1. Egypt – It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם. The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed more centralised society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.Egypt – The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
2. North Africa – North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nations definition of "North Africa" includes territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara. The countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, the Arabic word for "sunset". Egypt lies to the encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt. Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia. North Africa also includes a number of Spanish possessions. Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region. North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. They recede to the east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of, more than billion years old. The Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. Woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and fruits, also thrive in these areas. Most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.North Africa – Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
3. Sinai Peninsula – It is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. The bulk of the peninsula is divided administratively into two of Egypt's 27 governorates. The Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt until the 21st century. Israel occupied Sinai during the Six-Day War of 1967. On 6 Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War to retake the peninsula, the site of fierce fighting between Israeli forces. Sinai has become a destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, biblical history. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in Abrahamic faiths. However this assumption is contested. In addition to its formal name, Egyptians also refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz. The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or "land of turquoise". It is linked by 125 kilometres wide strip of land, containing the Suez Canal. The eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres wide. The peninsula's eastern shore separates the Arabian plate from the African plate. The southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park.Sinai Peninsula – Dahab in Southern Sinai is a popular beach and diving resort in Sinai
4. Southwest Asia – Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the main difference being the exclusion of Egypt. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia is estimated at about million as of 2015. As a geographic concept, "Western Asia" includes the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian peninsula, Anatolia, Iran, South Caucasus. The Sinai Peninsula belongs to Western Asia, making a transcontinental country. The term has no "correct" or generally agreed-upon definition. The UNSD includes all other commonly West Asian listed nations. Use of the term in the context of world economy appears to date from the 1960s. Western Asia is located south of Eastern Europe. The Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut deserts in eastern Iran naturally delimit the region somewhat from Asia itself. European geographers historically viewed the North Caucasus as part of Western Asia, well as much of what is today European Russia. It also contains vast expanses of forest and fertile valleys. The region consists of grasslands, rangelands, mountains. Water shortages are a problem in many parts of West Asia, with rapidly growing populations increasing demands for water, while pollution threaten water supplies.Southwest Asia – A Lebanese cedar forest in winter.
5. Mediterranean Region – As a rule of thumb, the Mediterranean Basin is the Old World region where olive trees grow. The Mediterranean basin covers portions of three continents Africa, Asia, Europe. It has a varied and contrasting topography. Contrary to the sandy beach images portrayed in most tourist brochures, the Mediterranean is surprisingly hilly. Mountains can be seen from anywhere. The Mediterranean Basin extends into Western Asia, covering the western and southern portions excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Turkey. It includes the Mediterranean Levant at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian and Negev deserts. Three large Southern European peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, extend into the Mediterranean-climate zone. The Mediterranean Basin was shaped by the ancient collision of the African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent. As Africa-Arabia moved north, it closed the former Tethys Sea, which formerly separated Eurasia from the super continent of Gondwana, of which Africa was part. The collision pushed up a vast system of mountains, extending to the Zagros Mountains in Iran. This episode of building, known as the Alpine orogeny, occurred mostly during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The Neotethys became larger during associated folding and subduction. About 6 mya during the late Miocene, the Mediterranean was closed by drifting Africa, which caused the entire sea to evaporate. Recent studies, however, show that repeated re-flooding is unlikely from a geodynamic point of view.Mediterranean Region – Potential distribution over the Mediterranean Basin of the olive tree—one of the best biological indicators of the Mediterranean Region (Oteros, 2014)
6. Africa – Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. With billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15 % of the world's human population. The continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognized de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the median age was 30.4. Algeria is Nigeria by population. Africa encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, languages. In the 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa. Most present states in Africa originate in the 20th century. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have originally referred to a Libyan tribe; see Terence #Biography for discussion. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran originally from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land.Africa – Map of Africa
7. Nile River – The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is 6,853 km long. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. It flows north through Tanzania, South Sudan. The Blue Nile flows from the southeast. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. In the Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ ` meaning "river", represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the left. In Coptic, the words meaning "the river" come from the same ancient name. The Arabic names an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος. Beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river".Nile River – The river in Uganda
8. Islamic World – The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the Ummah has different meanings. In a religious sense, the Islamic Ummah refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, the Muslim Ummah refers to exclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization. In a geopolitical sense, the term "Islamic Nation" usually refers collectively to Muslim-majority countries, states, districts or towns. Although Islamic lifestyles emphasize defense of fellow Muslims, schools and branches exist. In the past, both nationalist currents have influenced the status of the Greater Middle East. As of 2015, about 23.4 % of the world population are Muslims including the 4.4 % who live as minorities. Muslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a social institution. The history of Islam began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad's first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century in the month of Ramadan. However, Islam under the Rashidun Caliphate grew rapidly. A century after the death of the Islamic empire extended from Spain in the west to Indus in the east. The Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo, Córdoba became the main intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine, education. Between the 18th centuries, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century.Islamic World – The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands.
9. Red Sea – The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Suez. The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift, part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2, is about 2250 km long and, at its widest point, 355 km wide. It has a maximum depth of 2211 m in the central median trench, an average depth of 490 m. However, there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life and corals. The sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species, 200 soft and hard corals. It is the world's tropical sea. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Red Sea as follows: On the North. The Southern limits of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba. On the South. A line joining Husn Murad and Ras Siyyan. Red Sea is a direct translation of the Greek Erythra Thalassa, Latin Mare Rubrum,: البحر الأحمر, translit.Red Sea – Red Sea
10. Middle East – The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The derived noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the 20th century. The history of the Middle East dates back with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more widely known when naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in the National Review, a British journal. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. The Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. The first official use by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis.Middle East – The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
11. Arable land – Arable land is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops. In Britain, it was traditionally contrasted with pasturable lands such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing but not farmland. A quite different kind of definition is used by various agencies concerned with agriculture. The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for ‘Arable land’ are not meant to indicate the amount of land, potentially cultivable." A briefer definition appearing in the Eurostat glossary similarly refers to actual, rather than potential use: "land worked regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation." Other non-arable land includes land unsuitable for any agricultural use. Although such limitations may preclude cultivation, some will in some cases preclude any agricultural use, large areas unsuitable for cultivation are agriculturally productive. Similar examples can be found in many rangeland areas elsewhere. Land incapable of being cultivated for production of crops can sometimes be converted to arable land. New arable land makes more food, can reduce starvation. This outcome also makes a country more self-sufficient and politically independent, because food importation is reduced. This process is often extremely expensive. An alternative is the Seawater Greenhouse which desalinates water through evaporation and condensation using solar energy as the only energy input. This technology is optimized to grow crops on desert land close to the sea.Arable land – Modern mechanized agriculture permits large fields like this one in Dorset, England.
12. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
13. Giza pyramid complex – The Giza pyramid complex is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. Current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids. The valley temple was connected to a causeway, largely destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu. From this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king’s pyramid. The king’s pyramid has three smaller queen’s pyramids associated with it and five boat pits. The boat pits contained a ship, the 2 pits on the south side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships has been restored and is on display. Khufu's pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of fine white limestone quarried from the nearby range. Khafre's complex consists of a valley temple, the king's pyramid.Giza pyramid complex – All of the six pyramids of the Giza pyramid complex
14. Great Sphinx of Giza – Facing directly to East, it stands on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre. Cut from the bedrock, the original shape of the Sphinx has been restored with layers of blocks. The nummulitic limestone of the area consists of layers which offer differing resistance to erosion, leading to the uneven degradation apparent in the Sphinx's body. The lowest part of the body, including the legs, is solid rock. The body of the lion up to its neck is fashioned from softer layers that have suffered considerable disintegration. The layer in which the head was sculpted is much harder. These questions have resulted in the popular idea of the "Riddle of the Sphinx," alluding to the original Greek legend of the "Riddle of the Sphinx." The pharaoh Thutmose IV specifically referred as such in his "Dream Stele." The name may alternatively be a linguistic corruption of the phonetically different ancient Egyptian word Ssp-anx. This name is given to royal statues of the Fourth dynasty of ancient Egypt and later in the New Kingdom to the Great Sphinx more specifically. Arab writers, including al-Maqrīzī, call the Sphinx bilhaw, which suggest a Coptic influence. The Arabic name is أبو الهول. The Dream Stele, erected much later by the pharaoh Thutmose IV, associates the Sphinx with Khafra. When the stele was discovered, its lines of text were already damaged and incomplete, only referred to Khaf, not Khafra.Great Sphinx of Giza – The Great Sphinx of Giza, 2015
15. Memphis, Egypt – Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Mediterranean history. It was home to feverish activity. Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops, factories, warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived for commerce, trade, religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen. Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The history of Memphis is closely linked to that of the country itself. Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance also diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica. Today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979. The site is open to the public as an open-air museum.Memphis, Egypt – Ruins of the pillared hall of Rameses II at Mit Rahina
16. Thebes, Egypt – Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the Upper Egyptian nome. It was close to the eastern desert, with their valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was the wealthiest city of ancient Egypt at its heyday. Thebes is the Latinized form of the hellenized form of the Demotic Egyptian Ta-pe. This was the local name not for the Karnak temple complex on the northern east bank of the city. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known as Niwt-Imn the "City of Amun". Amun was the chief of the Theban Triad of gods whose other members were Mut and Khonsu. This name probably also as the "No" mentioned in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. In the graeca, Amun was seen as a form of Zeus. The name was therefore translated as Diospolis the "City of Zeus". To distinguish it by this name, it was known as the Great Diospolis. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River from the Delta. It was built largely on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile.Thebes, Egypt – Egypt - Temple of Seti, east entrance, Thebes. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
17. Karnak – The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, other buildings. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes. The Karnak complex gives to the nearby, partly surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor. Also, Karnak was a ancient observatory according to Norman Lockyer. The complex is the second largest ancient religious site in the world, after the Angkor Wat Temple of Cambodia. It is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt; only the Giza Pyramids near Cairo receive more visits. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is currently open to the general public. The Karnak often is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public. There also sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, the Luxor Temple. The Precinct of Mut is very ancient, being dedicated to an Earth and deity, but not yet restored. Many portions of it may have been carried away in other buildings. Construction of temples continued through to Ptolemaic times. Approximately thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, diversity not seen elsewhere. The size and number of features are overwhelming.Karnak – Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall from the Precinct of Amun-Re
18. Valley of the Kings – The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of West Valley. It was the principal place of the royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. A new centre has recently been opened. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains. The quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging to the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound. The occasional layer of shale also caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered. Builders took advantage of available geological features when constructing the tombs. The problems of construction can be seen with tombs of his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14. When looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended the partly-excavated tomb started by his father. The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis, probably due to the quality of the rock being excavated.Valley of the Kings – Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, west of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location)
19. Order of battle at the Battle of the Nile – The Battle of the Nile was a significant naval action fought during 1–3 August 1798. Nelson discovered the French fleet at 14:00. Advancing during his ships entered the bay at 18:20 and attacked the French directly, despite the rapid approach of nightfall. The rest of the British line attacked the starboard side of the French van, catching the ships in a fierce crossfire. For three hours the battle continued as the British were driven away from the heavily defended centre. At 22:00 the French flagship Orient exploded. His captains were highly praised and generously rewarded, although Nelson privately complained that his peerage was not senior enough. The remainder enjoyed successful service careers in the Royal Navy; two subsequently served at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The ships in the orders of battle below are listed in the order in which they appeared in the respective battle lines. Officers killed in action are marked with a † symbol. Note that as carronades were not traditionally taken into consideration when calculating a ship's rate, these ships may have been carrying more guns than indicated below. Ships in this colour were captured during the battle Ships in this colour were destroyed during the battle Adkins, Roy & Lesley. The War for All the Oceans. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11916-3.Order of battle at the Battle of the Nile – Battle of the Nile, Thomas Luny, 1834
20. Aboukir Bay – The Abū Qīr Bay is a spacious bay on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, lying between Abu Qir and the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. The ancient cities of Canopus, Heracleion and Menouthis lie submerged beneath the waters of the bay. The bay contains a natural field, discovered in the 1970s. On August 1798, Horatio Nelson fought the naval Battle of the Nile, often referred to as the "Battle of Aboukir Bay". On March 1801, some 70 British warships, together with transports carrying 16,000 troops, anchored in Aboukir Bay near Alexandria. The intent was to defeat the French force that had remained in Egypt after Napoleon's return to France. The British then defeated the French army at the Battle of Alexandria. The Siege of Alexandria followed, with the city falling on 2 September 1801. The bay contains the archaeological sites of three cities from the pre-Hellenistic, Hellenistic and Roman periods. They were excavated by underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio. Nelson's IslandAboukir Bay – English ships attacking French ships at Abukir
21. River Nile – The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is 6,853 km long. In particular, the Nile is the primary source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two major tributaries, Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the silt. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, South Sudan. The Blue Nile flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. In the Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ ` pī or Iteru, meaning "river", represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the left. In Coptic, the words piaro or meaning "the river" come from the same ancient name. The Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος. Beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river".River Nile – The river in Uganda
22. Mediterranean – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a surface area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
23. Royal Navy – The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the 18th century it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, to refer to it without qualification. By the end of the war, however, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. The Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which also includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom. The Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired for Defence. The strength of the fleets of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century. Naval power seemingly declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into naval service in time of war. The mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow. England's naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations.Royal Navy – Royal Navy
24. French Navy – The French Navy, informally La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. The Marine nationale consists of four branches: the Force d'Action Navale, the Forces Sous-marines, the Fusiliers Marins. The French Navy does not use prefixes of the names of its ships. Foreign commentators sometimes use FNS; these are not official, however. As of June 2014, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 regular personnel. The element of the French Navy consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The motto of the navy is Honneur, patrie, valeur, these words are found on the deck of every ship in the fleet. The French Navy is affectionately known as La Royale. Colbert's under Louis XIV. Financial troubles, however, allowed the English and the Dutch to regain the initiative. In the Franco-Dutch War, it managed to score a decisive victory over a combined Spanish-Dutch fleet at the Battle of Palermo. The French Navy scored various successes, in the campaigns led in the Atlantic by Picquet de la Motte. In 1766, Bougainville led the French circumnavigation. During the American Revolutionary War the French Navy played a decisive role in supporting the Americans. French warships participated by bombarding British ground forces.French Navy – French Navy ships of the line in the Battle of the Chesapeake.
25. Mediterranean campaign of 1798 – The French Republic sought to capture Egypt as the first stage in an effort to threaten British India, thus force Great Britain to make peace. Departing Toulon in May 1798 over 40,000 troops and hundreds of ships, Bonaparte's fleet sailed southeastwards across the Mediterranean Sea. Bonaparte's forces rapidly overwhelmed the defenders, securing the port city of Valletta before continuing to Egypt. Unable to find Bonaparte, Nelson turned back across the Mediterranean, eventually reaching July. While Nelson was returning westwards, Bonaparte reached Alexandria and stormed the city, marching his army inland. His fleet, entrusted to Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers, was anchored in Aboukir Bay. On 1 Nelson, who had returned to the Egyptian coast after reports gathered at Coron revealed the French invasion, arrived off Aboukir Bay. Although the British fleet had no accurate charts of the bay, Nelson ordered an immediate attack on the French van. At 21:00, Orient exploded, killing most of the crew and ending the main combat. Sporadic fighting continued for the next two days, until all of the French ships had been captured, fled. With the French Navy in the Mediterranean defeated, other nations were encouraged to go to war with France. Portugal, the Kingdom of Naples, the Ottoman Empire all subsequently deployed forces to the Mediterranean. However, French invasion supplies, particularly of viable landing craft, were totally inadequate for the purpose. With operations to the north impossible, Bonaparte directed his attention southwards on the Mediterranean. By early 1798, their Mediterranean Fleet was based in Portugal, their one remaining continental ally.Mediterranean campaign of 1798 – The Destruction of 'L'Orient' at the Battle of the Nile George Arnald, 1827, National Maritime Museum
26. Toulon – Toulon is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department. The Commune of Toulon has a population of 165,514 people, making the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an urban area with the ninth largest in France. Toulon is the French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille, Nice and Montpellier. Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, fishing, the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes, electronic equipment. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon. Archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseilles, show that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era. The Ligurians settled in the 4th century BC. In the 2nd BC, the residents of Massalia called upon the Romans to help them pacify the region. The Romans began to start their own colonies along the coast. The name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon, Tolon, Toulon. The first cathedral built. Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles.Toulon – Top left:Toulon Opera House, Top right:Mayol Stadium (Le Stade du Mayol), 2nd:Panoramic view of downtown Toulon and its port, 3rd left: Place de la Liberté, 3rd right: The beaches of Mourillon, Bottom left:The cable car to Mount Faron, Bottom right:Fort Saint-Louis
27. Alexandria – Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80 % of Egypt's exports. Alexandria is an important industrial center from Suez. It is also an important destination. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome. It was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. It was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. Its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was recently rediscovered under water.Alexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
28. Malta – Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 333 km north of Libya. The country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union. Malta has two official languages: English. King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross for the country's bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Malta's national flag. The country became a republic in 1974, although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a current member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the European Union in 2004; in 2008, it became part of the Eurozone. Catholicism is the official religion in Malta. The modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey". The ancient Greeks called the Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet", possibly due to Malta's unique production of honey; an endemic species of bee lives on the island. Another conjecture suggests that the Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth "a haven" or "port" in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary.Malta – Ġgantija megalithic temple complex
29. Ships of the line – However, the introduction of the ironclad frigate in about 1859 led swiftly to the decline of the steam-assisted ships of the line. The heavily armed carrack, first developed in Portugal for either war in the Atlantic Ocean, was the precursor of the ship of the line. Other European states quickly adopted it in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These vessels were developed by fusing aspects of galley of the Mediterranean Sea. Over time these castles eventually were built into the structure of the ship, increasing overall strength. This aspect of the cog proved its worth in battles like that at Diu in 1509. The Mary Rose was "great ship". She was heavily armed after an upgrade in the 1530s. Built in Portsmouth in 1510–1512, she was one of the earliest purpose-built men-of-war in the English navy. She was over 500 tons burthen, had a keel of over 32 m and a crew of 200 sailors, 185 soldiers and 30 gunners. Although the pride of the English fleet, she accidentally sank during the battle of 19 July 1545. Henri Grâce à Dieu, nicknamed "Great Harry", was another English carrack. Contemporary with Henri Grâce à Dieu was 165 feet long, weighing 1,000 -- 1,500 tons and having a complement of 700 -- 1,000. It is said that she was ordered to the Scottish ship Michael, launched in 1511. In all she mounted 141 light guns.Ships of the line – HMS Hercule as depicted in her fight against the frigate Poursuivante
30. Sloop – A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig. The most common rig of modern sailboats is the Bermuda-rigged sloop. Typically, a modern sloop carries a mainsail on a aft of the mast, with a single loose-footed head-sail forward of the mast. Sloops are either fractional-rigged. On a masthead-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches at the top of the mast. The mainsail may be smaller than the headsail, then called a jib. After the rig, which has only a mainsail, the sloop rig is one of the simpler sailing rig configurations. A sloop typically has two sails, a headsail, while the cutter has a mainsail and two or more headsails. Next in complexity are the ketch, the yawl and the schooner, each of which has two masts and a minimum of three sails. A sloop has a simple system of mast rigging -- a forestay, shrouds. By having only two sails, the individual sails of a sloop are larger than those of an equivalent cutter, ketch. Until the advent of lightweight sailcloth and modern sail-handling systems, the larger sails of a sloop could be a handful. So, until the 1950s, sailboats over 10 metres Length Over All would typically use a two-mast rig. After the advent of light sailcloth, the sloop became the dominant sailing rig type for all but the largest sailboats. No type is perfect for all conditions.Sloop – Sloop Rigged Santa Cruz 70 "Retro" off Newport Beach California
31. Sir Horatio Nelson – Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté KB was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. Nelson was shot and killed during his final victory in 1805. He joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling. Nelson served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was particularly active in the Mediterranean. Nelson was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, Nelson distinguished himself at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. In 1801, Nelson won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen. After a brief return to England, Nelson took in 1805. On 21 October 1805, Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. During the action Nelson, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England where he was accorded a funeral. Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures. Nelson was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole then 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton. She married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749.Sir Horatio Nelson – Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott
32. Napoleonic Wars – The wars revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription. The wars were a continuation of the Revolutionary Wars, which broke out in 1792 during the French Revolution. Initially, French power rose quickly as the armies of Napoleon conquered much of Europe. In his military career, Napoleon fought about 60 battles and lost seven, mostly at the end of his reign. The great French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. During the successive conflicts, also known as the Coalition Wars, France defeated five consecutive coalitions arrayed against it, before suffering defeat against the sixth and seventh. These victories gave Napoleon's Grande Armée a sense of invulnerability, especially when it approached Moscow and occupied it after the Russians abandoned it. Following Napoleon's final defeat, the Allies then reversed all French gains outside its 1789 borders at the Congress of Vienna. Scholars disagree about when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. The Treaty of Paris ended the wars on 20 November 1815. French measures, including total war, contributed despite the civil war occurring in France. The war ended when General Napoleon Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio. Only Great Britain remained opposed to the French Republic. During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and internal division under the Directory. Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the First Coalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt.Napoleonic Wars – Top: Battle of Austerlitz Bottom: Battle of Waterloo
33. Siege of Acre (1799) – It was one of Napoleon's few defeats. Acre was a site of strategic importance due to its commanding position on the route between Egypt and Syria. Bonaparte wanted to capture it following his invasion of Egypt. He hoped to threaten British rule in India. After the Siege of Jaffa the defenders of the citadel were even more fierce. The French attempted to lay siege on 20 March using only their infantry. Napoleon believed the city would capitulate quickly to him. However, the troops of the capable Jezzar Pasha, refusing to surrender, withstood the siege for one and a half months. Al-Jazzar's Jewish adviser and right-hand man, played a key role in the city's defense, directly supervising the battle against the siege. The prospect is likely to have stiffened their resistance. A Royal Navy flotilla under Commodore Sidney Smith supplied the city with additional cannon manned by sailors and marines. An expert from the fleet, Antoine Le Picard de Phélippeaux, then redeployed against Napoleon's forces the artillery pieces which the British had intercepted. Smith anchored Tigre and Theseus so their broadsides could assist the defence. Together they helped repel repeated French assaults. On April a Turkish relief force was fought off at the Mount Tabor.Siege of Acre (1799) – The general outlook of Old Acre, seen here in a present-day view from above, has changed little since 1799
34. War of the Second Coalition – Their goal was to contain the spread of chaos from France, bankrupt after its expenditures in support of the American War of Independence. French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. The Allies attempted to roll back France's previous military conquests. Russia pulled out. He and his generals defeated the Coalition. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing an interval of peace in Europe that lasted for 14 months. In 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France. On 20 the French Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria. In the summer of 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt, which, after he returned to France, surrendered. Meanwhile, during his absence from Europe, the outbreak of violence in Switzerland drew French support against the old Swiss Confederation. When revolutionaries overthrew the cantonal government in Bern, the French Army of the Alps invaded, ostensibly to support the Swiss Republicans. However, Suvorov eventually withdrew. Ultimately the Russians left the Coalition when Great Britain insisted on the right to search all vessels it stopped at sea. In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria won several victories in Switzerland. Jourdan was replaced by Massena, who then combined the Armies of the Danube and Helvetia.War of the Second Coalition – Louis-François Lejeune: the Battle of Marengo
35. Battle of Trafalgar – The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England. Nelson instead divided his smaller force into two columns directed perpendicularly with decisive results. Nelson died shortly after, becoming one of Britain's greatest war heroes. Villeneuve was captured along with his Bucentaure. The senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson's funeral in Britain. In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon Bonaparte, was the military land power on the European continent, while the Royal Navy controlled the seas. When the Third Coalition declared war after the short-lived Peace of Amiens, Napoleon was determined to invade Britain. The French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at Toulon on the Mediterranean coast. Other ports on the French Atlantic coast harboured smaller squadrons. France and Spain were allied, so the Spanish fleet based in Cádiz and Ferrol was also available. The British possessed an well-trained corps of naval officers. Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had taken command of the French Mediterranean fleet following the death of Latouche Treville. They had either been employed elsewhere or had fallen from Napoleon's favour.Battle of Trafalgar – The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the starboard mizzen shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806 to 1808)
36. Sahara – The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world, the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic. Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The name'Sahara' is derived from the plural Arabic word for desert. The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia. It covers million square kilometres, amounting to 31 % of Africa. If all areas with a annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres. It is one of three physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara is mainly rocky hamada. Many of the sand dunes are over 180 metres high. Rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, dry lakes, salt flats. Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania. The highest peak in the Sahara is a shield volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. Central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years. The northern limit also corresponds to the 100 isohyet of annual precipitation.Sahara – A satellite image of the Sahara by NASA World Wind.
37. Algeria – Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the largest in Africa. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999. Berbers are generally considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power. Energy exports are the backbone of the economy. The national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria is the founding member of the Maghreb Union. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā ` a truncated form of the older Jazā ` ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.Algeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
38. Chad – Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is the fifth largest country in Africa in terms of area. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the second-largest in Africa. The N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are French. Chad is home to over 200 different linguistic groups. The religions of Chad are Islam, followed by Christianity. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved in great numbers. France incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown by his general Idriss Déby. A lack of agriculture let the country persist in poverty.Chad – Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem-Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
39. Libya – The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the proven oil reserves of any country in the world. Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The large city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited since the late Bronze Age. Ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire. Libya was an early center of Christianity. In the sixteenth century, the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted from 1911 to 1943. During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign. The Italian population then went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951.Libya – The temple of Zeus in the ancient Greek city of Cyrene.
40. Mali – Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres. The population of Mali is million. Its capital is Bamako. The country's economy centers on fishing. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. About half the population lives below the international line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of astronomy, literature, art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire stretched to the west coast of Africa. During the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined in 1959 achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. Later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels.Mali – The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
41. Mauritania – Mauritania /mɔːrɪˈteɪniə/, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher. Largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won. About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. The Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, among the Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south. Many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni origins. A 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara to West Africa. In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire. Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the local population to dominate Mauritania. The Char Bouba war was the final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe.Mauritania – The Dutch trading post of Arguin in 1665
42. Morocco – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by large portions of desert. It has Mediterranean coastlines. Morocco has an area of 446,550 km2. The largest city is Casablanca. Major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, Nador. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Morocco remained the only North-African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was regained its independence in 1956. Culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.Morocco – Berber Roman King Ptolemy of Mauretania.
43. Niger – Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. The country's Islamic population of 17,138,707 is mostly clustered in the far south and west of the country. The city is Niamey, located in the far-southwest corner of Niger. Much of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic desertification. The economy is concentrated around some export agriculture clustered in the more fertile south, the export of raw materials, especially uranium ore. Historically, what is now Niger has been on the fringes of large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under three periods of military rule. Following a military coup in 2010, Niger has become a multi-party state. A majority have little access to advanced education. Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by archaeological remains. In 2005 -- 06, a graveyard in the Tenere desert was discovered from the University of Chicago. His team discovered 5,000-year-old remains of two children in the Tenere Desert. The evidence along with remains of animals that do not typically live in desert are among the strongest evidence of the'green' Sahara in Niger. It is believed that progressive desertification around 5000 BCE pushed sedentary populations to the south-east. This trade has made a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade.Niger – Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger.
44. Western Sahara – Its area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres. It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly consisting of desert flatlands. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40 % live in the largest city in Western Sahara. Occupied until the late 20th century, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand. It is the most populous territory by far the largest in area. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, asking Spain to decolonise the territory. One year later, a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting that a referendum be held on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the administrative control of the territory by Morocco and Mauritania. Morocco eventually secured de facto control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources. Both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition, essentially from African, Asian, American states in the developing world. The Polisario Front was extended membership in the African Union. Morocco has won support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Arab League. In both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been withdrawn according to changing international trends. As of 2006, no other state of the United Nations has recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the Gaetuli.Western Sahara – Commemoration of the 30th independence day from Spain in the Liberated Territories (2005)
45. Sudan – Sudan, also known as North Sudan and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Eastern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa. The River Nile divides the country into western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan broke away in 2011. Its religion is Islam. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded language. Sudan was the largest country in the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now also the third largest country in the Arab world. Its capital is the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. It is a presidential representative federal republic. The politics of Sudan is regulated by a parliamentary organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law. The name derives from "the lands of the Blacks", an expression denoting West Africa and northern-Central Africa. During the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people along with agriculture.Sudan – The large mud brick temple, known as the shrek or Western Deffufa, in the ancient city of Kerma
46. Tunisia – Tunisia, officially the Tunisian Republic is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered to the west and southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is derived from Tunis, located on Tunisia's coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human index. In addition, Tunisia is also a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe -- with Italy -- have been forged through economic cooperation, industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Immigration began in the 12th BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated in 146 BC.Tunisia – Ancient ruins of a Roman villa at Carthage
47. Temple of Dakka – Ad-Dakka was a place in Lower Nubia. It is the site of Dakka dedicated to Thoth, the god of wisdom in the ancient Egyptian pantheon. Ptolemy IX "subsequently enlarged the temple by adding a pronaos with two rows of probably three columns." The sanctuary contained a granite naos." A large dromos leads to the pylon, which formed the entrance to the temple. Each of the pylon's towers bears numerous graffiti from visitors, mostly in Greek but some in Demotic and Meroitic script. There are reliefs of cows offered to the god Thoth carved into the naos of the Temple of Dakka. A processional approach ran from the temple's pylon to a cult terrace at the Nile. The temple of Dakka was subsequently rebuilt by Alessandro Barsanti. During the construction of the Aswan dam in the 1960s, the temple was moved to the site of Wadi es-Sebua. The temple's pylon is now separated due to the missing enclosure walls of the open court. The Temple of Maharraqa was also rebuilt at the New Wadi es-Sebua temple complex area.Temple of Dakka – The Temple of Dakka in Nubia
48. Temple of Maharraqa – Al-Maharraqa is a place in Lower Nubia, approximately 120 km south of Aswan on the southern border of the Roman empire. The Roman prefect of Egypt, Petronius, defeated the invading Meroitic army. He then proceeded to station a Roman garrison of 400 troops at the southern outpost of Qasr Ibrim. After some negotiations, a permanent frontier between Meroë and Roman Egypt was established at Maharraqa. Thus, Maharraqa formed the southern frontier of Roman Egypt. The Temple of Maharraqa was originally situated here before it was subsequently relocated in the mid-1960s due to the Aswan Dam project. It was dedicated to Serapis. This Egyptian temple can not be securely attributed to any Roman emperor's reign since it was never fully completed nor inscribed. However, since it is known that building declined in Nubia after the rule of Augustus, the temple of Maharraqa might be datable to his reign. The only part of the structure, finished "was a court measuring X 15.69 m, surrounded on three sides by columns." The actual temple premises containing the sanctuary was never actually built. The temple, well, lacks a formal pylon. The Temple of Maharraqa features an architectural curiosity with a winding staircase at a corner of the court, which led to its roof. This is the only Egyptian temple in Nubia with a staircase. As Christine Hobson notes: "A little to the north of Amada now stand the temples of Wadi es Sebua, Dakka and Maharraka."Temple of Maharraqa – The Temple of Maharraqa in Nubia
49. Wadi es-Sebua – The first temple was built by the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III and subsequently restored by Ramesses II. In its first stage, this temple "consisted of a rock-cut sanctuary fronted by a brick-built pylon, a hall, partly painted with wall paintings." Contemporary representations of the viceroy of Kush, Setau, indicate that this temple was set up between Years 35 and Year 50 of Ramesses II. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was the third chapel constructed from rock with a forecourt built with stones that Ramesses II erected in Nubia. This temple was, hence, "partly rock-cut." The temple once possessed three pylons. The first two, however, have since crumbled. Only the gate passageway through them has survived. Only the left-hand statue of Ramesses II remains in situ whereas the other statue now lies in the desert. Between their legs, a statuette with the image of Ramesses capped with the némès crown appears. Just prior to entering the third tower, four colossal statues of Ramesses II appear of which, only one statue remains upright today. The third pylon is decorated with the Egyptian style of the Pharaoh smiting his enemies and making offerings to the gods, including himself. Some retain their colour." The "antechamber opens into two side rooms, the sanctuary itself." Although the statues in the sanctuary niches were destroyed, they "undoubtedly represented himself."Wadi es-Sebua – A picture of Wadi es-Sebua temple in Nubia
50. Amada – His son and successor, Amenhotep II continued the decoration program for this structure. Amenhotep II's successor, Thutmose IV decided to transform it into a pillared or hypostyle hall. During the Amarna period, this was later restored by Seti I of Egypt's 19th dynasty. Ramesses II also "carried out minor restorations and added to the temple's decoration." The original plan for the structure featured a pylon, forecourt and a portico which led to a sanctuary. Although the temple has a crumbling exterior, its interior features enjoy some of the most finely cut reliefs with bright and vibrant colours. The left side of the vestibule shows Amenhotep II being crowned by Horus and Thoth and running with an oar and a hap. There are two historical inscriptions from Amada temple. The earliest, dated to Year 3 of Amenhotep II, "is on a round topped stelae at the rear wall of the sanctuary." This was done as a clear warning during Amenhotep's reign. The temple was first published by Henri Gauthier in 1913. Chopping it into blocks, as was being done with the other temples, was not an option; the paintings would not have survived. Seeing that all seemed resigned to see the temple flooded by the silty waters of Lake Nasser, Christiane Desroches Noblecourt announced that France would save it. She asked two architects to propose a method for moving the temple in one piece. The rock-cut Temple of Derr was also moved to the new site of Amada.Amada – The Facade of Amada temple
51. Temple of Derr – The Temple of Derr or el-Derr is a speos or rock-cut Egyptian temple in Lower Nubia. It was built by Pharaoh Ramesses II. The temple's unique position "was probably because the river on its approach to the Korosko bend flows in an'unnatural' southeasterly direction." The Derr structure was dedicated to the god Ra-Horakhty. Abu Simbel was built between Year 31 of Ramesses' reign. In 1964, the temple was relocated, along with the Temple of Amada, to a new site. The temple itself was first studied and published by Aylward Blackman in 1913. Temple de Derr Egypte EternelleTemple of Derr – Facade of the reassembled Temple of Derr
52. Lake Nasser – Lake Nasser is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Before construction, Sudan was against the building of Lake Nasser because it would encroach in the North where the Nubian people lived. They would have to be resettled. In the end Sudan's land near the area of Lake Nasser was mostly flooded by the lake. The lake is some 550 km long and 35 km across at its widest point, near the Tropic of Cancer. It has a storage capacity of some 132 km3 of water. The lake was created across the waters of the Nile between 1958 and 1970. It was President Anwar Sadat who inaugurated the dam in 1970. Egypt lacks the water it needs for agriculture. The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, currently being constructed in Ethiopia will most likely adversely affect Lake Nasser. While the Renaissance Dam will benefit Sudan and Ethiopia, it has caused tensions between Sudan and Ethiopia. Egypt is worried that the new dam will stop the Nile River from adequately filling Lake Nasser. A enclosure was built in Lake Nasser. Fishing among tourists, especially for Nile perch, has become increasingly popular, both from boats.Lake Nasser – View from Abu Simbel
53. Aswan Dam – The Aswan Dam is an embankment dam built across the Nile at Aswan, Egypt between 1898 and 1902. Since the 1960s, the name commonly refers to the Aswan High Dam. The High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt. Before the dams were built, the Nile flooded every year during late summer, when water flowed down the valley from its East African basin. Because floods vary, in high-water years the whole crop might be wiped out, while in low-water years widespread famine occasionally occurred. With the reservoir storage provided by the Aswan dams, the water stored for later release. His work convinced him of the impracticality of this scheme. The British began construction of the first dam in 1898. The dam was opened on 10 December 1902. In 1912, the Greek-Egyptian engineer Adrian Daninos began to develop the plan of the new Aswan Dam. Although the Low Dam was almost overtopped in 1946, the Egyptian government of King Farouk showed no interest in Daninos's plans. Instead the Nile Valley Plan to store water in Sudan and Ethiopia, where evaporation is much lower, was favored. The Egyptian position changed completely with the overthrow of the monarchy, led by the Free Officers Movement including Gamal Abdel Nasser. In addition to his development plans, he looked to quickly modernize his military, he turned first to the U.S. Nasser did not accept these conditions, but then he looked to the USSR for support.Aswan Dam – The Aswan High Dam as seen from space
54. Maimonides Synagogue – The Maimonides Synagogue, also known as the Rav Moshe Synagogue, is a historic synagogue located in Cairo, Egypt. It is believed that Maimonides' original tomb is contained within the building. In March 2010, the Egyptian government completed the restoration of the current building which dates from the 19th century. The Almohads threatened the Jewish community with the choice of conversion to Islam, death, or exile. Maimonides' family, along with most other Jews, chose exile. After spending ten years in southern Spain, they moved to Morocco and then eventually settled in around 1168. In Egypt, he became a court physician to Qadi al-Fadil, Grand Vizier to Saladin. Maimonides worked in a yeshiva attached to the small synagogue. The yeshiva are located in Harat al-Yahud, the Jewish quarter of medieval Cairo, can only be reached on foot. According to tradition, his bones were placed for a week in a small shrine where he used to heal strangers. In the 19th century, another synagogue was named in his honor. The situation of Egypt's Jews became increasingly precarious in the middle of the 20th century. Thousands more fled the hostile social and economic conditions. Egypt's Jewish population eventually dropped to less than 100. With about 30 Jews left in Cairo, the synagogue was closed, almost collapsed due to underground water and earthquakes.Maimonides Synagogue – Front of the synagogue of Moses Maimonides in 2006 before its renovation in 2010, Jewish quarter, el-Muski, Cairo
55. Cairo – It is the capital and largest city of Egypt. It has music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media, organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence. With a population of million spread over 453 square kilometers, it is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. It, like other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. One of only two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides. The economy of Cairo was 43rd globally by Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians often refer as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country. The location of the ancient city is the suburb of Ain Shams. Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro. However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. This fortress, known as Babylon, is the oldest structure in the city today. Cairo is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Byzantine church in the late 4th century. Many including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.Cairo – Cairo القاهرة al-Qāhirah
56. Jewish philosopher – Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. Medieval re-discovery of Greek philosophy among the Geonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism. The philosophy was generally with Kabbalah. Both schools would become part of Rabbinic literature, though the decline of scholastic rationalism coincided with historical events which drew Jews to the Kabbalistic approach. For Ashkenazi Jews, encounter with secular thought from the 18th-century onwards altered how philosophy was viewed. Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities had later more ambivalent interaction than in Western Europe. In the varied responses to modernity, philosophical ideas were developed across the range of emerging religious movements. Rabbinic literature sometimes views Abraham as a philosopher. Some have suggested that Abraham introduced a philosophy learned from Melchizedek; Some Jews ascribe the Sefer Yetzirah "Book of Creation" to Abraham. Psalms contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works; from this, some scholars suggest, Judaism harbors a Philosophical under-current. Philo attempted to harmonize Greek and Jewish philosophy through allegory, which he learned from Jewish exegesis and Stoicism. Philo attempted to make the means of defending and justifying Jewish religious truths. Philosophy was used as an aid to truth, a means of arriving at it. Philosophical speculation was not a central part of Rabbinic Judaism, although some have seen the Mishnah as a philosophical work. Rabbi Akiva has also been viewed as a philosophical figure: his statements include 1.)Jewish philosopher – Philo
57. Rabbi – In Judaism, a rabbi /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word rabi, meaning "My Master", the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" רב rav literally means "great one". The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early to first century CE. Differences in opinion regarding, to be recognized as a rabbi. Other movements have chosen to do so for halakhic reasons as well as ethical reasons. The root is cognate to Arabic ربّ rabb, meaning "lord". As a sign of great respect, some great rabbis are simply called "The Rav". The titles "Rabban" and "Rabbi" are first mentioned in the Mishnah. Other variants are rəvī and, in Yiddish, rebbə. The word could be compared to the Syriac word rabi. In ancient Hebrew, rabbi was a proper term of while speaking to a superior, in the second person, similar to a vocative case. While speaking about a superior, in the third person one could say rabbo. Later, the term evolved for members of the Patriarchate.Rabbi – Rabbi instructing children in 2004
58. Physician – Itself vary around the world. Around the world the physician refers to a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties. This meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by medications, rather than by the procedures of surgeons. This term is at least hundred years old in English: physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, traditionally were rivals. Henry VIII granted a charter in 1518. It was not until 1540 that he granted the Company of its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge. Newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now. Currently, a physician in the United States may be described as an internist. Hospitalist, was introduced in 1996, to describe US specialists in internal medicine who work largely or exclusively in hospitals. Such'hospitalists' now make up about 19% of all US general internists, who are often called general physicians in Commonwealth countries. In such places, medical practitioner are prevalent, describing any practitioner of medicine. In Commonwealth countries, specialist geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Around the world, the combined term "surgeon" is used to describe either a general practitioner or any medical practitioner irrespective of specialty.Physician – "The Doctor" by Luke Fildes (detail).
59. Maimonides – In his time, he was also a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Cordova, Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve, 1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi, physician, philosopher in Morocco and Egypt. He died in Egypt on December 12, 1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias. Nonetheless, he was posthumously acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history, his copious work comprises a cornerstone of Jewish scholarship. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law. He is sometimes known as "ha Nesher ha Gadol" in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah. Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides also figures very prominently in the history of Islamic and Arab sciences and is mentioned extensively in studies. Influenced by Al-Farabi, Avicenna, his contemporary Averroes, he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and scientists. He became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds. His full Hebrew name is Rabbi Mosheh ben Maimon, whose acronym forms "Rambam". His full Arabic name is Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin Maimūn bin ʿUbaidallāh al-Qurtabī or Mūsā bin Maymūn for short. In Latin, the Hebrew "ben" becomes the Greek−style suffix "-ides" to form "Moses Maimonides". At an early age, he developed an interest in sciences and philosophy. He read those Greek philosophers accessible in Arabic translations, was deeply immersed in the sciences and learning of Islamic culture. Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism, although a strong intellectual type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy.Maimonides – 18th-century portrait of Maimonides
60. Pharaoh – The pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-3, ꜥꜣ "column". It was used only with specific reference to the buildings of the palace. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as hm.f,'Majesty'. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign as pr-aa continued in Egyptian narratives. By this time, the Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derove the name of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה; from then Late Latin pharaō, both - n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it فرعون fir'awn with "n". English at first spelt it "Pharao", but the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ and then rro. Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos.Pharaoh – Den
61. Gamal Abdel Nasser – Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Nasser's popularity in Egypt and the Arab world skyrocketed after his nationalization of the Suez Canal and his political victory in the subsequent Suez Crisis. Calls for pan-Arab unity under his leadership increased, culminating with the formation of the United Arab Republic with Syria. In 1962, Nasser began a series of major socialist measures and modernization reforms in Egypt. Despite setbacks to his pan-Arabist cause, by 1963 Nasser's supporters gained power in several Arab countries, but he became embroiled in the North Yemen Civil War. He began his second presidential term in March 1965 after his political opponents were banned from running. Following Egypt's defeat by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, Nasser resigned, but he returned to office after popular demonstrations called for his reinstatement. After the conclusion of the 1970 Arab League summit, Nasser suffered a heart attack and died. His funeral in Cairo drew five million mourners and an outpouring of grief across the Arab world. Nasser remains an iconic figure in the Arab world, particularly for his strides towards social justice and Arab unity, modernization policies, anti-imperialist efforts. His presidency also encouraged and coincided with an Egyptian cultural boom, launched large industrial projects, including the Aswan Dam and Helwan City. Gamal Abdel Nasser was born on 15 January 1918 in Bakos, Alexandria, the first son of Fahima and Abdel Nasser Hussein. Nasser's father was a postal worker born in Beni Mur in Upper Egypt and raised in Alexandria, his mother's family came from Mallawi, el-Minya. His parents married in 1917, later had two more boys, Izz al-Arab and al-Leithi.Gamal Abdel Nasser – Gamal Abdel Nasser
62. List of Presidents of Egypt – This is a list of Presidents of Egypt since the establishment of that office in 1953. The President is the head of the Supreme Commander of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The current President is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, elected in 2014. Since then the office has been held by five further people: Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat, Hosni Mubarak, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Mohamed Morsi took office on 30 June 2012, after being elected by the presidential election held on 16 -- 17 June 2012. He was deposed by the Egyptian Armed Forces in a coup d'état July 2013 following massive protests calling for his resignation. He was succeeded as Acting President. Mansour was sworn on 4 July 2013. Current President el-Sisi took office on 8 June 2014, after being elected by the presidential election held on May 2014.List of Presidents of Egypt
63. President of Egypt – The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt. The first president of Egypt was Muhammad one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. He took office on 18 the day on which the constitutional monarchy of Egypt was overthrown. On 10 February 2011 Mubarak transferred presidential powers to then-Vice President Omar Suleiman, briefly making Suleiman facto president. On 30 Mohamed Morsi was sworn in as President of Egypt, having won the 2012 Egyptian presidential election on 24 June. The Egyptian Constitution has had various forms since its 1953 change to become a republic. Under the 1980 amendments of the 1971 Egyptian Constitution, the president of the republic was elected indirectly in a two-stage system unique to Egypt. The lower house of Parliament, nominated one of a number of candidates for presidency. In 2007, constitutional amendments were made. Ensuring that multiple candidates be put forward for the people to choose from. Ensuring the credibility of the process. The establishment of a presidential election commission that would enjoy complete independence to supervise the election process. Carrying out the election in a single day. Ensuring judicial supervision over the voting process. The following provisions regarding the process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended: A successful candidate must be elected by the majority of the votes.President of Egypt – Presidential Standard
64. Muhammad Naguib – Mohamed Naguib was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Naguib was the eldest of nine children of an Egyptian, a Sudanese woman Zohra Ahmed Othman. His name, "Elkashlan," was popular in Egypt at that time, due to well-known scientific personalities such as Saad Elkashlan and Abdulsamad Elkashlan. He came from a long line of army officers; his father served in Sudan. Naguib's favourite game, however, was playing at soldiers with Ali. Having built a toy fortress in the front yard, he would spend hours conquering inches of land with his toy soldiers. Naguib never completed his doctorate because his career in the army, undertaken by then had begun to take off. Nevertheless, Naguib found the time to polish his language skills, learning English, French, German. While studying in Khartoum, he had often been censured and sometimes even whipped for criticizing Britain's occupation of Egypt and Sudan. Soon, later he found another mirror in Saad Zaghlul. Some years after he was ousted from power, Naguib also came to somewhat admire Gandhi. After the death of his father in 1916, the family moved to Cairo, while Naguib and Ali finished their studies in Sudan. In 1924, he was moved again because of a political association deemed unacceptable by the authorities. Naguib married in 1927, pursuing his legal studies while continuing a career in the army. In 1940, Naguib was again promoted.Muhammad Naguib – Muhammad Naguib محمد نجيب
65. Egyptian Revolution of 1952 – The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing King Faruq. The revolutionary government adopted international non-alignment. The ongoing state of war with Israel also posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypt's already strong support of the Palestinians. These two issues conflated four years after the revolution when Egypt was invaded in the Suez Crisis of 1956. This strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other African countries. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme, transforming Egypt into a centrally planned economy. It also inspired the toppling of pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent. The revolution is commemorated each year on Egypt's national day, on 23 July. The revolution in 1952 found its genesis as a movement, backed by the masses. It was first time for Egyptians to rule since time of Pharaohs. The new regime was common to all Egyptians in terms of religion, language. The end of monarchy signaled an end for British intervention. A government, 100 percent consisting of Egyptians was expected to act in favor of society. A mixture of agrarian feudalism initiated the anti-feudal coup. Wage-earning labor was used.Egyptian Revolution of 1952 – The leaders of the Revolution, Muhammad Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser
66. Muhammad Ali Dynasty – The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. It is named after Muhammad Ali Pasha, regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also formally known as the Alawiyya dynasty. Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the Khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the'Khedival dynasty'. He traces back to her Husband Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, the Parent's to his Grandfather Sultazade Osman Aga. Demonstrating his grander ambitions, he took the title of Khedive; however, this was not sanctioned by the Sublime Porte. Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw to the decaying Ottoman Empire. Muhammad Ali summed up his vision in this way: I am well aware that the Empire is heading by the day toward destruction. ... ... On her ruins I will build a vast kingdom... up to Euphrates the Tigris. Ultimately, henceforth, his dynasty's rule would be limited to Africa, Sinai. This freedom was severely undermined in 1879 when the Sultan colluded with the Great Powers to depose Isma'il in favor of his Tewfik. While the Khedive would continue to rule over Egypt and Sudan in reality, ultimate power resided with the British High Commissioner. However, British interference in Egyptian and Sudanese affairs persisted. Of particular concern to Egypt was Britain's continual efforts to divest Egypt of all control in Sudan.Muhammad Ali Dynasty – Portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the Cairo Citadel museum
67. Pan-Arabism – It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. Its popularity was at its height during the 1950s and 1960s. Advocates of pan-Arabism have often espoused socialist principles and strongly opposed Western political involvement in the Arab world. It also sought to empower Arab states from outside forces by forming alliances and, to a lesser extent, economic co-operation. The origins of pan-Arabism are often attributed to Jurji Zaydan and his Nahda movement. He also popularized through his historical novels certain heroes from Arab history. It has been said that Arsuzi was fascinated with the Nazi ideology of "racial purity" and impacted Aflaq. Abdullah I of Jordan dreamed of uniting Syria, Palestine, Jordan under his leadership in what he would call Greater Syria. He unsuccessfully proposed a plan to this effect to the United Kingdom, which controlled Palestine at that time. The plan was not popular among the majority of Arabs and fostered distrust among the leaders of the other Middle Eastern countries against Abdallah. The distrust of Abdallah's expansionist aspirations was one of the principal reasons for the founding of the Arab League in 1945. Once Abdallah was assassinated by a Palestinian nationalist in 1951, the vision of Greater Syria was dropped from the Jordanian agenda. The pan-Arabist ideology has been accused of inciting prejudice against or downplaying the role of ethnic minorities such as the Berbers. Thus, in the 1940s, not pan-Arabism, was the dominant mode of expression of political activists. James Jankowski wrote about Egypt at the time, "What is most significant is the absence of an Arab component in early Egyptian nationalism.Pan-Arabism – Under Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, pan-Arabism dominated politics in the 1950s and 1960s
68. United Arab Republic – The United Arab Republic was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria. The union existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union after the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. Egypt continued to be known officially as the "United Arab Republic" until 1971. The president was Gamal Abdel Nasser. It was a member of a loose confederation with North Yemen which in 1961 dissolved along with the Republic. Nasser was a popular hero-figure throughout the Arab world following the Suez War of 1956. There was thus popular support in Syria for union with Nasser's Egypt. The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was the leading advocate of such a union. This caused the Syrian Crisis of 1957 after which Syrians intensified their efforts to unite with Egypt. According to Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Nasser initially resisted a total union with Syria, favoring instead a federal union. However, Nasser was "more afraid of a Communist takeover" and agreed on a total merger. Nasser's final terms for the union were non-negotiable: "a plebiscite, the dissolution of parties, the withdrawal of the army from politics". While the plebiscite seemed reasonable to most Syrian elites, the latter two conditions were extremely worrisome. They believed it would destroy political life in Syria. Given the intense pressure that their government was undergoing, they believed that they had no other choice.United Arab Republic – Nasser shaking hands with al-Bizri
69. Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah – Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah was the 2nd Emir of Kuwait from 1965 to 1977, youngest son of Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah. Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah succeeded his half-brother Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah upon his death on 24 November 1965. He suspended parliament in late August 1976 for 4 years, claiming it was acting against the nation. He died from cancer on 31 December 1977. He was appointed as Crown Prince on 29 October 1962. Sovereign Grand Master of the Order of Kuwait. Sovereign Grand Master of the Order of National Defense. Sovereign Grand Master of the Military Duty Order. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George. Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire.Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah – Sabah Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah
70. Arab history – Arabs are an ethnic group and nation native the Arab world. They primarily inhabit the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, western Indian Ocean islands. Currently Arab refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historical, identical, political. The Arabs have their own customs, language, architecture, art, literature, music, dance, media, cuisine, dress, society, mythology. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the diaspora. In total, there are an estimated million Arabs. This makes the world's second ethnic group after the Han Chinese. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions, including Uzza. A few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism. Arabs are mainly Muslim adherents, with sizeable Christian followers. Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Shiite, Ibadhite, Alawite, Druze and Ismaili denominations. Arab Christians generally follow one such as the Maronite, Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, or Chaldean churches. The related ʾaʿrāb is still used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The most popular Arab account holds that the word Arab came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, supposedly the first to speak Arabic.Arab history
71. Developing World – However, since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. Also, the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country. There is criticism of the use of the term developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared to a developed country, which many countries dislike. An alternative measurement, suggested is that of gross national happiness. Countries on the boundary between developed and developing are often categorized under the term newly industrialized countries. Nobody has ever agreed on a definition for these terms in the first place. Various terms are used for whatever is not a developed country. Terms used include less developed country or less economically developed country, for the more extreme, least developed country or least economically developed country. The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. These are set each year on July 1. Economies were divided according to 2016 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income: Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,025 or less. Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,035. Upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$4,036 and US$12,475. High income countries had GNI per capita above US$12,476.Developing World – developing economies according to the IMF
72. Suez Canal – The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It was constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1869. After 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 1869. It extends to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km, including its southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal. The canal is a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez. The canal is maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. In August 2014, construction was launched to widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canal's transit time. The expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from a day. At a cost of $ billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.Suez Canal – Suez Canal
73. Anti-colonialism – A less common usage is by isolationists who oppose an interventionist foreign policy. In the Muslim world, the term is often used in the context of Anti-Zionist religious movements. In the late 1870s, the Imperialism was introduced by opponents of the aggressively imperial policies of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. It was shortly appropriated by supporters of "imperialism" such as Joseph Chamberlain. John A. Hobson and Lenin added a more theoretical macroeconomic connotation to the term. Many theoreticians on the left have followed both in emphasizing the systemic character of "imperialism." Those changes reflect -- in Western power. J. A. Hobson said that domestic social reforms could cure the international disease of imperialism by removing its economic foundation. Hobson theorized that intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, encourage a peaceful multilateral world order. Conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers would generate socially negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism. An early use of the term "anti-imperialist" occurred after the United States entered the Spanish–American War in 1898. Most activists supported the war itself but opposed the annexation of new territory, especially the Philippines. The Anti-Imperialist League was founded on June 15, 1898 in Boston, in opposition of the acquisition of the Philippines, which happened anyway. The anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for "consent of the governed." We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.Anti-colonialism – Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister of Britain from 1874 to 1880, expanded the British Empire.
74. Arab World – The Arab world, also known as the Arab nation, consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League. The Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million people, over half of whom are under 25 years of age. Arab nationalism arose within the Ottoman Empire. The term "Arab world" is sometimes also used to refer to Arab empires. The term "Arab world" is controversial as it may imply that the entire region is Bedouin in its identity, origin, false. The political denotation inherent in the term Arab is generally dominant over genealogical considerations. Such an identity however, is disputed by many peoples. Kurds, Egyptian Coptic Christians for example, may or may not identify themselves as Arabs. In Arab states, Modern Standard Arabic is the only language used by the government. The language of an individual nation is called Darija, which means "everyday/colloquial language." This territorial definition is sometimes seen to be inappropriate or problematic, may be supplemented with certain additional elements. These parameters may be applied to other states and territories. While Arabic dialects are spoken in a number of Arab League states, Literary Arabic is official in all of them. Several states have declared Arabic to be national language, although Arabic is today not as widely spoken there. As members of the Arab League, however, they are considered part of the Arab world under the territorial definition.Arab World – The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also called the Mosque of Uqba), was founded in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is located in the historic city of Kairouan in Tunisia.
75. Non-Aligned Movement – The Non-Aligned Movement is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members. All five leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the Developing World between the Western and Eastern Blocs in the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine at the United Nations. The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement contain 55 % of the population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World. Members have at times included the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Argentina, Zaire, Cyprus, Malta. Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members. The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979. Although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement condemned it. Because the Non-Aligned Movement was formed as an attempt to thwart the Cold War, it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. The successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership, though Bosnia and Herzegovina have status. In 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011.Non-Aligned Movement – Logo of the Sharm El Sheikh Summit, 2009.
76. Nasserism – Spanning the international spheres, it combines elements of Arab socialism, republicanism, nationalism, anti-imperialism, Developing world solidarity, international non-alignment. In the 1960s, Nasserism was amongst the most potent political ideologies in the Arab world. During the Cold War, its influence was also felt in other parts of Africa, the developing world, particularly to anti-imperialism, non-alignment. The ideology associated with him. They are currently associated politically with the'March 8' coalitions in Lebanese politics. Though mindful as with Ba'athism, Nasserism is largely a secular ideology. Nasserists espouse an end to Western interference in Arab affairs, developing world solidarity, international non-alignment, industrialisation. Nasser himself was opposed vehemently to Western imperialism, sharing the commonly held Arab view that Zionism was an extension of European colonialism on Arab soil. The Egyptian-Soviet alliance continued well into the presidency of Nasser's successor as president, Anwar Sadat, especially to the Arab -- Israeli conflict. Nasserism remains a political force throughout the Arab world, but than in its heyday. Many more Arabs are informed by Nasserism in a general sense than actually espouse its specific ideals and objectives. Nasserist movements were largely overshadowed by political organisations, especially the Muslim Brotherhood. This was a part of the Arab world of Arab nationalism being overshadowed, even eclipsed, by political Islam. However, as with all opposition parties in Egypt, their activities was severely limited prior to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Despite being a Arab ideology, Nasserism influenced, to a degree, left-wing movements in other parts of the Developing World, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America.Nasserism – According to Nasser's Three Circles Theory, the mission of the Egyptian Revolution had three spheres: the Arab World, Africa, and the Muslim world
77. Six Day War – Relations between Israel and its neighbours had never fully normalised following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. In the period leading up to June 1967, tensions became dangerously heightened. In reaction to the mobilisation of Egyptian forces along the Israeli border in the Sinai Peninsula, Israel launched a series of preemptive airstrikes against Egyptian airfields. Nearly the Egyptian air force was destroyed with few Israeli losses, giving the Israelis air superiority. Simultaneously, the Israelis launched a offensive into the Sinai, which again caught the Egyptians by surprise. After some initial resistance, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser ordered the evacuation of the Sinai. Israeli forces conquered the Sinai. Nasser induced Syria and Jordan to begin attacks on Israel by using the initially confused situation to claim that Egypt had defeated the Israeli air strike. On June 11, a ceasefire was signed. Arab casualties were far heavier than those of Israel: fewer than a thousand Israelis had been killed compared to over 20,000 from the Arab forces. Israel's military success was attributed to the poor leadership of the Arab forces. International prestige was greatly increased under Israeli control tripled. Across the Arab world, Jewish minority communities were expelled, with refugees going to Israel or Europe. In the following years there were minor border clashes between its Arab neighbors, particularly Syria. In early November 1966, Syria signed a mutual defense agreement with Egypt.Six Day War – Israeli troops examine destroyed Egyptian aircraft.
78. History of Egypt – The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its rich history also comes from outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. One of the other Seven Wonders, is gone. The Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries. Human settlement in Egypt dates back to at least 40,000 BC with Aterian tool manufacturing. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominately Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire. Egypt remained entirely Ottoman except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell in 1882 following the Anglo-Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established.History of Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom.
79. History of ancient Egypt – The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC. Note For alternative'revisions' to the chronology of Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Egypt's history is split according to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh. The dating of events is still a subject of research. The conservative dates are not supported by any absolute date for a span of about three millennia. The following is the list according to Egyptian chronology. Traces of these early people appear along the terraces of the Nile and in the oases. To the Egyptians the Nile meant the desert meant death, though the desert did provide them protection from invaders. Evidence also indicates human habitation and cattle herding before the 8th millennium BC. Continued desiccation forced them to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. However, the period from 9th to the 6th millennium BC has left very little in the way of archaeological evidence. The Nile valley of Egypt was basically uninhabitable until the work of irrigating the land along the banks was started. However it appears that this irrigation was largely under way by the 6th millennium. By that time, Nile society was already engaged in the construction of large buildings. At this time, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were also constructing large buildings.History of ancient Egypt – A Naqada II vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.
80. History of Ptolemaic Egypt – The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt. Alexandria became a major center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the Egyptian populace, they named themselves the successors to the Pharaohs. Hellenistic culture continued to thrive until the Muslim conquest. In Alexander the Great, King of Macedon invaded the Achaemenid satrapy of Egypt. He traveled to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. The wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire. Early in 331 BC he led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes as the nomarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt. Following Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, a crisis erupted among his generals. Perdiccas appointed one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC, nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV. However, as Alexander the Great's empire disintegrated, Ptolemy soon established himself in his own right.History of Ptolemaic Egypt – Eagle of Zeus
81. History of Roman Egypt – The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula. Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the East. The province had a highly developed urban economy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman province. In its capital, it possessed the largest port, the second largest city, of the Roman Empire. As a province, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely style Augustal prefect, instead of the senatorial governor of other Roman provinces. The prefect was appointed by the Emperor. Aelius Gallus, made an unsuccessful expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea and even Arabia Felix. The Red Sea coast of Aegyptus was not brought until the reign of Claudius. Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Petronius even led a campaign at Meroe, whose queen Imanarenat had previously attacked Roman Egypt. Failing to acquire permanent gains, in 22 BC he retreated to the north. From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous.History of Roman Egypt – Northern Africa under Roman rule
82. History of Arab Egypt – In 1174, Egypt came under the rule of Ayyubids that lasted until 1252. In 639 an army of some 4,000 men were sent under the command of Amr ibn al-As. This army was joined by another 5,000 men in 640 and defeated a Byzantine army at the battle of Heliopolis. Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, surrendered by a treaty signed on November 641. Alexandria was retaken in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. Following the first surrender of Alexandria, Amr chose a new site to settle his men, near the location of the Byzantine fortress of Babylon. The new settlement received the name of Fustat, after Amr's tent, pitched there when the Arabs besieged the fortress. After the conquest, the country was initially divided in two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt with the Nile Delta. In 643/4, however, Caliph Uthman appointed a single governor over all of resident at Fustat. The governor would in turn nominate deputies for Upper and Lower Egypt. Alexandria remained a distinct district, reflecting both its role as the naval base. It was considered a frontier fortress under a military governor and was heavily garrisoned, with a quarter of the province's garrison serving there in semi-annual rotation. Next to the wāli, there was also the commander of the police, responsible for internal security and for commanding the jund.History of Arab Egypt – The near East in 1025 AD, showing the Fatimid Caliphate and neighbors.
84. History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty – The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Albanian mercenaries. It lasted from 1803 to 1807 with the Albanian Muhammad Ali Pasha taking control of Egypt in 1805, when the Ottoman Sultan acknowledged his position. Thereafter, his efforts henceforth were directed primarily to the maintenance of his practical independence. Ottoman-Saudi war in 1811–18 was fought between Egypt under the reign of Muhammad Ali and the Wahabbis of Hijaz. After a successful advance this force retreated to Yanbu. In the end of the Tusun, having received reinforcements, again assumed the offensive and captured Medina after a prolonged siege. He next took Jeddah and Mecca, capturing their general. Tusun died in 1816 at the early age of twenty. This expedition, under his eldest son Ibrahim Pasha, left in the autumn of 1816. The war was arduous but in 1818 Ibrahim captured the Saudi capital of Diriyah. At the close of the year 1819 Ibrahim returned to, having subdued all opposition in Arabia. The former owners were forced to accept inadequate pensions instead. By this revolutionary method of nationalization Muhammad Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt. During Ibrahim's engagement in the Arabian campaign, the pasha turned his attention to further strengthening the Egyptian economy, his control over it. He created state monopolies for the chief products of the country, up a number of factories.History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty – Muhammad Ali Pasha
85. History of modern Egypt – By: Opkar Singh The definition of Egypt's modern history has varied in accordance to different definitions of Modernity. Some scholars date it as far back as 1516 in 1516 -- 17. Gamal Abdel Nasser ended the monarchy rule in Egypt, known as the Republic of Egypt, following the 1952 Egyptian revolution. In 1882 opposition to European control led to growing tension amongst notable natives, the most dangerous opposition coming from the army. A military demonstration in September 1881 forced the Khedive Tewfiq to dismiss his Prime Minister. Tawfiq moved to Alexandria for fear of his own safety as army officers led by Ahmed Urabi began to take control of the government. By June Egypt was in the hands of nationalists opposed to European domination of the country. The British took control of the country putting Tawfiq back in control. It is unlikely that the British expected a long-term occupation from the outset. However, Britain's Chief Representative in Egypt at the time, viewed Egypt's financial reforms as part of a long-term objective. In 1906 the Denshawai incident provoked a questioning of British rule in Egypt. A group known as the Wafd Delegation attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 to demand Egypt's independence. Included in the group was political leader, Saad Zaghlul, who would later become Prime Minister. When the group deported to the island of Malta, a huge uprising occurred in Egypt. From March to April 1919, there were mass demonstrations that became uprisings.History of modern Egypt – Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919.
86. Politics of Egypt – The Parliament is unicameral. The President can also dissolve it. Parliament can also impeach the President. The first free elected President was in 2012. The Parliament of Egypt is the oldest legislative chamber in the Middle East. The President is elected for four-year term that can be renewable once. The position was created after Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Mohammed Naguib was the first president. In 2005, the presidential elections held with multiple candidates stand for the positions, however the elections was deemed neither fair nor free. After the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a presidential elections held in 2012, it was the first free and fair elections in Egyptian history. El-Sisi then was elected head of state in the 2014 presidential election. Parliament meets for each year; under special circumstances the President of the Republic can call an additional session. The House of Representatives is the legislative body. The House can be dissolved earlier by the President. The Constitution reserves percent of the House may force the resignation of the executive cabinet by voting a motion of censure.Politics of Egypt – Egypt
87. Constitution of Egypt – The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum in January 2014. The constitution took effect after the results were announced on 18 January 2014. Two different committees were involved in amending the 2012 constitution. The constitution replaces the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 which came under Morsi. The constitution adopted in 2014, like the constitution drafted under Morsi, is based on the Egyptian Constitution of 1971. The 2014 constitution sets up a parliament. The president may serve 2 terms. The parliament may impeach the president. Islam is the state religion. The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defense for the next 8 years. The document guarantees an absolute freedom of expression, subject to broad exceptions. History of the Egyptian Constitution Unofficial translation of the 2014 constitution Official 2014 constitutionConstitution of Egypt – Egypt
88. Elections in Egypt – Elections in Egypt are held for the President and a unicameral legislature. The President of Egypt is elected by popular vote. Suffrage is compulsory for every Egyptian citizen over 18. In practice a significant percentage of eligible voters do not vote. About million voters are registered to vote out of a population of more than 85 million. Turnout in the 2011 parliamentary election was 54%. The Kingdom of Egypt was granted nominal independence by the United Kingdom on 28 February 1922. Between the Revolution of 1952, ten general elections were held. This era is generally known as Egypt's Liberal Experiment. Egypt has never recovered the level of political freedom it enjoyed during this period. During the four elections held between 1929, candidates from the Coptic Christian minority received 15 to 23 seats. Copts received four seats in 1931, six in 1938, five in 1950. The opposition's share of seats also varied throughout this period. Under the Mubarak era, The People's Assembly and Shura Council were elected under an electoral system of single plurality. Its members were allowed to run as independents.Elections in Egypt – Egypt
89. Flag of Egypt – The flag bears Egypt's national emblem, the Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band. The Free Officers who toppled King Farouk in the Revolution of 1952 assigned specific symbolism to each of the three bands of the Arab Liberation flag. The red band symbolises the period before a time characterized by the struggle against the monarchy, the British occupation of the country. The white band symbolizes itself. The black band symbolizes the end of the monarchy and foreign imperialism. Egypt's use of the Arab Liberation flag inspired its adoption by a number of Arab states. The only difference being the presence of distinguishing national emblems in the white band. When Muhammad Ali successfully seized power in Egypt, the country was officially an Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. However, throughout that of his sons and grandsons, Egypt enjoyed virtual independence as a Khedivate. Egypt retained this flag even after formal Ottoman sovereignty was terminated in 1914, when Egypt was declared to be a British protectorate. After the Urabi Revolt in 1882, British forces occupied the country, igniting ever greater nationalist resentment. In 1922, Britain agreed to formally recognize Egyptian independence, but only on the condition that the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, change his title to King. It has also been suggested that the three stars represented the three religious communities of the country: Muslims, Christians and Jews. This earlier version of the eagle differs somewhat from the one later adopted. A modified version of the Eagle of Saladin was adopted as the UAR's coat of arms.Flag of Egypt – Egypt
90. Foreign relations of Egypt – Foreign relations of the Arab Republic of Egypt are the Egyptian government's external relations with the outside world. Egypt's foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level. In the 21st-century Egypt has encountered a major problem with immigration, as millions of Africans attempt to enter Egypt fleeing war. Border control methods can be "harsh, sometimes lethal." The Secretary General of the League is traditionally an Egyptian. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Nabil Araby is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served from 1991 to 1996. Egypt is on good terms with its western neighbor. Sudan claims the area. Egypt's policy on Sudan is that it is in favor of a united Sudan. Egypt has been seeking to play a role in the resolution of the Israeli -- conflict. This support has continued with President Hosni Mubarak often intervening personally to promote peace negotiations. In 1996, he hosted the Sharm El-Sheikh "Summit of the Peacemakers" attended by other world leaders. Another summit was convened in Sharm El Sheik in early 2005, attended by Egypt, Israel, Jordan. In 1939, Youssef Zulficar Pasha was appointed as Egypt's first ambassador in Tehran.Foreign relations of Egypt – Egypt
91. Law enforcement in Egypt – Egyptian National Police or ENP is a department of the Ministry of Interior of Egypt. In the early Twentieth Century, holder of the post of Interior Minister was called: "The Interior Superintendent". Britain declared Egypt as a protectorate. The "superintendent" was among the titles included; it was changed to a Minister. Tahseen Rushdi Bashi was the first person to hold the title of Interior Minister in Egypt. The post enabled its holder to control elections, have an eye on political opponents. When Saad Zaghloul Pasha assumed the Interior Minister post in 1934 – along with his premiership- the Ministry was characterized with a political trend. He tended to dismiss persons who began to employ and promote those who struggled with him. For a long time, the Ministry employees were left under the mercy of political changes and election results. But when Mr. Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed was appointed as an Interior Minister, stability prevailed the Ministry. Interior Minister's post -- like major posts in Egypt - was assumed for a long time by non-Egyptian ministers with no police or security background. Currently, it is a must that the Interior Minister be a graduate of Police College. His name is only preceded by the title. There are four Deputy Ministers: Public Security responsible for public safety, travel, Immigration, passports, criminal investigation. Special Police responsible for prison administration, the Central Security Forces, civil defense, police transport, police communications, Tourism and Antiquities Police.Law enforcement in Egypt – Mounted soldier of the Tourism and Antiquities Police at the Bent Pyramid in Cairo
92. Military of Egypt – The Egyptian Armed Forces are the military forces of Egypt and are one of the largest in Africa, the Middle East, the world. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Forces. The supreme commander of the armed forces is the President of the Republic as provided for in the Egyptian constitution. The political power of the Egyptian Armed Forces since the Arab Spring has caused it to be called a "state within a state". The Military of ancient Egypt was founded in antiquity, first formed in the era of Narmer. Yet its armed forces, were the creation of Muhammad Ali. Egypt was involved in the long-running 1881–99 Mahdist War in the Sudan. During Muhammad Ali Pasha's reign, the Egyptian army became a professional army. A sense of the impersonal of law was imposed. The new recruits were also drawn from the Egyptian farmers, not from Sudanese Mamluks. In previous times, the wives and family were allowed to follow the army as they were camped out. This was longer the case. Isolating the recruits in barracks, military schools and training camps was the essential step towards the creation of the professional, disciplined force of soldiers. Inside these barracks, soldiers were also subjected to new practices. Those found missing would be declared deserters and would have to face the punishment for their actions.Military of Egypt – Egyptian soldiers carrying flags of the main branches of the armed forces
93. List of political parties in Egypt – By its constitution, Egypt has a multi-party system. Under Mubarak, opposition parties were widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. As June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the president. The legislation has however been criticized as discriminatory. Under the law new parties are now required to have at least 5,000 members from at least ten of Egypt's provinces. Originally, new parties were only required to have 1,000 members. This was cited before parliamentary elections which took place at the end of 2011 and beginning of 2012. Also, no parties are able to form on the basis of class, ruling out the formation of Islamic and labor parties. However, in practice, religious parties have been allowed. After first being denied a license by the political parties commission, the Supreme Administrative Court allowed Gamaa Islamiya to form the Building and Development Party. Egyptian politics often defy simple classification in terms of the political spectrum. There are currently over 100 political parties in Egypt. Groups are sometimes associated with the political left or right, especially according to their stance on issues.List of political parties in Egypt – Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia
94. Prime Minister of Egypt – The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government. In the late 1970s, Egypt had several cohabitation governments which proved to be unstable, due to the struggle arising between the prime minister. Until 2011 the National Democratic Party had maintained a majority in the People's Assembly and supplied the Egyptian president. The prime minister heads the cabinet, which in turn plays a leading role in shaping the agenda of the houses of Parliament. It may propose laws to Parliament well as amendments during parliamentary meetings. When parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Several cohabitation governments proved to be very unstable. From 1 March to 17 Ibrahim Mahlab served as the Acting Prime Minister of Egypt. A new cabinet was formed on 19 September 2015. Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi asked Petroleum Minister Sherif Ismail to form a new cabinet. As of December 2016, there are eight former Prime Ministers of Egypt, as seen below. Living former Prime Ministers of Egypt The most recent Prime Minister to die was Abd El Aziz Mohamed Hegazi, on December 2014 aged 91.Prime Minister of Egypt – Coat of arms of Egypt
95. Human rights in Egypt – Freedom House, the "independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world," rated Egypt "not free" in 2011. Reporters Without Borders placed the Côte d'Ivoire in press freedom. See List of indices of freedom for more information on these ratings and how they are determined. The Press Law, the penal code regulate and govern the press. According to these, criticism of the president can be punished by fines or imprisonment. Freedom House deems Egypt to have an unfree press, although mentions they have a diversity of sources. Reporters Without Borders 2006 report indicates continued harassment and, in imprisonment, of journalists. They place Egypt 143rd out of 167 nations on press freedoms. The two sources agree that promised reforms on the subject have been disappointingly uneven in implementation. Freedomhouse had a slightly more positive assessment indicating that an increased freedom to discuss controversial issues has occurred. The state-owned newspapers are beginning to lose their readership." In July 2006, the Egyptian parliament passed a new law. The new law longer allows journalists to be imprisoned for comments against the government, but continues to allow fines to be levied against such journalists. The Muslim Brotherhood protested this law as repressive. Following the Arab Spring there was hope for greater freedom of speech in Egypt.Human rights in Egypt – Nabil Maghraby, one of the oldest opinion prisoners in Egypt
96. Geography of Egypt – The geography of Egypt relates to two regions: North Africa and Southwest Asia. Egypt has coastlines on both the Red Sea. Egypt borders Sudan to the south. Egypt has an area of 1,001,449 km2. The longest straight-line distance in Egypt from north to south is 1,024 km, while that from east to west measures 1,240 km. Egypt is predominantly desert. 35,000 km2 - 3.5 % - of the total area is cultivated and permanently settled. Most of the country lies within the wide band of desert that stretches eastwards across the continent and into southwest Asia. The Nile valley extends approximately 800 km from Aswan to the outskirts of Cairo. The Nile Valley is very cool and known as Upper Egypt, while the Nile Delta region is known as Lower Egypt. Steep rocky cliffs rise along the banks of the Nile in some stretches, while other areas along the Nile are flat, with space for agricultural production. In the past, flooding of the Nile during the summer provided water to make agriculture possible on land, otherwise very dry. Since construction of the Aswan Dam, agriculture in the Nile valley depends on irrigation. The Nile delta consists of low-lying areas. Some parts of the delta thus not suitable for agriculture.Geography of Egypt – Nile delta, and the entire course of the Nile
97. List of cities in Egypt – * Cities that are part of Greater Cairo metropolitan area. Town and Country in the Middle East: Iran and Egypt in the Transition to Globalization. New York: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739126776. Map of Egypt at Archive.is Egypt's New Urban Communities New Urban Communities Authority - Contact Page Urban areas of EgyptList of cities in Egypt – Cairo
98. Governorates of Egypt – Governorates are the first-level of the subdivisions. Egypt is divided, into twenty-seven governorates. Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, who serves at the president's discretion. Governorates are either fully "urban" or else a mixture of "urban" and "rural". Moreover, governorates may comprise just one city, in the case of Cairo Governorate or Alexandria Governorate. Hence, these one-city governorates are only divided into districts. Cairo Governorate consists of 41 districts; Alexandria Governorate consists of 7. Two new governorates were created in April 2008: Helwan and 6th of October. In April 2011, however, the 6th of October and Helwan governorates were again incorporated into the Cairo and Giza Governorates, respectively. Before 1979, "local government traditionally enjoyed limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government, there were twenty-six governorates. These were subdivided into regions, each of, further subdivided into villages. At each level, there was a governing structure that government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. They, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers.Governorates of Egypt – Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions [dated info]
99. Districts of Egypt – Governorates are the first-level of the subdivisions. Egypt is divided, into twenty-seven governorates. Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, who serves at the president's discretion. Governorates are either fully "urban" or else a mixture of "urban" and "rural". Moreover, governorates may comprise just one city, in the case of Cairo Governorate or Alexandria Governorate. Hence, these one-city governorates are only divided into districts. Cairo Governorate consists of 41 districts; Alexandria Governorate consists of 7. Two new governorates were created in April 2008: Helwan and 6th of October. In April 2011, however, the 6th of October and Helwan governorates were again incorporated into the Cairo and Giza Governorates, respectively. Before 1979, "local government traditionally enjoyed limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government, there were twenty-six governorates. These were subdivided into regions, each of, further subdivided into villages. At each level, there was a governing structure that government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. They, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers.Districts of Egypt – Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions [dated info]
100. Climate of Egypt – Egypt generally has a desert climate. Though temperatures are moderated along the coasts, the situation changes in the interior of the country which are away from the northerly winds. Some mountainous locations such as Saint Catherine, have cooler night temperatures, due to their high elevations. Every year, sometime from March to May, an extremely hot, dusty wind blows from the south or the southwest. This wind is called khamasīn. The khamasīn causes the absolute highest temperature records in Egypt. Rainiest places are in and around Alexandria and Rafah. It almost never snows in the cities of Giza, Cairo, Alexandria. In December 2013, Cairo received a single overnight snowfall for the first time since 1901.Climate of Egypt – Satellite map
101. Wildlife of Egypt – The wildlife of Egypt is composed of the flora and fauna of this country in northeastern Africa and southwestern Asia, is substantial and varied. Apart from the fertile Nile Valley, which bisects the country from south to north, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a scattered oases. It has long coastlines on the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Each geographic region has a diversity of each adapted to its own particular habitat. Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Sudan to the south. To the east lies the Red Sea, the Sinai Peninsula, the Asian part of the country, bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel. Egypt is a transcontinental nation, providing a bridge between Africa and Asia. This is traversed by the Suez Canal which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea. The River Nile enters Egypt as it flows through Lake Nasser, formed by the building of the Aswan Dam. In its lower reaches, the river is about the alluvial plain about 10 km wide. In some places there are low cliffs. Where the river flows into the Mediterranean, there is an fan-shaped delta area with channels, lakes and salt marshes. To the west of the Nile lies the Western Desert, occupying about two thirds of the area of the country. It consists largely of high stony and sandy plains with rocky plateaux in places. The Faiyum Oasis lies south west of Cairo and is connected to the Nile by a channel.Wildlife of Egypt – Life in Egypt
102. Economy of Egypt – The economy of Egypt was a highly centralized planned economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Egypt has a rather stable mixed economy averaging 3 % -- 5 % in the past quarter-century. Nationalization reduced the relative importance of the private sector. There was no stock trading to speak of, foreign direct investment was almost banned. 1967 -- 1973: adversely affected the performance of the economy and public sector role in import substitution. External Debt Crisis, 1985–1990: the external debt crisis and Paris Club re-scheduling and debt reduction. Egypt faced the long supply - and demand-side repercussions of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Institutional uncertainty, a perception of rising insecurity and sporadic unrest continue to negatively affect economic growth. Under economic reforms initiated in 1991, Egypt has relaxed many price controls, reduced subsidies, reduced inflation, cut taxes, partially liberalized trade and investment. Manufacturing had become less dominated by the public sector, especially in heavy industries. A process of public sector privatization has begun to enhance opportunities for the private sector. Agriculture, mainly in private hands, has been largely deregulated, with the exception of cotton and production. Domestic wholesale and retail trades are largely private. This has promoted a steady increase of the annual growth rate. The Government of Egypt tamed inflation bringing it down from double-digit to a single digit.Economy of Egypt – Cairo is the financial capital of Egypt
103. Communications in Egypt – Egypt has long been the cultural and informational centre of the Arab world, Cairo is the region's largest publishing and broadcasting centre. There are eight daily newspapers with a total circulation of a number of monthly newspapers, magazines, journals. These papers conduct a lively, often highly partisan, the debate on public issues. Egypt Post is the government-owned body that provide postal services. Mail post is never considered as a reliable communication mean in Egypt. There are seven regional radio stations covering the country. Egyptian Radio transmits 60 hours three hundred hours daily within Egypt. In 2000, Radio Cairo introduced specialized channels on its FM station. So far, they include news, sports. Radio enjoys more freedom than TV in its news programs, analysis. Starting 2003, a private company was given license to operate two radio stations, Nile FM and Nogoom FM. Nile FM broadcasts in Arabic. Both stations mostly broadcast mainly to the Greater Cairo region. In the early 2009, Radio Masr was launched, broadcasting news & other programs. Depends heavily on commercial revenue.Communications in Egypt – Life in Egypt
104. Egyptian pound – The Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or 1,000 millimes. The Egyptian pound is frequently abbreviated as LE or L.E. which stands for livre égyptienne. # E are commonly used on the internet. The Genēh is derived from the Guinea coin, which had almost the same value of 100 piastres at the end of the 19th century. In 1834, a Khedival Decree was issued i.e.: based on gold and silver. The Egyptian pound, known as the geneih, was introduced, replacing the Egyptian piastre as the chief unit of currency. The piastre continued to circulate as 1⁄100 of a pound, with the piastre subdivided into 40 para. In 1885, the piastre was divided into tenths. These tenths were renamed milliemes in 1916. The legal exchange rates were fixed for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions. Eventually this led to Egypt using a de facto standard between 1885 and 1914, with E # 1 = 7.4375 grams pure gold. At the outbreak of World War I, the Egyptian pound was pegged to the British sterling at EG # 0.975 per GB # 1. This peg was changed in 1973 when the dollar was devalued. The pound was itself devalued in 1978 to a peg of 1 pound = 1.42857 dollars.Egyptian pound – 50 Egyptian pound promissory note issued and hand-signed by Gen. Gordon during the Siege of Khartoum (26 April 1884)
105. Energy in Egypt – Energy in Egypt describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Egypt. Energy policy of Egypt describes the policy in the politics of Egypt more in detail. Egypt population has increased 14.3 % in 2004-2009. Population growth is over 10 millions in 5 years. Energy production was 36 % more than in 2004. Egypt is classified as having a "high power size." As of 2010, 99% of the Egyptian population has access to electricity. When electricity was first introduced in 1893, the generation and distribution of electricity was practiced exclusively by private companies. In 1978 the Egypt Electricity Authority supervised the establishment of seven geographically divided distribution companies. An additional electrical power authority was established in 1983 as a means of supervising distribution companies which had become independent of the Egypt Electricity Authority. Between 2000 a series of laws and presidential decrees were passed to reorganize and regulate the growing electrical industry. 2000: presidential decree no. 339 and electricity sector Law no. 164 were issued. Between 2001, the EEHC implemented a division in the organization of Egypt's electrical management framework. Generation activity was separated from activity along with the separation of control and transmission between ultra-high-voltage and high-voltage networks. In 2002 the Delta Company for distribution divided into North Delta and South Delta increasing the number of companies to 14.Energy in Egypt – Oil refining in Alexandria
106. Mining in Egypt – Mining in Egypt has had a long history that goes back to predynastic times. The real value of minerals mined was about # E102 million in 1986, up from # E60 million in 1981. The chief minerals in terms of output were iron ore, phosphates, salt. The quantities produced in 1986 were estimated at 2,048, 1,233 tons, respectively, compared with 2,139, 691, 883 tons in 1981. In addition, minor amounts of quartz were mined in 1986. Preliminary exploration in Sinai indicated the presence of zinc, tin, copper deposits. Exploitation activities so far have been limited. Centamin Ltd. a mineral company founded in Australia, started a massive mining project in Sukari Hill. Gold mining was followed by shallow underground vein mining in Nubia about 1300 BCE, during the New Kingdom period. The methods of working included fire-setting to weaken rocks by thermal shock, a method described in his Bibliotheca historica written about 60 BCE. The technique of quarrying limestone was an advanced technology by the time the pyramids were being built. Marble, diorite were used for making statues, basalt for making sarcophagi, dolomite for hammers to work hard stones. Semi-precious stones that were extensively mined and worked as well included turquoise, beryl, amethyst, lapis lazuli and malachite. Her temples, statues or inscriptions were found in many rediscovered mining locations. Egypt remained so in the next 1,500 years, with interruptions when the kingdom broke down.Mining in Egypt – The Turin mining papyrus depicts mines in the Wadi Hammamat and is the oldest known map of its kind.
107. National Bank of Egypt – National Bank of Egypt is the oldest and largest bank in Egypt. NBE also financed during the year. NBE also accounts for 40 % of the debit cards in Egypt. NBE has a subsidiary in London, National Bank of Egypt, representative offices in Johannesburg and Dubai. NBE established an office in London. 1901 NBE opened a branch in Khartoum. It acted as the "semi-official" central bank. Over time, it added other branches in the Sudan. 1902 NBE established the Agricultural Bank of Egypt. 1906 NBE established the Bank of Abyssinia in Addis Ababa. The bank was the Ethiopian government's fiscal agent as well as the sole issuer of currency. The Ethiopian government established Bank of Ethiopia to replace it. 1936 Agricultural Bank of Egypt was liquidated. The Board of the bank were largely Egyptian. 1951 A decree gave the status of the Central Bank for Egypt.National Bank of Egypt – NBE Towers in Cairo
108. Tourism in Egypt – Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypt's economy. At its peak in 2010 the sector employed about 12 % of Egypt's workforce providing revenues of nearly $12.5 billion. As as contributing more than 11 % of GDP and 14.4 % of foreign currency revenues. The number of tourists in Egypt stood in 1951. The inflow increased to 1.8 million in 1981 and then to 5.5 million in 2000. Tourism reached a pinnacle by reaching 14.7 million visitors. Revenues from tourism also reached a high point in 2010. Since then the number of tourists have significantly revenue down to $5.9 billion due to security threats and civil unrest. Significant security threats have had an ongoing effect on the industry over the past twenty years. Foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre. The Red Sea resorts in particular have had increasing tourist numbers. Tour operators offering heavy discounts to encourage tourists back have been somewhat successful at the Red Sea resorts where prices remain lower compared to 2011. In 2013, Egypt ranked 85th as the world's best country in terms of traveling, falling ten places from its ranking of 75 in 2011. However it regained some ground in the 2015 rankings being rated 83rd overall. Major tourist destinations include the millennia-old monuments in the Nile Valley.Tourism in Egypt – Protester atop the Qasr al-Nil Bridge waves the Egyptian flag during the protests of January 2011.
109. Transport in Egypt – Transport in Egypt is centered in Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The main line of the nation's system follows along the great river and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. In addition to overseas routes, Egypt Air provides domestic air service to major tourist destinations from its Cairo hub. The principal canals are important locally for transportation. The Suez Canal is a major waterway of international navigation, linking the Mediterranean and Red Sea. The ministry of transportation, along with governmental bodies are responsible for transportation in Egypt. Major ports are Alexandria, Port Said, Safaga on the Red Sea. Egypt has one of the highest incidence of road fatalities per miles driven in the world. There are few, if any road markings. Traffic rules are routinely ignored by impatient drivers: vehicles travel on one-way streets. Animals are commonly on the roads. Rare winter rains can cause extremely localized flooding. Some roads, especially in the southeastern part of the country, are off-limits to foreigners. A popular form of transportation is by boat. Even though Egypt has developed its road system, people still travel on the Nile to get from place to place.Transport in Egypt – Life in Egypt
110. Culture of Egypt – The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique, stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came for a time Christianity and later, Islamic culture. The last stage of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Hieroglyphs were written on people's front doors, so that the news of the pharaoh would travel to everyone. Egyptian Arabic has become today the modern speech of the country. Around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages, mainly Nobiin, but also Kenuzi-Dongola. The Berber languages are represented by Siwi, spoken around the Siwa Oasis. There are about 60,000 Greek speakers in Alexandria. Approximately 77,000 speakers of Bedawi live in the Eastern Desert. The Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the third millennium BC. Religious literature is best known for its hymns to and its mortuary texts. The oldest extant Egyptian literature is the Pyramid Texts: the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers. The secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the ` wisdom texts', forms of philosophical instruction.Culture of Egypt – Egyptian hieroglyphs, as this example from a sarcophagus from Thebes of about 530 BC, represent both ideograms and phonograms.
111. Cuisine of Egypt – Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes, vegetables and fruits since Egypt's rich Nile valley and delta produce large quantities of these crops in high quality. Bread made from a simple recipe forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine. It is consumed at almost all Egyptian meals; rural Egyptian meal might consist of little more than bread and beans. The local bread is a form of hearty, glutenous pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi or Baladee rather than the Arabic خبز ḫubz. The word"" comes from the Semitic ع-ي-ش ʕ-Ī-Š with the meaning "to live, be alive." In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes bread, dating back to a Nasser-era policy. On a culinary level, bread is commonly used at the same time providing carbohydrates and protein to the Egyptian diet. Egyptians use bread to wrap kebabs, falafel, the like in the manner of sandwiches. Most pita breads are baked at high temperatures, causing the flattened rounds of dough to puff up dramatically. Aish Merahrah is an flat bread made with 5-10 % ground fenugreek seeds added to maize flour. It is part of the traditional diet of the Egyptian countryside, prepared locally in village homes. Usually about 50 cm in diameter. This bread can be kept for days in an airtight container. Egyptian cuisine shares similarities with food such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, shawarma, kebab, ta ` miya, baba ghannoug, baklava. Some consider kushari - a mixture of rice, macaroni - to be the national dish.Cuisine of Egypt – Ful Medames, one of Egypt's national dishes, served with sliced eggs and vegetables.
112. Demographics of Egypt – Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the third-most populous on the African continent. Small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration from the desert. Egypt has a population of million. According to the OECD/World Bank statistics growth in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million and 41 %. Data taken from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Approximately 70 % of Egyptian migrants live in the remaining 30 % are living mostly North America and Europe. Figures from CAPMAS: The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics has released population projections for 2011-2031 based on Final Results of 2006 Population Census. The 2030 high variant is the medium - 101.7 million, the low - 99.8 million. The 2030 high variant is the low - 99.8 million. However the information could be misleading as the 2013 figure of 84.6 million is higher than the projected high of 83 million. Vital statistics: Source: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics Fertility Rate and CBR: Data taken from CAPMAS: Data taken from CAPMAS:. Information for population is in pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2. The CIA World Factbook "other" as 0.4 %. "Other" refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt, who come to Egypt to work for international diplomats, etc..Demographics of Egypt – Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions [dated info]
113. Education in Egypt – Egypt has the largest overall education system in the Middle East and North Africa and it has grown rapidly since the early 1990s. In recent years the Government of Egypt has accorded even greater priority in improving the system. The government is responsible for offering free education at all levels. The overall expenditure on education is about 12.6 percent as of 2007. Investment in education as a percentage of GDP then fell to 3.7 in 2007. Teachers should be hired on merit with salaries attached to the performance. Then, the secondary stage is for three years, for ages 15 to 17, followed by the tertiary level. Education is made compulsory for 9 academic years between the ages of 100. Moreover, all levels of education are free within any government run schools. According to the World Bank, there are great differences of the rich and the poor also known as the "wealth gap." In the case of Egypt, the gap was a modest 3 years in the mid1990s. Overall, the composite Index in the MENA Flagship Report: The Road Not Traveled showed promising results of the people of singers relative educational achievements. Of the 14 MENA countries analyzed, Egypt achieved the education, really bad over the years. There has been a lot of attacks in their schools. Egypt launched its National Strategic Plan for Pre-University Education Reform.Education in Egypt – Egyptian boys reading
114. Ethnic groups in Egypt – Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the third-most populous on the African continent. Small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration from the desert. Egypt has a population of million. According to the OECD/World Bank statistics growth in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million and 41 %. Data taken from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Approximately 70 % of Egyptian migrants live in the remaining 30 % are living mostly North America and Europe. Figures from CAPMAS: The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics has released population projections for 2011-2031 based on Final Results of 2006 Population Census. The 2030 high variant is the medium - 101.7 million, the low - 99.8 million. The 2030 high variant is the low - 99.8 million. However the information could be misleading as the 2013 figure of 84.6 million is higher than the projected high of 83 million. Vital statistics: Source: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics Fertility Rate and CBR: Data taken from CAPMAS: Data taken from CAPMAS:. Information for population is in pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2. The CIA World Factbook "other" as 0.4 %. "Other" refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt, who come to Egypt to work for international diplomats, etc..Ethnic groups in Egypt – Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions [dated info]
115. Health in Egypt – The Egyptian Ministry of Health is the government body responsible for health in Egypt. There are especially the number of people with access to sanitation. Soakaway latrines, which are common in rural areas, often do not work properly due to the high groundwater table, cracks in the walls. Thus contaminates the surrounding streets, canals, groundwater. Trucks that septic tanks do not necessarily discharge septage into wastewater treatment plants, but rather dump the content in the environment. In 2008 demonstrations concerning this issue took place in Suez, where 500 people blocked a main road to Cairo. These problems lead many people to use water from canals which could be hazardous to health. It is estimated that each year about 17,000 children die from diarrhea. One reason is that drinking quality is often below standards. Some treatment plants are not maintained properly and are thus inefficient in removing parasites, viruses and other parasitic microorganisms. In 2009, a study by the Ministry of Health showed that drinking water in Asiut was unfit for human consumption. As of June 2011, nothing had been done to address the problem. The 2014 CIA estimated average expectancy in Egypt was 73.45 years. Egypt has particularly high rates of one of the highest worldwide. It is believed that the high prevalence in Egypt is linked to a mass-treatment campaign for schistosomiasis, using improperly sterilized glass syringes.Health in Egypt – Life in Egypt
116. Public holidays in Egypt – Template:What the heck the life is in egypt Holidays in Egypt have many classifications. There are a set of public holidays celebrated by the entire population. There are two Christian holidays. The following holidays are celebrated with the government offices and ministries closed. These holidays are either important religious holidays. Some government-related offices, including most universities, are also closed on the Coptic Orthodox date of 19 January. In order in which they occur: "World Holidays -> Egypt 2006". Oanda Corporation. "Egypt Holidays". Planetware.Public holidays in Egypt – Life in Egypt
117. Languages of Egypt – There are a number of languages spoken in Egypt, but Egyptian Arabic is by far the most widely spoken in the country. Arabic was adopted after the Arab invasion of Egypt. The official language in Egypt is Modern Standard Arabic, used in most written documents. In southern Egypt, Saidi Arabic is the spoken language for most non-urbanized people. A Bedouin Arab minority speaks a variety of Bedouin Arabic mostly in the Sinai Peninsula. Sudanese Arabic is also spoken by the Sudanese minority. Egyptian Arabic is occasionally written in Arabic script, or in Arabic chat alphabet mostly on new communication services. Around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages, mainly Nobiin, but also Kenuzi-Dongola. Approximately 77,000 speakers of Beja live along the coast of the Red Sea. Some 234,000 Dom are concentrated north of Cairo and in Luxor. About 30,000 Egyptian Berbers living in its surroundings speak Siwi Berber, a variety of the Berber language of North Africa. Siwi Berber is well mutually intelligible with Libyan Berber dialects. In ancient times, the population of western Egypt was probably made of Berber-speaking tribes. Most of the street plates are bilingual in Modern Standard Arabic and English. There are a few street plates with French instead of English.Languages of Egypt – Bilingual Arabic-English sign in Cairo.
118. Media of Egypt – The media of Egypt is highly influential in Egypt and in the Arab World, attributed to its large audience and increasing freedom from governmental control. The government is increasingly respecting this, however many laws still remain that restrict this right. After the presidential election of 2005, Ahmed Selim, office director for Information Minister Anas al-Fiqi, declared the era of "free, transparent and independent Egyptian media". The press was first introduced to Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte during his French Campaign in Egypt and Syria. In the Middle East, Africa, even much of Eastern Europe and Russia, printing was a minor, specialized activity until at least the 18th century. From about 1720, the Mutaferrika Press in Istanbul produced substantial amounts of printing, of which some Egyptian clerics were aware at the time. The written press is very diverse in Egypt, over 600 newspapers, journals, magazines. However these are owned mostly or in some way by the government, other political parties. Over the past two decades, Al-Azhar University censored more than 196 texts. There are an increasing number of private broadcasters. Figures from the CIA World Factbook state 14 FM radio channels in 1999. The Ministry of Information controls content in the state-owned broadcast media. Egyptian broadcasting began to serve in Egypt in the 1920s as locally owned radios. They began airing radio as The Egyptian State Radio May 1934 in an agreement with the Marconi Company. In 1947 radio broadcasting was nationalized by the Egyptian government.Media of Egypt – Life in Egypt
119. Music of Egypt – Music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The Bible documents the instruments played by the ancient Hebrews, all of which are correlated in Egyptian archaeology. The modern music of Egypt is considered Arabic music as it has been influence on other regional styles. The ancient Egyptians credited the Bat with the invention of music. The cult of Bat was eventually syncretised into that of Hathor because both were depicted as cows. Hathor's music was believed to have been used as part of his effort to civilize the world. The lion-goddess Bastet was also considered a goddess of music. In prehistoric Egypt, chanting were commonly used in magic and rituals. Rhythms during this time were music served to create rhythm. Small shells were used as whistles. During the predynastic period of Egyptian history, funerary chants were accompanied by clappers or a flute. The evidence is for instruments played more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, double clarinets were played. Percussion lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom. Cymbals frequently accompanied dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Typically Egyptian music was composed from the phrygian dominant scale, phrygian scale, double harmonic scale or lydian scale.Music of Egypt – Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dynasty, Western Thebes.
120. Egypt at the Olympics – Egypt first participated at the Olympic Games in 1912, has sent athletes to compete in most editions of the Summer Olympic Games since then. Along with Iraq and Lebanon, Egypt French invasion of Egypt in the Suez War. However, three Egyptian riders competed there. Egypt also participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. Egypt's lone participation at the Winter Olympic Games was a single skier in 1984. Egyptian athletes have won a total of 29 medals, with weightlifting as the medal-producing sport. The National Olympic Committee for Egypt was created in 1910. List of flag bearers for Egypt at the Olympics Category:Olympic competitors for Egypt Egypt at the Paralympics "Egypt". International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. "Egypt".Egypt at the Olympics
121. Religion in Egypt – Religion in Egypt controls many aspects of social life and is endorsed by law. The 2006 census method included religion, so the number of adherents of the different religions are usually rough estimates made by religious and non-governmental agencies. Egypt is predominantly Muslim, with Muslims accounting for 88 % of a population of around million Egyptians The vast majority of Muslims in Egypt are Sunni. A significant number of Sunni Muslim Egyptians also follow Sufi orders. There are under fifty thousand Ahmadi Muslims. There is a minority of Mu ` tazila, Ismailism numbering a few thousands. According to the Constitution of Egypt, any new legislation must implicitly agree with Islamic law. Article 45 of the Constitution extends freedom of religion to the three Abrahamic religions, but only those three. Other estimates made by church officials estimate this number to be million. The Coptic Catholic Church is estimated to have a similar membership among Egyptians. Based on these estimates, the total number of Christians in Egypt is between 15 % and 20 % of a total population of million Egyptians. The non-Coptic communities range in size from several hundreds to a few thousand. The original Egyptian religion has disappeared in Egypt as a result of new religions being formed then introduced to Egypt. Egypt hosts two religious institutions. In Egypt, Christians live as neighbors, sharing common history, national identity, ethnicity, race, culture, language.Religion in Egypt – Religion in Egypt
122. Smoking in Egypt – The use of tobacco products in Egypt is widespread. It is estimated that approximately twenty percent of the population uses tobacco products daily. Cigarettes are the most common form of tobacco consumption with an estimated twenty billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country. After cigarettes, shisha water-pipes are the most common form of consumption. Many Egyptians are not fully aware of the health risks of using a many believe it to be less harmful than cigarettes. Recently legislation has passed in Egypt that requires special warnings to be placed on tobacco packaging. Smoking is far more common among men than it is among women, however, the number of smokers is on the rise. The number of adults smoking tobacco products in Egypt continues to rise, some suggest to five percent annually. Smoking in Egypt is prevalent with billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country, making it the largest market in the Arab world. Inside cafes, smoking is common. As of 2012 smoking in Egypt has reached an all-time high with ten million people, regularly using tobacco products. Egypt is ranked by the World Lung Foundation. Of this twenty percent of the population estimated to use tobacco products, ninety-five percent were daily smokers. Percent smoke only cigarettes, 3.3 % smoke shisha water-pipes, 2.6 % use smokeless tobacco products. Although Islam has no specific ban on tobacco, several Islamic principles are cited in support of the religion-based banning of tobacco.Smoking in Egypt – An Egyptian hookah (shisha) with a wind cover over the bowl and a Syrian hose
123. Islam in Egypt – Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 90% of the population. Almost the entirety of Egypt's Muslims are Sunnis, with a small minority of Shia and Ahmadi Muslims. The latter, however, are not recognized by Egypt. Prior to Napoleon's invasion in 1798, social welfare issues were in the hands of religious functionaries. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to religious schools. The government mandated reform of Al-Azhar University beginning in 1961. These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama. In the 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their center and Cairo their capital. The Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Hakim mosque. The Fatimid palace in Cairo had two parts. It stood at Bin El-Qasryn street. In the 20th century, Egyptian Islam was a complex and diverse religion. Although Muslims agreed on the faith's basic tenets, the country's social groups and classes applied Islam differently in their daily lives. The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version of Islam practiced by religious preachers and peasants in the countryside.Islam in Egypt – Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt, connected to a mosque built around 971, is considered by some Sunni Muslims as one of the world's highest Sunni Muslim authorities.
124. List of Egypt-related topics – Covering an area of about 1,002,450 square kilometers, Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south and Palestine and Israel to the east. Its northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea; the eastern coast borders the Red Sea. The southern city of Luxor contains the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important cultural nation of the Middle East, as center of the Arab World. Egypt, historically, has been the northern "Gateway to Africa" with scientific expeditions organized from Cairo. Head of government: is the Prime Minister of Egypt. Cabinet of Egypt Parliament of Egypt – it was dissolved by the army of Egypt on 11 February 2011. Gaston Camille Charles Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldæa, Syria, Babylonia, Assyria, in 12 volumes, Project Gutenberg.List of Egypt-related topics – An enlargeable relief map of Egypt
125. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014