1. Denmark – Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Europe. Smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south of Norway, bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark has a population of million. The country consists of a peninsula, Jutland, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and Funen. The islands are characterised by a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged as a proficient nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark, Sweden and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit Greenland. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw military skirmishes while the Danish movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy.Denmark – The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age.
2. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
3. Continent – A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia. In geology, areas of continental crust include regions covered with water. Islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into geopolitical regions. By convention, "ideally separated by expanses of water." Many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. From this perspective the edge of the continental shelf is the true edge of the continent, as shorelines vary with changes in sea level. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia and the island of New Guinea together form a continent. As a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa. Extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the entire land surface of the Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent be a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions. Of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by ocean.Continent – The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
4. Eurasia – Eurasia /jʊˈreɪʒə/ is the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents. Eurasia covers around 36.2 % of the Earth's total land area. The landmass contains around billion people, equating to approximately 70 % of the human population. Humans first settled in Eurasia between 125,000 years ago. Physiographically, Eurasia is a single continent. Eurasia is sometimes combined with Africa as the supercontinent Afro-Eurasia. Chinese cratons collided with Siberia's southern coast. Eurasia has been the host of ancient civilizations, including those based in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and China. In the Axial Age, a continuous belt of civilizations stretched through the Eurasian subtropical zone to the Pacific. This belt became the mainstream of history for two millennia. Through this belt passed the famous Silk Road, a trade and cultural exchange route linking Eurasian cultures through history. Originally, “Eurasia” is a geographical notion: in this sense, it is simply the biggest continent; the combined landmass of Europe and Asia. Geopolitically, the word has several different meanings, reflecting the specific geopolitical interests of each nation. “Eurasia” is one of the most important geopolitical concepts; as Zbigniew Brzezinski observed: “... how America "manages" Eurasia is critical.Eurasia – Eurasia with surrounding areas of Africa and Australasia visible
5. Arctic Ocean – The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. It is partly covered by ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter. The shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50 %. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history by 2040. For much of European history, their geography conjectural. Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. Longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, with air support. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes.Arctic Ocean – A bathymetric / topographic of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
6. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into South Atlantic Ocean at about 8 ° N. The Greek thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic late as the mid-19th century. Many British people refer to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", vice versa. The "Black Atlantic" refers in shaping black people's history, especially through the Atlantic slave trade. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term "The Green Atlantic" is used. Correspondingly, the number of oceans and seas varies. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded by North and South America. It connects through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean.Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
7. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
8. Borders of the continents – The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention. Several slightly different conventions are in use. At its nearest point, Spain and Morocco are separated by only 13 kilometres. By contrast, the Canary and Madeira islands off the Atlantic coast of Morocco are much closer to and usually grouped with Africa. All of these islands may be considered part of the continent of Africa. However, for historical reasons, maps generally display them as part of Europe. The boundary between Europe and Asia is very unusual among continental boundaries because of its largely mountain-and-river-based characteristics east of the Black Sea. It has sometimes been referred to as such. Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River in the Caucasus, a convention still followed in the 5th century BC. This is the convention used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius, Strabo and Ptolemy. The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary between Samara well into the 19th century. In the Soviet Union, the boundary along the Kuma -- Manych Depression was the most commonly used as early as 1906. The modern border between Asia and Europe remains a cultural construct, defined only by convention. Cultural influences in the area originate from both Asia and Europe. The Turkish Istanbul lies in on both sides of the Bosporus, making it a transcontinental city.Borders of the continents – The Mediterranean Sea
9. Drainage divide – A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, water parting, or height of land, is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins. In flat country—especially where the ground is marshy—the divide may be harder to discern. A valley divide is a low drainage divide that runs across a valley, sometimes created by deposition or stream capture. Settlements are often built on valley-floor divides in the Alps. Examples are Eben im Pongau, Kirchberg in Tirol and Waidring. Another case is bifurcation, where the watershed is effectively in the river bed, underground. Drainage divides hinder navigation. In pre-industrial times, water divides were crossed at portages. Later, canals connected adjoining drainage basins; a key problem in such canals is ensuring a sufficient supply. Category:Drainage basins List of watershed topics European Watershed Scottish watershed Drainage basin Source Mountain pass ridgeline. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ridgeline. Ridgeline. Dictionary.com.Drainage divide – European drainage divides (red lines) separating drainage basins (grey regions)
10. Ural Mountains – The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean. The mountains significantly overlap with the Ural economic region. They have rich resources, including metal ores, semi-precious stones. Since the 18th century the mountains have contributed significantly to the mineral sector of the Russian economy. It might have been a borrowing from either Turkic "stone belt", or Ob-Ugric. From the 13th century, in Bashkortostan there has been a legend about a hero named Ural. They poured a pile over his grave, which later turned into the Ural Mountains. Possibilities include Bashkir Mansi ала "mountain peak, top of the mountain", Ostyak urr. V.N. Tatischev believes that this oronym is set to "belt" and associates it with the Turkic verb oralu- "gird". I.G. Dobrodomov suggests a transition from Aral to Ural explained on the basis of ancient Bulgar-Chuvash dialects. Geographer E.V. Hawks believes that the name goes back to the Bashkir folklore Ural-Batyr.Ural Mountains – Verkhoturye in 1910
11. Caucasus Mountains – The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include Lesser Caucasus in the south. The Lesser Caucasus runs parallel to the Greater about 100 km south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of 5,642 metres above level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Geologically, the Caucasus Mountains belong to a system that extends into Asia. The Greater Caucasus Mountains are mainly composed of Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks in the higher regions. Some volcanic formations are found throughout the range. On the other hand, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are formed predominantly with a much smaller portion of the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. The Caucasus Mountains formed largely as the result of a tectonic collision between the Arabian plate moving northwards with respect to the Eurasian plate. This collision also caused the Cenozoic volcanic activity in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The entire region is regularly subjected from this activity. While the Greater Caucasus Mountains have a mainly folded sedimentary structure, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are largely of volcanic origin.Caucasus Mountains – Aerial view of the Caucasus Mountains
12. Ural River – The Ural or Jayıq/Zhayyq, known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia. It ends at the Caspian Sea. At 2,428 kilometres, it is the 18th-longest river in Asia. The Ural River is conventionally considered part of the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. There it flows as a typical mountain river. It then falls after exiting it widens up to 5 kilometres. Its flow is characteristic of a flatland river; there it enters Chelyabinsk and Orenburg Oblasts. The bottom has many rifts. After Orsk, the river flows through a 45-kilometre long canyon in the Guberlinsk Mountains. After Uralsk, it flows through the territory of West Kazakhstan Province and Atyrau Province of Kazakhstan. There, the river has many lakes and ducts. Near the mouth, it forms vast wetlands. The Yaik distributary is rich in fish; whereas Zolotoy is deeper and is navigable. Ural River has a tree-like shape of the delta. This type of delta forms naturally in the slow rivers which deliver a great deal of sediments and flow into a quiet sea.Ural River – The Ural River from a plane between Uralsk and Atyrau, Kazakhstan
13. Caspian Sea – The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It is in an endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia. The Caspian Sea lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. Its northern part, the Caspian Depression, is one of the lowest points on Earth. The ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea probably of large size. The sea has a surface area of 371,000 km2 and a volume of 78,200 km3. It has a salinity of approximately 1.2%, about a third of the salinity of most seawater. The Caspian is derived from the name of an ancient people who lived in Transcaucasia. Moreover, the Caspian Gates, the name of a region in Iran's Tehran province, possibly indicates that they migrated to the south of the sea. The Iranian city of Qazvin shares the root of its name with that of the sea. In fact, the traditional Arabic name for the sea itself is Bahr al-Qazwin. In classical antiquity among Greeks and Persians it was called the Hyrcanian Ocean. Ancient Arabic sources refer to it as Baḥr Gīlān meaning "the Gilan Sea". Turkic languages refer to the lake as Khazar Sea. In Turkmen, the name is Hazar deňizi, in Azeri, it is Xəzər dənizi, in modern Turkish, it is Hazar denizi.Caspian Sea – The Caspian Sea as captured by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
14. Black Sea – The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine. It is supplied by a number such as the Danube, Dnieper, Rioni, Southern Bug, Dniester. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a volume of 547,000 km3. It features a wide shelf to the northwest. The longest extent is about 1,175 km. Mediterranean water flows as part of a two-way hydrological exchange. The Black Sea drains via the Aegean Sea and various straits. These waters separate Western Asia. The Black Sea is also connected by the Strait of Kerch. The level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. Currently the Black Sea level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.Black Sea – The Black Sea in Batumi, Georgia
15. Turkish Straits – The Turkish Straits are a series of internationally-significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea. They are conventionally considered the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia, well as the dividing line between European Turkey and Asian Turkey. As maritime waterways, the Turkish Straits connect various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, Western Eurasia. It runs through the city of Istanbul, making a city located on two continents. It is crossed by the underwater Marmaray rail tunnel. There is a underwater tunnel currently under construction for road users. There are plans for further crossings being debated at various stages. The Dardanelles, 1.2 km wide, connects the Sea of Marmara with the Mediterranean in the southwest, near the city of Çanakkale. In classical antiquity, the Dardanelles strait was known as the Hellespont. The Gallipoli peninsula on its western shoreline were the scene of the Battle of Gallipoli during the First World War. The Straits have been of urgent strategic importance since the Trojan War was fought near the Aegean entrance. In the declining days of the Ottoman Empire the "Straits Question" involved the diplomats of the Ottoman Empire. It thus benefited naval power at the expense of Russian as the latter lacked direct access for its navy to the Mediterranean. The treaty is one in a series dealing with access to the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles. The modern treaty controlling relations is the 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, still in force.Turkish Straits – Aerial view of the Bosphorus from north (bottom) to south (top)
16. Classical antiquity – It is the period in which Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia. It ends at the close of Late Antiquity blending into the Early Middle Ages. Such a wide sampling of territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze collapse. The 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. In the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient Olympic Games, in 776 BC. The Phoenicians originally expanded by the 8th century dominating trade in the Mediterranean. The Etruscans had established political control in the region by the 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. According to legend, Rome was founded BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus. The final king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus. As the son-in-law of Servius Tullius, Superbus was of Etruscan birth. It was during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. Superbus destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock, enraging the people of Rome. Lucius Junius Brutus, summoned the Senate and had Superbus and the monarchy expelled from Rome in 510 BC. After Superbus' expulsion, the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome in 509 BC.Classical antiquity – The Parthenon is one of the most iconic symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture
17. Physical geography – Physical geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Research in physical geography uses the systems approach. Geomorphology seeks to predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, numerical modeling. Glaciology is the study of ice sheets, or more commonly the cryosphere or ice and phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology groups the latter as continental glaciers and the former as alpine glaciers. Glaciology glaciers e.g. snow hydrology and glacial geology. Biogeography is the science which deals with the processes that result in these patterns. The main stimulus for the field since its founding has been that of island biogeography. Climatology examines both the natural and anthropogenic influences on them. Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which are explained by the science of meteorology. Pedology is the study of soils in their natural environment. It is one of two main branches of the other being edaphology. Pedology mainly deals with soil morphology, soil classification.Physical geography – True-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center image.
18. Human geography – Geography was not recognised until the 18th century although many scholars had undertaken geographical scholarship for longer, particularly through cartography. The Royal Geographical Society was founded in 1830 although the United Kingdom did not get its full Chair of geography until 1917. The real intellect to emerge in United Kingdom geography was Halford John Mackinder, appointed reader at Oxford University in 1887. The society has long supported geographic research and education. Though a pioneer of epidemiology, the map is probably one of the earliest examples of geography. The fairly distinct differences between the subfields of human geography developed at a later date. Environmental determinism is the theory that a people's physical, mental and moral habits are directly due to the influence of their natural environment. By the 1960s, however, the quantitative revolution led to strong criticism of regional geography. Well-known geographers from this period are Fred K. Schaefer, Waldo Tobler, William Garrison, Peter Haggett, Torsten Hägerstrand. From the 1970s, a number of critiques of the positivism now associated with geography emerged. Known under the term'critical geography' this signalled another turning point in the discipline. Behavioural geography emerged for some time as a means to understand how people made perceived spaces and places, made locational decisions. . Subfields include: Religion geography. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researcher's methodological approach.Human geography – History of geography
19. Russian Federation – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russian Federation – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
20. Demographics of Europe – Figures for the population of Europe vary according to which definition of European boundaries is used. The population within the standard geographical boundaries was 740 million in 2010 according to the United Nations. Median age comparatively high in relation to the world's other continents. Since the Renaissance, Europe has had a dominating influence in the world. Its demography is important not historically, but also in understanding current international relations and population issues. Some past issues in European demography have included religious emigration, ethnic relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population. In some countries, it is entirely illegal in the Mediterranean nation of Malta. In the past, such restrictions and also restrictions on artificial control were commonplace throughout Europe. 330,000,000 people lived in 1916. In 2010 the population of Europe was estimated to be million according to the United Nations, slightly less than 11 % of world population. The precise figure depends on the exact definition of the geographic extent of Europe. The population of the European Union was million as of 2015. Non-EU countries situated in Europe for another 94 million. Five transcontinental countries have a total of million people, of which about half reside in Europe proper. The sub-replacement fertility and high expectancy in most European states mean a declining and aging population as it isn't offset by the current immigration level.Demographics of Europe – < 50 inhabitants per km 2
21. World population – In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living. As of August 2016, it was estimated at billion. The United Nations estimates it will further increase in the year 2100. The highest growth rates -- global population increases above 1.8 % per year -- occurred between 1955-1975 peaking to 2.06 % between 1965-1970. The rate has declined to 1.18 % between 2010-2015 and is projected to decline to 0.13 % by the year 2100. 2003 UN Population Division population projections for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and billion. One of many mathematical models supports the lower estimate, while a 2014 estimate forecasts between 9.3 and 12.6 billion in 2100, continued growth thereafter. Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment, global food supplies, energy resources. Estimates on the total number of humans who have ever lived range to 108 billion. Six of the Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous continent, with its billion inhabitants accounting for 60 % of the world population. China and India, together constitute about 37 % of the world's population. Africa is the second most populated continent, with 15 % of the world's population. Though it is not permanently inhabited by any fixed population, Antarctica has a small, international population, based mainly in polar science stations. This population tends to decrease significantly in winter, as visiting researchers return to their home countries.World population – Greater Los Angeles lies on a coastal mediterranean savannah with a small watershed that is able to support at most one million people on its own water; as of 2015, the area has a population of over 18 million. Researchers predict that similar cases of resource scarcity will grow more common as the world population increases.
22. History of Europe – The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. The British Isles were the site of large-scale migrations. A period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Rus' people founded Kievan Rus', which evolved into Russia. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule. The Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become economic powers. A related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. An associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period.History of Europe – Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
23. European continent – Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe, or, by Europeans, simply the Continent, is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding surrounding islands. This historical core of "Carolingian Europe" was consciously invoked as the historical ethno-cultural basis for the prospective European integration. In Ireland, the Continent is widely and generally used to refer to the mainland of Europe. An British newspaper headline supposedly once read, "Fog in Channel; Continent Cut Off". It has also been claimed that this was a regular forecast in Britain in the 1930s. In addition, itself is also regularly used to mean Europe excluding the islands of Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland. The mainland Europe is also sometimes used. Derivatively, the continental refers to the social practices or fashion of continental Europe. Examples include breakfast, historically, long-range driving often known as Grand Touring.. Britain is physically connected to continental Europe through the undersea Channel Tunnel, which accommodates both the Eurostar services. This route is popular with migrants seeking to enter the UK. Especially in Germanic studies, continental refers to the European continent excluding the Scandinavian peninsula, Britain, Iceland. Kontinenten is a Swedish expression that refers to the area excluding Sweden, Norway, Finland but including Denmark and the rest of continental Europe. In Norway, similarly, one speaks as a separate entity usually referring to Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Benelux countries, such. The Scandinavian peninsula is accessible by train and road with several bridge/tunnel structures connecting the Danish peninsula of Jutland to Scania in Sweden.European continent – Map of the Scandiae islands by Nicolaus Germanus for a 1467 publication of Cosmographia Claudii Ptolomaei Alexandrini.
24. Prehistoric – Prehistory means literally "before history", from the Latin word for "before," præ, Greek ιστορία. Neighbouring civilisations were the first to follow. Most other civilisations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is often known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century. This article is concerned with human prehistory as defined here above. There are separate articles for the overall history of the Earth and the history of life before humans. The first use of the prehistory in English, however, occurred in 1836. Some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are also providing valuable insight for these questions. Restricted to artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. "Palaeolithic" means "Old Stone Age," and begins with the first use of stone tools.Prehistoric – Massive stone pillars at Göbekli Tepe, in southeast Turkey, erected for ritual use by early Neolithic people 11,000 years ago.
25. Minoan civilization – It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythic King Minos, was originally given as a description to the pottery of this period. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos, the largest Minoan site. The poet Homer recorded a tradition that Crete once had 90 cities. The Minoan period saw significant contacts between Crete, the Aegean and the Mediterranean, particularly the Near East. Some of its best art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri, on the island of Santorini, destroyed during the Thera eruption. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythic "king" Minos of Knossos. Who first coined the term is debated. It is commonly attributed to the archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos. Likely, Arthur Evans read the book, continuing the use of the term in his own writings and findings. Evans claims to have applied it, but not to have invented it. Hoeck had in mind the Crete of mythology. He had no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed.Minoan civilization – Minoan civilization
26. Mycenaean Greece – Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece. It represents the advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with urban organization, works of system. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, to which the culture of this era owes its name. Mycenaean-influenced settlements also appeared on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant, Italy. Mycenaean Greece was consisted of a network of palace states that developed rigid economic systems. At the head of this society was the king, known as wanax. Various theories have been proposed for the end of this civilization, among them the Dorian invasion or activities connected to the “Sea Peoples”. Additional theories such as natural disasters and climatic changes have been also suggested. The Mycenaean period became the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and mythology, including the Trojan Epic Cycle. The Age in mainland Greece is generally termed after the Greek name for Greece. The Middle Helladic period faced a slower pace of development, as well as the evolution of megaron-type cist graves. Finally, the Late Helladic period roughly coincides with Mycenaean Greece. The transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Greece is known as Sub-Mycenaean. Homer used the ethnonyms Achaeans, Danaans and Argives, to refer to the besiegers. Egyptian records mention a T-n-j or Danaya land for the first time in circa 1437 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmoses III.Mycenaean Greece – Mycenaean Greece
27. Bronze Age – The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly from outside the region. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems. Human-made technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make alloy. The Age was a time of developing trade networks. The dating of the foil has been disputed. The Age in the ancient Near East began in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics. The usual division into an Early, Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. Babylon in the Late Age similarly had large populations.Bronze Age – Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.
28. Bronze Age collapse – Before the Bronze collapse, Anatolia was dominated by a number of Indo-European peoples: Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni, Mycenaean Greeks, together with the Semitic Assyrians. From the 17th BC, the Mitanni formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a Hurro-Urartian language. Similarly, the Hittites absorbed the Hattians, a people speaking a language that may have been of the North Caucasian group. The Hittite capital, was burned, abandoned, never reoccupied. The corpses left unburied. Other sites that were not destroyed were abandoned. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by the Semitic-speaking Aramaeans. Troy was destroyed at least twice, before being abandoned until Roman times. Other groups of Indo-European warriors followed into the region, most prominently the Armenians, Scythians. The Semitic Arameans, Hurro-Urartuans also made an appearance in parts of the region. Afterwards the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Some towns show traces of destruction at the end of LCII. Whether or not this is really an indication of a Mycenean invasion is contested. Originally, two waves of destruction in c. 1230 BC by the Sea Peoples and c. 1190 BC by Aegean refugees have been proposed. The smaller settlements of Ayios Dhimitrios and Kokkinokremnos, well as a number of other sites, were abandoned but do not show traces of destruction.Bronze Age collapse – The fall of Troy, an event recounted in Greek mythology at the end of the Bronze Age, as represented by the 17th century painter Kerstiaen De Keuninck
29. Ancient Greece – Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages to c. 5th century BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Byzantine era. Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the era of the Persian Wars. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is commonly considered to have ended in the 6th century AD. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. The end of the Dark Ages is also frequently dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures with the dreamlike "archaic smile". The Archaic period is often taken to end in 508 BC. This period saw Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period ends with the Roman conquest. Herodotus is widely known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato and Aristotle.Ancient Greece – The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
30. Achaemenid Empire – One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. An avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, would eventually conquer the empire in its entirety by 330 BC. The Persian population of the central plateau would eventually reclaim power by the second BC under the Parthian Empire. The historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. Many Athenians allied to the Persian kings. The empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China. The Empire would also set the tone of modern Iran. The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here. ...: the Pasargadae, Maraphii, Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished; they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the remainder - the Dai, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti, being nomadic. The Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The Iranian people had initially fallen under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. However, the Medes and Persians played a major role in establishment of the first Persian empire. The Achaemenid is in fact the Latinized version of the Old Persian name Haxāmaniš, meaning in Greek "of the family of the Achaemenis."Achaemenid Empire – Standard of Cyrus the Great
31. Greco-Persian Wars – Struggling to rule the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them. This would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Greeks and Persians alike. This was the beginning of the Ionian Revolt, which would last until 493 BC, progressively drawing more regions of Asia Minor into the conflict. In 498 BC these forces helped to burn the Persian regional capital of Sardis. The Persian king Darius the Great vowed to have revenge on Athens and Eretria for this act. The revolt continued, with the two sides effectively stalemated throughout 497–495 BC. In 494 BC, the Persians regrouped, attacked the epicentre of the revolt in Miletus. At the Battle of Lade, the Ionians suffered a decisive defeat, the rebellion collapsed, with the final members being stamped out the following year. In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. This expedition subjugated the Cyclades, before razing Eretria. Darius then died for the conquest passed to his son Xerxes. In 480 BC, Xerxes personally led the second Persian invasion of Greece with one of the largest ancient armies ever assembled. Victory over the Greek states at the famous Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Persians to overrun most of Greece. However, while seeking to destroy the combined Greek fleet, the Persians suffered a severe defeat at the Battle of Salamis. The confederated Greeks went on the offensive, ending the invasion of Greece.Greco-Persian Wars – Greek hoplite (right) and Persian soldier (left) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
32. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
33. Asia – Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometers, 8.7 % of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. The western boundary with Europe is a cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A.D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Overall population growth has since fallen. Given its diversity, the concept of Asia -- a name dating back to classical antiquity -- may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Suez Canal. This makes a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg.Asia – Two-point equidistant projection of Asia and surrounding landmasses.
34. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
35. Roman law – The historical importance of Roman law is reflected in many legal systems influenced by it. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law also denotes the legal system applied until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. North American common law were influenced also by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Also, Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval legal system. It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion, emphasising ritual. The legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily. According to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. These laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC.Roman law – Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.
36. Western Roman Empire – Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death between his two sons. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. For this reason, provincial governors had de facto rule in the name of the Roman Republic. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus, Cyrenaica. These lands had previously been conquered by Alexander the Great; thus, much of the aristocracy was of Greek origin. Especially the major cities, had been largely assimilated into Greek often serving as the franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Hispania. These lands also included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sicilia to his holdings. Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Empire. While the Roman Empire featured many distinct cultures, all were often said to experience gradual Romanization. Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. Conquered tribes or cities would revolt, the legions would be detached to crush the rebellion.Western Roman Empire – Tremissis depicting Flavius Julius Nepos (474-480), the de jure last Emperor of the Western Court
37. Eastern Roman Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Eastern Roman Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
38. Germanic peoples – The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Tribes referred to as "Germanic" by Roman authors generally lived to the north and east of the Gauls. The term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine from Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control. This usage of the word is the origin of the modern concept of Germanic languages, but it was not defined strictly by language. Under other classical authors this sometimes included regions of Sarmatia as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine. Also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar, Tacitus and others did note differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of tribes both as Belgic Gauls, Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant "noisy"; cf. Breton/Cornish garm "shout", Irish gairm "call".Germanic peoples – Germanic Thing (governing assembly), drawn after the depiction in a relief of the Column of Marcus Aurelius, 193 CE.
39. Fall of the Western Roman Empire – Increasing pressure from "barbarians" outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. They inform much modern discourse on state failure. Relevant dates include the accession of Diocletian in 284. Irreversible territorial loss, however, began in 376 with a large-scale irruption of Goths and others. Invading "barbarians" had established their own power in most of the area of the Western Empire. While its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again. The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule. For Dio Cassius, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 CE marked the descent to one of rust and iron". Arnold J. Toynbee and James Burke argue that the entire Imperial era was one of steady decay of institutions founded in republican times. Gibbon gave a classic formulation of reasons why the Fall happened. New ideas have emerged since. Historians still try to analyze the reasons for loss of political control over a vast territory. Comparison has also been made in China, which re-established its Great Unity while the Mediterranean world remained politically disunited. At least from the time of Henri Pirenne, scholars have of political legitimacy, long after 476. Pirenne postponed the demise of classical civilization to the 8th century.Fall of the Western Roman Empire – Map of the Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, showing the dioceses and the four Tetrarchs' zones of responsibility
40. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
41. Culture of Europe – The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, philosophy that originated from the European cultural region. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "cultural heritage". Of the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations". The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon. If Asia were converted to Christianity tomorrow, it would not thereby become a part of Europe. It is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe have--until recently--been rooted. It is against a background of Christianity that all our thought has significance. Only a Christian culture could have produced a Nietzsche. I do not believe that the culture of Europe could survive the complete disappearance of the Christian Faith. The oldest known cave paintings are at older than 40,800 years. The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity.Culture of Europe – Leonardo da Vinci. Among his works are the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo 's The Creation of Adam.
42. Cultural area – These are often associated with the territory it inhabits. Specific cultures often do not limit their geographic coverage to smaller subdivisions of a state. Cultural "spheres of influence" may also form concentric structures of macrocultures encompassing smaller local cultures. Different boundaries may also be drawn depending on the particular aspect such as religion and folklore vs. dress and architecture vs. language. Cultural areas are not considered equivalent to Kulturkreis. A area is a concept in cultural anthropology, in which a geographic region and time sequence is characterized by substantially uniform environment and culture. The concept of culture areas was originated during the late 1800s as means of arranging exhibits. Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber further developed the concept on the premise that they represent cultural divisions. The concept is criticized by some, who argue that the basis for classification is arbitrary. But the organization of human communities into cultural areas remains a common practice throughout the social sciences. The definition of culture areas is enjoying a resurgence of theoretical interest as social scientists conduct more research on processes of cultural globalization. It is an area relatively homogeneous to one or more cultural traits. The geographer who identifies a formal region must locate cultural borders. The zones broaden with each cultural trait, considered because no two traits have the same spatial distribution. Instead of having clear borders, formal culture regions reveal a center or core where the defining traits are all present.Cultural area – Cultural areas of North American people at the time of European contact.
43. Western Europe – Western Europe, also West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of the European continent. There may be differences between the purely geographic definitions of the term. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. In East Asia, Western Europe was historically known in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty. In his writings, Ricci referred as "Matteo of the Far West". The term was still in use in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the West, influenced by the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their economic systems.Western Europe – The Great Schism in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe at the time.
44. Central and Eastern Europe – It is after the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989 -- 90. In scholarly literature the abbreviations CEEC are often used for this concept. The transition countries in Europe are thus classified today into two political-economic entities: CEE and CIS. According to the World Bank, "the transition is over" for the 10 countries that joined the EU in 2007. It can be also understood as all countries of the Eastern Bloc. Central Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library East-Central Europe Eastern Europe Regions of Europe Baltic states Visegrád GroupCentral and Eastern Europe – The pre-1989 "Eastern Bloc" (orange) superimposed on current borders
45. Collapse of the Soviet Union – The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no. 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. That at 7:32 p.m. the Soviet flag was replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. Some have joined NATO and the European Union. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 1985, three hours at age 73. Gorbachev, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo. He realized that doing so would require reforming underlying social structures. The reforms began with personnel changes of Brezhnev-era officials who would impede economic change. On April 1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, as full members. This liberalization, however, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1989 introduced competitive elections to the Congress of People's Deputies. In May 1985, Gorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism. Prices of beer were raised in order to make these drinks more expensive and a disincentive to consumers, the introduction of rationing. Unlike most forms of rationing intended to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness.Collapse of the Soviet Union – Tanks at Red Square during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt
46. Breakup of Yugoslavia – The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Croatia. In addition, two autonomous provinces were established within Serbia: Vojvodina and Kosovo. After his death in 1980, the weakened system of federal government was left unable to cope with rising economic and political challenges. In the 1980s, Kosovo Albanians started to demand that their autonomous province be granted the status of a constituent republic, starting with the 1981 protests. The League of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolved in 1990 along federal lines. Nationalist rhetoric on all sides became increasingly heated. In 1991, one republic after another proclaimed independence, but the status of Serb minorities outside Serbia was left unsolved. Before World War II, major tensions arose from relative political and demographic domination of the Serbs. Fundamental to the tensions were the different concepts of the new state. The Croats and Slovenes envisaged a federal model where they would enjoy greater autonomy than they had as a separate crown land under Austria-Hungary. Under Austria-Hungary, both Slovenes and Croats enjoyed autonomy only in education, law, 45 % of taxes. Human abuses were subject of concern for the Human Rights League and precipitated voices of protest from intellectuals, including Albert Einstein. It was in this environment of oppression that the radical insurgent group, the Ustaše were formed. The Axis powers installed the Ustaše as the leaders of the "Independent State of Croatia".Breakup of Yugoslavia – Serbian President Slobodan Milošević 's unequivocal desire to uphold the unity of Serbs, a status threatened by each republic breaking away from the federation, in addition to his opposition to the Albanian authorities in Kosovo, further inflamed ethnic tensions.
47. Economy of Europe – The economy of Europe comprises more than 731 million people in 48 different countries. The difference in wealth across Europe can be seen roughly with some countries breaching the divide. Europe in 2010 had a nominal GDP of $ trillion. These 6 countries all rank in the world's top 15, therefore European economies account for half of the 10 wealthiest ones. In 2009 Europe remained the world's wealthiest region. Its $ trillion in assets under management represented more than one-third of the world's wealth. Unlike North America it was one of few regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis peak. Of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue, 184 have their headquarters in Europe. 161 are located in the EU, 15 in Switzerland, 6 in Russia, 1 in Norway. As noted by the Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells the average standard of living in Western Europe is very high. "The bulk of the population in Western Europe still enjoys the highest living standards in the world's history." Prior to World War II, Europe's major industrial states were the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Before long the entire continent was at a high level of industry. However, much of the continent's infrastructure was laid to waste. Following World War II, European Government was in tatters.Economy of Europe – Labour productivity levels in Europe. OECD, 2012
48. Norwegian county road – A Norwegian county road is a highway in Norway, owned and maintained by the local county municipality. Some of the roads have road signs. The signs are white with black numbers. In 1931, a system of national roads, municipal roads was established. In 2009, there were a total of 27,262 kilometres of county roads in Norway. This accounted in Norway. On January 2010, most national roads that were not trunk roads were transferred to the counties and therefore became county roads. On that date 78 kilometres of ferry travel was transferred to the counties, at a compensation of NOK 6.9 billion. After the transfer, the state had about 10,000 kilometres of its road network. Norwegian national road Veglister 2011 by Statens VegvesenNorwegian county road – View of 885 in Nordland county
49. Lofoten – Lofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway. Lofoten is known with dramatic mountains and peaks, open sea and sheltered bays, beaches and untouched lands. Though lying within the Arctic Circle, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude. Lofoten was originally the old name of the Vestvågøya. Iron Age agriculture, significant human habitation can be traced back to ~ 250 BCE. The town of Vågan is the first known formation in northern Norway. It was located on the southern coast on eastern Lofoten, near today's village Kabelvåg in Vågan municipality. In the lowland areas, particularly Vestvågøy, agriculture plays a significant role, as it has done since the Age. Lofotr was originally the name of the island of Vestvågøy only. Later it became the name of the chain of islands. The chain of islands with its pointed peaks looks from the mainland. In Norwegian, it is always a singular. Another name one might come across, is "Lofotveggen" or the Lofoten wall. In 1941, the islands were raided during Operation Claymore in March and a subsequent diversionary attack to support the Vaagso raid in December. Lofoten is located in North Norway.Lofoten – Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen.
50. Nordland – The county was formerly known as Nordlandene amt. The administration is in Bodø. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen has been administered since 1995. In the southern part is Vega, listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. The county is divided into traditional districts. These are Helgeland in the south, Ofoten in the northeast. In the northwest lie the archipelagoes of Lofoten and Vesterålen. Nordland is located along the coast of the Scandinavian peninsula in Northern Norway. Due to the large distance to the densely populated parts of Europe, this is one of the least polluted areas in Europe. Nordland extends about 500 km from Nord-Trøndelag to Troms. The distance by road from Bindal in the far south of the county to Andenes on the northern tip is roughly 800 km. Nordland has a rugged coastline, with many fjords. From south to north, the main fjords are Bindalsfjord, Vefsnfjord, Ranfjord, Saltfjord-Skjerstadfjord, Folda, Tysfjord, Ofotfjord and Andfjord, shared with Troms county. The best-known is perhaps the Vestfjorden, not really a fjord, but the mainland. The Raftsundet strait, with its famous Trollfjord, is the shortest waterway connecting Lofoten and Vesterålen.Nordland – Nordland fylke
51. Scandinavian coastal conifer forests – Within it are a number of small areas with botanical features and a local climate consistent with a temperate rainforest. The Scandinavian coastal conifer forest PA0520 is a terrestrial ecoregion as defined by WWF. and National Geographic. It might include areas lacking naturally occurring conifer forests and even rocky headlands with little or no woodland and forest. At somewhat higher elevations near the treeline in the Scandinavian mountains is the montane birch forest and grasslands ecoregion. In some areas along valleys, this ecoregion meet the taiga of the inland belonging without mountain barriers. The ecoregion is naturally fragmented by mountains. The pine forests in the northern part have some of the oldest trees in Scandinavia, some more than 700 years old in Forfjord valley at Hinnøya. This area has a long growing season for the latitude with all year, from 1,200 -- 3,000 mm. July 24-hr average temperatures typically range from 12–15 °C, with daytime highs of 14–20°C. Winters are fairly mild and rainy, January average range from −3° to 2°C with daytime high at or above freezing. The annual temperature is approximately 7 ° C on the southwestern coast, 5.5 ° C on the Trøndelag / central Norway coast and 4 ° C in the northernmost area of this ecoregion. For the smaller area classified as rainforest, there is at least 200 days/year with measurable precipitation. Summers are mild; really hot weather is virtually unknown or very short lasting. The snow usually melts regularly throughout winter. Some of the wettest areas in this region, where annual rainfall might exceed even 2,500 mm, are sometimes considered hemiboreal rainforest.Scandinavian coastal conifer forests – Flakstadøya, Lofoten, in late September
52. Sicilian Baroque – The Sicilian Baroque style came during a major surge of rebuilding following the massive earthquake in 1693. Around 1730, Sicilian architects had developed a confidence in their use of the Baroque style. Their particular interpretation led to a personalised and highly localised art form on the island. From the 1780s onwards, the style was gradually replaced by the newly fashionable neoclassicism. Its Baroque architecture gives an architectural character that has lasted into the 21st century. Palazzi built as private residences for the Sicilian aristocracy. The earliest examples of this style in Sicily were typically heavy-handed pastiches of buildings seen by Sicilian visitors to Rome, Florence, Naples. However, even at this early stage, provincial architects had begun to incorporate certain vernacular features of Sicily's older architecture. Balconies, often complemented by intricate wrought iron balustrades before that date. External staircases. Most palazzi were designed for formal entrance by a carriage through an archway in the street façade, leading to a courtyard within. An double staircase would lead from the courtyard to the piano nobile. Canted, concave, or convex façades. Occasionally in a palazzo, an external staircase would be fitted into the recess created by the curve. The Sicilian belfry.Sicilian Baroque – Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. Basilica della Collegiata in Catania, designed by Stefano Ittar, circa 1768.
53. Baroque architecture – It was characterized by dramatic intensity. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in that of Naples and Lecce. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by the Jesuits. Michelangelo's Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. Colonialism required the development of powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering slowly in the following century. While this was good for the arts, the new wealth created an inflation, the likes of which had never been experienced before. Rome was known as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds. One of the Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. It still maintains rigor. These concerns are even more evident in his reworking of Santa Maria della Pace. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peter's Square, praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre. The piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk. Bernini's favourite design was his oval church of Sant ` Andrea al Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles and an ornate gold dome.Baroque architecture – Façade of the Church of the Gesù, the first truly baroque façade
54. Sicily – Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It constitutes an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently 3,329 m high, one of the most active in the world. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led during a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a unique culture, especially to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, architecture. It is also Selinunte. Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning the Trinacria. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2. The terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast.Sicily – Mount Etna rising over suburbs of Catania
55. Mask – A mask is an object normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance, or entertainment. Masks have been used since antiquity for both practical purposes. They are usually worn on the face, although they may also be positioned elsewhere on the wearer's body. In parts of Australia, giant totem masks cover the body, whilst Inuit women use finger masks during dancing. This word is of uncertain origin, perhaps from the verb sakhira "to ridicule". However, it may also come from Provençal mascarar "to black". Related forms are Hebrew masecha = "mask"; Arabic maskhara مَسْخَرَ = "he ridiculed, he mocked", masakha مَسَخَ = "he transfomed". Some decorative masks were not designed to be worn. Although the religious use of masks has waned, masks are used sometimes in drama psychotherapy. The use of masks dates back several millennia. The oldest masks that have been discovered are 9,000 years old, being held by the Musée "Bible et Terre Sainte", the Israel Museum. "The masquerade motif appears in the Bible on two different levels: an attempt to fool an attempt to fool God." What shaped Judaic ritual was an "absolute prohibition against originating with the Second Commandment. In the cult of Shiva, found from circa 6,000 BC, the young, naked ithyphallic god appears in a horned mask. René Guénon claims that in the Roman saturnalia festivals, the ordinary roles were often inverted.Mask – This stone mask from the pre-ceramic neolithic period dates to 7000 BC and is probably the oldest mask in the world (Musée de la Bible et de la Terre Sainte)
56. Putto – A putto is a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually naked and sometimes winged. However, in the Baroque period of art, the putto came to represent the omnipresence of God. A putto representing a cupid is also called an amorino. The more commonly found form putti is the plural of the Italian putto. The Italian word comes from the Latin word putus, meaning "boy" or "child". Today, in Italian, putto means either toddler angel or, rarely, toddler boy. Putti, in the classical world of art, were winged infants that were believed to influence human lives. Since then, Donatello has been called the originator of the putto because of the contribution to art he made in restoring the classical form of putto. He gave a distinct character by infusing the form with Christian meanings and using it in new contexts such as musician angels. Putti also began to feature in works showing figures from classical mythology, which became popular in the same period. So the painter Raphael. Curious putti who appear at the foot of Raphael's Sistine Madonna are often reproduced. The iconography of putti is deliberately unfixed, so that it is difficult to tell the difference between putti, various forms of angels. They have no immediately identifiable attributes, so that putti may have many meanings and roles in the context of art. In popular culture, putto is also used as a decorative art found as a purveyor of love.Putto – Sleeping Putto, by Léon Bazille Perrault, 1882
57. 1693 Sicily earthquake – The 1693 Sicily earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta on January 11 at around 9 pm local time. This earthquake was preceded by a damaging foreshock on January 9. The earthquake was followed by tsunamis that devastated the coastal villages on the Ionian Sea and in the Straits of Messina. Almost two thirds of the entire population of Catania were killed. The epicentre of the disaster was probably close to the coast, possibly offshore, although the exact position remains unknown. Sicily lies on part of the complex convergent boundary where the African Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. This zone is responsible for the formation of seismic activity. Most damaging earthquakes however, occur on the Siculo-Calabrian rift zone. Faults in the Calabrian segment were responsible for the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes sequence. In the southern part of the eastern coast of Sicily, investigations have identified a series of active normal faults, dipping to the east. Most of these lie offshore and some control basins that contain large thicknesses of Quaternary sediments. The two largest faults, known as the western and eastern master faults, border half-grabens with fills of up to 700 metres and 800 metres respectively. A destructive earthquake occurred two days before the mainshock at 21:00 local time, centered in the Val di Noto. It had an estimated magnitude of 6.2 and a maximum perceived intensity of VIII–XI on the Mercalli intensity scale. Intensities of VIII or higher have been estimated for Augusta, Avola Vecchia, Floridia, Melilli, Noto Antica, Catania, Francofonte, Lentini, Scicli, Sortino and Vizzini.1693 Sicily earthquake – 1693 Sicily earthquake
58. Engraving – Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it. Wood engraving is a form of relief printing and is not covered in this article. Other terms often used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving. Traditional engravings in printmaking are also "hand engraved", using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate. Each graver is different and has its own use. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes and scrollwork. Dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers. In addition to hand engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are usually used for lettering, using a pantographic system. There are versions for the insides of rings and also the outsides of larger pieces. Such machines are commonly used for inscriptions on rings, lockets and presentation pieces. Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types. The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a slightly curved tip, commonly used in printmaking.Engraving – St. Jerome in His Study (1514), an engraving by Northern Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer
59. Neoclassical architecture – Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. Neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullée's ideas and Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. The baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. The later tomes contained plans by other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk. The main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite closely, but Palladio's low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.Neoclassical architecture – The Cathedral of Vilnius
60. David Villa – David Villa Sánchez is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a striker and is the captain for New York City FC. Villa is nicknamed El Guaje because as a youngster he frequently played football than him. Despite sustaining a serious injury as a child, he started his professional career with Sporting de Gijón. Villa moved after two seasons where he made his La Liga debut, winning the Copa del Rey and Supercopa de España. He hit his La Liga goalscoring while at Valencia, scoring 28 league goals in the 2008 -- 09 season. In 2010, Villa moved for $40 million where he won his first La Liga and UEFA Champions League titles. Villa was one of the goalscorers in the final of the Champions League as Barcelona defeated Manchester United, 3 -- 1. After a $ million transfer, Villa spent the 2013 -- 14 season at Atlético Madrid, winning another La Liga title before leaving to play for New York City. He made his international debut in 2005. Villa scored three goals at the 2006 World Cup, earned the Silver Boot at the 2010 World Cup. He was born in a small parish in Langreo, Asturias, a region in northern Spain, the son of José Manuel Villa, a miner. Due to the injury, Villa ultimately became ambidextrous. I can barely remember a single session when my dad wasn't there. I have never been alone on a pitch." He admitted that he came close to giving up football at the age of 14 after falling out with his coach.David Villa – Villa playing for New York City in 2015
61. Association football – Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It dependencies, making the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal. Other players mainly may also use their torso. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. The Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years. The term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford "-er" abbreviation of the word "association". Within the English-speaking world, football is now usually called football in Canada and the United States. According to FIFA, the competitive cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence. The intent was kicking a ball into a net. It was remarkably similar to modern football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games.Association football – The attacking player (No. 10) attempts to kick the ball beyond the opposing team's goalkeeper and between the goalposts and beneath the crossbar to score a goal
62. Forward (association football) – Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards normally score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations generally include one to forwards; for example, the common 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 1 formation includes one forward. Unconventional formations may include none. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box. The present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder, especially in the 4 -- 3 -- 1 -- 4 -- 1 -- 2 -- 1 -- 2 formations. A centre-forward usually must be strong, to win ` outmuscle' defenders. The number would then become synonymous with the centre-forward position. They are typically fast players with good ball dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short speed. The terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years. Originally such players were termed inside forwards, deep-lying centre-forwards. In fact, the "nine-and-a-half", has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. In Italy, this role is known as "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante". "outside forward" has become a historical term.Forward (association football) – The forward (in red) is past the defence (in white) and is about to take a shot at the goal. The goalkeeper will attempt to stop the forward from scoring a goal by preventing the ball from passing the goal line.
63. Captain (association football) – The captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband. Contrary to what is sometimes said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the side's general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a competition final, the captain usually leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will also be the first one to hoist it. The captain also generally leads the teams out of the dressing room at the start of the match. Captains may join the manager in deciding the first team for a certain game. In youth or recreational football, the captain often takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A captain is usually appointed for a season. If he is not selected for a particular game, then the club vice-captain will be appointed to perform a similar role. The captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one, even if he was not the club captain. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry. A club may appoint two distinct roles: a club captain to represent correspondent on the pitch. After Neville retired in 2011, starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain. São Paulo's Rogério Ceni is the player who has worn the captain's armband the most times.Captain (association football) – Iker Casillas, wearing a captain's armband while playing for former club Real Madrid.
64. New York City FC – NYCFC began play as an team of the league. By 2009, the league had held talks with New York Mets owner Fred Wilpon about owning the second New York club. In 2010, MLS commissioner Don Garber officially announced the league's intent to make its 20th franchise a second team in the New York area. At that point, the league hoped to have the new team beginning operations by 2013. Garber also held discussions with the owners of the rebooted New York Cosmos. Reyna, a New Jersey native, also played for the nearby New York Red Bulls. He said he had begun identifying candidates to be the club's head coach, but would not name one in 2013. The team announced an English-language deal on October 3, 2013. Further hirings were made in mid-November, when three experienced administrators were appointed to Vice President roles. On June 2, 2014 the club announced that Spanish World Cup-winning striker David Villa had signed as the first player. Reyna hailed Lampard in history." Lampard said that "It is a privilege to be able to help make history here in New York City." On July 2015 the club signed Italian international Andrea Pirlo as their third Designated Player. As an team, New York City had second overall pick, choosing Oregon State forward Khiry Shelton as their first pick. The team eventually suffered an eleven-game winless streak which ended on June 16, after defeating the Philadelphia Union 2-1.New York City FC – Former Manchester City midfielder and U.S. international Claudio Reyna was named as the first director of the club.
65. FC Barcelona – Futbol Club Barcelona, commonly known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Unlike other football clubs, the supporters operate Barcelona. The official Barcelona anthem is the "Cant del Barça", written by Jaume Picas and Josep Maria Espinàs. The club has a long-standing rivalry with Real Madrid; matches between the two teams are referred to as El Clásico. Barcelona is one of the most has the largest social media following in the world among teams. Barcelona's players have won a record number of Ballon d'Or awards, as well as a record number of FIFA World Player of the Year awards. In 2011, the club became European champions again and won five trophies. By winning June 2015, Barcelona became the European club in history to achieve the continental treble twice. FC Barcelona had a successful start in national cups, competing in the Copa del Rey. In 1902, the club won its first trophy, the Copa Macaya, participated in the first Copa del Rey, losing 1–2 to Bizcaya in the final. He said in a meeting: "Barcelona cannot die and must not die. If there is nobody, going to try, then I will assume the responsibility of running the club from now on." Club president on five separate occasions between 1925, he spent 25 years at the helm. One of his main achievements was ensuring Barça acquire its own stadium and thus generate a stable income. On March 1909 the team moved with a capacity of 8,000.FC Barcelona – Gamper's advertisement in Los Deportes English translation: "SPORT NOTE. Our friend and partner, Mr. Kans Kamper, from the Foot-Vall Section of the 'Sociedad Los Deportes' and former Swiss champion, wishing to organize some matches in Barcelona, requests that everyone who likes this sport contact him, come to this office Tuesday and Friday nights from 9 to 11."
66. La Liga – A total of 60 teams have competed in La Liga since its inception. Nine teams have been crowned champions, with Real Madrid winning a record 32 times and Barcelona 24 times. Real Madrid dominated the championship through the 1980s. From the 1990s onwards, Real Madrid both dominated, though La Liga also saw other champions, including Atlético Madrid, Valencia, Deportivo de La Coruña. In more recent years, Atlético Madrid has joined a coalition of now three teams dominating La Liga alongside Real Madrid and Barcelona. The format follows the usual double round-robin format. Teams receive three points for a win, no points for a loss. Teams are ranked with the highest-ranked club at the end of the season crowned champion. A system of relegation exists between the Primera División and the Segunda División. The top teams in La Liga qualify for the UEFA Champions League. Teams placed sixth play in the UEFA Europa League, along with the cup winners. In April 1927, a director at Arenas Club de Getxo, first proposed the idea of a national league in Spain. Barcelona, Real Madrid, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad, Real Unión were all selected as previous winners of the Copa del Rey. Atlético Madrid, Espanyol and Europa qualified as Copa del Rey runners-up and Racing de Santander qualified through a competition. Real Madrid, Barcelona and Athletic Bilbao, have never been relegated from the Primera División.La Liga – Barcelona against Schalke in the UEFA Champions League in 2008
67. UEFA Champions League – The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. The pre-1992 competition was initially a straight tournament open only to the champion club of each country. During the 1990s, the format was expanded, incorporating a round-robin stage to include clubs that finished runner-up of some nations' top level league. In its present format, the UEFA Champions League begins with three knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 10 surviving teams enter the stage, joining 22 other teams qualified in advance. The 32 teams play each other in a double round-robin system. Eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May. The winner of the UEFA Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the competition's history, having won 11 times, including its first five seasons. Spanish clubs have accumulated the highest number of victories, followed by England and Italy. The competition has been won by 22 different clubs, 12 of which have won it more than once. The pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent. The tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary.UEFA Champions League – Barcelona – Hamburg, 12 April 1961
68. Valencia CF – Valencia Club de Fútbol are a Spanish football club based in Valencia. They are one of the biggest clubs in Spanish football and European football. Valencia were also members of the group of European football clubs. In total, Valencia have reached seven major European finals, winning four of them. Valencia were founded in 1919 and have played their home games at the 55,000-seater Mestalla since 1923. Valencia have a fierce rivalry with fellow Valencian club Villarreal CF, with whom they contest the Derby de la Comunitat. The rivalry is further fueled by the fact that they are the two most successful clubs in the region. Valencia is the third-most supported club behind heavyweights Real Madrid and Barcelona. Over the years, the club has achieved a global reputation for their prolific youth academy, or "cantera." Products of their academy include world-class talents such as Raúl Albiol, Andrés Palop, Miguel Ángel Angulo, David Silva. Current stars of the game to have graduated in recent years include Isco, Paco Alcácer. The club lost 1 -- 0. Valencia CF moved into the Mestalla Stadium in 1923, having played its home matches at the Algirós ground since 7 December 1919. The first match at Mestalla pitted the home side against Castellón Castalia and ended a 0–0 draw. In the day after, Valencia won against 1 -- 0.Valencia CF – The Valencia squad in 1927.
69. Detroit Publishing Co. – The Detroit Publishing Company was an American photographic publishing firm best known for its large assortment of photochrom color postcards. The Detroit Publishing Company was started by publisher William A. Livingstone and photographer Edwin H. Husher in the late 19th century. It wasn't until 1905 that the company called itself the Detroit Publishing Company. The company acquired exclusive rights to use a form of photography processing called Photochrom. Photochrom allowed for the company to mass market postcards and other materials in color. Their products were sold in the United States. Around 1899, they published "Views of People and Sites in Algeria." The company declared bankruptcy in 1924 and was liquidated in 1932. The best-known photographer for the company was William Henry Jackson, who joined the company in 1897. He became the plant manager in 1903, in 1905 the company changed its name. Most images are visible in digital form at the Library of Congress Web site. A large collection of photographic and photomechanical prints are also housed by the Beinecke Library at Yale University and are available for viewing online. The Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College holds a collection of photochrom images of American landmarks from 1898 to 1908. ISBN 0-615-11186-6 Detroit Photographic Company’s Views of North America, ca.Detroit Publishing Co. – Photochrom postcard of Mulberry Street in New York City, ca. 1900, by the Detroit Photographic Co.
70. Sami people – Sami ancestral lands are not well-defined. Their traditional languages are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family. Traditionally, the Sami have pursued a variety including coastal fishing, fur trapping, sheep herding. Their best-known means of livelihood is semi-nomadic reindeer herding. Currently about 10 % of the Sami are connected to reindeer providing them with meat, fur, transportation. 2,800 Sami people are actively involved in herding on a full-time basis. For environmental, cultural, political reasons, reindeer herding is legally reserved only for Sami people in some regions of the Nordic countries. The Sámi are often known by the exonyms Lap, Lapp, or Laplanders. Some Sami regard these as pejorative terms, while others do not. Finn was the name originally used by Norse speakers to refer to the Sami, as attested in the Icelandic Eddas and Norse sagas. Finnish immigrants to Northern Norway in the 19th centuries were referred to as "Kvens" to distinguish them from the Sami "Finns". Ethnic Finns are a distinct group from Sami. Another possible source is the Finnish lape, which in this case means "periphery". In fact, Saxo never explicitly connects the Sami with the "two Laplands". There is another suggestion that it originally meant "wilds".Sami people – A Sami family in Norway around 1900
71. Norway – The sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Until 1814, the Kingdom included the Faroe Islands, Iceland. It also included Shetland and Orkney until 1468. It also included the following provinces, now in Sweden: Jämtland, Härjedalen, Särna-Idre and Bohuslän. Norway has a population of 5,213,985. The country shares a eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet, the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution. The Kingdom is established as a merger of petty kingdoms. Norway has both political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act.Norway – The helmet found at Gjermundbu near Haugsbygd, Buskerud, is the only Viking Age helmet that has been found.
72. Indigenous peoples of Europe – The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 14 % of 770 million Europeans. There universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". There are eight peoples of Europe with more than million members residing in Europe. These eight groups between themselves account for about 65 % of European population: Russians, Germans, French, British, Italians, Spanish, Ukrainians, Poles. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin. With some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. The largest groups that do not fall within these three are the Albanians. Beside the Indo-European languages there are two major language families on the European continent: Turkic languages and Uralic languages. The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of northern Africa well as the Near East are preserved in Malta, a Mediterranean archipelago. Abkhaz–Adyghean, Basque, Kartvelian, Nakho-Dagestani are linguistic isolates with no known relation to each other or to any other languages inside or outside of Europe. The Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age. The Finnic peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had migrated by about 3,000 years ago. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, perhaps also Eteocretan and Eteocypriot. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.Indigenous peoples of Europe – Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum Literis, Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium ("multilingual Europe, exhibiting a genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes of writing of all peoples"), from Synopsis Universae Philologiae (1741).
73. Sweden – Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of over million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre, with the highest concentration in the southern half of the country. Approximately 85% of the population lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains continental summers. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The city is Stockholm, also the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 290 municipalities. Sweden emerged during the Middle Ages.Sweden – A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.
74. Finland – Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which also includes Scandinavia. Finland's population is million, staying roughly on the same level over the past two decades. The majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. In terms of area, it is the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces a third of the country's GDP. From the 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. Nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. Finland established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.Finland – Hakkapeliitta featured on a 1940 Finnish stamp
75. Kola Peninsula – The Kola Peninsula is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia. The city of Murmansk is the most populous human settlement on the peninsula, with a population of over 300,000 as of the 2010 Census. Summers are rather chilly, with the average July temperature of only 11 °C. Its rivers are an important habitat for the Atlantic salmon. The Kandalaksha Nature Reserve, established to protect the population of common eider, is located in the Kandalaksha Gulf. However, by the 1st millennium CE only the Sami people remained. This changed in the 12th century, when Russian Pomors discovered the peninsula's fish riches. Soon after, the peninsula gradually became a part of the Novgorodian lands. No permanent settlements, however, were established until the 15th century. The Russian migration did not stop. The Sami and Pomor people were forced into serfdom. The original economic center of the area was Kola, situated at the estuary of the Kola River into the Kola Bay. However, in 1916, Romanov-na-Murmane quickly became the largest city and port on the peninsula. The Soviet period saw a rapid increase of the population, although most of it remained confined along the sea coast and the railroads. As a result, the ecology of the peninsula suffered ecological damage, including contamination by military nuclear waste and nickel smelting.Kola Peninsula – Map of the Kola Peninsula and adjacent seas. From the Dutch "Novus Atlas" (1635). Cartographer: Willem Janszoon Blaeu
76. Russia – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
77. Photochrom – The process is a photographic variant of a broader term that refers to color lithography in general. From the mid-1890s the process was licensed including the Detroit Photographic Company in the US, the Photochrom Company of London. The process was most popular in the 1890s, when true color photography was first developed but was still commercially impractical. In 1898 the US Congress passed the Private Mailing Card Act which let private publishers produce postcards. These could be mailed for each, while the letter rate was two cents. Publishers sold them as postcards. In this format, photochrom reproductions became popular. Ten to thirty thousand different views were offered. After World War One, which ended the craze for collecting Photochrom postcards, the chief use of the process was for posters and art reproductions. The last Photochrom printer operated up to 1970. A tablet of lithographic limestone called a "litho stone" was coated with a light-sensitive surface composed of a thin layer of purified bitumen dissolved in benzene. This resulted in an image being imprinted on the stone in bitumen. Each tint was applied using a separate stone that bore the retouched image. The finished print was produced tint stones. 1897-1924 from the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript LibraryPhotochrom – An 1890s photochrom print of Neuschwanstein Castle, Bavaria, Germany.
78. George I of Greece – George I was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913. Originally a Danish prince, George seemed destined for a career in the Royal Danish Navy. He was only 17 years old when he was elected king by the Greek National Assembly, which had deposed the former king Otto. He became the first monarch of a new Greek dynasty. Alexandra and Dagmar, married into the British and Russian royal families. King George V and Tsar Nicholas II were his nephews. George's reign of almost 50 years was characterized by territorial gains as Greece established its place in pre-World War I Europe. Britain ceded the Ionian Islands peacefully, while Thessaly was annexed after the Russo-Turkish War. Greece was not always successful in its territorial ambitions; it was defeated in the Greco-Turkish War. During the First Balkan War, after Greek troops had captured much of Greek Macedonia, George was assassinated in Thessaloniki. Compared to his long tenure, the reigns of his successors Constantine, Alexander, George II proved short and insecure. George was born in Copenhagen. He was the second son of Hesse-Kassel. Although he was of royal blood, his family lived a comparatively normal life by royal standards. George's siblings were Frederick, Alexandra, Dagmar, Thyra and Valdemar.George I of Greece – George I in the uniform of an Admiral of the Royal Hellenic Navy
79. List of kings of Greece – This is a list of kings of the modern state of Greece. Otto I, was actually styled King of Greece. George I, was styled King of the Hellenes, as were all other modern monarchs. A republic was briefly established from 1924 to 1935. The restored monarchy was abolished following a referendum in 1973 conducted under the auspices of the military regime. Its finding was confirmed after the restoration of democratic rule. Greek Crown Jewels Greek Royal Family List of Greek regents List of Greek royal consorts List of heads of state of GreeceList of kings of Greece – Constantine II
80. Kingdom of Greece – The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers. It was internationally recognized by the Treaty of Constantinople, where it also secured full independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Kingdom lasted until 1924. The Second Hellenic Republic was established. The restored Kingdom of Greece lasted to 1973. The Third Republic, the current Greek government, came to be. Most of Greece gradually became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded to its north. This was followed by a draw in the 1389 Battle of Kosovo. The mountains of Greece were a refuge for Greeks to flee foreign rule and engage in guerrilla warfare. The Venetians retained Crete until 1670. The Ionian Islands remained primarily under the rule of Venice. In 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire. Following a protracted struggle, the autonomy of Greece was first recognized by the Great Powers in 1828; full independence was recognized in 1830. Count Ioannis Kapodistrias was assassinated in 1831.Kingdom of Greece – Otto, the first King of modern Greece, in traditional Greek dress.
81. Danish monarchy – The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes not only the autonomous regions of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Kingdom of Denmark were already consolidated in the 8th century, whose rulers are consistently referred to in Frankish sources as Kings. Originally an elective monarchy, it became hereditary only during the reign of Frederick III. A decisive transition to a constitutional monarchy occurred with the writing of the first Constitution. The Danish Monarchy is as such, the role of the monarch is defined and limited by the Constitution of Denmark. The monarch is, in practice, limited to non-partisan functions such as appointing the Prime Minister. His or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. Queen Margrethe II ascended the throne on 14 January 1972. The modern Kingdom of Denmark dates back to Gorm the Old, who reigned in the early 10th century. The Danes were officially Christianized in 965 CE by Harald Bluetooth, the story of, recorded on the Jelling stones. Furthermore, the Jelling stones attests that Harald had also "won" Norway. The last monarch descended from Christopher III of Denmark, died in 1448. In practice the eldest son of the reigning monarch was elected. Later a Coronation Charter was signed by the king to restrict the powers of the Danish monarch.Danish monarchy – Queen of Denmark
82. Copenhagen – Copenhagen; Danish: København ) is the capital and most populated city of Denmark. It has a larger urban population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over million inhabitants. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. Originally a Viking village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, waterfronts. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Copenhagen Business School. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Copenhagen – From upper left: Christiansborg Palace, Frederik's Church, Tivoli Gardens and Nyhavn.
83. Royal Danish Navy – The Royal Danish Navy is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force. The RDN is mainly responsible for maritime defence and maintaining the sovereignty of Danish, Faroese territorial waters. Other tasks include surveillance, search and rescue, icebreaking, prevention as well as contributions to international tasks and forces. During 1509 -- 1814, when Denmark was in a union with Norway, the Danish Navy was part of the Dano-Norwegian Navy. Despite this, the navy is now equipped with a number of state-of-the-art vessels commissioned since the end of the Cold War. This can be explained as the NATO member controlling access to the Baltic. This is translated to HDMS in English. Denmark is one of several NATO member states whose navies do not deploy submarines. The geographic layout of Denmark has a coastline to land ratio of 1:5.9. By comparison, the figure for the Netherlands is 1:92.1 and for 1:493.2. Denmark naturally has long-standing maritime traditions, dating back to the 9th century when the Vikings had small but well-organised fleets. With time, the defence pacts gave rise to more offensive fleets which the Vikings used for plundering coastal areas. In the period after the Vikings, up to the 15th century, the fleet consisted mainly of merchant vessels. Indeed, it is said that king Valdemar Sejr had more than 1,000 ships in 1219. Together they carried more than 30,000 soldiers with supplies.Royal Danish Navy – Battle of Køge Bay
84. Hellenic Parliament – The Hellenic Parliament is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens. The Parliament is the democratic institution that represents the citizens through an elected body of Members of Parliament. It is a unicameral legislature of 300 members, elected for a four-year term. Several Greek statesmen have served as Speakers of the Hellenic Parliament. The revolt marked the end of constitutional monarchy and the beginning of a crowned democracy as monarch. The Constitution of 1864 was the product of the 2nd Athens National Assembly, was influenced by the Constitutions of Belgium and Denmark. In addition, it established the principles of direct, secret ballot which would take place simultaneously in the entirety of the country. The Assembly hence abolished the Senate. The new Constitution would also allow Parliament to establish "fact-finding, investigation committees". Furthermore, the Constitution facilitated expropriation so as for land while at the same time guaranteeing judicial protection of property rights. Finally, it was the first time that the Constitution made provision for all while the process of Constitutional revision was simplified. The Constitution of 1927 guaranteed further protection of individual rights while it consolidated certain social rights. It also established their proportional representation in the composition of parliamentary committees. Another important feature was the explicit establishment of the parliamentary system. It was the first time the Greek Constitution included a clause according to which it was imperative that the Cabinet "enjoy the trust of the Parliament".Hellenic Parliament – A voting machine in the plenary hall of the "Vouli"
85. Otto of Greece – Otto, also spelled Otho, was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London. He reigned until he was deposed in 1862. The second son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended the newly created throne of Greece while still a minor. His government was initially run by a three-man council made up of Bavarian court officials. Upon reaching his majority, Otto removed the regents when he ruled as an absolute monarch. In the face of an armed but peaceful insurrection Otto in 1843 granted a constitution. However he rigged elections using terror. Throughout his reign Otto was unable to prevent economic meddling from outside. To remain strong, Otto had to play the interests of each of the Great Powers' Greek adherents against the others, while not aggravating the Great Powers. As a result, finally in 1862 Otto was deposed while in the countryside. He died in 1867. His father served there as Bavarian governor-general. Through the Bavarian Duke John II, Otto was a descendant of the Greek imperial dynasties of Komnenos and Laskaris. When he was elected king, the Great Powers extracted a pledge from Otto's father to restrain him from hostile actions against the Ottoman Empire. Aged not quite 18, the young prince arrived in Greece aboard the British frigate HMS Madagascar.Otto of Greece – Otto
86. Great Powers – A great power is a sovereign state, recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. International theorists have posited that great status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, status dimensions. While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of great powers is formally recognized in conferences such as the Congress of Vienna or the United Nations Security Council. Accordingly, the status of great powers has also informally recognised in forums such as the now defunct G8. The term "great power" was first used to represent the most important powers in Europe during the post-Napoleonic era. The "Great Powers" constituted the "Concert of Europe" and claimed the right to joint enforcement of the postwar treaties. The formalization of the division between great powers came in 1814. Since then, the international balance of power has shifted numerous times, most dramatically during World War I and World War II. In literature, alternative terms for great power are often world power or major power, but these terms can also be interchangeable with superpower. There are no set or defined characteristics of a great power. These characteristics have often been treated as empirical, self-evident to the assessor. However, this approach has the disadvantage of subjectivity. As a result, there have been attempts to treat these as essential elements of great status. Later writers have expanded this test, attempting to define power in terms of political capacity.Great Powers – Great powers are recognized in an international structure such as the United Nations Security Council. Shown here is the Security Council Chamber.
87. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland – Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, the state was consequently renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1814 in the Napoleonic Wars. The British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland, increased calls for Irish land reform. It was growth of finance, in which Britain largely dominated the economy. Outward migration was heavy to the main colonies and to the United States. Britain also built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, which it rules through a small number of administrators who supervised local elites. India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized.United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland – The British HMS Sandwich fires into the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) during Trafalgar. The Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory (behind her) and HMS Temeraire (left side of the picture). In fact, HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar, it's a mistake by Auguste Mayer, the painter.
88. Second French Empire – The Second French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. The structure of the French government during the Second Empire was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III stressed his imperial role as the foundation of the government. His answer was to organize a system of government based on the principles of the "Napoleonic Idea." This meant that the elect of the people as the representative of the democracy, ruled supreme. The anti-parliamentary French Constitution of 1852 instituted by Napoleon III on 14 January 1852, was largely a repetition of that of 1848. All executive power was entrusted to the emperor, who, as head of state, was solely responsible to the people. The people of the Empire, lacking democratic rights, were to rely on the benevolence of the emperor rather than on the benevolence of politicians. This political change was rapidly followed by the same consequence as had attended that of Brumaire. The press was subjected under sanction of suspension or suppression. Books were subject to censorship. In order to counteract the opposition of individuals, a surveillance of suspects was instituted. For seven years France had no democratic life. The Empire governed by a series of plebiscites. He thus became sole ruler of re-established universal suffrage, previously abolished by the Assembly.Second French Empire – Napoléon III
89. Russian Empire – One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. It expanded to the west and south. Its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762. With million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, religion. There were dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had a agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized in railways and factories. The land was ruled through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, laid the foundations of the Russian state. The Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, diplomacy, continuing Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all million serfs in 1861.Russian Empire – Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia the Russian Empire in 1721, and himself its first emperor. He instituted the sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
90. Olga Constantinovna of Russia – Duke of Edinburgh, is her grandson. A member of the Romanov dynasty, she was his wife, Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg. She married King George I of Greece in 1867 at the age of sixteen. She quickly became involved in social and charitable work. Her attempt to promote a new, more accessible, Greek translation of the Gospels sparked riots by religious conservatives. On the assassination of her husband in 1913, Olga returned to Russia. When the First World War broke out, she set up a military hospital in Pavlovsk Palace, which belonged to her brother. She was trapped after the Russian Revolution of 1917 until the Danish embassy intervened, allowing her to escape to Switzerland. Olga could not return to Greece as King Constantine I, had been deposed. In October 1920, she returned on the fatal illness of her grandson, King Alexander. After his death, she was appointed regent until the restoration of Constantine I the following month. Olga was born at Pavlovsk Palace near Saint Petersburg on 3 September 1851. She was his wife, Grand Duchess Alexandra, a former princess of Saxe-Altenburg. Through her father, Olga was a granddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I, first cousin of Tsar Alexander III. Her childhood was spent including Pavlovsk Palace and estates in the Crimea.Olga Constantinovna of Russia – Olga Constantinovna of Russia
91. Alexandra of Denmark – Alexandra of Denmark was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor Edward VII. At the age of sixteen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, the heir apparent of Queen Victoria. Her public duties were restricted to uncontroversial involvement in charitable work. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became king-emperor as Edward VII, as queen-empress. Alexandra held the status in 1910. Alexandra greatly supported her son during World War I, in which Britain and its allies fought Germany. Her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Although she was of royal blood, her family lived a comparatively normal life. Occasionally, Hans Christian Andersen was invited to tell the children stories before bedtime. In King Christian VIII of Denmark died and his only son, Frederick ascended the throne. Frederick was childless, was assumed to be infertile. The succession rules of each territory differed. In Holstein, the Salic law prevented inheritance through the female line, whereas no such restrictions applied in Denmark. Holstein, being predominantly German, called in the aid of Prussia. In 1852, the great powers called a conference in London to discuss the Danish succession.Alexandra of Denmark – Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1881
92. Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) – Maria Feodorovna, christened Dagmar, was a Danish princess and Empress of Russia as spouse of Tsar Alexander III. Her eldest son became the last Russian monarch, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whom she outlived by ten years. Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar was born at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a member of a relatively impoverished princely cadet line. Her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Growing up, she was known by the name Dagmar. She was known within her family as Minnie. In 1853, his family were given Bernstorff Palace. Dagmar's father became King of Denmark in 1863 upon the death of King Frederick VII. Due to the brilliant marital alliances of his children, he became known as the "Father-in-law of Europe." Dagmar's eldest brother would succeed his father as King Frederick VIII of Denmark. Her elder, favourite, sister, Alexandra married Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales in March 1863. Within months of Alexandra's marriage, Dagmar's second older brother, Wilhelm, was elected as King George I of the Hellenes. Her younger sister was Thyra, Duchess of Cumberland. She also had another younger brother, Valdemar.Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) – Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)
93. Edward VII – Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, he was related to royalty throughout Europe. Before his accession to the throne, Edward held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, Edward came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite. Edward represented Britain on visits abroad. As king, he played a role after the Second Boer War. Edward broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace. Edward was her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Edward was christened Albert Edward at St George's Chapel, on 25 January 1842. Edward was named Albert after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward Duke of Kent and Strathearn. Edward was known as Bertie throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, Edward was automatically Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, Edward also held the titles of Duke of Saxony. In 1863, Edward renounced his succession rights in favour of his younger brother, Prince Alfred.Edward VII – Coronation portrait by Sir Luke Fildes
94. Alexander III of Russia – He reversed some of the liberal reforms of Alexander II. During Alexander's reign Russia fought no major wars, for which he was styled "The Peacemaker". Although patron of the ballet, Alexander was seen as lacking elegance. Indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as some of his subjects. His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities. More than six feet tall, he was also noted for his immense physical strength. Although heavy, he was still a mighty figure. There was indeed something of the muzhik about him. The look of his bright eyes made quite an impression on me. It was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening, even frightening, it struck me like a blow. The Tsar's gaze! In later years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, I felt not the slightest bit timid. In more ordinary cases Tsar Alexander III could be even almost homely. Great solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsesarevich, whereas Alexander received only the training of an ordinary Grand Duke of that period. This included acquaintance with French, English and German, military drill.Alexander III of Russia – Alexander III
95. George V – George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. George was the second son of Albert Edward, the grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George was created Prince of Wales. George succeeded his father in 1910. George was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. His reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. George had health problems at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. He was born on 3 June 1865, in London. George was the second son of Wales, Albert Edward and Alexandra. His mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark. George was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation that George would become king. George was third in line after his father and elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. The two princes were educated together.George V – Coronation portrait by Sir Luke Fildes, 1911
96. Nicholas II of Russia – Nicholas II or Nikolai II was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. The Anglo-Russian Entente, designed to counter German attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, ended the Great Game between Russia and the United Kingdom. Nicholas approved the Russian mobilization on 31 July 1914, which led to Germany declaring war on Russia on the following day. It is estimated that around 3.3 million Russians were killed in World War I. Following the February Revolution of 1917 Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son, he and his family were imprisoned. The recovered remains of the Imperial Family were finally re-interred in St. Petersburg in 1998. In 1981, Nicholas, his wife and their children were canonized as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, located in New York City. Nicholas was born in Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia. He had five younger siblings: Alexander, George, Xenia, Michael and Olga. Nicholas often referred to his father nostalgically in letters after Alexander's death in 1894. He was also very close to his mother, as revealed in their published letters to each other. His paternal grandparents were Emperor Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. His maternal grandparents were King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark. Nicholas was of primarily German and Danish descent, his last ethnically Russian ancestor being Peter the Great.Nicholas II of Russia – Tsar Nicholas II, in the uniform of a Royal Navy Admiral of the Fleet, c. 1909
97. History of modern Greece – Many fled there, often becoming brigands. The Venetians retained Crete until 1670. The Ionian Islands remained primarily under the rule of Venice. It was brutally repressed. Especially in the aftermath of the French Revolution, liberal and nationalist ideas began to spread across the Greek lands. In 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire. On his arrival, Kapodistrias launched a major reform and programme that covered all areas. Furthermore, he tried to undermine the authority of the traditional clans that he considered the useless legacy of a obsolete era. They refused to hand these over to Kapodistrias. It appears was ruling as a despot, possibly influenced by his Russian experiences. The municipality of Hydra instructed Admiral Miaoulis and Alexandros Mavrokordatos to seize the Hellenic Navy's fleet there. This they refused to do. Nonetheless, an Admiral Rikord took his ships north to Poros. Colonel Kallergis took a force of irregulars in support. Encircled by the Russians on land, Poros surrendered.History of modern Greece – Ioannis Kapodistrias.
98. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe. Greece's population is approximately million as of 2015. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, Africa. Greece consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands. The Aegean Sea lies to the south. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. The establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church in the first century transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is one of the most visited the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.Greece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
99. World War I – More than million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. It paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within weeks, the major powers were at the conflict soon spread around the world. On 28 the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia. As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. The Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. Economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. In Canada, Maclean's magazine in October 1914 wrote, "Some wars name themselves.World War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
100. Ionian Islands – The Ionian Islands are a group of islands in Greece. The group includes many smaller islands as well as the seven principal ones. The Ionian Islands became part of the Greek state in 1864. They belong to the Ionian Islands Region except for Kythera, which belongs to the Attica Region. Kythira, is off the southern tip of the Peloponnese, the southern part of the Greek mainland. Kythira is not part of the region of the Ionian Islands, as it is included in the region of Attica. In English, the adjective relating to Ionia is Ionic, not Ionian. The islands themselves are known by a rather confusing variety of names. During the centuries of rule by Venice, they acquired Venetian names, by which some of them are still known in English. Kerkyra was known as Corfù, Ithaki as Zante. A variety of spellings are used in historical writing. Variant Greek forms are sometimes also used: Kefallinia for Kefallonia and Paxos or Paxoi for Paxi. The islands were settled at an early date, possibly as early as 1200 BC, certainly by the 9th century BC. The early Eretrian settlement at Kerkyra was displaced in 734 BC. The islands played little part in Greek politics.Ionian Islands – Statue of Achilles in the gardens of the Achilleion (Corfu).
101. Thessaly – Thessaly is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, appears thus in Homer's Odyssey. Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it is further sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities. The capital of the region is Larissa. The Thessaly region also includes the Sporades islands. In the Odyssey, the hero Odysseus visited the kingdom of Aeolus, the old name for Thessaly. The Plain of Thessaly, which lies between Mount Olympus, was the site of the battle between the Titans and the Olympians. According to legend, the Argonauts launched their search for the Golden Fleece from the Magnesia Peninsula. Thessaly was home to extensive Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures around 6000–2500 BC. Mycenaean settlements have also been discovered, for example at the sites of Iolcos, Dimini and Sesklo. In Archaic and Classical times, the lowlands of Thessaly became the home such as the Aleuadae of Larissa or the Scopads of Crannon. In the summer of 480 BC, the Persians invaded Thessaly. The Greek army that guarded the Vale of Tempe evacuated the road before the enemy arrived. Not later, Thessaly surrendered to the Persians.Thessaly – First Ancient Theatre, Larissa.
102. Ottoman Empire – After 1354, with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by Mehmed the Conqueror. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire continued to military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. The empire allied with Germany with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, joining in World War I. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman. Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti. The Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In the West, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920 -- 23, when the newly established Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. Osman's early followers not all converts to Islam.Ottoman Empire – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
103. Greco-Turkish War (1897) – Its immediate cause was the question over the status of the Ottoman province of Crete, whose Greek majority long desired union with Greece. The Ottoman commissioners, however, repeatedly ignored the convention, causing three successive rebellions in 1885, 1889. To quell the unrest, Ottoman military reinforcements arrived while Greek volunteers landed on the island to support the Greek population. At the same time the fleets of the Great Powers patrolled the Cretan waters, leading to further escalation. Nevertheless, the tensions receded. In January 1897 inter-communal violence broke out as both sides tried to consolidate their grip on power. Many fled to the foreign fleet anchored outside the city. A struggle for union with Greece was declared by Cretan revolutionaries. Greek Prime Minister Theodoros Deligiannis was subjected by his adversary Dimitrios Rallis over his alleged inability to handle the issue. Continuous demonstrations in Athens accused the government of betrayal of the Cretan cause. A nationalistic, militaristic organization that had infiltrated all levels of the army and bureaucracy, pushed for immediate confrontation with the Ottomans. On 2 February, despite the guarantees given over the island, Vassos unilaterally proclaimed its union with Greece. The Powers reacted by demanding that Deligiannis immediately withdraw Greek forces from the island in exchange for a statute of autonomy. The Greek army was made with two of them taking positions in Thessaly and one in Arta, Epirus. Crown Prince Constantine was the only general in the army.Greco-Turkish War (1897) – Painting of the Battle of Velestino
104. First Balkan War – The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success. As a result of the war, the allies partitioned almost all European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an Independent Albania. Despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War. By 1867, Serbia and Montenegro had both secured independence, confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin. Serbia's aspirations to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Bosnian crisis and the Austrian annexation of the province in October 1908. The Serbs directed their expansionist attentions to the south. Following the annexation, the Young Turks tried to induce the Muslim population of Bosnia to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire. Those who took up the offer were re-settled by the Ottoman authorities in those districts of northern Macedonia, where there were few Muslims. The experiment proved to be a catastrophe for the Empire since the immigrants readily united with the existing population of Albanian Muslims. They participated during the spring Albanian Revolt of 1912. Some Albanian government troops switched sides. Things got far out of hand that no one was satisfied in Europe. It became unbearable for the Serbs, the Greeks and for the Albanians, too.First Balkan War – Clockwise from top right: Serbian forces entering the town of Mitrovica; Ottoman troops at the Battle of Kumanovo; The Greek king and the Bulgarian tsar in Thessaloniki; Bulgarian heavy artillery
105. Greek Macedonia – Macedonia is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans. Macedonia is part of Northern Greece, together with Thrace and sometimes Epirus. The Macedonia was later applied to identify various administrative areas in the Roman/Byzantine Empire with widely differing borders. Even before the establishment of the Greek state in 1830, it was identified as a Greek province, albeit without clearly defined geographical borders. By the 19th century, the name was becoming consolidated informally, defining more of a distinct geographical, rather than political, region in the southern Balkans. Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria each took control of portions of the Macedonian region, with Greece obtaining the largest portion; a small section went to Albania. Central Macedonia is the most popular destination in Greece with more than 3.6 million tourists in 2009. Macedonia lies at the crossroads of human development between Aegean the Balkans. In the Late Neolithic period, trade took place from quite distant regions, indicate socio-economic changes. One of the most important changes was the start of working. There they lived near Thracian tribes such as the Bryges who would later become known as Phrygians. Macedonia was named after the Makednoi. Accounts of other toponyms such as Emathia are attested to have been before that. Herodotus claims that a branch of the Macedonians invaded Southern Greece towards the end of the second millennium B.C. Upon reaching the Peloponnese the invaders were renamed Dorians, triggering the accounts of the Dorian invasion.Greek Macedonia – Archaeological site of Pella, capital of ancient Macedonia
106. Thessaloniki – The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general, is considered to be Greece's cultural capital. Thessaloniki was the 2014 European Youth Capital. The city of Thessaloniki was founded in 315 BC by Cassander of Macedon. An important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1430, passed from the Ottoman Empire to modern Greece on 8 November 1912. The city's main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece and the Balkans. Thessaloniki is a popular tourist destination in Greece. Among street photographers, the center of Thessaloniki is also considered the most popular destination for street photography in Greece. All variations of the city's name derive from the original appellation in Ancient Greek, i.e. Θεσσαλονίκη, literally translating to "Thessalian Victory". In local speech, the city's name is typically pronounced with a dark and deep L characteristic of Macedonian Greek accent. The name often appears in writing in the abbreviated form Θεσ/νίκη. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a half-sister of Alexander the Great and princess of Macedon as daughter of Philip II. Under the kingdom of Macedon the city retained its own autonomy and parliament and evolved to become the most important city in Macedon. After the fall of the kingdom of Macedon in 168 BC, Thessalonica became a free city of the Roman Republic under Mark Antony in 41 BC. The city later became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia.Thessaloniki – The 4th-century AD Rotunda of Galerius, one of several Roman monuments in the city and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
107. Constantine I of Greece – Constantine I was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He succeeded to the throne of Greece March 1913 following his father's assassination. His disagreement with Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter World War I led to the National Schism. After Alexander's death, a plebiscite in favor of his return, Constantine was reinstated. Constantine died in exile four months later, in Sicily. Born on August 1868 in Athens, Constantine was the eldest son of King George I and Queen Olga of Greece. His birth was met with an immense wave of enthusiasm: the new heir apparent to the throne was the Greek-born royal. Upon his birth, he was created Duke of Sparta. His official style was the Diádochos. An additional nickname adopted mainly by the royalists for Constantine was "the son of the eagle". On October 1882 he enrolled in the Hellenic Military Academy. After graduation he was served in the German Imperial Guard. Constantine also studied political business in Heidelberg and Leipzig. In 1890 he assumed command of the 3rd Army Headquarters in Athens. In January 1895, Constantine caused political turmoil when he ordered gendarmerie forces to break up a street protest against tax policy.Constantine I of Greece – Photograph, 1915
108. Alexander I of Greece – Alexander was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death from the effects of a monkey bite at the age of 27. The second son of King Constantine I, Alexander was born in the summer palace of Tatoi, on the outskirts of Athens. Having no political experience, the new king was stripped of his powers by the Venizelists and effectively imprisoned in his own palace. Venizelos, as prime minister, was the effective ruler with the support of the Entente. Though reduced to the status of a king, Alexander supported Greek troops during their war against the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Alexander controversially married the commoner Aspasia Manos in 1919, provoking a major scandal that forced the couple to leave Greece for several months. Soon after returning with his wife, Alexander was bitten by a domestic Barbary macaque and died of septicemia. The sudden death of the sovereign contributed to the fall of the Venizelist regime. After a referendum, Constantine I was restored. Alexander was born at Tatoi Palace on 1 August 1893, his wife Princess Sophia of Prussia. He was related throughout Europe. Sophia was also a cousin of King George V through her grandmother, Queen Victoria. Alexander's early life alternated in Athens, Tatoi Palace in the city's suburbs. As his father's second son, Alexander was third in line after his father and elder brother, George. While George spent part of his military training in Germany, Alexander was educated in Greece.Alexander I of Greece – A photograph of the King c. 1920
109. George II of Greece – George II reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia. When his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became George became the crown prince. After a coup deposed King Constantine during the First World War, Crown Prince George, by then a Major, followed his father in 1917. Alexander, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos, an avowed Republican. Crown Prince George served in the war against Turkey. Although he refused to abdicate, he left on 19 December 1923 for exile in his wife's home nation of Romania. His property was confiscated. His wife stayed in Bucharest whilst he his mother in Florence. In 1932 he moved to Britain. Elisabeth and he were divorced on 6 July 1935. In Greece between 1935 there were 23 changes of government, a dictatorship, 13 coups. He then arranged a plebiscite both to bring an end to the republic. On November 1935, almost 98 % of the reported votes supported restoration of the monarchy. Participation was compulsory.George II of Greece – George II
110. Bath, Somerset – Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD 60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known even before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre; the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. Jane Austen lived in the early 19th century. Further building was following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has publishing and service-oriented industries. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, the Holburne Museum. The city has two universities: the University of Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath City F.C. while TeamBath is the umbrella name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. The hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.Bath, Somerset – The Royal Crescent in Bath
111. City status in the United Kingdom – The holding of status gives no special rights other than that of calling a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions for the status are hard fought. In Scotland, city status did not explicitly receive any recognition by the state until the 19th century. However, letters patent have been issued for most of the affected cities to ensure the continuation or restoration of their status. At present, Rochester and Elgin are the only former cities in the United Kingdom. The name "City" does not, in itself, denote city status; it may be appended to place names for historic association or for marketing/disambiguation. A number of large towns in the UK are bigger than some small cities, but cannot legitimately call themselves a'city' without the royal designation. The initial cities of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages later preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities", mentioned by Gildas and listed by Nennius. In the 16th century, a town was recognised as a city by the English Crown if it had a diocesan cathedral within its limits. A long-awaited resumption of creating dioceses began in 1836 with Ripon. The next diocese formed was Manchester and its Borough Council began informally to use the title city. When Queen Victoria visited Manchester in 1851, widespread doubts surrounding its status were raised. The pretension was ended when the borough petitioned for city status, granted by letters patent in 1853. This eventually forced Ripon to regularise its position; its city status was recognised by Act of Parliament in 1865.City status in the United Kingdom – Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster.
112. Ceremonial counties of England – The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed. The Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the administrative functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties. It created new entities called "administrative counties". The Act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts were not permitted to straddle county boundaries. Apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided nevertheless continued to exist as ceremonial counties. In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, a major reform was instituted. At this time, Lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties directly. Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester, Humberside were abolished. Cleveland was partitioned between North Yorkshire and Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the restored counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Humberside was split between Lincolnshire and a new ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county. Many county boroughs were re-established as "unitary authorities"; this involved establishing the area as an administrative county, but usually not as a ceremonial county. Most ceremonial counties are therefore entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974.Ceremonial counties of England – Ceremonial counties (England)
113. Somerset – It is bounded to the Bristol Channel, its coastline facing southeastern Wales. Its traditional border with Gloucestershire is the River Avon. Somerset's town is Taunton. There is evidence of human occupation of subsequent settlement in the Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods. The city of Bath is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Somerset's name derives from Old English Sumorsǣte, short for Sumortūnsǣte, meaning "the people dependent on Sumortūn". An alternative suggestion is the name derives from Seo-mere-saetan meaning "settlers by the sea lakes". The Old English name is used in the motto of Sumorsǣte ealle, meaning "all the people of Somerset". Adopted as the motto in 1911, the phrase is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Some hill names include Brittonic Celtic elements. For example, an Anglo-Saxon charter of 682 refers to Creechborough Hill as "the hill we call Crychbeorh". Some modern names are Brythonic such as Tarnock, while others have both Saxon and Brythonic elements, such as Pen Hill. The caves of the Mendip Hills contain extensive archaeological sites such as those at Cheddar Gorge. A complete skeleton, known as Cheddar Man, dates from 7150 BC. Examples of cave art have been found in Aveline's Hole.Somerset – A map of the county in 1646, author unknown.
114. River Avon (Bristol) – The River Avon /ˈeɪvən/ is an English river in the south west of the country. To distinguish it from a number of other rivers of the same name, this river is often also known as the Bristol Avon. The name "Avon" is a cognate of the Welsh afon, "river". The Avon rises just north before flowing through Wiltshire. In its lower reaches from Bath to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth near Bristol the river is navigable and known as the Avon Navigation. The area is 2,220 square kilometres. The name "Avon" is a cognate of the Welsh word "river", both being derived from the Common Brittonic abona, "river". "River Avon", therefore, literally means "River River"; several other Scottish rivers share the name. The County of Avon that existed to 1996 was named after the river, covered Bristol, Bath, the lower Avon valley. The Avon rises east of the town of Chipping Sodbury in South Gloucestershire, north of the village of Acton Turville. Running a somewhat circular path, the river drains then south through Wiltshire. Its main settlement is the village of Luckington, two miles inside the Wiltshire border, then on to Sherston. At Malmesbury it joins up with the Tetbury Avon, which rises just north of Tetbury in Gloucestershire. This tributary is known locally as the Ingleburn, which in Old English means'English river'. Upstream of the river is sometimes referred to as the'River Avon' to distinguish it from the Tetbury Branch.River Avon (Bristol) – The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge
115. London – London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named Londinium. The City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile medieval boundaries. It has the fifth - or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world. London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic. London is the world's leading destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. A 2014 report placed it first in the world university rankings. According to the report London shares first position in technology readiness. In 2012, London became the only city to have hosted Olympic Games three times. More than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, accounting for 12.5 per cent of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. London was the world's most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.London – Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace and Central London skyline
116. Bristol – Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and county in South West England with an estimated population of 449,300 in 2016. It is the most populous city in Southern England after London. Bristol was historically in Gloucestershire until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed during the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. The Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. The city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture. Alternative etymologies are supported with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms. The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the place at the bridge. Utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to the last king of Wessex. The Bristolian ` L' is what eventually changed the name to Bristol.Bristol – Bristol
117. World Heritage Site – A World Heritage Site is a landmark, officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by UNESCO. They are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. The programme catalogues, names, conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. Since then, 192 parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most adhered to international instruments. Only Tuvalu are not Parties to the Convention. As of July 2016, 1052 sites are listed: 814 cultural, 35 mixed properties, in 165 states parties. UNESCO references each World Heritage Site with an number; however, new inscriptions often include previous sites now listed as part of larger descriptions. Consequently, the identification numbers exceed 1,200, even though there are fewer on the list. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to rescue the endangered monuments and sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the Member States for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. The campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a spectacular success. The project cost US$ million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity.World Heritage Site – Site #252: Taj Mahal, an example of cultural heritage site
118. Spa – A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts typically offer various health treatments, which are also known as balneotherapy. The belief in the curative powers of mineral waters goes back to prehistoric times. Such practices are especially widespread in Europe and Japan. Day spas offer various personal care treatments. The word spa itself denotes “fountain”. Since medieval times, illnesses caused by deficiency were treated by drinking chalybeate spring water. Spa therapies have existed since the classical times when taking bath with water was considered as a popular means to treat illnesses. The practice of traveling in hopes of effecting a cure of some ailment dates back to pre-historic times. Archaeological investigations near hot springs in France and Czech Republic revealed Age weapons and offerings. In Great Britain, ancient legend credited early Celtic kings in Bath, England. River resulted in physical and spiritual purification. Forms of purification existed among the Native Americans, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans. Ritual purification through water can be found in the religious ceremonies of Jews, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Hindus. These ceremonies reflect the ancient belief in purifying properties of water.Spa – The Blue Lagoon (Icelandic: "Bláa lónið"), geothermal spa in Iceland. The steamy waters are part of a lava formation. Its warm waters are rich in minerals like silica and sulphur.
119. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
120. Aquae Sulis – For the Roman Baths complex at Aquae Sulis, see Roman Baths. Aquae Sulis was a small town in the Roman province of Britannia. It is the English city of Bath, Somerset. The Romans probably began building a formal complex at Aquae Sulis in the AD 60s. An Roman military presence has been found just to the North-East of the bath complex in the Walcot area of modern Bath. The name is Latin for "the waters of Sulis." The Romans encouraged her worship. The similarities between Minerva and Sulis helped the Celts adapt to Roman culture. The spring was built up into a major Roman Baths complex associated with an adjoining temple. About 130 messages to Sulis scratched onto lead curse tablets have been recovered by archaeologists. This collection is the most important found in Britain. The Brythonic curse recovered on a pendant is the only sentence in the language, discovered. The area within - of approximately 23 acres - soon began to be filled in. There were associated with servicing the pilgrims to the temple. There was also a development along the northern road outside the walls and cemeteries beyond.Aquae Sulis – The Great Bath. Everything above the level of the pillar bases is of a later date.
121. Roman Baths (Bath) – The Roman Baths complex is a site of historical interest in the English city of Bath. The house is a well-preserved Roman site for public bathing. The Roman Baths themselves are below the modern street level. There are four main features: the Roman Temple, the Museum, holding finds from Roman Bath. The buildings above street level date from the 19th century. The Baths receive more than one million visitors a year. It was featured on the 2005 program Seven Natural Wonders of the wonders of the West Country. Visitors can see the Baths and Museum but cannot enter the water. An audio guide is available in 12 languages. The water which bubbles up from the ground at Bath falls as rain on the nearby Mendip Hills. Under pressure, the heated water rises to the surface along fissures and faults in the limestone. Hot water at a temperature of 46 °C rises here at the rate of 1,170,000 litres every day, from a geological fault. In 1983 a new bore-hole was sunk, providing a clean and safe supply of spa water for drinking in the Pump Room. The name Sulis continued to be used after the Roman invasion, leading to the town's Roman name of Aquae Sulis. The complex was gradually built up over the next 300 years.Roman Baths (Bath) – The entrance to the Roman Baths
122. Bath Abbey – It is one in the West Country. The church is able to seat 1200. The choir performs in elsewhere. There is a museum in the vaults. The abbey is a Grade I listed building, particularly noted for its vaulting. It contains monuments to several notable people, in the form of wall and floor plaques and commemorative stained glass. The church has a peal of ten bells. The front includes sculptures of angels climbing to heaven on two stone ladders. In 675 Osric, King of the Hwicce, granted 100 hides near Bath for the establishment of a convent. This religious house became a monastery under the patronage of the Bishop of Worcester. King Offa of Mercia successfully wrested "that most famous monastery at Bath" from the bishop in 781. Eadwig's brother Edgar began its revival on his accession to the throne in 959. He encouraged monks to adopt the Rule of Saint Benedict, introduced under Abbot Ælfheah. Bath was ravaged in the struggle between the sons of William the Conqueror following his death in 1087. William II Rufus, granted the city to a royal physician, John of Tours, who became Bishop of Wells and Abbot of Bath.Bath Abbey – Bath Abbey as viewed from the South-West
123. Spa town – A spa town is a resort town based around a mineral spa. Patrons visited spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The spa is derived from the name of Spa, such a town in Belgium. Thomas Guidott set up a medical practice in the English town of Bath in 1668. The hot waters there. Also, Some Enquiries into the Nature of the water. This brought the health-giving properties of the waters to the attention of the aristocracy, who started to partake in them soon after. The spa is used for towns or resorts offering hydrotherapy, which can include cold water or mineral water treatments and geothermal baths. Most are within 30 km of Daylesford, Victoria: the Daylesford and Hepburn Springs call the'Spa Centre of Australia'. Chaudfontaine Ostend Spa See: List of spa towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina Banja Vrućica, Teslić Brazil has a growing number of spa towns. The traditional ones are: Águas de Lindoia, Serra Negra, Águas de São Pedro, Caxambu, Poços de Caldas, Caldas Novas, São Lourenço. Famous spa towns include Sandanski, Hisarya, Bankya, Devin, Kyustendil, Varshets, Velingard. In Bulgarian, the word for a spa is баня. See: List of spa towns In Croatia, the word Toplice implies a spa town. The most famous spa towns in Croatia are Daruvar, Šibenik and Sisak.Spa town – The statue of "A man breaking a walking crutch" in the spa town Piešťany (Slovakia) - a very eloquent symbol of spa towns and balneotherapy.
124. Georgian era – The definition of the Georgian era is often extended to include the short reign of William IV, which ended with his death in 1837. The Georgian is typically used in the contexts of social architecture. Their work ushered in a new era of poetry, characterised by colourful language, evocative of elevating themes. The evangelical movement outside the Church of England gained strength in early 19th century. Wesley himself preached 52,000 times, calling on women to save their souls. Wesley always operated inside the Church of England, but at his death, it set up outside institutions that became the Methodist Church. It stood alongside the traditional nonconformist churches, Presbyterians, Congregationalist, Baptists, Unitarians and Quakers. The nonconformist churches, however, were less influenced by revivalism. It had revivalist faction the "Low Church". Its leaders included William Wilberforce and Hannah More. It reached the upper class through the Clapham Sect. All souls were equal in God's view, but not all bodies, so evangelicals did not challenge the hierarchical structure of English society. Mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies. Mercantilism meant that the merchants became partners to the exclusion of other empires. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold and silver would pour into London.Georgian era – The Georgian architecture of The Circus, Bath, built between 1754 and 1768
125. Georgian architecture – Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. Ornament is also normally in the classical tradition, but typically rather restrained, sometimes almost completely absent on the exterior. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, rows of terraced houses became the norm. Even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, the standards of construction were generally high. This contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated through the direct experience of the system. Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain. Penny and Sears Roebuck and Company. Prominent architects of the Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, John Wood, the Elder. The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture— and its whimsical alternatives, Gothic and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. Revival architecture was added to the repertory, increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning. In Britain stone are invariably used; brick is often disguised with stucco.Georgian architecture – Late Georgian; the west curve of Park Crescent, London, by John Nash
126. Bath stone – Bath Stone is an oolitic limestone comprising granular fragments of calcium carbonate. Bath Stone has been used extensively as a building material for churches, houses, public buildings such as railway stations. The majority have been either converted to other purposes or are being filled in. Under the microscope, these ooliths are sedimentary rock formed from ooids: spherical grains composed of concentric layers. That name derives from the Hellenic òoion for egg. Strictly, oolites consist of ooids of diameter 0.25–2 mm. Rocks composed of ooids larger than 2 mm are called pisolites. They frequently contain minute fragments of shell or rock, even decayed skeletons of marine life. Bath stone was taken from the Combe Down Member of the Chalfield Oolite Formation, part of the Great Oolite Group. In Medieval periods, Bath Stone was extensively used on domestic, ecclesiastical and civil engineering projects such as bridges. It is a Grade II listed building. There is a fine pediment in Bath stone, which depicts the parable of the good Samaritan. The church has recently been restored. The material has also been used widely outside Bath itself. Bristol's Cabot Tower was also faced with Bath Stone.Bath stone – Great Pulteney Street, Bath, looking West towards Pulteney Bridge. The style and Bath stone used are typical of much of the city.
127. Royal Crescent – The Royal Crescent is a row of 30 terraced houses laid out in a sweeping crescent in the city of Bath, England. The Royal Crescent is close to Victoria Park. The street, known today as "The Royal Crescent" was originally named "The Crescent." John Wood designed the great curved façade on a rusticated ground floor. The 114 columns are 30 inches in diameter reaching each with an entablature 5 feet deep. The central house boasts two sets of coupled columns. This architecture, described as "Queen Anne fronts and Mary-Anne backs", occurs repeatedly in Bath. The ha-ha is designed as not to interrupt the view from Royal Victoria Park, to be invisible until seen from close by. The railings between the lawn are included in the Heritage at Risk Register produced by English Heritage. And were restored in 2011. The first resident of Number 1 was a retired Irish MP who rented the house from 1776 until his death in Bath in 1796. He was described as a'gentleman of the most benevolent disposition'. Vicomte du Barre took over number 8 in 1778 and hosted parties and gambling. He is buried in the churchyard at the Church of St Nicholas in Bathampton. From 1768 to 1774 number 9 was home to a soldier of fortune.Royal Crescent – Royal Crescent, seen from a hot air balloon. There is a contrast between the architectural style of the public front and the private rear of this crescent.
128. The Circus, Bath – The Circus is an example of Georgian architecture in the city of Bath, Somerset, England, begun in 1754 and completed in 1768. The name comes from the Latin ` circus', which means a ring, circle. It has been designated as a Grade I listed building. Divided into three segments of equal length, the Circus is a circular space surrounded by large townhouses. Each of the curved segments faces one of the three entrances, ensuring that whichever way a visitor enters there is a classical facade straight ahead. Wood, convinced that Bath had been the principal centre of Druid activity in Britain, used the same dimensions for The Circus' diameter. It was left to John Wood, the Younger to complete the scheme to his father's design. The Circus was part of the Elder's grand vision to recreate a classical Palladian architectural landscape for the city. Other projects included the Forum. The Circus is considered his masterpiece. Three classical Orders are used, in the elegant curved facades. The parapet is adorned with acorn finials. The central area was paved with stone setts, covering a reservoir in the centre that supplied water to the houses. In 1800 the Circus residents enclosed the central part of the open space as a garden. Now, the central area is home to a group of old plane trees.The Circus, Bath – A view of The Circus
129. Grand Pump Room, Bath – The Grand Pump Room is a historic building in the Abbey Church Yard, Bath, Somerset, England. It has been designated since 1950. Along with the Lower Assembly Rooms, it formed a complex where visitors to the city gathered. The foundations of a Roman temple precinct were discovered during preparatory excavations. The North Colonnade with unfluted Ionic columns, was built by Baldwin in 1786 -- 90. Palmer was finally finished in 1799. The South Colonnade had an upper floor added in the late 19th century. A contemporary expert on Greek architecture, was consulted about Palmer's revised plans. However, the aspect of the building was altered by the construction in 1897 of a hall designed by J M Brydon. It is 60 feet 31 feet high. The inside is set round with three quarter columns of a covering of five feet. In the Centre of the South-side is a marble vase from, sue the waters, with a fire-place on each side. Works by local artists William Hoare and Thomas Gainsborough were also displayed there. The Cross Bath is now open as part of the Thermae Bath Spa project. Next to the main entrance to the Roman Baths, visitors can drink the waters from the warm spring, the source of the baths.Grand Pump Room, Bath – Grand Pump Room
130. Bath Assembly Rooms – They are designated as a Grade I listed building. During the Georgian era Bath became fashionable. John Wood the Younger, laid out new areas of housing for residents and visitors. Robert Adam submitted a proposal, rejected as too expensive. The Younger raised funding through a Tontine and construction started in 1769. The Bath building has rooms arranged in a U shape. The rooms are decorated with fine art. They were burnt out during the Second World War, with restoration undertaken by Sir Albert Richardson before reopening in 1963. They are now operated by Bath and North East Somerset Council for public functions. The basement of the building provides a home to the Fashion Museum. Much of the development at this time consisted away from the old city centre. Queen Square was the speculative development by John Wood, the Elder, who lived in one of the houses. The games give the inspiration behind, the Colosseum in Rome. The most spectacular of Bath's terraces is the Royal Crescent, designed by the younger John Wood. Gay Street links Queen Square to The Circus.Bath Assembly Rooms – The Assembly Rooms and Fashion Museum
131. Beau Nash – Beau Nash, born Richard Nash, was a celebrated dandy and leader of fashion in 18th-century Britain. Nash is best remembered as the Master of Ceremonies at the town of Bath. He was born in Swansea in 1674. Nash made little of either career. In 1704, Nash became Master of Ceremonies at the rising town of Bath, a position he retained until he died. Nash kept a string of mistresses. Nash played a leading role in making the most fashionable resort in 18th-century England. Nevertheless he had extensive influence in the city until early 1761. Although the Corporation of the city funded an elaborate funeral for Nash, Nash was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave. There is a memorial to him at Bath Abbey church in Bath. He was Juliana Popjoy, due to his debts. Upon his death, Popjoy was so distraught, she spent the majority of her remaining days living in a hollowed-out tree. Near her death, she back to her birth home where she died. In his journal and letters, preacher and founder of Methodism, tells of a confrontation with Nash in Bath in 1739. Nash had made public his determination to confront him.Beau Nash – Beau Nash.
132. John Wood, the Elder – John Wood, the Elder, was an English architect, working mainly in Bath. In 1740 he surveyed Stonehenge and the Stanton Drew stone circles. He later wrote extensively about Bladud and Neo-Druidism. Because of some of his designs he is also thought to have been involved in the early years of Freemasonry. His notable work in Bath included: St John's Hospital, Queen Square, Prior Park, The Circus. He also designed important buildings including the reconstruction of Llandaff Cathedral, Buckland House, The Exchange, Liverpool Town Hall. He has been described by Nikolaus Pevsner as "one of the outstanding architects of the day". Wood was born in Twerton near Bath, baptised in St. James’s Church. He received a good but basic education at King Edward's School. His father George was a local builder. During early twenties, he worked at his estate, Bramham Park, Yorkshire. Wood then became involved in London. He set out to restore Bath to what he believed was its ancient glory of the most important and significant cities in England. In 1725 he developed an ambitious plan for his home town, which due to opposition he developed outside the existing city walls. Wood created a distinctive image for the city, one that has greatly contributed to Bath’s continuing popularity.John Wood, the Elder – John Wood
133. Jane Austen – Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of economic security. Her works are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. With Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park and Emma, she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, began a third, died before its completion. Her novels have rarely been out of print, although they brought her little fame during her lifetime. Austen has inspired a large number of literary anthologies. Her novels have inspired many films, from Love & Friendship. Jane Austen's use of biting social commentary have earned her great and historical importance to critics and scholars. Very biographical detail of Austen's life survives. Of the approximately 3,000 letters Jane wrote in her lifetime about 160 survive. Other letters were destroyed by the heirs of Jane's brother. Austen was born at Steventon on 16 December 1775. George Austen, was born into woollen manufacturers. Cassandra, was a member of the prominent Leigh family, daughter to the Master of Balliol, "short, fragile, pretty, disinclined to marry". They married on 26 April 1764 at Walcot Church in Bath.Jane Austen – Portrait of Jane Austen, drawn by her sister Cassandra (c. 1810)
134. Bath Blitz – The term Bath Blitz refers to the air raids by the German air force on the British city of Bath, Somerset, during World War II. Bath was largely untouched during the German night bombing offensive against Britain's cities, though nearby Bristol was bombed severely throughout that period. Over the weekend of April 1942, Bath suffered three raids, from 80 Luftwaffe aircraft which took off from Nazi occupied northern France. During the previous four months Bristol had been hit almost every night, so the people of Bath did not expect the bombs to fall on them. The first raid lasted until 1 am. The German aircraft then returned to France, refuelled, returned at 4.35 am. Bath was still on fire from the first raid, making it easier for the German bombers to pick out their targets. The third raid, which only caused extensive damage, commenced in the early hours of Monday morning. The bombers then returned to rake the streets with machine-gun fire. 417 people were killed, another 1,000 injured. Over 19,000 buildings were affected, including 218 of architectural or historic interest. The Assembly Rooms were burnt out. A 500 kilograms high explosive bomb landed on the south side of Queen Square, resulting in houses on the south side being damaged. Most of the buildings on Queen Square suffered some level of shrapnel damage. Casualties on the Square were low considering the devastation, with the majority of staff having taken shelter in the hotel's basement.Bath Blitz – View of the centre of Bath in 1958, still with signs of war damage.