1. Sinai Peninsula – The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai is a peninsula in Egypt, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, serving as a land bridge between Asia and Africa. It is the part of Egyptian territory located in Asia. Sinai has an area of about 60,000 km2. The bulk of the peninsula is divided administratively into two of Egypts 27 governorates, the Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt. In periods of occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt, also occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire. Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis of 1956, on 6 October 1973, Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War to retake the peninsula, which was the site of fierce fighting between Egyptian and Israeli forces. Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its setting, rich coral reefs. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in Abrahamic faiths, in addition to its formal name, Egyptians also refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz. The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or land of turquoise, Sinai is triangular in shape, with northern shore lying on the southern Mediterranean Sea, and southwest and southeast shores on Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea. It is linked to the African continent by the Isthmus of Suez,125 kilometres wide strip of land, the eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres wide. The peninsulas eastern shore separates the Arabian plate from the African plate, the southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park. Most of the Sinai Peninsula is divided among the two governorates of Egypt, South Sinai and North Sinai, together, they comprise around 60,000 square kilometres and have a population of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt, Suez is on the end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia in the centre. The largest city of Sinai is Arish, capital of the North Sinai, other larger settlements include Sharm el-Sheikh and El-Tor, on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid, mountainous and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine, Sinai is one of the coldest provinces in Egypt because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies. Winter temperatures in some of Sinais cities and towns reach −16 °C, the mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable and these may be the first historically attested mines. According to the Hebrew Bible, the peninsula was crossed by the Israelites during the Exodus from Egypt and this included numerous halts over a 40-year period of travel sometime towards the end of the Bronze AgeSinai Peninsula – Dahab in Southern Sinai is a popular beach and diving resort in Sinai
2. Africa – Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa also varies greatly with regard to environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, also preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplaceAfrica – Map of Africa
3. Islamic World – The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community, comprising all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread. In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers. The nation states emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models. As of 2015, over 1.7 billion or about 23% of the population are Muslims including the 4% who live as minorities. Muslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion, the history of Islam began in Arabia with the Islamic prophet Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century in the month of Ramadan. However, Islam under the Rashidun Caliphate grew rapidly, a century after the death of last Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Islamic empire extended from Spain in the west to Indus in the east. The Islamic Golden Age coincided with the Middle Ages in the Muslim world, starting with the rise of Islam and establishment of the first Islamic state in 622. The end of the age is given as 1258 with the Mongolian Sack of Baghdad, or 1492 with the completion of the Christian Reconquista of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus. The Abbasids were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr, that stressed the value of knowledge. The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba became the intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine. Between the 8th and 18th centuries, the use of glaze was prevalent in Islamic art. Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters, the first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th century Iraq, other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Old world included Fustat, Damascus and Tabriz. The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype Hezār Afsān that relied on particular Indian elements and it reached its final form by the 14th century, the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. All Arabian fantasy tales tend to be called Arabian Nights stories when translated into English, regardless of whether they appear in The Book of One Thousand and this work has been very influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. Imitations were written, especially in France, various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba. A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian poetry on romance is Layla and Majnun and it is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet, which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latin version of Layla and Majnun to an extentIslamic World – The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands.
4. Red Sea – The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait, to the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion, the sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea has an area of roughly 438,000 km2, is about 2250 km long and. It has a depth of 2211 m in the central median trench. However, there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life, the sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species, and 200 soft and hard corals. It is the worlds northernmost tropical sea, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Red Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limits of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, a line joining Husn Murad and Ras Siyyan. Red Sea is a translation of the Greek Erythra Thalassa, Latin Mare Rubrum, Arabic, البحر الأحمر. Al-Baḥr Al-Aḥmar, Somali Badda Cas and Tigrinya Qeyyiḥ bāḥrī, the name of the sea may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured Trichodesmium erythraeum near the waters surface. A theory favored by modern scholars is that the name red is referring to the direction south. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the cardinal directions, herodotus on one occasion uses Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably. Historically, it was known to western geographers as Mare Mecca. Some ancient geographers called the Red Sea the Arabian Gulf or Gulf of Arabia. C, in that version, the Yam Suph is translated as Erythra Thalassa. The Red Sea is one of four seas named in English after common color terms — the others being the Black Sea, the White Sea and the Yellow Sea. The direct rendition of the Greek Erythra thalassa in Latin as Mare Erythraeum refers to the part of the Indian Ocean. The earliest known exploration of the Red Sea was conducted by ancient Egyptians, one such expedition took place around 2500 BC, and another around 1500 BC. Both involved long voyages down the Red Sea, historically, scholars argued whether these trips were possibleRed Sea – Red Sea
5. Arable land – Arable land is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops. In Britain, it was contrasted with pasturable lands such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing. A quite different kind of definition is used by various agencies concerned with agriculture, the abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for ‘Arable land’ are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable, a briefer definition appearing in the Eurostat glossary similarly refers to actual, rather than potential use, land worked regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations the worlds Arable land amounted to 1,407 M ha, out of a total 4,924 M ha land used for agriculture, as for year 2013. Agricultural land that is not arable according to the FAO definition above includes, Permanent crop - land that produces crops from woody vegetation, other non-arable land includes land unsuitable for any agricultural use. Although such limitations may preclude cultivation, and some will in some cases preclude any agricultural use, for example, US NRCS statistics indicate that about 59 percent of US non-federal pasture and unforested rangeland is unsuitable for cultivation, yet such land has value for grazing of livestock. Similar examples can be found in many rangeland areas elsewhere, land incapable of being cultivated for production of crops can sometimes be converted to arable land. New arable land makes more food, and can reduce starvation and this outcome also makes a country more self-sufficient and politically independent, because food importation is reduced. This process is extremely expensive. An alternative is the Seawater Greenhouse which desalinates water through evaporation and condensation using solar energy as the energy input. This technology is optimized to grow crops on land close to the sea. The people covered the islands with a layer of seaweed. Israel, The construction of desalination plants along Israels coast allowed agriculture in areas that were formerly desert. The desalination plants, which remove the salt from water, have created a new source of water for farming, drinking. Slash and burn agriculture uses nutrients in wood ash, but these expire within a few years, terra preta, fertile tropical soils created by adding charcoal. Some examples of fertile land being turned into infertile land are. Rainforest deforestation, The fertile tropical forests are converted into infertile desert land, for example, Madagascars central highland plateau has become virtually totally barren, as a result of slash-and-burn deforestation, an element of shifting cultivation practiced by many nativesArable land – Modern mechanized agriculture permits large fields like this one in Dorset, England.
6. Giza pyramid complex – The Giza pyramid complex is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It is located in the Libyan Desert, approximately 9 km west of the Nile river at the old town of Giza and it is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex, current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as queens pyramids, causeways. The valley temple was connected to a causeway which was destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu, from this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king’s pyramid, the king’s pyramid has three smaller queen’s pyramids associated with it and five boat pits. The boat pits contained a ship, and the 2 pits on the side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships has been restored and is on display, khufus pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of white limestone quarried from the nearby range. Khafre’s pyramid complex consists of a temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple. The valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre, several were found in a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were found during excavations by Sieglin, Junker, Reisner. Khafre’s complex contained five boat-pits and a pyramid with a serdab. Khafres pyramid retains a prominent display of casing stones at its apex, menkaure’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king’s pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure, during the 5th dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure, the king’s pyramid has three subsidiary or queen’s pyramids. Of the four monuments, only Menkaures pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casingGiza pyramid complex – All of the six pyramids of the Giza pyramid complex
7. Great Sphinx of Giza – Facing directly from West to East, it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre, cut from the bedrock, the original shape of the Sphinx has been restored with layers of blocks. It measures 238 feet long from paw to tail,66.3 ft high from the base to the top of the head and 62.6 feet wide at its rear haunches. It is the oldest known sculpture in Egypt and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafre. The Sphinx is a monolith carved into the bedrock of the plateau, the nummulitic limestone of the area consists of layers which offer differing resistance to erosion, leading to the uneven degradation apparent in the Sphinxs body. The lowest part of the body, including the legs, is solid rock, the body of the lion up to its neck is fashioned from softer layers that have suffered considerable disintegration. The layer in which the head was sculpted is much harder, the Great Sphinx is one of the worlds largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it are still subject to debate, such as when it was built, by whom and for what purpose. These questions have resulted in the idea of the Riddle of the Sphinx. In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx was called Hor-em-akhet, the English word sphinx comes from the ancient Greek Σφίγξ apparently from the verb σφίγγω, after the Greek sphinx who strangled anyone who failed to answer her riddle. The name may alternatively be a corruption of the phonetically different ancient Egyptian word Ssp-anx. This name is given to royal statues of the Fourth dynasty of ancient Egypt, medieval Arab writers, including al-Maqrīzī, call the Sphinx balhib and bilhaw, which suggest a Coptic influence. The modern Egyptian Arabic name is أبو الهول, the circumstantial evidence mentioned by Hassan includes the Sphinxs location in the context of the funerary complex surrounding the Second Pyramid, which is traditionally connected with Khafra. A diorite statue of Khafre, which was discovered buried upside down along with other debris in the Valley Temple, is claimed as support for the Khafra theory, the Dream Stele, erected much later by the pharaoh Thutmose IV, associates the Sphinx with Khafra. When the stele was discovered, its lines of text were already damaged and incomplete, an extract was translated, which we bring for him, oxen. and all the young vegetables, and we shall give praise to Wenofer. Khaf. the statue made for Atum-Hor-em-Akhet, the Egyptologist Thomas Young, finding the Khaf hieroglyphs in a damaged cartouche used to surround a royal name, inserted the glyph ra to complete Khafras name. When the Stele was re-excavated in 1925, the lines of text referring to Khaf flaked off and were destroyed. In 1857, Auguste Mariette, founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, unearthed the much later Inventory Stela, such an act became common when religious institutions such as temples, shrines and priests domains were fighting for political attention and for financial and economic donations. Gaston Maspero, the French Egyptologist and second director of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and he supports this by suggesting that Khafras Causeway was built to conform to a pre-existing structure, which, he concludes, given its location, could only have been the SphinxGreat Sphinx of Giza – The Great Sphinx of Giza, 2015
8. Memphis, Egypt – Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina,20 km south of Giza, according to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Mediterranean history and it occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile delta, and was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops, factories, during its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce, trade, and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the god Ptah and its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of temple, rendered in Greek as Aί γυ πτoς by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt. The history of Memphis is closely linked to that of the country itself and its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance also diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica, the ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the complex at Giza. The site is open to the public as an open-air museum, Memphis has had several names during its history of almost four millennia. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Inbu-Hedj, because of its size, the city also came to be known by various other names that were actually the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one time or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut, the city was also at one point referred to as Ankh-Tawy, stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt. This name appears to date from the Middle Kingdom, and is found in ancient Egyptian texts. At the beginning of the New Kingdom, the city known as Men-nefer. The name Memphis is the Greek adaptation of this name, which was originally the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, in the Bible, Memphis is called Moph or Noph. The city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Dahshur, Abusir, Abu Gorab, the city was also the place that marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt. The island of the city is today uninhabited, the closest settlement is the town of Mit RahinaMemphis, Egypt – Ruins of the pillared hall of Rameses II at Mit Rahina
9. Thebes, Egypt – Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor, Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. It was close to Nubia and the desert, with their valuable mineral resources. It was a center and the wealthiest city of ancient Egypt at its heyday. The Ancient Egyptians originally knew Thebes as Wose or Wase A was was the scepter of the pharaohs, a staff with an animals head. Thebes is the Latinized form of the Greek Thebai, the form of the Demotic Egyptian Ta-pe. This was the name not for the city itself but for the Karnak temple complex on the northern east bank of the city. As early as Homers Iliad, the Greeks distinguished the Egyptian Thebes as Thebes of the Hundred Gates, as opposed to the Thebes of the Seven Gates in Boeotia, from the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as Niwt-Imn, the City of Amun. Amun was the chief of the Theban Triad of gods whose other members were Mut and this name appears in the Bible as the Nōʼ ʼĀmôn of the Book of Nahum and probably also as the No mentioned in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was seen as a form of Zeus, the name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, the City of Zeus. To distinguish it from the other cities by this name. The Greek names came into use after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River in the part of Upper Egypt about 800 km from the Delta. It was built largely on the plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile. As a natural consequence, the city was laid in a northeast-southwest axis parallel to the river channel. Thebes had an area of 93 km2 which included parts of the Theban Hills in the west that culminates at the sacred 420-meter al-Qurn, in the east lies the mountainous Eastern Desert with its wadis draining into the valley. Significant of these wadis is Wadi Hammamat near Thebes and it was used as an overland trade route going to the Red Sea coast. In the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, Thebes was found to have neighboring towns such as Per-Hathor, Madu, Djerty, Iuny, Sumenu, according to George Modelski, Thebes had about 40,000 inhabitants in 2000 BCThebes, Egypt – Egypt - Temple of Seti, east entrance, Thebes. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
10. Order of battle at the Battle of the Nile – The Battle of the Nile was a significant naval action fought during 1–3 August 1798. The battle took place in Aboukir Bay, near the mouth of the River Nile on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt and pitted a British fleet of the Royal Navy against a fleet of the French Navy. The battle was the climax of a campaign in the Mediterranean during which a huge French convoy under General Napoleon Bonaparte had sailed from Toulon to Alexandria via Malta. Nelson reached the Egyptian coast on 1 August and discovered the French fleet at 14,00, advancing during the afternoon, his ships entered the bay at 18,20 and attacked the French directly, despite the rapid approach of nightfall. The rest of the British line attacked the starboard side of the French van, for three hours the battle continued as the British overwhelmed the first five French ships but were driven away from the heavily defended centre. The arrival of reinforcements allowed a second assault on the centre at 21,00, despite the death of the Admiral Brueys, the French centre continued to fight until 03,00, when the badly damaged Tonnant managed to join the thus far unengaged French rear division. At 06,00 firing began again as the damaged ships of the British fleet attacked the French rear. Four French ships were too damaged to join him and were beached by their crews. On 3 August the last two remaining French ships stranded in the bay were defeated, one surrendering and the other set on fire by its crew. Nelson and his captains were praised and generously rewarded, although Nelson privately complained that his peerage was not senior enough. Of the captured ships, three were no longer serviceable and were burnt in the bay, and three others were judged fit only for harbour duties owing to the damage they had received in the battle. The remainder enjoyed long and successful careers in the Royal Navy. The ships in the orders of battle below are listed in the order in which appeared in the respective battle lines. Listed in the section are the totals of killed and wounded as best as can be established, due to the nature of the battle. Officers killed in action are marked with a † symbol, note that as carronades were not traditionally taken into consideration when calculating a ships rate, these ships may have been carrying more guns than indicated below. Ships in this colour were captured during the battle Ships in this colour were destroyed during the battle Adkins, the War for All the Oceans. The Royal Navy, A History from the Earliest Times to 1900, napoleons Egypt, Invading the Middle East. Gardiner, Robert, ed. Nelson Against Napoleon, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Germani, IanOrder of battle at the Battle of the Nile – Battle of the Nile, Thomas Luny, 1834
11. River Nile – The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river. In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is also known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river deltaRiver Nile – The river in Uganda
12. Royal Navy – The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and later with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, however, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap. The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V. Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He also invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusiveRoyal Navy – Royal Navy
13. French Navy – The French Navy, informally La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. As of June 2014, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 personnel, the reserve element of the French Navy consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The French naval fleet includes more than a hundred vessels and nuclear type submarines, the history of the French Navy dates back to the History of the French Navy of Antiquity to the Renaissance, part of the History of the French Navy. The French Royal Navy was quasi inexistent prior 1624, the Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem, which was both a religious and military order, had its own respective international war fleet which assured the policing of the seas in the Mediterranean. The members which had satisfied obligations for periods in service at sea fulfilling their service, were granted the rank of Knights Hospitaller, however, many considered the naval service formation to integrate later, while being well formed, their respective navy. The Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem was one of the ancestors of the French naval schools and in principal, the Order accordingly formed most of the ships Captains, Officers of the French Royal Navy and Admirals of the Marine française de guerre de la Méditerranée. During the Revolution, the French Navy succeeded to the French Royal Navy, under the First French Empire and the Second French Empire, the navy was designated as the Imperial French Navy. The French Navy is still designated today familiarly as La Royale and this expression was used by commercial sailors due to their military service at the corps of the navy by the institution of maritime inscription. The implementation then of the Ministère de la Marine later the de la Marine de guerre française at rue Royale. The symbol of the French Navy, which was since origin a golden anchor » and this symbol featured on all naval vessels, the arms, uniforms, the couriers, equipment, and general arms of the navy. This symbol was replaced in 1990 by a logo featuring a bow section of a warship with two ascending red and blue spray foams, and the inscription Marine nationale. The Chief of Staff of the French Navy was Admiral Bernard Louzeau, the navy became a consistent instrument of national power around the seventeenth century with Richelieus efforts under Louis XIII, and Colberts under Louis XIV. Under the tutelage of the Sun King, the French Navy was well-financed and -equipped, managing to score several victories in the Nine Years War against the Royal Navy. Financial troubles, however, forced the navy back to port and allowed the English, before the Nine Years War, in the Franco-Dutch War, it managed to score a decisive victory over a combined Spanish-Dutch fleet at the Battle of Palermo. The French Navy scored various successes, as in the campaigns led in the Atlantic by Picquet de la Motte, in 1766, Bougainville led the first French circumnavigation. During the American Revolutionary War the French Navy played a role in supporting the Americans. French warships participated in the battle by bombarding British ground forces, in India, Suffren waged campaigns against the British, successfully contending for supremacy against Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes. In the Mediterranean, the French Navy waged a campaign during a 1798 French invasion of EgyptFrench Navy – French Navy ships of the line in the Battle of the Chesapeake.
14. Alexandria – Alexandria is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is Egypts largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypts imports and exports and it is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also an important tourist destination, Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town c.331 BC by Alexander the Great. Alexandria was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome, Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexanders chief architect for the project was Dinocrates, Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews, the city was later plundered and lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland, as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis, already existed on the shore also and it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to his city, after Alexanders departure, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion. Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandrias continuous development, the Heptastadion, inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and and it became Egypts main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there, in AD115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. On 21 July 365, Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami, the Islamic prophet, Muhammads first interaction with the people of Egypt occurred in 628, during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha. He sent Hatib bin Abi Baltaeh with a letter to the king of Egypt and Alexandria called Muqawqis In the letter Muhammad said, I invite you to accept Islam, Allah the sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you bear the burden of the transgression of all the CoptsAlexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
15. Malta – Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy,284 km east of Tunisia, the country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the worlds smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union, Malta has one national language, which is Maltese, and English as an official language. John, French and British, have ruled the islands, King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross to Malta in 1942 for the countrys bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Maltas national flag, the country became a republic in 1974, and although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the United Nations in 1964 and to the European Union in 2004, in 2008, Catholicism is the official religion in Malta. The origin of the term Malta is uncertain, and the modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language, the most common etymology is that the word Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, meli, honey. The ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning honey-sweet, possibly due to Maltas unique production of honey, an endemic species of bee lives on the island. The Romans went on to call the island Melita, which can be considered either as a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth a haven or port in reference to Maltas many bays, few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. The extinction of the hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on Malta. Prehistoric farming settlements dating to the Early Neolithic period were discovered in areas and also in caves. The Sicani were the tribe known to have inhabited the island at this time and are generally regarded as being closely related to the Iberians. Pottery from the Għar Dalam phase is similar to found in Agrigento. A culture of megalithis temple builders then either supplanted or arose from this early period, the temples have distinctive architecture, typically a complex trefoil design, and were used from 4000 to 2500 BCE. Animal bones and a knife found behind an altar stone suggest that temple rituals included animal sacrifice. Tentative information suggests that the sacrifices were made to the goddess of fertility, the culture apparently disappeared from the Maltese Islands around 2500 BC. Archaeologists speculate that the builders fell victim to famine or diseaseMalta – Ġgantija megalithic temple complex
16. Sloop – A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig. A sloop has only one head-sail, if a vessel has two or more head-sails, the cutter is used, and its mast may be set further aft than on a sloop. The most common rig of modern sailboats is the Bermuda-rigged sloop, typically, a modern sloop carries a mainsail on a boom aft of the mast, with a single loose-footed head-sail forward of the mast. Sloops are either masthead-rigged or fractional-rigged, on a masthead-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches at the top of the mast. The mainsail may be smaller than the headsail, which is called a genoa jib. On a fractional-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches to the mast at a point below the top, typically 3/4 of the way to top, or perhaps 7/8 or some other fraction. The mast of a fractional-rigged sloop may be placed forward, compared to a masthead-rigged sloop. After the cat rig, which has only a mainsail, the rig is one of the simpler sailing rig configurations. A sloop typically has two sails, a mainsail and a headsail, while the cutter has a mainsail and two or more headsails, next in complexity are the ketch, the yawl and the schooner, each of which has two masts and a minimum of three sails. A sloop has a system of mast rigging — a forestay. By having only two sails, the sails of a sloop are larger than those of an equivalent cutter. Until the advent of lightweight sailcloth and modern sail-handling systems, the sails of a sloop could be a handful. So, until the 1950s, sailboats over 10 metres Length Over All would typically use a rig or a two-mast rig. After the advent of modern winches and light sailcloth, the became the dominant sailing rig type for all. No rig type is perfect for all conditions, sloops, with their paucity of spars and control lines tend to impart less aerodynamic drag. Compared to other rigs, sloops tend to very well when sailing close hauled to windward. Cutters, ketches and yawls are often preferred to sloops when venturing far offshore, because it is easier to reef small sails as the wind increases, while still keeping the boat balanced. To maximize the amount of sail carried, the classic sloop may use a bowsprit, for downwind sailing, the typical foresail may be replaced by larger curved sails known as spinnakers or gennakersSloop – Sloop Rigged Santa Cruz 70 "Retro" off Newport Beach California
17. Sir Horatio Nelson – Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté KB was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was wounded several times in combat, losing most of one arm in the attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife. He was shot and killed during his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling and he rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service and he fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. The following year, he won a victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory and he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805, on 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelsons fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle was Britains greatest naval victory, but during the action Nelson and his body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral. Nelsons death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britains most heroic figures, numerous monuments, including Nelsons Column in Trafalgar Square, London, and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains highly influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England and he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole then 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton. His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham, Suffolk, and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, Nelsons aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough, Norfolk and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, and also attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training, early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Sucklings longboat, at his nephews request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS CarcassSir Horatio Nelson – Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott
18. Napoleonic Wars – The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, then Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe. Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies then invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with FranceNapoleonic Wars – Top: Battle of Austerlitz Bottom: Battle of Waterloo
19. Siege of Acre (1799) – The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre and was the turning point of Napoleons invasion of Egypt and Syria. It was one of Napoleons few defeats, Acre was a site of significant strategic importance due to its commanding position on the route between Egypt and Syria. Bonaparte wanted to capture it following his invasion of Egypt and he hoped to incite a Syrian rebellion against the Ottomans and threaten British rule in India. After the Siege of Jaffa, which was followed by two days and nights of massacre and rape by the French forces, the defenders of the citadel were even more fierce, the French attempted to lay siege on 20 March using only their infantry. Napoleon believed the city would capitulate quickly to him, however, the troops of the capable Jezzar Pasha, refusing to surrender, withstood the siege for one and a half months. Haim Farhi, al-Jazzars Jewish adviser and right-hand man, played a key role in the citys defense and these facts were well known to the townspeople and defending troops in Acre, and the prospect is likely to have stiffened their resistance. A Royal Navy flotilla under Commodore Sidney Smith helped to reinforce the Ottoman defences and supplied the city with cannon manned by sailors. Smith used his command of the sea to capture the French siege artillery being sent by a flotilla of gunboats from Egypt, an artillery expert from the fleet, Antoine Le Picard de Phélippeaux, then redeployed against Napoleons forces the artillery pieces which the British had intercepted. Smith anchored the line-of-battle ships Tigre and Theseus so their broadsides could assist the defence, the gunboats, which were of shallower draft, could come in closer, and together they helped repel repeated French assaults. On 16 April a Turkish relief force was fought off at the Mount Tabor, by early May, replacement French siege artillery had arrived overland and a breach was forced in the defences. At the culmination of the assault, the forces managed to make a breach in the walls. Discovery of this new construction convinced Napoleon and his men that the probability of their taking the city was minimal, moreover, after the assault was again repelled, Turkish reinforcements from Rhodes were able to land. Plague had struck the French camp as a result of the condition of the men. Throughout the siege, both Napoleon and Jezzar sought in vain the assistance of the Shihab leader, Bashir—ruler of much of present-day Lebanon. As things turned out, it was the French side which suffered most from the attitude of Bashir, Napoleon Bonaparte retreated two months later on 21 May after a failed final assault on 10 May, and withdrew to Egypt. I would have made them into a Sacred Battalion--my Immortals, I would have finished the war against the Turks with Arabic, Greek, and Armenian troops. Instead of a battle in Moravia, I would have won a Battle of Issus, I would have made myself emperor of the East, whether this is true or not, Farhi defended the city with the rest of the Turks. Whatever Napoleons actual intentions, these stories and rumors are considered to be among the earliest harbingers of what would become the Zionist MovementSiege of Acre (1799) – The general outlook of Old Acre, seen here in a present-day view from above, has changed little since 1799
20. War of the Second Coalition – The War of the Second Coalition was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal and Naples. Their goal was to contain the spread of chaos from France and they failed to overthrow the revolutionary regime and French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. The Allies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back Frances previous military conquests, the Coalition did very well in 1799, but Russia pulled out. Napoleon took charge in France in late 1799, and he, in the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, Italy, while Austria was granted Venetia and the Dalmatian coast. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, by May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France. On 20 April 1792, the French Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria, in this War of the First Coalition, France ranged itself against most of the European states sharing land or water borders with her, plus Portugal and the Ottoman Empire. In the summer of 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt, where his army was trapped, meanwhile, during his absence from Europe, the outbreak of violence in Switzerland drew French support against the old Swiss Confederation. When revolutionaries overthrew the government in Bern, the French Army of the Alps invaded. In northern Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories, driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic were defeated by French commander André Masséna, ultimately the Russians left the Coalition when Great Britain insisted on the right to search all vessels it stopped at sea. In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, Jourdan was replaced by Massena, who then combined the Armies of the Danube and Helvetia. From October 1797 until March 1799, the signatories of the Treaty of Campo Formio avoided armed conflict, despite their agreement at Campo Formio, two primary combatants, France and Austria, remained suspicious of each other and several diplomatic incidents undermined the agreement. The French demanded additional territory not mentioned in the Treaty, the Habsburgs were reluctant to hand over designated territories, much less additional ones. The Congress at Rastatt proved inept at orchestrating the transfer of territories to compensate the German princes for their losses, Ferdinand of Naples refused to pay tribute to France, followed by the Neapolitan rebellion and the subsequent establishment of the Parthenopaean Republic. Republicans in the Swiss cantons, supported by the French army, overthrew the government in Bern. Other factors contributed to the rising tensions, on his way to Egypt, Napoleon had stopped at the heavily fortified port city of Valletta. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, who ruled the island, the French Knights of the order deserted, and the remaining Knights failed to mount a successful resistance. Bonaparte forcibly removed the other Knights from their possessions, angering Paul, Tsar of Russia, the French Directory, furthermore, was convinced that the Austrians were conniving to start another warWar of the Second Coalition – Louis-François Lejeune: the Battle of Marengo
21. Battle of Trafalgar – The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England. Nelson instead divided his force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the enemy fleet, with decisive results. Nelson was shot by a French musketeer during the battle and died shortly after, Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet, Villeneuve attended Nelsons funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon Bonaparte, was the dominant military power on the European continent. During the course of the war, the British imposed a blockade on France. When the Third Coalition declared war on France, after the short-lived Peace of Amiens, to do so, he needed to ensure that the Royal Navy would be unable to disrupt the invasion flotilla, which would require control of the English Channel. The main French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at Toulon on the Mediterranean coast, other ports on the French Atlantic coast harboured smaller squadrons. France and Spain were allied, so the Spanish fleet based in Cádiz, the British possessed an experienced and well-trained corps of naval officers. By contrast, some of the best officers in the French navy had either been executed or had left the service during the part of the French Revolution. Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had taken command of the French Mediterranean fleet following the death of Latouche Treville, there had been more competent officers but they had either been employed elsewhere or had fallen from Napoleons favour. Villeneuve had shown a lack of enthusiasm for facing Nelson. Napoleons naval plan in 1805 was for the French and Spanish fleets in the Mediterranean and Cádiz to break through the blockade and join forces in the Caribbean. They would then return, assist the fleet in Brest to emerge from the blockade, early in 1805, Vice Admiral Lord Nelson commanded the British fleet blockading Toulon. Unlike William Cornwallis, who maintained a blockade off Brest with the Channel Fleet. However, Villeneuves fleet successfully evaded Nelsons when the British were blown off station by storms, Nelson commenced a search of the Mediterranean, erroneously supposing that the French intended to make for Egypt. However, Villeneuve took his fleet through the Strait of Gibraltar, rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, once Nelson realised that the French had crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he set off in pursuitBattle of Trafalgar – The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the starboard mizzen shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806 to 1808)
22. Sahara – The Sahara is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic. Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan. It stretches from the Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape gradually changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of tropical savanna around the Niger River valley. The Sahara can be divided into several regions including, the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti Mountains, the Aïr Mountains, the Ténéré desert, the name Sahara is derived from ṣaḥārā, the plural of the Arabic word for desert. The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and it covers 9 million square kilometres, amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with an annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included. It is one of three physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara is mainly rocky hamada, Ergs form only a minor part, wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features, sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, dry lakes, and salt flats. Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania, several deeply dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tibesti Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, and the Red Sea hills. The highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi, a volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. The central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation, the northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are subdivisions of the great desert, Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years, the northern limit also corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, the southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha, or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. According to climatic criteria, the limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. The Sahara is the worlds largest low-latitude hot desert and this steady descending airflow causes a warming and a drying effect in the upper troposphereSahara – A satellite image of the Sahara by NASA World Wind.
23. Algeria – Algeria, officially the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999, Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a regional and middle power, the North African country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world, Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent, most of Algerias weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the countrys name derives from the city of Algiers. The citys name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāir, a form of the older Jazāir Banī Mazghanna. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found, neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques, tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian. The earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian and this industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb perhaps as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC and this life, richly depicted in the Tassili nAjjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a native population that came to be called Berbers. These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages, as Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, by the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. They succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthages North African territory, the Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic WarsAlgeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
24. Chad – Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east and it is the fifth largest country in Africa in terms of area. Chad has several regions, a zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad, the capital NDjamena is the largest city. Chads official languages are Arabic and French, Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. The religions of Chad are Islam, followed by Christianity, beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa, in 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the souths hegemony, however, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby, since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. Unsustainable high birth rates and a lack of agriculture let the country persist in poverty, while many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by violence and recurrent attempted coups détat. Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world, since 2003 crude oil has become the countrys primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the half of Chadian territory favored human settlement. Some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad, mainly in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region, for more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people. The region became a crossroads of civilizations, the earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chads Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD, two other states in the region, Baguirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trade routes that passed through the regionChad – Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem-Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
25. Mali – Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres, the population of Mali is 14.5 million. The countrys economy centers on agriculture and fishing, some of Malis prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the poverty line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims, present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade, the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, at its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegals withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, a conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state. The conflict was complicated by a coup that took place in March. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013, a month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round held on 11 August. The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire, the name was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean the place where the king lives. The word carries the connotation of strength, D. Niane suggests in Sundiata, An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was indeed called Mali and this name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali there is one village called Malikoma which means “New Mali. ”Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/, Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commoditiesMali – The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
26. Mauritania – Mauritania /mɔːrɪˈteɪniə/, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western Africa. The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania, approximately 90% of Mauritanias land is within the Sahara and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, the government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup détat led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, about 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Mauritania suffers from several human rights issues, including slavery, as at least 4% of the population are enslaved against their will, the Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, and among the first Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south, many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni origins. There is little evidence to such claims, but a 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara to West Africa, in 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks attacked and conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire. Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the population to dominate Mauritania. The Char Bouba war was the final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe, the descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society. Hassaniya, a Berber-influenced Arabic dialect that derives its name from the Beni Hassan, berbers retained a niche influence by producing the majority of the regions marabouts, those who preserve and teach Islamic tradition. Imperial France gradually absorbed the territories of present-day Mauritania from the Senegal River area and upwards, in 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the imperial mission. Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawiya tribes, and military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend French rule over the Mauritanian emirates. Trarza, Brakna and Tagant quickly submitted to treaties with the colonial power, Adrar was finally defeated militarily in 1912, and incorporated into the territory of Mauritania, which had been drawn up and planned in 1904. Mauritania was part of French West Africa from 1920, French rule brought legal prohibitions against slavery and an end to inter-clan warfare. During the colonial period, 90% of the population remained nomadic, many sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to trickle back into Mauritania. After gaining independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African peoples entered Mauritania, educated in French language and customs, many of these recent arrivals became clerks, soldiers, and administrators in the new stateMauritania – The Dutch trading post of Arguin in 1665
27. Niger – Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a area of almost 1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa. The countrys predominantly Islamic population of about 19 million is mostly clustered in the far south, the capital city is Niamey, located in the far-southwest corner of Niger. Niger is a country, and is consistently one of the lowest-ranked in the United Nations Human Development Index. Much of the portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought. The economy is concentrated around subsistence and some export agriculture clustered in the fertile south. Nigerien society reflects a diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its ethnic groups and regions. Historically, what is now Niger has been on the fringes of large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under five constitutions and three periods of military rule, following a military coup in 2010, Niger has become a democratic, multi-party state. A majority live in areas, and have little access to advanced education. Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by archaeological remains. In prehistoric times, the climate of the Sahara was wet and provided favorable conditions for agriculture, in 2005–06, a graveyard in the Tenere desert was discovered by Paul Sereno, a paleontologist from the University of Chicago. His team discovered 5, 000-year-old remains of a woman and two children in the Tenere Desert, the evidence along with remains of animals that do not typically live in desert are among the strongest evidence of the green Sahara in Niger. It is believed that progressive desertification around 5000 BCE pushed sedentary populations to the south and south-east. By at least the 5th century BCE, Niger became an area of trade, led by the Berber tribes from the north. This trade has made Agadez a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade and this mobility, which would continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and interbreeding between southern black and northern white populations. It was also aided by the introduction of Islam to the region at the end of the 7th century, several empires and kingdoms also flourished during this era up to the beginning of colonization in AfricaNiger – Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger.
28. Western Sahara – Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres. It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, the population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. Occupied by Spain until the late 20th century, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand and it is the most populous territory on that list, and by far the largest in area. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, one year later, a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting that a referendum be held by Spain on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the control of the territory to a joint administration by Morocco. A war erupted between those countries and a Sahrawi nationalist movement, the Polisario Front, which proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Mauritania withdrew its claims in 1979, and Morocco eventually secured de facto control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources. The United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the representative of the Sahrawi people. As of 2017, no member state of the United Nations has ever recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. However, a number of countries have expressed their support for a recognition of the Moroccan annexation of the territory as an autonomous part of the Kingdom. Overall, the annexation has not garnered as much attention in the community as many other disputed annexations. Internationally, countries such as Russia have taken a generally ambiguous and neutral position on each sides claims, both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition, essentially from African, Asian, and Latin American states in the developing world. The Polisario Front has won recognition for SADR from 37 states. Morocco has won recognition or support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Muslim world, in both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been extended and withdrawn according to changing international trends. Western Sahara is located in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and it also borders Algeria to the northeast. The land is some of the most arid and inhospitable on the planet, the land along the coast is low, flat desert and rises, especially in the north, to small mountains reaching up to 600 metres on the eastern side. While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams, at times a cool off-shore current can produce fog and heavy dew. The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the Gaetuli, depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribesWestern Sahara – Commemoration of the 30th independence day from Spain in the Liberated Territories (2005)
29. Sudan – Sudan, also known as North Sudan since South Sudans independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, the River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, by virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language, Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa and also the third largest country in the Arab world and its capital is Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. It is a representative democratic federal republic. The politics of Sudan are regulated by an organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law, the countrys place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or the lands of the Blacks, during the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the centuries become the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and it was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai, pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sennacheribs successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa, Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony, however, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent an army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani. During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë, in ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as EthiopiaSudan – The large mud brick temple, known as the shrek or Western Deffufa, in the ancient city of Kerma
30. Temple of Dakka – Ad-Dakka was a place in Lower Nubia. It is the site of the Greco-Roman Temple of Dakka, dedicated to Thoth, ptolemy IX subsequently enlarged the temple by adding a pronaos with two rows of probably three columns. The sanctuary contained a granite naos, the Temple of Dakka was transformed into a temple fortress by the Romans and surrounded by a stone wall,270 by 444 metres long, with an entrance along the Nile. A large dromos leads to the pylon, which formed the entrance to the temple, each of the pylons towers is decorated in high relief and bears numerous graffiti from visitors, mostly in Greek but some in Demotic and Meroitic script. There are reliefs of cows offered as gifts to the god Thoth carved into the naos of the Temple of Dakka. While the temple of Dakka was similar architecturally to the temple of Wadi es-Sebua, it lacked a front courtyard of sphinxes, however, a 55-metre-long processional approach ran from the temples pylon to a cult terrace at the Nile. The temple of Dakka collapsed in 1908–1909 and was rebuilt by Alessandro Barsanti. During the construction of the Aswan dam in the 1960s, the temple was dismantled and moved to the site of Wadi es-Sebua. At the time of its removal, some reused stone blocks from Thutmose III, Seti I, the temples pylon is now separated from the remainder of the temple due to the missing enclosure walls of the open court. The Temple of Maharraqa was also moved and rebuilt at the New Wadi es-Sebua temple complex areaTemple of Dakka – The Temple of Dakka in Nubia
31. Wadi es-Sebua – Wadi es-Sebua, or Valley of the Lions, is the site of two New Kingdom Egyptian temples, including one speos temple constructed by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, in Lower Nubia. The first temple was built by the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III, in its first stage, this temple consisted of a rock-cut sanctuary fronted by a brick-built pylon, a court and a hall, partly painted with wall paintings. The temple was dedicated to one of the local Nubian forms of Horus. During the Amarna period, images of Amun were attacked and the decorations deteriorated, the second larger temple which was built at el-Sebua was known as The Temple of Riamesse-meryamun in the Domain of Amun and constructed roughly 150 m northeast of Amenhotep IIIs temple. Contemporary monuments and representations of the viceroy of Kush, Setau, Setau is known to have served as the Viceroy of Kush or Nubia between Year 38 to 63 of this pharaohs reign and was responsible for Ramesses later Nubian temples. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was the sanctuary or chapel constructed from rock with a forecourt built with stones that Ramesses II erected in Nubia. The temple of Ramesses beloved of Amon in the field of Amun was used as a quay or resting place for boats during its descent of the Nile river. The local Arabs, inspired by the sculptures of sphinxes which lined the entrance to the first temple. The temple comprised three parts, two open courts which were decorated with sphinxes or dromos, a large interior court with Osiride pillars. This temple was, hence, partly free-standing and partly rock-cut, the temple once possessed three pylons. The first two, however, were made of inferior Nile mud brick and have since crumbled, only the stone gate passageway through them has survived. Beyond the first tower, the first courtyard appears with two human headed sphinxes accompanied by two statues of the pharaoh himself which originally stand on both sides of the passageway, only the left-hand statue of Ramesses II remains in situ whereas the other statue now lies in the desert. Between their legs, a statuette with the image of Ramesses capped with the crown appears. Just prior to entering the tower, four colossal statues of Ramesses II appear of which. The third pylon is decorated with the conventional Egyptian style of the Pharaoh smiting his enemies and making offerings to the gods, however, the offering scenes on the walls survive, and some retain their colour. The antechamber opens into two rooms, two side chapels and the sanctuary itself. Although the statues in the niches were destroyed, they undoubtedly represented Amon-Re, Re-Harakhty. The larger temple at Wadi es-Sebua was built in the rather rough Nubian style, in the 5th century AD, the temple was converted into a Christian churchWadi es-Sebua – A picture of Wadi es-Sebua temple in Nubia
32. Temple of Derr – The Temple of Derr or el-Derr is a speos or rock-cut Egyptian temple in Lower Nubia. It was built during the 19th Dynasty by Pharaoh Ramesses II and it is the only rock-cut temple in Nubia which was constructed by this pharaoh on the right bank of the Nile and used to stand at el-Derr. The temples unique position was probably because the river on its approach to the Korosko bend flows in a southeasterly direction. The Derr structure was known in ancient times as The Temple of Riamsese-meryamun in the Domain of Re and was dedicated to the god Ra-Horakhty, abu Simbel was built between Year 24 and Year 31 of Ramesses reign. According to Joyce Tyldesley, the Temple of Derr was built by Setau, when cleaned and restored in modern times, Derr proved to contain unusually bright and vivid relief decorations which contrasted sharply with the more subdued color tones from other Egyptian temples. In 1964, the temple was dismantled and relocated, along with the Temple of Amada, early travellers visited the original site, and the temple itself was first studied and published by Aylward Blackman in 1913Temple of Derr – Facade of the reassembled Temple of Derr
33. Aswan Dam – The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous Aswan Low Dam initially completed in 1902 downstream, like the earlier implementation, the High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt. Since this natural flooding varied however, high-water years could destroy the crop, while low-water years could create widespread drought. Both these events had continued to occur periodically, with the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for later release over multiple years. His field work convinced him of the impracticality of this scheme, the British began construction of the first dam across the Nile in 1898. Construction lasted until 1902, and the dam was opened on 10 December 1902, the project was designed by Sir William Willcocks and involved several eminent engineers, including Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Aird, whose firm, John Aird & Co. was the main contractor. In 1912, the Greek-Egyptian engineer Adrian Daninos began to develop the plan of the new Aswan Dam, although the Low Dam was almost overtopped in 1946, the Egyptian government of King Farouk showed no interest in Daninoss plans. Instead the Nile Valley Plan by the British hydrologist Harold Edwin Hurst to store water in Sudan and Ethiopia, the Egyptian position changed completely with the overthrow of the monarchy, led by the Free Officers Movement including Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Free Officers were convinced that the Nile Waters had to be stored in Egypt for political reasons, and within two months, the plan of Daninos was accepted. Initially, both the U. S. A. and the USSR were interested in helping the development of the dam, but this movement happened in the midst of the Cold War, as well as of growing intra-Arab rivalries. At that time the U. S. feared that communism would spread to the Middle East, america and Britain offered to help finance construction of the High Dam, with a loan of $270 million, in return for Nassers leadership in resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict. While opposed both to communism, capitalism, and imperialism, Nasser presented himself as a tactical neutralist, in addition to his development plans, he looked to quickly modernize his military, and he turned first to the U. S. Nasser did not accept these conditions, but then he looked to the USSR for support, on 27 September 1955, Nasser announced an arms deal, with Czechoslovakia acting as a middleman for the Soviet support. Instead of attacking Nasser for turning to the Soviets, Dulles sought to improve relations with him and this explains the later offer of December 1955, in which the U. S. and Britain pledged $56 and $14 million respectively towards the construction of the dam. Though the Czech arms deal actually increased the American willingness to invest at Aswan, what angered Dulles much more was Nassers diplomatic recognition of China, which was in direct conflict with Dulless policy of containment. There are several reasons why the U. S. decided to withdraw its offer of funding. Dulles believed that the USSR would not fulfill its commitment to help the Egyptians and he was also irritated by Nassers neutrality and attempts to play both sides of the Cold War. At the time, other western allies in the Middle East, including Turkey and Iraq, were irritated and jealous that Egypt, in June 1956, the Soviets offered Nasser $1.12 billion at 2% interest for the construction of the damAswan Dam – The Aswan High Dam as seen from space
34. Jewish philosopher – Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. With their acceptance into society, Jews with secular educations embraced or developed entirely new philosophies to meet the demands of the world in which they now found themselves. Medieval re-discovery of ancient Greek philosophy among the Geonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism, the philosophy was generally in competition with Kabbalah. Both schools would become part of classic Rabbinic literature, though the decline of scholastic rationalism coincided with events which drew Jews to the Kabbalistic approach. For Ashkenazi Jews, emancipation and encounter with secular thought from the 18th-century onwards altered how philosophy was viewed, Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities had later more ambivalent interaction with secular culture than in Western Europe. In the varied responses to modernity, Jewish philosophical ideas were developed across the range of emerging religious movements, Rabbinic literature sometimes views Abraham as a philosopher. Some have suggested that Abraham introduced a philosophy learned from Melchizedek, a midrash describes how Abraham understood this world to have a creator and director by comparing this world to a house with a light in it, what is now called the argument from design. Psalms contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works, from this, some scholars suggest, Judaism harbors a Philosophical under-current. Ecclesiastes is often considered to be the only genuine philosophical work in the Hebrew Bible, its author seeks to understand the place of human beings in the world, Philo attempted to fuse and harmonize Greek and Jewish philosophy through allegory, which he learned from Jewish exegesis and Stoicism. Philo attempted to make his philosophy the means of defending and justifying Jewish religious truths and these truths he regarded as fixed and determinate, and philosophy was used as an aid to truth, and a means of arriving at it. To this end Philo chose from philosophical tenets of Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with Judaism such as Aristotles doctrine of the eternity and indestructibility of the world. Dr. Philosophical speculation was not a part of Rabbinic Judaism. Rabbi Akiva has also been viewed as a figure, his statements include 1. )How favored is man, for he was created after an image for in an image, Elokim made man,2. )Everything is foreseen. But the divine decision is made by the preponderance of the good or bad in ones actions, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, Rabbinic scholars gathered in Tiberias and Safed to re-assemble and re-assess Judaism, its laws, theology, liturgy, beliefs and leadership structure. In 219 CE, the Sura Academy was founded by Abba Arika, for the next five centuries, Talmudic academies focused upon reconstituting Judaism and little, if any, philosophic investigation was pursued. These investigations triggered new ideas and intellectual exchange among Jewish and Islamic scholars in the areas of jurisprudence, mathematics, astronomy, logic, Jewish scholars influenced Islamic scholars and Islamic scholars influenced Jewish scholars. Around 733 CE, Mar Natronai ben Habibai moves to Kairouan, then to Spain, borrowing from the Mutakallamin of Basra, the Karaites were the first Jewish group to subject Judaism to Muʿtazila. Rejecting the Talmud and Rabbinical tradition, Karaites took liberty to reinterpret the Tanakh and this meant abandoning foundational Jewish belief structuresJewish philosopher – Philo
35. Physician – Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world. Degrees and other qualifications vary widely, but there are common elements, such as medical ethics requiring that physicians show consideration, compassion. Around the world the term refers to a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties. This meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by drugs or medications and this term is at least nine hundred years old in English, physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, and traditionally were rivals. Henry VIII granted a charter to the London Royal College of Physicians in 1518 and it was not until 1540 that he granted the Company of Barber/Surgeons its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge, newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now, currently, a specialist physician in the United States may be described as an internist. Another term, hospitalist, was introduced in 1996, to describe US specialists in internal medicine who work largely or exclusively in hospitals, such hospitalists now make up about 19% of all US general internists, who are often called general physicians in Commonwealth countries. In such places, the more general English terms doctor or medical practitioner are prevalent, in Commonwealth countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Around the world, the term physician and surgeon is used to describe either a general practitioner or any medical practitioner irrespective of specialty. This usage still shows the meaning of physician and preserves the old difference between a physician, as a practitioner of physic, and a surgeon. The term may be used by state medical boards in the United States of America, in modern English, the term physician is used in two main ways, with relatively broad and narrow meanings respectively. This is the result of history and is often confusing and these meanings and variations are explained below. In the United States and Canada, the term physician describes all medical practitioners holding a professional medical degree, the American Medical Association, established in 1847, as well as the American Osteopathic Association, founded in 1897, both currently use the term physician to describe members. However, the American College of Physicians, established in 1915, does not, its title uses physician in its original sense. A physician trained in the United States has either a Doctor of Medicine degree, all boards of certification now require that physicians demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years, graduates of osteopathic medical schools in the United States should not be confused with osteopaths, who are trained in the European and Commonwealth nations. Their training is similar to physical therapy and they are not licensed to prescribe medications or perform surgeries, also in the United States, the American Podiatric Medical Association defines podiatrists as physicians and surgeons that fall under the department of surgery in hospitalsPhysician – "The Doctor" by Luke Fildes (detail).
36. Maimonides – In his time, he was also a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Cordova, Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve,1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi, physician and he died in Egypt on December 12,1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias. Nonetheless, he was acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law and he is sometimes known as ha Nesher ha Gadol in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah. Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides also figures prominently in the history of Islamic. Influenced by Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and his contemporary Averroes, he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and he became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds. His full Hebrew name is Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, whose acronym forms Rambam and his full Arabic name is Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin Maimūn bin ʿUbaidallāh al-Qurtabī or Mūsā bin Maymūn for short. In Latin, the Hebrew ben becomes the Greek−style suffix -ides to form Moses Maimonides, Maimonides was born in Córdoba during what some scholars consider to be the end of the golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, after the first centuries of the Moorish rule. At an early age, he developed an interest in sciences and he read those Greek philosophers accessible in Arabic translations, and was deeply immersed in the sciences and learning of Islamic culture. Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism, although a strong type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy. He expressed disapproval of poetry, the best of which he declared to be false and this sage, who was revered for his personality as well as for his writings, led a busy life, and wrote many of his works while travelling or in temporary accommodation. Maimonides studied Torah under his father Maimon, who had in turn studied under Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash, a Berber dynasty, the Almohads, conquered Córdoba in 1148, and abolished dhimmi status in some of their territories. The loss of protected status threatened the Jewish and Christian communities with conversion to Islam, death. The historical records of abuses against Jews in the immediate post-1148 period are subject to different interpretations, Maimonidess family, along with most other Jews, chose exile. Some say, though, that it is likely that Maimonides feigned a conversion to Islam before escaping and this forced conversion was ruled legally invalid under Islamic law when brought up by a rival in Egypt. For the next ten years, Maimonides moved about in southern Spain, during this time, he composed his acclaimed commentary on the Mishnah in the years 1166–1168. Following this sojourn in Morocco, together with two sons, he sojourned in the Holy Land, before settling in Fustat, Egypt around 1168, while in Cairo, he studied in a yeshiva attached to a small synagogue. In the Holy Land, he prayed at the Temple Mount and he wrote that this day of visiting the Temple Mount was a day of holiness for him and his descendantsMaimonides – 18th-century portrait of Maimonides
37. Gamal Abdel Nasser – Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year, Nassers popularity in Egypt and the Arab world skyrocketed after his nationalization of the Suez Canal and his political victory in the subsequent Suez Crisis. Calls for pan-Arab unity under his leadership increased, culminating with the formation of the United Arab Republic with Syria, in 1962, Nasser began a series of major socialist measures and modernization reforms in Egypt. Despite setbacks to his pan-Arabist cause, by 1963 Nassers supporters gained power in several Arab countries and he began his second presidential term in March 1965 after his political opponents were banned from running. Following Egypts defeat by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, Nasser resigned, after the conclusion of the 1970 Arab League summit, Nasser suffered a heart attack and died. His funeral in Cairo drew five million mourners and an outpouring of grief across the Arab world, Nasser remains an iconic figure in the Arab world, particularly for his strides towards social justice and Arab unity, modernization policies, and anti-imperialist efforts. His presidency also encouraged and coincided with an Egyptian cultural boom, Gamal Abdel Nasser was born on 15 January 1918 in Bakos, Alexandria, the first son of Fahima and Abdel Nasser Hussein. Nassers father was a postal worker born in Beni Mur in Upper Egypt and raised in Alexandria and his parents married in 1917, and later had two more boys, Izz al-Arab and al-Leithi. Nassers family traveled frequently due to his fathers work, in 1921, they moved to Asyut and, in 1923, to Khatatba, where Nassers father ran a post office. Nasser attended a school for the children of railway employees until 1924, when he was sent to live with his paternal uncle in Cairo. Nasser exchanged letters with his mother and visited her on holidays and he stopped receiving messages at the end of April 1926. Upon returning to Khatatba, he learned that his mother had died giving birth to his third brother, Shawki. Nasser later stated that losing her this way was a shock so deep that time failed to remedy and he adored his mother and the injury of her death deepened when his father remarried before the years end. In 1928, Nasser went to Alexandria to live with his maternal grandfather and it was in Alexandria that Nasser became involved in political activism. After witnessing clashes between protesters and police in Manshia Square, he joined the demonstration without being aware of its purpose. The protest, organized by the ultranationalist Young Egypt Society, called for the end of colonialism in Egypt in the wake of the 1923 Egyptian constitutions annulment by Prime Minister Ismail Sidqi, Nasser was arrested and detained for a night before his father bailed him out. When his father was transferred to Cairo in 1933, Nasser joined him and he took up acting in school plays for a brief period and wrote articles for the schools paper, including a piece on French philosopher Voltaire titled Voltaire, the Man of Freedom. Two protesters were killed and Nasser received a graze to the head from a policemans bullet, the incident garnered his first mention in the press, the nationalist newspaper Al Gihad reported that Nasser led the protest and was among the woundedGamal Abdel Nasser – Gamal Abdel Nasser
38. President of Egypt – The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, the first president of Egypt was Muhammad Naguib, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. He took office on 18 June 1953, the day on which the monarchy of Egypt was overthrown. Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, Hosni Mubarak, who held office from 14 October 1981 until 11 February 2011, was forced to resign following calls for his removal from office. On 10 February 2011 Mubarak transferred presidential powers to then-Vice President Omar Suleiman, on 30 June 2012, Mohamed Morsi was sworn in as President of Egypt, having won the 2012 Egyptian presidential election on 24 June. The Egyptian Constitution has had various forms since its 1953 change to become a republic, under the 1980 amendments of the 1971 Egyptian Constitution, the president of the republic was elected indirectly in a two-stage system unique to Egypt. The People’s Assembly, the house of Parliament, nominated one of a number of candidates for presidency. In 2005 and 2007, constitutional amendments were made, principles in the amended constitution include, The election of the president of the republic by direct secret ballot from among all citizens who have the right to vote. Ensuring that multiple candidates be put forward for the people to choose from, ensuring the credibility of the nomination process. Providing the opportunity for political parties to put one of their leaders to contest the first presidential elections to be held in light of the amendment. The establishment of an election commission that would enjoy complete independence to supervise the election process. Carrying out the election in a single day, ensuring judicial supervision over the voting process. The following provisions regarding the process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended. If no candidate attains such a majority, elections will be repeated after at least seven days between the two candidates having the highest votes. In case of a tie between the candidate who attained the second highest votes and a candidate, the third candidate shall participate in the second round. The candidate who receives the highest votes in the second round shall be declared president, the amendment also provides that a law will be passed to regulate the relevant election procedures. This law is expected to regulate the various aspects of the process itself, including campaign funding, equal access to the media. As required by the amendment, the law will be submitted to the Supreme Constitutional Court to opine on its constitutionalityPresident of Egypt – Presidential Standard
39. Muhammad Naguib – Mohamed Naguib was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Naguibs full name was Mohamed Naguib Yousef Qotp Elkashlan, he was born on 19 February 1901 in Khartoum, Sudan and he was the eldest of nine children of an Egyptian, Youssef Naguib, and a Sudanese woman Zohra Ahmed Othman. His family name, Elkashlan, was popular in Egypt at that time, due to well-known scientific personalities such as Saad Elkashlan and he came from a long line of army officers, his father served in the Egyptian army in Sudan. Naguibs favourite game, however, was playing at soldiers with his younger brother, having built a toy fortress in the front yard, Naguib would spend hours conquering inches of land with his toy soldiers. As a result, Naguib first studied to become a translator, and later in his life earned a law degree and he never completed his doctorate because his career in the army, undertaken in defiance of his fathers wishes, by then had begun to take off. Nevertheless, he found the time to polish his skills, learning English, French. While studying in Khartoum, Naguib had often been censured and sometimes even whipped by his British tutors for criticizing Britains occupation of Egypt and Sudan. At this time, Naguib chose Napoleon as a role model, soon, however, Napoleon was replaced in Naguibs affections by Mustafa Kamil, the founder of the National Party, and later he found another mirror in Saad Zaghlul. Some years after he was ousted from power, Naguib also came to somewhat admire Gandhi, after the death of his father in 1916, the family moved to Cairo, while Naguib and Ali finished their studies in Sudan. Naguib worked as a guard in Cairo, but in 1924 and he married in 1927, pursuing his legal studies while continuing a career in the army. By 1931, he was ready to resign from the army, in 1934, he remarried and was transferred to the Coast Guard, where he was employed to chase smugglers across the Sinai desert, mixing with the bedouin and helping treat their illnesses. In 1940, he was again promoted, however, despite generally favorable relations between Naguib and King Farouk, Naguib refused to kiss the kings hand. A brisk hand shake was the best Naguib could offer, any illusions Naguib might have had about the nature of Farouks rule evaporated on 4 February 1942 after a standoff at Abdeen Palace in Cairo between the British and the king. On this occasion, Farouk turned down Naguibs resignation and he again attempted to resign in 1951 when Hussein Serri Amer, widely thought to be corrupt, was made head of the Coast Guard. Meanwhile, Naguib had continued to climb the ladder, serving in Palestine during the Palestine War in 1948. While on active service in Palestine, Naguib would dedicate 30 minutes every morning to reading the Quran, in 1949, Naguib secretly joined the Free Officers movement, and a year later he was promoted to the rank of Major-General. The general is considered one of Egypts few heroes from the war in Palestine, the Free Officers, led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser were young members of the military – all under thirty-five and all from peasant or lower-middle-class backgroundsMuhammad Naguib – Muhammad Naguib محمد نجيب
40. Pan-Arabism – Pan-Arabism or Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation and its popularity was at its height during the 1950s and 1960s. Advocates of pan-Arabism have often espoused socialist principles and strongly opposed Western political involvement in the Arab world and it also sought to empower Arab states from outside forces by forming alliances and – to a lesser extent – economic co-operation. The origins of pan-Arabism are often attributed to Jurji Zaydan and his Nahda movement and he also popularized through his historical novels certain heroes from Arab history. A more formalized pan-Arab ideology than that of Hussein was first espoused in the 1930s, notably by Syrian thinkers such as Constantin Zureiq, Sati al-Husri, Zaki al-Arsuzi and it has been said that Arsuzi was fascinated with the Nazi ideology of racial purity and impacted Aflaq. Abdullah I of Jordan dreamed of uniting Syria, Palestine, and he unsuccessfully proposed a plan to this effect to the United Kingdom, which controlled Palestine at that time. The plan was not popular among the majority of Arabs and fostered distrust among the leaders of the other Middle Eastern countries against Abdallah, the distrust of Abdallahs expansionist aspirations was one of the principal reasons for the founding of the Arab League in 1945. Once Abdallah was assassinated by a Palestinian nationalist in 1951, the vision of Greater Syria was dropped from the Jordanian agenda, the pan-Arabist ideology has been accused of inciting prejudice against or downplaying the role of ethnic minorities such as the Berbers. Although pan-Arabism began at the time of World War I, Egypt was not interested in pan-Arabism prior to the 1950s, thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, Egyptian nationalism – not pan-Arabism – was the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian political activists. James Jankowski wrote about Egypt at the time, What is most significant is the absence of an Arab component in early Egyptian nationalism, the thrust of Egyptian political, economic, and cultural development throughout the nineteenth century worked against, rather than for, an Arab orientation. This situation—that of divergent political trajectories for Egyptians and Arabs—if anything increased after 1900, there have been several attempts to bring about a pan-Arab state by many well-known Arab leaders, all of which ultimately resulted in failure. It lasted until 1961, when Syrian army officers carried out a coup détat, by 1961, Egypt had become the only remaining member but continued to call itself the UAR, but it eventually renamed itself the Arab Republic of Egypt in 1973. Also in 1958, a Hashemite-led rival, the Arab Federation, was founded between Jordan and Iraq, tensions with the UAR and the 14 July Revolution made the Arab Federation collapse after only six months. Another attempt, the United Arab States, existed as a confederation between the United Arab Republic, Arab Federation and the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, but it dissolved in 1961. Two later attempts represented the enthusiasm of Libyas Muammar Gaddafi, the Federation of Arab Republics, which lasted five years, and the Arab Islamic Republic, which never emerged in practice. The current Syrian government is and the government of Iraq was led by rival factions of the Baath Party. The Arab defeat by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War and the inability of pan-Arabist governments to generate economic growth severely damaged the credibility of pan-Arabism as a relevant ideology, Egyptians attachment to pan-Arabism was particularly questioned after the Six-Day War. Nasser had overplayed his hand in trying to form a pan-Arab hegemony under himself, thousands of Egyptians had lost their lives, and the country became disillusioned with Arab politicsPan-Arabism – Under Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, pan-Arabism dominated politics in the 1950s and 1960s
41. United Arab Republic – The United Arab Republic, alternatively referred to, mostly in Israel in the 1960s-70s, as the United Arab Commonwealth was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria. The union began in 1958 and existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union after the 1961 Syrian coup détat, Egypt continued to be known officially as the United Arab Republic until 1971. The president was Gamal Abdel Nasser and it was a member of the United Arab States, a loose confederation with North Yemen which in 1961 dissolved along with the Republic. Pan-Arab sentiment traditionally was very strong in Syria, and Nasser was a popular hero-figure throughout the Arab world following the Suez War of 1956, there was thus considerable popular support in Syria for union with Nassers Egypt. The Arab Socialist Baath Party was the advocate of such a union. This caused the Syrian Crisis of 1957 after which Syrians intensified their efforts to unite with Egypt, according to Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Nasser initially resisted a total union with Syria, favoring instead a federal union. However, Nasser was more afraid of a Communist takeover and agreed on a total merger, Syria had had a democratic government since the overthrow of Adib al-Shishaklis military regime in 1954, and popular pressure for Arab unity was reflected in the composition of parliament. When on 11 January 1958 al-Bizri led a Syrian delegation composed of officers to Cairo. Nassers final terms for the union were decisive and non-negotiable, a plebiscite, the dissolution of parties, while the plebiscite seemed reasonable to most Syrian elites, the latter two conditions were extremely worrisome. They believed it would destroy life in Syria. Despite these concerns, the Syrian officials knew it was too late to turn back. The members of the elite in Syria viewed the merger with Egypt as the lesser of two evils. They believed that Nassers terms were unfair, but given the pressure that their government was undergoing. Egyptian and Syrian leaders signed the protocols, although Azem did so reluctantly, Nasser became the republics president and very soon carried out a crackdown against the Syrian Communists and opponents of the union which included dismissing Bizri and Azem from their posts. Advocates of the believed that Nasser would use the Baath Party for ruling Syria. Unfortunately for the Baathists, it was never Nassers intention to share a measure of power. Nasser gave each of the provinces two vice-presidents, assigning Boghdadi and Abdel Hakim Amer to Egypt and Sabri al-Assali and Akram El-Hourani—a leader of the Baath—to Syria, the new constitution of 1958 was adopted. Though Nasser allowed former Baath Party members to hold prominent political positions, during the winter and the spring of 1959–60, Nasser slowly squeezed prominent Syrians out of positions of influence. In the Syrian Ministry of Industry, for example, seven of the top thirteen positions were filled by Egyptians, in the General Petroleum Authority, four of the top six officials were EgyptianUnited Arab Republic – Nasser shaking hands with al-Bizri
42. Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah – Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah was the 2nd Emir of Kuwait from 1965 to 1977, and youngest son of Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah. Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah succeeded his half-brother Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah upon his death on 24 November 1965 and he suspended parliament in late August 1976 for 4 years, claiming it was acting against the nation. He died from cancer on 31 December 1977 and he was appointed as Crown Prince on 29 October 1962. Sovereign Grand Master of the Order of Kuwait, sovereign Grand Master of the Order of National Defense. Sovereign Grand Master of the Military Duty Order, knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George. Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian EmpireSabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah – Sabah Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah
43. Arab history – Arabs are an ethnic group inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, tradition holds that Arabs descend from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of Arab, there are other Arab groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia. Before the expansion of the Caliphate, Arab referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic people from the northern to the central Arabian Peninsula and Syrian Desert. Presently, Arab refers to a number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to spread of Arabs throughout the region during the early Arab conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries. The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and this was one of the largest land empires in history. The Great Arab Revolt has had as big an impact on the modern Middle East as the World War I, the war signaled the end of the Ottoman Empire. They are modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat, following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the sovereignty of its member states. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global diaspora, the ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historical, identical, nationalist, geographical and political. The Arabs have their own customs, language, architecture, art, literature, music, dance, media, cuisine, dress, society, sports, the total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. This makes them the second largest ethnic group after the Han Chinese. Arabs are a group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions, some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism. Today, Arabs are mainly adherents of Islam, with sizable Christian minorities, Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Shiite, Ibadi, Alawite, Druze and Ismaili denominations. Arab Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Maronite, Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, or Chaldean churches. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of Gi-in-di-buu the ar-ba-a-a or Gindibu belonging to the ArabArab history
44. Developing World – Also, the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country. The term developing describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress, since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. There is criticism of the use of the developing country. The term implies inferiority of a country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country. It assumes a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan. An alternative measurement that has suggested is that of gross national happiness. Countries on the boundary between developed and developing are often categorized under the newly industrialized countries. In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, nobody has ever agreed on a definition for these terms in the first place. Various terms are used for whatever is not a developed country, terms used include less developed country or less economically developed country, and for the more extreme, least developed country or least economically developed country. But according to the United Nations Statistics Division, There is no established convention for the designation of developed, the World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. These are set each year on July 1, economies were divided according to 2016 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income, Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,025 or less. Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,035, upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$4,036 and US$12,475. High income countries had GNI per capita above US$12,476 and this may be by absolute numbers or country ranking. The UN has developed the Human Development Index, an indicator of the above statistics. The UN sets Millennium Development Goals from a blueprint developed by all of the countries and leading development institutions. There is an association between low income and high population growth. The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent, other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, least economically developed countries, underdeveloped nations or Third World nations, and non-industrialized nations. Conversely, developed countries, most economically developed countries, First World nations and that is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCsDeveloping World – developing economies according to the IMF
45. Suez Canal – The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It was constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, after 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 17,1869. It extends from the terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km, including its northern and southern access channels, in 2012,17,225 vessels traversed the canal. The original canal was a waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass. It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it, in general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez, the canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag. In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canals transit time, the expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day. At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities, the New Suez Canal, as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015. On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel and this side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal anytime of day and night. Ancient west–east canals were built to travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal, probably incorporating a portion of the first, was constructed under the reign of Necho II, the legendary Sesostris may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea. In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote, One of their kings tried to make a canal to it, so he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, and Pliny the Elder wrote,165. Later the Persian king Darius had the idea, and yet again Ptolemy II. This proved to be the canal made by the Persian king Darius ISuez Canal – Suez Canal
46. Anti-colonialism – A less common usage is by isolationists who oppose an interventionist foreign policy. The phrase gained a wide currency after the Second World War, some anti-imperialist groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union, such as in Guevarism, while in Maoism, this was criticized as social imperialism. In the Arab and Muslim world, the term is used in the context of anti-Zionist nationalist. In the late 1870s, the term Imperialism was introduced to the English language by opponents of the imperial policies of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. It was shortly appropriated by supporters of such as Joseph Chamberlain. For some, imperialism designated a policy of idealism and philanthropy, others alleged that it was characterized by political self-interest, John A. Hobson and Lenin added a more theoretical macroeconomic connotation to the term. Many theoreticians on the left have followed either or both in emphasizing the structural or systemic character of imperialism. As the application of the term has expanded, its meaning has shifted along five distinct but often parallel axes, the moral, the economic, the systemic, the cultural, and the temporal. Those changes reflect—among other shifts in sensibility—a growing unease with the fact of power, specifically, J. A. Hobson said that domestic social reforms could cure the international disease of imperialism by removing its economic foundation. Hobson theorized that state intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, create wealth, conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers would generate socially negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism. An early use of the term anti-imperialist occurred after the United States entered the Spanish–American War in 1898, most activists supported the war itself but opposed the annexation of new territory, especially the Philippines. The Anti-Imperialist League was founded on June 15,1898 in Boston, in opposition of the acquisition of the Philippines, the anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for consent of the governed. British anti-imperialism emerged in the 1890s, especially in the Liberal Party, the key impetus around 1900 came from public disgust with the British failures and atrocities connected with the Second Boer War. The War was fought against the Afrikaners, who were Dutch immigrants who had built new nations in South Africa, opposition to the Second Boer War was modest when the war began, and was always less widespread than support for it, let alone the prevailing indifference. However, influential groups formed immediately and ineffectually against the war, including the South African Conciliation Committee, much of the opposition in Britain came from the Liberal party. Intellectuals and activists Britain based in the Socialist, labour, and Fabian movements generally oppose imperialism, and John Hobson, after the Boer war, opponents of imperialism turn their attention to the British colonies in Africa and Asia. By the 1920s, the government was sponsoring large-scale exhibits promoting imperialism, notably the 1924 British Empire Exhibition in London, some intellectuals use the opportunity to criticize imperialism as a policy. Moderately active anti-imperial movements emerged in Canada and Australia, the French-Canadians were hostile to the British expansion, while, in Australia it was the Irish Catholics who were opposedAnti-colonialism – Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister of Britain from 1874 to 1880, expanded the British Empire.
47. Non-Aligned Movement – The Non-Aligned Movement is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members, all five leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, the countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, members have at times included the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Argentina, Zaire, Cyprus, and Malta. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movements members were quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers. Some members were involved in conflicts with other members. The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement condemned it. Because the Non-Aligned Movement was formed as an attempt to thwart the Cold War, the successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina have observer status. In 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union, belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011, the applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively. The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012, according to Mehr News Agency, representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend. Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents,2 kings, at the summit, Iran took over from Egypt as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015. The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement were, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and their actions were known as The Initiative of Five. The term non-alignment was established in 1953 at the United Nations, Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel, the five principles were, Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the conference in 1976. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes, another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries. The movement stems from a not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structureNon-Aligned Movement – Logo of the Sharm El Sheikh Summit, 2009.
48. History of Egypt – The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its rich history also comes from its inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypts ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery, the Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. The Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the other Seven Wonders, is gone, the Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries. Human settlement in Egypt dates back to at least 40,000 BC with Aterian tool manufacturing, Ancient Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominately native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC, the Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. Roman rule in Egypt lasted from 30 BC to 641 AD, in 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire. Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801, starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the Anglo-Egyptian War, after the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established. While a de facto independent state, the United Kingdom retained control over affairs, defense. British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954, President Gamal Abdel Nasser introduced many reforms and created the short-lived United Arab Republic. His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of the international Non-Aligned Movement and he led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypts Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events following nearly thirty years of rule by former president Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian revolution of 2011 deposed Mubarak and resulted in the first democratically elected president in Egyptian history, unrest after the 2011 revolution and related disputes led to the 2013 Egyptian coup détat. There is evidence of petroglyphs along the Nile terraces and in desert oases, in the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishermen was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 6000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley, during the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower EgyptHistory of Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom.
49. History of Roman Egypt – The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula. Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West, the province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman province, in Alexandria, its capital, it possessed the largest port, and the second largest city, of the Roman Empire. As a province, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely styled Augustal prefect, the prefect was a man of equestrian rank and was appointed by the Emperor. The second prefect, Aelius Gallus, made an expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea. The Red Sea coast of Aegyptus was not brought under Roman control until the reign of Claudius, the third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Petronius even led a campaign into present-day central Sudan against the Kingdom of Kush at Meroe, failing to acquire permanent gains, in 22 BC he razed the city of Napata to the ground and retreated to the north. From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century, under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous, from his reign onward buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Antoninus Pius oppressive taxation led to a revolt in 139, of the native Egyptians and this Bucolic War, led by one Isidorus, caused great damage to the economy and marked the beginning of Egypts economic decline. Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, declared emperor in 175. On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, Cassius was deposed and killed, a similar revolt broke out in 193, when Pescennius Niger was proclaimed emperor on the death of Pertinax. The Emperor Septimius Severus gave a constitution to Alexandria and the capitals in 202. There was a series of revolts, both military and civilian, through the 3rd century, under Decius, in 250, the Christians again suffered from persecution, but their religion continued to spread. This warrior queen claimed that Egypt was a home of hers through a familial tie to Cleopatra VII. She was well educated and familiar with the culture of Egypt, its religion, two generals based in Aegyptus, Probus and Domitius Domitianus, led successful revolts and made themselves emperors. Diocletian captured Alexandria from Domitius in 298 and reorganised the whole province and his edict of 303 against the Christians began a new era of persecution. This was the last serious attempt to stem the growth of Christianity in EgyptHistory of Roman Egypt – Northern Africa under Roman rule
50. Politics of Egypt – The politics of Egypt is based on republicanism, with a semi-presidential system of government, established following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, and the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak. The President is elected for two terms and the Parliament is unicameral. The President can appoint up to 5% of the number of seats in Parliament. Parliament can also impeach the President, Egypt was traditionally ruled by royals until 1952, but the first free elected President was in 2012. The Parliament of Egypt is the oldest legislative chamber in Africa, the President is elected for four-year term that can be renewable once. Candidates must provide 30,001 signatures from at least 15 provinces, or 30 members of a chamber of the legislature, the position was created after Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Mohammed Naguib was the first president, prior to 2005, the Parliament chooses a candidate for the Presidency and the people vote whether or not they approve that candidate for President in a referendum. In 2005, the first presidential elections held with multiple candidates stand for the positions, after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a new presidential elections held in 2012, it was the first free and fair elections in Egyptian history. El-Sisi then was elected head of state in the 2014 presidential election. Egypt adopted the system in 2012 and under it the President doesnt hold extensive powers. The President can dissolve the Parliament, declare state of emergency and declare wars, the Parliament can impeach the President after two-thirds votes in favour for impeachment and then a public referendum is held to whether or not approve the impeachment of the President. Parliament meets for one session each year, under special circumstances the President of the Republic can call an additional session. Even though the powers of the Parliament have increased since the 1980 Amendments of the Constitution, the House of Representatives is the principal legislative body. The House sits for a term but can be dissolved earlier by the President. The Constitution reserves fifty percent of the House may force the resignation of the cabinet by voting a motion of censure. For this reason, the Prime Minister and his cabinet are necessarily from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly, in the case of a president and house from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. The most recent elections held in 2015, the Shura Council was the 264-member upper house of Parliament created in 1980. In the Shura Council 176 members were elected and 88 members were appointed by the President of the Republic for six-year termsPolitics of Egypt – Egypt
51. Constitution of Egypt – The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum in January 2014, the constitution took effect after the results were announced on 18 January 2014. Two different committees were involved in amending the 2012 constitution, the constitution replaces the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 which came into effect under Morsi. The constitution adopted in 2014, like the constitution drafted under Morsi, is based on the Egyptian Constitution of 1971, the 2014 constitution sets up a president and parliament. The president is elected to a term and may serve 2 terms. The parliament may impeach the president, under the constitution, there is a guarantee of equality between the sexes and an absolute freedom of belief, but Islam is the state religion. The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defense for the next 8 years, the document guarantees an absolute freedom of expression that is subject to broad exceptions. The constitution has been criticized by the Revolutionary Socialists and the Road of the Revolution Front for leaving too much power in the hands of the military, history of the Egyptian Constitution Unofficial translation of the 2014 constitution Official 2014 constitutionConstitution of Egypt – Egypt
52. Elections in Egypt – Elections in Egypt are held for the President and a unicameral legislature. The President of Egypt is elected for a term by popular vote. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for every Egyptian citizen over 18, failure to vote can result in fine or even imprisonment, but in practice a significant percentage of eligible voters do not vote. About 50 million voters are registered to vote out of a population of more than 85 million, turnout in the 2011 parliamentary election was 54%. The Kingdom of Egypt was granted independence by the United Kingdom on 28 February 1922. Between the Declaration of 1922 and the Revolution of 1952, ten general elections were held and this era is generally known as Egypts Liberal Experiment. Egypt has never recovered the level of freedom it enjoyed during this period. During the four elections held between 1924 and 1929, candidates from the Coptic Christian minority received 15 to 23 seats, copts received four seats in 1931, six in 1938,12 in 1945, and five in 1950. The oppositions share of seats also varied throughout this period, despite its significance, the election was marred by voter fraud, ballot stuffing, boycotts, intimidation, vote-buying, and protests by opposition groups, leading for a low-turnout of under 30%. Under the Mubarak era, The Peoples Assembly and Shura Council were elected under a system of single member plurality. Along with the combination of fraud, ballot stuffing, intimidation, and lack of judicial and international supervision. The Muslim Brotherhood were not recognized as a party by law. The 2012 presidential election was the first free election in Egypts history. According to the new election rules released on 30 January 2012, candidates have to be born in Egypt under Egyptian parents, must not hold any dual nationality, candidates who were convicted of crimes must wait for 6 years before fulfilling their candidacy. In order to be nominated, they must have the support of 30 MPs or 30,000 voters, four major candidates and six minor candidates have been disqualified for violation of election rules. In the second round run-off on 16–17 June 2012, Mohammed Morsi won over Ahmed Shafiq with 51. 73% over 48. 27%, on 24 June 2012, Egypts election commission proclaimed Morsi as the winner of the run-off. Morsi was sworn in before the Supreme Constitutional Court on 30 June 2012 as Egypts first democratically elected president, the 2011–2012 parliamentary elections were the first free parliamentary election in Egypts history and the first after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. Many political parties opposed the new law and threatened to boycott the election unless party members can allow to run in the remaining one-third of the seatsElections in Egypt – Egypt
53. Flag of Egypt – The flag of Egypt is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal red, white, and black bands of the Arab Liberation flag dating back to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. The flag bears Egypts national emblem, the Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band, the Free Officers who toppled King Farouk in the Revolution of 1952 assigned specific symbolism to each of the three bands of the Arab Liberation flag. The red band symbolizes the period before the Revolution, a characterized by the struggle against the monarchy. The white band symbolizes the nature of the Revolution itself. The black band symbolizes the end of the oppression of the Egyptian people at the hands of the monarchy, Egypts use of the Arab Liberation flag inspired its adoption by a number of other Arab states. The same horizontal tricolour is used by Iraq, Syria, and Yemen, the development of the modern Egyptian flag was determined first by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, under whom Egypt was united with Sudan, and later by the rise of Arab nationalism. When Muhammad Ali successfully seized power in Egypt, the country was officially an Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, however, throughout his reign, and that of his sons and grandsons, Egypt enjoyed virtual independence as a Khedivate. The meaning of the three stars and crescents has been suggested that this was to symbolise the victory of his armies in three continents, and his own sovereignty over Egypt, Sudan, and Hejaz. The similarity with the flag of the Ottoman Empire was deliberate, as Muhammad Ali harbored grandiose ambitions of deposing the Ottoman dynasty, Egypt retained this flag even after formal Ottoman sovereignty was terminated in 1914, when Egypt was declared to be a sultanate, and a British protectorate. After the Urabi Revolt in 1882, British forces occupied the country and this reached a peak in the Revolution of 1919, when both the red flag introduced by Muhammad Ali, and a special green banner bearing a crescent and cross were used in protests against the British. In 1922, Britain agreed to formally recognize Egyptian independence, but only on the condition that the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, change his title to King. Upon so doing, the now King Fuad issued a Royal Decree formally adopting a new flag of a white crescent with three white stars on a green background in it. It has also suggested that the three stars represented the three religious communities of the country, Muslims, Christians and Jews. This earlier version of the eagle differs somewhat from the one later adopted, in 1958, Egypt and Syria united as the United Arab Republic and adopted a national flag based on the Arab Liberation flag, with two green stars replacing the Eagle of Saladin in the white band. A modified version of the Eagle of Saladin was adopted as the UARs coat of arms. Though Syria withdrew from the U. A. R. in 1961, Egypt continued to use the name of the United Arab Republic until 1971. In 1972, when Egypt formed the Federation of Arab Republics along with Syria, and Libya, the U. A. R. flag was replaced by a common flag for the Federation, once again based on the Arab Liberation flag. The two green stars in the band were replaced by the Hawk of Qureish, which had been the coat of arms of Syria prior to the formation of the U. A. R. in 1958Flag of Egypt – Egypt
54. Foreign relations of Egypt – Foreign relations of the Arab Republic of Egypt are the Egyptian governments external relations with the outside world. Egypts foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level, Cairo has been a crossroads of the Arab worlds commerce and culture for centuries, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the regions social and cultural landmarks. In the 21st-century Egypt has encountered a problem with immigration, as millions of Africans attempt to enter Egypt fleeing poverty. Border control methods can be harsh, sometimes lethal and this has strained relations with Egypts southern neighbors, and with Israel and the members of the EU as these immigrants attempt to move on to wealthier countries. The Arab League headquarters is in Cairo, and the Secretary General of the League is traditionally an Egyptian, former Egyptian Foreign Minister Nabil Araby is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996, Egypt is on good terms with Libya, its western neighbor. Egypts policy on Sudan is that it is in favor of a united Sudan, Egypt has been seeking to play a role in the resolution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This support has continued to the present, with President Hosni Mubarak often intervening personally to promote peace negotiations, in 1996, he hosted the Sharm El-Sheikh Summit of the Peacemakers attended by President Bill Clinton and other world leaders. Another summit was convened in Sharm El Sheik in early 2005, which was attended by Egypt, Israel, the Egyptian Chief of Intelligence, General Omar Suleiman, has played a substantial role in negotiations between the Israeli and Palestinian sides and is highly respected on both sides. In 1939, diplomatic relations between Egypt and Iran were upgraded to level, and Youssef Zulficar Pasha was appointed as Egypts first ambassador in Tehran. In the same year, Princess Fawzia of Egypt, the sister of King Farouk I, married Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, however, since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Egypts relations with Iran have been mostly strained. Egypt is the only Arab country not to have an embassy in Iran and he also stated that if Iran will reach a nuclear weapons, Egypt will also consider reaching such weapons. Since 1983, Iraq has repeatedly called for restoration of Egypt’s “natural role” among Arab countries, in January 1984, Iraq successfully led Arab efforts within the OIC to restore Egypt’s membership. However, Iraqi-Egyptian relations were broken in 1990 after Egypt joined the UN coalition that forced Iraq out of Kuwait, relations have steadily improved in recent years, and Egypt is now one of Iraq’s main trade partners. The state of war between countries which dated back from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War ended in 1973 with the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty a year after the Camp David Accords. Egypt has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Eilat. Israel has an embassy in Cairo and a consulate in Alexandria. Egypt was subsequently ostracized by other Arab states and ejected from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989, however, due to circumstances of todays Israeli–Palestinian conflict, full normalization of relations between these two countries is still halted and sometimes fought against in both countriesForeign relations of Egypt – Egypt
55. Military of Egypt – In addition, Egypt maintains large paramilitary forces. The Central Security Forces comes under the control of the ministry of interior, the Border Guard Forces, and The National Guard, comes under the control of the Ministry of Defence. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the uniformed officer, is Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi. The Armed Forces inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world, to bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt has provided military assistance and training to a number of other African and Arab states. Although not a NATO member, Egypt remains a strong military, the Egyptian military is one of the strongest in the region, and gives Egypt regional military supremacy rivaled only by Israel, besides being one of the strongest in Africa. Egypt is one of the few countries in the Middle East, the Armed Forces enjoy considerable power and independence within the Egyptian state. They are also influential in business, engaging in road and housing construction, consumer goods, resort management, much military information is not made publicly available, including budget information, the names of the general officers and the military’s size. According to journalist Joshua Hammer, as much as 40% of the Egyptian economy is controlled by the Egyptian military. The inventory of the Egyptian armed forces includes equipment from the United States, France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, conscripts with a General Secondary School Degree serve two years as enlisted personnel. Conscripts with a university degree serve one year as enlisted personnel or three years as a reserve officer, officers for the army are trained at the Egyptian Military Academy. The Egyptian Air Force or EAF is the branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. Currently, the backbone of the EAF is the F-16, the EAF is considered to be the strongest in Africa and one of the strongest in the Middle East. The Mirage 2000 is the other modern interceptor used by the EAF, the Egyptian Air Force has 216 F-16s making it the 4th largest operator of the F-16 in the World. The Air Force is undergoing massive modernization, mikoyan confirmed that talks with Egypt are underway for the sale of 40 Mig-29SMT jet-fighters with a possible additional batch of 60-80 planes. The Egyptian Air Defense Command or ADF is Egypts military command responsible for air defense and its commander is Lieutenant General Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen. Although the Egyptian Navy is the smallest branch of the military, the Egyptian Navy is known to be the strongest in the African continent, and the largest in the Middle East in spite of the rapid growth of other countries navies within the region. Some fleet units are stationed in the Red Sea, but the bulk of the remains in the Mediterranean. Navy headquarters and the operational and training base are located at Ras el Tin near AlexandriaMilitary of Egypt – Egyptian soldiers carrying flags of the main branches of the armed forces
56. Prime Minister of Egypt – The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government. In the late 1970s, Egypt had several cohabitation governments which proved to be unstable, from 1981 until 2011, the National Democratic Party had maintained a majority in the People’s Assembly and supplied the Egyptian president. The National Democratic Party was dissolved by the administrative court on 16 April 2011. The prime minister heads the cabinet, which in turn plays a role in shaping the agenda of the houses of Parliament. It may propose laws to Parliament as well as amendments during parliamentary meetings, when parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control Parliament and the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Several cohabitation governments took control in the 1970s yet proved to be very unstable, from 1 March to 17 June 2014, Ibrahim Mahlab served as the Acting Prime Minister of Egypt. At the time of his appointment by Adly Mansour, he said, security and stability in the entire country, a new cabinet was formed on 19 September 2015. Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi accepted the resignation of the government and asked Petroleum Minister Sherif Ismail to form a new cabinet, as of April 2017, there are eight living former Prime Ministers of Egypt, as seen below. Living former Prime Ministers of Egypt The most recent Prime Minister to die was Abd El Aziz Mohamed Hegazi, cabinet of Egypt Politics of Egypt President of Egypt List of political parties in Egypt List of Prime Ministers of Egypt Media related to Prime ministers of Egypt at Wikimedia CommonsPrime Minister of Egypt – Coat of arms of Egypt
57. Geography of Egypt – Egypt The geography of Egypt relates to two regions, North Africa and Southwest Asia. Egypt has coastlines on both the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, Egypt borders Libya to the west, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, and Sudan to the south. Egypt has an area of 1,001,449 km2, the longest straight-line distance in Egypt from north to south is 1,024 km, while that from east to west measures 1,240 km. 35,000 km2 -3. 5% - of the land area is cultivated. Most of the lies within the wide band of desert that stretches eastwards from Africas Atlantic Coast across the continent. The Nile valley extends approximately 800 km from Aswan to the outskirts of Cairo, the Nile Valley is very cool and known as Upper Egypt, while the Nile Delta region is known as Lower Egypt. Steep rocky cliffs rise along the banks of the Nile in some stretches, while areas along the Nile are flat. In the past, flooding of the Nile during the summer provided silt, since construction of the Aswan Dam, agriculture in the Nile valley depends on irrigation. The Nile delta consists of flat, low-lying areas, some parts of the delta are marshy and water-logged, and thus not suitable for agriculture. Other areas of the delta are used for agriculture, the Nile Valley and Delta, the most extensive oasis on earth, was created by the worlds longest river and its seemingly inexhaustible sources. Without the topographic channel that permits the Nile to flow across the Sahara, the length within Egypt of the River Nile in its northwards course from three central African sources – the White Nile, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara – totals some 1,600 km. The White Nile, which begins at Lake Victoria in Uganda, in its course from Lake Victoria to Juba in South Sudan, the White Niles channel drops more than 600 m. In its 1, 600-km course from Juba to Khartoum, Sudans capital, in South Sudan, the White Nile passes through the Sudd, a wide, flat plain covered with swamp vegetation and slows almost to the point of stagnation. The Blue Nile, which originates at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and this river has a steeper gradient and therefore flows more swiftly than the White Nile, which it joins at Khartoum. Unlike the White Nile, the Blue Nile carries an amount of sediment. The much shorter Atbarah River, which originates in Ethiopia. During the low-water season, which runs from January to June, but, in late-summer, when torrential rains fall on the Ethiopian Highlands, the Atbarah provides 22% of the Niles flow. The Blue Nile has a similar pattern and it contributes 17% of the Niles waters in the low-water season and 68% during the high-water seasonGeography of Egypt – Nile delta, and the entire course of the Nile
58. List of cities in Egypt – * Cities that are part of Greater Cairo metropolitan area. Geography of Egypt Climate of Egypt List of cities List of cities in Africa List of cities in Asia List of historical capitals of Egypt Chaichian, town and Country in the Middle East, Iran and Egypt in the Transition to Globalization. Map of Egypt at Archive. is Egypts New Urban Communities New Urban Communities Authority - Contact Page Urban areas of EgyptList of cities in Egypt – Cairo
59. Climate of Egypt – Egypt generally has a desert climate. Because of the effect, average low wind vary from 9.5 °C in wintertime to 23 °C in summertime, some mountainous locations in Sinai, such as Saint Catherine, have cooler night temperatures, due to their high elevations. Every year, sometime from March to May, a hot, dry. When this wind blows over Egypt, it causes high temperatures to soar temporarily at dangerous levels, usually over 45 °C, the khamasīn causes sudden, early heat waves and the absolute highest temperature records in Egypt. The cloudiest, rainiest places are in and around Alexandria and Rafah and it usually snows on the Sinai mountains, but it almost never snows in the cities of Giza, Cairo, and Alexandria. For example, in December 2013, Cairo received an overnight snowfall for the first time since 1901Climate of Egypt – Satellite map
60. Economy of Egypt – The economy of Egypt was a highly centralized planned economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Egypt has a stable mixed economy enjoying average growth, averaging 3%–5% in the past quarter-century. Nationalization reduced the importance of the private sector. There was no stock trading to speak of, all banks and financial institutions were under the public sector, inter-War, 1967–1973, adversely affected the performance of the economy and public sector role in import substitution. External Debt Crisis, 1985–1990, the debt crisis and Paris Club rescheduling. Egypt faced the long term supply- and demand-side repercussions of the financial crisis on the national economy. The Egyptian economy is suffering from a severe downturn following the 2011 revolution. Political and institutional uncertainty, a perception of rising insecurity and sporadic unrest continue to affect economic growth. Under comprehensive economic reforms initiated in 1991, Egypt has relaxed many price controls, reduced subsidies, reduced inflation, cut taxes, Manufacturing had become less dominated by the public sector, especially in heavy industries. A process of public sector reform and privatization has begun to enhance opportunities for the private sector, Agriculture, mainly in private hands, has been largely deregulated, with the exception of cotton and sugar production. Construction, non-financial services, and domestic wholesale and retail trades are largely private and this has promoted a steady increase of GDP and the annual growth rate. The Government of Egypt tamed inflation bringing it down from double-digit to a single digit, currently, GDP is rising smartly by 7% per annum due to successful diversification. Based on national currency, GDP per capita at constant 1999 prices increased from EGP411 in 1981, to EGP2098 in 1991, to EGP5493 in 2001 and to EGP8708 in 2006. Based on the current US$ prices, GDP per capita increased from US$587 in 1981, to US$869 in 1991, to US$1461 in 2001, According to the World Bank Country Classification, Egypt has been promoted from the low income category to lower middle income category. As of 2013, the average salaries in Egypt reached LE641. The reform programme is a work in progress, noteworthy that the reform record has substantially improved since Nazif government came to power. Egypt has made progress in developing its legal, tax. Indeed, over the past five years, Egypt has passed, amended and admitted over 15 legislative pieces, the economy is expected to grow by about 4% to 6% in 2009/2010Economy of Egypt – Cairo is the financial capital of Egypt
61. Communications in Egypt – Egypt has long been the cultural and informational centre of the Arab world, and Cairo is the regions largest publishing and broadcasting centre. There are eight daily newspapers with a circulation of more than 2 million, and a number of monthly newspapers, magazines. The majority of parties have their own newspapers, and these papers conduct a lively, often highly partisan. Egypt Post is the body that provide postal services. Mail post is never considered as a reliable communication mean in Egypt, There are seven regional radio stations covering the country. Egyptian Radio transmits 60 hours daily overseas in 33 languages and three hundred hours daily within Egypt, in 2000, Radio Cairo introduced new specialized channels on its FM station. So far, they include news, music, and sports, Radio enjoys more freedom than TV in its news programs, talk shows and analysis. Starting 2003, Nile Radio Production a private company was given license to two radio stations, Nile FM and Nogoom FM. Nile FM broadcasts in English and Nogoom FM broadcasts in Arabic, both stations mostly broadcast mainly to the Greater Cairo region. In the early 2009, Radio Masr was launched, broadcasting popular Egyptian songs, see also Egyptian television Egyptian ground-broadcast television is government controlled and depends heavily on commercial revenue. ETV sells its specially produced programs and soap operas to the entire Arab world, ETV has two main channels, six regional channels, and three satellite channels. Of the two channels, Channel I uses mainly Arabic, while Channel II is dedicated to foreigners and more cultured viewers, broadcasting news in English. Egyptian Satellite channels broadcast to the Middle East, Europe, in April 1998, Egypt launched its own satellite known as NileSat 101. Seven specialized channels cover news, culture, sports, education, entertainment, health, a second, digital satellite, Nilesat 102, was launched in August 2000. Many of its channels are rented to other stations, three new private satellite-based TV stations were launched in November 2001, marking a great change in Egyptian government policy. Both private channels transmit on NileSat, currently, there is a single company in charge of Landline Telephony, Telecom Egypt which is also government-controlled. The government is planning to start the process for licensing a second national operator for voice and transport services by 2008, currently, there are three companies which offer cellular communication service, Orange, Vodafone Egypt and Etisalat Egypt. These companies are providing services surpassing voice communication such as 3G and 3. 75G services, the Internet companies market is dealt to two, infrastructure providers and service providersCommunications in Egypt – Life in Egypt
62. Energy in Egypt – This article describes the energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Egypt. The population of Egypt has increased by 14. 3% in the five year period from 2004 to 2009, every six months there are 1 million more Egyptians. Energy production grew by 36% between 2004 and 2009, Egypt is classified as having a “high power system size. ”As of 2010, 99% of the Egyptian population has access to electricity. When electricity was first introduced in Egypt in 1893, the generation and distribution of electricity was practiced exclusively by private companies. In 1962, the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity were nationalized under three authorities leaving the government as the owner and operator of all electrical companies. In 1978 the Egypt Electricity Authority supervised the establishment of seven geographically divided electricity distribution companies, an additional electrical power distribution authority was established in 1983 as a means of supervising distribution companies which had become independent of the Egypt Electricity Authority. Between 1996 and 2000 a series of laws and presidential decrees were passed to reorganize,2000, presidential decree no.339 and electricity sector Law no.164 were issued. Between 2000 and 2001, the EEHC implemented a division in the organization of Egypt’s electrical management framework, generation activity was separated from distribution activity along with the separation of control and transmission between ultra-high-voltage and high-voltage networks. In 2002 the Delta Company for electricity distribution divided into North Delta, the power system’s generation reserve capacity declined from 20% in the early 2000s to 10% by the 2010s. The Egyptian power system is now significantly less able to power shortages during annual peak demand periods. The weakening of Egypt’s supply security has caused widespread social issues in the 2010s, angry residents from many villages protested the rolling blackouts by threatening to not pay their electricity bills and to sue their electricity provider. A campaign entitled “We Will Not Pay” was organized to encourage people to not pay their bills until the service was stable once again. Residents from the Bardeen village in Zagazig also protested the unstable supply of electricity by blocking the Belbeis-Zagazig road, the government released statements encouraging people to ration their electricity consumption and announced that work was being done to generate an additional 1800 MW of energy. Minister of Petroleum Abdullah Ghorab reiterated the importance of conserving electricity to avoid a state implemented policy of load shedding, Egypt is an important non-OPEC energy producer. It has the sixth largest proved oil reserves in Africa, over half of these reserves are offshore reserves. Although Egypt is not a member of OPEC, it is a member of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, commercial quantities of oil were first found in 1908, and more petroleum was found in the late 1930s along the Gulf of Suez. Later, large oil fields were discovered in the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Suez, the Western Desert, and the Eastern Desert. As of 2005, Egypts proven oil reserves were estimated at 3.7 billion barrels, oil production in 2005 was 696,000 barrels per day, of which crude oil accounted for 554,000 barrels per dayEnergy in Egypt – Oil refining in Alexandria
63. Mining in Egypt – Mining in Egypt has had a long history that goes back to predynastic times. Egypt has substantial mineral resources, including 48 million tons of tantalite,50 million tons of coal, the total real value of minerals mined was about £E102 million in 1986, up from £E60 million in 1981. The chief minerals in terms of output were iron ore, phosphates. The quantities produced in 1986 were estimated at 2,048,1,310, and 1,233 tons, respectively, compared with 2,139,691, in addition, minor amounts of asbestos and quartz were mined in 1986. Preliminary exploration in Sinai indicated the presence of zinc, tin, lead, private sector exploration and exploitation activities so far have been limited. Centamin Ltd. a mineral exploration company founded in Australia, started a mining project in Sukari Hill. Gold mining started with alluvial workings in Egypt and was followed by shallow underground vein mining in Nubia about 1300 BCE, the methods of working included fire-setting to weaken rocks by thermal shock, a method described by Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca historica written about 60 BCE. The technique of quarrying granite and limestone was a technology by the time the pyramids were being built. Marble, alabaster and diorite were used for making statues, basalt for making sarcophagi, precious and semi-precious stones that were extensively mined and worked as well included turquoise, beryl, amethyst, lapis lazuli and malachite. Hathor was the patron goddess, and her temples, statues or inscriptions were found in many rediscovered mining locations. Egypt became a major gold-producer during the Old Kingdom and remained so in the next 1,500 years, during the New Kingdom, the production of gold steadily increased, and mining became more intensive as new fields were developed. Most gold mines known today in Egypt have been exploited for gold by the ancient Egyptians. However there has been limited exploration that applies modern day techniques where deposits can be based on gold grades as low as 0.5 g/t. The earliest known beryl mine in the world is located in the valley of Wadi Sikait. Its mining started during the Ptolemaic period, although most of mining activities date to the Roman, all the other beryl mining sites such as Gebel Zabara, Wadi Umm Debaa and Wadi Gimal are Roman-Byzantine or Islamic in date. Beryl mining ceased in Egypt when the Spanish Empire discovered superior-quality emeralds in Colombia in the 16th centuryMining in Egypt – The Turin mining papyrus depicts mines in the Wadi Hammamat and is the oldest known map of its kind.
64. Tourism in Egypt – Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypts economy. At its peak in 2010 the sector employed about 12% of Egypts workforce serving approximately 14.7 million visitors Egypt, as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14. 4% of foreign currency revenues. The number of tourists in Egypt stood at 0.1 million in 1951, the tourist inflow increased to 1.8 million in 1981 and then to 5.5 million in 2000. Tourism reached a pinnacle in 2010 by reaching 14.7 million visitors, revenues from tourism also reached a high point at $12.5 billion in 2010. Since then the number of tourists have significantly declined and revenue down to $5.9 billion due to security threats, significant security threats have had an ongoing effect on the industry over the past twenty years. Fifty-eight foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre, the new regime has worked hard to create stability and the Red Sea resorts in particular have had increasing tourist numbers. During the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the number of visitors plummeted by over 37% that year falling from 14 million in 2010 to 9 million by the end of 2011. Tour operators offering heavy discounts to encourage tourists back have been successful at the Red Sea resorts where prices remain lower compared to 2011. In the first half of 2014 the number of tourists further declined by 25% as compared with the period of 2013. In 2013, Egypt ranked 85th as the worlds best country in terms of tourism, however it regained some ground in the 2015 rankings being rated 83rd overall. Israelis can cross into Egypt for 14 days without a visa at certain areas near Taba, but in 2017, the first group of Israelis visited the more popular tourist attractions- with the aid of strong security. It had been 18 months since a group of Israeli tourists had visited Egypt, in the same week, Bloomberg said Egypt has shed its years of social and political unrest and makes the top 20 list of 2017 travel destinations. Major tourist destinations include the monuments in the Nile Valley. Principal among them are the Pyramids and Great Sphinx at Giza, the Abu Simbel temples south of Aswan, attractions in Cairo include the Cairo Museum and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha. The coast of the Sinai Peninsula has well-visited seaside resorts, Giza,20 km southwest of Cairo, has several remains from the 26th century BC such as temples and monuments to pharaohs including the Great Sphinx, and the Great Pyramids of Giza. Saqqara,30 km south of Cairo is a vast, ancient burial ground which served as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis and it features numerous pyramids, including the worlds oldest standing step pyramid, as well as a number of mastabas. Luxor, about 500 km south of Cairo, is the site of the ancient city of Thebes and it includes the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor, which stand within the modern city. On the opposite side of the Nile River lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolis, which include the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the QueensTourism in Egypt – Protester atop the Qasr al-Nil Bridge waves the Egyptian flag during the protests of January 2011.
65. Transport in Egypt – Transport in Egypt is centered in Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The main line of the rail system follows along the great river and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. The badly maintained road network has expanded rapidly to over 21,000 miles, covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai and the Western oasis. In addition to routes, Egypt Air provides reliable domestic air service to major tourist destinations from its Cairo hub. The Nile River system and the canals are important locally for transportation. The Suez Canal is a waterway of international commerce and navigation, linking the Mediterranean. The ministry of transportation, along with governmental bodies are responsible for transportation in Egypt. Major ports are Alexandria, Port Said, Damietta on the Mediterranean and Suez, Egypt has one of the highest incidence of road fatalities per miles driven in the world. There are few, if any road markings, most traffic lights in Cairo appear not to function, but rather intersections are staffed by policemen who use subtle finger movements to indicate which cars may move. Traffic rules are routinely ignored by impatient drivers, vehicles travel at speed or the wrong way on one-way streets. Pedestrians constantly dodge in and out of traffic, and animals are commonly on the roads, rare winter rains can cause extremely slippery road surfaces or localized flooding. Some roads, especially in the Sinai and southeastern part of the country, are off-limits to foreigners, a popular form of transportation is by boat. Even though Egypt has expanded and developed its system, people still travel on the Nile to get from place to place. Two routes in the Trans-African Highway network originate in Cairo, Egypt also has multiple highway links with Asia through the Arab Mashreq International Road Network. Egypt has a motorway network, connecting Cairo with Alexandria. Though most of the transport in the country is still done on the highways, motorways are becoming increasingly an option in road transport within the country. The existing motorways in the country are, Cairo - Alexandria Desert Road, International Coastal Road, It runs from Alexandria to Port Said, along the Northern Nile Delta. It has a length of 280 km, also, amongst other cities, it connects Damietta and BaltimTransport in Egypt – Life in Egypt
66. Culture of Egypt – The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Africa, for millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique, complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity and later, the Coptic language, the last stage of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Hieroglyphs were written on peoples front doors so that the news of the pharaoh would travel to everyone, the Koiné dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, and was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, and was later studied by Arabic scholars. Arabic came to Egypt in the 7th century, and Egyptian Arabic has become today the modern speech of the country, of the many varieties of Arabic, it is the most widely spoken second dialect, due to the influence of Egyptian cinema and media throughout the Arabic-speaking world. In the lower Nile Valley, around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages, mainly Nobiin, the Berber languages are represented by Siwi, spoken by about 5,000 around the Siwa Oasis. There are over a million speakers of the Domari language, mostly living north of Cairo, approximately 77,000 speakers of Bedawi live in the Eastern Desert. Many Egyptians believed that when it came to a death of their Pharaoh, the ancient Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the third millennium BC. Religious literature is best known for its hymns to and its mortuary texts, the oldest extant Egyptian literature is the Pyramid Texts, the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers. The later, secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the wisdom texts, in time, the Pyramid Texts became Coffin Texts, and finally, the mortuary literature produced its masterpiece, the Book of the Dead, during the New Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was the age of Egyptian literature. Some notable texts include the Tale of Neferty, the Instructions of Amenemhat I, the Tale of Sinuhe, the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor, Instructions became a popular literary genre of the New Kingdom, taking the form of advice on proper behavior. The Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any are well-known examples from this period, during the Greco-Roman period, Egyptian literature was translated into other languages, and Greco-Roman literature fused with native art into a new style of writing. From this period comes the Rosetta Stone, which became the key to unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian writing to modern scholarship, the great city of Alexandria boasted its famous Library of almost half a million handwritten books during the third century BC. Alexandrias center of learning also produced the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, drep During the first few centuries of the Christian era, Egypt was the ultimate source of a great deal of ascetic literature in the Coptic language. Egyptian monasteries translated many Greek and Syriac words, which are now extant in Coptic. Under Islam, Egypt continued to be a source of literary endeavor. In 970, al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo, which to this day remains the most important center of Sunni Islamic learning, in the 12th century Egypt, the Jewish Talmudic scholar Maimonides produced his most important workCulture of Egypt – Egyptian hieroglyphs, as this example from a sarcophagus from Thebes of about 530 BC, represent both ideograms and phonograms.
67. Cuisine of Egypt – Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes, vegetables and fruits since Egypts rich Nile valley and delta produce large quantities of these crops in high quality. Bread made from a simple recipe forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine and it is consumed at almost all Egyptian meals, a working-class or rural Egyptian meal might consist of little more than bread and beans. The local bread is a form of hearty, thick, glutenous pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi or Baladee rather than the Arabic خبز ḫubz, the word comes from the Semitic root ع-ي-ش ʕ-Ī-Š with the meaning to live, be alive. The word ʿayš itself has the meaning of life, way of living, livelihood, subsistence in Modern Standard and Classical Arabic, folklore holds that this synonymity indicates the centrality of bread to Egyptian life. In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes bread, dating back to a Nasser-era policy, in 2008, a major food crisis caused ever-longer bread lines at government-subsidized bakeries where there would normally be none, occasional fights broke out over bread, leading to fear of rioting. On a culinary level, bread is used as gamosa. Egyptians use bread to scoop up food, sauces, and dips and to wrap kebabs, falafel, most pita breads are baked at high temperatures, causing the flattened rounds of dough to puff up dramatically. When removed from the oven, the layers of baked dough remain separated inside the deflated pita, aish Merahrah is an Egyptian flat bread made with 5-10% ground fenugreek seeds added to maize flour. It is part of the diet of the Egyptian countryside. The loaves are flat and wide, and usually about 50 cm in diameter and this bread can be kept for days in an airtight container. Egyptian cuisine shares similarities with food of the Eastern Mediterranean region, such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, shawarma, kebab, ta‘miya, baba ghannoug, some consider kushari - a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni - to be the national dish. Ful medames is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is used in making falafel, which originated in Egypt. Cow brain and liver is eaten in Egypt, ancient Egyptians are known to have used a lot of garlic and onions in their everyday dishes. Fresh garlic mashed with herbs is used in spicy tomato salad. Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya, a green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit. Fried onions can be added to kushari. Other dishes include, Egyptian desserts resemble other Eastern Mediterranean desserts, basbousa, sometimes called harissa, is a spicy dish made from semolina and soaked in a sugar syrupCuisine of Egypt – Ful Medames, one of Egypt's national dishes, served with sliced eggs and vegetables.
68. Demographics of Egypt – Egypt is the most populous country in the Africa and the third-most populous on the African continent. About 95% of the countrys 94.7 million people live along the banks of the Nile and in the Nile Delta, which fans out north of Cairo, and along the Suez Canal. These regions are among the worlds most densely populated, containing an average of over 3,820 persons per square mile, small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around oases and historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration to newly irrigated land reclaimed from the desert, however, the proportion of the population living in rural areas has continued to decrease as people move to the cities in search of employment and a higher standard of living. An estimated 75% of Egyptians are under the age of 25 with just 3% over the age of 65, Egypt has a population of 92 million. According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million, Data taken from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living mostly North America, figures from CAPMAS, The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics has released high/medium/low population projections for 2011-2031 based on Final Results of 2006 Population Census. The 2020 high variant is 92.6 million, the medium -91.0 million, the 2030 high variant is 104.4 million, the medium -101.7 million, the low -99.8 million. However the information could be misleading as the 2013 population figure of 84.6 million is higher than the high of 83 million. Vital statistics, Source, Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics Fertility Rate and CBR, Data taken from CAPMAS, information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2. The CIA World Factbook lists Egyptians as 99. 6%, other refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt, who come to Egypt to work for international companies, diplomats, etc. The vast majority of the population of Egypt consists of Egyptians including Copts, the vast majority of Egyptians are native speakers of modern Egyptian Arabic. There are also minorities of Beja and Dom. The country still hosts some 90,000 refugees and asylum seekers, mostly Palestinians, other sources give more detailed statistics, including the Beja, the Nubians, Dom, Berbers. Arabic, Also, Some Christians speak Egyptian language * The language of Pharaohs* in order to keep their identity and to protect the language of their ancestors, the pharaohs. So in the Coptic Church, the Egyptian language is used through the majority of the prayers, hymns, masses. English widely understood as well as French, siwa language used in ethnic Berber tribal areas in the western desert, and Nubian language is widely used among the ethnic Nubians in the southern areas. According to the CIA World Factbook, approximately 90% of the population is Muslim, estimates of the Christian population in Egypt range from 6% to 20%Demographics of Egypt – Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions [dated info]
69. Ethnic groups in Egypt – Egypt is the most populous country in the Africa and the third-most populous on the African continent. About 95% of the countrys 94.7 million people live along the banks of the Nile and in the Nile Delta, which fans out north of Cairo, and along the Suez Canal. These regions are among the worlds most densely populated, containing an average of over 3,820 persons per square mile, small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around oases and historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration to newly irrigated land reclaimed from the desert, however, the proportion of the population living in rural areas has continued to decrease as people move to the cities in search of employment and a higher standard of living. An estimated 75% of Egyptians are under the age of 25 with just 3% over the age of 65, Egypt has a population of 92 million. According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million, Data taken from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living mostly North America, figures from CAPMAS, The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics has released high/medium/low population projections for 2011-2031 based on Final Results of 2006 Population Census. The 2020 high variant is 92.6 million, the medium -91.0 million, the 2030 high variant is 104.4 million, the medium -101.7 million, the low -99.8 million. However the information could be misleading as the 2013 population figure of 84.6 million is higher than the high of 83 million. Vital statistics, Source, Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics Fertility Rate and CBR, Data taken from CAPMAS, information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2. The CIA World Factbook lists Egyptians as 99. 6%, other refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt, who come to Egypt to work for international companies, diplomats, etc. The vast majority of the population of Egypt consists of Egyptians including Copts, the vast majority of Egyptians are native speakers of modern Egyptian Arabic. There are also minorities of Beja and Dom. The country still hosts some 90,000 refugees and asylum seekers, mostly Palestinians, other sources give more detailed statistics, including the Beja, the Nubians, Dom, Berbers. Arabic, Also, Some Christians speak Egyptian language * The language of Pharaohs* in order to keep their identity and to protect the language of their ancestors, the pharaohs. So in the Coptic Church, the Egyptian language is used through the majority of the prayers, hymns, masses. English widely understood as well as French, siwa language used in ethnic Berber tribal areas in the western desert, and Nubian language is widely used among the ethnic Nubians in the southern areas. According to the CIA World Factbook, approximately 90% of the population is Muslim, estimates of the Christian population in Egypt range from 6% to 20%Ethnic groups in Egypt – Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions [dated info]
70. Health in Egypt – The Egyptian Ministry of Health is the government body responsible for health in Egypt. There are conflicting figures about the number of people access to safe water. Soakaway latrines, which are common in areas, often do not work properly due to the high groundwater table, infrequent emptying. Thus sewage leaks out and contaminates the surrounding streets, canals, trucks that empty latrines and septic tanks do not necessarily discharge septage into wastewater treatment plants, but rather dump the content in the environment. According to the governments National Research Center,40 percent of Cairos inhabitants do not get water for more than three hours per day and three large districts do not receive any piped water. In 2008 demonstrations concerning this issue took place in Suez, where 500 people blocked a road to Cairo. These problems lead many people to use water from canals which could be hazardous to health and it is estimated that each year about 17,000 children die from diarrhea. One reason is that water quality is often below standards. Some water treatment plants are not maintained properly and are inefficient in removing parasites, viruses. In 2009, a study by the Ministry of Health showed that water for half a million people in Asiut was unfit for human consumption. As of June 2011, nothing had been done to address the problem, the 2014 CIA estimated average life expectancy in Egypt was 73.45 years. Egypt has particularly high rates of Hepatitis C, one of the highest worldwide and it is believed that the high prevalence in Egypt is linked to a now-discontinued mass-treatment campaign for schistosomiasis, using improperly sterilized glass syringes. Avian influenza has been present in Egypt, with 52 cases and 23 deaths in January 2009, with an estimated tuberculosis incidence of 11 new cases per 100,000 people, Egypt has relatively low levels of TB according to 2005 data from the World Health Organization. With less than 1 percent of the estimated to be HIV-positive. Unsafe behaviors among most-at-risk populations and limited use among the general population place Egypt at risk of a broader epidemic. According to the National AIDS Program, there were 1,155 people living with HIV/AIDS in Egypt by the end of 2007, UNAIDS estimates for 2005 were higher, putting the number of HIV-positive Egyptians at 5,300. Smoking in Egypt is prevalent, with 19 billion cigarettes smoked annually in Egypt making it the largest cigarette market in the Arab world, inside cafes, hookah smoking is common. As of 2012 smoking in Egypt has reached a high with an estimated twenty percent, ten million peopleHealth in Egypt – Life in Egypt
71. Public holidays in Egypt – Holidays in Egypt have many classifications. There are a set of holidays celebrated by the entire population. There are four Islamic holidays and two Christian holidays, the following holidays are celebrated across the country, with the government offices and ministries closed. These holidays are either national secular holidays or important religious holidays, some government-related offices, including most universities, are also closed on the Coptic Orthodox date of Epiphany,19 January. The following days are public holidays but the date on which each occurs varies, in order in which they occur, World Holidays -> Egypt 2006Public holidays in Egypt – Life in Egypt
72. Languages of Egypt – There are a number of languages spoken in Egypt, but Egyptian Arabic is by far the most widely spoken in the country. Arabic was adopted by the Egyptians after the Arab conquest of Egypt, the official language in Egypt is Modern Standard Arabic, used in most written documents. Arabic came to Egypt in the 7th century, and Egyptian Arabic has become the modern language of the Egyptians and is understood by almost all Egyptians. In southern Egypt, Saidi Arabic is the spoken language for most non-urbanized people. A Bedouin Arab minority speaks a variety of Bedouin Arabic mostly in the Sinai Peninsula, Sudanese Arabic is also spoken by the Sudanese minority. Egyptian Arabic is the spoken language, and is occasionally written in Arabic script. In the Upper Nile Valley, around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages, mainly Nobiin, approximately 77,000 speakers of Beja live in the Eastern Desert and along the coast of the Red Sea. Some 234,000 Dom speak the Domari language and are concentrated north of Cairo, about 30,000 Egyptian Berbers living in the Siwa oasis and its surroundings speak Siwi Berber, which is a variety of the Berber language of North Africa. Siwi Berber is well mutually intelligible with Libyan Berber dialects, in ancient times, the population of western Egypt was probably made of Berber-speaking tribes. English is the most commonly used language and most of the street plates are bilingual in Modern Standard Arabic. There are a few street plates with French instead of English, French is also widely spoken and used in business and educated circles. In addition to English and French, Italian, German and Russian are widely used in the field of tourism and this was partly because of some Egyptians had French education and partly because of cultural influence from France. Despite efforts from British legal personnel, English was never adopted as a language of the Egyptian civil courts during the period of British influence, other Egyptian languages consist of ancient Egyptian and Coptic, and form a separate branch among the family of Afro-Asiatic languages. The Egyptian language is among the first written languages, and is known from hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus, the Coptic language, the only extant descendant of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. The Koiné dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, and was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, ethnologue page on Languages of Egypt PanAfriL10n page on Egypt Linguistic situation in EgyptLanguages of Egypt – Bilingual Arabic-English sign in Cairo.
73. Media of Egypt – The media of Egypt is highly influential in Egypt and in the Arab World, attributed to its large audience and increasing freedom from governmental control. Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution, and the government is increasingly respecting this, after the Egyptian presidential election of 2005, Ahmed Selim, office director for Information Minister Anas al-Fiqi, declared the era of free, transparent and independent Egyptian media. The printing press was first introduced to Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte during his French Campaign in Egypt and he brought with his expedition a French, Arabic, and Greek printing press, which were far superior in speed, efficiency and quality than the nearest presses used in Istanbul. In the Middle East, Africa, India, and even much of Eastern Europe and Russia, printing was a minor, from about 1720, the Mutaferrika Press in Istanbul produced substantial amounts of printing, of which some Egyptian clerics were aware at the time. The written press is diverse in Egypt, with over 600 newspapers, journals. However these are owned mostly or in some way by the government, however, unlike many of Egypts regional counterparts, criticism of the government in general does take place, after amendments to existing press laws in 2006 which however still criminalise libel. It came to the attention of authorities at Al-Azhar University, described as “the government’s highest authority on religion”, who petitioned the courts. Should be used responsibly and not touch on the foundations of Egyptian society. Over the past two decades, Al-Azhar University censored more than 196 texts, there are two state broadcasters and an increasing number of private broadcasters. Figures from the CIA World Factbook state more than 98 television channels in 1995, the Ministry of Information controls content in the state-owned broadcast media. The previously tight controls on state TV and radio gave way to even and fair coverage of all parties involved in the Egyptian presidential election of 2005. However, in 2006 several journalists working for the Cairo branch of the Qatar-based Al-Jazeera were detained for investigating subjects such as police brutality, Egyptian radio broadcasting began to serve in Egypt in the 1920s as locally owned radios. They began airing radio as The Egyptian State Radio on the 31 May 1934 in an agreement with the Marconi Company, in 1947 the contract with the Marconi Company was canceled and radio broadcasting was nationalized by the Egyptian government. By the early 1990s, Egypt had only four FM stations, in 2000 stations moving from the AM band and the introduction of private stations raised the number to ten stations as of 2006. Radio has also historically been utilized as a tool in Egypt beginning under the rule of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser became president of Egypt in 1954 and served until his death in 1970, when Nasser came to power he realized that radio could be utilized as a powerful political tool for two reasons. First, the rate in Egypt has been traditionally high. Using radio to spread ideas, therefore, allowed a greater number of the population to hear his political ideasMedia of Egypt – Life in Egypt
74. Music of Egypt – Music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The Bible documents the instruments played by the ancient Hebrews, all of which are correlated in Egyptian archaeology, Egyptian music probably had a significant impact on the development of ancient Greek music, and via the Greeks was important to early European music well into the Middle Ages. The modern music of Egypt is considered Arabic music as it has been a source for or influence on regional styles. The ancient Egyptians credited the goddess Bat with the invention of music, the cult of Bat was eventually syncretised into that of Hathor because both were depicted as cows. Hathors music was believed to have used by Osiris as part of his effort to civilize the world. The lion-goddess Bastet was also considered a goddess of music, in prehistoric Egypt, music and chanting were commonly used in magic and rituals. Rhythms during this time were ovular and music served to create rhythm, small shells were used as whistles. During the predynastic period of Egyptian history, funerary chants continued to play an important role in Egyptian religion and were accompanied by clappers or a flute, the evidence is for instruments played more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets were played. Percussion instruments and lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom, cymbals frequently accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Typically ancient Egyptian music was composed from the dominant scale. The phrygian dominant scale may often feature a note or two in parts to create tension. For instance the music could typically be in the key of E phrygian dominant using the notes E, F, G sharp, A, B, C, D and then have an A sharp, B, A sharp, G natural and E to create tension. Arabic music is said to have begun in the 7th century in Syria during the Umayyad dynasty. Early Arabic music was influenced by Byzantine, Indian and Persian forms, which were heavily influenced by earlier Greek, Semitic. Egyptians in Medieval Cairo believed that music exercised too powerful an effect upon the passions, however, Egyptians generally were very fond of music. Though, according to E. W. Lane, no man of sense would ever become a musician, tradesmen of every occupation used music during work and schools taught the Quran by chanting. The music of Medieval Egypt was derived from Greek, Persian and Indian traditions, the songs of this period were similar in sound and simple, within a small range of tones. Egyptian song, though simple in form, is embellished by the singer, distinct enunciation and a quavering voice are also characteristics of Egyptian singingMusic of Egypt – Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dynasty, Western Thebes.
75. Religion in Egypt – Religion in Egypt controls many aspects of social life and is endorsed by law. The 2006 census counting method included religion, so the number of adherents of the different religions are usually rough estimates made by religious and non-governmental agencies. According to a research by Michael Izady,86. 8% of Egyptians are Sunni Muslim,10. 2% are Christian,2. 9% are Shia and the remaining 0. 1% belong to other faiths. Egypt is predominantly Muslim, with Muslims accounting for 88% of a population of around 80 million Egyptians The vast majority of Muslims in Egypt are Sunni, a significant number of Sunni Muslim Egyptians also follow native Sufi orders. There are under fifty thousand Ahmadi Muslims, there is a minority of Mutazila numbering a few thousands. Estimated numbers of Egypts Shia Twelvers and Ismailism range from 800,000 to about two to three million, according to the Constitution of Egypt, any new legislation must at least implicitly agree with Islamic law. Article 45 of the Constitution extends freedom of religion to the three Abrahamic religions, but only those three, the remainder of Egyptians, numbering between 10% and 20% of the population, mostly belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Christian Church. The most recent declarations, made by Pope Shenouda III and bishop Morkos of Shubra in 2008, other estimates made by church officials estimate this number to be 16 million. Protestant churches claim a membership of about 300,000 Egyptians, based on these estimates, the total number of Christians in Egypt is between 15% and 20% of a total population of 80 million Egyptians. The non-Sunni, non-Coptic communities range in size from hundreds to a few thousand. The original Ancient Egyptian religion has disappeared in Egypt as a result of new religions being formed then introduced to Egypt, Egypt hosts two major religious institutions. Al-Azhar Mosque, founded in 970 AD by the Fatimids as the first Islamic University in Egypt, in Egypt, Muslims and Christians live as neighbors, sharing common history, national identity, ethnicity, race, culture, and language. The Adhan that is five times a day has the informal effect of regulating the pace of everything from business to media. Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and is dubbed the city of 1,000 minarets. Naguib Sawiris, one of Egyptians successful businessmen and one of the worlds wealthiest 400 people is a Copt, at the same time there is a large number of private companies shared by both Muslims and Copts. Freedom of belief and worship are formally recognized by the Egyptian Constitution, some aspects of the country’s laws are heavily funded on Islamic principles. Religions other than Islam have typically had to be deemed compatible with Sharia, individual adherents of minority religions also face frequent discrimination by government officials, who often deny them identity cards, birth certificates and marriage licenses. The Coptic community, however, takes pains to prevent conversions from Christianity to Islam due to the ease with which Christians can often become Muslim, public officials, being conservative themselves, intensify the complexity of the legal procedures required to recognize the religion change as required by lawReligion in Egypt – Religion in Egypt
76. Smoking in Egypt – The use of tobacco products in Egypt is widespread. It is estimated that twenty percent of the population uses tobacco products daily. Cigarettes are the most common form of consumption in Egypt. After cigarettes, shisha water-pipes are the most common form of tobacco consumption, many Egyptians are not fully aware of the health risks of using a water-pipe and many believe it to be less harmful than cigarettes. Recently legislation has passed in Egypt that prohibits smoking in places and requires special warnings to be placed on tobacco packaging. Smoking is far more common among men than it is among women, however, the tobacco industry in Egypt is dominated by the Eastern Tobacco Company, however, since the cultivation of tobacco is prohibited in Egypt the manufacturer must rely entirely on imported tobacco. The number of smoking tobacco products in Egypt continues to rise. Smoking in Egypt is prevalent with 19 billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country, inside cafes, hookah smoking is common. As of 2012 smoking in Egypt has reached a high with an estimated twenty percent, ten million people. Egypt is ranked as one of the top ten per capita consumers of tobacco by the World Lung Foundation, of this twenty percent of the population estimated to use tobacco products, ninety-five percent were daily smokers. Sixteen percent smoke only cigarettes,3. 3% smoke shisha water-pipes, although Islam has no specific ban on smoking tobacco, several Islamic principles are cited in support of the religion-based banning of tobacco. Depending on the location and community, Islamic authorities have either deemed smoking as Makruh or Haram, on September 5,1999, Nasr Farid Wasel, the then Grand Mufti of Egypt, issued a Fatwa against tobacco smoking. In Egypt, the control law prohibits smoking in the following specified public places, health and educational facilities, governmental venues, sporting and social clubs. Smoking is also prohibited on public transport, under a separate environmental statute, smoking is restricted to specially designated areas in industrial establishments, tourism related establishments, and electricity production establishments. In a survey conducted of Egyptian smokers, overall 97. 6% believed that smoking tobacco can cause serious illness, however belief that smoking causes specific illness varied. A significant number of smokers believe that shisha is less harmful than other forms of smoking, approximately 97. 4% believed that smoking shisha causes serious illness such as stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer. Egypts tobacco industry is dominated by the Eastern Tobacco Company, the largest cigarette manufacturer in the Middle East, a small but ever increasing amount of Egyptian cigarettes are exported to neighboring countries, mostly to serve Egyptians working abroad. In Egypt, most forms of advertising and promotion are bannedSmoking in Egypt – An Egyptian hookah (shisha) with a wind cover over the bowl and a Syrian hose
77. Islam in Egypt – Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 85% of the population. Almost the entirety of Egypts Muslims are Sunnis, with a minority of Shia. The latter, however, are not recognized by Egypt, Islam has been recognized as the state religion since 1980. Prior to Napoleons invasion in 1798, almost all of Egypts educational, legal, public health, during the 19th and 20th centuries, successive governments made extensive efforts to limit the role of the ulama in public life and to bring religious institutions under closer state control. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques, the government mandated reform of Al-Azhar University beginning in 1961. These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn from outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama, in the late 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their center and Cairo their capital. Egypt flourished and the Fatimids developed a trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque. The Fatimid palace in Cairo had two parts and it stood in the Khan el-Khalili area at Bin El-Qasryn street. In the early 20th century, Egyptian Islam was a complex, although Muslims agreed on the faiths basic tenets, the countrys various social groups and classes applied Islam differently in their daily lives. The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version of Islam practiced by illiterate religious preachers, most upper- and upper-middle-class Muslims believed either that religious expression was a private matter for each individual or that Islam should play a more dominant role in public life. Islamic religious revival movements, whose appeal cut across lines, were present in most cities. This put an end to the independence of the Ulama. Awqaf, traditionally independent endowments for mosques and Islamic schools, became a ministry of the government, in 1961, Gamal Abdel Nasser made Al Azhar part of the Ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments. He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, in time the school became responsible for assigning imams to all major mosques, and all these imams were required to be graduates of the school. Orthodox ulama or the establishment found themselves in a difficult position during the wave of Islamic activism that swept through Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s. Most Ulama, including those of Al-Azhar University, are employees of the Egyptian state who recognize the primacy, support its stability. Radical Islamists viewed them as puppets of the status quo, to maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stancesIslam in Egypt – Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt, connected to a mosque built around 971, is considered by some Sunni Muslims as one of the world's highest Sunni Muslim authorities.
78. List of Egypt-related topics – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Egypt, Egypt is a sovereign country located in eastern North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. Covering an area of about 1,002,450 square kilometers, Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south and Palestine and its northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea, the eastern coast borders the Red Sea. The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the Karnak Temple, Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East, as center of the Arab World. Egypt, historically, has been the northern Gateway to Africa with many scientific expeditions organized from Cairo, head of government, is the President of Egypt. Cabinet of Egypt Parliament of Egypt – it was dissolved by the army of Egypt on 11 February 2011. N, members which is not a member of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Gaston Camille Charles Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldæa, Syria, Babylonia, a. Wallis Budge,1920 Egypt Online Directory The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights PortSaid Free-zone forumsList of Egypt-related topics – An enlargeable relief map of Egypt
79. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014