1. Mediterranean Region – As a rule of thumb, the Mediterranean Basin is the Old World region where olive trees grow. The Mediterranean basin covers portions of three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe and it has a varied and contrasting topography. Contrary to the sandy beach images portrayed in most tourist brochures. Mountains can be seen from almost anywhere, the Mediterranean Basin extends into Western Asia, covering the western and southern portions of the peninsula of Turkey, excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Turkey. It includes the Mediterranean climate Levant at the end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian. The northern portion of the Maghreb region of northwestern Africa has a Mediterranean climate, separated from the Sahara Desert, Europe lies to the north, and three large Southern European peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, and the Balkan Peninsula, extend into the Mediterranean-climate zone. The Mediterranean Basin was shaped by the ancient collision of the northward-moving African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent, as Africa-Arabia moved north, it closed the former Tethys Sea, which formerly separated Eurasia from the ancient super continent of Gondwana, of which Africa was part. At about the time,170 mya in the Jurassic period. The collision pushed up a vast system of mountains, extending from the Pyrenees in Spain to the Zagros Mountains in Iran and this episode of mountain building, known as the Alpine orogeny, occurred mostly during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The Neotethys became larger during these collisions and associated folding and subduction, about 6 mya during the late Miocene, the Mediterranean was closed at its western end by drifting Africa, which caused the entire sea to evaporate. There followed several episodes of sea drawdown and re-flooding known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis, recent studies, however, show that repeated desiccation and re-flooding is unlikely from a geodynamic point of view. The end of the Miocene also marked a change in the Mediterranean Basins climate, fossil evidence shows that the Mediterranean Basin had a relatively humid subtropical climate with summer rainfall during the Miocene, which supported laurel forests. The shift to a Mediterranean climate occurred within the last 3. 2–2.8 million years, during the Pliocene epoch, much of these forests and shrublands have been altered beyond recognition by thousands of years of human habitation. There are now very few relatively intact natural areas in what was once a wooded region. The Mediterranean Region was first proposed by German botanist August Grisebach in the late 19th century, drosophyllaceae, recently segregated from Droseraceae, is the only plant family endemic to the region. Among the endemic plant genera are, The genera Aubrieta, Sesamoides, Cynara, Dracunculus, moreover, many plant taxa are shared with one of the four neighboring floristic regions only. The Mediterranean Basin is the largest of the worlds five Mediterranean forests, woodlands and it is home to a number of plant communities, which vary with rainfall, elevation, latitude, and soils. Scrublands occur in the driest areas, especially areas near the seacoast where wind, low, soft-leaved scrublands around the Mediterranean are known as garrigar in Catalan, garrigue in French, phrygana in Greek, tomillares in Spanish, and batha in HebrewMediterranean Region – Potential distribution over the Mediterranean Basin of the olive tree—one of the best biological indicators of the Mediterranean Region (Oteros, 2014)
2. Africa – Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa also varies greatly with regard to environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, also preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplaceAfrica – Map of Africa
3. Nile River – The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river. In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is also known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river deltaNile River – The river in Uganda
4. Islamic World – The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community, comprising all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread. In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers. The nation states emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models. As of 2015, over 1.7 billion or about 23% of the population are Muslims including the 4% who live as minorities. Muslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion, the history of Islam began in Arabia with the Islamic prophet Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century in the month of Ramadan. However, Islam under the Rashidun Caliphate grew rapidly, a century after the death of last Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Islamic empire extended from Spain in the west to Indus in the east. The Islamic Golden Age coincided with the Middle Ages in the Muslim world, starting with the rise of Islam and establishment of the first Islamic state in 622. The end of the age is given as 1258 with the Mongolian Sack of Baghdad, or 1492 with the completion of the Christian Reconquista of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus. The Abbasids were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr, that stressed the value of knowledge. The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba became the intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine. Between the 8th and 18th centuries, the use of glaze was prevalent in Islamic art. Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters, the first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th century Iraq, other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Old world included Fustat, Damascus and Tabriz. The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype Hezār Afsān that relied on particular Indian elements and it reached its final form by the 14th century, the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. All Arabian fantasy tales tend to be called Arabian Nights stories when translated into English, regardless of whether they appear in The Book of One Thousand and this work has been very influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. Imitations were written, especially in France, various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba. A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian poetry on romance is Layla and Majnun and it is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet, which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latin version of Layla and Majnun to an extentIslamic World – The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands.
5. Red Sea – The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait, to the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion, the sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea has an area of roughly 438,000 km2, is about 2250 km long and. It has a depth of 2211 m in the central median trench. However, there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life, the sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species, and 200 soft and hard corals. It is the worlds northernmost tropical sea, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Red Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limits of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, a line joining Husn Murad and Ras Siyyan. Red Sea is a translation of the Greek Erythra Thalassa, Latin Mare Rubrum, Arabic, البحر الأحمر. Al-Baḥr Al-Aḥmar, Somali Badda Cas and Tigrinya Qeyyiḥ bāḥrī, the name of the sea may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured Trichodesmium erythraeum near the waters surface. A theory favored by modern scholars is that the name red is referring to the direction south. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the cardinal directions, herodotus on one occasion uses Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably. Historically, it was known to western geographers as Mare Mecca. Some ancient geographers called the Red Sea the Arabian Gulf or Gulf of Arabia. C, in that version, the Yam Suph is translated as Erythra Thalassa. The Red Sea is one of four seas named in English after common color terms — the others being the Black Sea, the White Sea and the Yellow Sea. The direct rendition of the Greek Erythra thalassa in Latin as Mare Erythraeum refers to the part of the Indian Ocean. The earliest known exploration of the Red Sea was conducted by ancient Egyptians, one such expedition took place around 2500 BC, and another around 1500 BC. Both involved long voyages down the Red Sea, historically, scholars argued whether these trips were possibleRed Sea – Red Sea
6. Arable land – Arable land is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops. In Britain, it was contrasted with pasturable lands such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing. A quite different kind of definition is used by various agencies concerned with agriculture, the abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for ‘Arable land’ are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable, a briefer definition appearing in the Eurostat glossary similarly refers to actual, rather than potential use, land worked regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations the worlds Arable land amounted to 1,407 M ha, out of a total 4,924 M ha land used for agriculture, as for year 2013. Agricultural land that is not arable according to the FAO definition above includes, Permanent crop - land that produces crops from woody vegetation, other non-arable land includes land unsuitable for any agricultural use. Although such limitations may preclude cultivation, and some will in some cases preclude any agricultural use, for example, US NRCS statistics indicate that about 59 percent of US non-federal pasture and unforested rangeland is unsuitable for cultivation, yet such land has value for grazing of livestock. Similar examples can be found in many rangeland areas elsewhere, land incapable of being cultivated for production of crops can sometimes be converted to arable land. New arable land makes more food, and can reduce starvation and this outcome also makes a country more self-sufficient and politically independent, because food importation is reduced. This process is extremely expensive. An alternative is the Seawater Greenhouse which desalinates water through evaporation and condensation using solar energy as the energy input. This technology is optimized to grow crops on land close to the sea. The people covered the islands with a layer of seaweed. Israel, The construction of desalination plants along Israels coast allowed agriculture in areas that were formerly desert. The desalination plants, which remove the salt from water, have created a new source of water for farming, drinking. Slash and burn agriculture uses nutrients in wood ash, but these expire within a few years, terra preta, fertile tropical soils created by adding charcoal. Some examples of fertile land being turned into infertile land are. Rainforest deforestation, The fertile tropical forests are converted into infertile desert land, for example, Madagascars central highland plateau has become virtually totally barren, as a result of slash-and-burn deforestation, an element of shifting cultivation practiced by many nativesArable land – Modern mechanized agriculture permits large fields like this one in Dorset, England.
7. Valley of the Kings – The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley and West Valley, with the 2005 discovery of a new chamber. And the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers and it was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs, almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the Pharaohs. This area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, in modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis, exploration, excavation and conservation continues in the valley, and a new tourist centre has recently been opened. The types of soil where the Valley of the Kings is located are a sandwich of dense limestone and other sedimentary rock. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains, there is currently little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs. The quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the occasional layer of shale also caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered, builders took advantage of available geological features when constructing the tombs. Some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, the problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of Ramesses III and his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte started to excavate KV11 but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he usurped the tomb of Twosret. When looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended the partly-excavated tomb started by his father, the tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis, probably due to the quality of the rock being excavated. The area of the Theban hills is subject to infrequent violent thunder storms, recent studies have shown that there are at least seven active flood stream beds leading down into the central area of the valley. This central area appears to have been flooded at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, the tombs KV63, KV62, and KV55 are dug into the actual wadi bedrock rather than the debris, showing that the level of the valley was five meters below its present level. This was the area that was the subject of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project ground scanning radar investigation, the Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or The Peak. It has an appearance, and it is probable that this echoed the pyramids of the Old Kingdom. Its isolated position also resulted in reduced access, and special police were able to guard the necropolisValley of the Kings – Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, west of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location)
8. River Nile – The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river. In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is also known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river deltaRiver Nile – The river in Uganda
9. Mediterranean – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, land, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is also called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek, Latin, and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate, geology, and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, later, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare NostrumMediterranean – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
10. French Navy – The French Navy, informally La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. As of June 2014, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 personnel, the reserve element of the French Navy consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The French naval fleet includes more than a hundred vessels and nuclear type submarines, the history of the French Navy dates back to the History of the French Navy of Antiquity to the Renaissance, part of the History of the French Navy. The French Royal Navy was quasi inexistent prior 1624, the Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem, which was both a religious and military order, had its own respective international war fleet which assured the policing of the seas in the Mediterranean. The members which had satisfied obligations for periods in service at sea fulfilling their service, were granted the rank of Knights Hospitaller, however, many considered the naval service formation to integrate later, while being well formed, their respective navy. The Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem was one of the ancestors of the French naval schools and in principal, the Order accordingly formed most of the ships Captains, Officers of the French Royal Navy and Admirals of the Marine française de guerre de la Méditerranée. During the Revolution, the French Navy succeeded to the French Royal Navy, under the First French Empire and the Second French Empire, the navy was designated as the Imperial French Navy. The French Navy is still designated today familiarly as La Royale and this expression was used by commercial sailors due to their military service at the corps of the navy by the institution of maritime inscription. The implementation then of the Ministère de la Marine later the de la Marine de guerre française at rue Royale. The symbol of the French Navy, which was since origin a golden anchor » and this symbol featured on all naval vessels, the arms, uniforms, the couriers, equipment, and general arms of the navy. This symbol was replaced in 1990 by a logo featuring a bow section of a warship with two ascending red and blue spray foams, and the inscription Marine nationale. The Chief of Staff of the French Navy was Admiral Bernard Louzeau, the navy became a consistent instrument of national power around the seventeenth century with Richelieus efforts under Louis XIII, and Colberts under Louis XIV. Under the tutelage of the Sun King, the French Navy was well-financed and -equipped, managing to score several victories in the Nine Years War against the Royal Navy. Financial troubles, however, forced the navy back to port and allowed the English, before the Nine Years War, in the Franco-Dutch War, it managed to score a decisive victory over a combined Spanish-Dutch fleet at the Battle of Palermo. The French Navy scored various successes, as in the campaigns led in the Atlantic by Picquet de la Motte, in 1766, Bougainville led the first French circumnavigation. During the American Revolutionary War the French Navy played a role in supporting the Americans. French warships participated in the battle by bombarding British ground forces, in India, Suffren waged campaigns against the British, successfully contending for supremacy against Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes. In the Mediterranean, the French Navy waged a campaign during a 1798 French invasion of EgyptFrench Navy – French Navy ships of the line in the Battle of the Chesapeake.
11. Alexandria – Alexandria is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is Egypts largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypts imports and exports and it is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also an important tourist destination, Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town c.331 BC by Alexander the Great. Alexandria was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome, Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexanders chief architect for the project was Dinocrates, Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews, the city was later plundered and lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland, as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis, already existed on the shore also and it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to his city, after Alexanders departure, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion. Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandrias continuous development, the Heptastadion, inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and and it became Egypts main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there, in AD115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. On 21 July 365, Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami, the Islamic prophet, Muhammads first interaction with the people of Egypt occurred in 628, during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha. He sent Hatib bin Abi Baltaeh with a letter to the king of Egypt and Alexandria called Muqawqis In the letter Muhammad said, I invite you to accept Islam, Allah the sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you bear the burden of the transgression of all the CoptsAlexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
12. Malta – Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy,284 km east of Tunisia, the country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the worlds smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union, Malta has one national language, which is Maltese, and English as an official language. John, French and British, have ruled the islands, King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross to Malta in 1942 for the countrys bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Maltas national flag, the country became a republic in 1974, and although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the United Nations in 1964 and to the European Union in 2004, in 2008, Catholicism is the official religion in Malta. The origin of the term Malta is uncertain, and the modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language, the most common etymology is that the word Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, meli, honey. The ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning honey-sweet, possibly due to Maltas unique production of honey, an endemic species of bee lives on the island. The Romans went on to call the island Melita, which can be considered either as a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth a haven or port in reference to Maltas many bays, few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. The extinction of the hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on Malta. Prehistoric farming settlements dating to the Early Neolithic period were discovered in areas and also in caves. The Sicani were the tribe known to have inhabited the island at this time and are generally regarded as being closely related to the Iberians. Pottery from the Għar Dalam phase is similar to found in Agrigento. A culture of megalithis temple builders then either supplanted or arose from this early period, the temples have distinctive architecture, typically a complex trefoil design, and were used from 4000 to 2500 BCE. Animal bones and a knife found behind an altar stone suggest that temple rituals included animal sacrifice. Tentative information suggests that the sacrifices were made to the goddess of fertility, the culture apparently disappeared from the Maltese Islands around 2500 BC. Archaeologists speculate that the builders fell victim to famine or diseaseMalta – Ġgantija megalithic temple complex
13. Ships of the line – However, the introduction of the ironclad frigate in about 1859 led swiftly to the decline of the steam-assisted ships of the line. The term ship of the line has fallen into disuse except in historical contexts, after warships, the heavily armed carrack, first developed in Portugal for either trade or war in the Atlantic Ocean, was the precursor of the ship of the line. Other maritime European states quickly adopted it in the late 15th and these vessels were developed by fusing aspects of the cog of the North Sea and galley of the Mediterranean Sea. Over time these castles became higher and larger, and eventually were built into the structure of the ship and this aspect of the cog remained in the newer-style carrack designs and proved its worth in battles like that at Diu in 1509. The Mary Rose was an early 16th century English carrack or great ship and she was heavily armed with 78 guns and 91 after an upgrade in the 1530s. Built in Portsmouth in 1510–1512, she was one of the earliest purpose-built men-of-war in the English navy and she was over 500 tons burthen, had a keel of over 32 m and a crew of 200 sailors,185 soldiers and 30 gunners. Although the pride of the English fleet, she sank during the battle of the Solent,19 July 1545. Henri Grâce à Dieu, nicknamed Great Harry, was another early English carrack, contemporary with Mary Rose, Henri Grâce à Dieu was 165 feet long, weighing 1, 000–1,500 tons and having a complement of 700–1,000. It is said that she was ordered by Henry VIII in response to the Scottish ship Michael, launched in 1511. She was originally built at Woolwich Dockyard from 1512 to 1514 and was one of the first vessels to feature gunports and had twenty of the new heavy bronze cannon, in all she mounted 43 heavy guns and 141 light guns. She was the first English two-decker, and when launched she was the largest and most powerful warship in Europe, but she saw little action. She was present at the Battle of the Solent against Francis I of France in 1545 but appears to have more of a diplomatic vessel. Indeed, the ships were almost as well known for their ornamental design as they were for the power they possessed. Carracks fitted for war carried large-calibre guns aboard, because of their higher freeboard and greater load-bearing ability, this type of vessel was better suited than the galley to gunpowder weapons. Because of their development for conditions in the Atlantic, these ships were more weatherly than galleys, the lack of oars meant that large crews were unnecessary, making long journeys more feasible. Their disadvantage was that they were reliant on the wind for mobility. Galleys could still overwhelm great ships, especially when there was wind and they had a numerical advantage. Another detriment was the forecastle, which interfered with the sailing qualities of the shipShips of the line – HMS Hercule as depicted in her fight against the frigate Poursuivante
14. Sloop – A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig. A sloop has only one head-sail, if a vessel has two or more head-sails, the cutter is used, and its mast may be set further aft than on a sloop. The most common rig of modern sailboats is the Bermuda-rigged sloop, typically, a modern sloop carries a mainsail on a boom aft of the mast, with a single loose-footed head-sail forward of the mast. Sloops are either masthead-rigged or fractional-rigged, on a masthead-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches at the top of the mast. The mainsail may be smaller than the headsail, which is called a genoa jib. On a fractional-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches to the mast at a point below the top, typically 3/4 of the way to top, or perhaps 7/8 or some other fraction. The mast of a fractional-rigged sloop may be placed forward, compared to a masthead-rigged sloop. After the cat rig, which has only a mainsail, the rig is one of the simpler sailing rig configurations. A sloop typically has two sails, a mainsail and a headsail, while the cutter has a mainsail and two or more headsails, next in complexity are the ketch, the yawl and the schooner, each of which has two masts and a minimum of three sails. A sloop has a system of mast rigging — a forestay. By having only two sails, the sails of a sloop are larger than those of an equivalent cutter. Until the advent of lightweight sailcloth and modern sail-handling systems, the sails of a sloop could be a handful. So, until the 1950s, sailboats over 10 metres Length Over All would typically use a rig or a two-mast rig. After the advent of modern winches and light sailcloth, the became the dominant sailing rig type for all. No rig type is perfect for all conditions, sloops, with their paucity of spars and control lines tend to impart less aerodynamic drag. Compared to other rigs, sloops tend to very well when sailing close hauled to windward. Cutters, ketches and yawls are often preferred to sloops when venturing far offshore, because it is easier to reef small sails as the wind increases, while still keeping the boat balanced. To maximize the amount of sail carried, the classic sloop may use a bowsprit, for downwind sailing, the typical foresail may be replaced by larger curved sails known as spinnakers or gennakersSloop – Sloop Rigged Santa Cruz 70 "Retro" off Newport Beach California
15. Sir Horatio Nelson – Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté KB was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was wounded several times in combat, losing most of one arm in the attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife. He was shot and killed during his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling and he rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service and he fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. The following year, he won a victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory and he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805, on 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelsons fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle was Britains greatest naval victory, but during the action Nelson and his body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral. Nelsons death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britains most heroic figures, numerous monuments, including Nelsons Column in Trafalgar Square, London, and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains highly influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England and he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole then 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton. His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham, Suffolk, and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, Nelsons aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough, Norfolk and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, and also attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training, early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Sucklings longboat, at his nephews request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS CarcassSir Horatio Nelson – Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott
16. Napoleonic Wars – The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, then Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe. Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies then invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with FranceNapoleonic Wars – Top: Battle of Austerlitz Bottom: Battle of Waterloo
17. Siege of Acre (1799) – The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre and was the turning point of Napoleons invasion of Egypt and Syria. It was one of Napoleons few defeats, Acre was a site of significant strategic importance due to its commanding position on the route between Egypt and Syria. Bonaparte wanted to capture it following his invasion of Egypt and he hoped to incite a Syrian rebellion against the Ottomans and threaten British rule in India. After the Siege of Jaffa, which was followed by two days and nights of massacre and rape by the French forces, the defenders of the citadel were even more fierce, the French attempted to lay siege on 20 March using only their infantry. Napoleon believed the city would capitulate quickly to him, however, the troops of the capable Jezzar Pasha, refusing to surrender, withstood the siege for one and a half months. Haim Farhi, al-Jazzars Jewish adviser and right-hand man, played a key role in the citys defense and these facts were well known to the townspeople and defending troops in Acre, and the prospect is likely to have stiffened their resistance. A Royal Navy flotilla under Commodore Sidney Smith helped to reinforce the Ottoman defences and supplied the city with cannon manned by sailors. Smith used his command of the sea to capture the French siege artillery being sent by a flotilla of gunboats from Egypt, an artillery expert from the fleet, Antoine Le Picard de Phélippeaux, then redeployed against Napoleons forces the artillery pieces which the British had intercepted. Smith anchored the line-of-battle ships Tigre and Theseus so their broadsides could assist the defence, the gunboats, which were of shallower draft, could come in closer, and together they helped repel repeated French assaults. On 16 April a Turkish relief force was fought off at the Mount Tabor, by early May, replacement French siege artillery had arrived overland and a breach was forced in the defences. At the culmination of the assault, the forces managed to make a breach in the walls. Discovery of this new construction convinced Napoleon and his men that the probability of their taking the city was minimal, moreover, after the assault was again repelled, Turkish reinforcements from Rhodes were able to land. Plague had struck the French camp as a result of the condition of the men. Throughout the siege, both Napoleon and Jezzar sought in vain the assistance of the Shihab leader, Bashir—ruler of much of present-day Lebanon. As things turned out, it was the French side which suffered most from the attitude of Bashir, Napoleon Bonaparte retreated two months later on 21 May after a failed final assault on 10 May, and withdrew to Egypt. I would have made them into a Sacred Battalion--my Immortals, I would have finished the war against the Turks with Arabic, Greek, and Armenian troops. Instead of a battle in Moravia, I would have won a Battle of Issus, I would have made myself emperor of the East, whether this is true or not, Farhi defended the city with the rest of the Turks. Whatever Napoleons actual intentions, these stories and rumors are considered to be among the earliest harbingers of what would become the Zionist MovementSiege of Acre (1799) – The general outlook of Old Acre, seen here in a present-day view from above, has changed little since 1799
18. War of the Second Coalition – The War of the Second Coalition was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal and Naples. Their goal was to contain the spread of chaos from France and they failed to overthrow the revolutionary regime and French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. The Allies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back Frances previous military conquests, the Coalition did very well in 1799, but Russia pulled out. Napoleon took charge in France in late 1799, and he, in the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, Italy, while Austria was granted Venetia and the Dalmatian coast. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, by May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France. On 20 April 1792, the French Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria, in this War of the First Coalition, France ranged itself against most of the European states sharing land or water borders with her, plus Portugal and the Ottoman Empire. In the summer of 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt, where his army was trapped, meanwhile, during his absence from Europe, the outbreak of violence in Switzerland drew French support against the old Swiss Confederation. When revolutionaries overthrew the government in Bern, the French Army of the Alps invaded. In northern Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories, driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic were defeated by French commander André Masséna, ultimately the Russians left the Coalition when Great Britain insisted on the right to search all vessels it stopped at sea. In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, Jourdan was replaced by Massena, who then combined the Armies of the Danube and Helvetia. From October 1797 until March 1799, the signatories of the Treaty of Campo Formio avoided armed conflict, despite their agreement at Campo Formio, two primary combatants, France and Austria, remained suspicious of each other and several diplomatic incidents undermined the agreement. The French demanded additional territory not mentioned in the Treaty, the Habsburgs were reluctant to hand over designated territories, much less additional ones. The Congress at Rastatt proved inept at orchestrating the transfer of territories to compensate the German princes for their losses, Ferdinand of Naples refused to pay tribute to France, followed by the Neapolitan rebellion and the subsequent establishment of the Parthenopaean Republic. Republicans in the Swiss cantons, supported by the French army, overthrew the government in Bern. Other factors contributed to the rising tensions, on his way to Egypt, Napoleon had stopped at the heavily fortified port city of Valletta. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, who ruled the island, the French Knights of the order deserted, and the remaining Knights failed to mount a successful resistance. Bonaparte forcibly removed the other Knights from their possessions, angering Paul, Tsar of Russia, the French Directory, furthermore, was convinced that the Austrians were conniving to start another warWar of the Second Coalition – Louis-François Lejeune: the Battle of Marengo
19. Battle of Trafalgar – The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England. Nelson instead divided his force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the enemy fleet, with decisive results. Nelson was shot by a French musketeer during the battle and died shortly after, Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet, Villeneuve attended Nelsons funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon Bonaparte, was the dominant military power on the European continent. During the course of the war, the British imposed a blockade on France. When the Third Coalition declared war on France, after the short-lived Peace of Amiens, to do so, he needed to ensure that the Royal Navy would be unable to disrupt the invasion flotilla, which would require control of the English Channel. The main French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at Toulon on the Mediterranean coast, other ports on the French Atlantic coast harboured smaller squadrons. France and Spain were allied, so the Spanish fleet based in Cádiz, the British possessed an experienced and well-trained corps of naval officers. By contrast, some of the best officers in the French navy had either been executed or had left the service during the part of the French Revolution. Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had taken command of the French Mediterranean fleet following the death of Latouche Treville, there had been more competent officers but they had either been employed elsewhere or had fallen from Napoleons favour. Villeneuve had shown a lack of enthusiasm for facing Nelson. Napoleons naval plan in 1805 was for the French and Spanish fleets in the Mediterranean and Cádiz to break through the blockade and join forces in the Caribbean. They would then return, assist the fleet in Brest to emerge from the blockade, early in 1805, Vice Admiral Lord Nelson commanded the British fleet blockading Toulon. Unlike William Cornwallis, who maintained a blockade off Brest with the Channel Fleet. However, Villeneuves fleet successfully evaded Nelsons when the British were blown off station by storms, Nelson commenced a search of the Mediterranean, erroneously supposing that the French intended to make for Egypt. However, Villeneuve took his fleet through the Strait of Gibraltar, rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, once Nelson realised that the French had crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he set off in pursuitBattle of Trafalgar – The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the starboard mizzen shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806 to 1808)
20. Sahara – The Sahara is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic. Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, and the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan. It stretches from the Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape gradually changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of tropical savanna around the Niger River valley. The Sahara can be divided into several regions including, the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti Mountains, the Aïr Mountains, the Ténéré desert, the name Sahara is derived from ṣaḥārā, the plural of the Arabic word for desert. The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and it covers 9 million square kilometres, amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with an annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included. It is one of three physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara is mainly rocky hamada, Ergs form only a minor part, wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features, sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, dry lakes, and salt flats. Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania, several deeply dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tibesti Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, and the Red Sea hills. The highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi, a volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. The central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation, the northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are subdivisions of the great desert, Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years, the northern limit also corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, the southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha, or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. According to climatic criteria, the limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. The Sahara is the worlds largest low-latitude hot desert and this steady descending airflow causes a warming and a drying effect in the upper troposphereSahara – A satellite image of the Sahara by NASA World Wind.
21. Algeria – Algeria, officially the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999, Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a regional and middle power, the North African country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world, Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent, most of Algerias weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the countrys name derives from the city of Algiers. The citys name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāir, a form of the older Jazāir Banī Mazghanna. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found, neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques, tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian. The earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian and this industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb perhaps as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC and this life, richly depicted in the Tassili nAjjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a native population that came to be called Berbers. These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages, as Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, by the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. They succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthages North African territory, the Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic WarsAlgeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
22. Chad – Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east and it is the fifth largest country in Africa in terms of area. Chad has several regions, a zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad, the capital NDjamena is the largest city. Chads official languages are Arabic and French, Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. The religions of Chad are Islam, followed by Christianity, beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa, in 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the souths hegemony, however, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby, since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. Unsustainable high birth rates and a lack of agriculture let the country persist in poverty, while many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by violence and recurrent attempted coups détat. Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world, since 2003 crude oil has become the countrys primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the half of Chadian territory favored human settlement. Some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad, mainly in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region, for more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people. The region became a crossroads of civilizations, the earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chads Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD, two other states in the region, Baguirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trade routes that passed through the regionChad – Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem-Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
23. Libya – The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya, the other large city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age, the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire, Libya was an early center of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1943. During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign, the Italian population then went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951, a military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I, beginning a period of sweeping social reform. Since then, Libya has experienced a period of instability, the European Union is involved in an operation to disrupt human trafficking networks exploiting refugees fleeing from wars in Africa for Europe. At least two political bodies claim to be the government of Libya, the Council of Deputies is internationally recognized as the legitimate government, but it does not hold territory in the capital, Tripoli, instead meeting in the Cyrenaica city of Tobruk. Parts of Libya are outside of either governments control, with various Islamist, rebel, the United Nations is sponsoring peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based factions. An agreement to form an interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council, the leaders of the new government, called the Government of National Accord, arrived in Tripoli on 5 April 2016. Since then the GNC, one of the two governments, has disbanded to support the new GNA. The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the name for Northwest Africa. The name was based on use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911Libya – The temple of Zeus in the ancient Greek city of Cyrene.
24. Mali – Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres, the population of Mali is 14.5 million. The countrys economy centers on agriculture and fishing, some of Malis prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the poverty line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims, present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade, the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, at its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegals withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, a conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state. The conflict was complicated by a coup that took place in March. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013, a month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round held on 11 August. The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire, the name was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean the place where the king lives. The word carries the connotation of strength, D. Niane suggests in Sundiata, An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was indeed called Mali and this name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali there is one village called Malikoma which means “New Mali. ”Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/, Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commoditiesMali – The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
25. Morocco – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God. The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in MoroccoMorocco – Berber Roman King Ptolemy of Mauretania.
26. Western Sahara – Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres. It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, the population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. Occupied by Spain until the late 20th century, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand and it is the most populous territory on that list, and by far the largest in area. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, one year later, a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting that a referendum be held by Spain on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the control of the territory to a joint administration by Morocco. A war erupted between those countries and a Sahrawi nationalist movement, the Polisario Front, which proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Mauritania withdrew its claims in 1979, and Morocco eventually secured de facto control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources. The United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the representative of the Sahrawi people. As of 2017, no member state of the United Nations has ever recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. However, a number of countries have expressed their support for a recognition of the Moroccan annexation of the territory as an autonomous part of the Kingdom. Overall, the annexation has not garnered as much attention in the community as many other disputed annexations. Internationally, countries such as Russia have taken a generally ambiguous and neutral position on each sides claims, both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition, essentially from African, Asian, and Latin American states in the developing world. The Polisario Front has won recognition for SADR from 37 states. Morocco has won recognition or support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Muslim world, in both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been extended and withdrawn according to changing international trends. Western Sahara is located in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and it also borders Algeria to the northeast. The land is some of the most arid and inhospitable on the planet, the land along the coast is low, flat desert and rises, especially in the north, to small mountains reaching up to 600 metres on the eastern side. While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams, at times a cool off-shore current can produce fog and heavy dew. The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the Gaetuli, depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribesWestern Sahara – Commemoration of the 30th independence day from Spain in the Liberated Territories (2005)
27. Sudan – Sudan, also known as North Sudan since South Sudans independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, the River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, by virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language, Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa and also the third largest country in the Arab world and its capital is Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. It is a representative democratic federal republic. The politics of Sudan are regulated by an organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law, the countrys place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or the lands of the Blacks, during the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the centuries become the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and it was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai, pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sennacheribs successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa, Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony, however, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent an army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani. During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë, in ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as EthiopiaSudan – The large mud brick temple, known as the shrek or Western Deffufa, in the ancient city of Kerma
28. Tunisia – Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent and it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisias population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014, Tunisias name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on Tunisias northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the end of the Atlas Mountains. Much of the rest of the land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic and it is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human development index. In addition, Tunisia is also a state of the United Nations. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation, in ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC, these immigrants founded Carthage, a major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the eight hundred years, introduced Christianity. After several attempts starting in 647, the Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881, Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis, an urban hub. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с and Spanish Túnez, in this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference. The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins and it is generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means to lay down or encampmentTunisia – Ancient ruins of a Roman villa at Carthage
29. Wadi es-Sebua – Wadi es-Sebua, or Valley of the Lions, is the site of two New Kingdom Egyptian temples, including one speos temple constructed by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, in Lower Nubia. The first temple was built by the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III, in its first stage, this temple consisted of a rock-cut sanctuary fronted by a brick-built pylon, a court and a hall, partly painted with wall paintings. The temple was dedicated to one of the local Nubian forms of Horus. During the Amarna period, images of Amun were attacked and the decorations deteriorated, the second larger temple which was built at el-Sebua was known as The Temple of Riamesse-meryamun in the Domain of Amun and constructed roughly 150 m northeast of Amenhotep IIIs temple. Contemporary monuments and representations of the viceroy of Kush, Setau, Setau is known to have served as the Viceroy of Kush or Nubia between Year 38 to 63 of this pharaohs reign and was responsible for Ramesses later Nubian temples. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was the sanctuary or chapel constructed from rock with a forecourt built with stones that Ramesses II erected in Nubia. The temple of Ramesses beloved of Amon in the field of Amun was used as a quay or resting place for boats during its descent of the Nile river. The local Arabs, inspired by the sculptures of sphinxes which lined the entrance to the first temple. The temple comprised three parts, two open courts which were decorated with sphinxes or dromos, a large interior court with Osiride pillars. This temple was, hence, partly free-standing and partly rock-cut, the temple once possessed three pylons. The first two, however, were made of inferior Nile mud brick and have since crumbled, only the stone gate passageway through them has survived. Beyond the first tower, the first courtyard appears with two human headed sphinxes accompanied by two statues of the pharaoh himself which originally stand on both sides of the passageway, only the left-hand statue of Ramesses II remains in situ whereas the other statue now lies in the desert. Between their legs, a statuette with the image of Ramesses capped with the crown appears. Just prior to entering the tower, four colossal statues of Ramesses II appear of which. The third pylon is decorated with the conventional Egyptian style of the Pharaoh smiting his enemies and making offerings to the gods, however, the offering scenes on the walls survive, and some retain their colour. The antechamber opens into two rooms, two side chapels and the sanctuary itself. Although the statues in the niches were destroyed, they undoubtedly represented Amon-Re, Re-Harakhty. The larger temple at Wadi es-Sebua was built in the rather rough Nubian style, in the 5th century AD, the temple was converted into a Christian churchWadi es-Sebua – A picture of Wadi es-Sebua temple in Nubia
30. Temple of Derr – The Temple of Derr or el-Derr is a speos or rock-cut Egyptian temple in Lower Nubia. It was built during the 19th Dynasty by Pharaoh Ramesses II and it is the only rock-cut temple in Nubia which was constructed by this pharaoh on the right bank of the Nile and used to stand at el-Derr. The temples unique position was probably because the river on its approach to the Korosko bend flows in a southeasterly direction. The Derr structure was known in ancient times as The Temple of Riamsese-meryamun in the Domain of Re and was dedicated to the god Ra-Horakhty, abu Simbel was built between Year 24 and Year 31 of Ramesses reign. According to Joyce Tyldesley, the Temple of Derr was built by Setau, when cleaned and restored in modern times, Derr proved to contain unusually bright and vivid relief decorations which contrasted sharply with the more subdued color tones from other Egyptian temples. In 1964, the temple was dismantled and relocated, along with the Temple of Amada, early travellers visited the original site, and the temple itself was first studied and published by Aylward Blackman in 1913Temple of Derr – Facade of the reassembled Temple of Derr
31. Lake Nasser – Lake Nasser is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world, before construction, Sudan was against the building of Lake Nasser because it would encroach on land in the North, where the Nubian people lived. They would have to be resettled, in the end Sudans land near the area of Lake Nasser was mostly flooded by the lake. Strictly, Lake Nasser refers only to the larger portion of the lake that is in Egyptian territory. The lake is some 69 km long and 35 km across at its widest point and it covers a total surface area of 5,250 km2 and has a storage capacity of some 132 km3 of water. The lake was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam across the waters of the Nile between 1958 and 1970. The lake is named after Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and the second President of Egypt and it was President Anwar Sadat who inaugurated the lake and dam in 1970. Egypt lacks the water it needs for agriculture, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, currently being constructed in Ethiopia will most likely adversely affect Lake Nasser. While the Renaissance Dam will benefit Sudan and Ethiopia, it has caused tensions between Egypt and Sudan and Ethiopia, Egypt is worried that the new dam will stop the Nile River from adequately filling Lake Nasser. The water supply of Lake Nasser produces electricity and there is concern that water flowing into Lake Nasser will adversely affect Aswan Dams ability to generate electricity. There are pumping stations that control the water going into Lake Nasser, a fish enclosure was built in Lake Nasser. Fishing among tourists, especially for Nile perch, has become increasingly popular, the statue of Ramses II and others, at Abu Simbel Temple, look out over Lake Nasser and tourists can enjoy the view from their cruise ship. Washington, GPO for the Library of Congress,1990, Lake Nasser at Encyclopædia Britannica 360 panorama of the lakeLake Nasser – View from Abu Simbel
32. Maimonides Synagogue – The Maimonides Synagogue, also known as the Rav Moshe Synagogue, is a historic synagogue located in Cairo, Egypt. A synagogue has existed at the site since the 10th century and was named after the famous Jewish philosopher, rabbi and physician Maimonides. It is believed that Maimonides original tomb is contained within the building, in March 2010, the Egyptian government completed the restoration of the current building which dates from the late 19th century. A synagogue has existed at the site from around two centuries before Maimonides emigrated to Egypt in around 1168, following his exile from Córdoba, the Almohads had conquered Córdoba in 1148 and threatened the Jewish community with the choice of conversion to Islam, death, or exile. Maimonides family, along with most other Jews, chose exile, after spending ten years in southern Spain, they moved to Morocco and then eventually settled in Fustat, Egypt in around 1168. In Egypt, he gained recognition and became a court physician to Qadi al-Fadil. Maimonides studied and worked in an attached to the small synagogue. The synagogue and yeshiva are located in Harat al-Yahud, the Jewish quarter of medieval Cairo, after his death in Fustat on December 12,1204, it is believed that he was buried for a short while at the synagogue before being reinterred in Tiberias. According to tradition, his bones were placed for a week in a shrine where he used to study. In the 19th century, another synagogue was built on the site, the situation of Egypts Jews became increasingly precarious in the middle of the 20th century. Several thousand Jewish residents were expelled from the following the 1956 war and thousands more fled the hostile social. Egypts Jewish population eventually dropped from 80,000 to less than 100, with only about 30 Jews left in Cairo, the synagogue was closed, and almost collapsed due to underground water and earthquakes. The ceiling of the collapsed in 1992, and the debris was left on the floor. The slum area in which synagogue was located was littered with garbage, the head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Hawass, said that the synagogue was used for the last time in 1960, and then was allowed to crumble. Although it was declared an antiquity in 1986, the condition of the synagogue had deteriorated further by 2005. A holy ark with a door was located in the small courtyard. The arks Star of David was still present, but was hanging on only by a thread, in June 2009, the Egyptian government began a year-long restoration project, unveiled in August 2009 by their head of antiquities Zahi Hawass. The $2 million, 18-month restoration project of the Rav Moshe synagogue, the restoration work was finished in March 2010Maimonides Synagogue – Front of the synagogue of Moses Maimonides in 2006 before its renovation in 2010, Jewish quarter, el-Muski, Cairo
33. Jewish philosopher – Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. With their acceptance into society, Jews with secular educations embraced or developed entirely new philosophies to meet the demands of the world in which they now found themselves. Medieval re-discovery of ancient Greek philosophy among the Geonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism, the philosophy was generally in competition with Kabbalah. Both schools would become part of classic Rabbinic literature, though the decline of scholastic rationalism coincided with events which drew Jews to the Kabbalistic approach. For Ashkenazi Jews, emancipation and encounter with secular thought from the 18th-century onwards altered how philosophy was viewed, Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities had later more ambivalent interaction with secular culture than in Western Europe. In the varied responses to modernity, Jewish philosophical ideas were developed across the range of emerging religious movements, Rabbinic literature sometimes views Abraham as a philosopher. Some have suggested that Abraham introduced a philosophy learned from Melchizedek, a midrash describes how Abraham understood this world to have a creator and director by comparing this world to a house with a light in it, what is now called the argument from design. Psalms contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works, from this, some scholars suggest, Judaism harbors a Philosophical under-current. Ecclesiastes is often considered to be the only genuine philosophical work in the Hebrew Bible, its author seeks to understand the place of human beings in the world, Philo attempted to fuse and harmonize Greek and Jewish philosophy through allegory, which he learned from Jewish exegesis and Stoicism. Philo attempted to make his philosophy the means of defending and justifying Jewish religious truths and these truths he regarded as fixed and determinate, and philosophy was used as an aid to truth, and a means of arriving at it. To this end Philo chose from philosophical tenets of Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with Judaism such as Aristotles doctrine of the eternity and indestructibility of the world. Dr. Philosophical speculation was not a part of Rabbinic Judaism. Rabbi Akiva has also been viewed as a figure, his statements include 1. )How favored is man, for he was created after an image for in an image, Elokim made man,2. )Everything is foreseen. But the divine decision is made by the preponderance of the good or bad in ones actions, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, Rabbinic scholars gathered in Tiberias and Safed to re-assemble and re-assess Judaism, its laws, theology, liturgy, beliefs and leadership structure. In 219 CE, the Sura Academy was founded by Abba Arika, for the next five centuries, Talmudic academies focused upon reconstituting Judaism and little, if any, philosophic investigation was pursued. These investigations triggered new ideas and intellectual exchange among Jewish and Islamic scholars in the areas of jurisprudence, mathematics, astronomy, logic, Jewish scholars influenced Islamic scholars and Islamic scholars influenced Jewish scholars. Around 733 CE, Mar Natronai ben Habibai moves to Kairouan, then to Spain, borrowing from the Mutakallamin of Basra, the Karaites were the first Jewish group to subject Judaism to Muʿtazila. Rejecting the Talmud and Rabbinical tradition, Karaites took liberty to reinterpret the Tanakh and this meant abandoning foundational Jewish belief structuresJewish philosopher – Philo
34. Rabbi – In Judaism, a rabbi /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רַבִּי rabi, meaning My Master, the word master רב rav literally means great one. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, the first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early to mid first century CE. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, for example, Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as rabbis, but other movements have chosen to do so for halakhic reasons as well as ethical reasons. Although the usage rabbim many the majority, the multitude occurs for the assembly of the community in the Dead Sea scrolls there is no evidence to support an association with the later title Rabbi, the root is cognate to Arabic ربّ rabb, meaning lord. As a sign of respect, some great rabbis are simply called The Rav. The titles Rabban and Rabbi are first mentioned in the Mishnah, the term was first used for Rabban Gamaliel the elder, Rabban Simeon his son, and Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai, all of whom were patriarchs or presidents of the Sanhedrin. The title Rabbi occurs in the books of Matthew, Mark, and John in the New Testament, other variants are rəvī and, in Yiddish, rebbə. The word could be compared to the Syriac word ܪܒܝ rabi, in ancient Hebrew, rabbi was a proper term of address while speaking to a superior, in the second person, similar to a vocative case. While speaking about a superior, in the person one could say ha-rav or rabbo. Later, the term evolved into a title for members of the Patriarchate. Thus, the title gained an irregular form, רַבָּנִים rabbanim. Rabbi as a title does not appear in the Hebrew Bible. All of the above personalities would have expected to be steeped in the wisdom of the Torah and the commandments. And honor is due only for Torah, as it is said, The wise shall inherit honor, and only Torah is truly good, as it is said, I have given you a good teaching, do not forsake My Torah. This was eventually encoded and codified within the Mishnah and Talmud and subsequent rabbinical scholarship, the title Rabbi was borne by the sages of ancient Israel, who were ordained by the Sanhedrin in accordance with the custom handed down by the elders. They were titled Ribbi and received authority to judge penal cases, Rab was the title of the Babylonian sages who taught in the Babylonian academies. After the suppression of the Patriarchate and Sanhedrin by Theodosius II in 425, a recognised scholar could be called Rab or Hacham, like the Babylonian sagesRabbi – Rabbi instructing children in 2004
35. Physician – Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world. Degrees and other qualifications vary widely, but there are common elements, such as medical ethics requiring that physicians show consideration, compassion. Around the world the term refers to a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties. This meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by drugs or medications and this term is at least nine hundred years old in English, physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, and traditionally were rivals. Henry VIII granted a charter to the London Royal College of Physicians in 1518 and it was not until 1540 that he granted the Company of Barber/Surgeons its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge, newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now, currently, a specialist physician in the United States may be described as an internist. Another term, hospitalist, was introduced in 1996, to describe US specialists in internal medicine who work largely or exclusively in hospitals, such hospitalists now make up about 19% of all US general internists, who are often called general physicians in Commonwealth countries. In such places, the more general English terms doctor or medical practitioner are prevalent, in Commonwealth countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Around the world, the term physician and surgeon is used to describe either a general practitioner or any medical practitioner irrespective of specialty. This usage still shows the meaning of physician and preserves the old difference between a physician, as a practitioner of physic, and a surgeon. The term may be used by state medical boards in the United States of America, in modern English, the term physician is used in two main ways, with relatively broad and narrow meanings respectively. This is the result of history and is often confusing and these meanings and variations are explained below. In the United States and Canada, the term physician describes all medical practitioners holding a professional medical degree, the American Medical Association, established in 1847, as well as the American Osteopathic Association, founded in 1897, both currently use the term physician to describe members. However, the American College of Physicians, established in 1915, does not, its title uses physician in its original sense. A physician trained in the United States has either a Doctor of Medicine degree, all boards of certification now require that physicians demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years, graduates of osteopathic medical schools in the United States should not be confused with osteopaths, who are trained in the European and Commonwealth nations. Their training is similar to physical therapy and they are not licensed to prescribe medications or perform surgeries, also in the United States, the American Podiatric Medical Association defines podiatrists as physicians and surgeons that fall under the department of surgery in hospitalsPhysician – "The Doctor" by Luke Fildes (detail).
36. Maimonides – In his time, he was also a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Cordova, Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve,1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi, physician and he died in Egypt on December 12,1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias. Nonetheless, he was acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law and he is sometimes known as ha Nesher ha Gadol in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah. Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides also figures prominently in the history of Islamic. Influenced by Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and his contemporary Averroes, he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and he became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds. His full Hebrew name is Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, whose acronym forms Rambam and his full Arabic name is Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin Maimūn bin ʿUbaidallāh al-Qurtabī or Mūsā bin Maymūn for short. In Latin, the Hebrew ben becomes the Greek−style suffix -ides to form Moses Maimonides, Maimonides was born in Córdoba during what some scholars consider to be the end of the golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, after the first centuries of the Moorish rule. At an early age, he developed an interest in sciences and he read those Greek philosophers accessible in Arabic translations, and was deeply immersed in the sciences and learning of Islamic culture. Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism, although a strong type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy. He expressed disapproval of poetry, the best of which he declared to be false and this sage, who was revered for his personality as well as for his writings, led a busy life, and wrote many of his works while travelling or in temporary accommodation. Maimonides studied Torah under his father Maimon, who had in turn studied under Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash, a Berber dynasty, the Almohads, conquered Córdoba in 1148, and abolished dhimmi status in some of their territories. The loss of protected status threatened the Jewish and Christian communities with conversion to Islam, death. The historical records of abuses against Jews in the immediate post-1148 period are subject to different interpretations, Maimonidess family, along with most other Jews, chose exile. Some say, though, that it is likely that Maimonides feigned a conversion to Islam before escaping and this forced conversion was ruled legally invalid under Islamic law when brought up by a rival in Egypt. For the next ten years, Maimonides moved about in southern Spain, during this time, he composed his acclaimed commentary on the Mishnah in the years 1166–1168. Following this sojourn in Morocco, together with two sons, he sojourned in the Holy Land, before settling in Fustat, Egypt around 1168, while in Cairo, he studied in a yeshiva attached to a small synagogue. In the Holy Land, he prayed at the Temple Mount and he wrote that this day of visiting the Temple Mount was a day of holiness for him and his descendantsMaimonides – 18th-century portrait of Maimonides
37. Pharaoh – The word pharaoh ultimately derive from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 great house, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr house and ˤ3 column, here meaning great or high. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 Courtier of the High House, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom, after the rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm. f, the term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the pharaoh being attached to a rulers name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun and this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives, by this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה, from that, Septuagint φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Quran likewise spells it فرعون firawn with n, interestingly, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelt it Pharao, but the King James Bible revived Pharaoh with h from the Hebrew, meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and then rro. Scepters and staves were a sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, the earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period, another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head, the earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynastyPharaoh – Den
38. List of Presidents of Egypt – This is a list of Presidents of Egypt since the establishment of that office in 1953. The President is the head of state of Egypt and the Supreme Commander of the Egyptian Armed Forces, the current President is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, elected in 2014. The first President of Egypt was Muhammad Naguib, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, who took office on 18 June 1953, the day on which Egypt was declared a republic. Since then the office has held by five further people, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat, Hosni Mubarak, Mohamed Morsi. In addition, Sufi Abu Taleb acted as President between Sadats assassination and the election of his successor, and Adly Mansour acted as President after Morsis overthrow in the 2013 coup détat. Mohamed Morsi took office on 30 June 2012, after being elected by the election held on 23–24 May. He was deposed by the Egyptian Armed Forces in a coup détat on 3 July 2013 and he was succeeded by Adly Mansour, the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, as Acting President. Mansour was sworn into office in front of the Supreme Constitutional Court on 4 July 2013, current President el-Sisi took office on 8 June 2014, after being elected by the presidential election held on 26–28 May 2014. bibalex. org/Days/DaysAll. aspx. CS=1&x=5List of Presidents of Egypt
39. United Arab Republic – The United Arab Republic, alternatively referred to, mostly in Israel in the 1960s-70s, as the United Arab Commonwealth was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria. The union began in 1958 and existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union after the 1961 Syrian coup détat, Egypt continued to be known officially as the United Arab Republic until 1971. The president was Gamal Abdel Nasser and it was a member of the United Arab States, a loose confederation with North Yemen which in 1961 dissolved along with the Republic. Pan-Arab sentiment traditionally was very strong in Syria, and Nasser was a popular hero-figure throughout the Arab world following the Suez War of 1956, there was thus considerable popular support in Syria for union with Nassers Egypt. The Arab Socialist Baath Party was the advocate of such a union. This caused the Syrian Crisis of 1957 after which Syrians intensified their efforts to unite with Egypt, according to Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Nasser initially resisted a total union with Syria, favoring instead a federal union. However, Nasser was more afraid of a Communist takeover and agreed on a total merger, Syria had had a democratic government since the overthrow of Adib al-Shishaklis military regime in 1954, and popular pressure for Arab unity was reflected in the composition of parliament. When on 11 January 1958 al-Bizri led a Syrian delegation composed of officers to Cairo. Nassers final terms for the union were decisive and non-negotiable, a plebiscite, the dissolution of parties, while the plebiscite seemed reasonable to most Syrian elites, the latter two conditions were extremely worrisome. They believed it would destroy life in Syria. Despite these concerns, the Syrian officials knew it was too late to turn back. The members of the elite in Syria viewed the merger with Egypt as the lesser of two evils. They believed that Nassers terms were unfair, but given the pressure that their government was undergoing. Egyptian and Syrian leaders signed the protocols, although Azem did so reluctantly, Nasser became the republics president and very soon carried out a crackdown against the Syrian Communists and opponents of the union which included dismissing Bizri and Azem from their posts. Advocates of the believed that Nasser would use the Baath Party for ruling Syria. Unfortunately for the Baathists, it was never Nassers intention to share a measure of power. Nasser gave each of the provinces two vice-presidents, assigning Boghdadi and Abdel Hakim Amer to Egypt and Sabri al-Assali and Akram El-Hourani—a leader of the Baath—to Syria, the new constitution of 1958 was adopted. Though Nasser allowed former Baath Party members to hold prominent political positions, during the winter and the spring of 1959–60, Nasser slowly squeezed prominent Syrians out of positions of influence. In the Syrian Ministry of Industry, for example, seven of the top thirteen positions were filled by Egyptians, in the General Petroleum Authority, four of the top six officials were EgyptianUnited Arab Republic – Nasser shaking hands with al-Bizri
40. Suez Canal – The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It was constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, after 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 17,1869. It extends from the terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km, including its northern and southern access channels, in 2012,17,225 vessels traversed the canal. The original canal was a waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass. It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it, in general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez, the canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag. In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canals transit time, the expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day. At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities, the New Suez Canal, as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015. On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel and this side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal anytime of day and night. Ancient west–east canals were built to travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal, probably incorporating a portion of the first, was constructed under the reign of Necho II, the legendary Sesostris may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea. In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote, One of their kings tried to make a canal to it, so he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, and Pliny the Elder wrote,165. Later the Persian king Darius had the idea, and yet again Ptolemy II. This proved to be the canal made by the Persian king Darius ISuez Canal – Suez Canal
41. Anti-colonialism – A less common usage is by isolationists who oppose an interventionist foreign policy. The phrase gained a wide currency after the Second World War, some anti-imperialist groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union, such as in Guevarism, while in Maoism, this was criticized as social imperialism. In the Arab and Muslim world, the term is used in the context of anti-Zionist nationalist. In the late 1870s, the term Imperialism was introduced to the English language by opponents of the imperial policies of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. It was shortly appropriated by supporters of such as Joseph Chamberlain. For some, imperialism designated a policy of idealism and philanthropy, others alleged that it was characterized by political self-interest, John A. Hobson and Lenin added a more theoretical macroeconomic connotation to the term. Many theoreticians on the left have followed either or both in emphasizing the structural or systemic character of imperialism. As the application of the term has expanded, its meaning has shifted along five distinct but often parallel axes, the moral, the economic, the systemic, the cultural, and the temporal. Those changes reflect—among other shifts in sensibility—a growing unease with the fact of power, specifically, J. A. Hobson said that domestic social reforms could cure the international disease of imperialism by removing its economic foundation. Hobson theorized that state intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, create wealth, conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers would generate socially negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism. An early use of the term anti-imperialist occurred after the United States entered the Spanish–American War in 1898, most activists supported the war itself but opposed the annexation of new territory, especially the Philippines. The Anti-Imperialist League was founded on June 15,1898 in Boston, in opposition of the acquisition of the Philippines, the anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for consent of the governed. British anti-imperialism emerged in the 1890s, especially in the Liberal Party, the key impetus around 1900 came from public disgust with the British failures and atrocities connected with the Second Boer War. The War was fought against the Afrikaners, who were Dutch immigrants who had built new nations in South Africa, opposition to the Second Boer War was modest when the war began, and was always less widespread than support for it, let alone the prevailing indifference. However, influential groups formed immediately and ineffectually against the war, including the South African Conciliation Committee, much of the opposition in Britain came from the Liberal party. Intellectuals and activists Britain based in the Socialist, labour, and Fabian movements generally oppose imperialism, and John Hobson, after the Boer war, opponents of imperialism turn their attention to the British colonies in Africa and Asia. By the 1920s, the government was sponsoring large-scale exhibits promoting imperialism, notably the 1924 British Empire Exhibition in London, some intellectuals use the opportunity to criticize imperialism as a policy. Moderately active anti-imperial movements emerged in Canada and Australia, the French-Canadians were hostile to the British expansion, while, in Australia it was the Irish Catholics who were opposedAnti-colonialism – Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister of Britain from 1874 to 1880, expanded the British Empire.
42. Nasserism – Spanning the domestic and international spheres, it combines elements of Arab socialism, republicanism, nationalism, anti-imperialism, Developing world solidarity, and international non-alignment. In the 1950s and 1960s, Nasserism was amongst the most potent political ideologies in the Arab world and this was especially true following the Suez Crisis of 1956, the political outcome of which was seen as a validation of Nasserism, and a tremendous defeat for Western imperial powers. During the Cold War, its influence was felt in other parts of Africa, and the developing world, particularly with regard to anti-imperialism. The scale of the Arab defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967 damaged the standing of Nasser, both groups have been mainly active since the early 1950s among Sunni Muslims, and they are currently associated politically with the March 8 coalitions in Lebanese politics. Nasserism continues to have significant resonance throughout the Arab world to this day, and informs much of the dialogue on politics in Egypt. “Nasserism, ” the broad term used in literature to describe the aspects of Nasser’s rule, however, in Rethinking Nasserism, Podeh and Winckler, discuss another interpretation of Nasserism. Thus, Nasserism was perceived as an attempt to transform Egyptian traditional society through the modernization of its economy and society. ”Khalidi asserts that this change inspired self-confidence in the Arab community, which was particularly welcome after the recent shock over the loss of Palestine. Nasserism is an Arab nationalist and pan-Arabist ideology, combined with a vaguely defined socialism, though mindful of the Islamic and Christian heritage of the Arab world, as with Baathism, Nasserism is largely a secular ideology. Nasserists espouse an end to Western interference in Arab affairs, developing world solidarity, international non-alignment, modernisation, Nasser himself was opposed vehemently to Western imperialism, sharing the commonly held Arab view that Zionism was an extension of European colonialism on Arab soil. The Egyptian-Soviet alliance continued well into the presidency of Nassers successor as president, Anwar Sadat, Nasserism remains a political force throughout the Arab world, but in a markedly different manner than in its heyday. Today, many more Arabs are informed by Nasserism in a general sense than actually espouse its specific ideals, Nasserist movements were largely overshadowed by Islamic political organisations, especially the Muslim Brotherhood. This was a part of a trend within Egypt and the Arab world of Arab nationalism being overshadowed. In Egypt, the Nasserist Party styles itself as the successor to Nasser and his Arab Socialist Union, as does its offshoot, however, as with all opposition parties in Egypt, their activities was severely limited by the Mubarak regime prior to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Despite being a quintessentially Arab ideology, Nasserism influenced, to a degree, left-wing movements in parts of the Developing World, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. Under Nasser, the Egyptian government gave support, both moral and material, to Sub-Saharan liberation movements fighting European imperialism. Similar sentiments have been expressed by Fidel Castro, the former Cuban President, with regard to the Cuban Revolution, both men stated that Egypts resistance under Nasser against the joint British, French, and Israeli invasion of Egypt in 1956 proved to be inspirational for their own movements. I told him that I was optimistic, because the ideas of Nasser are still alive, Nasser was one of the greatest people of Arab history. To say the least, I am a Nasserist, ever since I was a young soldier, gamal Abdel Nasser Arab nationalism Pan-Arabism Arab socialism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 BaathismNasserism – According to Nasser's Three Circles Theory, the mission of the Egyptian Revolution had three spheres: the Arab World, Africa, and the Muslim world
43. History of ancient Egypt – The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, note For alternative revisions to the chronology of Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Egypts history is split into different periods according to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh. The dating of events is still a subject of research, the conservative dates are not supported by any reliable absolute date for a span of about three millennia. The following is the list according to conventional Egyptian chronology, traces of these early people appear in the form of artifacts and rock carvings along the terraces of the Nile and in the oases. To the Egyptians the Nile meant life and the desert meant death, evidence also indicates human habitation and cattle herding in the southwestern corner of Egypt near the Sudan border before the 8th millennium BC. Despite this, the idea of an independent bovine domestication event in Africa must be abandoned because subsequent evidence gathered over a period of thirty years has failed to corroborate this, the oldest-known domesticated cattle remains in Africa are from the Faiyum c.4400 BC. Continued desiccation forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently, however, the period from 9th to the 6th millennium BC has left very little in the way of archaeological evidence. The Nile valley of Egypt was basically uninhabitable until the work of clearing and irrigating the land along the banks was started, however it appears that this clearance and irrigation was largely under way by the 6th millennium. By that time, Nile society was already engaged in organized agriculture, at this time, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and also constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by the 4th millennium, the people of the valley and the Nile Delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer, an early variety of wheat, and stored it in pits lined with reed mats. They raised cattle, goats and pigs and they wove linen, prehistory continues through this time, variously held to begin with the Amratian culture. Between 5500 BC and the 31st century BC, small settlements flourished along the Nile, the Tasian culture was the next to appear, it existed in Upper Egypt starting about 4500 BC. This group is named for the burials found at Deir Tasa, the Tasian culture is notable for producing the earliest blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery painted black on its top and interior. The Badari culture, named for the Badari site near Deir Tasa, followed the Tasian, however, the Badari culture continued to produce the kind of pottery called blacktop-ware, and was assigned the sequence dating numbers between 21 and 29. The Amratian culture is named after the site of el-Amreh, about 120 kilometres south of Badari, el-Amreh was the first site where this culture was found unmingled with the later Gerzeh culture. However, this period is attested at Nagada, and so is also referred to as the Naqada I culture. The Amratian period falls between S. D.30 and 39, newly excavated objects indicate that trade between Upper and Lower Egypt existed at this timeHistory of ancient Egypt – A Naqada II vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.
44. History of Roman Egypt – The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula. Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West, the province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman province, in Alexandria, its capital, it possessed the largest port, and the second largest city, of the Roman Empire. As a province, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely styled Augustal prefect, the prefect was a man of equestrian rank and was appointed by the Emperor. The second prefect, Aelius Gallus, made an expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea. The Red Sea coast of Aegyptus was not brought under Roman control until the reign of Claudius, the third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Petronius even led a campaign into present-day central Sudan against the Kingdom of Kush at Meroe, failing to acquire permanent gains, in 22 BC he razed the city of Napata to the ground and retreated to the north. From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century, under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous, from his reign onward buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Antoninus Pius oppressive taxation led to a revolt in 139, of the native Egyptians and this Bucolic War, led by one Isidorus, caused great damage to the economy and marked the beginning of Egypts economic decline. Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, declared emperor in 175. On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, Cassius was deposed and killed, a similar revolt broke out in 193, when Pescennius Niger was proclaimed emperor on the death of Pertinax. The Emperor Septimius Severus gave a constitution to Alexandria and the capitals in 202. There was a series of revolts, both military and civilian, through the 3rd century, under Decius, in 250, the Christians again suffered from persecution, but their religion continued to spread. This warrior queen claimed that Egypt was a home of hers through a familial tie to Cleopatra VII. She was well educated and familiar with the culture of Egypt, its religion, two generals based in Aegyptus, Probus and Domitius Domitianus, led successful revolts and made themselves emperors. Diocletian captured Alexandria from Domitius in 298 and reorganised the whole province and his edict of 303 against the Christians began a new era of persecution. This was the last serious attempt to stem the growth of Christianity in EgyptHistory of Roman Egypt – Northern Africa under Roman rule
45. History of Arab Egypt – In 1174, Egypt came under the rule of Ayyubids that lasted until 1252. The Ayyubids were overthrown by their bodyguards, known as the Mamluks, who ruled under the suzerainty of Abbasid Caliphs until 1517, when Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. In 639 an army of some 4,000 men were sent against Egypt by the caliph, Umar. This army was joined by another 5,000 men in 640, Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on November 8,641. Alexandria was regained for the Byzantine Empire in 645 but was retaken by Amr in 646, in 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country, following the first surrender of Alexandria, Amr chose a new site to settle his men, near the location of the Byzantine fortress of Babylon. The new settlement received the name of Fustat, after Amrs tent, after the conquest, the country was initially divided in two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt with the Nile Delta. In 643/4, however, Caliph Uthman appointed a governor with jurisdiction over all of Egypt. The governor would in turn nominate deputies for Upper and Lower Egypt, Alexandria remained a distinct district, reflecting both its role as the countrys shield against Byzantine attacks, and as the major naval base. It was considered a fortress under a military governor and was heavily garrisoned. Next to the wāli, there was also the commander of the police, responsible for internal security, the main pillar of the early Muslim rule and control in the country was the military force, or jund, staffed by the Arab settlers. These were initially the men who had followed Amr and participated in the conquest, initially, they numbered 15,500, but their numbers grew through emigration in the subsequent decades. By the time of Caliph Muawiya I, the number of men registered in the army list, jealous of their privileges and status, which entitled them to a share of the local revenue, the members of the jund then virtually closed off the register to new entries. It was only after the losses of the Second Fitna that the registers were updated, conversions of Copts to Islam were initially rare, and the old system of taxation was maintained for the greater part of the first Islamic century. During the First Fitna, Caliph Ali appointed Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr as governor of Egypt, Amr then served as governor until his death in 664. From 667/8 until 682, the province was governed by another fervent pro-Umayyad partisan, during the Second Fitna, Ibn al-Zubayr gained the support of the Kharijites in Egypt and sent a governor of his own, Abd al-Rahman ibn Utba al-Fihri, to the province. The Kharijite-backed Zubayrid regime was unpopular with the local Arabs. In December 684, Marwan invaded Egypt and reconquered it with relative ease, Marwan installed his son Abd al-Aziz as governorHistory of Arab Egypt – The near East in 1025 AD, showing the Fatimid Caliphate and neighbors.
46. Constitution of Egypt – The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum in January 2014, the constitution took effect after the results were announced on 18 January 2014. Two different committees were involved in amending the 2012 constitution, the constitution replaces the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 which came into effect under Morsi. The constitution adopted in 2014, like the constitution drafted under Morsi, is based on the Egyptian Constitution of 1971, the 2014 constitution sets up a president and parliament. The president is elected to a term and may serve 2 terms. The parliament may impeach the president, under the constitution, there is a guarantee of equality between the sexes and an absolute freedom of belief, but Islam is the state religion. The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defense for the next 8 years, the document guarantees an absolute freedom of expression that is subject to broad exceptions. The constitution has been criticized by the Revolutionary Socialists and the Road of the Revolution Front for leaving too much power in the hands of the military, history of the Egyptian Constitution Unofficial translation of the 2014 constitution Official 2014 constitutionConstitution of Egypt – Egypt
47. Foreign relations of Egypt – Foreign relations of the Arab Republic of Egypt are the Egyptian governments external relations with the outside world. Egypts foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level, Cairo has been a crossroads of the Arab worlds commerce and culture for centuries, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the regions social and cultural landmarks. In the 21st-century Egypt has encountered a problem with immigration, as millions of Africans attempt to enter Egypt fleeing poverty. Border control methods can be harsh, sometimes lethal and this has strained relations with Egypts southern neighbors, and with Israel and the members of the EU as these immigrants attempt to move on to wealthier countries. The Arab League headquarters is in Cairo, and the Secretary General of the League is traditionally an Egyptian, former Egyptian Foreign Minister Nabil Araby is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996, Egypt is on good terms with Libya, its western neighbor. Egypts policy on Sudan is that it is in favor of a united Sudan, Egypt has been seeking to play a role in the resolution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This support has continued to the present, with President Hosni Mubarak often intervening personally to promote peace negotiations, in 1996, he hosted the Sharm El-Sheikh Summit of the Peacemakers attended by President Bill Clinton and other world leaders. Another summit was convened in Sharm El Sheik in early 2005, which was attended by Egypt, Israel, the Egyptian Chief of Intelligence, General Omar Suleiman, has played a substantial role in negotiations between the Israeli and Palestinian sides and is highly respected on both sides. In 1939, diplomatic relations between Egypt and Iran were upgraded to level, and Youssef Zulficar Pasha was appointed as Egypts first ambassador in Tehran. In the same year, Princess Fawzia of Egypt, the sister of King Farouk I, married Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, however, since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Egypts relations with Iran have been mostly strained. Egypt is the only Arab country not to have an embassy in Iran and he also stated that if Iran will reach a nuclear weapons, Egypt will also consider reaching such weapons. Since 1983, Iraq has repeatedly called for restoration of Egypt’s “natural role” among Arab countries, in January 1984, Iraq successfully led Arab efforts within the OIC to restore Egypt’s membership. However, Iraqi-Egyptian relations were broken in 1990 after Egypt joined the UN coalition that forced Iraq out of Kuwait, relations have steadily improved in recent years, and Egypt is now one of Iraq’s main trade partners. The state of war between countries which dated back from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War ended in 1973 with the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty a year after the Camp David Accords. Egypt has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Eilat. Israel has an embassy in Cairo and a consulate in Alexandria. Egypt was subsequently ostracized by other Arab states and ejected from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989, however, due to circumstances of todays Israeli–Palestinian conflict, full normalization of relations between these two countries is still halted and sometimes fought against in both countriesForeign relations of Egypt – Egypt
48. Law enforcement in Egypt – Egyptian National Police or ENP is a department of the Ministry of Interior of Egypt. In the early Twentieth Century, holder of the post of Interior Minister was called, the title was used until 1919 when World War I broke out and Britain declared Egypt as a protectorate. As a consequence, some posts and titles were changed. Tahseen Rushdi Bashi was the first person to hold the title of Interior Minister in Egypt, as time went on, many Prime Ministers assumed the post of Interior Minister – in addition to their Premiership- being among the posts having major control over the internal events. The post enabled its holder to control elections, select executives and have an eye on political opponents, when Saad Zaghloul Pasha assumed the Interior Minister post in 1934 – along with his premiership- the Ministry was characterized with a political trend. He tended to dismiss persons who opposed his ideas and began to employ, ever since, and for a long time, the Ministry employees were left under the mercy of political changes and election results. But when the thinker, writer and lawyer Mr. Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed was appointed as an Interior Minister. Interior Ministers post – like other major posts in Egypt- was assumed for a time by non-Egyptian ministers with no police or security background. Currently, it is a must that the Interior Minister be a descendant of Egyptian parents, the Interior Minister has to relinquish his title as a police general and his name is only preceded by the title. There are four Deputy Ministers, Public Security responsible for safety, travel, Immigration, passports, port security. Special Police responsible for administration, the Central Security Forces, civil defense, police transport, police communications, traffic police. Personnel Affairs was responsible for police-training institutions, personnel matters for police and civilian employees, administrative and Financial Affairs responsible for general administration, budgets, supplies, and legal matters. In each the 27 Governorates of Egypt, the appointed governor. Both the governor and the director of police report to the Ministry of Interior on all security matters, the governor reports directly to the minister or to a deputy while the director of police reports through regular police channels. In the governorates subdivisions there are district police commandants with the authority, the police became increasingly motorised and it is now rare to see an officer on foot patrol except in city or town centres, and then rarely alone. An increasing number of urban centres police bicycle units are used to provide a response in congested areas, pedestrianised areas and parkland. Almost all commissioned officers were graduates of the Police Academy at Cairo where police had to complete four years at the academy, the Police Academy is a modern institution equipped with laboratory and physical-training facilities. The police force also sent some officers abroad for schooling, also included are, political orientation, public relations, and military subjects, marksmanship, leadership, and field exercisesLaw enforcement in Egypt – Mounted soldier of the Tourism and Antiquities Police at the Bent Pyramid in Cairo
49. List of political parties in Egypt – By its constitution, Egypt has a multi-party system. Under Mubarak, opposition parties were allowed, but were considered to have no real chance of gaining power. As of 8 June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the president, on 28 March 2011, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces introduced the Political Party Law, which eases restrictions on the legal establishment of new political parties in Egypt. The legislation has still however been criticized as discriminatory, under the law new parties are now required to have at least 5,000 members from at least ten of Egypts provinces. Originally, new parties were required to have 1,000 members. This was cited as a barrier for new parties before elections which took place at the end of 2011. Also, new party leaders are required to raise at least LE1 million to publish the names of the members in two widely circulated dailies, seen as favoring wealthier interests. Also, no parties are able to form on the basis of religion or class, ruling out the formation of Islamic, however, in practice, religious parties have been allowed. After first being denied a license by the political parties commission, the political parties commission allowed the Al Nour Party to be approved in May 2011, in part because it does not refer to the hudud in their electoral program. An article on the Daily News Egypt website states that parties have gone around the ban by not explicitly advocating a state based on Islam in their political programs. Egyptian politics are subject to circumstances and often defy simple classification in terms of the political spectrum. There are currently over 100 registered political parties in Egypt, groups are sometimes associated with the political left or right, especially in international circles, according to their stance on issuesList of political parties in Egypt – Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia
50. Prime Minister of Egypt – The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government. In the late 1970s, Egypt had several cohabitation governments which proved to be unstable, from 1981 until 2011, the National Democratic Party had maintained a majority in the People’s Assembly and supplied the Egyptian president. The National Democratic Party was dissolved by the administrative court on 16 April 2011. The prime minister heads the cabinet, which in turn plays a role in shaping the agenda of the houses of Parliament. It may propose laws to Parliament as well as amendments during parliamentary meetings, when parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control Parliament and the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Several cohabitation governments took control in the 1970s yet proved to be very unstable, from 1 March to 17 June 2014, Ibrahim Mahlab served as the Acting Prime Minister of Egypt. At the time of his appointment by Adly Mansour, he said, security and stability in the entire country, a new cabinet was formed on 19 September 2015. Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi accepted the resignation of the government and asked Petroleum Minister Sherif Ismail to form a new cabinet, as of April 2017, there are eight living former Prime Ministers of Egypt, as seen below. Living former Prime Ministers of Egypt The most recent Prime Minister to die was Abd El Aziz Mohamed Hegazi, cabinet of Egypt Politics of Egypt President of Egypt List of political parties in Egypt List of Prime Ministers of Egypt Media related to Prime ministers of Egypt at Wikimedia CommonsPrime Minister of Egypt – Coat of arms of Egypt
51. Human rights in Egypt – Most sources agree that Egypt is a gross violator of human rights. Authorities have effectively banned protests and freedom of expression, imprisoned its opponents, usually after unfair trials, outlawed the Muslim Brotherhood, Torture, enforced disappearances, and deaths in custody are not rare occurrences. The government continues to persecute NGOs and journalists, women and members of religious minorities are subject to discrimination. People are arrested for “debauchery” and sexual orientation, due to an insurgency in Northern Sinai, the army has enacted curfews and evicted communities from their homes along the border with Gaza in order to restrict the flow of arms. A new constitution was adopted in January 2014, the document, in principle, improved protections for women’s rights, freedom of expression, and other civil liberties. However, these rights have not been enforced in practice, there is a critical lack of accountability, with most human rights violations being committed with impunity. In a December 2016 report, a panel of UN experts concluded that, “The continuous persecution of women human rights such as Azza Soliman. It gave Egypt a Political Rights Score of 6 and Civil Liberties Score of 5 a scale of 1-7, in 2000 the related Center for Religious Freedom placed Egypt as partly free at 5, this put them in line with Muslim nations like Turkey and Indonesia. Reporters Without Borders placed Egypt between Bhutan and the Côte dIvoire in press freedom, see List of indices of freedom for more information on these ratings and how they are determined. The Press Law, Publications Law, and the penal code regulate, according to these, criticism of the president can be punished by fines or imprisonment. Freedom House deems Egypt to have a press, although mentions they have a diversity of sources. Reporters Without Borders 2006 report indicates continued harassment and, in three cases, imprisonment, of journalists and they place Egypt 143rd out of 167 nations on press freedoms. The two sources agree that promised reforms on the subject have been slow or uneven in implementation. Freedomhouse had a more positive assessment indicating that an increased freedom to discuss controversial issues has occurred. According to Al Jazeera. net, in the past few years, independent Egyptian newspapers have emerged that have proved willing to hold the rich and powerful elite to account, the old state-owned newspapers are beginning to lose their readership. In July 2006, the Egyptian parliament passed a new press law, the new law no longer allows journalists to be imprisoned for comments against the government, but continues to allow fines to be levied against such journalists. The independent press and the Muslim Brotherhood protested this law as repressive, following the Arab Spring there was hope for greater freedom of speech in Egypt. However, as of February 2012 television journalist Tim Sebastian reported a re-emergence of fear in Egypt, “The intelligence services are extremely active, ” says a well-known commentatorHuman rights in Egypt – Nabil Maghraby, one of the oldest opinion prisoners in Egypt
52. Geography of Egypt – Egypt The geography of Egypt relates to two regions, North Africa and Southwest Asia. Egypt has coastlines on both the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, Egypt borders Libya to the west, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, and Sudan to the south. Egypt has an area of 1,001,449 km2, the longest straight-line distance in Egypt from north to south is 1,024 km, while that from east to west measures 1,240 km. 35,000 km2 -3. 5% - of the land area is cultivated. Most of the lies within the wide band of desert that stretches eastwards from Africas Atlantic Coast across the continent. The Nile valley extends approximately 800 km from Aswan to the outskirts of Cairo, the Nile Valley is very cool and known as Upper Egypt, while the Nile Delta region is known as Lower Egypt. Steep rocky cliffs rise along the banks of the Nile in some stretches, while areas along the Nile are flat. In the past, flooding of the Nile during the summer provided silt, since construction of the Aswan Dam, agriculture in the Nile valley depends on irrigation. The Nile delta consists of flat, low-lying areas, some parts of the delta are marshy and water-logged, and thus not suitable for agriculture. Other areas of the delta are used for agriculture, the Nile Valley and Delta, the most extensive oasis on earth, was created by the worlds longest river and its seemingly inexhaustible sources. Without the topographic channel that permits the Nile to flow across the Sahara, the length within Egypt of the River Nile in its northwards course from three central African sources – the White Nile, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara – totals some 1,600 km. The White Nile, which begins at Lake Victoria in Uganda, in its course from Lake Victoria to Juba in South Sudan, the White Niles channel drops more than 600 m. In its 1, 600-km course from Juba to Khartoum, Sudans capital, in South Sudan, the White Nile passes through the Sudd, a wide, flat plain covered with swamp vegetation and slows almost to the point of stagnation. The Blue Nile, which originates at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and this river has a steeper gradient and therefore flows more swiftly than the White Nile, which it joins at Khartoum. Unlike the White Nile, the Blue Nile carries an amount of sediment. The much shorter Atbarah River, which originates in Ethiopia. During the low-water season, which runs from January to June, but, in late-summer, when torrential rains fall on the Ethiopian Highlands, the Atbarah provides 22% of the Niles flow. The Blue Nile has a similar pattern and it contributes 17% of the Niles waters in the low-water season and 68% during the high-water seasonGeography of Egypt – Nile delta, and the entire course of the Nile
53. Climate of Egypt – Egypt generally has a desert climate. Because of the effect, average low wind vary from 9.5 °C in wintertime to 23 °C in summertime, some mountainous locations in Sinai, such as Saint Catherine, have cooler night temperatures, due to their high elevations. Every year, sometime from March to May, a hot, dry. When this wind blows over Egypt, it causes high temperatures to soar temporarily at dangerous levels, usually over 45 °C, the khamasīn causes sudden, early heat waves and the absolute highest temperature records in Egypt. The cloudiest, rainiest places are in and around Alexandria and Rafah and it usually snows on the Sinai mountains, but it almost never snows in the cities of Giza, Cairo, and Alexandria. For example, in December 2013, Cairo received an overnight snowfall for the first time since 1901Climate of Egypt – Satellite map
54. Economy of Egypt – The economy of Egypt was a highly centralized planned economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Egypt has a stable mixed economy enjoying average growth, averaging 3%–5% in the past quarter-century. Nationalization reduced the importance of the private sector. There was no stock trading to speak of, all banks and financial institutions were under the public sector, inter-War, 1967–1973, adversely affected the performance of the economy and public sector role in import substitution. External Debt Crisis, 1985–1990, the debt crisis and Paris Club rescheduling. Egypt faced the long term supply- and demand-side repercussions of the financial crisis on the national economy. The Egyptian economy is suffering from a severe downturn following the 2011 revolution. Political and institutional uncertainty, a perception of rising insecurity and sporadic unrest continue to affect economic growth. Under comprehensive economic reforms initiated in 1991, Egypt has relaxed many price controls, reduced subsidies, reduced inflation, cut taxes, Manufacturing had become less dominated by the public sector, especially in heavy industries. A process of public sector reform and privatization has begun to enhance opportunities for the private sector, Agriculture, mainly in private hands, has been largely deregulated, with the exception of cotton and sugar production. Construction, non-financial services, and domestic wholesale and retail trades are largely private and this has promoted a steady increase of GDP and the annual growth rate. The Government of Egypt tamed inflation bringing it down from double-digit to a single digit, currently, GDP is rising smartly by 7% per annum due to successful diversification. Based on national currency, GDP per capita at constant 1999 prices increased from EGP411 in 1981, to EGP2098 in 1991, to EGP5493 in 2001 and to EGP8708 in 2006. Based on the current US$ prices, GDP per capita increased from US$587 in 1981, to US$869 in 1991, to US$1461 in 2001, According to the World Bank Country Classification, Egypt has been promoted from the low income category to lower middle income category. As of 2013, the average salaries in Egypt reached LE641. The reform programme is a work in progress, noteworthy that the reform record has substantially improved since Nazif government came to power. Egypt has made progress in developing its legal, tax. Indeed, over the past five years, Egypt has passed, amended and admitted over 15 legislative pieces, the economy is expected to grow by about 4% to 6% in 2009/2010Economy of Egypt – Cairo is the financial capital of Egypt
55. Communications in Egypt – Egypt has long been the cultural and informational centre of the Arab world, and Cairo is the regions largest publishing and broadcasting centre. There are eight daily newspapers with a circulation of more than 2 million, and a number of monthly newspapers, magazines. The majority of parties have their own newspapers, and these papers conduct a lively, often highly partisan. Egypt Post is the body that provide postal services. Mail post is never considered as a reliable communication mean in Egypt, There are seven regional radio stations covering the country. Egyptian Radio transmits 60 hours daily overseas in 33 languages and three hundred hours daily within Egypt, in 2000, Radio Cairo introduced new specialized channels on its FM station. So far, they include news, music, and sports, Radio enjoys more freedom than TV in its news programs, talk shows and analysis. Starting 2003, Nile Radio Production a private company was given license to two radio stations, Nile FM and Nogoom FM. Nile FM broadcasts in English and Nogoom FM broadcasts in Arabic, both stations mostly broadcast mainly to the Greater Cairo region. In the early 2009, Radio Masr was launched, broadcasting popular Egyptian songs, see also Egyptian television Egyptian ground-broadcast television is government controlled and depends heavily on commercial revenue. ETV sells its specially produced programs and soap operas to the entire Arab world, ETV has two main channels, six regional channels, and three satellite channels. Of the two channels, Channel I uses mainly Arabic, while Channel II is dedicated to foreigners and more cultured viewers, broadcasting news in English. Egyptian Satellite channels broadcast to the Middle East, Europe, in April 1998, Egypt launched its own satellite known as NileSat 101. Seven specialized channels cover news, culture, sports, education, entertainment, health, a second, digital satellite, Nilesat 102, was launched in August 2000. Many of its channels are rented to other stations, three new private satellite-based TV stations were launched in November 2001, marking a great change in Egyptian government policy. Both private channels transmit on NileSat, currently, there is a single company in charge of Landline Telephony, Telecom Egypt which is also government-controlled. The government is planning to start the process for licensing a second national operator for voice and transport services by 2008, currently, there are three companies which offer cellular communication service, Orange, Vodafone Egypt and Etisalat Egypt. These companies are providing services surpassing voice communication such as 3G and 3. 75G services, the Internet companies market is dealt to two, infrastructure providers and service providersCommunications in Egypt – Life in Egypt
56. Egyptian pound – The Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh, or 1,000 millimes, the Egyptian pound is frequently abbreviated as LE or L. E. which stands for livre égyptienne. E£ and £E are commonly used on the internet, the name Genēh is derived from the Guinea coin, which had almost the same value of 100 piastres at the end of the 19th century. In 1834, a Khedival Decree was issued providing for the issuing of an Egyptian currency based on a base, i. e. based on gold. The Egyptian pound, known as the geneih, was introduced, the piastre continued to circulate as 1⁄100 of a pound, with the piastre subdivided into 40 para. In 1885, the para ceased to be issued, and the piastre was divided into tenths and these tenths were renamed milliemes in 1916. The legal exchange rates were fixed by force of law for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions, eventually this led to Egypt using a de facto gold standard between 1885 and 1914, with E£1 =7.4375 grams pure gold. At the outbreak of World War I, the Egyptian pound was pegged to the British pound sterling at EG£0.975 per GB£1. Egypt remained part of the Sterling Area until 1962, when Egypt devalued slightly and switched to a peg to the United States dollar and this peg was changed to 1 pound =2.55555 dollars in 1973 when the dollar was devalued. The pound was devalued in 1978 to a peg of 1 pound =1.42857 dollars. However, until 2001, the float was tightly managed by the Central Bank of Egypt and foreign exchange controls were in effect. The Central Bank of Egypt voted to end the regime and allowed the pound to float freely on 3 November 2016. The Egyptian pound was used in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1899 and 1956, and Cyrenaica when it was under British occupation and later an independent emirate between 1942 and 1951. The National Bank of Egypt issued banknotes for the first time on 3 April 1899, the Central Bank of Egypt and the National Bank of Egypt were unified into the Central Bank of Egypt in 1961. Several unofficial popular names are used to refer to different values of Egyptian currency and these include nekla for 2 milliemes, tarifa for 5 milliemes, shelen for 5 piastres, bariza for 10 piastres, and reyal for 20 piastres. Since the piaster and millieme are no legal tender, the smallest denomination currently minted being the 50-piaster coin. A few have survived to refer to pounds, bariza now refers to a ten-pound note and reyal can be used in reference to a 20-pound note. Different sums of EGP have special nicknames, for example,1,000 EGP baku pack,1,000,000 EGP arnab rabbit,1,000,000,000 EGP feel elephantEgyptian pound – 50 Egyptian pound promissory note issued and hand-signed by Gen. Gordon during the Siege of Khartoum (26 April 1884)
57. National Bank of Egypt – National Bank of Egypt is the oldest and largest bank in Egypt. It has 338 branches within the country, assets of EGP366,6 bn. total deposits of EGP312,7 bn. and total loans and advances of EGP114,7 bn. As of 2007, the National Bank of Egypt accounted for 23% of the Egyptian banking systems total assets, 25% of total deposits and 25% of total loans, NBE also financed about 24% of Egypts foreign trade during the year. NBE also accounts for 74% of the credit market and 40% of the debit cards in Egypt. NBE has a subsidiary in London, National Bank of Egypt, branches in New York and Shanghai, according to the July 2007 issue of the Banker, in terms of total assets, NBE ranks 226th among the top 1000 world banks and ranks 3rd among the Arab banks. NBE established an office in London,1901 NBE opened a branch in Khartoum. It obtained a position as banker to and for the government. Over time, it added other agencies and branches in the Sudan,1902 NBE established the Agricultural Bank of Egypt. 1906 NBE established the Bank of Abyssinia in Addis Ababa, the bank received a 50-year monopoly and was the Ethiopian governments fiscal agent as well as the sole issuer of currency. 1925 Lloyds Bank transferred to NBE the branches in Cairo and Alexandria that it acquired with its purchase of Cox & Co. in 1923,1931 The Bank of Abyssinia was liquidated and the Ethiopian government established Bank of Ethiopia to replace it. 1936 Agricultural Bank of Egypt was liquidated,1940 All the staff and the Board of the bank were largely Egyptian. 1951 A decree gave NBE the status of the Central Bank for Egypt,1957 The Banking Act confirmed the status of NBE as Egypts Central Bank. 1961 Citibank sold to NBE its Egyptian assets and liabilities, Citibank had entered in 1955 but was forced to leave by the nationalization decree. 1975 Chase Manhattan Bank and National Bank of Egypt established Commercial International Bank,1976 NBE, together with 19 other Arab and four US banks, established Arab American Bank as a wholesale bank operating in New York. 1982 NBE established a subsidiary in the UK.1987 Chase sold its shares in CIB to NBE and CIB changed its name to Commercial International Bank, partial privatization in 1993 and a GDR issue in 1996 reduced NBEs share to 34%. NBE established a rep office in South Africa and a subsidiary in London. 2000 NBE established a NY branch to take over the business of Arab American Bank,2005 NBE acquired Mohandes Bank, which had been established in 1979 as a commercial bank. It also acquired Bank of Commerce and Development, known as Al Tigaryoon,2006 NBE opened a representative office in DubaiNational Bank of Egypt – NBE Towers in Cairo
58. Tourism in Egypt – Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypts economy. At its peak in 2010 the sector employed about 12% of Egypts workforce serving approximately 14.7 million visitors Egypt, as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14. 4% of foreign currency revenues. The number of tourists in Egypt stood at 0.1 million in 1951, the tourist inflow increased to 1.8 million in 1981 and then to 5.5 million in 2000. Tourism reached a pinnacle in 2010 by reaching 14.7 million visitors, revenues from tourism also reached a high point at $12.5 billion in 2010. Since then the number of tourists have significantly declined and revenue down to $5.9 billion due to security threats, significant security threats have had an ongoing effect on the industry over the past twenty years. Fifty-eight foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre, the new regime has worked hard to create stability and the Red Sea resorts in particular have had increasing tourist numbers. During the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the number of visitors plummeted by over 37% that year falling from 14 million in 2010 to 9 million by the end of 2011. Tour operators offering heavy discounts to encourage tourists back have been successful at the Red Sea resorts where prices remain lower compared to 2011. In the first half of 2014 the number of tourists further declined by 25% as compared with the period of 2013. In 2013, Egypt ranked 85th as the worlds best country in terms of tourism, however it regained some ground in the 2015 rankings being rated 83rd overall. Israelis can cross into Egypt for 14 days without a visa at certain areas near Taba, but in 2017, the first group of Israelis visited the more popular tourist attractions- with the aid of strong security. It had been 18 months since a group of Israeli tourists had visited Egypt, in the same week, Bloomberg said Egypt has shed its years of social and political unrest and makes the top 20 list of 2017 travel destinations. Major tourist destinations include the monuments in the Nile Valley. Principal among them are the Pyramids and Great Sphinx at Giza, the Abu Simbel temples south of Aswan, attractions in Cairo include the Cairo Museum and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha. The coast of the Sinai Peninsula has well-visited seaside resorts, Giza,20 km southwest of Cairo, has several remains from the 26th century BC such as temples and monuments to pharaohs including the Great Sphinx, and the Great Pyramids of Giza. Saqqara,30 km south of Cairo is a vast, ancient burial ground which served as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis and it features numerous pyramids, including the worlds oldest standing step pyramid, as well as a number of mastabas. Luxor, about 500 km south of Cairo, is the site of the ancient city of Thebes and it includes the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor, which stand within the modern city. On the opposite side of the Nile River lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolis, which include the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the QueensTourism in Egypt – Protester atop the Qasr al-Nil Bridge waves the Egyptian flag during the protests of January 2011.
59. Culture of Egypt – The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Africa, for millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique, complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity and later, the Coptic language, the last stage of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Hieroglyphs were written on peoples front doors so that the news of the pharaoh would travel to everyone, the Koiné dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, and was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, and was later studied by Arabic scholars. Arabic came to Egypt in the 7th century, and Egyptian Arabic has become today the modern speech of the country, of the many varieties of Arabic, it is the most widely spoken second dialect, due to the influence of Egyptian cinema and media throughout the Arabic-speaking world. In the lower Nile Valley, around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages, mainly Nobiin, the Berber languages are represented by Siwi, spoken by about 5,000 around the Siwa Oasis. There are over a million speakers of the Domari language, mostly living north of Cairo, approximately 77,000 speakers of Bedawi live in the Eastern Desert. Many Egyptians believed that when it came to a death of their Pharaoh, the ancient Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the third millennium BC. Religious literature is best known for its hymns to and its mortuary texts, the oldest extant Egyptian literature is the Pyramid Texts, the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers. The later, secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the wisdom texts, in time, the Pyramid Texts became Coffin Texts, and finally, the mortuary literature produced its masterpiece, the Book of the Dead, during the New Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was the age of Egyptian literature. Some notable texts include the Tale of Neferty, the Instructions of Amenemhat I, the Tale of Sinuhe, the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor, Instructions became a popular literary genre of the New Kingdom, taking the form of advice on proper behavior. The Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any are well-known examples from this period, during the Greco-Roman period, Egyptian literature was translated into other languages, and Greco-Roman literature fused with native art into a new style of writing. From this period comes the Rosetta Stone, which became the key to unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian writing to modern scholarship, the great city of Alexandria boasted its famous Library of almost half a million handwritten books during the third century BC. Alexandrias center of learning also produced the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, drep During the first few centuries of the Christian era, Egypt was the ultimate source of a great deal of ascetic literature in the Coptic language. Egyptian monasteries translated many Greek and Syriac words, which are now extant in Coptic. Under Islam, Egypt continued to be a source of literary endeavor. In 970, al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo, which to this day remains the most important center of Sunni Islamic learning, in the 12th century Egypt, the Jewish Talmudic scholar Maimonides produced his most important workCulture of Egypt – Egyptian hieroglyphs, as this example from a sarcophagus from Thebes of about 530 BC, represent both ideograms and phonograms.
60. Cuisine of Egypt – Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes, vegetables and fruits since Egypts rich Nile valley and delta produce large quantities of these crops in high quality. Bread made from a simple recipe forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine and it is consumed at almost all Egyptian meals, a working-class or rural Egyptian meal might consist of little more than bread and beans. The local bread is a form of hearty, thick, glutenous pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi or Baladee rather than the Arabic خبز ḫubz, the word comes from the Semitic root ع-ي-ش ʕ-Ī-Š with the meaning to live, be alive. The word ʿayš itself has the meaning of life, way of living, livelihood, subsistence in Modern Standard and Classical Arabic, folklore holds that this synonymity indicates the centrality of bread to Egyptian life. In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes bread, dating back to a Nasser-era policy, in 2008, a major food crisis caused ever-longer bread lines at government-subsidized bakeries where there would normally be none, occasional fights broke out over bread, leading to fear of rioting. On a culinary level, bread is used as gamosa. Egyptians use bread to scoop up food, sauces, and dips and to wrap kebabs, falafel, most pita breads are baked at high temperatures, causing the flattened rounds of dough to puff up dramatically. When removed from the oven, the layers of baked dough remain separated inside the deflated pita, aish Merahrah is an Egyptian flat bread made with 5-10% ground fenugreek seeds added to maize flour. It is part of the diet of the Egyptian countryside. The loaves are flat and wide, and usually about 50 cm in diameter and this bread can be kept for days in an airtight container. Egyptian cuisine shares similarities with food of the Eastern Mediterranean region, such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, shawarma, kebab, ta‘miya, baba ghannoug, some consider kushari - a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni - to be the national dish. Ful medames is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is used in making falafel, which originated in Egypt. Cow brain and liver is eaten in Egypt, ancient Egyptians are known to have used a lot of garlic and onions in their everyday dishes. Fresh garlic mashed with herbs is used in spicy tomato salad. Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya, a green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit. Fried onions can be added to kushari. Other dishes include, Egyptian desserts resemble other Eastern Mediterranean desserts, basbousa, sometimes called harissa, is a spicy dish made from semolina and soaked in a sugar syrupCuisine of Egypt – Ful Medames, one of Egypt's national dishes, served with sliced eggs and vegetables.
61. Media of Egypt – The media of Egypt is highly influential in Egypt and in the Arab World, attributed to its large audience and increasing freedom from governmental control. Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution, and the government is increasingly respecting this, after the Egyptian presidential election of 2005, Ahmed Selim, office director for Information Minister Anas al-Fiqi, declared the era of free, transparent and independent Egyptian media. The printing press was first introduced to Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte during his French Campaign in Egypt and he brought with his expedition a French, Arabic, and Greek printing press, which were far superior in speed, efficiency and quality than the nearest presses used in Istanbul. In the Middle East, Africa, India, and even much of Eastern Europe and Russia, printing was a minor, from about 1720, the Mutaferrika Press in Istanbul produced substantial amounts of printing, of which some Egyptian clerics were aware at the time. The written press is diverse in Egypt, with over 600 newspapers, journals. However these are owned mostly or in some way by the government, however, unlike many of Egypts regional counterparts, criticism of the government in general does take place, after amendments to existing press laws in 2006 which however still criminalise libel. It came to the attention of authorities at Al-Azhar University, described as “the government’s highest authority on religion”, who petitioned the courts. Should be used responsibly and not touch on the foundations of Egyptian society. Over the past two decades, Al-Azhar University censored more than 196 texts, there are two state broadcasters and an increasing number of private broadcasters. Figures from the CIA World Factbook state more than 98 television channels in 1995, the Ministry of Information controls content in the state-owned broadcast media. The previously tight controls on state TV and radio gave way to even and fair coverage of all parties involved in the Egyptian presidential election of 2005. However, in 2006 several journalists working for the Cairo branch of the Qatar-based Al-Jazeera were detained for investigating subjects such as police brutality, Egyptian radio broadcasting began to serve in Egypt in the 1920s as locally owned radios. They began airing radio as The Egyptian State Radio on the 31 May 1934 in an agreement with the Marconi Company, in 1947 the contract with the Marconi Company was canceled and radio broadcasting was nationalized by the Egyptian government. By the early 1990s, Egypt had only four FM stations, in 2000 stations moving from the AM band and the introduction of private stations raised the number to ten stations as of 2006. Radio has also historically been utilized as a tool in Egypt beginning under the rule of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser became president of Egypt in 1954 and served until his death in 1970, when Nasser came to power he realized that radio could be utilized as a powerful political tool for two reasons. First, the rate in Egypt has been traditionally high. Using radio to spread ideas, therefore, allowed a greater number of the population to hear his political ideasMedia of Egypt – Life in Egypt
62. Egypt at the Olympics – Egypt first participated at the Olympic Games in 1912, and has sent athletes to compete in most editions of the Summer Olympic Games since then. Along with Iraq and Lebanon, Egypt boycotted the 1956 Games in protest of the tripartite Israeli, British, however, the equestrian events for the 1956 Games were held in Stockholm, Sweden five months earlier, and three Egyptian riders competed there. Egypt also participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, egypts lone participation at the Winter Olympic Games was a single alpine skier in 1984. Egyptian athletes have won a total of 29 medals, with weightlifting as the top medal-producing sport, the National Olympic Committee for Egypt is the Egyptian Olympic Committee, and was created in 1910. List of flag bearers for Egypt at the Olympics Category, Olympic competitors for Egypt Egypt at the Paralympics EgyptEgypt at the Olympics
63. Smoking in Egypt – The use of tobacco products in Egypt is widespread. It is estimated that twenty percent of the population uses tobacco products daily. Cigarettes are the most common form of consumption in Egypt. After cigarettes, shisha water-pipes are the most common form of tobacco consumption, many Egyptians are not fully aware of the health risks of using a water-pipe and many believe it to be less harmful than cigarettes. Recently legislation has passed in Egypt that prohibits smoking in places and requires special warnings to be placed on tobacco packaging. Smoking is far more common among men than it is among women, however, the tobacco industry in Egypt is dominated by the Eastern Tobacco Company, however, since the cultivation of tobacco is prohibited in Egypt the manufacturer must rely entirely on imported tobacco. The number of smoking tobacco products in Egypt continues to rise. Smoking in Egypt is prevalent with 19 billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country, inside cafes, hookah smoking is common. As of 2012 smoking in Egypt has reached a high with an estimated twenty percent, ten million people. Egypt is ranked as one of the top ten per capita consumers of tobacco by the World Lung Foundation, of this twenty percent of the population estimated to use tobacco products, ninety-five percent were daily smokers. Sixteen percent smoke only cigarettes,3. 3% smoke shisha water-pipes, although Islam has no specific ban on smoking tobacco, several Islamic principles are cited in support of the religion-based banning of tobacco. Depending on the location and community, Islamic authorities have either deemed smoking as Makruh or Haram, on September 5,1999, Nasr Farid Wasel, the then Grand Mufti of Egypt, issued a Fatwa against tobacco smoking. In Egypt, the control law prohibits smoking in the following specified public places, health and educational facilities, governmental venues, sporting and social clubs. Smoking is also prohibited on public transport, under a separate environmental statute, smoking is restricted to specially designated areas in industrial establishments, tourism related establishments, and electricity production establishments. In a survey conducted of Egyptian smokers, overall 97. 6% believed that smoking tobacco can cause serious illness, however belief that smoking causes specific illness varied. A significant number of smokers believe that shisha is less harmful than other forms of smoking, approximately 97. 4% believed that smoking shisha causes serious illness such as stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer. Egypts tobacco industry is dominated by the Eastern Tobacco Company, the largest cigarette manufacturer in the Middle East, a small but ever increasing amount of Egyptian cigarettes are exported to neighboring countries, mostly to serve Egyptians working abroad. In Egypt, most forms of advertising and promotion are bannedSmoking in Egypt – An Egyptian hookah (shisha) with a wind cover over the bowl and a Syrian hose
64. Islam in Egypt – Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 85% of the population. Almost the entirety of Egypts Muslims are Sunnis, with a minority of Shia. The latter, however, are not recognized by Egypt, Islam has been recognized as the state religion since 1980. Prior to Napoleons invasion in 1798, almost all of Egypts educational, legal, public health, during the 19th and 20th centuries, successive governments made extensive efforts to limit the role of the ulama in public life and to bring religious institutions under closer state control. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques, the government mandated reform of Al-Azhar University beginning in 1961. These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn from outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama, in the late 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their center and Cairo their capital. Egypt flourished and the Fatimids developed a trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque. The Fatimid palace in Cairo had two parts and it stood in the Khan el-Khalili area at Bin El-Qasryn street. In the early 20th century, Egyptian Islam was a complex, although Muslims agreed on the faiths basic tenets, the countrys various social groups and classes applied Islam differently in their daily lives. The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version of Islam practiced by illiterate religious preachers, most upper- and upper-middle-class Muslims believed either that religious expression was a private matter for each individual or that Islam should play a more dominant role in public life. Islamic religious revival movements, whose appeal cut across lines, were present in most cities. This put an end to the independence of the Ulama. Awqaf, traditionally independent endowments for mosques and Islamic schools, became a ministry of the government, in 1961, Gamal Abdel Nasser made Al Azhar part of the Ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments. He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, in time the school became responsible for assigning imams to all major mosques, and all these imams were required to be graduates of the school. Orthodox ulama or the establishment found themselves in a difficult position during the wave of Islamic activism that swept through Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s. Most Ulama, including those of Al-Azhar University, are employees of the Egyptian state who recognize the primacy, support its stability. Radical Islamists viewed them as puppets of the status quo, to maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stancesIslam in Egypt – Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt, connected to a mosque built around 971, is considered by some Sunni Muslims as one of the world's highest Sunni Muslim authorities.
65. List of Egypt-related topics – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Egypt, Egypt is a sovereign country located in eastern North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. Covering an area of about 1,002,450 square kilometers, Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south and Palestine and its northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea, the eastern coast borders the Red Sea. The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the Karnak Temple, Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East, as center of the Arab World. Egypt, historically, has been the northern Gateway to Africa with many scientific expeditions organized from Cairo, head of government, is the President of Egypt. Cabinet of Egypt Parliament of Egypt – it was dissolved by the army of Egypt on 11 February 2011. N, members which is not a member of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Gaston Camille Charles Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldæa, Syria, Babylonia, a. Wallis Budge,1920 Egypt Online Directory The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights PortSaid Free-zone forumsList of Egypt-related topics – An enlargeable relief map of Egypt
66. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014