps and, while working his way East, became a featherweight Golden Gloves boxing champion. He supported left-wing politics. "When I tried to join the Communist Party, they called an anarchist." During the 1960 election, he campaigned for president on Hugh Hefner's Playboy ticket. He was a frequent guest on The early 1970s. I ran across him in trying to nail down one of the silly questions that kept coming at me from odd sources. Like this: Set your terminal to "research." Punch parameters in succession "North American culture," "English-speaking," "mid-twentieth century," "comedians," "the World’s Greatest Authority." The answer you can expect is "Professor Irwin Corey." You'll find his timeless humor.Irwin Corey – Corey in a 1963 television appearance
246. Inge Keller – Inge Keller is a German actress whose career on stage and screen has spanned seven decades. She is still widely acclaimed. Keller was born to an affluent family. Her mother was an industrialist's daughter. She had a younger brother. Her family did not object. She made her debut at the Kurfürstendamm Theater on 18 November 1942. In 1943, she then moved to the Chemnitz Theater in 1944. Keller was called up for the Reich Labour Service. She divorced soon afterwards. Keller told interviewer Günter Gaus that she was "too lazy" to join. After the war, Keller returned to act in Freiberg, then at the Soviet Occupation Zone, where she remained until 1947. In 1948, she moved in Kreuzberg, West Berlin. She depicted the character in 250 performances of the play. In all these institutions she also frequently portrayed the character of Inge Ruoff in Friedrich Wolf's Professor Mamlock.Inge Keller – Keller, 1951.
247. Joost van der Westhuizen – Joost van der Westhuizen is a South African former rugby union player who played as a scrum-half for the national team. In 2011, Van der Westhuizen announced that he had a form of motor neurone disease. Retrieved actively campaigns for issues relating to MND through a charity devoted to MND issues. Van der Westhuizen spent his entire career with the Provincial State side the Blue Bulls, from 1993 until 2003, whereupon he retired from playing rugby. Many observers of the game highlighted Van der Westhuizen's contribution to the team as vital, a driving force behind the team's successes. In his defensive duty, Retrieved played with a fearlessness that aided his team greatly, often producing heroic and result-defining tackles. This attribute was rigorously noted most during the game against New Zealand, who were favourites to win the tournament. New Zealand's winger, made a typical battering run from deep. Retrieved defied several challenges before Van der Westhuizen hauled down just outside the 22m line. Indeed, Lomu had never scored a try against South Africa, never achieved such a moment again. Van der Westhuizen retired as South Africa's record cap holder. Retrieved obtained a Bachelor of Commerce degree at the University of Pretoria. Retrieved admitted knowing the two people in it. Although he has never identified the woman. Heat magazine later posted censored versions of the video online.Joost van der Westhuizen – Joost van der Westhuizen
248. Basil Hetzel – Hetzel was born to Elinor Hetzel and Kenneth Stuart Hetzel, an anaesthetist. Hetzel's parents were originally at the time whilst Kenneth worked at the University College Hospital. They returned to Adelaide in 1925. There he, along with his brother Peter, was schooled at St Peter's College, Adelaide. Hetzel studied medicine from 1940 to 1944. As a medical student, he was granted reserved status during World War II. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar in the 1950s which included an appointment at New York Hospital. In 1954, his family travelled to London where he undertook a Research Fellowship in the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at St Thomas' Hospital. His first job after completing medical studies was at Parkside Mental Hospital from 1946 to 1947. In 2001, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital established the The Basil Hetzel Institute in his honour. He also held the position of first chief of the CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition. Hetzel was the Chancellor of the University of South Australia from 1992, shortly until 1998. Hetzel was Lieutenant Governor of South Australia from April 1992 to May 2000. He remains a patron of the organisation. He also demonstrated that dietary supplementation would entirely prevent these illnesses.Basil Hetzel – Dr Basil Hetzel at the University of South Australia Library, City East campus, 2011.
249. Bano QudsiaBano Qudsia – Qudsia in November 2014
250. Jeff Sauer – Jeffrey Sauer is a retired American ice hockey player and coach. Sauer was the coach at the University of Wisconsin from 1982 to 2002 and Colorado College from 1971 to 1982. While at Wisconsin, he led the Badgers to two NCAA men's hockey championships. He is currently the special assistant to the commissioner of the WCHA. Jeff Sauer began attending the school in 1961. After sitting out the Tigers' disastrous 0-23 season in 1961-62 Sauer became part of the rebuild under first Tony Frasca and then Bob Johnson. Despite his efforts, Sauer couldn't help Colorado College reach the WCHA playoffs in any of his three seasons before graduating in 1965. He retired after the 2001 -- 02 season turning the program over to Badger alumnus Mike Eaves. He four years later returned for a repeat performance in Sochi.Jeff Sauer – Sauer in 2015
251. Rob Stewart (filmmaker) – Rob Stewart is a Canadian photographer and filmmaker. He is best known for directing the multi-award-winning Sharkwater along with Revolution. Stewart was born in 1979, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where he was raised. He began doing underwater photography as a teenager, became a scuba-diving trainer when he was eighteen years old. He attended the prestigious Crescent School in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as a youth. For four years, Stewart worked as chief photographer for the Canadian Wildlife Federation's magazines, also worked as a freelance journalist. He won awards for his journalism. Stewart holds a Bachelor's degree in biology from The University of Western Ontario, studied Zoology and Marine Biology in Kenya and Jamaica. Rob Stewart got the idea to make the Sharkwater at twenty-two, when he found illegal long-lining in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. He travelled through fifteen countries for the next four years, going undercover to confront the shark industry. Sharkwater is credited as changing government policy worldwide. Finning is banned everywhere, a great conservation success story, display of the power of film to make a difference. Sharkwater went on to be seen by more than million people. Stewart often posts shark conservation notes and information on his Facebook page. His follow-up movie, Revolution, builds on Sharkwater.Rob Stewart (filmmaker) – Rob Stewart
252. John Wetton – John Kenneth Wetton is an English singer, bassist, songwriter. He grew up in Bournemouth. He rose with bands Mogul Thrash, Family, King Crimson, Roxy Music/Bryan Ferry, Uriah Heep, Wishbone Ash. Their self-titled album sold 8 million copies worldwide and was Billboard magazine's No. 1 album of 1982. Various sessions followed. Palmer-James also worked as a lyricist. Wetton remained until Fripp unexpectedly disbanded it in 1974. Wetton continued to work on various projects, including two albums with Uriah Heep. After failed attempts to reunite King Crimson and create a new band with Rick Wakeman, Wetton and Bruford formed U.K.. Wetton brought into UK keyboard/violin wizard Eddie Jobson, while Bruford brought in guitarist Allan Holdsworth. Upon Holdsworth's departure, American percussionist Terry Bozzio joined, making U.K. a threesome a la Emerson, Lake and Palmer. This version of U.K. toured in support of Jethro Tull. Wetton released his first solo album, Caught in the Crossfire, in 1980 after the break-up of U.K. Later that same year, he had a brief stint in Wishbone Ash, contributing bass and vocals to Number The Brave. At the urging of Geffen Records' John Kalodner, Wetton started working and writing with Steve Howe, who had most recently been in Yes.John Wetton – John Wetton playing bass live
253. Many Clouds – Many Clouds is an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse best known for winning the 2015 Grand National. After being sold as a foal he was trained for a National Hunt racing career by Oliver Sherwood. He won a National Hunt Flat race and two Novice hurdle races before moving to steeplechases as a six-year-old in the autumn of 2013. Many Clouds is a "big," brown gelding bred in Ireland by Aidan Aherne at the Windward House Stud in County Cork. He is one of good jumpers sired by Cloudings, a son of Sadler's Wells, who won the Prix Lupin in 1997. Many Clouds' dam Bobbing Back, has also produced The Tullow Tank, the Future Champions Novice Hurdle. In November 2007, Many Clouds was consigned to the Tattersalls sales where he was bought for $6,000 by Highflyer Bloodstock. Many Clouds began his racing career in National Hunt Flat races. In the 2012/2013 season Many Clouds was campaigned in Novice hurdle races. After finishing second at Aintree in October he won at Ascot Racecourse a month later. Many Clouds began over fences in the following season competing in novice chases. He finished second to Black Thunder at Haydock Park before winning at odds of 8/15 at Wetherby in December. He ended his first season by finishing fourth to Holywell in the Mildmay Novices' Chase at Aintree. Many Clouds began his next season at Carlisle in November. He won from the favourite Eduard, with Holywell fifteen lengths back in third.Many Clouds – Leighton Aspell and Many Clouds in 2014
254. Emmanuelle Riva – Emmanuelle Riva is a French actress, best known for her roles in the films Hiroshima mon amour and Amour. Riva was born Paulette Germaine Riva in Cheniménil, France. Riva grew up in Remiremont. She was the only child of Jeanne who descended from Lombardy. She moved to Paris at the age of 26 in 1953 to become an actress despite opposition from her family. Riva started her acting career after having trained as a seamstress. Riva never has no children. Riva lives in Paris. Riva has never performed in English. In 2011, she directed by Julie Delpy. In 2012 Riva received an Academy Award nomination for her role opposite Jean-Louis Trintignant in Amour. The 85th Academy Awards just happened to be held on her 86th birthday. She traveled to Los Angeles where she lost the award to Jennifer Lawrence. She has enjoyed an extensive career in her native Paris, France. In 2001, Riva performed at Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe.Emmanuelle Riva – Riva in 1962
256. Elections in Somalia – Elections in Somalia were last held during the tenure of Somalia's socialist administration in the 1980s. Popular elections were not held. The provisional constitution of the country however does provides for an electoral system. Most notable of these early institutions was the Somali Youth League, the nation's first political organization. The parliamentary presidential election in 2012 was held in September 2012, where Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected president. Electoral calendar Electoral system Somali presidential election, 2009 Somali presidential election, 2012 Adam Carr's Election Archive African Elections DatabaseElections in Somalia – Somalia
257. Elections in Germany – Elections in Germany include elections to the Bundestag, the Landtags of the various states, local elections. The Basic Law also requires that the federal legislature enact federal laws to govern elections; electoral law. One such article is Article 38, regarding the election of deputies in the federal Bundestag. Federal elections are for all members of the Bundestag, which in turn determines, the Chancellor of Germany. Federal elections were held in 2013. The Reichstag could be dissolved by the Kaiser or, after the abdication of Wilhelm II in 1918, the Reichspräsident. With the Weimar Republic's Constitution of 1919, the system changed from single-member constituencies to proportional representation. The age was reduced from 25 to 20 years of age. Women's suffrage had already been established following the November Revolution of that year. The German election in 1933 was last free election. In the Third Reich, several elections were conducted leading to unanimous support of the Nazi Party because other parties were banned. Should the Bundestag be dismissed before the four-year period has ended, elections must be held within 100 days. The exact date of the election must be a Sunday or public holiday. German nationals over the age of 18 who have resided in Germany for at least three months are eligible to vote. Eligibility for candidacy is essentially the same.Elections in Germany – The German political system
258. Elections in Switzerland – Elections in Switzerland gives information on election and election results in Switzerland. Switzerland elects on national level a head of state, a legislature. The Federal Assembly has two chambers. The National Council has 200 members, elected by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies, the cantons. One of the members of the Federal Council assumes the honorific title of President of the Confederation for a one-year term. Switzerland has a multi-party system with numerous parties. A world-unique characteristic of Switzerland is that all the executives, from federal to municipal level, often include members from all main parties. Elections to the National Council conclude on Sunday of October. The new Federal Assembly takes office at the start of the following year.Elections in Switzerland – Switzerland
259. Elections in Turkmenistan – Turkmenistan elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. Parties in Turkmenistan are the Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. Assembly have a five-year term. On declaring independence from the Soviet Union, the president was to be elected by the people. President Saparmurat Niyazov, was elected unopposed on 21 June 1992. In a referendum in January 1994, it was decided that he would be president for eight more years. In 1999, the country's parliament decided that he would be president for life. He died on 21 December 2006. An election to replace him was held on 11 February 2007. Turkmenistan elects a legislature on a national level. The Assembly has 125 members, elected for a five-year term in single seat constituencies. Political parties are the Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. All candidates at the elections of 7 April 2003 belonged to the DPT. The Khalk Maslakhaty, considered the ultimate body, has more than 2,500 members; it was abolished in late 2008. Electoral calendar Electoral system Turkmens "vote" Adam Carr's Election ArchiveElections in Turkmenistan – Turkmenistan
260. Elections in Ecuador – Elections in Ecuador is about information on elections and election results in Ecuador. Ecuador elects on national level a legislature. The President of his vice-president are elected on one ballot for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress has 100 members elected for a four-year term in the 22 provinces. National electoral calendar 2017 Adam Carr's Election Archive Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues, issue brief from the Center for Economic and Policy ResearchElections in Ecuador – Ecuador
261. Elections in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic – The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic elects on a national level a president and a parliament. The president is elected by the people. The National Assembly has 16 elected for a five-year term in single seat constituencies and 17 by proportional representation. None of the elections have been recognized by political entity. The Minsk Group believes the elections harm the peace talksElections in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic – Nagorno-Karabakh
262. Elections in the Marshall Islands – Elections in Marshall Islands gives information on election and election results in Marshall Islands. Marshall Islands elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected by the parliament. The Legislature has 33 members, elected for a four-year term in single-seat and five multi-seat constituencies. The Legislature was last elected November 2003 without the participation of parties, though part of the members could be members of the United Democratic Party. The Marshall Islands is a state in which political parties have not been active. There have been a number of national elections since the Republic of the Marshall Islands was founded. The United Democratic Party, running on a platform, won the 1999 parliamentary election, taking control of the presidency and cabinet. The new government has publicly confirmed its commitment to an independent judiciary. The first two presidents were chiefs. Kessai Note is a commoner. Government of the Marshall Islands Politics of the Marshall Islands List of Presidents of the Marshall Islands Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carr's Election ArchiveElections in the Marshall Islands – Marshall Islands
264. Elections in Micronesia – The politics of the Federated States of Micronesia takes place in a framework of a federal representative democratic republic. The President of the Federated States of Micronesia is both head of government. Executive power is exercised by his cabinet, while legislative power is vested in both the president and the Congress. The judiciary is independent of the legislature. The internal workings of the Micronesia are governed by the 1979 constitution, which establishes a separation of governmental powers. The Federation is in free association with the United States; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986. The vice president are elected by Congress from among the four senators-at-large for four-year terms. The president is both the chief of government. Their congressional seats are then filled by special elections. The vice president are supported by an appointed cabinet. A head of a legislature are elected on a national level. As as available, at the last elections, 8 March 2005, only non-partisans have been elected. The president is elected by Congress. There are no political parties in Micronesia, though they are not banned. Political allegiances depend mainly on family and island-related factors.Elections in Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
265. Elections in Netherlands – Apart from elections, referenda are also held occasionally, a fairly recent phenomenon in Dutch politics. At the national level, legislative power is invested in the States General, bicameral. The House of Representatives has 150 members, elected by proportional representation. Elections are also called after a dissolution of the House of Representatives. Candidates to the elections of the House of Representatives are chosen according to a system of proportional representation. The threshold is 1/150th of the total number of valid votes. During the municipal elections of 2006, elections were electronic throughout the country. As a result, results were known after the closing of the poll stations. Since then, most elections have been held using pencil. The most recent election were March 2015. Elections are generally held about four years after the previous one. Normal elections, i.e. after the House of Representatives has fulfilled its term, take place in March. If provincial elections are already taking place in March of that year, the parliamentary elections are postponed to May. City councils and States-Provincial cannot be dissolved, so no dissolution elections can occur. An exception to the four-year term is made when new elections take place for the merged municipality.Elections in Netherlands – Voting using "paper and red pencil": the voter colours in the box preceding the name of his or her favoured candidate
267. Elections in Bulgaria – Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected directly by the people. The National Assembly has 240 members, elected for a four-year term with a 4 % threshold. Parliamentary elections have been held since 1879. This, in practice, gave a monopoly on power. Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic. All elections since 1990 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term with a 4 % threshold. The last were held in 2016. On October 2015 the question was if Bulgaria should introduce electronic voting. On November 2016 voters were asked three questions. Regional referendums have been held as well.Elections in Bulgaria – Bulgaria
268. Trial – One form of tribunal is a court. The tribunal, which may occur before a judge, other designated trier of fact, aims to achieve a resolution to their dispute. Where the trial is held before a group of members of the community, it is called a trial. Where the trial is held solely before a judge, it is called a trial. Hearings before administrative bodies are typically not referred to as trials. Trials can also be divided at issue. A criminal trial is designed to resolve accusations brought against a person accused of a crime. In common law systems, most criminal defendants are entitled to a trial held before a jury. The rules of criminal procedure provide rules for criminal trials. A civil trial is generally held to settle civil claims -- non-criminal disputes. In some countries, the government can both be sued in a civil capacity. The rules of civil procedure provide rules for civil trials. Although administrative hearings are not ordinarily considered trials, they retain many elements found in more "formal" trial settings. When the dispute goes to judicial setting, it is called an administrative trial, to revise the administrative hearing, depending on the jurisdiction. The types of disputes handled in these hearings is governed by the civil trial law.Trial – Trial of Jean II, Duke of Alençon, October 1458.
269. Sam Rainsy – Sam Rainsy is a Cambodian politician who most recently served as the Minority Leader. Rainsy was a Member of Parliament for Kampong Cham from 1998 until his removal in 2015. Rainsy was previously the MP for Siem Reap until 1995 when he was expelled from the National Assembly. From 2000 to 2002 and again from 2012 to 2014, he was the chairperson of the Council of Asian Democrats. He faced criminal defamation charges after accusing the Cambodian People's Party and Funcinpec of corruption in the formation of the current coalition government. Rainsy has also accused Prime Minister Hun Sen of involvement in the 2004 murder of SRP-affiliated leader Chea Vichea. In September 2010, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for charges widely believed to be politically motivated. In 2012, the Sam Rainsy Party merged with the Human Rights Party to form the Cambodia National Rescue Party. Following his resignation from the Sam Rainsy Party to lead the newly formed party, Kong Korm succeeded him as party leader in November 2012. He returned to Cambodia on July 2013 where thousands of his supporters waited along the roads. The opposition boycotted parliament in September 2013, until July 2014. Sam Rainsy was born in Phnom Penh on March 1949. Rainsy moved to France in 1965, then worked as an investment manager and executive director in a variety of Parisian financial companies. Rainsy was expelled from the party after losing a vote of no-confidence in 1994. In 1995, Rainsy founded the Khmer Nation Party, which changed its name to the Sam Rainsy Party to avoid registration issues.Sam Rainsy – Sam Rainsy សម រង្ស៊ី MP
270. Zhou Yongkang – Zhou Yongkang is a retired senior leader of the Communist Party of China. He was a State Councilor of the State Council from 2003 to 2008 and also a member of the Party Secretariat of the Central Committee. Zhou served from 2002 -- 07, before being promoted to the PSC. He retired in 2012. In late 2013, Zhou was placed for alleged abuse of power and corruption, a decision state media announced in July 2014. Following his investigation, he was expelled from the Communist Party of China. On June 2015, he was convicted of bribery, abuse of power and the intentional disclosure of state secrets by the Intermediate Court in Tianjin. His family members were said to have taken 129 million yuan in bribes. Zhou was sentenced to life in prison. Born Zhou Yuangen in December 1942, he is a native in Jiangsu province. Xiqiantou is located 18 kilometers outside Wuxi city proper. The majority of Xiqiantou residents were surnamed "Zhou". He took on the surname of his mother because his father, whose surname was Lu, was a ` live-in son-in-law' of his maternal grandparents. Upon joining the Zhou household when he married, Zhou Yongkang's father became known as Zhou Yisheng. He was the eldest of three sons.Zhou Yongkang – Zhou Yongkang
271. Guo Boxiong – Guo Boxiong was a retired general of the People's Liberation Army of China. He served between 2002 and 2012. During the same period he also held a seat in the Politburo of the Communist Party of China's top decision-making body. He was expelled from the Communist Party on 30 July 2015. On July 2016, he was sentenced to life imprisonment for bribery. Guo was born in Shaanxi province. In August 1958, Guo, aged just finished middle school, began working at a military factory in Xingping, Shaanxi province. Guo joined the People's Liberation Army in 1961. Two years later, he joined the Communist Party of China. Guo was trained at the Xi'an Army Academy in People's Liberation Army Military Academy where he graduated. Guo earned a series of promotions in the 1970s. In the 55th Division of the 19th Army, Guo rose from a soldier by 1982. Afterwards Guo became commander of the 47th Group Army for three years. In 1993 Guo became deputy commander of the heart of China's defense establishment, in 1997 commander of the Lanzhou Military Region. In September 1999, Guo was also promoted to the rank of General.Guo Boxiong – General Guo Boxiong
272. Geert Wilders – Geert Wilders is a Dutch politician, the founder and leader of the Party for Freedom. Wilders is the parliamentary group leader of his party in the Dutch House of Representatives. Raised a Roman Catholic, Wilders left the church at his coming of age. His travels to Israel as a young adult, well as to Arab countries, helped form his political views. He was elected to the Utrecht city council in 1996, later to the House of Representatives. Wilders has campaigned to stop what he views as the "Islamisation of the Netherlands". He has compared the Quran to Mein Kampf and has campaigned to have the book banned in the Netherlands. He advocates ending immigration from Muslim countries, supports banning the construction of new mosques. His controversial 2008 film about his views on Islam, Fitna, received international attention. He has been described in the media as populist and labeled far-right, although this is disputed by other observers. Wilders was born in the city of Venlo, in the southeast Netherlands. He is the youngest of four children, was raised Catholic. He was born to a Dutch father and a mother born in colonial Indonesia, whose ancestors were Dutch Indonesian. Wilders received his secondary education at the Mavo and Havo middle school and high school in Venlo. Wilders' goal after he graduated from secondary school was to see the world.Geert Wilders – Wilders delivering a speech in 2010
273. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – She was the country's second female president, the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. Arroyo is also the first duly elected female Vice President of the Philippines. Arroyo was a former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University where Benigno Aquino III was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, was sworn in on June 30, 2004. On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage. But released on bail in July 2012. She was rearrested while in the hospital on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds in October 2012. On July 19, 2016, she was acquitted by the Supreme Court by a voting of 11-4. She is a member of the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language. She was born as Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo Macapagal Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga, with her two older siblings from her father's first marriage. At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City.Gloria Macapagal Arroyo – Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
274. Nur Misuari – Nur Misuari is a Moro revolutionary and politician, founder and leader of the Moro National Liberation Front. Nur Misuari was born on March 3, 1939 in Tapul, Sulu, Philippines. The fourth of his parents came from Kabinga-an, Tapul Island. His father was Saliddain Misuari, who worked as a fisherman, his mother was Dindanghail Pining. Misuari's father moved their family from Tapul to Jolo, Sulu when he was still young. Misuari studied from 1955 to 1958. Misuari's family experienced financial difficulties and could not afford to send him to college. Misuari initially took up a degree in liberal arts, intending to pursue medicine. He became active in many of the university's extra-curricular activities, particularly in debate. He finished his master's degree in Asian studies in 1964 at the Asian Center of the University of the Philippines. In 1964, Misuari founded a radical student group called the Bagong Asya. Together with Jose Maria Sison, he also founded the Kabataan Makabayan. Until 2016, Misuari had five wives, his first wife was Desdemona Tan, who died of illness in Islamabad, Pakistan. The elder sister of the deceased Desdemona, Eleonora Tan then became his second wife. His fourth wives are Maimona Palalisan.Nur Misuari – Nur Misuari in 2009.
275. Liviu Dragnea – Liviu Nicolae Dragnea is a Romanian engineer and politician. He graduated in 1987. Dragnea's political career began in 1996, when he was elected a councilor in Turnu Măgurele. In 2000, he became president of the Teleorman County Council, being re-elected in 2004, 2012. He is a member of the party's Teleorman County chapter. In 2006, he led the PSD's campaign at the 2007 European Parliament election. Following the resignation of Gabriel Oprea, Dragnea was named Interior Minister. He announced his priorities as being the safety of children in the safety of citizens on the street, decentralisation and administrative reform. He resigned, citing a lack of resources and funds to implement his plans. Also, his brief tenure was rocked by an arms theft from a depot in Ciorogârla. He became general of the PSD in July 2009. At the December 2012 parliamentary election, Dragnea won a seat with 71.5 % of the vote. Simultaneously, he left the county leadership. In early 2013, he left the party general position, soon becoming executive president. Following a reshuffle in December 2014, he lost the deputy premiership but retained the Regional Development portfolio.Liviu Dragnea – Dragnea at a Social Democratic Youth meeting in Otopeni, September 2009
276. Lionel Messi – Lionel Andrés "Leo" Messi is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club FC Barcelona and captains the Argentina national team. With Barcelona Messi has won four UEFA Champions League titles, as well as four Copas del Rey. Messi has scored over 500 senior career goals for country. Raised in central Argentina, he was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency as a child. At age 13, Messi relocated to Spain to join Barcelona, who agreed to pay for his medical treatment. After a fast progression through Barcelona's academy, he made his competitive debut aged 17 in October 2004. His uninterrupted campaign came in the 2008 -- 09 season, during which he helped Barcelona achieve the first treble in Spanish football. At 22 years old, he won FIFA World Player of the Year award by record voting margins. Three successful seasons followed, including an unprecedented fourth. Messi again struggled during the following two seasons twice finishing second for the Ballon d'Or behind Cristiano Ronaldo, his perceived career rival. Messi is his country's all-time leading goalscorer. His style of play as a left-footed dribbler drew comparisons with compatriot Diego Maradona, who declared the teenager his successor. Messi was then convicted of fraud committed from 2007 to 2009, for which he received a fine and a suspended prison sentence. A lifelong supporter of Newell's Old Boys, he joined the Rosario club when he was six years old. However, his future as a professional player was threatened when, at age 10, he was diagnosed with a growth deficiency.Lionel Messi – Messi with Barcelona during the UEFA Super Cup in August 2015
277. Adam Johnson (footballer) – Adam Johnson is an English professional footballer who plays as a winger. A product of the Middlesbrough academy, Johnson came to prominence after making his debut aged 17 in a UEFA Cup game. Johnson played 120 games for Middlesbrough, also spending time on loan at Leeds United and Watford. In February 2010 Johnson moved to Manchester City, where he won the Premier League the following season. Johnson was signed by his club Sunderland for # 10 million in 2012. He played for England earning 12 caps at senior level. In March 2015, he was arrested and charged over sexual activity with England's age of consent being 16. He continued to play during his bail. The following February, he was subsequently sacked by Sunderland. In March 2016, he was sentenced to six years in prison. He was brought up in Easington, County Durham, in North East England. He attended Easington Community Science College. Upon seeing Johnson score two goals at a Wembley Stadium seven-a-side match, Johnny Haynes remarked, "You're a great little player. You've got a left foot." At the age of 12, he was taken in by Middlesbrough's academy, having previously attended Newcastle United's Centre of Excellence between 1995 and 1997.Adam Johnson (footballer) – Johnson with Sunderland in 2015
278. Ched Evans – Chedwyn Michael "Ched" Evans is a Welsh footballer who plays as a striker for League One club Chesterfield. Born in Rhyl, Denbighshire, Evans was signed by Manchester City from Chester City's youth set up in 2002 and he subsequently progressed through the ranks. Evans was loaned to Norwich City in 2007, where he scored 10 goals in 28 league appearances, before returning to his parent club. With first team opportunities at City limited he was subsequently sold to Sheffield United for £3 million in 2009. After an unspectacular first two seasons at Bramall Lane he scored 35 goals during the 2011–12 season. Evans was wrongly convicted of rape in April 2012 and spent two and a half years in prison. His conviction was quashed on 21 April 2016 by the Court of Appeal, a retrial was ordered. On 14 Evans was found not guilty. Prior to the retrial, he joined Chesterfield. In May 2007, Evans signed his first professional contract with Manchester City. In September 2007 Evans came off the bench to make his senior debut in City’s 1–0 League Cup victory against Norwich City. With first choice opportunities at City limited Evans moved on loan to Norwich City in November of that year, agreeing a deal until 1 January 2008. He made his debut for Norwich the following week when he came on as a substitute in the 3–1 victory over Blackpool. Evans returned to Manchester City after his initial loan deal expired in January 2008, having made eight appearances and scored two goals. Then Manchester City manager Sven-Göran Eriksson stated that he would not be leaving the summer window.Ched Evans – Evans before a Wales under-21 game
279. Bob McDonnell – Robert Francis "Bob" McDonnell is an American Republican politician, the 71st Governor of Virginia. McDonnell also served on the executive committee of the Republican Governors Association. McDonnell was a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army Reserve. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1992 to 2006, was Attorney General of Virginia from 2006 to 2009. McDonnell was elected Governor of Virginia after using the campaign slogan "Bob's for Jobs." McDonnell succeeded Democrat Tim Kaine, term-limited by Virginia law. After taking office as governor, McDonnell advocated privatization and promoted offshore drilling for Virginia. McDonnell's governorship ended with a 55% to 32% approval to disapproval rating among registered voters. On January 2014, Maureen, were indicted for receiving improper gifts and loans from a Virginia businessman. They were convicted on most counts by a federal jury on September 4, 2014. However, he was free on bond during the subsequent appeals process. On June 27, 2016, the United States Supreme Court unanimously vacated McDonnell's conviction and remanded the case back to a lower court. McDonnell was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Emma B. Meta and Lt. Col. John Francis McDonnell USAF Ret.. His paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, his maternal grandparents were from Alsace-Lorraine in what was then the German Empire.Bob McDonnell – McDonnell in February 2010
280. ICTY – The tribunal is an hoc court, located in The Hague, Netherlands. The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, passed on 25 May 1993. The maximum sentence it can impose is imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. Goran Hadžić, was arrested on 20 July 2011. Any appeal proceedings initiated since 1 July 2013 have been for International Criminal Tribunals. The Court was originally proposed by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. In 1993, the ICTY built its internal infrastructure. 17 states have signed an agreement with the ICTY to carry out custodial sentences. 1993-94: In the first year of its existence, the Tribunal laid the foundations for its existence as a judicial organ. Together these rules established a legal system for the Tribunal. However after the first year the first ICTY judges had adopted all the rules for court proceedings. 1994-95: The ICTY established its offices within the Aegon Insurance Building in The Hague and detention facilities in Scheveningen in The Hague. The ICTY hired now many staff members.ICTY – Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, including the proposed Statute of the International Tribunal, approved by UN Security Council Resolution 827.
281. Yang Weize – Yang Weize is a former Chinese politician. He was the Communist Party Secretary of capital of Jiangsu Province, from 2011 to 2015. Prior to that, he served in the neighbouring city of Wuxi for seven years, before that the Mayor of Suzhou. Yang was an alternate member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Yang was born in Jiangsu province in August 1962. He traces his ancestry to the Changzhou area. His father was a administrator in the city of Nantong. Yang went at the Nanjing Marine Engineering Institute where he studied marine and seaport engineering. He began working in the Jiangsu provincial department in August 1981. In 1998, he became the provincial director of transportation. He was transferred to become Deputy Party Secretary of Suzhou, later Mayor. In 2004, Yang became the chief of Wuxi, becoming first-in-charge of the southern Jiangsu city. At age 44, he had earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee. Yang was said to have received praise from Zhou in controlling the razing of local residential neighbourhoods near Zhou's hometown. In 2011, he became the Party Secretary of the provincial Nanjing.Yang Weize – Yang Weize 杨卫泽
282. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – He was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on 18 November 2014. Basuki is well known by Ahok. He was also a Komisi II Indonesian People's Representative Council member for the 2009 -- 2014 term. However, Basuki resigned from the position in 2012 to run for Vice Governor of Jakarta. Previously Basuki is Regent of East Belitung. He is the second Christian governor of Jakarta, following Henk Ngantung, governor during the period 1964 -- 65. He grew up in Manggar, East Belitung. Basuki is the first son of his father, the late Indra Tjahaja Purnama. He has three siblings, Basuri Tjahaja Purnama, Harry Basuki. He attended Trisakti University majoring in Mineral Resources & Technology. After two years working in the company, Basuki decided to pursue master's degree at Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Jakarta. Basuki graduated as a Master of Business Administration. He entered politics in his region of Belitung. Basuki was elected as regent with 37.13 % of the vote. He resigned from his position as East Belitung regent on 11 December 2006 in order to run in the 2007 gubernatorial election then failed.Basuki Tjahaja Purnama – Basuki Tjahaja Purnama 鍾萬學
283. Elena Udrea – Elena Gabriela Udrea is a Romanian politician. A member of the People's Movement Party, she was a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies from 2008 to 2016. In successive Emil Boc cabinets, she served as Tourism Minister from 2008 from 2009 to 2012. Udrea was completed secondary studies at the city's Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu National College. She then attended the faculty of Law and Public Administration at Bucharest's Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, graduating in 1996. In 2005, Udrea began studies at the Carol I National Defence University, receiving a master's degree in Military Science in 2007. She abandoned the endeavor in 2012. Udrea worked as a lawyer in Bucharest to February 2005 resuming the practice of law that December. At Dimitrie Cantemir, she has authored or co-authored five works on geopolitics and globalisation. Udrea began her political activity as a legal adviser to the Social Democratic Party. She joined that year becoming a Bucharest city councillor in June 2004, during the period of the Justice and Truth Alliance. She during that time was president of the council's committee on law and discipline. In October 2005 she resigned from the PNL, joining the Democratic Party in February 2006. In December, she was elected the party's executive secretary, becoming a vice-president of a year later. In these capacities, she spoke approvingly of the president, for instance ahead of the 2008 local election.Elena Udrea – Udrea at the 2013 PD-L convention
284. Gheorghe Nichita – Gheorghe Nichita is a Romanian politician, who has served as the mayor of Iaşi since 2003, suspended over allegations of corruption. A member of Nichita is the national vice-president of the party, the leader of the party's county organization. In 1995-2000, Nichita was a member of the Democratic Party. In 2000-2003, he was also a member of the city council. Nichita made two unsuccessful runs in 1996, 2000. In 2004, he was then re-elected in 2008 and 2012. A court ruled he would be investigated under judicial control, meaning he is banned from leaving the city and has to report to police. On 9 Gheorghe Nichita had been placed under house arrest. Gheorghe Nichita is suspected that he abused his position by using local police officers on rivals and his girlfriend. Three local police officers were also detained. Prosecutors said Nichita abusively obtained confidential information, using police and hall employees, for personal gain. On 22 Nichita was suspended from his job as mayor of the city. Gheorghe Nichita's blog Gheorghe Nichita va fi primar interimar al Iasului Gheorghe Nichita, în an electoral: 70.000 RON, în depozite, şi o maşină nou-nouţă, în garajGheorghe Nichita – Nichita in 2014
285. Marian Vanghelie – Following his electoral victory, he was re-accepted in PSD, although his PNA files were not closed. Vanghelie's return into the Social Democratic party brought up to two the number of district mayoral seats the PSD held to in Bucharest. Best described as a populist, Vanghelie started his political career in the year 2000, when he was elected mayor in the same sector. Although he was not particularly well-known, Vanghelie made a name through his populism. He promotes himself as a tell-it-like-it-is, if not particularly well-educated everyman, out to help the simple people. His wife Charlotte have a son, Alexandru. He has Paul. His father, Jewish, emigrated to Israel, where he is a businessman. Povestea lui Vanghelie, un primar de nota 5Marian Vanghelie – Vanghelie speaking to a Social Democratic Youth audience in Otopeni, September 2009
286. Alexei Navalny – Alexei Anatolievich Navalny is a Russian lawyer, political and financial activist, politician. Since 2009, he has gained prominence in Russia, in the Russian and international media, of Russian President Vladimir Putin. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal described him as "the man Vladimir Putin fears most". Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member and the leader of the political party Progress Party, formerly People's Alliance. In September 2013, he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came with 27 % of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee. Navalny came to prominence via his blog, hosted on the website LiveJournal, which remains his primary method of communicating with the public. In July 2013, he was sentenced to five years in a corrective labor colony. Russia's Memorial Human Rights Center recognized Navalny as a political prisoner. Navalny was released after sentencing. The fine was suspended in October 2013. Navalny is of Ukrainian descent. His father Anatoliy Navalny is from Zalissia, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Navalny spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine. Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia with a law degree.Alexei Navalny – Alexei Navalny in 2012
287. Disappearance of Etan Patz – Ramos was the missing child to be pictured on milk cartons. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan designated the anniversary of Etan's disappearance as National Missing Children's Day in the United States. In 2010, the case was reopened by the New York County District Attorney's office. In 2012, the FBI discovered no new evidence. Pedro Hernandez, was charged and indicted later that year on charges of second-degree murder and first-degree kidnapping. In 2014, the case went through a series of hearings to determine if Hernandez's statements before receiving the Miranda warning were legally admissible at trial. His trial ended in a mistrial in May when one of the twelve jurors held out. A retrial began on October 2016. Ramos was wearing a blue shirt, blue jeans, blue sneakers. Ramos never reached the stop. At school, Etan's teacher did not report it to the principal. When Etan did not come home at the end of the day, his mother called the police. At first, detectives considered the Patzes as possible suspects, but quickly determined they had no involvement. An intense search began that evening, using a team of bloodhounds. The search continued for weeks.Disappearance of Etan Patz – Etan Patz photographed September 16, 1978
288. Rolf Harris – Rolf Harris is an Australian entertainer whose career has encompassed work as a musician, singer-songwriter, composer, comedian, actor, painter and television personality. During the 1970s, he became a popular personality in the UK, later presenting shows such as Rolf's Cartoon Club and Animal Hospital. In 2005, he painted an official portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. He lived in Bray, Berkshire, England, for more than six decades. Harris's career as a popular entertainer was ended by his conviction and imprisonment for sexual offences. As a result, he was stripped of many of the honours he had been awarded during his career, including the OA and CBE. Since 2014, he has been serving a sentence of nine months, at HMP Stafford. Harris was born on 30 March 1930 in Bassendean, Perth, Western Australia, to Agnes Margaret and Cromwell Harris, who had both emigrated from Cardiff, Wales. He grew up in Wembley, Western Australia. He was named after Rolf Boldrewood, the pseudonym of an Australian writer whom his mother admired. After his later fame, Harris was often referred to as "the boy from Bassendean" within Australia. As a child he owned a dog called Buster Fleabags, about whom he later wrote a book. He painted a portrait of the then Lieutenant Governor of Western Australia, Sir James Mitchell, for the 1948 Archibald Prize. He won the 1949 Claude Hotchin prize for oil colours with his landscape "On a May Morning, Guildford". As an young adult he was a swimmer.Rolf Harris – Harris in November 2010
289. Laurent Gbagbo – Laurent Gbagbo was the President of Côte d'Ivoire from 2000 until his arrest in April 2011. Gbagbo ran unsuccessfully for President against Félix Houphouët-Boigny at the start of multi-party politics in 1990. He also won a seat in 1990. Gbagbo claimed victory after head of a military junta, barred other leading politicians from running in the October 2000 presidential election. The Ivorian people took to the streets, toppling Guéï. Gbagbo was then installed as President. Following the 2010 presidential election, Gbagbo challenged the count, alleging fraud. He called from nine of the country's regions. After a short period of civil conflict, Gbagbo was arrested by backers of Alassane Ouattara, supported by French Forces of "Operation Unicorn". In November 2011, he was extradited to the International Criminal Court, becoming the first head of state to be taken into the court's custody. Laurent Gbagbo was born on 31 May 1945 in the village near Gagnoa in the then French West Africa. He became an opponent of the regime of President Félix Houphouët-Boigny. He was imprisoned from 31 March 1971 to January 1973. In 1979, he obtained his doctorate at Paris Diderot University. In 1980, he became Director of the Institute of History, African Archeology at the University of Abidjan.Laurent Gbagbo – Laurent Gbagbo
290. Wu Changshun – Wu Changshun is the former police chief of the municipality of Tianjin, China. He has 35 patents and utility models to his credit. He was the chief of the police force for some eleven years. He was placed under investigation by the Communist Party's anti-corruption agency. Wu was expelled from the party in February 2015. Wu was born into a farming family in rural Tianjin, his father worked on a farming cooperative, while his mother was a homemaker. Wu was the second of five children. Wu spent his childhood at the Wu courtyard where he lived with his extended family. As a child, he enjoyed playing football. He attended No. 28 Middle School in Tianjin, where he completed middle school in 1970. Thereafter, Wu joined the Tianjin police force as a trainee at the age 16. Wu joined the Communist Party of China in September 1973. In September 1998 Wu was appointed as the Deputy Party Secretary of Tianjin Public Security Bureau. In February 2003, 32 years after he joined the force, Wu became the chief commissioner of Tianjin. Wu would serve in the role of the city's top cop for over ten years.Wu Changshun – Traffic lights found in Tianjin, patented by Wu Changshun
291. Mohamed Morsi – He was the first democratically elected head of state in Egyptian history. The constitutional declaration was called for an act that his opponents called an "Islamist coup". These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, brought millions of protesters to the streets in the 2012 Egyptian protests. On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation. The military suspended the constitution and established a new administration headed by the chief justice. His death sentence was overturned, so he will receive a retrial. His father was a housewife. Morsi told journalists that he remembers being taken on the back of a donkey. In the late 1960s, Morsi earned a BA with high honors in 1975. Morsi fulfilled his military service from 1975 to 1976 serving in the chemical unit. Morsi then earned an MS in 1978. Morsi then earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. While living in the United States, Morsi became an Asst.Prof. At the California State University, Northridge from 1982 to 1985. An expert on metal surfaces, also worked for NASA in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines.Mohamed Morsi – Mohamed Morsi محمد مرسى
292. Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar, is an Estonian politician, one of the founding members of Popular Front of Estonia and the Centre Party. He has served as the acting Prime Minister of Estonia, Minister of the Interior, Communications and Mayor of Tallinn. He was born into a rural family of Elmar and Marie Savisaar residing in Vastse-Kuuste. In 1949 his parents wanted to leave the local kolkhoz with their livestock, this resulted in a physical conflict. Both were arrested on charges of seizing public property, an assault. Elmar Savisaar was sentenced Marie Savisaar 5 years in prison. Marie Savisaar gave birth while serving the sentence. It has been theorized that Elmar Savisaar is not his biological father. They returned to Vastse-Kuuse. After graduating from high school, Savisaar continued his studies at the University of Tartu. In 1973, he graduated with a degree in history. In 1980, he wrote his candidate thesis on the topic "Social Philosophical Foundations of the Global Models of the Club of Rome". From 1980 to 1988, Savisaar worked in the Soviet governmental institutions dealing with the planning of economy. During 1988 -- 1989, he was the academic director for the company "Mainor". In April he co-established the Popular Front which became the first political mass organization after 1920.Edgar Savisaar – Edgar Savisaar
293. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi is a former Libyan political figure. He is the second son of late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and his second wife Safia Farkash. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD from London School of Economics. He was a part of his father's inner circle, performing public relations and diplomatic roles on behalf of his father. He publicly turned down his father's offer of the country's second highest post and held no official government position. He remained in the custody of the de facto independent authorities of Zintan. In July 2016 it was reported that he had been released. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering science from Tripoli's Al Fateh University in 1994. However, there is another report stating that he is an architect. He earned an MBA from Vienna's IMADEC business school in 2000. He presented a thesis on "The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions: from'soft power' to collective decision-making?" Professor Joseph Nye of Harvard University is also thanked for having read portions of the manuscript and providing advice and direction. Speaking in Sabha on 20 August 2008, Gaddafi said that he would no longer involve himself in state affairs. He noted that he had previously "intervene due to the absence of institutions", but said that he would no longer do so. He dismissed any potential suggestion that this decision was due to disagreement with his father, saying that they were on good terms.Saif al-Islam Gaddafi – Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in a military aircraft in Zintan after he had been captured by Libyan soldiers.
294. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is a militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges. He was named as "the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks" in the 9/11 Commission Report. According to the prosecution, Sheikh Mohammed was a member of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization, leading al-Qaeda's propaganda operations from around 1999 until late 2001. By December 2006 he had been transferred to military custody at Guantanamo Bay detention camp. In 2012, a former military prosecutor criticized the proceedings as insupportable due to confessions gained under torture. A revised Military Commissions Act was passed by Congress in 2009 to address court concerns. Sheikh Mohammed has used at least fifty aliases. According to official records, Sheikh Mohammed was born on 14 April 1965 in Balochistan, Pakistan. Some sources indicate his place of birth as Kuwait. It is believed that he belongs to the Baloch ethnic group and is fluent in Balochi, Urdu, Arabic, English. He grew up and spent his formative years in Kuwait, as did his nephew Ramzi Yousef. According to U.S. federal documents, in 1982 he had heard Abdul Rasul Sayyaf's speech in which a call for jihad against the Soviets was declared. At age sixteen, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood. After graduating from high school in 1983, Mohammad travelled to the United States and enrolled in Chowan University in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. He later transferred to North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University and received a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering in 1986.Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – Khalid Shaikh Mohammed photographed by the Red Cross while in captivity in Guantanamo, July 2009
295. Graham Spanier – He is currently president emeritus, professor of human development and family studies; sociology, demography, family; and community medicine. Spanier had a post-presidential sabbatical leave following his resignation as president of Penn State in November 2011. As of October 2014, Spanier is also under indictment in Pennsylvania in connection with the scandal. His father had previously escaped Nazi Germany in 1936; much of his father's extended family perished during the Holocaust. The family moved on the south side of Chicago living there until 1956. Spanier's father worked in a nuts, screws warehouse loading and unloading trucks; his mother worked in a clerical position. The family moved to the suburb of Highland Park, where Spanier graduated in 1966. His father retired from that position in 1975. He has revealed that his father was physically violent with all three of his children. His Anita told The New York Times that Graham received the most violent beatings, leaving him with lifelong complications. "I've had to have four operations to correct serious deformities inside my head from beatings my father gave me," he said. “They had to rebuild me from the inside out.” Spanier was president of a Junior Achievement company that produced a weekly show called "Variety" targeted to Chicago-area youth. Along with Brian Ross, Spanier co-founded a radio service that covered the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Spanier attended Iowa State University, where he continued his education to earn a master's degree.Graham Spanier – Graham Spanier
296. Bill Cosby – William Henry "Bill" Cosby, Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, actor, author. He was also a regular on the children's series The Electric Company during the show's first two seasons. Throughout the 1970s, he occasionally returned to film later in his career. After attending Temple University in the 1960s, he received his bachelor's degree there in 1971. In 1976 he earned his Doctor of Education degree, also from UMass. His dissertation discussed the use of the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools. The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an African-American family. Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations since about 2000. He has denied the allegations. Most of the acts alleged by his accusers fall outside the statutes of limitations for legal proceedings. He has been charged with three felony counts of aggravated indecent assault in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. He was released on $1 million bail. Cosby is scheduled to go on or before June 5, 2017. Cosby was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is one of four sons of Anna Pearl, William Henry Cosby Sr. who served as a mess steward in the U.S. Navy.Bill Cosby – Cosby before receiving the U.S. Navy Lone Sailor Award at the National Building Museum, Washington, D.C. in 2010
297. List of ongoing armed conflicts – The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence. This list of armed conflicts is for the sole purpose of identifying present-day conflicts and the death toll associated with each conflict. The guidelines of inclusion are: Armed conflicts consist in the use of armed force between governmental or non-governmental alike. Interstate, non-state armed conflicts are listed. For violence against protesters not escalating into armed conflict, see List of ongoing protests. Fatality figures include battle-related deaths well as civilians intentionally targeted by the parties to an armed conflict. Listed conflicts are at least 1 death in current or past calendar year. Fatality totals may be unavailable due to a lack of information. A figure with a plus sign indicates that at least that many people have died – the actual toll could be higher. Location refers to the state where the main violence takes place, not to the warring parties. Italics indicate unrecognized states. Only states with military activity are listed, past states and states where conflicts are no longer active are omitted. Conflicts in the following list have caused year. Conflicts in the following list have caused year. Conflicts causing at least 1,000 deaths in one year are considered wars by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.List of ongoing armed conflicts – Major wars, 10,000+ deaths in current or past year
298. Boko Haram insurgency – The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. By 2015, Shekau's faction became ISIL's West Africa branch. In 2013, over 1,000 people died as a result of the conflict. The violence escalated dramatically with 10,849 deaths. In 2014, the insurgency spread to neighboring Cameroon, Chad, Niger thus becoming a regional conflict. In 2015, a offensive forced Boko Haram to retreat into the Sambisa Forest. The insurgency took place between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities. Boko Haram has been called the world's deadliest terrorist group, in terms of the number of people it has killed. Sir Frederick Lugard, assumed office in 1912. The aftermath of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of, Cameroon, to French, British mandates. Cameroon was divided in British parts, the latter of, further subdivided into southern and northern parts. A large part of the areas affected by the insurgency. Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as back as 1953. This was a major factor in the resulting civil war. After Maitatsine's death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more.Boko Haram insurgency
299. Kivu conflict – The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo also became involved in the conflict. Until March 2009, the main group against the FARDC was the rebel Tutsi forces formerly under the command of Laurent Nkunda. CNDP is sympathetic to the Tutsi-dominated government of Rwanda. It was opposed by the FDLR, by United Nations forces. Laurent Nkunda was an officer in the Second Congo War. He soon retreated with some of RCD-Goma troops to the Masisi forests in Nord Kivu. The organisation Global Witness says that Western companies sourcing minerals are buying them from traders who finance government troops. Minerals, such as cassiterite, coltan, used for electronic equipment and cell phones, are an important export for the Congo. The extent of the problem is not known. About 150,000 Kinyarwanda-speaking people were reported to have fled from Sud-Kivu to Nord-Kivu by DRC army. In January 2006, Nkunda's troops clashed with DRC army forces, also accused by the MONUC. Further clashes took place around the town of Sake. As June 2006, Nkunda became subject to United Nations Security Council restrictions. During both the second rounds of the contested and violent 2006 general election, Nkunda had said that he would respect the results. On 2006-12-07, RCD-Goma troops attacked DRC army positions in Nord Kivu.Kivu conflict – Eastern DR Congo map
300. ADF insurgency – The insurgency began in 1995, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The ADF was formed by an ultra conservative Ugandan Muslim, belonging to the Tablighi Jamaat group. Mukulu was baptised as a Catholic, later converting to Islam, adopting a Muslim name and becoming radicalised. He reportedly spent the early 1990s in Khartoum, Sudan, coming with Osama bin Laden. ADF merged with the remnants of another rebel group, the National Army during the years following the fall of Idi Amin. ADF-NALU's initial goal was to overthrow Ugandan president's Yoweri Museveni government, replacing it with an fundamentalist state. The group went on to recruit former officers of the Ugandan army, well as volunteers from Tanzania and Somalia. The insurgence remained unaffected by government talk efforts, as members married local women. According to intelligence sources, ADF has collaborated with Lord's Resistance Army. Receiving training and logistic support, with limited direct involvement from al-Shabaab's side. Alleged sponsors of the faction include Sudanese Islamist politician Hassan al-Turabi and former DRC president Mobutu Sese Seko. Formed in 1989, ADF carried out its first attacks in 1995. The conflict gradually intensified, culminating in the 1998 Kichwamba Technical College attack, which left 80 people dead, with 80 more being abducted. By 2002, continuous pressure from the Ugandan Army forced ADF to relocate most of its activities into the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo. On 13 ADF perpetrated its first large scale attack on the towns of Bwera and Mpondwe-Lhubiriha in Kasese district, Uganda.ADF insurgency – A FIB soldier during an operation against the ADF in Beni.
301. Ituri conflict – While the two groups had fought since early as 1972, the conflict itself lasted from 1999 to 2003. A low level armed conflict continues to the present day. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front while the Union of Congolese Patriots claimed to be fighting for the Hema. The conflict was accompanied by large-scale massacres perpetrated by members of both ethnic factions. In 2006, the BBC reported that as many as 60,000 people had died since 1998. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, becoming refugees. In June 2003, the European Union began Operation Artemis, sending a French-led force to Ituri. The EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia. Despite this, however, fighting and massacres continued in the countryside. In December 2003, fighting decreased significantly. Ethnic tension between the Lendu and Hema can be traced to the colonial period when the area was part of the Belgian Congo. The colonial administrators favored the Hema, resulting in education and wealth disparities between the two groups. This divergence continued into modern times. Despite this, the two peoples have largely extensively intermarried. While the northern Hema speak Lendu, the southern Hema speak Hema.Ituri conflict – Internally displaced refugees in Bunia with MONUC personnel, 2004
302. Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The Lord's Resistance Army insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign waged by the Lord's Resistance Army rebel group since 1987. Currently, there is low-level activity in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. The movement is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims the "spokesperson" of God and a spirit medium. It aims to establish a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and Acholi tradition. One of Africa's longest running, has resulted in a humanitarian crisis. By 2004, the LRA had abducted more than 20,000 children, while an estimated 100,000 civilians killed. The NRA in their efforts to liberate the entire country meted out a lot of atrocities on the people of Acholi. This act spurred some Acholis to resist the medieval acts. By August of that year, a popular insurgency had developed in northern regions that were occupied by the new government forces. Former Uganda People's Democratic Army commander Odong Latek convinced Kony to adopt conventional warfare tactics, primarily surprise attacks on civilian targets, such as villages. The LRA also occasionally carried out large-scale attacks to protect the populace. Until 1991 the LRA raided the populace for supplies, which were carried away by villagers who were abducted for short periods of time. As the LRA was armed with modern weaponry, the bow-and-arrow groups were overpowered. The creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he longer had the support of the population. In response the LRA mutilated numerous Acholi whom they believed to be government supporters.Lord's Resistance Army insurgency – The conflict forces many civilians to live in internally displaced person (IDP) camps
303. Northern Mali conflict – Mutinous soldiers, calling the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, took control and suspended the constitution of Mali. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Mali's three largest northern cities -- Gao and Timbuktu -- were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days. On 5 April 2012, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA called off its offensive. It proclaimed Azawad's independence from Mali. The MNLA were initially backed by the Islamist group Ansar Dine. After the Malian military was driven from Azawad, a number of smaller Islamist groups began imposing strict Sharia law. The MNLA and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for an new state. By 17 the MNLA had lost control of most of northern Mali's cities to the Islamists. The government of Mali asked for military help to re-take the north. On 11 the French military began operations against the Islamists. Forces from other African Union states were deployed shortly after. By 8 the Islamist-held territory had been re-taken by the Malian military, with help from the international coalition. Tuareg separatists have continued to fight the Islamists well, although the MNLA has also been accused of carrying out attacks against the Malian military. Fighting is still ongoing even though French forces are scheduled for withdrawal. Sporadic terrorist attacks still occur.Northern Mali conflict – French Mirage 2000 refuels over Africa on 2 February 2013.
304. South Sudanese Civil War – The South Sudanese Civil War is a conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. In December 2013, a political struggle broke out between President Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar. The president accused ten others of attempting a coup d'état. Machar fled, calling for Kiir to resign. Fighting broke out between the SPLM -- in opposition, igniting the civil war. Ugandan troops were deployed to fight against the rebels. The United Nations has peacekeepers in South Sudan. In January 2014 the first agreement was reached. Fighting still would be followed by several more ceasefire agreements. Negotiations were mediated by "IGAD +". A agreement known as the "Compromise Peace Agreement" was signed in Ethiopia under threat of United Nations sanctions for both sides in August 2015. Machar was appointed vice president. Following a second breakout of fighting within Juba, Machar went to exile in the Sudan. Up to 300,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the war, including notable atrocities such as the 2014 Bentiu massacre. Although both men have supporters from across South Sudan's ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has had ethnic undertones.South Sudanese Civil War – A South Sudanese man holding a HK G3
305. War in Darfur – The government responded by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. Estimates of the number of human casualties range up to several thousand dead, from either combat or starvation and disease. Coercive migrations forced millions into refugee camps or across the border, creating a humanitarian crisis. Former US Secretary of State Colin Powell described the situation as a genocide or acts of genocide. The JEM signed a ceasefire agreement in February 2010, with a tentative agreement to pursue peace. The JEM could see semi-autonomy much like South Sudan. However, talks were disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army launched raids and air strikes against a village, violating the Tolu agreement. The largest rebel group in Darfur, vowed to boycott negotiations. It was first then surrendered by its governor Slatin Pasha to the Mahdia in 1883. Subsequently, Darfur remained the independent Republic of the Sudan. There are different explanations for the origins of the present conflict. One explanation involves those who practice sedentary agriculture. Water access has also been identified as a major source of the conflict. The Darfur crisis is also related to a second conflict. In southern Sudan, civil war has raged for Christian and animist black southerners.War in Darfur – Arab Janjaweed tribes have been a major player in the conflict.
306. Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile – The conflict is intertwined with the War in Darfur, since in November 2011 SPLM-N established a loose alliance with Darfuri rebels, called Sudan Revolutionary Front. In January 2015, fighting intensified as Omar al-Bashir’s government tried to regain control of rebel-held territory ahead of April 2015 general elections. Although South Kordofan and Blue Nile are north of the international border separating South Sudan, many of their residents identify with the South. Many residents fought during the long civil war. At least 15 Sudanese tanks entered Abyei town on 20 May, beginning large-scale fighting in Abyei. By 22 May, had seized control of the town and most of Abyei's residents had fled south toward Bahr el Ghazal. Both the government of Southern Sudan accused one another of violating the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The agreement details the mechanism by which the Abyei council to replace the one dissolved by president Omer Hassan al-Bashir in May 2011. Its chief must be approved by the Northern National Congress Party. The deputy however, would be endorsed by SPLM. Three of the five heads of the departments of the administrative council would be nominated by the NCP. A service would be established for the region, with the size and composition determined by a joint committee co-chaired by northern and southern officials. However, the spokesman of Philip Aguer, told the press that the statement from the NCP senior official was incorrect. The Northern army said that SPLA stole weapons prompting a response. The SPLA claimed that the Northern army attempted to disarm their units by force.Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile – Map of Sudan (after 2011)
307. Sudanese nomadic conflicts – Sudanese nomadic conflicts are non-state conflicts between rival nomadic tribes taking place in the territory of Sudan and, since 2011, South Sudan. Conflict between nomadic tribes in Sudan is common, with fights breaking out including grazing land, cattle and drinking water. Over the years, clashes between ethnic militias have resulted in a large number of casualties and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. Fighting in 2008 between the Rizeigat tribes claimed around 70 lives. Sudanese police attempted as they were doing so were attacked by around 3,000 Rizeigat horsemen. The attack killed 75 police officers, between 89 and 109 from the Misseriya. Ibrahim Mahmoud Hamad, has pledged to bring those responsible for the fighting to justice and to take steps to disarm civilians. The United Nations Mission in Sudan, which earlier in May deployed 120 peacekeepers to Jonglei state to prevent tribal conflict, is also investigating. In the meantime Sudanese authorities have asked both tribes to move at least 5 km from each other to avoid fresh outbreaks of fighting. Whilst fighting in the area appears to have calmed down, there are concerns over security for the February national general election. Eleven protective soldiers were also killed. The dead were searching for amidst severe shortages after barges which were shipping aid to them were attacked the previous June. People were pursued with some bodies becoming tangled in fishing nets. The majority of the dead were women, with entire families claimed to have been "wiped out". The toll was predicted to rise.Sudanese nomadic conflicts – Sudan (orange) and South Sudan (green) shown within Africa
308. Mexican Drug War – Since 2006, when intervention with the Mexican military began, the government's principal goal has been to put down the drug-related violence. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually. By the end of Felipe Calderón's administration, the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, not including 27,000 missing. Given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U.S. markets. Towards the end of the 1960s, Mexican narcotic smugglers started to smuggle drugs on a major scale. During the early 1980s, Colombia's Pablo Escobar dealt all over the world. By the mid-1980s, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine. Transporters from Mexico usually were given 35% to 50% of each cocaine shipment. Currently, the Gulf Cartel have taken to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the Mexican cartels continually shifts as older ones collapse. A disruption such as the deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the vacuum. The fighting between rival drug cartels began in earnest after the 1989 arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, who ran the cocaine business in Mexico. There was a lull in the fighting during the late 1990s but the violence has steadily worsened since 2000.Mexican Drug War – Mexican soldiers during a confrontation in Michoacán in August 2007
309. Internal conflict in Peru – However, violence again erupted in Peru proper. A great amount of the victims of the conflict were ordinary civilians. It is the second longest internal conflict in Latin America with the armed conflict being the first. Notwithstanding its historical stability, Peru has had a succession of authoritarian and democratic governments. General Juan Velasco Alvarado led a left-leaning government until 1975. Francisco Morales Bermúdez was allowed elections to be held in 1980. The group was led at the San Cristóbal of Huamanga University. Guzmán had been inspired by the Cultural Revolution, which he had witnessed firsthand to China. Shining Path members painted graffiti exhorting "armed struggle" against the Peruvian state. On the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho. It was the first "act of terrorism" by Shining Path. Shining Path opted to fight their war in the style taught by Mao Zedong. Shining Path also adhered to Mao's teaching that war should be fought primarily in the countryside and gradually choke off the cities. On December 1982, the Shining Path officially formed "People's Guerrilla Army", its armed wing. In 1982, the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement launched its own war against the Peruvian state.Internal conflict in Peru – Comrade Artemio makes demands of the Peruvian government
310. Xinjiang conflict – The East Turkestan movement is led by Turkic Islamist organizations, most notably the Turkistan Islamic Party, against the Chinese government. During the 18th century, the Qing Dynasty created the province of Xinjiang. The wars played an important role in the East Turkestan movement. After the establishment of the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs who studied in Soviet Central Asia Russified their surnames. Urban Uyghurs sometimes select Russian names for their children in cities such as Qaramay and Urumqi. The Soviet Union supported the Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic against the Republic of China. Many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, economic ties with the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. A community of Russian settlers lived in the region. A pro-Soviet Uyghur who led the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, was Soviet-educated, "Stalin's man" and a "communist-minded progressive". Her family were close friends with White Russian exiles in Xinjiang; many Uyghurs "respected" Russians, considering Russian culture "more advanced" than their own. Some Han Chinese opponents of the movement view themselves as receiving second-class treatment by PRC policies regulating ethnic autonomy. Rebiya Kadeer calls Urumqi "Uyghur land". The name "Urumqi" derives from the Mongolic Oirat language. Han and Hui mainly live from the Uyghur Tarim Basin. According to an early-19th-century Xinjiang census, the population was 60 percent Turkic.Xinjiang conflict – Xinjiang region in China
311. Insurgency in Northeast India – Some factions favour a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Some extreme groups demand complete independence. Northeastern India consists of seven states: Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland. Tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as amongst their native tribal people and migrants from other parts of India. However, in late 2014 tensions again rose as the Indian government launched an offensive, which led to a retaliatory attack on civilians by tribal guerrillas. As of January 2015, militant activities are being conducted in Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura. 2014 had an 80 % voter turnout among all states of India. Indian authorities claim that this shows the faith of the northeastern people in Indian democracy. Despite this, a number of organizations listed as terrorist groups continue to promote an insurgency. The Tani groups are Mongoloid people in India as well as the Luoba in China who live along the frontier of India. Assam has been a refuge for militants for a number of years, due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include agitation in the simmering Assam-Bodo tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as "very active". The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of the ULFA. The United Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through armed struggle.Insurgency in Northeast India – Map of India and the Northeastern provinces
312. Kashmir conflict – The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947. China has at times played a minor role. India and Pakistan have fought three wars including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965, as well as the Kargil War. The two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier. India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, and, as of 2010, administers approximately 43% of the region. It controls Jammu, the Siachen Glacier. India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which administers approximately 37% of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. China currently administers the Aksai Chin region. China's claim over these territories has been disputed by India since China took Aksai Chin during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The root of conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian government is tied to a dispute over local autonomy. Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s, by 1988, many of the democratic reforms introduced by the Indian Government had been reversed. Non-violent channels for expressing discontent were thereafter limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India. In July 1988 a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian Government began the Kashmir Insurgency. Although thousands of people have died as a result of the turmoil in Jammu and Kashmir, the conflict has become less deadly in recent years. Protest movements created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government, specifically the Indian Military, have been active in Jammu & Kashmir since 1989.Kashmir conflict – India claims the entire erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir based on an instrument of accession signed in 1947. Pakistan claims Jammu and Kashmir based on its majority Muslim population, whereas China claims the Shaksam Valley and Aksai Chin.
313. Moro conflict – The Moro conflict is an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines. Since then, Moro resistance has persisted against the Philippine government. The Moros had a history of resistance against Japanese rule for 400 years. During the Spanish -- conflict, Spain repeatedly tried to conquer the Moro Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao. The root of the conflict originates in the American wars against the Moros. Filipinos opposed foreign rule from the United States, which claimed the Philippines as its territory. After defeating Spanish forces, the United States had established a military government in the Philippines under General Wesley Merritt as Military Governor. American forces took control in December 1899. Brigadier General John C. Bates was sent to negotiate a treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, Jamalul Kiram II. Kiram was disappointed by the American takeover, as he expected to regain sovereignty after the defeat of Spanish forces in the archipelago. Bates' main goal was to establish order in the southern Philippines. After some negotiation, the Bates Treaty was signed, based on an earlier Spanish treaty. In 1915, the Americans imposed the Carpenter Treaty on Sulu. On 20 March 1900, the District of Mindanao-Jolo was upgraded to a full department. The United States military killed hundreds of Moro in the Moro Crater massacre.Moro conflict – Top: Filipino and US Troops during the PMC Balikatan Exercise Below: A member of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front training with a light machine gun. Map of the Philippines showing the Moro-Muslim majority areas in Mindanao.
314. Papua conflict – The Indonesian Government restricts foreign access due to sensitivities regarding its suppression of Papuan nationalism. The Netherlands argued that the Netherlands would continue to administer the territory until it was capable of self-determination. The legitimacy of the vote is hence disputed by independence activists, who launched a campaign of protests against the military occupation of West Papua by Indonesia. As of 2010, occasionally the fighting spills over the border. As a result, the Papua New Guinea Defence Force has set up patrols along PNG's western border to prevent infiltration by the OPM. Additionally, the PNG government has been making a pledge of no anti-Indonesian activity a condition for migrants' stay in PNG. Since the late 1970s, the OPM have made retaliatory "threats against PNG business projects and politicians against the OPM". The PNGDF has performed joint border patrols since the 1980s although the PNGDF's operations against the OPM are "parallel". The Campaign has the backing of notable figures such as Nobel Peace Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu. In 2012, the Campaign issued an arrest warrant to the UK in October -- November that year. Yudhoyono was protested against everywhere he regularly saw West Papuan National Flags of Independence which are illegal in Indonesia. 15 August 1962: New York Agreement by Kingdom of the Netherlands, Republic of Indonesia and United Nations. Region of West Papua submitted to UN temporary authority, which transferred governance to Indonesia on 1 May 1963. Implementation of Indonesian governance was followed until 1969. 1966–67: Aerial bombing of Arfak Mountains.Papua conflict – Papua (province)
315. Internal conflict in Myanmar – The conflict has been described as one of the world's "civil wars". Prior to independence from the United Kingdom, anti-colonial groups in Myanmar protested over the country. On 4 January 1948, Myanmar gained independence from the United Kingdom. Three months after independence, the communists began an armed insurgency against the government. Similarly, Karen insurgent groups began to fight for independence. By the early 1980s, politically motivated armed insurgencies had largely disappeared, while ethnic-based insurgencies continued. Both groups had also fought Japanese forces during World War II. During the post-independence period, the KNU favoured an independent state, administered by the Karen people. The proposed state would have been forged out of Karen and Karenni State, in Lower Burma. The KNU has since shifted their focus under a federal system with fair Karen representation in the government. After negotiations failed, defectors from ethnic insurgents walked back with headlines across Myanmar famously reading "They Go Back". Private property was confiscated by the government, the Burmese Socialist Programme Party was founded in 1974 to govern the country under a one-party system. Under General Ne Win's 26 dictatorship, Myanmar became one of the least developed countries in the world. On 8 students began demonstrating in the disastrous Burmese Way to Socialism system. According to the Economist, over 3,000 people were killed in the public uprising.Internal conflict in Myanmar – CPB rebels walk back to their bases after failed peace talks. (1963)
316. Balochistan conflict – Rich in natural resources like this is the least developed province in Pakistan. Baloch want greater autonomy, an independent nation-state. In the 2010s, attacks against the Shia community by sectarian groups—though not always directly related to the political struggle—have risen, contributing to tensions in Balochistan. As of May 2015, one foreign-based Baloch journalist calls anger towards Chief Minister Abdul Malik Baloch "growing and often uncontrollable". Baloch militants have offered to hand in their weapons. In April 2016, 144 militants had surrendered under reconciliation. 1025 surrendered after accepting reconciliation as of August 2016. Baloch seperatists argue they are economically poor compared to the rest of Pakistan. Being crucial for Pakistan's economic future, China has invested $ Billion in the region. The Balochistan Liberation Army, designated by Pakistan and Britain, is the most widely known Baloch separatist group. Since 2000 it has conducted deadly attacks on Pakistani troops, police, civilians. Separatist groups include Lashkar-e-Balochistan and the Baloch Liberation United Front. In 2005, a rebellion by Baloch against the Islamic Republic of Iran began. The fight over the IRI Baloch region bordering Pakistan, has "not gained" as the conflict in Pakistan. Human activists have accused nationalist militants and the Government of Pakistan of human rights abuses.Balochistan conflict – Balochs (pink), Pashtuns (green), Punjabis (brown), Sindhis (yellow)
317. CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion – In 1969, the first violent incident took place in 1971. President Ferdinand Marcos introduced martial law. Until 2002, NPA received a considerable amount of aid from outside the Philippines. However, later developments forced it to rely from other local sources. Between 2008, more than 43,000 insurgency related fatalities were recorded. The NPA broke off on 29 March 1969. Previously, NPA left the Party due to its perceived ineffectiveness. The initial strength of the NPA was believed to comprise 35 weapons. Relying on small armed community-based propaganda units, the NPA found itself by 1972. On 21 president Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law, which forced the NPA to fight for its freedom. In 1974, the NPA launched its tactical operation in Calbiga, Samar, when it ambushed an army scout patrol and seized a number of their weapons. China provided support from 1969-1976. After that period, the Chinese ceased all aid, resulting in a five-year period of reduced activity. Despite the setback, the rebellion rekindled from revolutionary taxes, extortion and large scale foreign support campaigns. Financial training and other forms of support were received from a number of the above.CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion – Map of the Philippines showing the main Communist hotspots areas.
318. South Thailand insurgency – The South Thailand insurgency is an ongoing conflict centered in southern Thailand. Incidents blamed on southern insurgents have occurred in Bangkok and Phuket. The insurgency escalated further. On 19 a military junta ousted Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup. The junta implemented a major shift by replacing Thaksin's earlier approach with a campaign to win over the "hearts and minds" of the insurgents. Despite little progress in curbing the violence, the junta declared that peace would come to the region by 2008. By March 2008, however, the toll surpassed 3,000. But by the end of 2010 insurgency-related violence had increased, confounding the government's optimism. Finally in March 2011, the government could not be solved in a few months. However, these groups have been largely sidelined by the group currently spearheading the insurgency. It is against talks with other insurgent groups. It has largely been successful. Estimates of the strength of the insurgency vary greatly. In 2004 General Pallop Pinmanee claimed that there were only 500 hardcore jihadists. Other estimates say there as many as 15,000 armed insurgents.South Thailand insurgency – Original arms of the PULO and GMIP
319. Insurgency in the North Caucasus – It followed the official end of the decade-long Second Chechen War on 16 April 2009. The violence has mostly been concentrated in the North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. Occasional incidents happen like North Ossetia-Alania, Karachay-Cherkessia, Volgograd Oblast. In late 1999, Russia's Premier, Vladimir Putin, ordered military, police and security forces to enter the breakaway region of Chechnya. By early 2000, these forces occupied most of the region. High levels of fighting resulted in hundreds of thousands of displaced persons. After his death, Dokka Umarov, declared continuing jihad to establish an fundamentalist Caucasus Emirate in the North Caucasus and beyond. Russia's policy in Chechnya has involved transferring more local security duties to this government. An important factor in Russia's apparent success in Chechnya has been reliance on pro-Moscow Chechen clans affiliated with regional President Ramzan Kadyrov. Paramilitary forces under Kadyrov's authority have committed abuses of human rights, according to rulings by the European Court of others. Terrorist attacks in the North Caucasus appeared to increase substantially in 2007–2010. The insurgency in the North Caucasus is a direct result of the two post-Soviet wars fought between Russia and Chechnya. The First Chechen War took place between 1996. The republic remained a major center of violence for many years. Reported casualties declined, with 26 security forces and 24 suspected militants being killed in 2014.Insurgency in the North Caucasus – Russian President, Dmitri Medvedev, meets with FSB head, Alexander Bortnikov, in March 2009, to discuss the ending of the counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya.
320. War in Donbass – The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. Prior to a change of the top leadership in August 2014, the separatists were largely led by Russian citizens. During the middle of 2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% and 80% of the combatants. These events followed the reported shelling of Ukrainian positions from the Russian side of the border over the course of the preceding month. Head of the Security Service of Ukraine, Valentyn Nalyvaichenko said that the events of 22 August were a "direct invasion by Russia of Ukraine". Ukrainian officials described these events by Russia. Russian President Vladimir Putin justified the incursion as'defending the Russian-speaking population in the Donbass'. As a result of this, DPR and LPR insurgents regained much of the territory they had lost during the preceding government military offensive. A deal to establish a ceasefire, called the Minsk Protocol, was signed on 5 September 2014. Violations of the ceasefire on both sides were common. The ceasefire completely collapsed in January 2015, including at Debaltseve. A new ceasefire, called Minsk II, was agreed to on 12 February 2015. Immediately following the signing of the agreement, separatist forces launched an offensive on Debaltseve and forced Ukrainian forces to withdraw from it. In the months after the fall of Debaltseve, minor skirmishes continued along the line of contact, but no territorial changes occurred. A new ceasefire of 1 September 2016 reduced combat until 9 September, when Ukrainian authorities reported the death of a soldier.War in Donbass – Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk, 9 March 2014
321. Sinai insurgency – Since 2011, the central authorities have attempted to restore their presence through both political and military measures. Egypt launched two military operations, then Operation Sinai in mid-2012. Following an abduction of Egyptian officers, violence in the Sinai surged once again. Following the 2013 Egyptian d'état, which resulted in the ousting of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi, "unprecedented clashes" have occurred. Militant attacks continued into 2015. Security officials say militants based in Libya have established ties with Sinai Province. Since the start of the conflict, dozens of civilians were kidnapped and then beheaded by militants. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the North Sinai Governorate. Sufism was previously dominant in the region before militant jihadi ideas began to take hold. The Sinai peninsula has long been known for its lawlessness, having historically served as a route for weapons and supplies. Security provisions in the Egypt -- Israel Peace Treaty of 1979 have institutionalized a diminished presence in the area, enabling militants to operate with a freer hand. Moreover, development in Sinai has discriminated against the local Bedouin population, a population that values tribal allegiance over all else. The combination of lack of resources have kept the area poor and hence ripe for militancy. Following the January 2011 uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak's regime, the country became increasingly destabilized, creating a vacuum in the Sinai peninsula. Islamic elements in Sinai exploited the opportunity, using the unique environment, in launching several waves of attacks upon Egyptian military and commercial facilities.Sinai insurgency – Map of the Sinai Peninsula
322. Military intervention against ISIL – Later, there were also minor interventions by some states against ISIL-affiliated groups in Nigeria and Libya. In mid-June 2014, according to Reuters, Iranian soldiers were in Iraq fighting ISIL. Simultaneously, the United States started flying manned aircraft over Iraq. In August 2014, the US and Iran separately began a campaign of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq. Since then, fourteen countries in a US-led coalition have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Syria. In September 2015, Russian forces, with the permission of the Syrian government, began hundreds of bombing raids against ISIL. Since the airstrikes have started, ISIL has been losing ground in both Iraq and Syria. There have been multiple accounts of civilian deaths from both Russian and coalition airstrikes. In mid-2016, Russian-led planning coordinated. On 3 December 2014, at the NATO headquarters in Brussels, diplomats/ ministers from 59 countries gathered to plot a way forward against the threat of ISIL. On 30 Russia began its air campaign on the side and in support of the Syrian government. Russia was also reported to have reached agreements on co-ordination of operations in Syria with Jordan and Israel. The Turkish government until July 2015 once attacked ISIL militarily, in January 2014. In September 2014 Turkey joined a US-led coalition ‘to fight ISIL’. Turkish tanks and were confirmed shelling the same day of the ground operation.Military intervention against ISIL
323. American-led intervention in Syria – The United States began surveillance missions in September 2014. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria, well as Iraq." On 6 a US airstrike struck Ahrar ash-Sham at its headquarters in Idlib. By 14 it was revealed that the negotiations between al-Nusra, Jund al-Aqsa, ISIL and Ahrar ash-Sham had failed. Following the start of the Arab Spring in 2011, protests in Syria against the Assad administration became violent. In 2012, the al-Nusra Front was established by the Islamic State of Iraq in Syria. One of the groups that United States intended to train-and-equip was the Islamist Army of Mujahedeen while the Harakat Hazm group was already being supplied. There were indications that the Army of Mujahedeen was still being vetted for support. The countries taking part in the train-and-equip program were to include Jordan, Qatar, Turkey. As of mid-2015, only a group of 54 such fighters had been deployed, quickly routed by al-Nusra. The United Kingdom announced it will send around 75 military instructors to train Syrian opposition forces. The train-and-equip programme started on 9 May 2015. On 25 Turkey and the U.S. agreed "in principle" on the necessity to support these forces with air support. As of July 2016 extensive shipments were continuing. The special operations members were quickly engaged by ISIL forces dispatched from Ar-Raqqah, which started a three-hour firefight.American-led intervention in Syria – Tomahawk missiles being fired from the warships USS Philippine Sea and USS Arleigh Burke at ISIL targets in Syria
324. Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Kidnappings of foreign citizens across Lebanon have resulted. In mid-2011, seven people were killed and 59 wounded in a fight between gunmen in Tripoli. In May 2012, the conflict spread to Beirut, later to south and east Lebanon, while the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed in north Lebanon and Beirut. As of January 2016 there have been more than 800 fatalities and almost 3,000 injuries. Among Lebanon's political blocs the anti-Syrian Saudi-backed March 14 Alliance supports the Syrian rebels, the Iranian-backed pro-Syrian March 8 Alliance supports the Syrian government. This has been rejected by the ruling March 8 alliance, which includes the Shia Hezbollah and allies such as the Maronite Free Patriotic Movement, among others. Pro-government protestors countered the actions by carrying posters of Nasrallah. It was reported that, "sales of black market weapons in Lebanon have skyrocketed in recent weeks due to demand in Syria." Future Movement MP Okab Sakr was long suspected to be involved in aiding the insurgents in the Syrian civil war. At first he admitted it when Al Akhbar published audio tapes of him making deals with Syrian insurgents. Sakr later claimed the tapes were edited, that he only provided Syrians with milk and blankets. Sunni extremists from Tripoli have been flocking to Syria to join the terrorist al-Nusra Front. Hezbollah fighters have been deployed to protect border towns inhabited by Lebanese Shias from the rebels. The Lebanese Army has attempted to disassociate itself from the conflict in Syria, to prevent clashes within Lebanon. It has long been expected that another major push would take place in Lebanon.Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon – Controlled by the Lebanese Government
325. Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – The intervention initially consisted of a bombing campaign and later saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. Fighter jets and ground forces from the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain also took part in the operation. Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia made their airspace, military bases available to the coalition. The United States provided logistical support, including aerial refueling and search-and-rescue for downed coalition pilots. It also accelerated the sale of weapons to coalition states. Its parliament voted to maintain neutrality. Its coalition partners said they would be launching political and peace efforts, which they called Operation Restoring Hope. However, the coalition did not rule out saying it would respond to threats and prevent Houthi militants from operating within Yemen. On 1 July UN declared for Yemen a "level-three" emergency – the highest UN emergency level – for a period of six months. Human groups repeatedly blamed the Saudi-led military coalition for killing civilians and destroying health centers and other infrastructure with airstrikes. The facto blockade left 78 % of the Yemeni population in urgent need of food, water and medical aid. The bulk of commercial shipping, on which the country relies, is blocked. In one occasion, coalition jets prevented an Iranian Red Crescent plane by bombing Sana'a International Airport's runway, which blocked aid delivery via air. As of 10 more than 2,500,000 people had been internally displaced by the fighting. Many countries evacuated more than 23,000 foreign citizens from Yemen.Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – Controlled by Houthis
326. Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen – The al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen refers to the armed conflict between the Yemeni government with United States assistance, al-Qaeda-affiliated cells. The strife is often categorized as a sub-conflict in the greater Global War on Terror. Crackdown against al-Qaeda cells began in 2001, reached an escalation point on January 14, 2010, when Yemen declared open war on al-Qaeda. In addition to battling al Qaeda across several provinces, Yemen is also contending with militant separatists in the south. A second wave of violence occurred with militants claiming territory across the southwest amid heavy combat with government forces. In May 2013, attackers blew up Yemen's main pipeline, halting the flow of crude oil. On 18 the conflict escalated into a full-scale civil war. Previous attacks linked in Yemen include the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, the 2008 American Embassy attack, several attacks against foreign tourists. The SAS provided protection to embassy personnel. According to ABC News, American cruise missiles were also part of the raids. The U.S. denied they were involved despite evidence from Amnesty International. December 24: U.S. drones or missiles struck an al-Qaeda meeting in Shabwa, killing some 30 individuals. One target of the strike was Anwar al-Awlaki. January 4, 2010: Yemeni security forces killed two alleged militants a day earlier north of the capital. January 6: Yemeni forces arrested three suspected al-Qaeda militants who were wounded in a raid, carried out by security forces.Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen – AQAP fighters in Yemen, 2014
327. 2015 – Lithuania officially adopts the euro as its currency, replacing the litas, becomes the nineteenth Eurozone country. January 3 -- 7 -- A series of surrounding villages by Boko Haram kills more than 2,000 people. January 15 – The Swiss National Bank abandons the cap on the franc's value relative to the euro, causing turmoil in international financial markets. January 22 – After Houthi forces seize the presidential palace, Yemeni President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi resigns after months of unrest. The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 2199 to combat terrorism. March 5 -- 8 -- The ancient city sites in Iraq are demolished by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. March 6 – NASA's Dawn probe enters orbit around Ceres, becoming the first spacecraft to visit a dwarf planet. March 12 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant becomes allies with fellow jihadist group Boko Haram, effectively annexing the group. March 24 – An Airbus A320-211 operated by Germanwings crashes in the French Alps, killing all 150 on board. April 29 – The World Health Organization declares that rubella has been eradicated from the Americas. May 1–October 31 – Expo 2015 is held in Milan, Italy. May 23 – Ireland votes to legalize same-sex marriage, becoming the first country to legalize same-sex marriage by popular vote. June 6 – The governments of India and Bangladesh officially ratify their 1974 agreement to exchange enclaves along their border. June 7 -- 8 -- The 41st summit is held in Schloss Elmau, Bavaria. Sousse attacks: 22-year-old Seifeddine Rezgui opens fire at a tourist resort at Port El Kantaoui, Tunisia, killing 38 people.2015 – Mario Cuomo
328. 2014 – February 7–23 – The XXII Olympic Winter Games are held in Sochi, Russia. February 13 – Belgium becomes the first country in the world to legalise euthanasia for terminally ill patients of any age. The aircraft is presumed to have crashed into the Indian Ocean. March 16 – A referendum on the status of the Crimean Peninsula is held. March 21 – Russia formally annexes Crimea after President Vladimir Putin signed a bill finalizing the annexation process. March 24 -- During an emergency meeting, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada temporarily suspend Russia from the G8. March 27 – The United Nations General Assembly passes Resolution 68/262, recognizing Crimea within Ukraine’s international borders and rejecting the validity of the 2014 Crimean referendum. April 7 – The Donetsk People's Republic declares its independence from Ukraine. April 14 -- women are abducted and held hostage from a school in Nigeria. April 16 – Korean ferry MV Sewol capsizes and sinks after an unmanageable cargo shift, killing 304 people, mostly high school students. April 27 – The Catholic Church simultaneously canonizes Popes John XXIII and John Paul II. April 28 – United States President Barack Obama's new economic sanctions against Russia go into effect, targeting companies and individuals close to Russian President Vladimir Putin. The World Health Organization identifies the spread of poliomyelitis in at least 10 countries as a major worldwide health emergency. Boko Haram militants kill approximately 300 people on Gamboru Ngala. The Luhansk People's Republic declare the formation of Novorossiya, also referred to as the Union of People's Republics.2014 – Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland
329. 2013 – January 16–20 – Thirty-nine international workers and one security guard die in a hostage crisis at a natural gas facility near In Aménas, Algeria. February 12 – North Korea conducts its third underground nuclear test, prompting widespread condemnation and tightened economic sanctions from the international community. February 15 – A meteor explodes over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1,489-1,492 people and damaging over 4,300 buildings. It is the most powerful meteor to strike Earth's atmosphere in over a century. The incident, along with a coincidental flyby of a larger asteroid, prompts international concern regarding the vulnerability of the planet to meteor strikes. February 21 – American scientists use a 3D printer to create a living lab-grown ear from collagen and animal ear cell cultures. In the future, it is hoped, similar ears could be grown to order as transplants for human patients suffering from ear amputation. March 25 – The European Union agrees to a €10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus. The loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, the International Monetary Fund. The deal precipitates a banking crisis in the nation. March 27 – Canada becomes the first country to withdraw from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. April 2 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate the international trade of conventional weapons. July 1 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup d'état, leading to widespread violence. August 14 – Following the military coup in Egypt, two anti-coup camps are raided by the security forces leaving 2,600 dead.2013 – April 24: Savar building collapse.
330. 2012 – February 19 – Iran suspends oil exports to Britain and France, following sanctions put in place by the European Union and the United States in January. February 21 – Greek government-debt crisis: Eurozone finance ministers reach an agreement on a second, €130-billion Greek bailout. February 27 – Arab Spring: As a result of continuing protests, Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh is succeeded by his Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi. March 13 – After 244 years since its first publication, the Encyclopædia Britannica discontinues its print edition. Amadou Toumani Touré, is ousted in a coup d'état after mutinous soldiers attack government offices. April 6 – The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declares the independence of Azawad from Mali. April 12 – Mutinous soldiers in Guinea-Bissau stage a coup d'état and take control of the capital city, Bissau. They arrest leading presidential candidate Carlos Gomes Júnior in the midst of a presidential election campaign. April 13 – Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, a North Korean Earth observation satellite, explodes shortly after launch. Other countries had called the impending launch a violation of United Nations Security Council demands. The launch was planned to mark the centenary of the birth of the founder of the republic. May 12 – August 12 – The 2012 World Expo takes place in Yeosu, South Korea. May 22 – Tokyo Skytree, the tallest self-supporting tower in the world at 634 metres high, is opened to the public. Last solar transit of Venus occurs. The next pair are predicted to occur in 2125.2012 – Etta James
331. 2011 – January 1 – Estonia officially adopts the Euro currency and becomes the 17th Eurozone country. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring. January 9 – 15 – Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July. January 24 – 37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia. March 11 – A 9.0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840 and leaving another 3,926 missing. Tsunami warnings are issued in territories. Emergencies are declared at four nuclear power plants affected by the quake. Arab Spring: The Syrian Civil War begins. April 29 – An estimated two billion people watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London. May 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, the International Monetary Fund. May 21 – Grímsvötn, Iceland's most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe. May 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia. June 4 – Chile's Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia and forcing over 3,000 people to evacuate.2011 – Gerry Rafferty
332. 2010 – 2010 is pronounced either "two thousand ten", or "twenty-ten". January 1 – A suicide blast in the village of Shah Hasan Khel, Pakistan, kills at least 105 people and injures over 100. January 3 – The United States and the United Kingdom close their embassies in Yemen due to the ongoing security threat by Al-Qaeda. January 4 -- The tallest man-made structure to date, United Arab Emirates, is officially opened. The attack was perpetrated by their first since the Angolan Civil War. January 12 – A 7.0-magnitude earthquake occurs in Haiti, devastating the nation's capital, Port-au-Prince. With a confirmed toll over 316,000, it is the seventh deadliest on record. The longest annular solar eclipse of the 3rd millennium occurs. February 12 -- 28 -- The 2010 Winter Olympics are held in Whistler, Canada. February 27 – An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurs in Chile, triggering a tsunami over the Pacific and killing at least 525. The earthquake is one of the largest in recorded history. March 16 – The Kasubi Tombs, Uganda's only cultural World Heritage Site, are destroyed by fire. March 26 – The ROKS Cheonan, a South Korean Navy ship carrying 104 personnel, sinks off the country's west coast, killing 46. In May, an independent investigation blames North Korea, which denies the allegations. April 7 – Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev flees Bishkek amid fierce rioting, sparking a sociopolitical crisis.2010 – January 12: Damaged buildings in Jacmel as a result of the Haiti earthquake
333. 2009 – Linz become the European Capitals of Culture. Slovakia adopts the euro as its national currency, replacing the Slovak koruna. January 3 – Israel launches a ground invasion of the Gaza Strip as the Gaza War enters its second week. January 7 – Russia shuts off all gas supplies to Europe through Ukraine. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin publicly urges greater international involvement in the energy dispute. January 13 – Ethiopian military forces begin pulling out of Somalia, where they have tried to maintain order for nearly two years. January 17 – Israel announces a unilateral ceasefire in the Gaza War. It comes into the following day, on which Hamas declares a ceasefire of its own. January 21 – Israel completes its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip. Intermittent air strikes by both sides of the preceding war continue in the weeks to follow. January 22 – Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda is captured by Rwandan forces after crossing over the border into Rwanda. The first trial at the International Criminal Court is held. Former Union of Congolese Patriots leader Thomas Lubanga is accused of child soldiers to kill, pillage, rape. The Icelandic government and banking system collapse; Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns. February 1 Patriarch Kirill of Moscow is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church.2009 – 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
334. 2008 – January 1 Cyprus and Malta adopt the euro. A bombing occurs in Zayouna, Baghdad, killing over 25 people during a funeral over the deaths from the preceding attack. January 2 – The price of petroleum hits $100 per barrel for the first time. January 3 – A car bomb detonates, killing at least 4 and injuring 68, in Diyarbakır, Turkey. Police blame Kurdish rebels. January 8 – An attempted assassination of Maldivian president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom is thwarted after a Boy Scout grabs the attacker's knife. After a scuffle police arrest the attacker. January 12 – A Macedonian Army Mil Mi-17 helicopter crashes in thick fog southeast of Skopje, killing all 11 military personnel on board. January 14 -- At 19:04:39 the MESSENGER space probe is at its closest approach during its first flyby of the planet Mercury. January 15 – The Federal Court of Australia orders a Japanese whaling company to stop research whaling within their exclusive economic zone. January 21 – Stock markets around the world plunge amid growing fears of a U.S. recession, fueled by the 2007 subprime mortgage crisis. January 22 – Russia stages the largest naval exercise since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 in the Bay of Biscay. Polish Air Force EADS CASA C-295 crashes on approach to the 12th Air Base near Mirosławiec; all 20 personnel on board die. Thousands of Palestinians cross into Egypt, as the wall with Gaza in Rafah is blown up by militants. January 24 – A peace deal ends the Kivu conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.2008 – First-ever photograph of the "unseen side" of Mercury, taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft on January 14
335. 2007 – 2007 was designated as International Heliophysical Year. International Polar Year. European Year of Equal Opportunities for All. Year of Rumi. Year of the Dolphin. Scotland's Year of Highland Culture. Celebrating 100 years of the Scout Movement. Leicester's year of construction UNESCO has recognized fifteen anniversaries for 2007. Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union. Bulgarian, Romanian, Irish become official languages of the European Union, joining 20 other official languages. Slovenia joins Eurozone. South Korea's Ban Ki-moon becomes the new United Nations Secretary-General, replacing Kofi Annan. Adam Air Flight 574, disappeared from Jakarta's radar. It was founded that the aircraft has crashed onto the Makassar Strait, killing all 102 people on board. January 8 -- Russian oil supplies to Poland, Germany, Ukraine are cut as the Russia -- Belarus dispute escalates; they are restored 3 days later.2007 – Yvonne De Carlo
336. 2006 – January 4 – Ariel Sharon, Prime Minister of Israel, suffers a severe stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Saudi Arabia, collapses, killing 76 pilgrims visiting to perform Hajj. Saudi Arabia, kills 362 pilgrims. January 15 – NASA's Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 16 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf assumes office as President of Liberia, the first female elected head of state in Africa. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a 9-year journey. January 25 – Pope Benedict XVI issues his first encycylical, Deus caritas est. January 27 – Celebrations are held in Salzburg and around the world, for the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Philippines, kills 74 people and leaves 600 injured. February 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126. February 19 – Pasta de Conchos mine disaster: Sixty-five miners die after becoming trapped underground, following an explosion in Nueva Rosita, Mexico. March 4 – The final contact attempt with Pioneer 10 receives no response. March 9 – NASA's Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturn's moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars.2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
337. 2005 – January 12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral by a Delta II rocket. January 14 – The Huygens probe lands on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. January 25 – A stampede occurs at the Mandhradevi temple near Wai, India during a religious pilgrimage, killing 291 people. January 30 – Iraq holds its first parliamentary election since 1958. February 10 North Korea announces that it possesses nuclear weapons as a protection against the hostility it feels from the United States. Saudi Arabia holds its municipal election in over 40 years, in which only male citizens are allowed to vote. February 14 21 others are killed by a suicide bomber in Beirut. The most popular video sharing website, is founded. February 16 – The Kyoto Protocol goes into effect, without the support of the United States and Australia. February 19 – Multiple suicide bombings kill more than 30 people across Iraq as Shia Muslims mark Ashura, their holiest day. February 28 – In Iraq, the Al Hillah bombing kills 127 people at the Iraqi police forces recruiting centre in Al Hillah. Millionaire Steve Fossett breaks a world record by completing the fastest non-stop, non-refueled, solo flight around the world in the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer. Four Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers are gunned down in Alberta, Canada. It is deadliest day in Canadian enforcement in over 120 years. The People's Republic of China ratifies an anti-secession law, aimed at preventing Taiwan from declaring independence.2005 – Shirley Chisholm
338. 2004 – January 3 – Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea off the coast of Egypt, killing all 148 aboard. February 1 – A hajj stampede in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills 251 pilgrims. February 4 – Facebook, a mainstream online social networking site, is founded by Mark Zuckerberg. February 7 – Several leaders of Abnaa el-Balad are arrested in Israel. February 24 – The 6.3 Mw Al Hoceima earthquake strikes northern Morocco with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. At least 628 people are killed. The United States lifts a 1981 travel ban upon Libya. Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The John Jay Report into Catholic abuse cases in the United States has its initial release. February 29 – 2004 Haitian coup d'état: Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti. Boniface Alexandre, is sworn in as interim president. March 2 NASA announces that the Mars MER-B has confirmed that its landing area was once drenched in water. The Iraq Ashura bombings injure at least 500 Iraqi Shi'a Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 10 – Five British men are released from detention at Camp Delta, Guantanamo Bay. After they land at RAF Brize Norton, 4 of them are immediately arrested for questioning.2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
339. 2003 – 2003 was designated the: International Year of fresh water. European Disability Year. January 22 – The last signal from NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, some 7.6 billion miles from Earth. January 30 – Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so. February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all 7 astronauts on board. February 15 – Millions of people worldwide take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States and its allies invade Iraq. February 20 – The Station nightclub fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island kills 100 people and injures 230. February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government. March 8 – Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum. Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper. The World Health Organization issues a global alert on acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong and Vietnam after originating in China. March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. and allied forces. March 23 – Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum. April 9 – Iraq War: U.S. forces seize control of Baghdad, ending the regime of Saddam Hussein. April 12 – Hungary approves joining the European Union in a referendum.2003 – Richard Crenna
340. 2002 – Euro coins are introduced in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Finland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and the Netherlands. January 16 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and freezes the assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, the Taliban. January 17 – The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo displaces an estimated 400,000 people. January 27 – Several explosions at a military dump in Lagos, Nigeria kill more than 1,000 people. January 31 – A large section of the Antarctic Larsen Ice Shelf begins disintegrating, consuming about 3,250 km over 35 days. February 6 – Queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II celebrates her Golden Jubilee, marking 50 years since her accession to the British throne. February 8 -- 24 -- The 2002 Winter Olympics are held in Utah. The former President of Yugoslavia, begins at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague. February 19 – NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system. February 20 – A train catches fire at Reqa Al-Gharbiya in Egypt while en route to Luxor from Cairo, killing 383 people. The most prolific serial killer in Canadian history, is arrested and charged with the first 2 counts of first-degree murder. Sri Lankan Civil War: A Spanish-facilitated ceasefire begins in Sri Lanka. February 28 – The ex-currencies of all euro-using nations cease to be legal tender in the European Union. March 1 War in Afghanistan: In eastern Afghanistan, Operation Anaconda begins. STS-109: Space Shuttle Columbia flies the Hubble Space Telescope service mission, the penultimate flight before its ill-fated STS-107 mission.2002 – Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft
341. 2001 – 2001 was designated as: International Year of January 1 -- Kolkata restores officially name from Calcutta, West Bengal, India. January 10 – The U.S. Federal Trade Commission approves the merger of America Online and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner. January 13 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people and leaving thousands homeless. January 15 – Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online. January 20 George W. Bush is sworn as President of the United States. Impeachment proceedings against Philippine President Joseph Estrada, accused of playing Jueteng, trigger the second EDSA People Power Revolution or People Power II. His Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeds him as the 14th President of the Republic. January 23 – The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident occurs. January 26 – An earthquake hits Gujarat, India, killing almost 20,000. January 31 – The Congressional Budget Office of the United States forecasts a $5,600,000,000,000 budget surplus for the next 10 years. February 9 – The submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Japanese fishing vessel Ehime-Maru near Hawaii. February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid. February 13 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400. February 16 – Iraq disarmament crisis: British and U.S. forces carry out bombing raids, attempting to disable Iraq's air defense network. February 18 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years.2001 – September 11 attacks
342. 2000 – According to the Gregorian Calendar, these distinctions fall to the year 2001 because the 1st century was retroactively said to start with year AD 1. 2000 is sometimes abbreviated as "Y2K". 2000 was the subject of Y2K concerns, which are fears that computers would not shift from 1999 to 2000 correctly. However, by the end of 1999, many companies had already converted to new, or upgraded, existing software. Some even obtained certification. As a result of massive effort, relatively few problems occurred. January 1 – The piece Longplayer begins. It lasts 1,000 years, finishing on December 2999. Syria hold inconclusive peace talks. January 5–8 – The 2000 al-Qaeda Summit of several high-level al-Qaeda members is held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. January 6 -- The last Pyrenean ibex is found dead, apparently killed by a falling tree. January 10 – America Online announces an agreement to purchase Time Warner for $162 billion. January 11 – The armed wing of the Islamic Salvation Front concludes its negotiations with the government for an amnesty and disbands in Algeria. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 11,722.98. January 18 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth.2000 – Hedy Lamarr
343. 1999 – 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older Persons. January 1 – The euro is established. January 4 – Gunmen open fire on Shia Muslims worshiping in a mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 16 and injuring 25. The Sopranos debuts on HBO. January 20 – The China News Service announces new government restrictions on Internet use aimed especially at Internet cafés. January 25 – The 6.2 Mw Armenia, Colombia earthquake hits western Colombia, killing at least 1,000. January 31 – Family Guy debuts on Fox. February 7 – King Hussein of Jordan dies from cancer, his son Abdullah II inherits the throne. February 11 – Pluto moves along its eccentric orbit further from the Sun than Neptune. It will become again in 2231. February 12 – U.S. President Bill Clinton is acquitted in impeachment proceedings in the United States Senate. February 16 In Uzbekistan, an apparent attempt against President Islam Karimov takes place at government headquarters. Across Europe, Kurdish rebels take after Turkey arrests one of their rebel leaders. February 21 – Sanna Sillanpää shoots 4 men, killing 3 at a shooting range in Finland. February 22 – Moderate Iraqi Shiite cleric Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr is assassinated.1999 – The iBook G3
344. 1998 – 1998 was designated as the International Year of the Ocean. January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. January 4 -- Wilaya in Algeria: Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. January 8 – Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to life in prison for planning the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993. January 11 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria. January 12 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. January 14 – Ralph Guarino is arrested for attempting to rob a Bank of America bank in the World Trade Center. January 20 – Nepalese police intercept a shipment of 272 human skulls in Kathmandu. January 22 – Suspected "Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski pleads guilty, accepts a sentence of life without the possibility of parole. January 28 Gunmen hold teachers hostage for several hours, at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines. Stade de France, as known well for venues of France, officially opened in Saint-Denis, suburb of Paris, before 1998 FIFA World Cup. February 4 – The 5.9 Mw Afghanistan earthquake shakes the Takhar Province with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. With 818 injured, damage is considered extreme. February 7–22 – The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan. February 16 – China Airlines Flight 676 crashes into a residential area near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport, killing 202 people.1998 – New rubles
345. 1997 – January 17 – A Delta II rocket carrying a military GPS payload explodes, shortly after liftoff from Cape Canaveral. January 18 – In northwest Rwanda, Hutu militia members kill 6 Spanish aid workers, 3 soldiers, seriously wound another. January 19 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. January 20 – Bill Clinton is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. January 22 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, after confirmation by the United States Senate. January 23 – Mir Aimal Kasi is sentenced to death for a 1993 assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters that killed 2 and wounded 3. January 27 – It is revealed that French museums had nearly 2,000 pieces of art, stolen by Nazis. February 4 On their way to Lebanon, 2 troop-transport helicopters collide, killing 73. After at first contesting the results, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections. British Home Secretary Michael Howard informs Moors Murderer Myra Hindley that she will never be released from prison. Mr. Howard has made the decision in agreement with a recommendation made by his predecessor David Waddington in 1990. The so-called "Big Three" banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors and their families. Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Reynolds investment banks announce a $ billion merger. February 10 The United States Army suspends Gene C. McKinney, Sergeant Major of the Army, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct.1997 – The funeral cortege of Diana, Princess of Wales, en route to Westminster Abbey from Kensington Palace.
347. Library of Congress Classification – The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically. The classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System. It was designed specifically for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. That is, it provides a guide to the books actually in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. The National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R for Medicine. Others use LCC's QP–QR schedules and include Medicine R. Subclass AC – Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums. Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs.Library of Congress Classification – Java programming books in the QA subclass.