1. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
2. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
3. Continent – A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia. In geology, areas of continental crust include regions covered with water. Islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into geopolitical regions. By convention, "ideally separated by expanses of water." Many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. From this perspective the edge of the continental shelf is the true edge of the continent, as shorelines vary with changes in sea level. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia and the island of New Guinea together form a continent. As a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa. Extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the entire land surface of the Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent be a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions. Of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by ocean.Continent – The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
4. Eurasia – Eurasia /jʊˈreɪʒə/ is the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents. Eurasia covers around 36.2 % of the Earth's total land area. The landmass contains around billion people, equating to approximately 70 % of the human population. Humans first settled in Eurasia between 125,000 years ago. Physiographically, Eurasia is a single continent. Eurasia is sometimes combined with Africa as the supercontinent Afro-Eurasia. Chinese cratons collided with Siberia's southern coast. Eurasia has been the host of ancient civilizations, including those based in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and China. In the Axial Age, a continuous belt of civilizations stretched through the Eurasian subtropical zone to the Pacific. This belt became the mainstream of history for two millennia. Through this belt passed the famous Silk Road, a trade and cultural exchange route linking Eurasian cultures through history. Originally, “Eurasia” is a geographical notion: in this sense, it is simply the biggest continent; the combined landmass of Europe and Asia. Geopolitically, the word has several different meanings, reflecting the specific geopolitical interests of each nation. “Eurasia” is one of the most important geopolitical concepts; as Zbigniew Brzezinski observed: “... how America "manages" Eurasia is critical.Eurasia – Eurasia with surrounding areas of Africa and Australasia visible
5. Arctic Ocean – The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. It is partly covered by ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter. The shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50 %. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history by 2040. For much of European history, their geography conjectural. Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. Longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, with air support. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes.Arctic Ocean – A bathymetric / topographic of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
6. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into South Atlantic Ocean at about 8 ° N. The Greek thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic late as the mid-19th century. Many British people refer to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", vice versa. The "Black Atlantic" refers in shaping black people's history, especially through the Atlantic slave trade. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term "The Green Atlantic" is used. Correspondingly, the number of oceans and seas varies. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded by North and South America. It connects through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean.Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
7. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
8. Borders of the continents – The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention. Several slightly different conventions are in use. At its nearest point, Spain and Morocco are separated by only 13 kilometres. By contrast, the Canary and Madeira islands off the Atlantic coast of Morocco are much closer to and usually grouped with Africa. All of these islands may be considered part of the continent of Africa. However, for historical reasons, maps generally display them as part of Europe. The boundary between Europe and Asia is very unusual among continental boundaries because of its largely mountain-and-river-based characteristics east of the Black Sea. It has sometimes been referred to as such. Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River in the Caucasus, a convention still followed in the 5th century BC. This is the convention used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius, Strabo and Ptolemy. The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary between Samara well into the 19th century. In the Soviet Union, the boundary along the Kuma -- Manych Depression was the most commonly used as early as 1906. The modern border between Asia and Europe remains a cultural construct, defined only by convention. Cultural influences in the area originate from both Asia and Europe. The Turkish Istanbul lies in on both sides of the Bosporus, making it a transcontinental city.Borders of the continents – The Mediterranean Sea
9. Drainage divide – A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, water parting, or height of land, is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins. In flat country—especially where the ground is marshy—the divide may be harder to discern. A valley divide is a low drainage divide that runs across a valley, sometimes created by deposition or stream capture. Settlements are often built on valley-floor divides in the Alps. Examples are Eben im Pongau, Kirchberg in Tirol and Waidring. Another case is bifurcation, where the watershed is effectively in the river bed, underground. Drainage divides hinder navigation. In pre-industrial times, water divides were crossed at portages. Later, canals connected adjoining drainage basins; a key problem in such canals is ensuring a sufficient supply. Category:Drainage basins List of watershed topics European Watershed Scottish watershed Drainage basin Source Mountain pass ridgeline. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ridgeline. Ridgeline. Dictionary.com.Drainage divide – European drainage divides (red lines) separating drainage basins (grey regions)
10. Ural Mountains – The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean. The mountains significantly overlap with the Ural economic region. They have rich resources, including metal ores, semi-precious stones. Since the 18th century the mountains have contributed significantly to the mineral sector of the Russian economy. It might have been a borrowing from either Turkic "stone belt", or Ob-Ugric. From the 13th century, in Bashkortostan there has been a legend about a hero named Ural. They poured a pile over his grave, which later turned into the Ural Mountains. Possibilities include Bashkir Mansi ала "mountain peak, top of the mountain", Ostyak urr. V.N. Tatischev believes that this oronym is set to "belt" and associates it with the Turkic verb oralu- "gird". I.G. Dobrodomov suggests a transition from Aral to Ural explained on the basis of ancient Bulgar-Chuvash dialects. Geographer E.V. Hawks believes that the name goes back to the Bashkir folklore Ural-Batyr.Ural Mountains – Verkhoturye in 1910
11. Caucasus Mountains – The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include Lesser Caucasus in the south. The Lesser Caucasus runs parallel to the Greater about 100 km south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of 5,642 metres above level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Geologically, the Caucasus Mountains belong to a system that extends into Asia. The Greater Caucasus Mountains are mainly composed of Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks in the higher regions. Some volcanic formations are found throughout the range. On the other hand, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are formed predominantly with a much smaller portion of the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. The Caucasus Mountains formed largely as the result of a tectonic collision between the Arabian plate moving northwards with respect to the Eurasian plate. This collision also caused the Cenozoic volcanic activity in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The entire region is regularly subjected from this activity. While the Greater Caucasus Mountains have a mainly folded sedimentary structure, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are largely of volcanic origin.Caucasus Mountains – Aerial view of the Caucasus Mountains
12. Ural River – The Ural or Jayıq/Zhayyq, known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia. It ends at the Caspian Sea. At 2,428 kilometres, it is the 18th-longest river in Asia. The Ural River is conventionally considered part of the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. There it flows as a typical mountain river. It then falls after exiting it widens up to 5 kilometres. Its flow is characteristic of a flatland river; there it enters Chelyabinsk and Orenburg Oblasts. The bottom has many rifts. After Orsk, the river flows through a 45-kilometre long canyon in the Guberlinsk Mountains. After Uralsk, it flows through the territory of West Kazakhstan Province and Atyrau Province of Kazakhstan. There, the river has many lakes and ducts. Near the mouth, it forms vast wetlands. The Yaik distributary is rich in fish; whereas Zolotoy is deeper and is navigable. Ural River has a tree-like shape of the delta. This type of delta forms naturally in the slow rivers which deliver a great deal of sediments and flow into a quiet sea.Ural River – The Ural River from a plane between Uralsk and Atyrau, Kazakhstan
13. Caspian Sea – The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It is in an endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia. The Caspian Sea lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. Its northern part, the Caspian Depression, is one of the lowest points on Earth. The ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea probably of large size. The sea has a surface area of 371,000 km2 and a volume of 78,200 km3. It has a salinity of approximately 1.2%, about a third of the salinity of most seawater. The Caspian is derived from the name of an ancient people who lived in Transcaucasia. Moreover, the Caspian Gates, the name of a region in Iran's Tehran province, possibly indicates that they migrated to the south of the sea. The Iranian city of Qazvin shares the root of its name with that of the sea. In fact, the traditional Arabic name for the sea itself is Bahr al-Qazwin. In classical antiquity among Greeks and Persians it was called the Hyrcanian Ocean. Ancient Arabic sources refer to it as Baḥr Gīlān meaning "the Gilan Sea". Turkic languages refer to the lake as Khazar Sea. In Turkmen, the name is Hazar deňizi, in Azeri, it is Xəzər dənizi, in modern Turkish, it is Hazar denizi.Caspian Sea – The Caspian Sea as captured by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
14. Black Sea – The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine. It is supplied by a number such as the Danube, Dnieper, Rioni, Southern Bug, Dniester. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a volume of 547,000 km3. It features a wide shelf to the northwest. The longest extent is about 1,175 km. Mediterranean water flows as part of a two-way hydrological exchange. The Black Sea drains via the Aegean Sea and various straits. These waters separate Western Asia. The Black Sea is also connected by the Strait of Kerch. The level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. Currently the Black Sea level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.Black Sea – The Black Sea in Batumi, Georgia
15. Turkish Straits – The Turkish Straits are a series of internationally-significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea. They are conventionally considered the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia, well as the dividing line between European Turkey and Asian Turkey. As maritime waterways, the Turkish Straits connect various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, Western Eurasia. It runs through the city of Istanbul, making a city located on two continents. It is crossed by the underwater Marmaray rail tunnel. There is a underwater tunnel currently under construction for road users. There are plans for further crossings being debated at various stages. The Dardanelles, 1.2 km wide, connects the Sea of Marmara with the Mediterranean in the southwest, near the city of Çanakkale. In classical antiquity, the Dardanelles strait was known as the Hellespont. The Gallipoli peninsula on its western shoreline were the scene of the Battle of Gallipoli during the First World War. The Straits have been of urgent strategic importance since the Trojan War was fought near the Aegean entrance. In the declining days of the Ottoman Empire the "Straits Question" involved the diplomats of the Ottoman Empire. It thus benefited naval power at the expense of Russian as the latter lacked direct access for its navy to the Mediterranean. The treaty is one in a series dealing with access to the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles. The modern treaty controlling relations is the 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, still in force.Turkish Straits – Aerial view of the Bosphorus from north (bottom) to south (top)
16. Classical antiquity – It is the period in which Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia. It ends at the close of Late Antiquity blending into the Early Middle Ages. Such a wide sampling of territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze collapse. The 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. In the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient Olympic Games, in 776 BC. The Phoenicians originally expanded by the 8th century dominating trade in the Mediterranean. The Etruscans had established political control in the region by the 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. According to legend, Rome was founded BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus. The final king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus. As the son-in-law of Servius Tullius, Superbus was of Etruscan birth. It was during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. Superbus destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock, enraging the people of Rome. Lucius Junius Brutus, summoned the Senate and had Superbus and the monarchy expelled from Rome in 510 BC. After Superbus' expulsion, the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome in 509 BC.Classical antiquity – The Parthenon is one of the most iconic symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture
17. Physical geography – Physical geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Research in physical geography uses the systems approach. Geomorphology seeks to predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, numerical modeling. Glaciology is the study of ice sheets, or more commonly the cryosphere or ice and phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology groups the latter as continental glaciers and the former as alpine glaciers. Glaciology glaciers e.g. snow hydrology and glacial geology. Biogeography is the science which deals with the processes that result in these patterns. The main stimulus for the field since its founding has been that of island biogeography. Climatology examines both the natural and anthropogenic influences on them. Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which are explained by the science of meteorology. Pedology is the study of soils in their natural environment. It is one of two main branches of the other being edaphology. Pedology mainly deals with soil morphology, soil classification.Physical geography – True-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center image.
18. Human geography – Geography was not recognised until the 18th century although many scholars had undertaken geographical scholarship for longer, particularly through cartography. The Royal Geographical Society was founded in 1830 although the United Kingdom did not get its full Chair of geography until 1917. The real intellect to emerge in United Kingdom geography was Halford John Mackinder, appointed reader at Oxford University in 1887. The society has long supported geographic research and education. Though a pioneer of epidemiology, the map is probably one of the earliest examples of geography. The fairly distinct differences between the subfields of human geography developed at a later date. Environmental determinism is the theory that a people's physical, mental and moral habits are directly due to the influence of their natural environment. By the 1960s, however, the quantitative revolution led to strong criticism of regional geography. Well-known geographers from this period are Fred K. Schaefer, Waldo Tobler, William Garrison, Peter Haggett, Torsten Hägerstrand. From the 1970s, a number of critiques of the positivism now associated with geography emerged. Known under the term'critical geography' this signalled another turning point in the discipline. Behavioural geography emerged for some time as a means to understand how people made perceived spaces and places, made locational decisions. . Subfields include: Religion geography. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researcher's methodological approach.Human geography – History of geography
19. Russian Federation – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russian Federation – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
20. Demographics of Europe – Figures for the population of Europe vary according to which definition of European boundaries is used. The population within the standard geographical boundaries was 740 million in 2010 according to the United Nations. Median age comparatively high in relation to the world's other continents. Since the Renaissance, Europe has had a dominating influence in the world. Its demography is important not historically, but also in understanding current international relations and population issues. Some past issues in European demography have included religious emigration, ethnic relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population. In some countries, it is entirely illegal in the Mediterranean nation of Malta. In the past, such restrictions and also restrictions on artificial control were commonplace throughout Europe. 330,000,000 people lived in 1916. In 2010 the population of Europe was estimated to be million according to the United Nations, slightly less than 11 % of world population. The precise figure depends on the exact definition of the geographic extent of Europe. The population of the European Union was million as of 2015. Non-EU countries situated in Europe for another 94 million. Five transcontinental countries have a total of million people, of which about half reside in Europe proper. The sub-replacement fertility and high expectancy in most European states mean a declining and aging population as it isn't offset by the current immigration level.Demographics of Europe – < 50 inhabitants per km 2
21. World population – In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living. As of August 2016, it was estimated at billion. The United Nations estimates it will further increase in the year 2100. The highest growth rates -- global population increases above 1.8 % per year -- occurred between 1955-1975 peaking to 2.06 % between 1965-1970. The rate has declined to 1.18 % between 2010-2015 and is projected to decline to 0.13 % by the year 2100. 2003 UN Population Division population projections for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and billion. One of many mathematical models supports the lower estimate, while a 2014 estimate forecasts between 9.3 and 12.6 billion in 2100, continued growth thereafter. Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment, global food supplies, energy resources. Estimates on the total number of humans who have ever lived range to 108 billion. Six of the Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous continent, with its billion inhabitants accounting for 60 % of the world population. China and India, together constitute about 37 % of the world's population. Africa is the second most populated continent, with 15 % of the world's population. Though it is not permanently inhabited by any fixed population, Antarctica has a small, international population, based mainly in polar science stations. This population tends to decrease significantly in winter, as visiting researchers return to their home countries.World population – Greater Los Angeles lies on a coastal mediterranean savannah with a small watershed that is able to support at most one million people on its own water; as of 2015, the area has a population of over 18 million. Researchers predict that similar cases of resource scarcity will grow more common as the world population increases.
22. History of Europe – The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. The British Isles were the site of large-scale migrations. A period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Rus' people founded Kievan Rus', which evolved into Russia. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule. The Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become economic powers. A related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. An associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period.History of Europe – Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
23. European continent – Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe, or, by Europeans, simply the Continent, is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding surrounding islands. This historical core of "Carolingian Europe" was consciously invoked as the historical ethno-cultural basis for the prospective European integration. In Ireland, the Continent is widely and generally used to refer to the mainland of Europe. An British newspaper headline supposedly once read, "Fog in Channel; Continent Cut Off". It has also been claimed that this was a regular forecast in Britain in the 1930s. In addition, itself is also regularly used to mean Europe excluding the islands of Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland. The mainland Europe is also sometimes used. Derivatively, the continental refers to the social practices or fashion of continental Europe. Examples include breakfast, historically, long-range driving often known as Grand Touring.. Britain is physically connected to continental Europe through the undersea Channel Tunnel, which accommodates both the Eurostar services. This route is popular with migrants seeking to enter the UK. Especially in Germanic studies, continental refers to the European continent excluding the Scandinavian peninsula, Britain, Iceland. Kontinenten is a Swedish expression that refers to the area excluding Sweden, Norway, Finland but including Denmark and the rest of continental Europe. In Norway, similarly, one speaks as a separate entity usually referring to Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Benelux countries, such. The Scandinavian peninsula is accessible by train and road with several bridge/tunnel structures connecting the Danish peninsula of Jutland to Scania in Sweden.European continent – Map of the Scandiae islands by Nicolaus Germanus for a 1467 publication of Cosmographia Claudii Ptolomaei Alexandrini.
24. Prehistoric – Prehistory means literally "before history", from the Latin word for "before," præ, Greek ιστορία. Neighbouring civilisations were the first to follow. Most other civilisations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is often known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century. This article is concerned with human prehistory as defined here above. There are separate articles for the overall history of the Earth and the history of life before humans. The first use of the prehistory in English, however, occurred in 1836. Some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are also providing valuable insight for these questions. Restricted to artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. "Palaeolithic" means "Old Stone Age," and begins with the first use of stone tools.Prehistoric – Massive stone pillars at Göbekli Tepe, in southeast Turkey, erected for ritual use by early Neolithic people 11,000 years ago.
25. Minoan civilization – It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythic King Minos, was originally given as a description to the pottery of this period. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos, the largest Minoan site. The poet Homer recorded a tradition that Crete once had 90 cities. The Minoan period saw significant contacts between Crete, the Aegean and the Mediterranean, particularly the Near East. Some of its best art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri, on the island of Santorini, destroyed during the Thera eruption. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythic "king" Minos of Knossos. Who first coined the term is debated. It is commonly attributed to the archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos. Likely, Arthur Evans read the book, continuing the use of the term in his own writings and findings. Evans claims to have applied it, but not to have invented it. Hoeck had in mind the Crete of mythology. He had no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed.Minoan civilization – Minoan civilization
26. Mycenaean Greece – Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece. It represents the advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with urban organization, works of system. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, to which the culture of this era owes its name. Mycenaean-influenced settlements also appeared on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant, Italy. Mycenaean Greece was consisted of a network of palace states that developed rigid economic systems. At the head of this society was the king, known as wanax. Various theories have been proposed for the end of this civilization, among them the Dorian invasion or activities connected to the “Sea Peoples”. Additional theories such as natural disasters and climatic changes have been also suggested. The Mycenaean period became the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and mythology, including the Trojan Epic Cycle. The Age in mainland Greece is generally termed after the Greek name for Greece. The Middle Helladic period faced a slower pace of development, as well as the evolution of megaron-type cist graves. Finally, the Late Helladic period roughly coincides with Mycenaean Greece. The transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Greece is known as Sub-Mycenaean. Homer used the ethnonyms Achaeans, Danaans and Argives, to refer to the besiegers. Egyptian records mention a T-n-j or Danaya land for the first time in circa 1437 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmoses III.Mycenaean Greece – Mycenaean Greece
27. Bronze Age – The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly from outside the region. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems. Human-made technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make alloy. The Age was a time of developing trade networks. The dating of the foil has been disputed. The Age in the ancient Near East began in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics. The usual division into an Early, Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. Babylon in the Late Age similarly had large populations.Bronze Age – Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.
28. Bronze Age collapse – Before the Bronze collapse, Anatolia was dominated by a number of Indo-European peoples: Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni, Mycenaean Greeks, together with the Semitic Assyrians. From the 17th BC, the Mitanni formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a Hurro-Urartian language. Similarly, the Hittites absorbed the Hattians, a people speaking a language that may have been of the North Caucasian group. The Hittite capital, was burned, abandoned, never reoccupied. The corpses left unburied. Other sites that were not destroyed were abandoned. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by the Semitic-speaking Aramaeans. Troy was destroyed at least twice, before being abandoned until Roman times. Other groups of Indo-European warriors followed into the region, most prominently the Armenians, Scythians. The Semitic Arameans, Hurro-Urartuans also made an appearance in parts of the region. Afterwards the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Some towns show traces of destruction at the end of LCII. Whether or not this is really an indication of a Mycenean invasion is contested. Originally, two waves of destruction in c. 1230 BC by the Sea Peoples and c. 1190 BC by Aegean refugees have been proposed. The smaller settlements of Ayios Dhimitrios and Kokkinokremnos, well as a number of other sites, were abandoned but do not show traces of destruction.Bronze Age collapse – The fall of Troy, an event recounted in Greek mythology at the end of the Bronze Age, as represented by the 17th century painter Kerstiaen De Keuninck
29. Ancient Greece – Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages to c. 5th century BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Byzantine era. Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the era of the Persian Wars. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is commonly considered to have ended in the 6th century AD. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. The end of the Dark Ages is also frequently dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures with the dreamlike "archaic smile". The Archaic period is often taken to end in 508 BC. This period saw Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period ends with the Roman conquest. Herodotus is widely known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato and Aristotle.Ancient Greece – The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
30. Achaemenid Empire – One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. An avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, would eventually conquer the empire in its entirety by 330 BC. The Persian population of the central plateau would eventually reclaim power by the second BC under the Parthian Empire. The historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. Many Athenians allied to the Persian kings. The empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China. The Empire would also set the tone of modern Iran. The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here. ...: the Pasargadae, Maraphii, Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished; they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the remainder - the Dai, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti, being nomadic. The Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The Iranian people had initially fallen under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. However, the Medes and Persians played a major role in establishment of the first Persian empire. The Achaemenid is in fact the Latinized version of the Old Persian name Haxāmaniš, meaning in Greek "of the family of the Achaemenis."Achaemenid Empire – Standard of Cyrus the Great
31. Greco-Persian Wars – Struggling to rule the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them. This would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Greeks and Persians alike. This was the beginning of the Ionian Revolt, which would last until 493 BC, progressively drawing more regions of Asia Minor into the conflict. In 498 BC these forces helped to burn the Persian regional capital of Sardis. The Persian king Darius the Great vowed to have revenge on Athens and Eretria for this act. The revolt continued, with the two sides effectively stalemated throughout 497–495 BC. In 494 BC, the Persians regrouped, attacked the epicentre of the revolt in Miletus. At the Battle of Lade, the Ionians suffered a decisive defeat, the rebellion collapsed, with the final members being stamped out the following year. In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. This expedition subjugated the Cyclades, before razing Eretria. Darius then died for the conquest passed to his son Xerxes. In 480 BC, Xerxes personally led the second Persian invasion of Greece with one of the largest ancient armies ever assembled. Victory over the Greek states at the famous Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Persians to overrun most of Greece. However, while seeking to destroy the combined Greek fleet, the Persians suffered a severe defeat at the Battle of Salamis. The confederated Greeks went on the offensive, ending the invasion of Greece.Greco-Persian Wars – Greek hoplite (right) and Persian soldier (left) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
32. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
33. Asia – Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometers, 8.7 % of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. The western boundary with Europe is a cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A.D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Overall population growth has since fallen. Given its diversity, the concept of Asia -- a name dating back to classical antiquity -- may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Suez Canal. This makes a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg.Asia – Two-point equidistant projection of Asia and surrounding landmasses.
34. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
35. Roman law – The historical importance of Roman law is reflected in many legal systems influenced by it. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law also denotes the legal system applied until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. North American common law were influenced also by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Also, Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval legal system. It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion, emphasising ritual. The legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily. According to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. These laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC.Roman law – Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.
36. Western Roman Empire – Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death between his two sons. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. For this reason, provincial governors had de facto rule in the name of the Roman Republic. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus, Cyrenaica. These lands had previously been conquered by Alexander the Great; thus, much of the aristocracy was of Greek origin. Especially the major cities, had been largely assimilated into Greek often serving as the franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Hispania. These lands also included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sicilia to his holdings. Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Empire. While the Roman Empire featured many distinct cultures, all were often said to experience gradual Romanization. Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. Conquered tribes or cities would revolt, the legions would be detached to crush the rebellion.Western Roman Empire – Tremissis depicting Flavius Julius Nepos (474-480), the de jure last Emperor of the Western Court
37. Eastern Roman Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Eastern Roman Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
38. Germanic peoples – The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Tribes referred to as "Germanic" by Roman authors generally lived to the north and east of the Gauls. The term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine from Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control. This usage of the word is the origin of the modern concept of Germanic languages, but it was not defined strictly by language. Under other classical authors this sometimes included regions of Sarmatia as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine. Also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar, Tacitus and others did note differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of tribes both as Belgic Gauls, Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant "noisy"; cf. Breton/Cornish garm "shout", Irish gairm "call".Germanic peoples – Germanic Thing (governing assembly), drawn after the depiction in a relief of the Column of Marcus Aurelius, 193 CE.
39. Fall of the Western Roman Empire – Increasing pressure from "barbarians" outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. They inform much modern discourse on state failure. Relevant dates include the accession of Diocletian in 284. Irreversible territorial loss, however, began in 376 with a large-scale irruption of Goths and others. Invading "barbarians" had established their own power in most of the area of the Western Empire. While its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again. The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule. For Dio Cassius, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 CE marked the descent to one of rust and iron". Arnold J. Toynbee and James Burke argue that the entire Imperial era was one of steady decay of institutions founded in republican times. Gibbon gave a classic formulation of reasons why the Fall happened. New ideas have emerged since. Historians still try to analyze the reasons for loss of political control over a vast territory. Comparison has also been made in China, which re-established its Great Unity while the Mediterranean world remained politically disunited. At least from the time of Henri Pirenne, scholars have of political legitimacy, long after 476. Pirenne postponed the demise of classical civilization to the 8th century.Fall of the Western Roman Empire – Map of the Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, showing the dioceses and the four Tetrarchs' zones of responsibility
40. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
41. Culture of Europe – The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, philosophy that originated from the European cultural region. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "cultural heritage". Of the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations". The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon. If Asia were converted to Christianity tomorrow, it would not thereby become a part of Europe. It is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe have--until recently--been rooted. It is against a background of Christianity that all our thought has significance. Only a Christian culture could have produced a Nietzsche. I do not believe that the culture of Europe could survive the complete disappearance of the Christian Faith. The oldest known cave paintings are at older than 40,800 years. The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity.Culture of Europe – Leonardo da Vinci. Among his works are the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo 's The Creation of Adam.
42. Cultural area – These are often associated with the territory it inhabits. Specific cultures often do not limit their geographic coverage to smaller subdivisions of a state. Cultural "spheres of influence" may also form concentric structures of macrocultures encompassing smaller local cultures. Different boundaries may also be drawn depending on the particular aspect such as religion and folklore vs. dress and architecture vs. language. Cultural areas are not considered equivalent to Kulturkreis. A area is a concept in cultural anthropology, in which a geographic region and time sequence is characterized by substantially uniform environment and culture. The concept of culture areas was originated during the late 1800s as means of arranging exhibits. Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber further developed the concept on the premise that they represent cultural divisions. The concept is criticized by some, who argue that the basis for classification is arbitrary. But the organization of human communities into cultural areas remains a common practice throughout the social sciences. The definition of culture areas is enjoying a resurgence of theoretical interest as social scientists conduct more research on processes of cultural globalization. It is an area relatively homogeneous to one or more cultural traits. The geographer who identifies a formal region must locate cultural borders. The zones broaden with each cultural trait, considered because no two traits have the same spatial distribution. Instead of having clear borders, formal culture regions reveal a center or core where the defining traits are all present.Cultural area – Cultural areas of North American people at the time of European contact.
43. Western Europe – Western Europe, also West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of the European continent. There may be differences between the purely geographic definitions of the term. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. In East Asia, Western Europe was historically known in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty. In his writings, Ricci referred as "Matteo of the Far West". The term was still in use in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the West, influenced by the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their economic systems.Western Europe – The Great Schism in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe at the time.
44. Central and Eastern Europe – It is after the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989 -- 90. In scholarly literature the abbreviations CEEC are often used for this concept. The transition countries in Europe are thus classified today into two political-economic entities: CEE and CIS. According to the World Bank, "the transition is over" for the 10 countries that joined the EU in 2007. It can be also understood as all countries of the Eastern Bloc. Central Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library East-Central Europe Eastern Europe Regions of Europe Baltic states Visegrád GroupCentral and Eastern Europe – The pre-1989 "Eastern Bloc" (orange) superimposed on current borders
45. Collapse of the Soviet Union – The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no. 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. That at 7:32 p.m. the Soviet flag was replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. Some have joined NATO and the European Union. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 1985, three hours at age 73. Gorbachev, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo. He realized that doing so would require reforming underlying social structures. The reforms began with personnel changes of Brezhnev-era officials who would impede economic change. On April 1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, as full members. This liberalization, however, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1989 introduced competitive elections to the Congress of People's Deputies. In May 1985, Gorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism. Prices of beer were raised in order to make these drinks more expensive and a disincentive to consumers, the introduction of rationing. Unlike most forms of rationing intended to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness.Collapse of the Soviet Union – Tanks at Red Square during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt
46. Breakup of Yugoslavia – The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Croatia. In addition, two autonomous provinces were established within Serbia: Vojvodina and Kosovo. After his death in 1980, the weakened system of federal government was left unable to cope with rising economic and political challenges. In the 1980s, Kosovo Albanians started to demand that their autonomous province be granted the status of a constituent republic, starting with the 1981 protests. The League of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolved in 1990 along federal lines. Nationalist rhetoric on all sides became increasingly heated. In 1991, one republic after another proclaimed independence, but the status of Serb minorities outside Serbia was left unsolved. Before World War II, major tensions arose from relative political and demographic domination of the Serbs. Fundamental to the tensions were the different concepts of the new state. The Croats and Slovenes envisaged a federal model where they would enjoy greater autonomy than they had as a separate crown land under Austria-Hungary. Under Austria-Hungary, both Slovenes and Croats enjoyed autonomy only in education, law, 45 % of taxes. Human abuses were subject of concern for the Human Rights League and precipitated voices of protest from intellectuals, including Albert Einstein. It was in this environment of oppression that the radical insurgent group, the Ustaše were formed. The Axis powers installed the Ustaše as the leaders of the "Independent State of Croatia".Breakup of Yugoslavia – Serbian President Slobodan Milošević 's unequivocal desire to uphold the unity of Serbs, a status threatened by each republic breaking away from the federation, in addition to his opposition to the Albanian authorities in Kosovo, further inflamed ethnic tensions.
47. Economy of Europe – The economy of Europe comprises more than 731 million people in 48 different countries. The difference in wealth across Europe can be seen roughly with some countries breaching the divide. Europe in 2010 had a nominal GDP of $ trillion. These 6 countries all rank in the world's top 15, therefore European economies account for half of the 10 wealthiest ones. In 2009 Europe remained the world's wealthiest region. Its $ trillion in assets under management represented more than one-third of the world's wealth. Unlike North America it was one of few regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis peak. Of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue, 184 have their headquarters in Europe. 161 are located in the EU, 15 in Switzerland, 6 in Russia, 1 in Norway. As noted by the Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells the average standard of living in Western Europe is very high. "The bulk of the population in Western Europe still enjoys the highest living standards in the world's history." Prior to World War II, Europe's major industrial states were the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Before long the entire continent was at a high level of industry. However, much of the continent's infrastructure was laid to waste. Following World War II, European Government was in tatters.Economy of Europe – Labour productivity levels in Europe. OECD, 2012
48. Norwegian county road – A Norwegian county road is a highway in Norway, owned and maintained by the local county municipality. Some of the roads have road signs. The signs are white with black numbers. In 1931, a system of national roads, municipal roads was established. In 2009, there were a total of 27,262 kilometres of county roads in Norway. This accounted in Norway. On January 2010, most national roads that were not trunk roads were transferred to the counties and therefore became county roads. On that date 78 kilometres of ferry travel was transferred to the counties, at a compensation of NOK 6.9 billion. After the transfer, the state had about 10,000 kilometres of its road network. Norwegian national road Veglister 2011 by Statens VegvesenNorwegian county road – View of 885 in Nordland county
49. Lofoten – Lofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway. Lofoten is known with dramatic mountains and peaks, open sea and sheltered bays, beaches and untouched lands. Though lying within the Arctic Circle, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude. Lofoten was originally the old name of the Vestvågøya. Iron Age agriculture, significant human habitation can be traced back to ~ 250 BCE. The town of Vågan is the first known formation in northern Norway. It was located on the southern coast on eastern Lofoten, near today's village Kabelvåg in Vågan municipality. In the lowland areas, particularly Vestvågøy, agriculture plays a significant role, as it has done since the Age. Lofotr was originally the name of the island of Vestvågøy only. Later it became the name of the chain of islands. The chain of islands with its pointed peaks looks from the mainland. In Norwegian, it is always a singular. Another name one might come across, is "Lofotveggen" or the Lofoten wall. In 1941, the islands were raided during Operation Claymore in March and a subsequent diversionary attack to support the Vaagso raid in December. Lofoten is located in North Norway.Lofoten – Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen.
50. Nordland – The county was formerly known as Nordlandene amt. The administration is in Bodø. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen has been administered since 1995. In the southern part is Vega, listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. The county is divided into traditional districts. These are Helgeland in the south, Ofoten in the northeast. In the northwest lie the archipelagoes of Lofoten and Vesterålen. Nordland is located along the coast of the Scandinavian peninsula in Northern Norway. Due to the large distance to the densely populated parts of Europe, this is one of the least polluted areas in Europe. Nordland extends about 500 km from Nord-Trøndelag to Troms. The distance by road from Bindal in the far south of the county to Andenes on the northern tip is roughly 800 km. Nordland has a rugged coastline, with many fjords. From south to north, the main fjords are Bindalsfjord, Vefsnfjord, Ranfjord, Saltfjord-Skjerstadfjord, Folda, Tysfjord, Ofotfjord and Andfjord, shared with Troms county. The best-known is perhaps the Vestfjorden, not really a fjord, but the mainland. The Raftsundet strait, with its famous Trollfjord, is the shortest waterway connecting Lofoten and Vesterålen.Nordland – Nordland fylke
51. Scandinavian coastal conifer forests – Within it are a number of small areas with botanical features and a local climate consistent with a temperate rainforest. The Scandinavian coastal conifer forest PA0520 is a terrestrial ecoregion as defined by WWF. and National Geographic. It might include areas lacking naturally occurring conifer forests and even rocky headlands with little or no woodland and forest. At somewhat higher elevations near the treeline in the Scandinavian mountains is the montane birch forest and grasslands ecoregion. In some areas along valleys, this ecoregion meet the taiga of the inland belonging without mountain barriers. The ecoregion is naturally fragmented by mountains. The pine forests in the northern part have some of the oldest trees in Scandinavia, some more than 700 years old in Forfjord valley at Hinnøya. This area has a long growing season for the latitude with all year, from 1,200 -- 3,000 mm. July 24-hr average temperatures typically range from 12–15 °C, with daytime highs of 14–20°C. Winters are fairly mild and rainy, January average range from −3° to 2°C with daytime high at or above freezing. The annual temperature is approximately 7 ° C on the southwestern coast, 5.5 ° C on the Trøndelag / central Norway coast and 4 ° C in the northernmost area of this ecoregion. For the smaller area classified as rainforest, there is at least 200 days/year with measurable precipitation. Summers are mild; really hot weather is virtually unknown or very short lasting. The snow usually melts regularly throughout winter. Some of the wettest areas in this region, where annual rainfall might exceed even 2,500 mm, are sometimes considered hemiboreal rainforest.Scandinavian coastal conifer forests – Flakstadøya, Lofoten, in late September
52. Bal des Ardents – Four of the dancers were killed in a fire caused by a torch brought in by a spectator, Charles' brother Louis, Duke of Orléans. The noble knight Ogier de Nantouillet, survived. The ball was one of a number of events intended to entertain the young king, who the previous summer had suffered an attack of insanity. The public's outrage forced his brother Orléans, whom a contemporary chronicler accused of attempted regicide and sorcery, into offering penance for the event. Isabeau of Bavaria, held the ball to honor the remarriage of a lady-in-waiting. The incident later provided inspiration in Edgar Allan Poe's short story "Hop-Frog". In 1387, the 20-year-old Charles immediately dismissed his uncles and reinstated the Marmousets, his father's traditional counselors. They wish to deliver me to the enemy!" The comatose king was returned to Le Mans, where Guillaume de Harsigny -- a well-educated 92-year-old physician -- was summoned to treat him. Contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart wrote that the king's illness was so severe that he was "out of the way; no medicine could help him". He told the king's advisors to "be careful not to irritate him.... Burden him with work as little as you can; pleasure and forgetfulness will be better for him than anything else." To protect him from the rigor of governing, the court turned to elaborate amusements and extravagant fashions. The common people loved their young king, whom they called Charles le bien-aimé. Blame for unnecessary expense was directed at the foreign queen, brought from Bavaria at the request of Charles' uncles.Bal des Ardents – The Bal des Ardents depicted in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chronicles. The Duchess of Berry holds her blue skirts over a barely visible Charles VI of France as the dancers tear at their burning costumes. One dancer has leapt into the wine vat; in the gallery above, musicians continue to play.
53. Masquerade ball – A masquerade ball is an event in which the participants attend in costume wearing a mask. The "Bal des Ardents" was held by Charles VI of France, intended as a Bal des a form of costumed ball. It took place on January 28, 1393. Five courtiers dressed as wildmen of the woods, with costumes of flax and pitch. When they came too close to a torch, the dancers caught fire. Costumed dances were a special luxury of the ducal court of Burgundy. Masquerade balls were extended during the 16th century Renaissance. They were generally elaborate dances were particularly popular in Venice. They have been associated with the tradition of the Venetian Carnival. They became popular throughout mainland Europe in the 18th centuries, sometimes with fatal results. Most masks came like Switzerland and Italy. Throughout the century, masquerade dances became popular in Colonial America. Its prominence did not go unchallenged; a anti-masquerade movement grew alongside the balls themselves. The anti-masquerade writers held that the events encouraged immorality and "foreign influence." In the 1770s, fashionable Londoners went to the masquerades organized by Teresa Cornelys at Carlisle House in Soho Square, later to the Pantheon.Masquerade ball – Masquerade ball at the Carnival of Venice
54. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
55. Charles VI of France – Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France from 1380 to his death. He was a member of the House of Valois. Charles VI was only 11 when he inherited the throne in the midst of the Hundred Years' War. Although the royal age of majority was fixed at 14, the dukes maintained their grip on Charles until he took power at the age of 21. As royal funds drained, new taxes had to be raised, which caused several revolts. In 1388 Charles VI brought back to power his father's former advisers, known as the Marmousets. Charles earned the epithet "the Beloved". From on, Charles' bouts of insanity became more frequent and of longer duration. During these attacks, he had delusions, denying he had a wife and children. He could also run until exhaustion, wailing that he was threatened by his enemies. Between crises, there were intervals of months during which Charles was relatively sane. A fierce struggle for power developed between Louis of Orléans, the king's brother, John the Fearless, the son of Philip the Bold. When John instigated the murder of Louis in November 1407, the conflict degenerated into a civil war between Armagnacs the Burgundians. John offered large parts of France to King Henry V of England, still in exchange for his support. When Charles VI died, he was succeeded by his son Charles VII, who found the Valois cause in a desperate situation.Charles VI of France – Charles VI of France by the painter known as the Master of Boucicaut (1412).
56. Fiefdom – The fees were often real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. In ancient Rome a "benefice" was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered, originally, to the state. In medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service continued to be called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. When land replaced currency as the primary store of value, the Germanic fehu-ôd replaced the Latin word beneficium. This Germanic origin theory was also shared by William Stubbs in the nineteenth century. A theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrai's theory is that early forms of'fief' include feo, feu, feuz, feuum and others, the plurality of forms strongly suggesting origins from a loanword. It lacked a precise meaning until the middle of the 12th century, when it received formal definition from land lawyers. In English usage, the word "fee" is first attested around 1250–1300; the word "fief" from around 1605–15. In French, the term "fief" is found from the middle of the 13th century, derived from the 11th-century terms "feu" "fie". In French, one also finds "seigneurie", which gives rise to the expression "seigneurial system" to describe feudalism. Originally, vassalage did not imply the giving or receiving of landholdings, but by the eighth century the giving of a landholding was becoming standard.Fiefdom – Harold Sacramentum Fecit Willelmo Duci (Bayeux Tapestry)
57. Regicide – The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty. In the British tradition, it refers after a trial. More broadly, it can also refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign. Elizabeth had originally been excommunicated for converting England to Protestantism after the reign of Mary I of England. The defeat of the Spanish Armada and the "Protestant Wind" convinced most English people that God approved of Elizabeth's action. After the First English Civil War, King Charles I was a prisoner of the Parliamentarians. On 13 December 1648, the House of Commons broke off negotiations with the King. In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London. However, the Parliamentary leaders and the Army pressed on with the trial anyway. I would know by what authority, I mean lawful". In view of the historic issues involved, both sides based themselves on surprisingly technical legal grounds. At that time under English law if a prisoner refused to plead then this was treated as a plea of guilty. His warrant was signed by 59 Commissioners. To show their agreement with the sentence of death, all of the Commissioners who were present rose to their feet. Charles was then escorted through the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall to a scaffold where he would be beheaded.Regicide – This contemporary print depicts Charles I's decapitation.
58. Isabeau of Bavaria – Isabeau of Bavaria was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. She became Queen of France when she married King Charles VI in 1385. At 16, Isabeau was sent to France on approval to the young French king; the couple wed three days after their first meeting. Isabeau was honored in 1389 with entry into Paris. In 1392 Charles suffered the first attack of what was to become a progressive mental illness, resulting in periodic withdrawal from government. The episodes occurred with increasing frequency, leaving a court both steeped in social extravagances. A 1393 masque for one of Isabeau's ladies-in-waiting -- an event later known as Bal des Ardents -- ended with the King almost burning to death. Although the King demanded Isabeau's removal during his illness, he consistently allowed her to act on his behalf. Isabeau shifted allegiances as she chose the most favorable paths for the heir to the throne. In 1407 John the Fearless assassinated Orléans, sparking hostilities between the factions. The war ended soon after Charles, had John the Fearless assassinated in 1419 -- an act that saw him disinherited. She lived until her death in 1435. Isabeau was popularly seen as a irresponsible philanderess. Isabeau's parents were Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti, whom he married for a 100,000 dowry. She was most likely born in Munich where she was baptized at the Church of Our Lady.Isabeau of Bavaria – Queen Isabeau receiving Christine de Pisan 's Le Livre de la Cité des Dames, c 1410-14. Illumination on parchment, British Library
59. Lady-in-waiting – A lady-in-waiting or Court Lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. In courts where polygamy was practiced, she could become his wife or concubine. Lady-in-waiting or lady is often a generic term for women whose relative rank, title, official functions varied, although such distinctions were also often honorary. The development of the office of lady-in-waiting in Europe is connected to that of the development of a royal court. In the late 12th-century, noblewomen are mentioned as ladies-in-waiting. This resulted in a mix of Spanish customs when the Austrian court model was created. The first rank of the female courtiers was the Obersthofmeisterin, second in rank after the empress responsible for all the female courtiers. Second rank belonged to the ayas, essentially governesses of the imperial heads of the children's court. The rest of the noble courtiers consisted of the Hoffräulein, unmarried females from the nobility who normally served temporarily until marriage. The Hoffräulein could sometimes be promoted to Kammerfräulein. The Austrian model was the role model for the princely courts in Germany. The German model in turn became the role model of the early modern Scandinavian courts of Denmark and Sweden. The ladies-in waiting have historically been chosen from among the Catholic noble houses of Belgium. The chief functions at court were undertaken by members of the higher nobility, involving much contact with the royal ladies. Belgian princesses were assigned a lady upon their 18th birthday.Lady-in-waiting – Marie Louise of Savoy-Carignan, Princesse de Lamballe was lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette of France.
60. Charivari – The public ritual evolved to a form of social coercion, for instance, to force an as-yet-unmarried couple to wed.. It may occur at the home of newlyweds. Villages also used charivari in cases of adulterous relationships, unmarried mothers. In some cases, the community disapproved by older widows or widowers. In Canada it is used by both English and French speakers. Chivaree became the common spelling in Ontario, Canada. In the United States, the shivaree is more common. Members of a village would decide on a place where everyone could plan what was to be done. Those who were to initiate the charivari used word-of-mouth to summon the largest possible crowd to participate, with women helping to lead. The general intent was public humiliation of the victim. In some cases the individual themselves were forced to participate. Skimmingtons were typically noisy affairs, with rough music made by the clattering of pans. She bang'd him, For spending a penny when he stood in need. She up with a three-footed stool; she cut so deep, Till the blood run down like a new stuck sheep! The participants were generally young men temporarily bestowed over the everyday affairs of the community.Charivari – A depiction by William Hogarth of rough music during a skimmington ride
61. Wild men – The defining characteristic of the figure is its "wildness"; from the 12th century they were consistently depicted as being covered with hair. The image of the wild man survived to appear as supporter for heraldic coats-of-arms, especially in Germany, well into the 16th century. The first element of woodwose is usually explained from wudu "wood", "forest". The second element is less clear. It has been identified as a hypothetical noun *wāsa "being", from the verb wesan, wosan "to be", "to be alive". It would have been * wudu-wāsa or * wude-wāsa. It may also mean cognate with the German "Waise" and Dutch "wees" which both mean "orphan." Terminology in the Middle Ages was more varied. In Middle English, there was the woodwose. Wodwos occurs in the Green Knight. 1390. Some of the local names suggest connections with figures from ancient mythology. Slavic has leshy "man". Various traditions include names suggesting affinities with Orcus, a Roman and Italic god of death. For many years people in Tyrol called Orke, Lorke, or Noerglein, while in parts of Italy he was the orco or huorco.Wild men – Wild men support coats of arms in the side panels of a portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1499 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich)
62. Tudor period – The Tudor period coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII. Following the agricultural depression of the 15th century, population began to increase. The export of woollen products resulted in an economic upturn with products exported to mainland Europe. Henry VII negotiated the favourable Intercursus Magnus treaty in 1496. This was a period of significant change for the majority of the rural population, with manorial lords beginning the process of enclosure. Historian Geoffrey Elton revolutionized the study of Tudor government with his 1953 book The Tudor Revolution in Government. He argued that Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII's chief minister from 1532 to 1540, was the author of modern, bureaucratic government, which replaced medieval, government-as-household-management. Cromwell introduced reforms into the administration that delineated the King's household from the state and created a modern administration. He injected Tudor power into the darker corners of the realm and radically altered the role of Parliament. This transition happened in the 1530s, Elton argued, must be regarded as part of a planned revolution. By masterminding these reforms, wrote Elton, Cromwell laid the foundations of England's success. However, Elton's thesis can longer be regarded as an orthodoxy. The Tudor Government raised a huge amount of revenue from the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The clerical income from First Fruits and Tenths, which previously went to the Pope, now went to the King. The Tudor Government gained further revenue by selling the lands.Tudor period – Periods in English history
63. Michel Pintoin – Michel Pintoin has been identified at the Basilica of St Denis, an abbey which had a reputation for writing chronicles. The monks at St Denis were given access to official documents. Because he witnessed many of the events of the Hundred Years War, the Monk of St Denis is considered a valuable chronicler of this period. Originally written in Latin, the work was translated by L. Bellaguet between 1839 and 1852. He also recorded Charles VI's reinstatement of the Marmousets, the disastrous Bal des Ardents in 1393. Because he was cleric, the Monk wrote from a perspective that differed from secular or "chivalric" chroniclers such as Jean Froissart. Writing in Latin, his tone was frequently similar to a sermon. 20th-century historians have determined that Pintoin was responsible for the vilification of Isabeau of Bavaria that has persisted since the time of his writing. Adams, Tracy. The Life and Afterlife of Isabeau of Bavaria". Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. ISBN 978-0-8018-9625-5 Curry, Anne. . The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press.Michel Pintoin – Michel Pinoit chronicled the reign of Charles VI of France, whose coronation is shown in this miniature painted by Jean Fouquet.
64. Jean Froissart – For centuries, Froissart's Chronicles have been recognised as the chief expression of the chivalric revival of the 14th century Kingdom of France. His history is also an important source for the first half of the Hundred Years' War. This is why de Looze has characterised these works as'pseudo-autobiographical'. Froissart came from Valenciennes in the County of Hainaut, situated in the western tip of the Holy Roman Empire, bordering France. There is actually little evidence for this. Other suggestions include that he began working as a merchant soon gave that up to become a cleric. For this conclusion there is also no real evidence, as the poems which have been cited to support these interpretations are not really autobiographical. By about age 24, Froissart entered the service of Philippa of Hainault, queen consort of Edward III of England, in 1361 or 1362. This service, which would have lasted until the queen's death in 1369, has often been presented as including a position of poet and/or official historiographer. Froissart took a serious approach to his work. He traveled in England, Scotland, Wales, France, Flanders and Spain gathering material and first-hand accounts for his Chronicles. He traveled to Milan to attend and chronicle the duke's wedding to Violante, the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti. At this wedding, two significant writers of the Middle Ages were present: Chaucer and Petrarch. After the death of Queen Philippa, he enjoyed the patronage of Joanna, Duchess of Brabant among various others. He seemed disappointed by changes that he viewed as the end of chivalry.Jean Froissart – Posthumous portrait of Jean Froissart, " Recueil d'Arras ", Jacques Le Boucq
65. Illuminated manuscripts – An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders and miniature illustrations. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject; for an art-historical account, see miniature. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire. Had it not been for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity, most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe. As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians. The majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many survive from the Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity. The majority of these manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from the 13th century onward, an increasing number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls. A very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus, which does not last nearly as long as vellum or parchment. Beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper. Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced in the early 16th century, but in much smaller numbers, mostly for the very wealthy. Manuscripts are among the most common items to survive from the Middle Ages; many thousands survive.Illuminated manuscripts – In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated.
67. Edgar Allan Poe – Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre. Poe is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the American writer to try to earn a living through resulting in career. Poe was born in Boston, the second child of two actors. His father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia. They never formally adopted him, but Poe was with them well into young adulthood. Poe attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. With the death of Frances Allan in 1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City. In Richmond in 1836, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success. His wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication.Edgar Allan Poe – This plaque in Boston marks the approximate location where Edgar Poe was born.
68. Hop-Frog – "Hop-Frog" is a short story by American writer Edgar Allan Poe, first published in 1849. A person with dwarfism taken from his homeland, becomes the jester of a king particularly fond of practical jokes. In front of the king's guests, Hop-Frog murders them all by setting their costumes before escaping with Trippetta. Critical analysis has suggested that Poe wrote the story against a woman named Elizabeth F. Ellet and her circle. The court Hop-Frog, "being also a dwarf and a cripple", is the much-abused "fool" of the unnamed king. This king has an insatiable sense of humor: "he seemed to live only for joking". The dancer Trippetta, have been stolen from their homeland and essentially function as slaves. Of his physical deformity, which prevents him from walking upright, the King nicknames him "Hop-Frog". Though the king knows this, he forces Hop-Frog to consume several goblets full. The powerful men ask Hop-Frog for advice on an upcoming masquerade. He suggests some very realistic costumes for the men: costumes of orangutans chained together. The men agree to wear tight-fitting shirts and pants saturated with tar and covered with flax. In full costume, the men are then led into the "grand saloon" of masqueraders just after midnight. Many believe the men to be real "beasts of some kind in reality, if not precisely ourang-outangs". The King had insisted the doors be locked; the keys are left with Hop-Frog.Hop-Frog – Hop-Frog, Trippetta, the king and his councilors, 1935 illustration by Arthur Rackham
69. Kiril Lazarov – Kiril Lazarov is a Macedonian handball player who currently plays for FC Barcelona. He is also the captain of the Macedonia handball team. Lazarov was two times with MVM Veszprém and RK Zagreb. In 2011–12, he was top scorer for Velux EHF Final 4 runner-up Atlético Madrid. On 29 Lazarov became world record-holder for the number of goals scored in one World Championship. In nine games he scored 92 goals for the Macedonia national team at the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship that took place in Croatia. On 29 Lazarov was voted as The Best Right Back of Champions League All-star team. In international club tournaments his best results are two runners-up. They have two children, a boy named a girl named Lana. His brother Filip Lazarov is also a handball player for the national team. Official Website Official You Tube channel Kiril Lazarov – EHF profile FC Barcelona profileKiril Lazarov – Kiril Lazarov
70. Team handball – A standard match consists of the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court 40 with a goal in the middle of each end. Outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball and beach handball. Contact is permitted by the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. The game was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe and Germany. The modern set of rules had several revisions since. The international games were played under these rules for men in 1925 and for women in 1930. Women's handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics. The International Handball Federation as of 2016 has 197 member federations. The game also enjoys popularity of South America. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called ludere. There are records of handball-like games in the Middle Ages. The team game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe -- primarily in Denmark, Germany, Norway and Sweden. The modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz.Team handball – Handball player moves towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper waits to stop it.
71. Captain (sports) – In team sports, captain is a title given to a member of the team. In either case, it is a position that indicates honor and respect from one's teammates – recognition as a leader by one's peers. In cricket, a captain is also known as a skipper. Depending on the sport, team captains may be given the responsibility of interacting with game officials regarding application and interpretation of the rules. In many team sports, the captains represent their respective teams when the match official does the coin toss at the beginning of the game. Various sports have differing roles and responsibilities for team captains. In martial arts, the instructor, acting under the direction and authority of the Master or a senior belt, may be called the captain. ManagerCaptain (sports) – Steven Gerrard, former captain of Liverpool F.C. and England.
72. Macedonia national handball team – The Macedonia national handball team is the national handball team of the Republic of Macedonia. The team is run by the governing body of handball in Macedonia. Prior to joining the International Handball Federation in 1993 as an independent country, Macedonia was represented within the Yugoslavia handball team. Head coach: Lino Červar These are players that have also received a call for the 2018 European Men's Handball Championship qualification. Handball supporters are known as Makedonska Falanga or Macedonian Phalanx. They travel everywhere with the team. They followed that up with an even bigger showing at the European Handball Championship in Serbia. The massive show of support by the Makedonska Falanga helped the Macedonian team achieve its highest placing to date, when they finished in 5th place. Although Macedonia didn't qualify for the Olympics, its fans are widely acknowledged as the best handball fans in the world. As of 3 Sep 2016 Official website IHF profileMacedonia national handball team – Macedonian fans
73. EHF Champions League – The EHF Champions League is the most important handball club competition for men's teams in Europe and involves the leading teams from the top European nations. The competition is organised every year by EHF. The EHF rank decides, in which stage they enter. The EHF publishes a ranking list of its member federations. The first 27 nations are allowed to participate in the tournament with their national champion. The nations ranked first and second receive other nations may apply for additional places. The EHF Champions League is divided into five stages. Depending of the criteria list, teams can enter the competition in either qualification or the group phase. Groups of four teams are formed. The number of groups can vary each season. Teams from each group play finals, in a single venue over a weekend. The winning team from each group advance to the phase, while teams from lower ranks continue in the Men's EHF Cup. Since 2015/16 season four groups are formed in Group C and D. They play each other twice, in home and away matches. The best teams of Group A and B advance directly to the quarter-finals, while teams from 2-6 positions in each group proceed to the Last 16.EHF Champions League – Former logo
74. RK Zagreb – RK Prvo plinarsko društvo Zagreb is a handball club from Zagreb, Croatia. RK Zagreb competes in the EHF Champions League. The team was formerly known for sponsorship purposes. Nowadays it's called shortened PPD Zagreb. Squad for the 2016–17 season Loans for the 2016-17 season At least 10 games playedAs of 01 December 2016 Official websiteRK Zagreb – RK Zagreb
75. Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Greece – The coat of arms of Greece displays a white cross on a blue escutcheon, surrounded by two laurel branches. The constitution does not specify a tincture for the branches, implying proper. The Greek government normally uses a design in which the laurel branches are monochrome blue. A version with laurel leaves is displayed by the military and on the presidential standard. The Greek coat of arms was introduced during the reign of the Bavarian King Otto. Supported by two crowned lions rampant and surmounted by the royal crown. The escutcheon of pretence was the coat of arms of Bavaria, as a symbol of the House of Wittelsbach. This emblem was discarded upon the king's exile in 1862. When Greece became a republic in 1924, all external ornamentation was discarded. The dynastic arms of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg family became the new escutcheon of pretence. The shield remained surmounded by the royal crown. Two male figures were introduced as new supporters, alluding to the legendary Heracles. The Order of the Redeemer was also added. The motto of i.e. Ἰσχύς μου ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ λαοῦ, was also introduced. This achievement remains by the current pretender Greek Royal Family.Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Greece – Coat of arms of Greece
76. George II of Greece – George II reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia. When his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became George became the crown prince. After a coup deposed King Constantine during the First World War, Crown Prince George, by then a Major, followed his father in 1917. Alexander, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos, an avowed Republican. Crown Prince George served in the war against Turkey. Although he refused to abdicate, he left on 19 December 1923 for exile in his wife's home nation of Romania. His property was confiscated. His wife stayed in Bucharest whilst he his mother in Florence. In 1932 he moved to Britain. Elisabeth and he were divorced on 6 July 1935. In Greece between 1935 there were 23 changes of government, a dictatorship, 13 coups. He then arranged a plebiscite both to bring an end to the republic. On November 1935, almost 98 % of the reported votes supported restoration of the monarchy. Participation was compulsory.George II of Greece – George II
77. Escutcheon (heraldry) – In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms. The word is used in two related senses. Firstly, as the shield on which a coat of arms is displayed. Escutcheon shapes thus have varied and developed by region and by era. Other shapes are in use, such as the roundel commonly used for arms granted by the Canadian Heraldic Authority. Secondly, a shield can itself be a charge within a coat of arms. More often, a smaller shield is placed as a form of marshalling. In either case, the smaller shield is usually given the same shape as the main shield. When there is only one such shield, it is sometimes called an inescutcheon. The escutcheon is derived from Middle English escochon, from Anglo-Norman escuchon, from Vulgar Latin scūtiōn -, from Latin scūtum, "shield". From its use in heraldry, escutcheon can be a metaphor for a family's honour. The idiom "a blot on the escutcheon" is used to mean a stain on somebody's reputation. By about 1250 the shields used in warfare were almost triangular in shape, referred to as heater shields. That on the enamel monument to Count of Anjou is of almost full-body length. In the Tudor era the heraldic escutcheon took the shape of an inverted Tudor arch.Escutcheon (heraldry) – Effigy of William II Longespee (d.1250) in Salisbury Cathedral, showing an early triangular heater shield, the shape used as the "canvas" for the display of arms during the classical age of heraldry
79. Hercules – Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek divine hero Heracles, the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his numerous far-ranging adventures. The Romans adapted the Greek hero's iconography and myths under the name Hercules. In literature and in popular culture, Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled later writers to pick and choose how to represent him. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the later tradition. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the "Twelve Labours," but the list has variations. One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows: Slay the Nemean Lion. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull.Hercules – Hercules fighting the Nemean lion by Peter Paul Rubens
80. Order of the Redeemer – The Order of the Redeemer, also known as the Order of the Saviour, is an order of merit of Greece. The Order of the Redeemer is the highest decoration awarded by the modern Greek state. According to the decree of establishment, the name of the Order "shall recall the, by divine assistance fortuitously accomplished, salvation of Greece". Foreign recipients, well as princes of the Greek royal family, did not count to these totals. In practice the Grand Cross is awarded only to foreign heads of state. The present form of the Order is regulated by Presidential Decree 849/1975. The reverse featured a portrait of Otto with the circular inscription: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ. After Otto's deposition in 1863, his portrait was substituted by an icon of Jesus, the Redeemer of Orthodox Christian soteriology. The star of the Order is an faceted silver star with the same central disc as on the badge of the Order. Eventually, they were made of solid silver, a practice that continues to this day. The ribbon of the Order is light blue, reflecting the national colours of Greece. "Hellenic Orders, Decorations and Medals", pub. Hellenic War Museum, Athens 1991, ISBN 960-85054-0-2.Order of the Redeemer – Order of the Redeemer Τάγμα του Σωτήρος
81. Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer, philosopher, advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a children's book. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Until the 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several personal relationships, received more attention than her writing. With Gilbert Imlay, Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter, leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. After Wollstonecraft's death, her widower published a Memoir of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, which inadvertently destroyed her reputation for almost a century. Feminists often work as important influences. Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields, London. She was the second of the seven children of Elizabeth Dixon and Edward John Wollstonecraft. Although her family had a comfortable income when she was a child, her father gradually squandered it on speculative projects. Consequently, the family became financially unstable and they were frequently forced to move during Wollstonecraft's youth. The family's financial situation eventually became so dire that Wollstonecraft's father compelled her to turn over money that she would have inherited at her maturity. Moreover, he was apparently a violent man who would beat his wife in drunken rages.Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797)
82. Women's rights – In some countries, these rights are supported by law, behavior, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. Although males seem to have dominated in many ancient cultures, there are some exceptions. For instance in the Nigerian Aka culture women may hunt, even on their own, often control distribution of resources. Ancient Egypt had female rulers, such as Cleopatra. Women throughout ancient China had subordinate legal status based on the Confucian law. In Imperial China, the "Three Obediences" promoted widows to obey their sons. Men had to adopt a son for financial purposes. Late imperial law also features seven different types of divorces. The status of women in China was also low largely due to the custom of foot binding. About 45% of Chinese women had bound feet in the 19th century. For the upper classes, it was almost 100%. In 1912, the Chinese government ordered the cessation of foot-binding. Foot-binding involved alteration of the structure so that the feet were about 4 inches long. The bound feet caused difficulty of movement, thus greatly limiting the activities of women. This resulted in a tremendous need for female doctors of Western Medicine in China.Women's rights – Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst campaigning for women's suffrage
83. Travel literature – The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, travel memoir. One early memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias, a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD. In the modern period, James Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides helped shape travel memoir as a genre. The genre was a fairly common genre in medieval Arabic literature. Travel literature became popular during the Dynasty of medieval China. The genre was often written in narrative, prose, essay and diary style. He states that he went for the pleasure of seeing the top of the famous height. He called frigida incuriositas. He then wrote about his climb, making allegorical comparisons between climbing his own moral progress in life. "Councils of mad youth" were his stated reasons for going. In 1589, Richard Hakluyt published a foundational text of the travel literature genre. In the 18th Century, literature was commonly known as the book of travels, which mainly consisted of maritime diaries. In 18th century Britain, almost every famous writer worked in the travel form. Captain James Cook's diaries were the equivalent of today's best sellers. Later examples of travel literature include accounts of the Grand Tour.Travel literature – Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus on the Latin edition of Marco Polo 's Il Milione.
84. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
85. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman – In it, Wollstonecraft responds to those educational and political theorists of the 18th century who did not believe women should have an education. The Rights of Woman was actually well received when it was first published in 1792. One biographer has called it "perhaps the most original book of century". A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written against the tumultuous background of the French Revolution and the debates that it spawned in Britain. Wollstonecraft first entered this fray in 1790 on the Revolution in France. In his Reflections, Burke criticised the view of British writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French revolution. He viewed the French revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government. When Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord presented his Rapport sur l'instruction publique to the National Assembly in France, Wollstonecraft was galvanised to respond. . . Men are destined to live on the stage of the world. A public education suits them: it early places before their eyes all the scenes of life: only the proportions are different. The Rights of Woman is an extension of Wollstonecraft's arguments in the Rights of Men. She does not isolate her argument to 18th-century women or British women. The first chapter of the Rights of Woman addresses the issue of natural rights and asks who has those inalienable rights and on what grounds.A Vindication of the Rights of Woman – Title page from the first American edition of Rights of Woman
86. Henry Fuseli – Henry Fuseli RA was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain. Many such as The Nightmare, deal with supernatural subject-matter. He created his own "Milton Gallery". He held the posts of Professor of Painting and Keeper at the Royal Academy. His style had a considerable influence on many younger British artists, including William Blake. Fuseli was born in the second of 18 children. His father was Johann Caspar Füssli, author of Lives of the Helvetic Painters. He sent him to the Caroline college of Zurich, where he received an excellent classical education. One of his schoolmates there was Johann Kaspar Lavater, with whom he became close friends. Then, in 1765, visited England, where he supported himself for some time by miscellaneous writing. Eventually, he became acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom he showed his drawings. Following Reynolds' advice, he decided to devote himself entirely to art. In 1770 he made an art-pilgrimage to Italy, where he remained until 1778, changing his name to the more Italian-sounding Fuseli. Early in 1779 he returned to Britain, taking on his way. In London he found a commission awaiting him from Alderman Boydell, then setting up his Shakespeare Gallery.Henry Fuseli – Henry Fuseli, 1778. Portrait by James Northcote.
87. Gilbert Imlay – Gilbert Imlay was an American businessman, author, diplomat. Imlay was known as a shrewd but unscrupulous businessman involved in land speculation in Kentucky. However, he is best known today with British feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft, which resulted in the birth of a daughter, Fanny Imlay. Little is known of Imlay's early life. He was born in 1754, probably in New Jersey, where the Imlay family first settled in the early 18th century. During the American Revolutionary War he served in the New Jersey Line, enlisting for a time in Forman's Additional Continental Regiment. Following his military service, Imlay purchased a tract of land in Fayette County in 1783. He arrived there in March 1784, quickly became involved in speculation. In 1785 he quietly left America, probably for Europe, leaving a string of unpaid debts in his wake. In 1792 he was in Britain, where he published that year. After the birth of their Fanny, Wollstonecraft followed him to Paris. He returned immediately to London, leaving Wollstonecraft and her daughter alone in Paris. She eventually rejoined him in London, where she discovered that Imlay was living with an actress. That effectively ended their relationship, on Wollstonecraft's reputation. He left her to the care of others after her mother's death three years later.Gilbert Imlay – Works
88. Fanny Imlay – Percy Bysshe Shelley composed a poem on her death. The affair never rekindled. Wollstonecraft's daughters resented the new Mrs Godwin and the attention she paid to her own daughter. Debts mounted. Claire escaped by running off to the Continent with the Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1814. Left behind, bore the brunt of her stepfather's anger. She became increasingly isolated from her family and committed suicide in 1816. Fanny Imlay was the American entrepreneur Gilbert Imlay. The two fell in love. Most people, including Wollstonecraft's sisters, assumed they were married—and thus, by extension, that Fanny was legitimate—and she was registered as such in France. Initially, the couple's life together was idyllic. Imlay left her for long periods of time. He rejected her; the next month she attempted to commit suicide, but he saved her life. When she realized that her relationship with Imlay was over, she attempted suicide a second time. She went out on a rainy night, then jumped into the River Thames, where a stranger rescued her.Fanny Imlay – Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797)
89. William Godwin – William Godwin was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. Godwin is considered the first modern proponent of anarchism. Based on the success of both, he featured prominently in the 1790s. Mary Godwin would go on to write Frankenstein and marry the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. He wrote prolifically throughout his lifetime. Using the pseudonym Edward Baldwin, Godwin wrote a variety of books for children, including a version of the Beanstalk. Godwin also has had considerable influence on literary culture. He was born to John and Anne Godwin. Godwin's family on both sides were middle-class. Godwin's parents adhered to a strict form of Calvinism. William Godwin was educated at Hoxton Academy, where he studied under Andrew Kippis the biographer, Dr Abraham Rees of the Cyclopaedia. At the age of 11, Godwin became the sole pupil of Samuel Newton, a disciple of Robert Sandeman. Godwin then acted at Ware, Stowmarket and Beaconsfield. At Ware the teachings of the French philosophers were brought by a friend, Joseph Fawcett, who held strong republican opinions. His own aim was the complete overthrow of all existing political, social and religious institutions.William Godwin – William Godwin
90. Mary Shelley – She also promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her mother was the philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. When Mary was four, her father married a neighbour, as her stepmother, Mary came to have a troubled relationship. In 1814, Mary began a romance with one of Percy Bysshe Shelley, whom she eventually married. Together with Mary's stepsister Claire Clairmont, Mary and Shelley traveled through Europe. Upon their return to England, Mary was pregnant with Percy's child. Over the next two years, she and Percy faced ostracism, the death of their prematurely born daughter. They married after the suicide of Percy Shelley's first wife, Harriet. In 1822, her husband drowned when his boat sank during a storm near Viareggio. The last decade of her life was dogged by illness, probably caused by the tumour, to kill her at the age of 53. Recent scholarship has yielded a more comprehensive view of Mary Shelley’s achievements. Mary Shelley's works often argue that sympathy, particularly as practised by women in the family, were the ways to reform civil society. This view was a direct challenge to the Romantic ethos promoted by Percy Shelley and the Enlightenment political theories articulated by her father, William Godwin. Mary Shelley was born in 1797. She was the first child of the philosopher, novelist, journalist William Godwin.Mary Shelley – Mary Shelley's portrait by Richard Rothwell, shown at the Royal Academy in 1840, accompanied by lines from Percy Shelley 's poem The Revolt of Islam calling her a "child of love and light".
91. Frankenstein – Her name first appeared on the second edition, published in 1823. John Polidori decided to have a competition to see who could write the best horror story. Frankenstein is infused with elements of the Romantic movement. At the same time, it is an early example of fiction. It has spawned a complete genre of horror stories, films and plays. Usage commentators regard it as well-established and acceptable. In the novel, the monster is identified by words such as "wretch", "creature", "monster", "it". Frankenstein is written in the form of a story that starts with Captain Robert Walton writing letters to his sister. It takes place at an unspecified time in the 18th century, as the letters' dates are given as "17—". The Frankenstein is written in epistolary form, documenting a fictional correspondence between Captain Robert Walton and his sister, Margaret Walton Saville. Walton is captain who sets out to explore the North Pole and expand his scientific knowledge in hopes of achieving fame. During the voyage, the crew spots a sled driven by a gigantic figure. A few hours later, the crew rescues a nearly emaciated man named Victor Frankenstein. Frankenstein has been in pursuit of the gigantic man observed by Walton's crew. The recounted story serves as the frame for Frankenstein's narrative.Frankenstein – Volume I, first edition
92. Feminist movement – Feminism in parts of the western world has gone through three waves. First-wave feminism involved suffrage and political equality. Second-wave feminism attempted to further combat cultural inequalities. Third-wave feminism includes renewed campaigning for greater influence of women in politics and media. In reaction to political activism, feminists have also had to maintain focus such as the right to abortion. Recent research suggests there may be a fourth wave characterized, by new media platforms. De Beauvior's writing explained why it was difficult for talented women to become successful. De Beauvoir also argues that woman ambition because of how they are raised. Girls are told to follow the duties of their mothers, whereas boys are told to exceed the accomplishments of their fathers. Along with other influences, Simone de Beauvoir's work helped the feminist movement to erupt, causing the formation of Le Mouvement Libération des Femmes. This determined group of women wanted to turn these ideas into actions. Contributors to The Women's Liberation Movement include Simone de Beauvoir, Christiane Rochefort, Anne Tristan. Through actions the women were able to get equal rights for example right to education, right to work, right to vote. One of the most important issues that The Women's Liberation movement faced was the banning of contraception. The women were determined to fight it.Feminist movement – The " We Can Do It! " poster from 1943 was re-appropriated as a symbol of the feminist movement in the 1980s.
93. Belarus – Most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested. Its strongest economic sectors are manufacturing. Belarus lost almost half of its territory after the Polish -- Soviet War of 1919 -- 1921. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 Belarus became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Ukrainian SSR. Alexander Lukashenko has served since 1994. Lukashenko continued a number such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. In 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70 % of Belarus's population of million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only country in Europe to retain punishment in law and practice.Belarus – Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrosyne from 1992
94. Landlocked country – A landlocked state or country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are currently 48 such countries, including four partially recognised states. Only two, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America, lie outside Afro-Eurasia. As a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. The economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, other considerations. Some historically landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, all of which frequently employ neutrality to their political advantage. The majority, however, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries. 9 of the 12 countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Historically, being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a country's development. As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more heavily populated than inland ones. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is particularly strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world. He states, "If you are coastal, you serve the world; if you are landlocked, you serve your neighbors." Others have argued that being landlocked may actually be a blessing as it creates a "natural tariff barrier" which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems.Landlocked country – Bolivia 's loss of its coast in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue
95. Eastern Europe – Eastern Europe, also East Europe, is the eastern part of the European continent. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a cultural construct". Some Turco-Islamic influences. Another definition was used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. They are still heard in everyday speech and used for statistical purposes. They often lack precision or are extremely general. These definitions vary both among experts, even political scientists, recently becoming more and more imprecise. The Ural Mountains, the Caucasus Mountains are the geographical land border of the eastern edge of Europe. In this collection, the following ten countries were classified as Eastern Europe: Ukraine. The United Nations' definition encompasses most of the states which were part of the Warsaw Pact. Other agencies of the United Nations variously assign various states to those regions. A multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, provides entries for "23 EU languages" plus languages of candidate countries. Of these, those in italics are classified as "Eastern Europe" in this source.Eastern Europe – Division between the Eastern and Western Churches
96. Russia – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
97. Ukraine – Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. Two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near another during World War II. Following independence, Ukraine declared a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited military partnership with NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych was against Ukraine joining NATO. These events formed the background by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. Both are still ongoing as of December 2016. On 1 Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union. It remains one of the world's largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, judicial branches.Ukraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC
98. Poland – The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin—the country's largest urban agglomeration is the Silesian Metropolis. This union formed the Polish -- Europe. The Commonwealth ceased to exist in the years 1772 -- 95, when its territory was partitioned among Prussia, Austria. Poland regained its independence in 1918. In September 1939, World War II started by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. More than million Polish citizens died in the war. The borders of Poland were shifted westwards according to the Potsdam Conference in the aftermath of World War II. Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy. Despite the large number of casualties and destruction the country experienced during World War II, the country managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth. There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on many objects of cultural heritage in Poland. Poland is a democratic country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. Moreover, the country is visited by every year which makes it one of the most visited countries in the world. Poland is the eighth largest economy among the fastest growing European economies.Poland – Reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, c. 700 BC
99. Lithuania – Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in Northern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians are a Baltic people. Lithuanian, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by Baltic tribes. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed the Polish -- Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772–95, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied then by Nazi Germany. As the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, NATO. It is also part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries. The United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very human development" country.Lithuania – Trakai Island Castle
100. Latvia – Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states. Latvia has a territory of 64,589 km2. The country has a seasonal climate. Latvia is a parliamentary republic established in 1918. The city is Riga, the European Capital of Culture 2014. Latvian is the official language. 9 are cities. Livs are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian is an Indo-European language; it and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via musical traditions. Latvia and Estonia share a common history. As a consequence of the Soviet occupation, both countries are home to a large number of ethnic Russians, some of whom are non-citizens. Until World War II, Latvia also had significant minorities of Jews. Latvia is predominantly Protestant Lutheran, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. The Russian population has also brought a significant portion of Eastern Orthodox Christians.Latvia – Turaida Castle near Sigulda, built in 1214 under Albert of Riga.
101. Minsk – Minsk is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Nyamiha rivers. It is the administrative centre of the Commonwealth of Independent States. As the national capital, Minsk is the administrative centre of Minsk Region and Minsk raion. In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. The earliest historical references to Minsk date to the 11th century, when it was noted within the principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers. In 1242, Minsk became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It received town privileges in 1499. From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodship in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was part of a region annexed as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. After the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. Minsk will host the 2019 European Games. The average altitude above level is 220 metres. The physical geography of Minsk was shaped over the two most recent ice ages. There are six smaller rivers within all part of the Black Sea basin.Minsk – Victors' Avenue in Minsk
102. Principality of Polotsk – The Principality of Polotsk, also known as the Kingdom of Polotsk or the Duchy of Polotsk, was a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs. The origin and date of state establishment is uncertain. The Russian chronicles mention Polotsk being conquered by Vladimir the Great, thereafter it became associated with the Rurik dynasty and Kievan Rus'. The Principality was supposedly established around the ancient town of Polotsk by the tribal union of Krivichs. The Principality was heavily involved in several succession crises of the 11th-12th centuries and a war with the Land of Novgorod. By the 13th century it was integrated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. There is no exact date on record when the principality was formed; it was likely an evolutionary process. In 862 Polotsk was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle as a town within the realm of the Novgorod Rus', alongside Murom and Beloozero. Initially the Principality of Polotsk was governed by a local dynasty, not by an appointed governor from Kiev. Local statehood was a result of local political evolution in the Early East Slavs' tribal union of Krivichi. The second time Polotsk was mentioned was a full century later, in 980, when its ruler was a Varangian warlord, Ragnvald or Rogvolod. The chronicle reports that he arrived to Polotsk "from overseas", a routine phrase to designate Varangians. Both had hoped for political and military support from Polotsk. In order to achieve this, Vladimir proposed to Rogneda, Rogvolod's teenage daughter. She declined, thus making Polotsk an ally of Yaropolk.Principality of Polotsk – Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk (rebuilt in the mid-18th century)
103. Grand Duchy of Lithuania – The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded from Aukštaitija. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe. It was a multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages, religion, cultural heritage. Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the 12th century. The first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania in 1253. The state was targeted in the religious crusade by the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. The multi-confessional state emerged only at the late reign of Gediminas and continued to expand under his son Algirdas. It also marked the rise of the Lithuanian nobility. After Vytautas's death, Lithuania's relationship with the Kingdom of Poland greatly deteriorated. Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family, attempted to break the personal union with Poland. However, the unsuccessful Muscovite -- Lithuanian Wars of Moscow forced the union to remain intact. Eventually, the Union of Lublin of 1569 created the Polish -- Lithuanian Commonwealth. In this federation, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had separate government, laws, army, treasury. Shortly after, the unitary character of the state was confirmed by adopting the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations.Grand Duchy of Lithuania – Navahrudak Castle
104. Russian Empire – One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. It expanded to the west and south. Its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762. With million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, religion. There were dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had a agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized in railways and factories. The land was ruled through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, laid the foundations of the Russian state. The Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, diplomacy, continuing Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all million serfs in 1861.Russian Empire – Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia the Russian Empire in 1721, and himself its first emperor. He instituted the sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
105. Russian Revolution – In the second revolution the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a communist state. The February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, then capital of Russia. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Nicholas's abdication. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies, many strikes. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, other socialist factions campaigned for stopping the conflict. The Bolsheviks turned workers militias under their control over which they exerted substantial control. The Bolsheviks seized control of the countryside, establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. To end Russia's participation in the First World War, the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated all rival socialists. In this way, the Revolution paved the way in 1922. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered a line of protests. The beginning of a communist political protest had begun.Russian Revolution – Bolshevik forces marching on Red Square
106. Belarusian People's Republic – The BNR existed in 1918. The diplomatic mission was formed by its founders in Berlin. The BNR was replaced by a Communist government on January 5, 1919. It became known also as the "Democratic Republic". The Byelorussian SSR was founded in Minsk. Two years later, the founders of the BNR formed a government in exile abroad. As of 2016, the Rada of the Belarusian People's Republic is the oldest still existing government-in-exile. After the 1917 February Revolution in Russia, active discussions started about either gaining autonomy within the new democratic Russia or declaring independence. The Council started working on establishing governmental institutions. The Bolsheviks and Germans refused to recognize it and interfered in its activity. However, the Germans saw an independent Belarus within Mitteleuropa. In its First Constituent Charter, passed on February 1918, the Belarusian Council declared itself the only legitimate power in the territory of Belarus. The Belarusian Council was renamed the Council of the Belarusian People's Republic. On March 1918, the Council issued a third charter declaring the independence of Belarus. Following that, local meetings were held within Belarusian cities, sued resolutions supporting the creation of an independent republic.Belarusian People's Republic – Land claimed by the BNR at the time.
107. Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia – The SSRB replaced Belarusian People's Republic. The head of the state was Zmicier Zhylunovich. It consisted of Smolensk, Vitebsk, Mogilev, Minsk, Grodno, Vilna governorates. It was considered by Bolsheviks to be a buffer republic. In a month it was disbanded. The republic was re-established under the same name on July 31, 1920. The rest of the Belarusian lands remained split between Poland and the RSFSR. First establishment of SSRB Second establishment of SSRB The 1920 SSRB ConstitutionSocialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia – SSRB, with capital in Minsk, in the context of the Polish–Soviet War.
108. Republics of the Soviet Union – Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR". In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union officially consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics. All with the exception of the Russian Federation, had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party. In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for each Soviet Republic. They also allowed for foreign affairs and defense allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Byelorussia, to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945. However, most of the international community did not consider the Baltic countries to have legitimately been part of the USSR. Their position is supported by the European Court of Human Rights, the United Nations Human Rights Council and the United States. In contrast, the Russian state officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate. Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with provisions present in the Constitution, each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Each republic had its unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem. Every republic of the Soviet Union also was awarded with the Order of Lenin. Number of the union republics of the USSR varied from 4 to 16. In majority at the later decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics.Republics of the Soviet Union – A hall in Bishkek 's Soviet-era Lenin Museum decked with the flags of Soviet Republics
109. Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic – To the west it bordered Poland. Within the Soviet Union, it bordered Lithuania and Latvian to the south. Byelorussia was one of Soviet republics occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II. This non-sovereign country of several million was a UN-founding-member. Towards the final years of the Soviet Republic's existence, the Supreme Soviet of Byelorussian SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty on 27 July 1990. On 15 Stanislau Shushkevich was elected as the country's first president. Ten days later on 25 Byelorussian SSR declared its independence and renamed to the Republic of Belarus. The Soviet Union was disbanded four months later on December 1991. After independence, the new Belarusian constitution was adopted on 15 March 1994, thus ending the 74-year existence of the Belarusian state. The Supreme Soviet government was replaced by the National Assembly of Belarus in 28 November 1996. During the period of the Byelorussian SSR, the Byelorussia was embraced as part of a national consciousness. In western Belarus under Polish control, Byelorussia became commonly used during the interwar period. Upon the establishment in 1920, the term Byelorussia was only used officially. With the proclamation of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the republic was renamed to the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic transposing the second and third words. Conservative forces in the newly independent Belarus opposed its inclusion in the 1991 draft of the Constitution of Belarus.Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic – Flag (1951–1991)
110. Second Polish Republic – Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state. It included substantially more territory in the east and less in the west. The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km2, making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km2. According to the 1921 census, the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union. Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". The victorious Allies of World War I confirmed the rebirth of Poland in the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919. It was one of the great stories of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.Second Polish Republic – Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939)
111. Soviet invasion of Poland – The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939. On that morning, 16 days after Nazi Germany invaded Poland from the west, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. The German-Soviet invasion of Poland was secretly agreed in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, signed on 23 August 1939. The Red Army, which vastly outnumbered the Polish defenders, achieved its targets by using tactical deception. Some 230,000 Polish prisoners of war had been captured. The campaign of mass persecution in the newly acquired areas began immediately. In November 1939 the Soviet government ostensibly annexed the Polish territory under its control. The Soviet campaign of ethnic cleansing began with the wave of arrests and summary executions of officers, policemen and priests. Soviet forces occupied eastern Poland until the summer of 1941, when they were driven out by the German army in the course of Operation Barbarossa. The area was under Nazi occupation until the Red Army reconquered it again in the summer of 1944. The Soviet Union enclosed most of the annexed territories into the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the end of World War II in Europe, the USSR signed a brand new border agreement on 16 August 1945. The USSR played a double game secretly engaging in parallel talks with Germany. The terms were rejected, thus giving a free hand in pursuing the Molotov -- Ribbentrop Pact with Adolf Hitler, signed on 23 August 1939. The non-aggression pact contained a secret protocol dividing Northern and Eastern Europe in the event of war.Soviet invasion of Poland – Soviet parade in Lwów, 1939