1. Video recording – Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary greatly in the resolution of the display and refresh rate, video can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, tapes, DVDs, computer files etc. Video was originally exclusively a live technology, charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the electrical impulses. Video recorders were sold for $50,000 in 1956, however, prices gradually dropped over the years, in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder decks and tapes into the consumer market. The use of techniques in video created digital video, which allowed higher quality and, eventually. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape, the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards specify 29.97 frames, film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of an image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive, analog display devices reproduce each frame in the same way, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats, abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence, when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material, aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height, the screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4,3, or about 1.33,1. High definition televisions use a ratio of 16,9. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375,1. Therefore, a 720 by 480 pixel NTSC DV image displayes with the 4,3 aspect ratio if the pixels are thin, the popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical videoVideo recording – Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios
2. Camera – Thumb|A2016 Nikon D810 A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies, the camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without physical contact. The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means dark chamber and is the Latin name of the device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura, the functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is a device which creates a single image of an object or scene. All cameras use the basic design, light enters an enclosed box through a converging lens/convex lens. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light can enter the camera, a display, often a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed, exposure, and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession. When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved, the forerunner to the photographic camera was the camera obscura. The oldest known record of this principle is a description by Han Chinese philosopher Mozi, Mozi correctly asserted that the camera obscura image is inverted because light travels in straight lines from its source. In the 11th century Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham s wrote very influential essays about experiments with light through an opening in a darkened room. The use of a lens in the opening of a wall or closed window shutter of a room to project images used as a drawing aid has been traced back to circa 1550. Since the late 17th century portable camera obscura devices in tents, before the development of the photographic camera, it had been known for hundreds of years that some substances, such as silver salts, darkened when exposed to sunlight. The first person to use this chemistry to create images was Thomas Wedgwood, to create images, Wedgwood placed items, such as leaves and insect wings, on ceramic pots coated with silver nitrate, and exposed the set-up to light. These images werent permanent, however, as Wedgwood didnt employ a fixing mechanism and he ultimately failed at his goal of using the process to create fixed images created by a camera obscura. The first permanent photograph of an image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles. Niépce had been experimenting with ways to fix the images of a camera obscura since 1816, the photograph Niépce succeeded in creating shows the view from his windowCamera – Canon EOS 5D Mark III, a digital single-lens reflex camera
3. Animation – Animation is the process of making the illusion of motion and the illusion of change by means of the rapid display of a sequence of images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon, animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation. Animation can be recorded with either analogue media, a book, motion picture film, video tape, digital media, including formats with animated GIF, Flash animation. To display animation, a camera, computer, or projector are used along with new technologies that are produced. Animation creation methods include the traditional animation creation method and those involving stop motion animation of two and three-dimensional objects, paper cutouts, puppets and clay figures, Images are displayed in a rapid succession, usually 24,25,30, or 60 frames per second. Computer animation processes generating animated images with the general term computer-generated imagery, 3D animation uses computer graphics, while 2D animation is used for stylistic, low bandwidth and faster real-time renderings. An earthen goblet discovered at the site of the 5, 200-year-old Shahr-e Sūkhté in southeastern Iran, the artifact bears five sequential images depicting a Persian Desert Ibex jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. They may, of course, refer to Chinese shadow puppets, in the 19th century, the phenakistoscope, zoetrope and praxinoscope were introduced. A thaumatrope is a toy with a small disk with different pictures on each side. The phenakistoscope was invented simultaneously by Belgian Joseph Plateau and Austrian Simon von Stampfer in 1831, the phenakistoscope consists of a disk with a series of images, drawn on radi evenly space around the center of the disk. John Barnes Linnett patented the first flip book in 1868 as the kineograph, the first animated projection was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud, who was a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888, on 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris. This film is notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. His films were not photographed, they were drawn directly onto the transparent strip, in 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings. Stuart Blackton, who, because of that, is considered the father of American animation, in Europe, the French artist, Émile Cohl, created the first animated film using what came to be known as traditional animation creation methods - the 1908 Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects. There were also sections of live action in which the hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, the author of the first puppet-animated film was the Russian-born director Wladyslaw Starewicz, known as Ladislas StarevichAnimation – A phenakistoscope disc by Eadweard Muybridge (1893)
4. Special effect – Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are divided into the categories of optical effects. Mechanical effects are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting and this includes the use of mechanized props, scenery, scale models, animatronics, pyrotechnics and atmospheric effects, creating physical wind, rain, fog, snow, clouds, etc. Making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building are examples of mechanical effects, mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with doors or walls to enhance a fight scene. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background, since the 1990s, computer generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. It gives filmmakers greater control, and allows many effects to be accomplished safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs. As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI, in 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the worlds first special effects movie by combining different sections of 30 negatives into a single image. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, as the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the place, restarted filming. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century and it wasnt only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was also the first type of photographic trickery only possible in a motion picture, i. e. the stop trick. Georges Méliès accidentally discovered the same stop trick, according to Méliès, his camera jammed while filming a street scene in Paris. When he screened the film, he found that the trick had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction. Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph. From 1910 to 1920, the innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, Dawn combined this technique with the glass shot. Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, from the partially exposed film, a single frame is then projected onto an easel, where the matte is then drawnSpecial effect – Bluescreens are commonly used in chroma key special effects.
5. Art – In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature, until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, communication of emotion, during the Romantic period, art came to be seen as a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science. Though the definition of what art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency. The nature of art, and related such as creativity. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, medical arts, however, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art, Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homers great poetic art, in Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, the forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is an imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankinds advantages over animals. The second, and more recent, sense of the art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. The creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a drive and convey a message, mood. Art is something that stimulates an individuals thoughts, emotions, beliefs, works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design are considered applied artArt – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
6. Translation – Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. While interpreting—the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages—antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature, there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation, on the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated, because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for services and has facilitated language localization. Translation studies systematically study the theory and practice of translation, the English word translation derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, across + ferre, to carry or to bring. Thus translatio is a carrying across or a bringing across, in this case, the Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of translation on translatio. The Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of translation from an alternative Latin word, traductio, the Ancient Greek term for translation, μετάφρασις, has supplied English with metaphrase — as contrasted with paraphrase. Metaphrase corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to formal equivalence, nevertheless, metaphrase and paraphrase may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity, the ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase and paraphrase. Literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed, Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of imitation, i. e. of adapted translation, When a painter copies from the life. He has no privilege to alter features and lineaments, despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. The grammatical differences between languages and free-word-order languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a language, translators have borrowed those terms. However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, an etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. For example, the English actual should not be confused with the cognate French actuel, the Polish aktualny, the Swedish aktuell, the translators role as a bridge for carrying across values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translators role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, the main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as CiceroTranslation – Rosetta Stone
7. Culture – Culture can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E. B, Tylor, it is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is the way of life, especially the customs and beliefs. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a concept in anthropology. The word is used in a sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of culture that emerged in the 20th century. When used as a count noun, a culture is the set of customs, traditions, in this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes culture is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a context, meaning something similar. His use, and that of many writers after him, refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human. To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, thus a contrast between culture and civilization is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Cultural invention has come to any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior. Humanity is in a global accelerating culture change period, driven by the expansion of commerce, the mass media, and above all. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change, Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action. These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change, for example, the U. S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors, Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practicesCulture – Human symbolic expression developed as prehistoric humans reached behavioral modernity
8. Photographic film – This article is mainly concerned with still photography film. For motion picture film, please see film stock, photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, the emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be developed into a visible photograph. In addition to light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet, X-rays. Unmodified silver halide crystals are only to the blue part of the visible spectrum. This problem was overcome with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, first orthochromatic and finally panchromatic films were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colors in shades of gray approximately matching their subjective brightness, by similar techniques special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film there is one layer of silver halide crystals. When the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, color film has at least three sensitive layers, incorporating different combinations of sensitizing dyes. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next come a green-and-blue sensitive layer, and a sensitive layer. During development, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step. It is removed from the film during the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate, fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, the earliest practical photographic process, the daguerreotype, introduced in 1839, did not use film. The light-sensitive chemicals were formed on the surface of a copper sheetPhotographic film – 135 Film Cartridge with DX barcode (top) and DX CAS code on the black and white grid below the barcode. The CAS code shows the ISO, number of exposures, exposure latitude (+3/−1 for print film).
9. Film stock – Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with an emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, the emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be developed into a visible photograph. In addition to light, all films are sensitive to X-rays. Most are at least slightly sensitive to ultraviolet light. Some special-purpose films are sensitive into the region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film there is one layer of silver salts. When the exposed grains are developed, the salts are converted to metallic silver. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, dyes, which adsorb to the surface of the silver salts, make the crystals sensitive to different colors. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by the green, during development, the exposed silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, following development, the silver is converted back to silver salts in the bleach step. It is removed from the film in the fix step, fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, early motion picture experiments in the 1880s were performed using a fragile paper roll film, with which it was difficult to view a single, continuously moving image without a complex apparatus. The first transparent and flexible film base material was celluloid, which was discovered and refined for use by John Carbutt, Hannibal Goodwin. Eastman Kodak made celluloid film commercially available in 1889, Thomas Henry Blair, the stock had a frosted base to facilitate easier viewing by transmitted light. By November 1891 William Dickson, at Edisons laboratory, was using Blairs stock for Kinetoscope experiments, Blairs company supplied film to Edison for five yearsFilm stock – A film strip
10. Recording medium – A data storage device is a device for recording information. A storage device may hold information, process information, or both, a device that only holds information is a recording medium. Devices that process information may either access a separate portable recording medium or a permanent component to store, Electronic data storage requires electrical power to store and retrieve that data. Most storage devices that do not require vision and a brain to read data fall into this category, electromagnetic data may be stored in either an analog data or digital data format on a variety of media. Most electronically processed data storage media are considered permanent storage, that is, in contrast, most electronically stored information within most types of semiconductor microcircuits are volatile memory, for it vanishes if power is removed. JISC/NPO Studies on the Preservation of Electronic Materials, A Framework of Data Types and Formats, british Library Research and Innovation Report 50Recording medium – Many different consumer electronic devices can store data.
11. Screenplay – A screenplay or script is a written work by screenwriters for a film, video game, or television program. These screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing, in them, the movement, actions, expression, and dialogues of the characters are also narrated. A screenplay written for television is also known as a teleplay, the format is structured in a way that one page usually equates to one minute of screen time. In a shooting script, each scene is numbered, and technical direction may be given, in a spec or a draft in various stages of development, the scenes are not numbered, and technical direction is at a minimum. The standard font for a screenplay is 12 point,10 pitch Courier Typeface, the major components are action and dialogue. The action is written in the present tense, the dialogue are the lines the characters speak. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines, a slug line, also called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene, and is usually made up of three parts. Part one states whether the scene is set inside outside, or both, Part two states location of the scene. Part three, separated from Part two by a hyphen, refers to the time of the scene, each slug line begins a new scene. In a shooting script, the lines are numbered consecutively. These scene numbers serve as mile-post markers in a script and this allows any part of the script to be referred to by scene number. In the United States letter size paper and Courier 12 point are mandatory, the tab settings of the scene elements, which constitute the screenplays layout. The dialogue must be centered and the names must be capitalized, a script usually begins with FADE IN, followed by the first scene description. It might get more specific, e. g. FADE IN ON AN ECU of Ricky as he explains the divorce to Bob, a script will usually end with FADE TO BLACK, though there are variables, like CUT TO BLACK for abrupt endings. The style consists of a grammar that is specific to screenplays and this grammar also consists of two aspects, A prose that is manifestation-oriented, i. e. focuses largely on what is audible and what is visible on screen. This prose may only supply interpretations and explanation if clarity would otherwise be adversely affected, American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size. They are then together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would make it harder to quickly read the scriptScreenplay – Screenplay for The Godfather Part II, Turin, Italy
12. Beverly Hills – Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658, sometimes referred to as 90210, one of its primary ZIP codes, it was home to many actors and celebrities throughout the 20th century. The city includes the Rodeo Drive shopping district and the Beverly Hills Oil Field, gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would later become Beverly Hills on August 3,1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard. The area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828 and they called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. in 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Wilson and Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles. Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker acquired most of it, at this point, the area was known as the Hammel and Denker Ranch. By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings and they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, therefore, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property Beverly Hills, subdivided it, the development was named Beverly Hills after Beverly Farms in Beverly, Massachusetts and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907, although sales remained slow, Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents and it was also forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911, the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills and that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business. The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921, the glamor associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue, in 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Fairbanks, Will Rogers, the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved an issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA. The cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice also issued bonds to pay for the new campusBeverly Hills – Beverly Hills at the corner of Rodeo Drive & Via Rodeo
13. William Holden – William Holden was an American actor who was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s through the 1970s. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1953 for his role in Stalag 17, and a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor for his role in the 1973 television film The Blue Knight. He was named one of the Top 10 Stars of the Year six times, Holden was born William Franklin Beedle, Jr. in OFallon, Illinois, the son of Mary Blanche, a schoolteacher, and William Franklin Beedle, an industrial chemist. He had two brothers, Robert Westfield Beedle and Richard P. Beedle. His family moved to South Pasadena when he was three, after graduating from South Pasadena High School, Holden attended Pasadena Junior College, where he became involved in local radio plays. A version of how he obtained his stage name Holden is based on a statement by George Ross of Billboard, William Holden, and here is how he obtained his new movie tag. On the Columbia lot is an assistant director and scout named Harold Winston, not long ago he was divorced from the actress, Gloria Holden, but carried the torch after the marital rift. Winston was one of those who discovered the Golden Boy newcomer, Holdens first starring role was in Golden Boy, costarring Barbara Stanwyck, in which he played a violinist-turned-boxer. He was still an actor at the time, while Stanwyck was already a film star. She liked Holden and went out of her way to help him succeed, devoting her time to coaching and encouraging him. When she received her Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony, at the end of her acceptance speech, she paid him a personal tribute, I loved him very much, and I miss him. He always wished that I would get an Oscar, and so tonight, my golden boy, you got your wish. Next he starred with George Raft and Humphrey Bogart in the Warner Bros. gangster epic Invisible Stripes later the same year, Holden earned his first Best Actor Oscar nomination with the part. Getting the part was a break for Holden, as the role was initially cast with Montgomery Clift. Swanson later said, Bill Holden was a man I could have fallen in love with and he was perfection on- and off-screen. And Wilder himself commented, Bill was a guy, a totally honorable friend. Every woman was in love with him and he co-starred as Humphrey Bogarts younger brother, a carefree playboy, in Sabrina, played by Audrey Hepburn. It was Holdens third film with director Billy Wilder, Holden and Hepburn became romantically involved during the filming, unbeknown to Wilder, People on the set told me later that Bill and Audrey were having an affair, and everybody knewWilliam Holden – Holden in a publicity photo, 1954
14. Hedda Hopper – Hedda Hopper was an American actress and gossip columnist, notorious for feuding with her arch-rival Louella Parsons. She had been a successful actress of stage and screen for years before being offered the chance to write the column Hedda Hoppers Hollywood for the Los Angeles Times in 1938. In the McCarthy era she named suspected Communists, Hopper continued to write gossip till the end, her work appearing in many magazines and later on radio. Hopper was born Elda Furry in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Margaret and David Furry and her siblings included Dora, Sherman, Cameron, Edgar, Frank and Margaret. Her family was of Pennsylvania Dutch descent, the family moved to Altoona when Elda was three. She eventually ran away to New York City and began her career in the chorus on the Broadway stage, Hopper was not successful in this venture, even getting the axe by the renowned Shubert Brothers. Florenz Ziegfeld called the aspiring starlet a clumsy cow and brushed off her pleas for a slot in his lavish Follies, after a few years, she joined the theater company of matinee idol DeWolf Hopper, whom she called Wolfie and would later marry. She remained in the chorus and they toured the country, while in the Hopper company, she realized that chorus and understudy jobs were not acting. She wanted to act, and she knew she would have to prove herself before she could hope to get anywhere in the theater. Hearing that Edgar Selwyn was casting his play The Country Boy for a tour, she went to his office. She was given the role and that show toured for thirty-five weeks through forty-eight states and she studied singing during the summer and, in the fall, toured with The Quaker Girl in the second lead, the prima donna role. In 1913, she became the wife of DeWolf Hopper, whose previous wives were named Ella, Ida, Edna. The similarity in names caused some friction, as he would sometimes call Elda by the name of one of his former wives, consequently, Elda Hopper paid a numerologist $10 to tell her what name she should use, and the answer was Hedda. She began acting in silent movies in 1915 and her motion picture debut was in The Battle of Hearts with William Farnum. She appeared in more than 120 movies over the following twenty-three years, as her movie career waned in the mid-1930s, Hopper looked for other sources of income. In 1937, she was offered the chance of a lifetime and embarked on a career doing something she was adept at. Her gossip column called Hedda Hoppers Hollywood debuted in the Los Angeles Times on February 14,1938, after years of struggling as an actress, she had finally found her niche. She christened the home she purchased in Beverly Hills The House That Fear Built and she maintained a notorious if self-serving rivalry with the longer-established and better-liked Louella Parsons, who had formerly been friendly, sometimes even passing Hopper informationHedda Hopper – Hedda Hopper in 1929
15. Silent film – A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. The silent film era lasted from 1895 to 1936, in silent films for entertainment, the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, mime and title cards which contain a written indication of the plot or key dialogue. During silent films, a pianist, theatre organist, or, in large cities, pianists and organists would either play from sheet music or improvise, an orchestra would play from sheet music. The term silent film is therefore a retronym—that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively, the early films with sound, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were referred to as talkies, sound films, or talking pictures. A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent feature films are believed to be completely lost, the earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern. This utilized a glass lens, a shutter and a persistent light source, such as a powerful lantern and these slides were originally hand-painted, but still photographs were used later on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century. The invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years, the next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. This experience was further demonstrated through Rogets introduction of the thaumatrope, the first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horses gallop, the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden. Edison also made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, due to Edisons lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were invented around the world. The Lumière brothers, for example, created the Cinématographe in France, the Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edisons as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit. In contrast to Edisons peepshow-style kinetoscope, which one person could watch through a viewer. Their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture, the invention of celluloid film, which was strong and flexible, greatly facilitated the making of motion pictures. This film was 35 mm wide and pulled using four sprocket holes and this doomed the cinematograph, which could only use film with just one sprocket hole. From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into maturity in the silent era. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that virtually every style, the silent era was also pioneering era from a technical point of viewSilent film – Scene from Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921), one of the highest-grossing silent films.
16. Buster Keaton – Joseph Frank Buster Keaton was an American actor, director, producer, writer, and stunt performer. He was best known for his silent films, in which his trademark was physical comedy with a stoic, deadpan expression. His career declined afterward with a loss of his artistic independence when he was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He recovered in the 1940s, remarried, and revived his career to a degree as a comic performer for the rest of his life. Many of Keatons films from the 1920s, such as Sherlock Jr, the General, and The Cameraman, remain highly regarded, with the second of these three widely viewed as his masterpiece. Among its strongest admirers was Orson Welles, who stated that The General was cinemas highest achievement in comedy, Keaton was recognized as the seventh-greatest film director by Entertainment Weekly, and in 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him the 21st greatest male star of classic Hollywood cinema. Keaton was born into a family in Piqua, Kansas. He was named Joseph to continue a tradition on his fathers side and Frank for his maternal grandfather, later, Keaton changed his middle name to Francis. His father was Joseph Hallie Joe Keaton, who owned a traveling show with Harry Houdini called the Mohawk Indian Medicine Company, according to a frequently repeated story, which may be apocryphal, Keaton acquired the nickname Buster at about 18 months of age. Keaton told interviewer Fletcher Markle that Houdini was present one day when the young Keaton took a tumble down a flight of stairs without injury. After the infant sat up and shook off his experience, Houdini remarked, according to Keaton, in those days, the word buster was used to refer to a spill or a fall that had the potential to produce injury. After this, it was Keatons father who began to use the nickname to refer to the youngster, Keaton retold the anecdote over the years, including a 1964 interview with the CBCs Telescope. At the age of three, Keaton began performing with his parents in The Three Keatons and he first appeared on stage in 1899 in Wilmington, Delaware. The act was mainly a comedy sketch, Myra played the saxophone to one side, while Joe and Buster performed on center stage. The young Keaton would goad his father by disobeying him, a suitcase handle was sewn into Keatons clothing to aid with the constant tossing. The act evolved as Keaton learned to take trick falls safely and this knockabout style of comedy led to accusations of child abuse, and occasionally, arrest. However, Buster Keaton was always able to show the authorities that he had no bruises or broken bones. He was eventually billed as The Little Boy Who Cant Be Damaged, decades later, Keaton said that he was never hurt by his father and that the falls and physical comedy were a matter of proper technical executionBuster Keaton – Buster Keaton
17. H. B. Warner – Henry Byron Warner was an English film and theatre actor. He was a theatre and film actor during the silent era. In later years, he transitioned into supporting roles and appeared in numerous films directed by Frank Capra. Warners most notable role to modern audiences is Mr. Gower in the perennially shown film Its A Wonderful Life, born Henry Byron Lickfold in St Johns Wood, London, England in 1875, H. B. Warner was educated at Bedford School and his father, Charles Warner, was an actor, and though young Henry initially thought about studying medicine, he eventually followed in his fathers footsteps and performed on the stage. He had a sister, Grace Warner, who was a stage actor. Warners stage debut came in Its Never Too Late to Mend when he was 21 and he went on to act in a number of plays before coming to the United States for the 1905-1906 season. His Broadway credits include Silence, You and I, Danger, Sleeping Partners, Out There, Warner began his film career in silent films in 1914, when he debuted in The Lost Paradise. He played lead roles in the silent era and also appeared in numerous Broadway plays and his greatest success was the role of Jesus Christ in Cecil B. DeMilles silent film epic, The King of Kings in 1927 and he received good reviews for this role, but with the advent of sound era he had to turn towards supporting roles, mostly because of his age. He was usually cast in dignified roles in films of the 1930s and 1940s. He played in the 1930 version of Liliom, in Five Star Final, in Grand Canary and he also portrayed the strict judge in Mr. Deeds Goes to Town with Gary Cooper and Jean Arthur. He appeared in the original 1937 version of Lost Horizon as Chang, among his later films were You Cant Take It With You, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, The Rains Came, and The Corsican Brothers. In Its a Wonderful Life he played what was for him an atypical role, occasionally, Warner was seen in sinister roles, as in the 1941 film version of The Devil and Daniel Webster, in which he played the ghost of John Hathorne. Also that year he played the role of Mr. Carrington in Topper Returns. He also appeared in Sunset Boulevard in which he played himself and his last credited film was Cecil B. DeMilles epic film The Ten Commandments where Warner had a role as Amminadab. His last film role was a cameo in Darbys RangersH. B. Warner – H. B. Warner (1920)
18. Cinema of the United States – The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is Classical Hollywood Cinema, which developed from 1917-1960, while the French Lumière Brothers are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema, it is American cinema that soon became the most dominant force in an emerging industry. Since the 1920s, the American film industry has grossed more money every year than that of any other country, in 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the worlds first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City, the United States was in the forefront of sound film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U. S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, Los Angeles, director D. W. Griffith was central to the development of film grammar. Orson Welless Citizen Kane is frequently cited in critics polls as the greatest film of all time. T, the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park, Titanic, Avatar, The Avengers, Furious 7, Jurassic World, and Star Wars, The Force Awakens. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, muybridges accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices that would capture such motion. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edisons Black Maria, in 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee, such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. In New York, the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers, the Edison Studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan was also frequently used, other major centers of film production also included Chicago, Florida, Texas, California, and Cuba. The film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the U. S and they started filming on a vacant lot near Georgia Street in downtown Los Angeles. While there, the decided to explore new territories, traveling several miles north to Hollywood. Griffith then filmed the first movie shot in Hollywood, In Old California, a Biograph melodrama about California in the 19th century. Griffith stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York, after hearing about Griffiths success in Hollywood, in 1913, many movie-makers headed west to avoid the fees imposed by Thomas Edison, who owned patents on the movie-making process. Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911, Californias more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s. In Los Angeles, the studios and Hollywood grew, before World War I, movies were made in several U. S. cities, but filmmakers gravitated to southern California as the industry developedCinema of the United States – The Hollywood Sign in the Hollywood Hills has become a landmark representing the Southern California film industry.
19. Library of Congress – The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacementLibrary of Congress – Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.
20. Kinetoscope – The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device, a prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Womens Clubs on May 20,1891. The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts, in 1895, Edison introduced the Kinetophone, which joined the Kinetoscope with a cylinder phonograph. Film projection, which Edison initially disdained as financially nonviable, soon superseded the Kinetoscopes individual exhibition model, many of the projection systems developed by Edisons firm in later years would use the Kinetoscope name. An encounter with the work and ideas of photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge appears to have spurred Edison to pursue the development of a motion picture system. The Edison facility was very close by, and the lecture was attended by both Edison and his companys official photographer, William Dickson. No such collaboration was undertaken, but in October 1888, Edison filed a claim, known as a caveat. Patent Office announcing his plans to create a device that would do for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear. It is clear that it was intended as part of a complete audiovisual system, in March 1889, a second caveat was filed, in which the proposed motion picture device was given a name, Kinetoscope, derived from the Greek roots kineto- and scopos. Edison assigned Dickson, one of his most talented employees, to the job of making the Kinetoscope a reality, the Edison laboratory, though, worked as a collaborative organization. Laboratory assistants were assigned to work on many projects while Edison supervised and involved himself, Dickson and his then lead assistant, Charles Brown, made halting progress at first. An audio cylinder would provide synchronized sound, while the rotating images, when tests were made with images expanded to a mere 1/8 of an inch in width, the coarseness of the silver bromide emulsion used on the cylinder became unacceptably apparent. The first film made for the Kinetoscope, and apparently the first motion picture ever produced on film in the United States, may have been shot at this time, known as Monkeyshines. 1, it shows an employee of the lab in an apparently tongue-in-cheek display of physical dexterity, attempts at synchronizing sound were soon left behind, while Dickson would also experiment with disc-based exhibition designs. The project would soon head off in more directions, largely impelled by a trip of Edisons to Europe. The first motion system to employ a perforated image band was apparently the Théâtre Optique. Reynauds system did not use film, but images painted on gelatine frames. At the Exposition Universelle, Edison would have both the Théâtre Optique and the electrical tachyscope of German inventor Ottamar AnschützKinetoscope – Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet
21. Computer – A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. The Internet is run on computers and it millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations, early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century, the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then, conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit, and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing, peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, and input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and this usage of the term referred to a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century, from the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations. The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of computer in the 1640s, one who calculates, the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean calculating machine is from 1897. The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the use of the term. 1945 under this name, theoretical from 1937, as Turing machine, devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick, later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers. The use of counting rods is one example, the abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was developed from used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price. It was designed to calculate astronomical positions and it was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to circa 100 BCComputer – Computer
22. I Married a Communist (film) – The Woman on Pier 13 is a 1949 American film noir drama directed by Robert Stevenson, and featuring Laraine Day, Robert Ryan and John Agar. It previewed in Los Angeles and San Francisco in 1949 under the title I Married a Communist, but the name was changed prior to its 1950 release due to poor polling among those preview audiences. Brad Collins, a San Francisco shipping executive who recently married Nan Lowry Collins after a courtship, was once involved with Communism in New York. Shortly after returning home following their honeymoon, the couple meet Christine Norman, Collins becomes the target of a Communist cell and its leader, Vanning, who orders an alleged FBI informer drowned after a brief interrogation. He claims it is impossible to leave the Communist Party, meanwhile Norman, bitter over Collinss earlier rejection, is ordered to become closer to his brother-in-law Don Lowry by indoctrinating him with their Communist world view. Norman, though, genuinely falls in love with Lowry, with Vanning claiming that she is not meant to be so emotional, a friend of Collins and former boyfriend of Nan, union leader Jim Travers cannot understand why Collins has become unreasonable to deal with. Travers is concerned about the possibility of the number of communists in the union being able to take it over. He discusses this with Lowry, who is a new colleague, Lowry denies Normans politics, apparently still free of communist ideology, or an awareness of where his, by now, future wifes friends are coming from politically. She confesses when confronted, but after Lowry rejects her she shows him a photograph of herself with Collins/Johnson, Lowry travels to the Collins residence to inform them of what he has learned, but is run over by a car driven by the communist hit man J. T. Arnold who had observed the earlier killing with Collins, Nan, previously informed by Norman that her brother is in danger, tries to convince her husband that Lowrys killing was not an accident. Confronting Christine, Nan is told of her husbands past, preparing a suicide note, Christine is interrupted by Vanning, who thinks this is a good solution, but wishes to keep politics out of it, and destroys her confession of communist involvement. It is unclear if she does commit suicide, or whether she is out of the high window. Intent on revenge, Nan befriends Bailey at the fairground where he has legitimate employment, the hit man is saved when she is identified, and Nan is kidnapped and taken to the hidden local communist headquarters in Arnolds warehouse. Collins tracks his wife down to this location, and by threatening Arnold with a gun, is able to gain admittance, in a shootout, Bailey and Vanning are killed, and Collins fatally injured. In his last moments Nan says she loves him. Thirteen directors, starting with Joseph Losey, turned down the film before it was made under the British director Robert Stevenson. The film was not popular with audiences and recorded a loss of $650,000, when the film was released, the staff at Variety magazine wrote a tepid review, As a straight action fare, I Married a Communist generates enough tension to satisfy the average customer. Despite its heavy sounding title, pic hews strictly to tried, pic is so wary of introducing any political gab that at one point when Commie trade union tactics are touched upon, the soundtrack is droppedI Married a Communist (film) – Theatrical release poster
23. The Day I Became a Woman – The Day I Became a Woman is a 2000 award-winning Iranian drama film directed by Marzieh Meshkini. It tells three stories, each depicting a different stage in the lives of Iranian women and it premièred at the 2000 Venice Film Festival and won several festival awards during 2000. Critical response was positive with some calling it Felliniesque, the film tells three different stories about women struggling for identity in Iran. Hava is a girl who, on her ninth birthday, is told by her mother and grandmother that she has become a woman with particular responsibilities. She may no longer play with her best friend, a boy, Hava is given the choice when to start taking on those responsibilities—noon that day. A stick pushed into the ground will mark time as the shadow at noon will align with the stick, Ahoo is a married woman who is taking part in a cycling race. Ahead of the rest, Ahoo is pursued by her husband on horseback and he tries to persuade her to stop cycling and come home, and then threatens her with divorce. When Ahoo defiantly continues cycling, her husband brings a mullah who divorces them, later, tribal superiors and male family members come to stop Ahoo as she tries to escape the social constraints of being a woman. Hoora is a widow who has recently inherited a great deal of money. She decides to buy all of the possessions she has ever wanted. She ties strings to her fingers to remind her what to buy and they take her and her new belongings to the beach. As she floats out to a ship, seemingly free from the bonds of womanhood. It was shot on Kish Island in the Hormozgān Province in southern Iran, Makhmalbaf was on the island at the same time, shooting Testing Democracy. Some commentators have suggested that Makhmalbaf was the director of The Day I Became a Woman. Critic Jonathan Rosenbaum has argued against these claims, Meshkini has said that as a female filmmaker, she found making a film in Iran particularly difficult, having to prove her abilities to the cast and crew before being accepted by them. The Day I Became a Woman premièred at the 2000 Venice Film Festival and it went on to play at several festivals including the Toronto International Film Festival, the London Film Festival and the New York New Directors/New Films Festival. It was given a release in American theatres on April 6,2001. On its release in Iran, it was temporarily banned, critical response to the film was generally positiveThe Day I Became a Woman – Movie poster
24. Hollywood – Hollywood is an ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry. Hollywood was a community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, in 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished, the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the Father of Hollywood, along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed, the Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, I holly-wood, meaning hauling wood. H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood, Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States, Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E. C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a later date, before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurds wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others. Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and she recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. In August 1887, Wilcox filed with the Los Angeles County Recorders office a deed and parcel map of property he had sold named Hollywood, Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent, the old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood. The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard, having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitleys company developed and sold one of the residential areasHollywood – The Four Ladies installation at the Hollywood Boulevard – La Brea Avenue Gateway
25. Cover girl – A cover girl is a woman whose photograph features on the front cover of a magazine. She may be a model, celebrity or entertainer, the term would generally not be used to describe a casual, once-off appearance by a person on the cover of a magazine. The term first appeared in English about 1899, a less commonly used antonym is cover boy. Women are on the cover of the majority of general-interest magazines in the west for both men and women, with exceptions as discussed below, celebrities feature on the cover of magazines such as Redbook for women, or Gentlemens Quarterly, Maxim or Esquire for men. The use of royalty or aristocracy is linked to the objective of recognition. Some magazines for women feature a model that represents the style of the magazine. A parallel to this trend is reflected in men’s magazines like Mens Fitness or Sports Illustrated, an intermediate category is the use of a model or supermodel who is recognizable due to exposure in magazines or advertising, a strategy often adopted by ELLE magazine. In most cases, the objective is to maximize sales and differentiation, editorial decisions concerning the positioning of the magazine in the market-place are a key influence on the portrayal of women on the cover. In the 20th century, numerous womens magazines would feature royalty or aristocracy on their covers, in the 1980s and 1990s, Diana, Princess of Wales would be a popular cover choice—but usually for weeklies, usually shot by paparazzi, so strictly these were not cover girl images. However, there were exceptions where authorized portraits of royalty, such as Diana, Princess Beatrice of York and Elizabeth II, were taken for Vogue, Tatler, despite public complaints about exploitation in the 1990s, publishers have not shied away from using royalty when possible. Notably Esquire’s first edition featured a photograph of Brigitte Bardot that was thirty years old. However, this changed during the 1990s, initially with Loaded in the UK. GQ’s UK edition was eventually forced to follow suit, later Peter Howarth, UK editor of Esquire famously removed semi-naked women from the covers in a move to once again differentiate the magazine from the competition. The result was a drop in sales but an increase in advertising revenue, the rise of celebrity culture in the late 1980s and early 1990s has seen to the appearance of more actresses on magazine covers, especially among fashion magazines. Actresses, meanwhile, saw appearances in magazines as beneficial to their careers. In addition, numerous models made the move into acting, finally, there is the issue of sales, a recognizable face will, theoretically, shift more magazines. The choice of model depends in part on ones potential recognition in the market-place in which the title is sold. For example, Lucire Romania saw its sales and profile increase after using a cover girl, Monica GaborCover girl – Australian magazine featuring a cover girl
26. Roman Polanski – Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor. Born in Paris, his Polish-Jewish parents moved the back to Poland in 1937. Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany a few later, in 1939. Polanskis first feature-length film, Knife in the Water, made in Poland, was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. He has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme dOr of the Cannes Film Festival in France, in the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion. In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemarys Baby. A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing. He made Macbeth in England and back in Hollywood, Chinatown, in 1977, Polanski was arrested and charged with the rape of a 13-year-old model during a photo session. He subsequently pled guilty to the charge of statutory rape and he was released from prison after serving 42 days, and as part of an apparent plea bargain, was to be put on probation. When he learned that the judge changed his mind and planned to reject the plea bargain, in Europe, Polanski continued to make films, including Tess, starring aspiring actress, Nastassja Kinski. It won Frances César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director and he later produced and directed The Pianist, starring Adrien Brody, in a World War II true story drama about a Jewish-Polish musician. The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards and he also directed Oliver Twist, a story which parallels his own life as a young boy attempting to triumph over adversity. Polanski was born in Paris, the son of Bula and Ryszard Polański, a painter and manufacturer of sculptures and his mother had a daughter, Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, Polańskis father was Jewish and originally from Poland, Polańskis mother, born in Russia, had been raised Roman Catholic and was of half-Jewish ancestry. Polański, influenced by his education in the Peoples Republic of Poland, said Im an atheist in an interview about his film, Rosemarys Baby. The Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936, Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, and Nazi racial purity laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the citys Jews. Around the age of six, he attended school for only a few weeks, until all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled. That initiative was followed by requiring all Jewish children over the age of twelve to wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identificationRoman Polanski – Polanski at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival
27. Benedict Canyon – Benedict Canyon is an area in the Westside of the city of Los Angeles, California near Sherman Oaks northwest of Beverly Hills. Rainwater percolating over the ancient strata of all three canyons emerges at their lowest altitude as the springs feeding Franklins Lake and Creek, a cross-section of the land reveals granite, of volcanic origin, layered between worn river rocks and ocean bottom mud. Benedict Canyon was a part of Rancho de las Aguas, which also included present-day Beverly Hills and it was named by Edson A. Benedict, a storekeeper and native of Boonville, Missouri, who took a homestead in the Canyon in 1868. One of Mr. Benedicts sons, Pierce E. Benedict, in August 1969, the Tate murder took place in Cielo Drive. Sharon Tate, Roman Polanskis pregnant wife, and four others were killed by followers of Charles Manson at the couples 10050 Cielo Drive home, the place was later renamed 10060 Cielo Drive, and ultimately the house was razed, and another erected in its place. Author and LSD enthusiast Timothy Leary spent the last years of his life in a house in Benedict Canyon, homes range from smaller one story family residences to large properties. Homes are predominantly single-family and owner-occupied, and have two or more bedrooms, the median year in which the homes were built is 1960, and sales prices range from middle-class affordable, to high-end luxury. Benedict Canyon has a mix of vegetation and growth that is endemic to Southern California - oaks and grasses on the lower slopes, along nearby Franklins Creek can be found sycamores, ferns and vines. Evergreens, such as pines, cypresses, deodars and eucalyptus, were planted as settlers moved in, vegetation types within the Santa Monica Mountains range from moist coastal canyon bottoms in the Santa Monica Mountains, to desert transitional areas at the headwaters of the Santa Clara River. With the exception of the areas border the Mojave Desert. The resulting cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers create a Mediterranean-type ecosystem, by far, the dominant vegetation sub-type is chaparral. Chaparral is composed of drought- and fire-tolerant evergreen shrubs that range in height from four to ten feet, unless recently subjected to fire, or some other type of disturbance, this plant community is generally too dense to penetrate. Another unique shrub community to Southern California is sage scrub, which varies between coastal and inland types, sage scrub vegetation contains fewer stout, woody shrubs, and more openings with fine, delicate plants. The expansive valley floors between the ranges were plowed and farmed long ago. The precise former native plant cover of the San Fernando, Simi and it is suspected that native perennial bunch grasses were dominant elements. Throughout the zone, over ninety-five percent of the grasslands have been displaced by foreign invasive plants. The most common woodland species are various willows, coast live oak, California sycamore. Less common species that are relics of the last Ice Age include white alder, bigleaf maple, on slopes, and in valleys where rainfall concentrates, groves of evergreen coast live oaks are common throughout Benedict CanyonBenedict Canyon – Sunset
28. Charles Manson – Charles Milles Manson, 136–7 is an American criminal and former cult leader who led what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune that arose in California in the late 1960s. Mansons followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations over a period of five weeks in the middle of 1969. In 1971 he was guilty of conspiracy to commit the murders of seven people – most notably of the actress Sharon Tate – all of which were carried out by members of the group at his instruction. He is currently serving nine concurrent life sentences at Corcoran State Prison in Corcoran, Manson believed in what he called Helter Skelter, a term he took from the Beatles song of the same name. Manson believed Helter Skelter to be an impending race war. He believed the murders would help precipitate that war, from the beginning of his notoriety, a pop culture arose around him in which he ultimately became an emblem of insanity, violence and the macabre. At the time the Family began to form, Manson was a former convict. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through an association with Dennis Wilson, drummer. After Manson was charged with the crimes of which he was convicted, recordings of songs written. Various musicians have covered some of his songs, born to an unmarried 16-year-old named Kathleen Maddox, in the General Hospital, in Cincinnati, Ohio, Manson was first named no name Maddox. Within weeks, he was called Charles Milles Maddox. 136–7 For a period after his birth and his biological father appears to have been Colonel Walker Scott against whom Kathleen Maddox filed a paternity suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in 1937. In the biography Manson in His Own Words, Colonel Scott is said to have been a young drugstore cowboy, a transient laborer working on a nearby dam project. It is not clear what nearby means, the description is in a paragraph that indicates Kathleen Maddox gave birth to Manson while living in Cincinnati, after she had run away from her own home, in Ashland, Kentucky. There is much about Mansons early life that is in dispute because of the stories he has offered to interviewers. Mansons mother was allegedly a heavy drinker. 136–7 According to Manson, she sold her son for a pitcher of beer to a childless waitress. In 1947, Kathleen Maddox tried to have her son placed in a foster home, the court placed Manson in the Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana. He escaped after one day, but was recaptured and placed in Boys Town, four days after his arrival there, he escaped with another boy. The pair committed two armed robberies on their way to the home of the boys uncleCharles Manson – Manson in 2014
29. Doris Tate – Doris Gwendolyn Tate, an American activist for the rights of crime victims, was best known as the mother of actress Sharon Tate. After Sharon Tate and several others were murdered by members of the Manson Family in 1969 and she was influential in a court decision that amended California criminal laws relating to the rights of victims of violent crime. Born in Houston, Texas, Tate was the daughter of Dorris W. Willett and his wife. Doris was a housewife and mother of three daughters, in 1969, her eldest daughter, Sharon, was at the beginning of a film career, and married to film director Roman Polanski. Eight months pregnant with their first child, Tate and four others were murdered at the Polanskis rented Beverly Hills home in a case that was sensationalized throughout the world. The killers were identified as Charles Tex Watson, Susan Atkins and Patricia Krenwinkel, acting on behalf of the leader of their group. The death sentences were overturned before they could be applied when the State of California temporarily abolished the death penalty, for more than a decade after the murders, Tate battled depression and was withdrawn and unable to discuss her daughters death. In 1982 she was told that Leslie Van Houten had obtained 900 signatures supporting her quest to achieve parole. Tate mounted a campaign against Van Houten, winning the support of the National Enquirer. With more than 350,000 signatures, Tate demonstrated that a number of people opposed Van Houtens parole. Tate then appeared on television talk shows, discussing her opinion of the corrections system. She joined the Los Angeles chapter of the Parents of Murdered Children organization and she later became an active member of the Victim Offender Reconciliation and Justice for Homicide Victims groups. She founded COVER, the Coalition on Victims Equal Rights, and she was part of a group that worked toward the passage of Proposition 8, the Victims Rights Bill, which was passed in 1982. It allowed the presentation of victim impact statements during the sentencing of violent attackers, Tate became the first Californian to make such a statement after the law was passed, when she spoke at the parole hearing of one of her daughters killers. In 1984 she ran for the California State Assembly as an advocate for victims rights, Tates assessment of Manson, Watson, Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten was that their crimes were so vicious as to warrant execution. Addressing Charles Watson at his 1984 parole hearing, she said, What mercy, Sir, what mercy did you show my daughter when she said give me two weeks to have my baby and then you can kill me. When will Sharon come up for parole, will these seven victims and possibly more walk out of their graves if you get paroled. She confronted Watson again at his 1990 parole hearing, Doris Tates health began to deteriorate after she was diagnosed with a brain tumourDoris Tate – Tate (seated) in 1992 being acknowledged by President George H. W. Bush for her work in support of victims' rights. Also pictured are Tate's daughters Patti (left) and Debra (right).
30. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
31. Judy Garland – Judy Garland was an American singer, actress, and vaudevillian. Garland began performing in vaudeville with her two sisters and was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. She made more than two films with MGM, including nine with Mickey Rooney. Garlands most famous role was as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz and her other roles at MGM included Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls and Easter Parade. After 15 years, she was released from the studio and made record-breaking concert appearances, a recording career. Film appearances became fewer in her years, but included two Academy Award nominated performances in A Star Is Born and Judgment at Nuremberg. Garland received a Golden Globe Award, a Juvenile Academy Award, and a Special Tony Award, deMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. She was the first woman to win a Grammy for Album of the Year for her recording of Judy at Carnegie Hall. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema, from an early age, Garland struggled in her personal life. The pressures of adolescent stardom sent her to a psychiatrist at age 18 and her self-image was influenced by film executives who said she was unattractive and manipulated her on-screen physical appearance. She was plagued by instability, often owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes. She married five times, with her first four marriages ending in divorce and she also had a long battle with drugs and alcohol, which ultimately led to her death from a barbiturate overdose at the age of 47. Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10,1922, in Grand Rapids and she was the youngest child of Ethel Marion and Francis Avent Frank Gumm. Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a theater that featured vaudeville acts. She was of English, Scottish, and Irish ancestry, named after both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church, baby shared her familys flair for song and dance. The Gumm Sisters performed there for the few years, accompanied by their mother on piano. The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, and Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into motion picturesJudy Garland – Garland's birthplace in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, now a museum
32. Golden Globe Award – Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a part of the film industrys awards season. The 74th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film, the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, was held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel. In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish an honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as a figure within the entertainment industry. The official name of the award became the Cecil B. In 1963, the Miss Golden Globe concept was introduced, in its inaugural year, two Miss Golden Globes were named, one for film and one for television. The two Miss Golden Globes named that year were Eva Six and Donna Douglas, respectively, in 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned. It was unveiled at a conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. The broadcast of the Golden Globe Awards, telecast to 167 countries worldwide, generally ranks as the third most-watched awards show each year, behind only the Oscars, gervais returned to host the 68th and 69th Golden Globe Awards the next two years. Tina Fey and Amy Poehler hosted the 70th, 71st and 72nd Golden Globe Awards in 2015, the Golden Globe Awards theme song, which debuted in 2012, was written by Japanese musician and songwriter Yoshiki Hayashi. On January 7,2008, it was announced due to the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike. The ceremony was faced with a threat by striking writers to picket the event, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association was forced to adopt another approach for the broadcast. In acting categories, Meryl Streep holds the record for the most competitive Golden Globe wins with eight, however, including honorary awards, such as the Henrietta Award, World Film Favorite Actor/Actress Award, or Cecil B. DeMille Award, Barbra Streisand leads with nine, additionally, Streisand won for composing the song Evergreen, producing the Best Picture, and directing Yentl in 1984. Jack Nicholson, Angela Lansbury, Alan Alda and Shirley MacLaine have six awards each, behind them are Rosalind Russell and Jessica Lange with five wins. Meryl Streep also holds the record for most nominations with thirty, at the 46th Golden Globe Awards an anomaly occurred, a three way-tie for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – DramaGolden Globe Award – The Golden Globe statuette
33. Antoinette Perry Award – The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at a ceremony in New York City. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre, several discretionary non-competitive awards are also given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award. The awards are named after Antoinette Tony Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, the rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wings Tony Awards, which applies for that season only. It also forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is someone who has won all four awards, the Tony Awards are also considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Award in the United Kingdom and the Molière Award of France. From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, in 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre. From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, and 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall, the 70th Tony Awards were held on June 12,2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards will be held on June 11,2017, as of 2014, there are 24 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years, some examples, the category Best Book of a Musical was originally called Best Author. The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards, for two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer and Best Costume Designer. It then went to a category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a category was for directors of plays. A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the ceremony in 2009. The award is for an individual who has made a contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian. The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season, the categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014-2015 season. Performance categories Show and technical categories Special awards Retired awards The award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, director, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946. As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, At Jacob Wilks suggestion, proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting, at the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a TonyAntoinette Perry Award – Designed by Herman Rosse, 1949
34. Grammy Awards – A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards. The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4,1959, to honor, following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 59th Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 2015 to September 2016, was held on February 12,2017, the Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating a given by their industry similar to the Oscars. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts, after it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of what to call it, one working title was the Eddie, to honor the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards, also held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado. In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, which is trademarked. The trophies with the name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements. By February 2009,7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded, the General Field are four awards which are not restricted by genre. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the team of a full album if other than the performer. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the team of a single song if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song, Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist. The only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, and Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017. Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other such as artwork. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry, the many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast Premiere Ceremony earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecastGrammy Awards – Grammy Awards
35. Over the Rainbow – Over the Rainbow is a ballad, with music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by Yip Harburg. It was written for the movie The Wizard of Oz and was sung by actress Judy Garland, the song won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and became Garlands signature song, as well as one of the most enduring standards of the 20th century. Dorothys Aunt Em tells her to find yourself a place where you wont get into any trouble and this prompts Dorothy to walk off by herself, musing to Toto, Some place where there isnt any trouble. Do you suppose there is such a place, Toto and its not a place you can get to by a boat, or a train. Behind the moon, beyond the rain, at which point she begins singing. The song is one on the Songs of the Century list compiled by the Recording Industry Association of America. The American Film Institute also ranked Over the Rainbow the greatest movie song of all time on the list of AFIs 100 Years.100 Songs and it was adopted by American troops in Europe in World War II, as a symbol of the United States. Garland performed the song for the troops as part of a 1943 performance, in April 2005, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp recognizing lyricist Yip Harburgs accomplishments, the stamp features the opening lyric from Over the Rainbow. The song was used as a wakeup call in the STS-88 Space shuttle mission in Flight Day 4. The song was honored with the 2014 Towering Song Award by the Songwriters Hall of Fame and was sung at its dinner on June 12,2014 by Jackie Evancho. In April 2016, The Daily Telegraph listed the song as number 8 on its list of the 100 greatest songs of all time, the Over the Rainbow sequence and the entirety of the Kansas scenes were directed by King Vidor, though he was not credited. At the start of the film, part of the song is played by the MGM orchestra over the opening credits, a reprise of the song was deleted after being filmed. An additional chorus was to be sung by Dorothy while she was locked in a room in the witchs castle, helplessly awaiting death as the witchs hourglass ran out. In that extremely intense and fear-filled rendition, Dorothy weeps her way through it, unable to finish, concluding with a tear-filled, Im frightened, another instrumental version is played in the underscore in the final scene, and over the closing credits. On October 7,1938, Judy Garland first recorded the song on the MGM soundstages, in September 1939, a studio recording of the song, not from the actual film soundtrack, was recorded and released as a single by Decca Records. In March 1940, that recording was included on a Decca 78-RPM four-record studio cast album entitled The Wizard of Oz. It was not until 1956, when MGM released the soundtrack album from the film. The 1956 soundtrack release was timed to coincide with the premiere of the movieOver the Rainbow – Judy Garland performing the song in the 1939 feature film, The Wizard of Oz.
36. Paul Newman – Paul Leonard Newman was an American actor. Newmans other films include The Hustler, Cool Hand Luke, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid as Butch Cassidy, The Sting, and The Verdict. Despite being colorblind, Newman won several championships as a driver in Sports Car Club of America road racing. He was a co-founder of Newmans Own, a company from which he donated all post-tax profits. As of 2016, these donations have totaled over US$460 million and he was also a co-founder of Safe Water Network, a nonprofit that develops sustainable drinking water solutions for those in need. In 1988, Newman founded the SeriousFun Childrens Network, a family of summer camps. Newman was born in Shaker Heights, Ohio, the son of Theresa and Arthur Sigmund Newman. Newmans father was Jewish, and was the son of Simon Newman and Hannah Cohn, immigrants from Hungary, Newman had no religion as an adult, but described himself as a Jew, saying its more of a challenge. Newmans mother worked in his fathers store, while raising Paul and his brother, Arthur. Newman showed an early interest in the theater, his first role was at the age of seven, playing the court jester in a school production of Robin Hood. At age 10, Newman performed at the Cleveland Play House in a production of Saint George and the Dragon, graduating from Shaker Heights High School in 1943, he briefly attended Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, where he was initiated into the Phi Kappa Tau fraternity. Newman served in the United States Navy in World War II in the Pacific theater, initially, he enrolled in the Navy V-12 pilot training program at Yale University, but was dropped when his colorblindness was discovered. Boot camp followed, with training as a radioman and rear gunner, qualifying in torpedo bombers in 1944, Aviation Radioman Third Class Newman was sent to Barbers Point, Hawaii. He later flew as a gunner in an Avenger torpedo bomber. As a radioman-gunner, his unit was assigned to the USS Bunker Hill along with other replacements shortly before the Battle of Okinawa in the spring of 1945, the pilot of his aircraft had an ear infection which kept their plane grounded. The rest of their squadron flew to the Bunker Hill, days later, a kamikaze attack on the vessel killed a number of service members, including the other members of his unit. After the war, Newman completed his Bachelor of Arts in drama and economics at Kenyon College in Gambier, shortly after earning his degree, he joined several summer stock companies, most notably the Belfry Players in Wisconsin and the Woodstock Players in Illinois. He toured with them for three months and developed his talents as a part of Woodstock Players and he later attended the Yale School of Drama for one year, before moving to New York City to study under Lee Strasberg at the Actors StudioPaul Newman – Newman in The Prize (1963)
37. 300 (film) – 300 is a 2006 American epic fantasy war film based on the 1998 comic series of the same name by Frank Miller and Lynn Varley. Both are fictionalized retellings of the Battle of Thermopylae within the Persian Wars, the film was directed by Zack Snyder, while Miller served as executive producer and consultant. It was filmed mostly with a chroma key technique, to help replicate the imagery of the original comic book. The plot revolves around King Leonidas, who leads 300 Spartans into battle against the Persian god-King Xerxes, as the battle rages, Queen Gorgo attempts to rally support in Sparta for her husband. The story is framed by a narrative by the Spartan soldier Dilios. Through this narrative technique, various fantastical creatures are introduced, placing 300 within the genre of historical fantasy, the events are revealed to be a story told by Delios, the only one of the 300 Spartans to survive the battle. 300 was released in conventional and IMAX theaters in the United States on March 9,2007, and on DVD, Blu-ray Disc. A sequel, entitled Rise of an Empire, which is based on Millers unpublished graphic novel prequel Xerxes, was released on March 7,2014. In 479 BC, one year after the famed Battle of Thermopylae, Dilios, the Ephors consult the Oracle, who decrees that Sparta will not go to war during the Carneia. As Leonidas angrily departs, a messenger from Xerxes appears, rewarding the Ephors for their covert support, at Thermopylae, they construct the wall made up of stones and slain Persian scouts as mortar, angering the Persian Emissary. Stelios, an elite Spartan soldier, orders him to go back to the Persian lines, meanwhile, Leonidas encounters Ephialtes, a deformed Spartan whose parents fled Sparta to spare him certain infanticide. Ephialtes asks to redeem his fathers name by joining Leonidas army, warning him of a path the Persians could use to outflank. Though sympathetic, Leonidas rejects him since his deformity physically prevents him from holding his shield high enough, potentially compromising the phalanx formation, the battle begins soon after the Spartans refusal to lay down their weapons. Using the Hot Gates to their advantage, as well as their superior fighting skills, in response, Xerxes sends in his elite guard, the Immortals, later that night. Despite some Spartans being killed, they defeat the Immortals. On the second day, Xerxes sends in new waves of armies from Asia and other Persian city-states, including war elephants, to crush the Spartans once and for all, but to no avail. Meanwhile, Ephialtes defects to Xerxes to whom he reveals the secret path in exchange for wealth, luxury, the Arcadians retreat upon learning of Ephialtes betrayal, but the Spartans stay. Leonidas orders an injured but reluctant Dilios to return to Sparta and tell them of what has happened, in Sparta, Queen Gorgo tries to persuade the Spartan Council to send reinforcements to aid the 300300 (film) – Theatrical release poster
38. Aitraaz – Aitraaz is a 2004 Indian Hindi-language romantic thriller film directed by Abbas–Mustan. Produced by Subhash Ghai, it stars Akshay Kumar, Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra, Aitraaz features Amrish Puri, Paresh Rawal and Annu Kapoor in supporting roles. The screenplay was written by Shyam Goel and Shiraz Ahmed, the film tells the story of a man accused of sexual harassment by his female superior. It was released on 12 November 2004 to positive reviews, Chopra receiving widespread acclaim for her performance as Sonia Roy. Aitraaz was a success, grossing over ₹260 million at the box office against a budget of ₹110 million. It has been noted for its subject of sexual harassment. Aitraaz received several accolades, particularly for Chopra, at the 50th Filmfare Awards, she received two nominations, Best Supporting Actress and Best Performance in a Negative Role, winning the latter and thus becoming the second actress to win the award. Chopra also won the Bengal Film Journalists Association Award for Best Actress, the film received ten nominations at the 2005 IIFA Awards, winning three. Priya Saxena, has just completed LLB and is desperately in search of a job, from a classifieds section of newspaper, she calls and schedules an interview with barrister Ram Chautrani. Raj Malhotra is an engineer for a telecommunications company, Air Voice. He is in need of a maid for his house, and so his colleague and friend Rakesh finds, Raj and Ram are neighbours and stay in opposite houses having numbers 13 and 30. Kanchan and Priya reaches the place, after getting confused on the house number, both enter the wrong house. Priya goes to Rajs house for an interview, mistaking him for barrister Ram, though Raj identifies that she has come to the wrong place, he does not reveal the truth as he gets attracted to her. Based on the advice from Rakesh, in not to lose Priya. However Priya gets to know the truth, since she too is attracted by Rajs behaviour, they fall in love, marry and are soon expecting a child. Raj buys a new villa, partly on loan, on the companys annual day, Raj expects to be promoted to CEO when the companys chairman Ranjit Roy arrives with his new wife, Sonia Roy to announce the promotions. Sonia Roy is named the companys new Chairperson, and after a discussion with her husband for a moment, the CEO position instead goes to Rajs friend Rakesh, while Raj is elevated and placed on the Board of Directors. At a party night, Raj, accompanied by Priya, learns about his new bossAitraaz – Theatrical release poster
39. Alien vs. Predator (film) – Alien vs. Predator is a 2004 science fiction action horror film directed by Paul W. S. Anderson and starring Sanaa Lathan, Lance Henriksen and Raoul Bova. Anderson, Dan OBannon and Ronald Shusett wrote the story, and Anderson and their writing was influenced by Aztec mythology, the comic book series, and the writings of Erich von Däniken. Set in 2004, this follows a group of archaeologists assembled by billionaire Charles Bishop Weyland for an expedition near the Antarctic to investigate a mysterious heat signal. Weyland hopes to claim the find for himself, and his group discovers a pyramid below the surface of a whaling station, hieroglyphs and sculptures reveal that the pyramid is a hunting ground for young Predators who kill Aliens as a rite of passage. The humans are caught in the middle of a battle between the two species and attempt to prevent the Aliens from reaching the surface, the film was released on August 13,2004 in North America and received negative reviews from film critics. The film grossed over $172 million at the box office. The film was followed by a sequel, Aliens vs. Predator, in 2004, a satellite detects a mysterious heat bloom beneath Bouvetøya, an island about one thousand miles off the coast of Antarctica. Wealthy industrialist Charles Bishop Weyland discovers through thermal imaging that there is a pyramid buried 2000 feet beneath the ice and he attempts to claim it for his multinational communications company, Weyland Industries, a subsidiary of the Weyland Corporation, and assembles a team of experts to investigate. The team includes archaeologists, linguistic experts, drillers, mercenaries, as a Predator ship reaches Earths orbit, it fires a beam that creates a passage through the ice towards the source of the heat bloom. When the team arrives at the whaling station above the heat source, they find the passage. Meanwhile, three Predators arrive and kill all the humans on the surface and they make their way down to the pyramid and arrive just as the team unwittingly activates the structure. The Alien Queen awakes from cryogenic stasis and begins to produce eggs, when the eggs hatch, several facehuggers attach themselves to humans trapped in the sacrificial chamber. Chestbursters emerge from the humans and quickly grow into adult Aliens, conflict erupts between the Predators, Aliens, and humans, resulting in several deaths. Two Predators are killed by an Alien, and Weyland is killed by the remaining Predator, Scar, while allowing Alexa, the two witness the Predator kill a facehugger and an Alien with a shuriken before unmasking and marking himself with the blood of the facehugger. After Alexa and Sebastian leave, another facehugger attaches itself to the unmasked Predator, through translation of the pyramids hieroglyphs, Alexa and Sebastian learn that the Predators have been visiting Earth for thousands of years. It was they who taught early human civilizations how to build pyramids, if overwhelmed, the Predators would activate a self-destruct device to eliminate the Aliens and themselves. The two deduce that this is why the current Predators are at the pyramid, and that the bloom was to attract humans for the sole purpose of making new Aliens to hunt. Alexa and Sebastian decide that the Predators must be allowed to succeed in their hunt so that the Aliens do not reach the surface, then Sebastian is captured by an Alien, leaving only Alexa and Scar to fight against the AliensAlien vs. Predator (film) – Theatrical release poster
40. American Beauty (1999 film) – American Beauty is a 1999 American drama film directed by Sam Mendes and written by Alan Ball. Kevin Spacey stars as Lester Burnham, a 42-year-old advertising executive who has a crisis when he becomes infatuated with his teenaged daughters best friend. Annette Bening co-stars as Lesters materialistic wife, Carolyn, and Thora Birch plays their insecure daughter, Wes Bentley, Chris Cooper, and Allison Janney also feature. Ball began writing American Beauty as a play in the early 1990s and he shelved the play after realizing the story would not work on stage. After several years as a screenwriter, Ball revived the idea in 1997 when attempting to break into the film industry. The modified script had a cynical outlook that was influenced by Balls frustrating tenures writing for several sitcoms, producers Dan Jinks and Bruce Cohen took American Beauty to DreamWorks, the then-fledgling film studio bought Balls script for $250,000, outbidding several other production bodies. DreamWorks financed the $15 million production and served as its North American distributor, principal photography took place between December 1998 and February 1999 on soundstages at the Warner Bros. backlot in Burbank, California, and on location in Los Angeles. Mendes dominant style was deliberate and composed, he made use of static shots and slow pans. Cinematographer Conrad Hall complemented Mendes style with peaceful shot compositions to contrast with the turbulent on-screen events, during editing, Mendes made several changes that gave the film a less cynical tone than the script. Released in North America on September 17,1999, American Beauty was positively received by critics, reviewers praised most aspects of the production, with particular emphasis on Mendes, Spacey, and Ball, criticism focused on the familiarity of the characters and setting. It was nominated for and won other awards and honors, mainly for the direction, writing. Lester Burnham is an advertising executive and magazine writer who despises his job. He is unhappily married to Carolyn, a neurotic yet fiercely ambitious real estate broker who grows red roses in their yard, their daughter, Jane. His job as a part-time bar caterer serves as a front for his secret marijuana dealings, Frank is a strict disciplinarian who previously sent Ricky to a military school and briefly committed him to a psychiatric hospital. Jim Olmeyer and Jim Berkley, a gay couple who live nearby, on the way to school, Frank reveals his homophobia while he angrily discusses the incident with Ricky. Lester becomes infatuated with Janes vain friend, Angela Hayes, after seeing her perform a dance routine at a high school basketball game with Jane. He starts having sexual fantasies about Angela, in red rose petals are a recurring motif. Carolyn begins an affair with her married business rival, Buddy Kane, when Lesters boss and efficiency expert, Brad, tells him that he is to be laid off, Lester instead blackmails him for $60,000 and quits his jobAmerican Beauty (1999 film) – Theatrical release poster
41. Andha Naal – Andha Naal is a 1954 Indian Tamil-language mystery-thriller film, produced by A. V. Meiyappan and directed by Sundaram Balachander. It is the first film noir in Tamil cinema, and the first Tamil film to be made without songs, dance, set in the milieu of World War II, the story is about the killing of a radio engineer Rajan. The suspects are Rajans wife Usha, the neighbour Chinnaiah Pillai, Rajans brother Pattabi, Rajans sister-in-law Hema, each ones account of the incident points to a new suspect. The lead role was offered to S. V. Sahasranamam and N. Viswanathan. The screenplay and dialogue were written by Javar Seetharaman, who played a prominent role as an investigative officer in the film. Cinematography was handled by S. Maruti Rao, and the score was composed by AVM Productions own music troupe. The film was shorter than most contemporaneous Tamil films and it was the only film directed by Balachander for AVM Productions. The film was released on 13 April 1954, on the eve of Puthandu and it was critically acclaimed and was awarded a Certificate of Merit for Second Best Feature Film in Tamil at the 2nd National Film Awards in 1955. Despite being a failure at the time of its original release, it has acquired cult status over the years. In 2013, Andha Naal was included in CNN-News18s list of the 100 Greatest Indian Films of All Time, on the night of 11 October 1943, during World War II, Japanese forces bomb the Indian city of Madras. Purushothaman Naidu, a police inspector, arrives at Rajans house. Crime Investigation Department Officer Sivanandam joins Naidu to help with the investigation, Naidu suggests that the killer could be a thief who killed Rajan for the money found at the crime scene. However, Sivanandam is unconvinced by Naidus theory because the amount of money at the matches the withdrawal entry in the bank passbook found in the same room. Rajan was about to leave Madras in anticipation of the bombings, the two policemen question five people in and around Rajans house, most of whom are his family members or friends. The first to be questioned is Rajans wife Usha, who is unable to speak because of her grief, Sivanandam and Naidu feel embarrassed and are reluctant to question her further. They begin interrogating Pillai, who reported the gunshot, Pillai concludes that this may have prompted Pattabi to kill Rajan. When Sivanandam and Naidu interrogate Pattabi, who feels remorse for Rajans death and he recounts an incident in which his wife Hema fought with Rajan because he refused to apportion the property. Pattabi states that Hema could have killed Rajan for the money as she loses her sanity when overpowered by anger, Sivanandam leaves Naidu to interrogate HemaAndha Naal – Theatrical release poster
42. Asmara Moerni – Asmara Moerni is a 1941 romance film from the Dutch East Indies directed by Rd Ariffien and produced by Ang Hock Liem for Union Films. Written by Saeroen, the followed a doctor who falls in love with his maid. Starring Adnan Kapau Gani, Djoewariah, and S. Joesoef, despite mixed reviews, it was a commercial success. As with most films of the Indies, Asmara Moerni may be lost, after four years of doing his residency in Singkawang, Borneo, Dr. Pardi returns to Java to open a practice. Before then, he goes to Cigading to visit his family, upon arrival he is stunned to find that his familys maid Tati, who had been his childhood playmate, is now a grown and beautiful woman. He secretly begins to fawn over Tati, although he does not tell her the reason, when Pardis mother tells him he should marry quickly, he refuses all of her suggested brides. He says only that he already has someone in mind, aware that his mother would never approve a marriage with the maid. Tatis fiancé, Amir, is jealous of all the attention that Tati is receiving and he plans to leave Cigading for the capital, Batavia, where he will find work. Tati, upon learning this, joins him and she lives at her aunts home in the city, making a living by washing clothes, while he finds lodging with a local man and learns to drive a becak. Together they begin saving for their wedding, unknown to them, Pardi has cut short his time in Cigading to move to Batavia, both to begin his new job and to find Tati. Days before the wedding, Amir is playing his flute when he is approached by a known as Miss Omi. Amir refuses, even after Omi hires him to drive her around the city in an attempt to convince him. After dropping Omi off, Amir is approached by a man who asks him to deliver a package, however, when Amir does not return, Tati and her aunt are worried, as Tati saw Amir with Omi, she fears that the two have run away together. Heartbroken, she intends to return to Cigading, when she and her aunt visit their boss, Abdul Sidik, they unknowingly pass Pardi – Abdul Sidiks doctor. Upon returning home, Pardi calls Abdul Sidik and asks him to take Tati in as if she were his daughter, Tati is a fast learner, and is soon comparable to any woman from a wealthy family. After being held eighteen months without trial, Amir is released and returned to Batavia and he is unable to find Tati, leaving him to wander the streets. Omi spots him, and again she asks him to play with her troupe, Amir agrees, and soon newspapers are filled with advertisements touting his name. Spotting one, Tati and Abdul Sidik go to a performance, at the hospital, where Amir is being treated by Pardi, Tati learns the truth behind Amirs absenceAsmara Moerni – Cover of the novelisation
43. B movie – A B movie is a low-budget commercial movie, but one that is not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, although the U. S. production of movies intended as second features largely ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in the broader sense it maintains today. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction, early B movies were often part of series in which the star repeatedly played the same character. Almost always shorter than the films they were paired with. The term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more handsomely budgeted headliners, latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels, but series are less common. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures, the term is also now used loosely to refer to some higher-budgeted, mainstream films with exploitation-style content, usually in genres traditionally associated with the B movie. From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies and they are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, and they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black. Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine and Pam Grier, the term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work primarily or exclusively in B pictures. In 1927–28, at the end of the silent era, the production cost of a feature from a major Hollywood studio ranged from $190,000 at Fox to $275,000 at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. That average reflected both specials that might cost as much as $1 million and films made quickly for around $50,000. These cheaper films allowed the studios to derive value from facilities. Studios in the leagues of the industry, such as Columbia Pictures and Film Booking Offices of America. Their movies, with short running times, targeted theaters that had to economize on rental and operating costs, particularly small-town and urban neighborhood venues. A new programming scheme developed that would become standard practice, a newsreel, a short and/or serial. The second feature, which screened before the main event. The majors clearance rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents timely access to top-quality films, the low-budget picture of the 1920s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywoods Golden Age. The major studios, at first resistant to the double feature, all established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature marketB movie – The "King of the Bs", Roger Corman, produced and directed The Raven (1963) for American International Pictures. Vincent Price headlines a cast of veteran character actors along with a young Jack Nicholson.
44. Blade Runner – Blade Runner is a 1982 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos. The film, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is an adaptation of the 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. by Philip K. Dick. The film depicts a dystopian Los Angeles in which genetically engineered replicants, the use of replicants on Earth is banned and they are exclusively utilized for dangerous or menial work on off-world colonies. Replicants who defy the ban and return to Earth are hunted down, during his investigations, Deckard begins a relationship with Rachael, an advanced replicant who causes him to question his and the replicants humanity. Blade Runner initially polarized critics, some were displeased with the pacing, the year following its release, the film won the prestigious Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Blade Runner underperformed in North American theaters, but has become a cult film. Hailed for its design, depicting a retrofitted future, it remains a leading example of the neo-noir genre. It brought the work of Philip K. Dick to the attention of Hollywood, Ridley Scott regards Blade Runner as probably his most complete and personal film. In 1993, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed culturally, historically, Blade Runner is now regarded by many critics as one of the all-time best science fiction films. Seven versions of the film have been shown for various markets as a result of changes made by film executives. A Directors Cut was released in 1992 after a response to workprint screenings. This, in conjunction with its popularity as a rental, made it one of the first films released on DVD, resulting in a basic disc with mediocre video. A sequel, Blade Runner 2049, is scheduled for release in 2017, in Los Angeles in November 2019, ex-police officer Rick Deckard is detained by officer Gaff and brought to his former supervisor, Bryant. Deckard, whose job as a Blade Runner was to track down bioengineered beings known as replicants, as Tyrell Corporation Nexus-6 models, they have only a four-year lifespan and may have come to Earth to try to extend their lives. Deckard watches a video of a Blade Runner named Holden administering the Voight-Kampff test designed to distinguish replicants from humans based on their response to questions. The test subject, Leon, shoots Holden after Holden asks about Leons mother, Bryant wants Deckard to retire Leon and the other three replicants, Roy Batty, Zhora, and Pris. Deckard initially refuses, but after Bryant ambiguously threatens him, he reluctantly agrees, Deckard begins his investigation at the Tyrell Corporation to ensure that the test works on Nexus-6 models. While there, he discovers that Dr. Eldon Tyrells assistant Rachael is a replicant who believes herself to be humanBlade Runner – Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
45. Borat – Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan is a 2006 British-American mockumentary comedy film. The film was directed by Larry Charles and distributed by 20th Century Fox, much of the film features unscripted vignettes of Borat interviewing and interacting with Americans, who believe he is a foreigner with little or no understanding of American customs. The film is produced by Baron Cohens production company, Four By Two Productions. Baron Cohen won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, as Borat, Borat was also nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay at the 79th Academy Awards. Controversy surrounded the film two years prior to its release, and after the films release, some cast members spoke against. It was banned in all Arab countries except Lebanon and heavily censored in United Arab Emirates, and it was released on DVD5 March 2007. At the behest of the Kazakh Ministry of Information, reporter Borat Sagdiyev leaves Kazakhstan for the Greatest Country in the World and his companions are his producer Azamat Bagatov and a pet hen. In New York, Borat sees an episode of Baywatch on TV and immediately falls in love with Pamela Andersons character, while interviewing and mocking a panel of feminists, he learns of the actress name and her residence in California. Borat is then informed by telegram that Oksana has been killed by a bear, delighted, he secretly resolves to travel to California and make Anderson his new wife. He makes excuses to convince Azamat to travel to California with him, Azamat is afraid of flying because of the September 11,2001, attacks, which he believes were the work of Jews. Borat, therefore, takes driving lessons and buys a dilapidated Gaz ice-cream truck for the journey, during the trip, Borat acquires a Baywatch booklet at a yard sale and continues gathering footage for his documentary. He meets gay pride parade participants, politicians Alan Keyes and Bob Barr, Borat is also interviewed on live television and disrupts the weather report. Staying at a bed-and-breakfast, Borat and Azamat are stunned to learn their hosts are Jewish, fearful at the hands of their hosts, the two escape after throwing money at two woodlice, believing they are their Jewish hosts transformed. Borat attempts to buy a handgun to defend himself, but is turned away because he is not an American citizen, Borat purchases a bear for protection. Borat seeks advice from a coach who suggests Borat attend a private dinner at an eating club in the South. During the dinner, he insults or otherwise offends the other guests, when he lets Luenell, an African-American prostitute, into the house and shows her to the table, they both get kicked out. Borat befriends Luenell, and she invites him into a relationship with her, Borat then visits an antique shop with a display of Confederate heritage items, and clumsily breaks various items. At a hotel, Borat, just out of the bath, an angry Borat accidentally reveals his real motive for traveling to CaliforniaBorat – Theatrical release poster in faux Cyrillic
46. Branded to Kill – Branded to Kill is a 1967 Japanese yakuza film directed by Seijun Suzuki and starring Joe Shishido, Koji Nanbara and Annu Mari. It was a low budget, production number for the Nikkatsu Company. The story follows Goro Hanada in his life as a contract killer and he falls in love with a woman named Misako, who recruits him for a seemingly impossible mission. When the mission fails, he becomes hunted by the phantom Number One Killer, the studio was unhappy with the original script and called in Suzuki to rewrite and direct it at the last minute. Suzuki came up many of his ideas the night before or on the set while filming. He gave the film a satirical, anarchic and visually eclectic bent which the studio had previously warned him away from and it was a commercial and critical disappointment and Suzuki was ostensibly fired for making movies that make no sense and no money. Suzuki successfully sued Nikkatsu with support from student groups, like-minded filmmakers, Suzuki was blacklisted and did not make another feature film for 10 years but became a counterculture hero. The film grew a following, which expanded overseas in the 1980s. Film critics and enthusiasts now regard it as an absurdist masterpiece and it has been cited as an influence by filmmakers such as Jim Jarmusch, John Woo, Chan-wook Park and Quentin Tarantino, and composer John Zorn. Thirty-four years after Branded to Kill, Suzuki filmed Pistol Opera with Nikkatsu, the company has also hosted two major retrospectives spotlighting his career. Goro Hanada, the Japanese underworlds third-ranked hitman, and his wife, Mami, fly into Tokyo and are met by Kasuga, Kasuga petitions Hanada to assist him in breaking back into the profession. Hanada agrees and the three go to a club owned by the yakuza boss Michihiko Yabuhara, the two men are hired to escort a client from Sagami Beach to Nagano. After the meeting, Yabuhara covertly seduces Hanadas wife, Hanada and Kasuga pick up a car designated for the job which unexpectedly has a corpse in the back seat. They dispose of the body, then meet the client and proceed towards their destination, en route Hanada spots an ambush. He dispatches a number of gunmen while Kasuga panics and flails about in hysterics, foaming at the mouth, Kasuga charges an ambusher, Koh, the fourth-ranked hitman, and they kill each other. Hanada leaves the client to secure Kohs car but hears three gunshots and rushes back to find the client is safe and three additional ambushers have been shot cleanly through the forehead. At a second ambush, Hanada kills more gunmen and sets Sakura, Sakura madly rushes towards the client but is shot dead by him. On his way home Hanadas car breaks down, Misako, a mysterious woman with a deathwish, stops and gives him a rideBranded to Kill – Original Japanese theatrical poster
47. But I'm a Cheerleader – But Im a Cheerleader is a 1999 satirical romantic comedy film directed by Jamie Babbit and written by Brian Wayne Peterson. Natasha Lyonne stars as Megan Bloomfield, a high school whose parents send her to a residential inpatient conversion therapy camp to cure her lesbianism. There Megan soon comes to embrace her sexual orientation, despite the therapy, the supporting cast includes Melanie Lynskey, Dante Basco, Eddie Cibrian, Clea DuVall, Cathy Moriarty, RuPaul, Richard Moll, Mink Stole, Kip Pardue, Michelle Williams, and Bud Cort. But Im a Cheerleader was Babbits first feature film and it was inspired by an article about conversion therapy and her childhood familiarity with rehabilitation programs. She used the story of a woman finding her sexual identity to explore the social construction of gender roles. The costume and set design of the film highlighted these themes using artificial textures in intense blues, when it was initially rated as NC-17 by the MPAA, Babbit made cuts to allow it to be re-rated as R. When interviewed in the documentary film This Film Is Not Yet Rated Babbit criticized the MPAA for discriminating against films with gay content, many critics did not like the film, comparing it unfavorably with the films of John Waters and criticizing the colorful production design. Although the lead actors were praised for their performances, some of the characters were described as stereotypical, seventeen-year-old Megan is a sunny high school senior who loves cheerleading and is dating football player Jared. She does not enjoy kissing Jared, however, and prefers looking at her fellow cheerleaders, combined with Megans interest in vegetarianism and Melissa Etheridge, her family and friends suspect that Megan is in fact a lesbian. With the help of ex-gay Mike, they surprise her with an intervention, following this confrontation, Megan is sent to True Directions, a reparative therapy camp which uses a five-step program to convert its campers to heterosexuality. At True Directions, Megan meets the founder, strict disciplinarian Mary Brown, Marys supposedly heterosexual son Rock, with the prompting of Mary and the other campers, Megan reluctantly agrees that she is a lesbian. This fact, at odds with her traditional, religious upbringing, distresses her, early on in her stay at True Directions, Megan discovers two of the boys, Dolph and Clayton, making out. She panics and screams, leading to their discovery by Mike, Dolph is made to leave and Clayton is punished by being forced into isolation. When Mary discovers the trip, she makes them all picket Larry and Lloyds house, carrying placards, Megan and Graham sneak away one night to have sex and begin to fall in love. When Mary finds out, Megan, now at ease with her identity, is unrepentant. She is made to leave True Directions and, now homeless, goes to stay with Larry, Graham, afraid to defy her father, remains at the camp. Megan and Dolph, who is living with Larry and Lloyd, plan to win back Graham. Megan and Dolph infiltrate the True Directions graduation ceremony where Dolph easily coaxes Clayton away, Megan entreats Graham to join them as well, but Graham nervously declinesBut I'm a Cheerleader – Original film poster
48. The Carpet from Bagdad – The Carpet from Bagdad is a 1915 American silent adventure film directed by Colin Campbell and based on Harold MacGraths 1911 eponymous novel. In the story, Horace Wadsworth, one of a gang of criminals also planning a robbery in New York. He sells the carpet to antique dealer George Jones to fund the robbery scheme, but the theft places both men and Fortune Chedsoye, the innocent daughter of another conspirator, in danger from the carpets guardian. Marketing for the film included a tour of part of the set. The Carpet from Bagdad was released on 3 May 1915 to mostly positive reviews, many praised the tinted desert scenes and realistic Middle East imagery, although some felt the scenery overshadowed the characters. The film is now mostly lost, although one badly damaged reel was salvaged from the RMS Lusitania in 1982, Horace Wadsworth, disinherited brother of New York banker Arthur Wadsworth, joins a gang of international criminals. He plots to rob his brothers bank by constructing a tunnel from the home of antique dealer George Jones. Horace follows him there, and, learning of the Sacred Carpet of Bagdad, joins the caravan of its sworn guardian, Mohamed. Meanwhile, Horaces confederates Major Callahan and Mrs. Chedsoye arrive in Cairo along with Mrs. Chedsoyes daughter, Fortune, when the criminals meet with Jones in Cairo, Jones becomes enamored of Fortune. Horace steals the Sacred Carpet from Mohameds mosque and sells it to Jones to fund the robbery plan, Fortune, becoming suspicious of her mother and the surrounding events, steals the prayer rug from Jones and hides it in her mothers effects. Unable to locate the stolen carpet, Mohamed kidnaps Horace, Jones, meanwhile, Mrs. Chedsoye and Major Callahan return to New York, where a fourth member of the conspiracy, Wallace, has acquired forged paperwork to gain access to the Jones residence. The captives escape from Mohameds planned torture and flee to Damascus, Horace immediately returns to New York to rejoin his compatriots. Fortune and Jones, who have fallen in love, also back to New York. Once there, Jones learns of the forgery, and returns home to confront the gang, who still have the Sacred Carpet, sympathetic to Horace after their shared experiences, Jones offers the robbers a two-hour lead before he notifies the police, but keeps the prayer rug. Meanwhile, Mohamed resigns himself to the loss of the carpet, kathlyn Williams as Fortune Chedsoye Wheeler Oakman as George P. A. Jones Guy Oliver as Horace Wadsworth Eugenie Besserer as Mrs. MacGrath was a well-traveled, director Colin Campbell was concerned with the films realism. He had sets constructed to represent the streets of Cairo, Baghdad, and Damascus, scenes set in the Arabian and Sahara Deserts were filmed in the deserts of California. Much of the film, including the scenes, was hand tintedThe Carpet from Bagdad – Wheeler Oakman, Kathlyn Williams, and Charles Clary in The Carpet from Bagdad
49. Casablanca (film) – Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz and based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alisons unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Ricks. The film stars Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Paul Henreid, it also features Claude Rains, Conrad Veidt, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were initially assigned to write the script, however, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capras Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard E. Koch was assigned to the screenplay until the Epsteins returned a month later, Casey Robinson assisted with three weeks of rewrites, but his work would later go uncredited. Wallis chose Curtiz to direct the film after his first choice, William Wyler, principal photography began on May 25,1942, ending on August 3, the film was shot entirely at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys, although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to be anything out of the ordinary. It was just one of hundreds of pictures produced by Hollywood every year, Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier. It had its premiere on November 26,1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23,1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run, Casablanca went on to win three Academy Awards – Best Picture, Director and Adapted Screenplay – and gradually its reputation grew. Its lead characters, memorable lines, and pervasive theme song have all become iconic, in December 1941, American expatriate Rick Blaine is the proprietor of an upscale nightclub and gambling den in Casablanca. Ricks Café Américain attracts a clientele, Vichy French and German officials, refugees desperate to reach the still-neutral United States. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, it is revealed he ran guns to Ethiopia during its war with Italy. Petty crook Ugarte shows up and boasts to Rick of letters of transit obtained by murdering two German couriers, the papers allow the bearers to travel freely around German-controlled Europe and to neutral Portugal, and are thus almost priceless to the refugees stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to them at the club that night. Before he can meet his contact, he is intercepted by the police under the command of Captain Louis Renault. Ugarte dies in custody without revealing that he entrusted the letters to Rick, at this point, the reason for Ricks bitterness—former lover Ilsa Lund—walks into his establishment. Upon spotting Ricks friend and house pianist, Sam, Ilsa asks him to play As Time Goes By, Rick storms over, furious that Sam has disobeyed his order never to perform that song, and is stunned to see IlsaCasablanca (film) – Theatrical release poster by Bill Gold
50. The Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – The Cat and the Canary is a 1927 American silent horror film adaptation of John Willards 1922 black comedy play of the same name. Directed by German Expressionist filmmaker Paul Leni, the film stars Laura La Plante as Annabelle West, Forrest Stanley as Charles Charlie Wilder, and Creighton Hale as Paul Jones. The plot revolves around the death of Cyrus West, who is Annabelle, Charlie, and Pauls uncle, Annabelle inherits her uncles fortune, but when she and her family spend the night in his haunted mansion they are stalked by a mysterious figure. Meanwhile, a known as the Cat escapes from an asylum. The film is part of a genre of horror films inspired by 1920s Broadway stage plays. Paul Lenis adaptation of Willards play blended expressionism with humor, a style Leni was notable for, Lenis style of directing made The Cat and the Canary influential in the old dark house genre of films popular from the 1930s through the 1950s. The film was one of Universals early horror productions and is considered the cornerstone of Universals school of horror, the play has been filmed five other times, with the most notable in 1939 starring comedic actor Bob Hope and Paulette Goddard. In a decaying mansion overlooking the Hudson River, millionaire Cyrus West approaches death and his greedy family descends upon him like cats around a canary, causing him to become insane. West orders that his last will and testament remain locked in a safe, as the appointed time arrives, Wests lawyer, Roger Crosby, discovers that a second will mysteriously appeared in the safe. The second will may only be opened if the terms of the first will are not fulfilled, the caretaker of the West mansion, Mammy Pleasant, blames the manifestation of the second will on the ghost of Cyrus West, a notion that the astonished Crosby quickly rejects. As midnight approaches, Wests relatives arrive at the mansion, nephews Harry Blythe, Charles Charlie Wilder, Paul Jones, his sister Susan Sillsby and her niece Cecily Young, Cyrus Wests fortune is bequeathed to the most distant relative bearing the name West, Annabelle. The will, however, stipulates that to inherit the fortune, she must be judged sane by a doctor, if she is deemed insane, the fortune is passed to the person named in the second will. The fortune includes the West diamonds which her uncle hid years ago, Annabelle realizes that she is now like her uncle, in a cage surrounded by cats. While the family prepares for dinner, a guard barges in, the guard tells Cecily, Hes a maniac who thinks hes a cat, and tears his victims like they were canaries. Meanwhile, Crosby suspects someone in the family try to harm Annabelle. Before he speaks the name, a hairy hand with long nails emerges from a secret passage in a bookshelf and pulls him in. When she explains what happened to Crosby, the family immediately concludes that she is insane, alone in her assigned room, Annabelle examines a note slipped to her which reveals the location of the family jewels, fashioned into an elaborate necklace. She follows the instructions and soon discovers the hiding placeThe Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – original 1927 window card
51. Chandralekha (1948 film) – Chandralekha is a 1948 Indian Tamil-language historical adventure film directed and produced by S. S. Vasan. Starring T. R. Rajakumari, M. K, the development of Chandralekha began in the early 1940s when, after two successive box office hits, Vasan announced that his next film would be titled Chandralekha. However, when he launched a campaign for the film. Veppathur Kittoo, one of his artists, eventually developed a story based on a chapter of George W. M. Reynolds novel Robert Macaire, or, The French bandit in England. The original director T. G. Raghavachari directed more than half of the film, then left the project because of disagreements with Vasan, originally made in Tamil and later in Hindi, Chandralekha was in production for five years from 1943 to 1948. It went through a number of changes to the script, cast, and production, Vasan mortgaged all of his property and even sold his jewellery to complete the film. Cinematography was by Kamal Ghosh and K. Ramnoth, the music was largely inspired by both Indian and Western classical music, it was composed by S. Rajeswara Rao and by M. D. Parthasarathy, with lyrics by Papanasam Sivan and Kothamangalam Subbu. Chandralekha was released on 8 April 1948 and received positive reviews. As a result, Vasan released the film in Hindi with some changes on 24 December of the year. South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout the country with the films release, the film inspired South Indian film producers to market their Hindi films in North India. It was dubbed in English, Japanese, Danish and other languages and was screened at Indian. Veerasimhan and Sasankan are the sons of a king, while passing through a village on his horse, Veerasimhan meets a village dancer named Chandralekha and they fall in love. At the palace, the king decides to abdicate in favour of Veerasimhan and this enrages the younger brother Sasankan, he forms a gang of thieves who embark on a crime spree. Chandralekhas father is injured in the chaos and dies soon after. Chandralekha, now orphaned, joins a band of travelling musicians whose caravan is raided by Sasankans men, Sasankan orders Chandralekha to dance for him, which she does only after being flogged, but she soon manages to escape. Later, Sasankan ambushes Veerasimhan and takes him prisoner, Chandralekha watches Sasankans men imprisoning Veerasimhan in a cave and sealing its entrance with a boulder. She rescues him with the help of elephants from a circus troupe. Veerasimhan and Chandralekha join the circus to hide themselves from Sasankans men, after returning to the palace, Sasankan imprisons his parents and declares himself kingChandralekha (1948 film) – International poster
52. Changeling (film) – When, however, she tries to demonstrate this to the police and city authorities, she is vilified as delusional and an unfit mother. Straczynski spent a year researching the story after hearing about the Wineville Chicken Coop case from a contact at Los Angeles City Hall, almost all of the films script was drawn from thousands of pages of documentation. His first draft became the script and his first film screenplay to be produced. Ron Howard had meant to direct the film, but scheduling conflicts led to his replacement by Eastwood, instead, Howard and his Imagine Entertainment partner Brian Grazer produced Changeling alongside Malpaso Productions Robert Lorenz and Eastwood. Universal Pictures financed and distributed the film, several actors campaigned for the leading role, ultimately, the key factor in Eastwoods decision to cast Jolie was his feeling that her face would suit the 1920s period setting. The film also stars Jeffrey Donovan, Jason Butler Harner, John Malkovich, Michael Kelly, while some characters are composites, most are based on actual people. Principal photography, which began on October 15,2007 and concluded a few weeks later in December, took place in Los Angeles, Eastwoods low-key direction led actors and crew to note the calmness of the set and the short working days. In post-production, scenes were supplemented with computer-generated skylines, backgrounds, vehicles, Changeling premiered to critical acclaim at the 61st Cannes Film Festival on May 20,2008. Critical reaction was more mixed than at Cannes, while the acting and story were generally praised, the films conventional staging and lack of nuance were criticized. In Los Angeles in 1928, single mother Christine Collins returns home to discover her nine-year-old son, several months after Walters disappearance, the LAPD tells Christine that he has been found alive. Believing the positive publicity will negate recent criticism of the department, although Walter claims he is Christines son, she says he is not. Captain J. J. Jones, the head of the LAPDs Juvenile Division, insists the boy is Walter, after Christine confronts Jones with physical discrepancies between Walter and her son, Jones arranges for a medical doctor to visit her. He tells Christine that Walter is three inches shorter than before his disappearance because trauma has shrunk his spine, and that the man who took Walter had him circumcised. A newspaper prints a story that implies Christine is an unfit mother, Walters teacher and dentist give Christine signed letters confirming Walter is an impostor. Christine tells her story to the press, as a result and she befriends inmate Carol Dexter, who tells Christine she is one of several women who were sent there for challenging police authority. Dr. Steele deems Christine delusional and forces her to take mood-regulating pills, Steele says he will release Christine if she admits she was mistaken about Walter, she refuses. Detective Ybarra travels to a ranch in Wineville, Riverside County, the boys uncle, Gordon Northcott, has fled after a chance encounter with Ybarra, who mentions his business there being a juvenile matter. Clark tells Ybarra that Northcott forced him to kidnap and murder around twenty childrenChangeling (film) – Theatrical release poster
53. Conan the Barbarian (1982 film) – Conan the Barbarian is a 1982 American fantasy adventure film directed and co-written by John Milius. It is based on stories by Robert E. Howard, a fiction writer of the 1930s, about the adventures of the eponymous character in a fictional pre-historic world of dark magic. Buzz Feitshans and Raffaella De Laurentiis produced the film for her father Dino De Laurentiis, ideas for a Conan film were proposed as early as 1970. Pressman and associate producer Edward Summer began an effort to get the film made in 1975. It took them two years to obtain the rights, after which they recruited Schwarzenegger for the lead role. Pressman lacked capital for the endeavor, and in 1979, after having his proposals for investments rejected by the major studios, Milius was appointed as director and he rewrote Stones script. The final screenplay integrated scenes from Howards stories and from such as Kwaidan. Filming took place in Spain over five months, in the regions around Madrid, the sets, designed by Ron Cobb, were based on Dark Age cultures and Frank Frazettas paintings of Conan. Milius eschewed optical effects, preferring to realize his ideas with mechanical constructs, Schwarzenegger performed most of his own stunts, and two types of swords, costing $10,000 each, were forged for his character. The editing process took over a year and several violent scenes were cut, academics and critics interpreted the film as advancing the themes of fascism or individualism, and the fascist angle featured in most of the criticisms of the film. Critics also negatively reviewed Schwarzeneggers acting and the violent scenes. Despite the criticisms, Conan was popular with young males, the film earned Schwarzenegger worldwide recognition. Conan has been released on home media, the sales of which had increased the films gross to more than $300 million by 2007. The films success led to the 1984 sequel Conan the Destroyer. A sword is forged by a blacksmith, who shows it to his young son, Conan, as he tells him of the Riddle of Steel, an aphorism on the importance of the metal to their people. One day, the Cimmerians are massacred by a band of warriors led by Thulsa Doom, Conans father is killed by dogs, the children are taken into slavery and then chained to a large mill, the Wheel of Pain. Conan survives into adulthood, building his muscles after years of pushing the heavy grindstone and his master eventually trains him to be a gladiator, after winning many pit fights and receiving training and education in the East, Conan is freed. He soon stumbles upon a tomb and retrieves a fine swordConan the Barbarian (1982 film) – Main promotional art by Renato Casaro for the film
54. A Cure for Pokeritis – A Cure for Pokeritis is a 1912 short silent film starring John Bunny and Flora Finch. After Bunnys death, a re-release was announced with the alternative title A Sure Cure for Pokeritis and this domestic comedy depicts a woman who stops her husbands gambling habit by having her cousin stage a fake police raid on the weekly poker game. It was one of many similar shorts produced by Vitagraph Studios, whose popularity made Bunny, although its style of humor is dated, it has been recognized as a historically important representative of its period and genre. Upon returning home from an evening spent losing at poker, George Brown swears off gambling forever, when George talks in his sleep, she becomes suspicious and has her cousin Freddie Dewdrop follow him, allowing her to learn the truth. Together with the wives of the poker players, she enacts a plan to end the gambling. Freddie and the members of his Bible study group dress up as police officers, the gamblers wives then arrive, and the police leave the men to be scolded, purportedly in place of being arrested. As the film ends, the Browns reconcile, the intended names of the characters played by John Bunny and Flora Finch are not entirely clear. In the film itself, the letter written to gather the wives together identifies the two characters as Mary and George Brown. However, Vitagraphs in-house publication included cast lists for all of the studios films, there, the main characters are referred to as Mr. and Mrs. Bunny Sharpe, and Mr. Brown is given as the name of one of the minor characters. The number of these shorts originally produced is unknown because Vitagraphs films were not archived. Estimates vary considerably, totals in excess of 150,200, the film was an early example of efforts to move beyond theater blocking conventions. During the police raid, depth was demonstrated by having action take place in both the foreground and the background, and by allowing actors to move between them and this cinematography technique improved the realism and pacing of the scene. Theaters projected silent films with a variety of musical accompaniment, depending on the film and the venue, accompanying music might have been the performance of a live pianist or orchestra, recorded music, or absent entirely. Some films were distributed with cue sheets indicating when music was to be played, beginning in 1910, Vitagraph provided lists of this nature for all of their films. Vitagraphs recommended music for A Cure for Pokeritis began with Im Glad Im Married, the studio suggested either I Dont Believe You or Im an Honorary Member of the Patsy Club be played as George presented his purported lodge membership. His sleep-talking was to be accompanied by If You Talk in Your Sleep, Dont Mention My Name, whoops, My Dear was to score the police raid, and Dont Take Me Home would play as the film ended. The Bunnygraphs, as a genre, were representative of the cinema of the period, a Cure for Pokeritis, released February 23,1912, was individually well-received, including in showings outside the United States. The Thames Star, a New Zealand newspaper, described the film as screamingly funny, after John Bunnys death, interest in his films led Vitagraph in 1917 to announce the re-release of this film, along with many of his other works, as Favorite Film FeaturesA Cure for Pokeritis – John Bunny and Flora Finch as George and Mary Brown
55. Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge – Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge, also known by the initialism DDLJ, is an Indian romance film written and directed by Aditya Chopra and produced by his father Yash Chopra. Released on 20 October 1995, the film stars Shah Rukh Khan, the plot revolves around Raj and Simran, two young non-resident Indians, who fall in love during a vacation through Europe with their friends. Raj tries to win over Simrans family so the couple can marry, the film was shot in India, London and Switzerland, from September 1994 to August 1995. Earning ₹1.06 billion in India and ₹160 million overseas, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge became the highest grossing Bollywood film of the year, and one of the most successful Indian films of all time. It won 10 Filmfare Awards, the most for a film at that time. Its soundtrack album became one of the most popular of the 1990s, many critics praised the film, which connected with different segments of society by simultaneously promoting strong family values and the following of ones own heart. Its success led other makers to target the non-resident Indian audience. It spawned many imitations of its story and style, and homages to specific scenes and it is the longest-running film in the history of Indian cinema. As of 2017, over 20 years after its first release, Raj Malhotra and Simran Singh are non-resident Indians living in London. Simran was raised by her strict and conservative father, Baldev Singh, Simran always dreams of meeting her ideal man. Her mother Lajjo warns her against this, saying dreams are good, one day, Baldev receives a letter from his friend Ajit, who lives in Punjab. Ajit wants to keep a promise he and Baldev made to each other 20 years ago—to have Simran marry his son Kuljeet, Simran is disappointed—she does not want to marry someone whom she has never met. One evening, Raj enters Baldevs shop after closing time to buy beer, Baldev refuses and Raj grabs a case of beer, throws the money on the counter and runs away. Baldev, infuriated, calls Raj a disgrace to India, meanwhile, Rajs father has agreed to his request to go on a train trip across Europe with his friends, and Simrans friends have invited her to go on the same trip. Simran asks her father to let her see the world before her marriage, on the trip, Raj and Simran meet. Raj constantly flirts with Simran, much to her irritation, the two miss their train to Zurich and are separated from their friends. They start to travel with one another and become friends, Raj falls in love with Simran on the journey, when they part ways in London, Simran realises she is in love with him too. Simran tells her mother about the boy she met, Baldev overhears the conversation and he says the family will move to India the next dayDilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge – Theatrical release poster
56. Dream of the Rarebit Fiend – Dream of the Rarebit Fiend is a newspaper comic strip by American cartoonist Winsor McCay, begun September 10,1904. It was McCays second successful strip, after Little Sammy Sneeze secured him a position on the staff of the New York Herald. Rarebit Fiend appeared in the Evening Telegram, a newspaper published by the Herald, for contractual reasons, McCay signed the strip with the pen name Silas. The strip had no continuity or recurring characters, but a recurring theme, the character awakens in the closing panel and regrets having eaten the rarebit. The dreams often reveal unflattering sides of the dreamers psyches—their phobias, hypocrisies, discomforts and this was in great contrast to the colorful fantasy dreams in McCays signature strip Little Nemo, which he began in 1905. Whereas children were Nemos target audience, McCay aimed Rarebit Fiend at adults, the popularity of Rarebit Fiend and Nemo led to McCay gaining a contract in 1911 with William Randolph Hearsts chain of newspapers with a stars salary. His editor there thought McCays highly skilled cartooning serious, not funny, McCay revived the strip in 1923–1925 as Rarebit Reveries, of which few examples have survived. The strip is said to have anticipated a number of recurring ideas in popular culture, such as marauding giant beasts damaging cities—as later popularized by King Kong and Godzilla. The strip had no recurring characters, but followed a theme, after eating a Welsh rarebit, typically, the strip would begin with an absurd situation which became more and more absurd until the Fiend—the dreamer—awakened in the final panel. Some situations were merely silly, elephants falling from the ceiling, other times, they could be more disturbing, characters finding themselves dismembered, buried alive from a first-person perspective or a childs mother being planted and becoming a tree. In some strips the Fiend was a spectator watching fantastic or horrible things happen to someone close to themself, the protagonists are typically urban bourgeoisie whom McCay subjects to fears of public humiliation or loss of social esteem or respectability. Rarebit Fiend was the one of McCays strips in which he approached social or political topics. He addressed religious leaders, alcoholism, homelessness, political speeches, suicide, fashion, the rarebit is a dish typically made with rich cheese thinned with ale and served melted on toast with cayenne and mustard mixed in. McCay used it despite its innocuousness—cultural theorist Scott Bukatman states rarebit was not the sort of dish a person would associate with having nightmares, McCays most famous character, Little Nemo, first appeared in the first year of Dream of the Rarebit Fiend, on December 10,1904. In 1905, McCay had Nemo appear in his own strip in the New York Herald, in comparison to Little Nemo, the artwork of the Rarebit Fiend strips had minimal backgrounds, and were usually done from a static perspective with the main characters often in a fixed position. The content of Rarebit Fiend played a bigger role than it did in Little Nemo. The stories were self-contained, whereas the Nemo story continued from week to week, the dreams in Nemo were aimed at children, but Rarebit Fiend had adult-oriented subjects—social embarrassment, fear of dying or going insane, and so on. Some of the dreams in both strips were wish-fulfillment fantasies, unlike most comic strips from the time, Rarebit Fiend is not humorous or escapistDream of the Rarebit Fiend – January 28, 1905, Rarebit Fiend episode
57. Dredd – Dredd is a 2012 science fiction action film directed by Pete Travis and written and produced by Alex Garland. It is based on the 2000 AD comic strip Judge Dredd and its eponymous character created by John Wagner and Carlos Ezquerra. Karl Urban stars as Judge Dredd, a law enforcer given the power of judge, jury and executioner in a vast, dystopic metropolis called Mega-City One that lies in a post-apocalyptic wasteland. Dredd and his partner, Judge Anderson, are forced to bring order to a 200-storey high-rise block of flats and deal with its resident drug lord. Garland began writing the script in 2006, although the development of a new Judge Dredd film adaptation, produced by British studio DNA Films, Dredd began principal photography, using 3D cameras throughout, in November 2010. Filming took place on sets and locations in Cape Town. Dredd was released on 7 September 2012 in the United Kingdom, despite the positive critical response, the film earned just over $41 million at the box office on an estimated budget of $30–45 million. Dredd saw greater success following its release, and has since been recognised as a cult film. The theatrical gross made an unlikely, but home media sales. The future United States is a dystopic irradiated wasteland known as the Cursed Earth, on the east coast lies Mega-City One, a violent metropolis with 800 million residents and 17,000 crimes reported daily. The only force for order are the Judges, who act as judge, jury, Judge Dredd is tasked by the Chief Judge with evaluating new recruit Cassandra Anderson, a powerful psychic who failed the aptitude tests to become a Judge. Dredd and Anderson are sent in to investigate and learn of a drug den and they arrest a thug named Kay, whom Andersons mind probe reveals to be the one who carried out the drug dealers executions. Dredd decides to take him in for questioning, Ma-Ma orders Dredd and Anderson killed, forcing the Judges to fight their way through dozens of armed thugs. Arriving at the 76th floor, the Judges are assaulted by Ma-Ma and her men with Vulcan cannons that rip through the walls, the Judges breach an outer wall and call for backup. Meanwhile, Ma-Ma sends her henchman Caleb to search for the Judges, when they meet, Dredd throws Caleb off the tower in full view of Ma-Ma. Dredd suspects Ma-Ma is desperate to keep Kay quiet and beats him for information, Anderson reads Kays mind and learns that Peach Trees is the centre of Slo-Mo production and distribution. Anderson suggests they hide while awaiting assistance but Dredd insists they move up the tower, Judges Volt and Guthrie respond to Dredds call, but Ma-Mas computer expert denies them entry by persuading them the security system is malfunctioning. A pair of armed teens confront Dredd and Anderson, allowing Kay to disarm, Kay then escapes with her as hostage, and takes her to Ma-Mas base on the top floorDredd – Theatrical release poster
58. Dustbin Baby (film) – Dustbin Baby is a BBC television film directed by Juliet May, based on Jacqueline Wilsons 2001 novel of the same name. It was first broadcast on BBC One on 21 December 2008, the film stars Dakota Blue Richards as April, a troubled teenager who was abandoned in a dustbin as an infant, and Juliet Stevenson as Marion Bean, Aprils adoptive mother. David Haig stars as Elliot, Marions friend and colleague, the screenplay was written by Helen Blakeman, and the film was produced by Kindle Entertainment. Dustbin Baby deals with themes including maternal bonding, bullying, the story revolves around April running away on her fourteenth birthday, while Marion searches for her. Aprils life is recounted in flashbacks as she meets people and visits places that are significant to her, both Wilson and critics responded positively to the film, with Wilson saying she thought it was the best film adaptation of any of her works. It was released on DVD on 12 January 2009, Dustbin Baby was awarded the International Emmy in the Children and Young People category at the 2009 ceremony. Helen Blakeman won a Childrens BAFTA for the screenplay, while the film itself was shortlisted for a Childrens BAFTA in the Drama category and shortlisted for the Kids Vote award. The film was awarded the 2010 KidScreen Award for Best One-off, Special, or TV movie aimed at a Family Audience. On Aprils fourteenth birthday, Marion, her mother, gives her earrings. They argue, and April leaves for school, after lying to her friends, claiming she has a phone and is going to the dentists, April chooses to play truant. While at work at a home, Marion hears that April has not arrived at school. She talks to her friend and colleague Elliot, who tries to dissuade her from leaving. April visits the home of Pat Williams, who cared for her as a baby, Pat remembers April and gives her a newspaper cutting telling the story of her discovery as a baby in a dustbin behind a pizza parlour. In a flashback, a young April is seen living with Janet, the Johnsons relationship is an abusive one, leading to Janets suicide. Meanwhile, Marion goes to Aprils school, where she talks to Aprils friends, April then leaves Pats home, and travels alone to Janets grave. Marion continues to search, and, in a centre, meets Elliot. April then visits the now abandoned Sunnyholme Childrens Home, where she lived when she was younger, in a flashback, an eight-year-old April lives at the Sunnyholme. Cared for by a woman named Mo, April befriends a girl called Gina and is introduced to PearlDustbin Baby (film) – Dakota Blue Richards as April
59. Eega – Eega is a 2012 Indian bilingual fantasy film written by K. V. Vijayendra Prasad and directed by his son, S. S. Rajamouli. It was produced by Korrapati Ranganatha Sais Varahi Chalana Chitram with an budget of ₹260 to 400 million, and was made simultaneously in Telugu and Tamil. The film stars Sudeep, Nani, and Samantha Ruth Prabhu, M. M. Keeravani composed the soundtrack and score. K. K. Senthil Kumar was director of photography and Kotagiri Venkateswara Rao edited the film, janardhan Maharshi and Crazy Mohan wrote the dialogue for the Telugu and Tamil versions, respectively. The narrative of Eega is in the form of a story told by a father to his daughter. Its protagonist is Nani, who is in love with his neighbour Bindu, Nani is murdered by a wealthy businessman named Sudeep, who is attracted to Bindu and considers Nani a rival. Nani reincarnates as a housefly and tries to protect Bindu while avenging his death, the idea for the film originated in the 1990s from a conversation in which Prasad joked with Rajamouli about the idea of a fly seeking revenge against a human. Rajamouli reconsidered the idea after finishing Maryada Ramanna, and Prasad developed it into a script, the films production began on 7 December 2010 at Ramanaidu Studios in Hyderabad. Principal photography began on 22 February 2011 and continued until late February 2012, Makuta VFX and Annapurna Studios oversaw Eegas visual effects and digital intermediate process, respectively. The two versions of the film, alongside a Malayalam-dubbed version titled Eecha, were released on 6 July 2012 in approximately 1,100 screens globally, the performances of the principal cast, Rajamoulis direction, and visual effects received critical acclaim upon release. Eega was one of the highest-grossing Telugu film of the year and its Hindi-dubbed version, Makkhi, which was released on 12 October 2012, was not as commercially successful as the others. Eega won two National Film Awards, five Filmfare Awards, and three South Indian International Movie Awards and it was screened at the Toronto After Dark Film Festival, the Shanghai International Film Festival, and the Madrid International Film Festival. A young girl who is unable to sleep asks her father to tell her a bedtime story, although reluctant at first, he tells her a story of a fly named Nani. Nani is a man who specialises in preparing fireworks. He is in love with his neighbour Bindu, a micro artist who runs Project 511, Bindu also develops feelings for Nani though she does not express them. Seeking to raise money for her NGO, Bindu visits the office of a rich, powerful industrialist named Sudeep and he befriends her, donates ₹1.5 million, and gains her trust. Sudeep sees Nani as a rival and plans to kill him, one night, Nani helps Bindu to finish a piece of micro art—a locket made from a pencil. While returning home, he is kidnapped by Sudeep, who kills him, unaware of the incident, Bindu proposes to the dying Nani by telephone, it is the last thing Nani hears before he is reincarnated as a housefly that cannot remember its previous lifeEega – Poster of Eega
60. Eraserhead – Eraserhead is a 1977 American surrealist body horror film written, produced, and directed by filmmaker David Lynch. Shot in black-and-white, Eraserhead is Lynchs first feature-length film, coming after several short works, the film was produced with the assistance of the American Film Institute during the directors time studying there. Throughout the film, Spencer experiences dreams or hallucinations, featuring his child, Eraserhead spent several years in principal photography because of the difficulty of funding the film, donations from Fisk and his wife Sissy Spacek kept production afloat. The film was shot on several locations owned by the AFI in California, including Greystone Mansion, Lynch and sound designer Alan Splet spent a year working on the films audio after their studio was soundproofed. The films soundtrack features music by Fats Waller and includes the song In Heaven. Initially opening to small audiences and little interest, Eraserhead gained popularity over several runs as a midnight movie. Since its release, the film has earned positive reviews, the surrealist imagery and sexual undercurrents have been seen as key thematic elements, and the intricate sound design as its technical highlight. Thematic analysis of the film has also highlighted these issues and has elaborated on Spencers fatalism, in 2004, the film was preserved in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress as being culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. The Man in the Planet pulls levers in his home in space, a giant spermatozoon-like creature emerges from Spencers mouth, floating into the void. The Man in the Planet appears to control the creature with his levers, in an industrial cityscape, Spencer walks home with his groceries. He is stopped outside his apartment by the Beautiful Girl Across the Hall, Spencer leaves his groceries in his apartment, which is filled with piles of dirt and dead vegetation. That night, Spencer visits Xs home, conversing awkwardly with her mother, at the dinner table, he is asked to carve a chicken that Xs talkative father, Bill has made, the bird writhes on the plate and gushes blood. After dinner, Spencer is cornered by Xs mother, who tries to kiss him and she tells him that X has had his child and that the two must marry. X, however, is not sure if what she bore is a child, the couple move into Spencers one-room apartment and begin caring for the child—a swaddled bundle with an inhuman, snakelike face, resembling the spermatozoon-like creature. The infant refuses all food, crying incessantly and intolerably, the sound drives X hysterical, and she leaves Spencer and the child. Spencer attempts to care for the child, and he learns that it struggles to breathe and has developed painful sores. Spencer begins experiencing visions, again seeing the Man in the Planet, as well as the Lady in the Radiator, soon afterwards, Spencers head sinks into a pool of blood and falls from the sky, landing on a street below. A boy finds it, bringing it to a factory to be turned into erasersEraserhead – Film poster
61. Frank's Cock – Franks Cock is a 1993 Canadian short film written and directed by Mike Hoolboom. The eight-minute production stars Callum Keith Rennie as a narrator who discusses his relationship with his partner. The two met while the narrator was a teenager and spent nearly ten years together, Frank has since been diagnosed with AIDS, and the narrator fears his death. The story was based on the experience of one of Hoolbooms friends at People With AIDS, the script has been republished several times and has inspired a short on LGBT issues in Canadas native community. An unnamed narrator, who as a teenager intended to be the Michael Jordan of sex or Wayne Gretzky with a hard-on, discusses how he met, after the two met at a group sex session, they began an older brother–younger brother fantasy and moved in together. Frank has a sexual appetite and, at times, invites the narrator for whole-day sex sessions. He is a lover, teaching his partner how to fly a box kite. The narrator is pleased with Franks attentions and their sexual experimentation and he was the best friend I ever had. The Canadian director Mike Hoolboom was diagnosed with HIV in 1988 or 1989, in a 1993 interview, he stated that he felt himself working harder after the diagnosis, finishing films at a more rapid rate because he was uncertain how long he would live. Hoolboom also became fascinated with a body of parts spliced and spliced again, while living in Vancouver, Hoolboom joined the local People With AIDS group. There he befriended a man whose partner was dying of AIDS, upon his friends suggestion, Hoolboom began work on a script for a real movie, one which portrayed an AIDS patient as full of love, not one that showed the patients friends abandoning him. The friend was, however, unwilling to appear in the film, Rennie – at that time a relative unknown – agreed to deliver the monologue. Hoolboom was pleased with the results, writing that Rennie presented the monologue as if hed been living this story all along. The majority of the work, including direction, cinematography. Part of the terms of his grant were that Hoolboom was allowed a number of edits. After pondering how to complete the film under such terms, Hoolboom chose to use no edits, production was completed by early 1993, and in screenings Franks Cock was marketed as an extremely explicit experimental film. Franks Cock divides the screen into quadrants, with the majority of the focusing on the upper-right corner of the screen. The effect was reused in Hoolbooms 1997 short PositivFrank's Cock – Mike Hoolboom, creator of Frank's Cock
62. Gagak Item – Gagak Item is a 1939 bandit film from the Dutch East Indies directed by Joshua and Othniel Wong for Tans Film. Starring Rd Mochtar, Roekiah, and Eddy T. Effendi, the black-and-white film, which featured the cast and crew from the 1937 hit Terang Boelan, was a commercial success and received positive reviews upon release. Gagak Item was directed by brothers Joshua and Othniel Wong, filming the work in black-and-white and it was produced by Tan Khoen Yauw of Tans Film and starred Rd Mochtar, Roekiah, Eddy T. Effendi, and Kartolo. Through these prior films Mochtar and Roekiah had become a screen couple. Saeroen, a journalist-turned-screenwriter for Terang Boelan and Fatima, returned to write the script to Gagak Item, the film, a love story, followed a girl and a masked man known as Gagak Item and was set in rural Buitenzorg. The titular bandit was similar to Zorro, a popular in the Indies at the time. When writing the script Saeroen continued the formula he had used in Terang Boelan, including action, music, beautiful vistas and physical comedy. The film had six songs performed by Hugo Dumas musical troupe Lief Java, Gagak Item featured vocals by kroncong singer Annie Landouw. Gagak Item was released in late 1939 and was screened in Batavia, the capital of the Indies, Medan, North Sumatra, some screenings of the film, also advertised under the Dutch title De Zwarte Raaf, had Dutch-language subtitles. A novelisation of the film, published by the Yogyakarta-based Kolff-Buning, Gagak Item was a commercial and critical success, although not as much as Tans earlier production. An anonymous review in Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad praised the film, especially its music, the reviewer opined that the film would be a great success and that the film industry in the Indies was showing promising developments. Another review in the paper found that, although one may shake ones head over the cultural value of indigenous films. The review praised Roekiahs demure acting, following the success of Gagak Item the Wongs, Saeroen, Roekiah, and Mochtar continued to work with Tans Film. Their next production, Siti Akbari, was successful, although again not as profitable as Terang Boelan or Fatima. Saeroen, Joshua Wong, and Mochtar left the company in 1940, Wong and Mochtar after payment disputes, through 1941 Tans Film produced fewer movies than its competitors, and was ultimately shut down following the Japanese occupation in early 1942. Gagak Item was screened as late as January 1951, movies in the Indies were recorded on highly flammable nitrate film, and after a fire destroyed much of Produksi Film Negaras warehouse in 1952, old films shot on nitrate were deliberately destroyed. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all Indonesian films from before 1950 are lost, Gagak Item at the Internet Movie DatabaseGagak Item – Newspaper advertisement
63. Gertie the Dinosaur – Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. It is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur, McCay first used the film before live audiences as an interactive part of his vaudeville act, the frisky, childlike Gertie did tricks at the command of her master. McCays employer William Randolph Hearst later curtailed McCays vaudeville activities, so McCay added an introductory sequence to the film for its theatrical release. McCay abandoned a sequel, Gertie on Tour, after producing about a minute of footage, although Gertie is popularly thought to be the earliest animated film, McCay had earlier made Little Nemo and How a Mosquito Operates. The American J. Gertie was the first film to use techniques such as keyframes, registration marks, tracing paper, the Mutoscope action viewer. It influenced the next generation of such as the Fleischer brothers, Otto Messmer, Paul Terry. John Randolph Bray unsuccessfully tried to patent many of McCays animation techniques and is said to have been behind a plagiarized version of Gertie that appeared a year or two after the original. Gertie is the best preserved of McCays films—some of which have been lost or survive only in fragments—and has been preserved in the US National Film Registry. Winsor McCay had worked prolifically as a commercial artist and cartoonist by the time he started making comic strips such as Dream of the Rarebit Fiend. In 1906, McCay began performing on the circuit, doing chalk talks—performances in which he drew before live audiences. Inspired by the books his son brought home, McCay came to see the possibility of making moving pictures of his cartoons. He claimed that he was the first man in the world to make animated cartoons, though he was preceded by the American James Stuart Blackton, McCays first film starred his Little Nemo characters and debuted in movie theatres in 1911, he soon incorporated it into his vaudeville act. He followed it in 1912 with How a Mosquito Operates, in which a giant, McCay gave the mosquito a personality and balanced humor with the horror of the nightmare situation. McCay conferred with the American Historical Society in 1912, and announced plans for the presentation of pictures showing the great monsters that used to inhabit the earth and he spoke of the serious and educational work that the animation process could enable. McCay considered a number of names before settling on Gertie, his production notebooks used Jessie the Dinosaurus. in a sweet voice. He thought it was a name, but wanted it to be a girls name instead of a boys. Gertie the Dinosaur is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur and its star Gertie does tricks much like a trained elephant. She is animated in a naturalistic style unprecedented for the time, she breathes rhythmically, she shifts her weight as she moves, McCay imbued her with a personality—while friendly, she could be capricious, ignoring or rebelling against her masters commandsGertie the Dinosaur – Gertie driven to tears by her master
64. Greed (film) – Greed is a 1924 American silent film, written and directed by Erich von Stroheim and based on the 1899 Frank Norris novel McTeague. It stars Gibson Gowland as Dr. John McTeague, ZaSu Pitts as his wife Trina Sieppe and Jean Hersholt as McTeagues friend, the film tells the story of McTeague, a San Francisco dentist, who marries his best friend Schoulers girlfriend Trina. Shortly after their engagement, Trina wins a prize of $5,000. Schouler jealously informs the authorities that McTeague had been practicing dentistry without a license, while living in squalor, McTeague becomes a violent alcoholic and Trina becomes greedily obsessed with her winnings, refusing to spend any of them, despite how poor she and her husband have become. Eventually McTeague murders Trina for the money and flees to Death Valley, Schouler catches up with him there for a final confrontation. Stroheim shot more than 85 hours of footage and obsessed over accuracy during the filming, Two months were spent shooting in Death Valley for the films final sequence and many of the cast and crew became ill. Greed was one of the few films of its time to be entirely on location. Stroheim used sophisticated filming techniques such as deep-focus cinematography and montage editing and he considered Greed to be a Greek tragedy, in which environment and heredity controlled the characters fates and reduced them to primitive bête humaines. During the making of Greed, the company merged into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Thalberg had fired Stroheim a few years earlier at Universal Pictures, originally almost eight hours long, Greed was edited against Stroheims wishes to about two-and-a-half hours. Only twelve people saw the full-length 42-reel version, now lost, Stroheim later called Greed his most fully realized work and was hurt both professionally and personally by the studios re-editing of it. The uncut version has been called the holy grail for film archivists, in 1999 Turner Entertainment created a four-hour version of Greed that used existing stills of cut scenes to reconstruct the film. John McTeague is a miner working in Placer County, California, a traveling dentist calling himself Dr. Painless Potter visits the town, and McTeagues mother begs Potter to take her son on as an apprentice. Potter agrees and McTeague eventually becomes a dentist, practicing on Polk Street in San Francisco, Marcus Schouler brings Trina Sieppe, his cousin and intended fiancée, into McTeagues office for dental work. Schouler and McTeague are friends and McTeague gladly agrees to examine her, as they wait for an opening, Trina buys a lottery ticket. McTeague becomes enamored with Trina and begs Schouler for permission to court Trina, after seeing McTeagues conviction, Schouler agrees. Trina eventually agrees to marry McTeague and shortly afterwards her lottery ticket wins her $5,000, Schouler bitterly claims that the money should have been his, causing a rift between McTeague and Schouler. After McTeague and Trina wed, they continue to live in their apartment with Trina refusing to spend her $5,000Greed (film) – Theatrical release poster
65. How Brown Saw the Baseball Game – How Brown Saw the Baseball Game, also known as How Jones Saw the Baseball Game, is an American short silent comedy film produced in 1907 and distributed by the Lubin Manufacturing Company. The film follows a baseball fan, named Mr. Brown, during production, trick photography was used to achieve this effect. The film was released in November 1907 and it received positive reviews in a 1908 issue of The Moving Picture World, a film journal, that reported the film was successful and truly funny. As of 2015 it is whether a print of the film has survived. The identities of the films cast and production crew are not known, before heading out to a baseball game at a nearby ballpark, sports fan Mr. Brown drinks several highball cocktails. After the game is over, Mr. Brown is escorted home by one of his friends, when they arrive at Browns house, they encounter his wife who becomes furious with the friend and proceeds to physically assault him, believing he is responsible for her husbands severe intoxication. How Brown Saw the Baseball Game was produced by Lubin Manufacturing Company, at the time How Brown Saw the Baseball Game was made, the company was creating and distributing up to three films a week. The identities of How Brown Saw the Baseball Games director and cast are not known and it is a silent film shot in black and white, and the finished product comprised 350 feet of film. For the scenes took place at the ballpark, the filmmakers used a form of trick photography in order to show the baseball players running backwards. Siegmund Lubin filed a copyright for the film, under the alternate title How Jones Saw the Baseball Game, how Brown Saw the Baseball Game was released into theaters by Lubin Manufacturing Company on November 16,1907, and was still being shown as late as August 1908. Advertisements for the film touted it as fun, and Lubin himself promoted the film as a screamingly funny farce. It received a review in the June 1908 issue of The Moving Picture World which described the film as truly funny. Lubin had previously created films resembling Edison Studios releases Uncle Toms Cabin, as of August 2015, it was unclear whether there is a surviving print of How Brown Saw the Baseball Game, it has likely become a lost film. If rediscovered, the film would be in the public domain, how Brown Saw the Baseball Game at the Internet Movie DatabaseHow Brown Saw the Baseball Game – Siegmund Lubin in 1913. His company produced and distributed How Brown Saw the Baseball Game.
66. How a Mosquito Operates – How a Mosquito Operates is a silent animated film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. The six-minute short depicts a giant mosquito tormenting a sleeping man, the film is one of the earliest works of animation, and its technical quality is considered far ahead of its contemporaries. It is also known under the titles The Story of a Mosquito and Winsor McCay, McCay had a reputation for his proficient drawing skills, best remembered in the elaborate cartooning of the childrens comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland he began in 1905. He delved into the art of animation with the film Little Nemo. McCay gave the film a more coherent story and more developed characterization than in the Nemo film, with timing, motion. How a Mosquito Operates had a reception when McCay first showed it as part of his vaudeville act. He further developed the character animation he introduced in Mosquito with his best-known animated work, a man looks around apprehensively before entering his room. A giant mosquito with a top hat and briefcase flies in after him through a transom and it repeatedly feeds on the sleeping man, who tries in vain to shoo it away. The mosquito eventually drinks itself so full that it explodes, how a Mosquito Operates is one of the earliest examples of line-drawn animation. McCay used minimal backgrounds and capitalized on strengths of the medium, then in its infancy. No intertitles interrupt the silent visuals, rather than merely expanding like a balloon, as the mosquito drinks its abdomen fills consistent with its bodily structure in a naturalistic way. The heavier it becomes, the difficulty it has keeping its balance. In its excitement as it feeds, it does push-ups on the mans nose, the mosquito has a personality, egotistical, persistent, and calculating. It makes eye contact with the viewers and waves at them, McCay balances horror with humor, as when the mosquito finds itself so engorged with blood that it must lie down. Winsor McCay developed prodigiously accurate and detailed drawing skills early in life, as a young man, he earned a living drawing portraits and posters in dime museums, and attracted large crowds with his ability to draw quickly in public. McCay began working as a newspaper illustrator in 1898. His greatest comic-strip success was the childrens fantasy Little Nemo in Slumberland, McCay began performing on the vaudeville circuit the following year, doing chalk talks—performances in which he drew in front of a live audience. Inspired by flip books his son Robert brought home, McCay said he came to see the possibility of making moving pictures of his cartoonsHow a Mosquito Operates – How a Mosquito Operates
67. Into Temptation (film) – Into Temptation is a 2009 independent drama film written and directed by Patrick Coyle, and starring Jeremy Sisto, Kristin Chenoweth, Brian Baumgartner, Bruce A. It tells the story of a prostitute who confesses to a Catholic priest that she plans to kill herself on her birthday, the priest attempts to find and save her, and in doing so plunges himself into a darker side of society. The film was inspired by Coyles father, a kind. The script won the McKnight Screenwriting Fellowship from the IFP Minnesota Center for Media Arts, into Temptation was filmed and set in Coyles hometown of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Several supporting roles were filled with actors from the Minneapolis – Saint Paul theater area and it was produced by Ten Ten Films and Farnam Street II, and distributed by First Look International. With a budget of less than $1 million, filming began in May 2008, cinematography was provided by David Doyle, Russell Holsapple composed the score, and Lee Percy worked as editor. Into Temptation was optioned in Hollywood, but talks fell through due to complications from the global recession, the film did not receive a national release but played at theaters in several cities. The film received positive reviews. It was released on DVD on October 27,2009, Father John Buerlein is the mild-mannered Catholic priest of a small parish in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Overworked and underpaid, he has grown jaded with the profession and has trouble connecting with his parishioners, during confession, a mysterious and unnamed prostitute confesses to a sin she has not yet committed, she plans to commit suicide on her birthday. The confession ends abruptly, and he is unable to stop the woman before she disappears and he only knows she wears a crucifix and is an Aries, which means her birthday is soon. Father John grows obsessed with finding and helping this woman, on his way home, Father John meets a homeless man named Gus, but with no money for him, he gives him a rosary instead. Later, he seeks counsel from his friend Father Ralph OBrien, Father John returns to the red-light district and speaks to a prostitute named Miriam, who suggests a powerful pimp named James St. Clair might know about the woman. As they speak in a bar, the mysterious prostitute enters and solicits a john, as she goes, Father John catches a glimpse of the crucifix she is wearing and tries to chase her down. She leaves in the car before he can catch them. Back at church, his sermons start to grow more unorthodox, meanwhile, Father John is contacted by his ex-girlfriend Nadine Brennan, who tells him she is divorcing her husband and still harbors romantic feelings for Father John. Meanwhile, Linda visits her dying, elderly stepfather Donald Dupree, Linda confronts him about their past, but claims she has forgiven him his sins, even though he continues to deny any wrongdoing. A drunk Nadine goes to talk to Father John in confession about her loneliness and he admits to caring for her as well, but they agree to remain friendsInto Temptation (film) – DVD release cover
68. Jabba the Hutt – Jabba Desilijic Tiure, commonly known as Jabba the Hutt, is a fictional character and an antagonist in the Star Wars franchise created by George Lucas. He is depicted as a large, slug-like alien and his appearance has been described by film critic Roger Ebert as a cross between a toad and the Cheshire Cat. Jabba is introduced as the de facto leader of the Desilijic-Hutt Cartel, and the most powerful crime boss on Tatooine, Jabba employs a retinue of career criminals, bounty hunters, smugglers, assassins and bodyguards to operate his criminal empire. He keeps a host of entertainers at his disposal at his palace, slaves, droids, Jabba has a grim sense of humor, an insatiable appetite, and affinities for gambling, slave girls, and torture. The character was incorporated into the Star Wars merchandising campaign that corresponded with the release of Return of the Jedi. Besides the films, Jabba the Hutt is featured in non-canon Star Wars Legends expanded universe literature, Jabba the Hutts image has since played an influential role in popular culture, particularly in the United States. The name is used as a literary device and a political caricature to underscore negative qualities such as morbid obesity. Jabba the Hutt appears in three of the eight live-action Star Wars films and The Clone Wars, Jabba is first seen in 1983 with the third installment of the original Star Wars trilogy, Return of the Jedi. The captured Han is delivered to Jabba by the bounty hunter Boba Fett, Lando Calrissian, droids C-3PO and R2-D2, Leia, and Chewbacca infiltrate Jabbas palace to save Han. Leia herself is soon enslaved by the Hutt, and she is forced to wear her iconic golden bikini, soon after Leia is enslaved, Luke arrives to bargain for Solos life, but Jabba condemns Luke, Han, and Chewbacca to the Sarlacc. At the Great Pit of Carkoon, Luke escapes execution with the help of R2-D2, during the subsequent confusion, Leia strangles Jabba to death, whereafter Luke, Leia, Han, Lando, Chewbacca, C-3PO, and R2-D2 escape. The second film appearance of Jabba the Hutt is in the Special Edition of Star Wars which was released in 1997 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the original Star Wars. Here, Han Solo disputes with the bounty hunter Greedo, whom he kills. This conversation was a scene of the original 1977 film. In the 1997 Special Edition version of the film, a CGI rendering of Jabba replaces Mulholland, and his voice is redubbed in the fictional language of Huttese. Jabba the Hutt makes his film appearance in the 1999 prequel, Star Wars, Episode I – The Phantom Menace. With this done, Jabba falls asleep, and misses the races conclusion, in the episode Evil Plans, Jabba hires the bounty hunter Cad Bane to bring him plans for the Senate building. When Bane returns successful, Jabba and the Hutt Council send Bane to free Ziro the Hutt from prisonJabba the Hutt – Jabba as he appears in Marvel Comic's adaptation of the first Star Wars film
69. Jaws (film) – Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchleys 1974 novel of the same name. The screenplay is credited to both Benchley, who wrote the first drafts, and actor-writer Carl Gottlieb, who rewrote the script during principal photography, shot mostly on location on Marthas Vineyard in Massachusetts, the film had a troubled production, going over budget and past schedule. Spielberg and others have compared this approach to that of classic thriller director Alfred Hitchcock. Now considered one of the greatest films made, Jaws was the prototypical summer blockbuster. Jaws became the film of all time until the release of Star Wars. It won several awards for its soundtrack and editing and it was followed by three sequels, none with the participation of Spielberg or Benchley, and many imitative thrillers. In 2001, Jaws was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, being deemed culturally, historically, during a late-night beach party on Amity Island, a young woman goes swimming in the ocean. While treading water, she is pulled under. The next morning, her remains are found on shore. The medical examiner ruling the death a shark attack leads Police Chief Martin Brody to close the beaches, Mayor Larry Vaughn overrules him, fearing it will ruin the towns summer economy. The coroner now concurs with the theory that the girl was killed in a boating accident. Brody reluctantly accepts their conclusion until another fatal shark attack occurs shortly after, a bounty is then placed on the shark, resulting in an amateur shark-hunting frenzy. Local professional shark hunter Quint offers his services for $10,000, meanwhile, consulting oceanographer Matt Hooper examines the first victims remains and confirms the death was from a shark attack. When local fishermen catch a tiger shark, the mayor proclaims the beaches safe. Hooper disputes it being the predator, confirming this after no human remains are found inside it. Hooper and Brody find a vessel while searching the night waters in Hoopers boat. Underwater, Hooper retrieves a sizable great white sharks tooth embedded in the submerged hull and he drops it after finding a partial corpse. Vaughn discounts Brody and Hoopers claims that a great white shark is responsible and refuses to close the beachesJaws (film) – Theatrical release poster
70. Kalidas (film) – Kalidas, also known as Kalidasa, is a 1931 Indian Tamil-language biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani. It is notable for being the first Tamil language sound film, Kalidas, principally in Tamil, contained additional dialogue in Telugu and Hindi. While Rajalakshmi spoke Tamil, Venkatesan spoke only Telugu due to his lack of fluency in Tamil, the sound was recorded using German-made technology. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of Indias first sound film Alam Ara, Kalidas was released with high expectations on 31 October 1931, coinciding with Diwali day. It was the only Tamil film to be produced and released that year, despite numerous technical flaws, it received critical acclaim, with praise for Rajalakshmis singing performance, and it became a major commercial success. The success of Kalidas spawned other films based upon Kālidāsa, including Mahakavi Kalidasa, Mahakavi Kalidasu, in addition to its commercial success, Kalidas was a major breakthrough for Rajalakshmis career, and made her a bankable singing star. Because no print, gramophone record, or songbook of the film is known to survive, Vidhyadhari is the daughter of Vijayavarman, the king of Thejavathi. His minister wants the princess to marry his son but she refuses, annoyed, the minister sets out to find another potential husband for Vidhyadhari. In the forest, the finds a illiterate cowman sitting in a tree. The minister persuades the cowman to come to the palace and has Vidhyadhari marry him, when Vidhyadhari realises she has been cheated, and is married to a farmhand, she prays to the goddess Kali for a remedy. Kali appears before her, names her husband Kalidas and endows him with literary talents. Kalidas is the first sound film to be produced in South Indian cinema, and it was based on the life of the Sanskrit poet and playwright Kālidāsa. The film was produced by Ardeshir Irani, who directed Indias first sound film Alam Ara, P. G. Venkatesan was chosen to play the title role. L. V. Prasad—who later founded Prasad Studios—appeared in a role as a temple priest. Theatre artiste T. P. Rajalakshmi was chosen to play the female protagonist, according to film historian Randor Guy, before this, Rajalakshmi had acted in many silent films, and Kalidas was her first sound film. Supporting roles were played by Thevaram Rajambal, T. Susheela Devi, J. Sushila, the sound was recorded by German technicians using German-made equipment. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of Alam Ara, it was completed using either 6,000 feet or 10,000 feet of film, Film historian Film News Anandan stated that Kalidas was produced in a hurry, and was technically flawed. While Kalidas primary language was Tamil, the actors spoke a variety of languages, including Tamil, TeluguKalidas (film) – Kalidas
71. Lage Raho Munna Bhai – Lage Raho Munna Bhai is a 2006 Indian comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. It is the follow-up to the 2003 film Munna Bhai M. B. B. S, with Sanjay Dutt reprising his role as Munna Bhai, a Mumbai underworld don. In Lage Raho Munna Bhai, the lead character starts to see the spirit of Mahatma Gandhi. Through his interactions with Gandhi, he begins to practice what he refers to as Gandhigiri to help people solve their problems. The film won critical acclaim from critics and had a number of prominent screenings. It was the recipient of a number of awards, including four National Film Awards, Lage Raho Munna Bhai was the first Hindi film to be shown at the United Nations, and was screened at the Tous Les Cinema du Monde section of the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. The film popularised the term Gandhigiri, Vidhu Vinod Chopra submitted the film as an independent entry for the 2007 Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. To prepare for the contest, Munnas sidekick Circuit kidnaps and bribes a group of professors to provide the answers for Munna, after winning the contest, Munna is granted an interview with Janhavi wherein he presents himself as a professor of history and a Gandhi specialist. Janhavi subsequently asks Munna to present a lecture on Gandhi to a community of citizens who live in her home. To prepare for this event, Munna engages in study at a Gandhi institute. For three days and nights, Munna reads about the life and ideologies of Gandhi and it is during this period that the image of Gandhi, addressed by his nickname Bapu, appears and offers help and advice to Munna. Gandhi encourages Munna to tell the truth about himself to Janhavi, with Gandhis help, Munna succeeds in impressing Jahnavi and cultivates a new lifestyle based upon Gandhism. Munna starts to co-host a radio-show with Janhavi and Gandhis image, one of the most prominent of these details the story of Lucky Singh and his daughter Simran. Lucky is a businessman who employs Circuit and Munna Bhai to conduct underworld activities for him. His daughter, Simran, is engaged to marry Sunny, the son of the powerful businessman Kkhurana, maharaj also convinces Kkhurana to reject the marriage between Simran and Sunny when it is revealed that Simran is considered to be a manglik. Lucky appropriates the Second Innings House by sending Munna to Goa, in response, Munna launches a non-violent protest to reclaim the house. He calls this protest Get Well Soon, Lucky and asks his radio audience to send Lucky flowers to help him recover from the disease of dishonesty. During this time Munna tells Janhavi the truth, Munna receives another setback when he is tricked by Lucky into revealing his conversations with Gandhi before a public audienceLage Raho Munna Bhai – Theatrical release poster
72. Latter Days – Latter Days is a 2003 American romantic comedy-drama film about a gay relationship between a closeted Mormon missionary and his openly gay neighbor. The film was written and directed by C, jay Cox and stars Steve Sandvoss as the missionary, Aaron, and Wes Ramsey as the neighbor, Christian. Joseph Gordon-Levitt appears as Elder Ryder, and Rebekah Johnson as Julie Taylor, mary Kay Place, Erik Palladino, Amber Benson, and Jacqueline Bisset have supporting roles. Latter Days premiered at the Philadelphia International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival on July 10,2003 and was released in various states of USA over the next 12 months, later the film was released in a few other countries and shown at several gay film festivals. It was the first film to portray openly the clash between the principles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and homosexuality, and its exhibition in some U. S. states was controversial. Various religious groups demanded that the film be withdrawn from theaters, the film was met with mixed reactions from film critics, but was popular with most film festival attendees. At the North American box office however, Latter Days only made $834,685, in 2004, freelance writer T. Fabris made Latter Days into a novel, which was published by Alyson Publications. Elder Aaron Davis, a young Mormon from Pocatello, Idaho, is sent to Los Angeles with three missionaries to spread the Mormon faith. They move into an apartment next to openly gay party boy Christian Markelli and his roommate Julie, Christian and Julie work as waiters at Lilas, a trendy restaurant owned by retired actress Lila Montagne. Christian makes a bet with his co-workers that he can seduce one of the Mormons, and soon realizes that Aaron, Aaron and Christian become acquainted after several encounters in the apartment complex. When Christian accidentally cuts himself on a metal hose reel and faints, Aaron helps him indoors, Christian attempts to seduce Aaron, but the hesitant Mormon becomes upset by Christians remark that sex doesnt have to mean anything. Aaron accuses him of being shallow and walks out, worried that Aaron is correct, Christian joins Project Angel Food, delivering meals to people with AIDS. Aarons fellow missionary, Paul Ryder, has a cycling accident, returning to his apartment, a distraught Aaron encounters Christian, who tries to comfort him with a hug. Both men are overwhelmed by their feelings and end up kissing, failing to notice the return of Aarons roommates, Aaron is sent home in disgrace, leading Christian to confront Ryder, who is angry that Christian corrupted Aaron for no reason. Christian admits that he initially just wanted to win a bet, recognizing Christians distress, Ryder tells him that Aarons flight has a five-hour layover in Salt Lake City. Christian finds Aaron standing in the snow outside the airport terminal, Christian confesses his love, and despite his misgivings, Aaron admits his own feelings of love. With all flights canceled due to a snowstorm, Christian and Aaron spend a night in a motel. When Christian awakes, he finds Aaron gone, Aarons pocket watch, a family heirloom, has been left behindLatter Days – Theatrical release poster
73. Life's Shop Window – Lifes Shop Window is a 1914 American silent drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Claire Whitney and Stuart Holmes. It is a adaptation of the eponymous 1907 novel by Annie Sophie Cory. The film depicts the story of English orphan Lydia Wilton, although Wiltons marriage is legitimate, it was conducted in secret, and she is accused of having a child out of wedlock. Forced to leave England, she reunites with her husband in Arizona, there, she is tempted by infidelity with an old acquaintance, Eustace Pelham, before seeing the error of her ways and returning to her family. Lifes Shop Window was the first film produced, rather than simply distributed, by William Foxs Box Office Attractions Company, several reviewers approved of the films expurgated treatment of the novels plot, although opinions of the quality of the film itself were mixed. It proved very popular upon its release in New York. Like many of Foxs early works, it was likely lost in the 1937 Fox vault fire, Bernard Chetwin is a boarder at John Andersons farm in England. He is unimpressed by Andersons spoiled daughter Bella, but is attracted to their orphaned servant and she tells him of her dreams for a happier life, and they fall in love. Wilton also meets Eustace Pelham, who introduces her to his philosophy of lifes shop window, Chetwin marries Wilton in a secret ceremony. Intending to establish a farm to support his new family, Chetwin leaves the English countryside for Arizona, concerned about the dangers of frontier territory, he travels without his newlywed wife, intending to send for her later. When she gives birth to Chetwins child, Andersons wife refuses to accept evidence of her marriage and she takes the infant with her to Arizona and reunites with Chetwin at his ranch. The demands of managing the ranch consume all of Chetwins time, One day, a traveler is injured near the ranch, whom she recognizes as Pelham. Pelham courts her, taking advantage of her loneliness, although she admits she does not love him, he convinces her to abandon her family and run away with him. As she is preparing to depart, she is confronted by Starlight, an Indian woman who works as a servant on the ranch and she spurns Pelham and returns to her family. Eventually, Chetwin forgives her and devotes more of his time to her, Pelham may have been killed by Starlight, although his ultimate fate is left unclear. Adultery and female sexuality are common themes in her works, which reversed the expected gender roles of the time. Elizabeth Bisland described Lydia, the character of Corys 1907 novel Lifes Shop Window, as a very modernist heroine. Like many of Crosss novels, it attracted controversy, and was banned for a time by the Circulating Libraries Association in the United Kingdom, Lifes Shop Window had already become the basis of a successful play, based on an expurgated version of the novels plotLife's Shop Window – Lydia Wilton's baby is presented to the Anderson farm
74. The Lord of the Rings (1978 film) – The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 American high fantasy animated film directed by Ralph Bakshi. It is an adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkiens high fantasy epic The Lord of the Rings, comprising The Fellowship of the Ring and the first half of The Two Towers. Set in Middle-earth, the film follows a group of hobbits, elves, men, dwarves and they embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring made by the Dark Lord Sauron, and ensure his destruction. The film is notable for its use of rotoscoping, a technique in which scenes are first shot in live-action. It uses a hybrid of traditional cel animation and rotoscoped live action footage, the screenplay was written by Peter S. Beagle, based on an earlier draft by Chris Conkling. Although Bakshis The Lord of the Rings was a success, it received mixed reactions from critics. Early in the Second Age of Middle-earth, elven smiths forge nine Rings of Power for mortal men, seven for the Dwarf-Lords, soon after, the Dark Lord Sauron makes the One Ring, and uses it to attempt to conquer Middle-earth. Following the Last Alliance of Elves and Mens fall, the Ring is seized by Prince Isildur, and after Isildur was killed by orcs, over time, Sauron captures the Nine Rings and creates the Ringwraiths. The One Ring is discovered by Déagol, whose friend, Sméagol, kills him, the Ring twists his body and mind, and he becomes the creature Gollum. Hundreds of years later, Bilbo Baggins finds the Ring in Gollums cave, years later, during Bilbos birthday celebration, the wizard Gandalf tells him to leave the Ring for his relative Frodo. Bilbo reluctantly agrees, and leaves the Shire, seventeen years pass, during which Gandalf learns that evil forces have discovered that the Ring is in the possession of a Baggins. Gandalf meets with Frodo to explain the Rings history and the danger it poses and he is accompanied by three hobbit friends, Pippin, Merry, and Sam. After a narrow escape from the Ringwraiths, the hobbits eventually come to Bree, Frodo is stabbed atop Weathertop mountain by the chief of the Ringwraiths, and becomes sickened as the journey progresses. The Ringwraiths catch up with them shortly after they meet the elf Legolas, and at a standoff at the ford of Rivendell, at Rivendell, Frodo is healed by Elrond. He meets Gandalf again, after the latter escapes Saruman, who plans to ally with Sauron, at a council, Bilbo, Gandalf, and others debate the One Ring, and Frodo volunteers to go to Mordor, where the Ring can be destroyed. Thereafter Frodo sets off from Rivendell with eight companions, Gandalf, Aragorn, Boromir, son of the Steward of Gondor, Legolas, Gimli the dwarf and their attempt to cross the Misty Mountains is foiled by heavy snow, and they are forced into Moria. There, they are attacked by orcs, and Gandalf falls into an abyss while battling a balrog, the remaining Fellowship continue through the elf-haven Lothlórien, where they meet the elf queen Galadriel. Boromir tries to take the Ring from Frodo, and Frodo continue his quest alone, Boromir is killed by orcs while trying to defend Merry and PippinThe Lord of the Rings (1978 film) – Theatrical release poster by Tom Jung
75. Lord of the Universe – Lord of the Universe is a 1974 American documentary film about Prem Rawat at an event in November 1973 at the Houston Astrodome called Millennium 73. Lord of the Universe was first broadcast on PBS on February 2,1974, the documentary chronicles Maharaj Ji, his followers and anti-Vietnam War activist Rennie Davis who was a spokesperson of the Divine Light Mission at the time. A counterpoint is presented by Abbie Hoffman, who appears as a commentator and it includes interviews with several individuals, including followers, ex-followers, a mahatma, a born-again Christian, and a follower of Hare Krishna. The production team of Top Value Television produced the documentary, using Portapak video cameras, the TVTV team followed Maharaj Ji across the United States over a period of six weeks, and edited a large amount of tape down to the fifty-eight-minute piece. It was the first documentary made on 1⁄2 in video tape broadcast nationally, the documentary was generally well-received, and garnered its TVTV production team the 1974 Alfred I. du Pont/Columbia University Award in Broadcast Journalism. The documentary received a review in the New York Post, and positive reviews in The New York Times, The Boston Globe, the Los Angeles Times. The San Francisco Bay Guardian wrote that the TVTV team had improved since their previous work, Rennie Davis, a follower of Guru Maharaj Ji, was one of the spokespersons and speakers at the Millennium 73 event. His speech is featured in the documentary, in a later part of the film, a loudspeaker voice announces, Those premies who came in private cars can leave now. Those who came in rented buses can stay and meditate until further notice, adherents of other belief systems also appear in the documentary, including a born-again Christian who criticizes devotees for following the devil, and a Hare Krishna follower. A separate storyline is seen concurrently through the coverage of the Millennium 73 event, involving a man named Michael who has come to Houston, Texas, once Michael has received the Knowledge, he defends the secrecy behind the rituals. One of them says that after receiving Knowledge from Maharaj Ji, he was told that this free gift required lifetime devotion, Maharaj Ji is shown in a scene in the Astrodome relating a satsang to the attendants. He is seen dressed in gold-colored clothing and a crown, the story he relates to the crowd involves a young boy who comes to Houston, while searching for a Superman comic book. While seated on the platform, Maharaj Ji is surrounded by flashing moon signs and women wearing decorative garlands, the stage is decorated with glitter and neon lights, and Maharaj Jis brother performs rock music songs. Abbie Hoffman gives a comment in the documentary, stating, If this guy is God. The documentary was produced by Top Value Television in association with TV Lab, TVTV had received initial funding for the documentary through a small grant from the Stern Foundation, and an additional promise from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Several camera crews used 1⁄2 in black and white portapaks and followed Maharaj Ji, the TVTV production team debated whether to include the secret techniques of Maharaj Ji in the documentary and finally decided that it was vital to disclose these practices in the piece. They chose to have an ex-premie divulge these practices rather than use a narration, but they were fearful of potential repercussions, TVTV member Tom Weinberg found a man who demonstrated meditation techniques in the documentary, which he described as being the Knowledge. Producer Megan Williams stated that TVTV crew members empathized with the experiences of Maharaj Jis followers, nevertheless, many in the crew of TVTV felt superior to these lost souls describing the followers as gurunoidsLord of the Universe – 1991 VHS edition
76. Manhunter (film) – Manhunter is a 1986 American crime horror film based on the novel Red Dragon by Thomas Harris. Written and directed by Michael Mann, it stars William Petersen as FBI profiler Will Graham, also featured are Tom Noonan as serial killer Francis Dollarhyde, Dennis Farina as Grahams FBI superior Jack Crawford, and Brian Cox as incarcerated killer Hannibal Lecktor. The film focuses on Graham coming out of retirement to lend his talents to an investigation on Dollarhyde, in doing so, he must confront the demons of his past and meet with Lecktor, who nearly counted Graham amongst his victims. The film features heavily stylized use of color to convey this sense of duality, and the nature of the characters similarity has been explored in academic readings of the film. It was the first film adaptation of Harris Hannibal Lecter novels, as well as the first adaptation of Red Dragon, opening to mixed reviews, Manhunter fared poorly at the box office at the time of its release, making only $8.6 million in the United States. However, it has been reappraised in recent reviews and now enjoys a more favorable reception. Its resurgent popularity, which may be due to adaptations of Harris books and Petersens success in CSI. Will Graham is a former FBI criminal profiler who has retired because of a breakdown after being attacked by a cannibalistic serial killer. Graham is approached at his Florida home by his former FBI superior Jack Crawford, having found the killers fingerprints, Graham meets with Crawford. They are accosted by tabloid journalist Freddy Lounds, with whom Graham has a bitter history, Graham pays a visit to Lecktor, a former psychiatrist, in his cell and asks for his insight into the killers motivations. After a tense conversation, Lecktor agrees to look at the case file, a little later, Lecktor contrives and manages to obtain Grahams home address by deceit during his phone privileges. Graham travels to the first crime scene in Birmingham, Alabama, where he is contacted by Crawford, Crawford also patches Graham through to Frederick Chilton, Lecktors warden, who has found a note in Lecktors personal effects. Reading it, they realize it is from the Tooth Fairy, Crawford brings Graham to the FBI Academy at Quantico, where a missing section of the note is analyzed to determine what Lecktor has removed. It is found to be an instruction to communicate through the section of the National Tattler. After a sting operation fails to catch the killer, Lounds is kidnapped by the Tooth Fairy, Lounds is forced to tape-record a statement before being set on fire in a wheelchair and killed, his flaming body rolled into the parking garage of the National Tattler as a warning. Graham is told by Crawford that they have cracked Lecktors coded message to the Tooth Fairy—it is Grahams home address with an instruction to kill the family, Graham rushes home to find his family safe but terrified. After the FBI moves Grahams family to a house, he tries to explain to his son Kevin why he had retired previously. At his job in a St. Louis film lab, Francis Dollarhyde—The Tooth Fairy—approaches a blind co-worker, Reba McClane and they go to Dollarhydes home, where Reba is oblivious to the fact that Dollarhyde is watching home-movie footage of his planned next victimManhunter (film) – Theatrical release poster
77. Mayabazar – Mayabazar is a 1957 Indian epic fantasy film directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy. Nagi Reddy and Aluri Chakrapani under their banner, Vijaya Vauhini Studios, the film was shot in both Telugu and Tamil with the same title, but with a few differences in the cast. The story is an adaptation of the folk tale Sasirekha Parinayam and it revolves around the roles of Krishna and Ghatotkacha, as they try to reunite Arjunas son Abhimanyu with his love, Balaramas daughter. The first mythological film produced by their studio, Mayabazar marked a milestone for Nagi Reddy, in addition to the technical crew,400 studio workers – including light men, carpenters, and painters – participated in the development of the film. Director Reddy was meticulous with the pre-production and casting phases, which took nearly a year to complete, though Rama Rao was initially reluctant to play the lead role, his portrayal of Krishna received acclaim and yielded more offers to reprise the same role in several unrelated films. The soundtrack features songs, with most of the musical score composed by Ghantasala. Telugu lyrics were written by Pingali Nagendrarao and Tamil lyrics were written by Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass, four of the songs were composed by S. Rajeswara Rao prior to his unexplained departure from the project. One of them was accompanied by the first illusion of moonlight in Indian cinema, Mayabazar had a final film-reel length of 5,888 metres. The films Telugu version was released on 27 March 1957, the Tamil version was released two later, on 12 April. Both were critically and commercially successful, with a run of 100 days in 24 theatres. Mayabazar was also dubbed into Kannada, the film is considered a landmark in both Telugu and Tamil cinema, with praise for its cast and technical aspects, despite the limitations of technology at the time. Mayabazar was screened at the Public Gardens in Hyderabad for its 50th anniversary on 7 April 2007, Raavi Kondala Rao novelized the films script based on Venkata Reddys screenplay. A May 2013 CNN-News18 poll selected Mayabazar as the greatest Indian film of all time, the updated version was released on 30 January 2010 in 45 theatres in Andhra Pradesh. It was a success that generated mostly positive reviews, one critic only expressing a preference for the original. Subhadra marries a Pandava named Arjuna and their son Abhimanyu falls in love with Balaramas daughter, Sasirekha. The families consent to their marrying when they reach adulthood, when Abhimanyu and Sasirekha have grown up, Krishna introduces them to each other. One day, the Pandavas are invited by Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas to join in a game of dice, Duryodhanas uncle, Shakuni, manipulates the results of the game, thereby costing the Pandavas their wealth, their liberty and their wife Draupadi. Duryodhanas brother, Dushasana, attempts to disrobe Draupadi and he is seen by Krishna, who, furious, comes to her rescueMayabazar – Theatrical release poster of the Telugu version
78. Mereka Bilang, Saya Monyet! – Mereka Bilang, Saya Monyet. is a 2008 Indonesian film directed by Djenar Maesa Ayu. Starring Titi Rajo Bintang, Henidar Amroe, and Ray Sahetapi, it tells the story of Adjeng. Filmed over 18 days after several years of development, the film adapted two of Ayus short stories from her debut anthology of the same name. Owing to its low budget of Rp 620 million, its cast and crew were mostly amateurs and students, Mereka Bilang, Saya Monyet. has been described as anti-Sjuman because of the disparity between Ayus more personal directing style and the social realism of her father, Sjumandjaja. Although commercially unsuccessful, the film was received by critics. It won five awards and was screened at several international film festivals. Two Indonesian publications, Tempo and The Jakarta Post, selected it as among the best films of 2008, Adjeng lives alone in an apartment paid for by her boyfriend, a rich businessman. A writer of stories, she wishes to write short stories for adults, in this. Meanwhile, Adjengs mother handles various aspects of her life, constantly calling her and this has led Adjengs friends, Venny and Andien, to tease her about her overbearing mother. When Adjeng goes clubbing with her friends, she drinks too much and vomits, as she lies with her head on the seat she recalls that, as a child, she had been forced to eat vegetables she had previously vomited. This background, as well as her recollections of life as a teenager at the home of her father are worked into Adjengs short story Lintah. When Asmoro reads the story, he says that it is unrealistic, however, Adjeng insists that reality is unrealistic and that not all victims of rape are willing to call the police. Several days later, while they are lying in bed, Asmoro shows Adjeng that Lintah had been published in Kompas, Adjengs mother, aware of the storys autobiographical nature, is furious and, after going to Adjengs apartment, blames everything on Adjengs father abandoning them. Upset, Adjeng goes out with Venny and Andien, but when the two arguing about motherhood Adjeng leaves them both in the street. She then goes to a café to drink with Asmoro, who comforts her, when she returns home she checks her messages, most of which are about the short story. Venny and Andien, meanwhile, return to their families and think of the importance of children, the following day, Asmoro sees the businessman, Adjengs boyfriend, leaving her apartment, which puts him in a foul mood. He and Adjeng fight, and Asmoro almost smothers Adjeng with a pillow before saying that they are through, as Adjeng lies on the bed, she recalls how her mothers lover raped her and how her mother murdered him. As the phone rings, Adjeng watches the people from her past going about life in a complex, smilesMereka Bilang, Saya Monyet! – Poster
79. Mind Meld – Shatner and Nimoy portrayed the characters James T. Kirk and Spock respectively in the 1960s Star Trek television series, the 1970s animated television series and they talk about differences they had with Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, and about the strained relationships between Shatner and some of the other cast members. It was in film that Nimoy first publicly revealed that he had struggled with alcoholism while he was acting in the original television series. Shatner talks about the death of his wife, Nerine Kidd. Mind Meld was produced to advertise Shatners personal website, filming took place at Nimoys home on September 5,2001, and Billy West narrated the title sequence. The films title refers to a practice in Star Trek—a mind meld is a telepathic link that Vulcans are able to create with other organisms. Mind Meld was released for sale on Shatners website on November 6,2001, coinciding with the release of the cut of Star Trek. Mind Meld attracted some notoriety because of a sound in one scene that became a popular subject of flatulence humor among Star Trek fans. Shatner denied being the source of sound in multiple interviews, he and Mind Melds director, Peter Jaysen. The film received mixed reviews from critics, william Shatner and Leonard Nimoy respectively portrayed James T. In Mind Meld, they discuss the Star Trek media franchise, the film is, except for the title sequence, composed entirely of Shatner and Nimoy in conversation. Many of the topics they discuss were inspired by questions from fans. The film starts in Nimoys backyard, where the two sit on chairs, and then moves into Nimoys library, which is filled with souvenirs. The film focuses on the effects Star Trek had on the lives of Shatner and Nimoy and they talk about Star Treks origins and the death of DeForest Kelley, who had portrayed Leonard McCoy in both The Original Series and The Animated Series. Shatner and Nimoy also discuss interactions between themselves and others on the set of Star Trek, including conflicts, both Shatner and Nimoy describe having had strained relationships with Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, and attest to other members of the Original Series cast disliking Shatner. Only one of these cast members is referred to by name, Nichelle Nichols, I never fully comprehended what it was that was bothering them, says Shatner. Both men describe Star Trek as having put personal pressures on them that negatively affected their family lives. It took me a while, Nimoy says, but I got rid of all that anger when I realized that I never had to worry about work ever since Star Trek went on the airMind Meld – Original DVD cover (2001)
80. Mom and Dad – Mom and Dad is a feature-length 1945 film directed by William Beaudine, and largely produced by the exploitation film maker and presenter Kroger Babb. Mom and Dad is considered the most successful film within its genre of sex hygiene films, although it faced numerous legal challenges and was condemned by the National Legion of Decency, it became one of the highest-grossing films of the 1940s. The film is regarded as a film as it was repackaged controversial content designed to establish an educational value that might circumvent U. S. censorship laws. Babbs marketing of his film incorporated old-style medicine show techniques, and these formed a template for his later works, which were imitated by his contemporary filmmakers. In 2005, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being culturally, historically, the Academy Film Archive preserved Mom and Dad in 2010. Mom and Dad tells the story of Joan Blake, a girl who falls for the pilot Jack Griffin. After being sweet talked by Griffin, she has sex with him, the girl requests hygiene books from her mother Sarah Blake, however, the mother refuses because the girl is not yet married. The girl later learns from her father Dan Blake that the pilot has died in a crash and she tears up a letter she had been writing to him, and lowers her head as the film fades into intermission. The film resumes at the point when the girl discovers that her clothes no longer fit and she takes advice from her teacher, Carl Blackburn, who had previously been fired for teaching sex education. Blackburn blames her mother for the problem, and accuses her of neglect the duty of telling their children the real truth. Only then is the able to confront her mother. The film then presents reels and charts that include images of the female anatomy and footage of live births - one natural. In some screenings, a film was shown along with Mom and Dad. Mom and Dad is believed to have had a number of endings, although most typically concluded with the birth of the child, sometimes stillborn. Hardie Albright – Carl Blackburn, the teacher, lois Austin – Sarah Blake, the mother. George Eldredge – Dan Blake, the father, june Carlson – Joan Blake, the teen-age girl. Bob Lowell – Jack Griffin, the pilot, jane Isbell – Mary Lou, Joans friend. Jimmy Zaner – Allen Curtis, Joans hometown boyfriend, willa Pearl Curtis – Junella, the Blake familys African-American maidMom and Dad – Film poster, circa 1947, listing sex-segregated showings
81. Mughal-e-Azam – Mughal-e-Azam is a 1960 Indian epic historical drama film directed by K. Asif and produced by Shapoorji Pallonji. Starring Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Madhubala, and Durga Khote, Salims father, Emperor Akbar, disapproves of the relationship, which leads to a war between father and son. The development of Mughal-e-Azam began in 1944, when Asif read a set in the reign of Emperor Akbar. Production was plagued by delays and financial uncertainty, before its principal photography began in the early 1950s, the project had lost a financier and undergone a complete change of cast. Mughal-e-Azam cost more to produce than any previous Indian motion picture, Mughal-e-Azam had the widest release of any Indian film up to that time, and patrons often queued all day for tickets. Released on 5 August 1960, it broke box office records in India and became the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all time, the accolades awarded to the film include one National Film Award and three Filmfare Awards at the 8th Filmfare Awards. Mughal-e-Azam was the first black-and-white Hindi film to be coloured. The colour version, released in November 2004, was a commercial success, the film is widely considered to be a milestone of its genre, earning praise from critics for its grandeur and attention to detail. Film scholars have welcomed its portrayal of enduring themes, but question its historical accuracy, Emperor Akbar, who does not have a male heir, undertakes a pilgrimage to a shrine to pray that his wife Jodhabai give birth to a son. Later, a maid brings the news of his sons birth. Overjoyed at his prayers being answered, Akbar gives the maid his ring, the son, Prince Salim, grows up to be spoiled, flippant, and self-indulgent. His father sends him off to war, to teach him courage, fourteen years later, Salim returns as a distinguished soldier and falls in love with court dancer Nadira, whom the emperor has renamed Anarkali, meaning pomegranate blossom. The relationship is discovered by the jealous Bahar, a dancer of a higher rank, unsuccessful in winning Salims love, she exposes his forbidden relationship with Anarkali. Salim pleads to marry Anarkali, but his father refuses, despite her treatment, Anarkali refuses to reject Salim, as Akbar demands. Salim rebels and amasses an army to confront Akbar and rescue Anarkali, defeated in battle, Salim is sentenced to death by his father, but is told that the sentence will be revoked if Anarkali, now in hiding, is handed over to die in his place. Anarkali gives herself up to save the life, and is condemned to death by being entombed alive. Before her sentence is carried out, she begs to have a few hours with Salim as his make-believe wife and her request is granted, as she has agreed to drug Salim so that he cannot interfere with her entombment. As Anarkali is being walled up, Akbar is reminded that he owes her mother a favourMughal-e-Azam – Theatrical poster
82. The Mummy (1999 film) – It is a loose remake of the 1932 film The Mummy, which starred Boris Karloff in the titular role. Filming began in Marrakech, Morocco, on May 4,1998, and lasted seventeen weeks, the crew had to endure dehydration, sandstorms, the visual effects were provided by Industrial Light & Magic, who blended film and computer-generated imagery to create the titular Mummy. Jerry Goldsmith provided the orchestral score, the Mummy opened on May 7,1999, and grossed $43 million in 3,210 theaters during its opening weekend in the United States, a surprise hit, the film went on to gross $416 million worldwide. The box-office success led to a 2001 sequel, The Mummy Returns, as well as The Mummy, The Animated Series, seven years later, the third installment, The Mummy, Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, opened on August 1,2008. Universal Pictures also opened a roller coaster, Revenge of the Mummy, novelizations of the film and its sequels were written by Max Allan Collins. In Thebes, Egypt,1290 BC, high priest Imhotep has an affair with Anck-su-Namun. When the Pharaoh discovers the affair, Imhotep and Anck-su-Namun assassinate him, Imhotep flees, while Anck-su-Namun kills herself, intending for Imhotep to resurrect her. Imhotep and his priests steal her corpse and travel to Hamunaptra, the city of the dead, but the ritual is stopped by Setis bodyguards. Imhoteps priests are all mummified alive, while Imhotep himself is sentenced to suffer the Hom Dai, Imhotep is sealed away in a sarcophagus at the feet of a statue of the Egyptian god Anubis and kept under strict surveillance by the Medjai to prevent Imhoteps return. In 1926, Jonathan Carnahan presents his sister Evelyn, a Cairo librarian and aspiring Egyptologist, with a box and map. Jonathan reveals he stole the box from an American adventurer, Rick OConnell, Rick makes a deal with Evelyn to lead them there if they release him from prison. Rick leads Evelyn and her party to the city, where the group encounters a band of American treasure hunters guided by Ricks cowardly colleague Beni Gabor, the expeditions are attacked by the Medjai, led by the warrior Ardeth Bay. Against Ardeths advice to leave the city, the two continue to excavate. Evelyn searches for the famous Book of the Living, a made of pure gold. Instead of finding the book, she, Rick, and Jonathan stumble upon the statue of Anubis, the team of Americans, meanwhile, discover the black Book of the Dead, accompanied by canopic jars carrying Anck-su-Namuns preserved organs. At night, Evelyn takes the Book of the Dead and reads a page aloud, the expeditions return to Cairo, but Imhotep follows them with the help of Beni. Imhotep returns to full strength by killing the Americans one by one, seeking a way to stop Imhotep, Rick, Evelyn and Jonathan meet Ardeth at a museum. Ardeth hypothesizes that Imhotep wants to resurrect Anck-su-Namun again and plans to do so by sacrificing Evelyn, Evelyn believes that if the Book of the Dead brought Imhotep back to life, the Book of the Living can kill him again, and deduces the books whereaboutsThe Mummy (1999 film) – Theatrical release poster
83. Nefarious: Merchant of Souls – Nefarious, Merchant of Souls is a 2011 American documentary film about modern human trafficking, specifically sexual slavery. Presented from a Christian worldview, Nefarious covers human trafficking in the United States, Western and Eastern Europe, victims of trafficking talk about having been the objects of physical abuse and attempted murder. Several former prostitutes talk about their conversion to Christianity, escape from sexual oppression, the film ends with the assertion that only Jesus can completely heal people from the horrors of sexual slavery. Nefarious was written, directed, produced and narrated by Benjamin Nolot, founder and president of Exodus Cry, the film was officially released on July 27,2011, with individual grassroots screenings also taking place. The film was released on video on May 1,2012. Dan Preston of Godculture Magazine praised Nolots writing and directing, Nefarious, Merchant of Souls documents modern human trafficking, specifically sexual slavery. While there are men and boys who are trafficked around the world, the United States Department of State estimates that about 80% of human trafficking victims are female, and the film focuses on them. Nefarious explores how sex trafficking differs from country to country, one of the initial assertions in the film is that slavery has not been abolished but is increasing, and that half of this slavery is sexual in nature. The film contrasts the secretiveness and brutality of the sex industry in Eastern Europe with the openness of public prostitution in the Netherlands, the film asserts that 10% of the population of Moldova has been sexually trafficked. The film presents human trafficking statistics and assertions from a variety of sources, prominently departments of the United States government and these include that human trafficking is growing faster than any other criminal industry, that the average age of those forced into prostitution in the U. S. The film indicates that trafficking is an exploitation of vulnerability and expresses the need to take away the stigma that choose to be there, kevin Bales of Free the Slaves is quoted as saying that there are 27 million slaves in the world. The film ends with the assertion that only Jesus can free people from sexual slavery, Nefarious covers human trafficking in the United States, Western and Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. The film opens with a re-enactment of a girl being kidnapped by organized criminals and she is confined with other girls in a dark room, lit by a flickering lightbulb. Men order the girls to remove their clothes, and then examine them and shout commands and threats at them, one girl is dragged into another room. A victim of such as these, speaking in voiceover, explains that, in this situation. The film states that this goes unnoticed in cities where prostitution is legal. Slaves are depicted in confinement, at their places of work, many of the girls are orphans, and all are either kidnapped or tricked into forced prostitution. Traffickers in the film use hard drugs, brainwashing and sexual and physical abuse to keep the girls under controlNefarious: Merchant of Souls – Film poster
84. Not My Life – Not My Life is a 2011 American independent documentary film about human trafficking and contemporary slavery. The film was written, produced, and directed by Robert Bilheimer, Bilheimer planned Not My Life as the second installment in a trilogy, the first being A Closer Walk and the third being the unproduced Take Me Home. The first and last scenes of the film take place in Ghana, the film also depicts sex trafficking victims, some of whom are only five or six years old. Fifty people are interviewed in the film, including investigative journalist Paul Radu of Bucharest, Katherine Chon of the Polaris Project, and Iana Matei of Reaching Out Romania. Don Brewster of Agape International Missions says that all of the girls they have rescued from child sex tourism in Cambodia identify Americans as the clients who were the most abusive to them. The film was dedicated to Richard Young, its cinematographer and co-director and it had its premiere the following month at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City. The narration was completely rerecorded in 2011, replacing Ashley Judds voice with that of Glenn Close, the version of the film that was aired by CNN International as part of the CNN Freedom Project was shorter than the version shown at the premiere. In 2014, a version of the film was released. The film also focuses on the people and organizations engaged in working against human trafficking, the film asserts that most victims of human trafficking are children. Actress Lucy Liu said that people who watch Not My Life will be shocked to find is happening in America, Lucy Popescu of CineVue criticized the film for focusing on the victims, arguing that the perpetrators of trafficking should have been dealt with more prominently. Not My Life was named Best World Documentary at the Harlem International Film Festival in September 2012, Not My Life is a documentary film about human trafficking and contemporary slavery. The focus of the film is on trafficking victims, especially women and children, Not My Life has been called a cautionary tale. It depicts the commodification of millions of people and identifies the practices of traffickers as undermining international economics, security, sustainability, Not My Life calls attention to the fact that, in the United States, the sentencing for human trafficking is less severe than for drug trafficking. The film indicates a relationship between slavery and globalization. It asserts that most human trafficking victims are children, although the filmmakers have recognized the fact that millions of adults are also trafficked. The film depicts human trafficking as a matter of good and evil, provides interviews with survivors of human trafficking, throughout the film, Robert Bilheimer encourages viewers to personally combat human trafficking. Bilheimer was sparing in his use of statistics in the film, according to Nancy Keefe Rhodes of Stone Canoe, a U. S. S. Fully as coercive and wantonly cruel, according to Rhodes, Bilheimer rescue modern slaves from representation as exotic creatures, to restore their humanity and allow audiences to relate to themNot My Life – Not My Life
85. Palpatine – Sheev Palpatine is a fictional character of the Star Wars franchise, mainly portrayed by Ian McDiarmid. In the original trilogy, he is depicted as the aged, pale-faced and cloaked Emperor of the Galactic Empire, as Sidious, he instigates the Clone Wars, nearly destroys the Jedi, and transforms the Republic into the Empire. He also manipulates Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker into turning to the dark side, Palpatines reign is brought to an end when Vader kills him to save his son, Luke Skywalker. The Emperor is briefly mentioned in the original Star Wars, the first film in the original trilogy, grand Moff Tarkin explains to his fellow Imperials that the Emperor has dissolved the Senate. The Emperor first appeared in The Empire Strikes Back and he appears in hologram form to address Darth Vader, his Sith apprentice. He tells Vader that Luke Skywalker is becoming a threat to the Empire. Vader convinces him that Luke would be an asset if turned to the dark side. In 1983s Return of the Jedi, the Emperor appears in person to oversee the last stages of the second Death Stars construction and he assures Darth Vader that they will together turn Luke, now revealed to be Vaders son, to the dark side. Unknown to Vader, the Emperor plans to replace his apprentice with Luke, when Vader brings Luke before his master, the Emperor tempts Luke to join the dark side by appealing to the young Jedis fear for his friends, whom he has lured into a trap. This leads to a duel in which Luke defeats and nearly kills Vader. The Emperor tells Luke to kill Vader and take his place, enraged, the Emperor attacks Luke with Force lightning. Moved by his sons cries for help, Vader throws the Emperor into the Death Stars reactor shaft, as Sidious, he influences the corrupt Trade Federation to blockade and invade Naboo. Queen Padmé Amidala of Naboo flees to the planet Coruscant to receive counsel from Palpatine, after a plea for help from the senate results in bureaucratic delays, Palpatine persuades the queen to make a motion to have Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum removed from office. When Padmé attempts to liberate Naboo, Sidious sends his Sith apprentice Darth Maul there to capture her, the invasion is eventually thwarted and Maul is defeated in a lightsaber duel with Obi-Wan Kenobi. Palpatine uses the crisis to be elected the new Chancellor of the Republic and he then returns to Naboo, where he befriends the young Anakin Skywalker, telling him that, We will watch your career with great interest. In the 2002 sequel Star Wars, Episode II – Attack of the Clones, since the Separatists are secretly building a battle droid army, Palpatine uses the situation to have himself granted emergency powers. Palpatine feigns reluctance to accept this authority, promising to return it to the Senate once the crisis has ended and his first act is to allow the creation of a clone army to counter the Separatist threat, this results in the opening salvo of the Clone Wars. With the galaxy now at war as Sidious planned, Dooku brings him the plans for a new superweaponPalpatine – Ian McDiarmid as Senator Palpatine in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace.
86. Panavision – Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California. The company introduced its first products in 1954, originally a provider of CinemaScope accessories, the companys line of anamorphic widescreen lenses soon became the industry leader. In 1972, Panavision helped revolutionize filmmaking with the lightweight Panaflex 35 mm movie camera, the company has introduced other groundbreaking cameras such as the Millennium XL and the digital video Genesis. Panavision operates exclusively as a rental facility—the company owns its entire inventory, robert Gottschalk founded Panavision in late 1953, in partnership with Richard Moore, Meredith Nicholson, Harry Eller, Walter Wallin, and William Mann, the company was formally incorporated in 1954. Panavision was established principally for the manufacture of anamorphic lenses to meet the growing demands of theaters showing CinemaScope films. At the time of Panavisions formation, Gottschalk owned a shop in Westwood Village, California. The technology was created during World War I to increase the field of view on tank periscopes, after it was unsqueezed by a complementary anamorphic optical element, the tank operator could see double the horizontal field of view without significant distortion. Gottschalk and Moore bought some of these lenses from C. P. Goerz, as widescreen filmmaking became popular, Gottschalk saw an opportunity to provide anamorphic lenses to the film industry—first for projectors, and then for cameras. Nicholson, a friend of Moore, started working as a cameraman on early tests of anamorphic photography, in the 1950s, the motion picture industry was threatened by the advent of television—TV kept moviegoers at home, reducing box office revenues. Film studios sought to lure audiences to theaters with attractions that television could not provide and these included a revival of color films, three-dimensional films, stereophonic sound, and widescreen movies. Cinerama was one of the first widescreen movie processes of the era, in its initial conception, the cumbersome system required three cameras for shooting and three synchronized projectors to display a picture on one wide, curved screen. Along with the logistical and financial challenges of tripling equipment usage and cost, by the time the first CinemaScope movie—The Robe —was announced for production, Gottschalk, Moore and Nicholson had a demo reel of work with their anamorphic underwater system. He teamed up with William Mann, who provided optical manufacturing capability, and Walter Wallin, the anamorphic lens design they selected was prismatic rather than the cylindrical design of the Bausch & Lomb CinemaScope lens. The result was the system, designed by Wallin, used in the Panatar lens, the patent for the system was filed on August 11,1954. Panavisions first product—the Super Panatar projection lens—debuted in March 1954, priced at $1,100, it captured the market. The Super Panatar was a box that attached to the existing projection lens with a special bracket. Its variable prismatic system allowed a range of formats to be shown from the same projector with a simple adjustment of the lens. Panavision improved on the Super Panatar with the Ultra Panatar, a design that could be screwed directly to the front of the projection lensPanavision – Screenshot of The Big Fisherman (1959), the first film released using the Super Panavision 70 process. The image shows the 2.20:1 aspect ratio in which the film was presented.
87. Pather Panchali – Pather Panchali is a 1955 Indian Bengali-language drama film directed by Satyajit Ray and produced by the Government of West Bengal. It is based on Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyays 1929 Bengali novel of the name and is Rays directorial debut. It features Subir Banerjee, Kanu Banerjee, Karuna Banerjee, Uma Dasgupta, the first film in the Apu trilogy, Pather Panchali depicts the childhood of the protagonist Apu and his elder sister Durga and the harsh village life of their poor family. Production was interrupted because of funding problems and it took three years for the film to be completed. The film was mainly on location, had a limited budget, featured mostly amateur actors. The sitar player Ravi Shankar composed the soundtrack and score using classical Indian ragas. Subrata Mitra was in charge of the cinematography while editing was handled by Dulal Dutta, following its premiere on 3 May 1955 during an exhibition at New Yorks Museum of Modern Art, Pather Panchali was released in Calcutta later the same year to an enthusiastic reception. A special screening was attended by the Chief Minister of West Bengal, Critics have praised its realism, humanity, and soul-stirring qualities while others have called its slow pace a drawback, and some have condemned it for romanticising poverty. The tale of Apus life is continued in the two subsequent installments of Rays trilogy, Aparajito and Apur Sansar. Pather Panchali is described as a point in Indian cinema, as it was among the films that pioneered the Parallel Cinema movement. It is often featured in lists of the greatest films ever made, in Nischindipur, rural Bengal, in the 1910s, Harihar Roy earns a meagre living as a pujari, but dreams of a better career as a poet and playwright. His wife Sarbajaya takes care of their children, Durga and Apu, because of their limited resources, Sarbajaya resents having to share her home with the old and helpless cripple Indir. At times, Sarbajayas taunts become offensive, forcing Indir to take refuge in the home of another relative. Durga is fond of Indir and often gives her fruit she has stolen from a wealthy neighbours orchard, One day, the neighbours wife accuses Durga of stealing a bead necklace and blames Sarbajaya for encouraging her tendency to steal. As the elder sibling, Durga cares for Apu with motherly affection, every evening they are delighted by the sound of a distant trains whistle. One day, they run away from home to catch a glimpse of the train, unable to earn a good living in the village, Harihar travels to the city to seek a better job. He promises Sarbajaya that he return with money to repair their dilapidated house. During his absence, the family sinks deeper into poverty, Sarbajaya grows increasingly lonely and bitterPather Panchali – A poster of Pather Panchali
88. Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI – Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI is a 1984 Indonesian docudrama written and directed by Arifin C. Noer, produced by G. Dwipayana, and starring Amoroso Katamsi, Umar Kayam, produced over a period of two years with a budget of Rp.800 million, the film was sponsored by Suhartos New Order government. The film depicts the period leading up to the coup and several days after it, in a time of economic turmoil, six generals are kidnapped and killed by the PKI and Air Force, purportedly to pre-empt a coup against President Sukarno. General Suharto destroys the coup and, afterwards urges the Indonesian populace to commemorate those killed, the first commercially released domestic feature film to deal with the events of 1965, Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was a commercial and critical success. It was nominated for seven awards at the 1984 Indonesian Film Festival, winning one and it was used as a propaganda vehicle by the New Order government until its collapse, televised annually on 30 September and became mandatory viewing for students. Since the fall of Suharto in 1998, such use of the film has become less common, although the films artistic aspects remain well-received, its misrepresentation of history has been criticised. Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI was based on the version of the coup endorsed by Suhartos New Order government, in the early 1960s the PKI and other leftist parties had the support of President Sukarno, giving them great political power. By 1965 the PKI claimed millions of members, a growing number influenced by hyperinflation, the Army, however, was distrustful of the PKI, a feeling which the PKI reciprocated. The bodies, along with those of others captured by the G30S, were dumped down a well at Lubang Buaya, later that morning, armed forces occupied Merdeka Square in central Jakarta. They also announced that President Sukarno was under their power, the movements core leadership, later joined by the President, stayed at Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base. Major-General Suharto, the leader after Yanis death, became aware of the movement on the morning of 1 October. By evening he had convinced a G30S battalion in Merdeka Square, Army loyalists under Suharto retook Halim Air Force Base early the following morning. By that time the G30S leadership had escaped, while Sukarno had withdrawn to his palace in Bogor, the populace lives in poverty, while the rich flaunt their wealth. President Sukarno is ill and may die, meanwhile, his political concept of Nasakom has promoted an explosive growth in the PKI. The party, which staged a coup in 1948, has been attacking and killing throughout the country. The weakened president is also being manipulated by the party, the PKI has manufactured a story, based on the forged Gilchrist Document, that a Generals Council is preparing for a coup should Sukarno die. Aidit, Syam, and the Communist Party leadership secretly plan to use this as an excuse for their own coup, the rank and file members of the Party accept the leaderships explanation and, with the help of forward-thinking soldiers and officers, work to gather the Partys forces. They plan to kidnap seven generals, overtake the city, the newly named G30S begins trainingPengkhianatan G30S/PKI – Lobby card
89. The Pit and the Pendulum (1961 film) – The Pit and the Pendulum is a 1961 horror film directed by Roger Corman, starring Vincent Price, Barbara Steele, John Kerr, and Luana Anders. The screenplay by Richard Matheson was based on Edgar Allan Poes short story of the same name, set in sixteenth-century Spain, the story is about a young Englishman who visits a forbidding castle to investigate his sisters mysterious death. The film was the title in the popular series of Poe-based movies released by American International Pictures. Like House, the film features cinematography by Floyd Crosby, sets designed by art director Daniel Haller. A critical and box-office hit, Pits commercial success convinced AIP and Corman to continue adapting Poe stories for another six films, the series ended in 1965 with the release of The Tomb of Ligeia. Stephen King has described one of Pits major shock sequences as being among the most important moments in the horror film. In sixteenth century Spain, Englishman Francis Barnard visits the castle of his brother-in-law Nicholas Medina to investigate the death of his sister Elizabeth. Francis vows that he not leave until he discovers the true circumstances surrounding his sisters death. During dinner with the physician, Dr. Leon, Francis again asks about his sisters death. Dr. Leon tells him that his sister died of heart failure. Francis demands to be shown where Elizabeth died, Nicholas takes him to the castles torture chamber. Nicholas reveals that Elizabeth, under the influence of the heavy atmosphere. After becoming progressively unbalanced, one day she locked herself into an iron maiden, Francis refuses to believe Nicholass story. Francis tells Catherine that Nicholas appears to feel definite guilt regarding Elizabeths death, in response, Catherine talks about Nicholass traumatic childhood. Their father was Sebastian Medina, an agent of the Spanish Inquisition. When Nicholas was a child, he was exploring the forbidden torture chamber when his father entered the room with his mother Isabella and Sebastians brother. Hiding in a corner, Nicholas watched in horror as his father repeatedly hit Bartolome with a red-hot poker, after murdering Bartolome, Sebastian began torturing his wife slowly to death in front of Nicholas. Catherine and Francis are later informed by Dr. Leon that Isabella in fact was not tortured to death, Dr. Leon explains, The very thought of premature interment is enough to send your brother into convulsions of horrorThe Pit and the Pendulum (1961 film) – Original 1961 theatrical release poster by Reynold Brown
90. Prometheus (2012 film) – It is set in the late 21st century and centers on the crew of the spaceship Prometheus as it follows a star map discovered among the artifacts of several ancient Earth cultures. Seeking the origins of humanity, the crew arrives on a distant world, development of the film began in the early 2000s as a fifth installment in the Alien franchise. Scott and director James Cameron developed ideas for a film that would serve as a prequel to Scotts 1979 science-fiction horror film Alien, by 2003, the development of Alien vs. Predator took precedence, and the project remained dormant until 2009 when Scott again showed interest. Spaihts wrote a script for a prequel to the events of the Alien films, in late 2010, Lindelof joined the project to rewrite Spaihtss script, and he and Scott developed a story that precedes the story of Alien but is not directly connected to that franchise. According to Scott, although the film shares strands of Aliens DNA, so to speak, Prometheus entered production in April 2010, with extensive design phases during which the technology and creatures that the film required were developed. Principal photography began in March 2011, with an estimated US$120–130 million budget, the project was shot using 3D cameras throughout, almost entirely on practical sets, and on location in England, Iceland, Spain, and Scotland. It was promoted with a campaign that included viral activities on the web. Three videos featuring the leading actors in character, which expanded on elements of the fictional universe, were released and met with a generally positive reception. Prometheus was released on June 1,2012, in the United Kingdom and on June 8,2012, the film grossed over $403 million worldwide. A sequel, Alien, Covenant, is scheduled to be released on May 19,2017, as a spacecraft departs a planet, a humanoid alien drinks an iridescent liquid and then dissolves. The remains of the cascade into a waterfall. The aliens DNA strands mix with the water, in 2089, archaeologists Elizabeth Shaw and Charlie Holloway discover a star map in Scotland that matches others from several unconnected ancient cultures. They interpret this as an invitation from humanitys forerunners, the Engineers, Peter Weyland, the elderly CEO of Weyland Corporation, funds an expedition to follow the map to the distant moon LV-223 aboard the scientific vessel Prometheus. The ships crew travels in stasis while the android David monitors their voyage, arriving in December 2093, mission director Meredith Vickers informs them of their mission to find the Engineers, and not to make contact without her permission. The Prometheus lands on the barren, mountainous surface near an artificial structure. Inside they find stone cylinders, a statue of a humanoid head. The crew finds other bodies, leading them to surmise the species is extinct, crew members Millburn and Fifield grow uncomfortable with the discoveries and attempt to return to Prometheus, but become stranded in the structure when they get lost. The expedition is cut short when a storm forces the crew to return to the ship, David secretly takes a cylinder from the structure, while the remaining cylinders begin leaking a dark liquidPrometheus (2012 film) – Theatrical release poster
91. Rob-B-Hood – Rob-B-Hood is a 2006 Hong Kong action comedy film written, produced and directed by Benny Chan, and starring Jackie Chan, Louis Koo, Yuen Biao and Michael Hui. The film was produced with a budget of HK$130 million and filmed between December 2005 and January 2006, Rob-B-Hood is the first film in over 30 years in which Jackie Chan plays an anti-hero. Rob-B-Hood tells the story of a kidnapping gone wrong in Hong Kong, a trio of burglars consisting of Thongs, Octopus, with the Landlord arrested, Thongs and Octopus take care of the baby for a short time, developing strong bonds with him. Reluctant to hand the baby over, the two are forced to protect him from the triads who hired them in the first place, Rob-B-Hood was released in Hong Kong, China and Southeast Asia on 29 September 2006 based in Hong Kong to generally positive reviews. The film topped the Chinese box office in October 2006 and despite not being given a release in most European and North American countries, friends Thongs and Octopus evade security guards in a hospital, having stolen money and cancer medication from the safe. Meanwhile, a baby to the wealthy Lee family is snatched by Max, the mothers ex-boyfriend, prompting the security guards give chase, ignoring the burglars. Following a violent struggle, Max and the fall over the side—the baby is caught by Thongs. While the guards are distracted, Thongs and Octopus leave in the Landlords minivan, a few months later, the Landlord finds his flat burgled, his life savings gone. He receives a call from his middleman Uncle Seven, offering him a job to kidnap baby Lee on behalf of a triad boss. Enticed by the HK$7 million reward, Thongs and Octopus accept the job without knowing its objectives, disgusted by the idea of kidnapping a baby, Thongs threatens to return him, but relents after the Landlord tells him of his predicament. En route to their rendezvous point in Sai Kung, the encounter a police road block which the Landlord attempts to outrun. As the police close in on them, the stuck Landlord instructs Thongs, while in custody for reckless driving, the Landlord learns of the babys value through the news. He phones Thongs, instructing him not to hand the baby over to anyone prior to his release so he can jack up the price, over the next few days, Thongs and Octopus take care of the baby, developing a strong bond with him. The two begin to regret their vices, Thongs resists the urge to gamble, while Octopus feels sorry for cheating on his wife, meanwhile, both the triads and the police are after the baby. The triad boss, enraged by the non-delivery of his grandson, confronted by both the triads and Police Inspector Mok, Thongs and Octopus go into hiding with the baby. Shortly after his release, the Landlord is brought to the triad boss and he finds Thongs and Octopus at the hospital, where the baby is being treated for fever. The Landlord informs the two of the triads latest offer, but Thongs and Octopus are more concerned about the babys welfare than the cash. However, the two agree to bring the baby to the boss mansion, where the Landlord will meet them with the rest of the moneyRob-B-Hood – Theatrical release poster
92. St. Elmo (1914 film) – St. Elmo is a 1914 American silent drama film produced by the Balboa Amusement Producing Company and distributed by William Foxs Box Office Attractions Company. It was the first feature-length film adaptation of Augusta Jane Evanss 1866 novel of the same name, the story follows the life of the title character, who kills his cousin over the love of Agnes, falls from grace, and eventually finds redemption and love with Edna. It is disputed who directed the film, many sources credit Bertram Bracken, some reviewers praised the scenery and overall production quality, considering the film an improvement over staged adaptations of the novels. Others found the scenery irrelevant and the story confusing, despite mixed reviews, the film was financially successful, reportedly setting box office records. The following year, a adaptation of an unrelated Evans novel. As with most Balboa films, St. Elmo is now believed lost, St. Elmo Murray and Murray Hammond, his cousin and best friend, are both in love with a young woman named Agnes Hunt. Although Agnes loves Murray, she rejects him for being too poor, instead, she accepts the wealthy St. Elmos marriage proposal. St. Elmos mother holds a ball to celebrate the engagement, after the betrothal is publicly announced, Murray and Agnes meet covertly in the gardens. St. Elmo discovers their affair, challenges Murray to a duel, the Devil possesses St. Elmo, and he becomes a cruel wanderer, spreading misery and misfortune where he travels. Twenty years later, the ingenue Edna Earle is traveling by train, hoping to find employment in a cotton mill after the death of her father, the train derails, and St. Elmo saves her from the burning wreckage. This act sets St. Elmo on the path to salvation as he, initially planning to depart for distant lands, a vision of Christ leads him to aid the impoverished. Freed from the Devil, he becomes a minister and marries Edna, with the novels success came broad cultural impact. Various consumer products, hotels, steamboats, railway carriages, and even towns were named after the book. Other stage versions, many of which were successful, were quickly developed after her death later that year. The first film versions of the story followed shortly, in 1910, the Thanhouser Company chose St. Elmo for its second production, and Vitagraph Studios produced its own adaptation the same year. In 1914, while working for the Balboa Amusement Producing Company, filming took place in Long Beach, California, where the Balboa studios were located. Footage of a church under construction across the street from the studio was used for a scene in which one was built by St. Elmo. Contemporary writers credited Bertram Bracken as director, as do some modern sources, others consider the film the directorial debut of J. Gordon EdwardsSt. Elmo (1914 film) – Theatrical release poster
93. Sense and Sensibility (film) – Sense and Sensibility is a 1995 British-American period drama film directed by Ang Lee and based on Jane Austens 1811 novel of the same name. Actress Emma Thompson wrote the script and stars as Elinor Dashwood, the story follows the Dashwood sisters, members of a wealthy English family of landed gentry, as they must deal with circumstances of sudden destitution. They are forced to seek security through marriage. Actors Hugh Grant and Alan Rickman play their respective suitors, the film was released on 13 December 1995 in the United States and on 23 February 1996 in the United Kingdom. Producer Lindsay Doran, an admirer of Austens novel, hired Thompson to write the screenplay. The actress spent five years drafting numerous revisions, continually working on the script between other films as well as production of the film itself. Studios were nervous that Thompson – a first-time screenwriter – was the credited writer, though initially intending to have another actress portray Elinor, Thompson was persuaded to take the role. Thompsons screenplay exaggerated the Dashwood familys wealth to make their later scenes of poverty more apparent to modern audiences and it also altered the traits of the male leads to make them more appealing to contemporary viewers. Elinor and Mariannes different characteristics were emphasised through imagery and invented scenes, Ang Lee was selected as director, both due to his work in the 1993 film The Wedding Banquet and because Doran believed he would help the film appeal to a wider audience. Lee was given a budget of $16 million and it earned seven Academy Awards nominations, including for Best Picture and Best Actress. Thompson received the Best Adapted Screenplay, becoming the person to have won Academy Awards for both acting and screenwriting. Sense and Sensibility contributed to a resurgence in popularity for Austens works and it persists in being recognised as one of the best Austen adaptations of all time. On his deathbed, Mr. Dashwood tells his son from his first marriage, John, to care of his second wife. Fanny invites her brother Edward Ferrars to stay with them, Elinor and Edward soon form a close friendship, but Fanny haughtily tells Mrs. Dashwood that Edward would be disinherited if he married someone of no importance with no money. Mrs. Dashwood understands her meaning completely, sir John Middleton, a cousin of the widowed Mrs. Dashwood, offers her a small cottage house on his estate, Barton Park in Devonshire. She and her daughters move in, and are frequent guests at Barton Park, the Dashwoods meet the older Colonel Brandon, who falls in love with Marianne at first sight. However, Marianne considers him an old bachelor, incapable of feeling love or inspiring it in another, one afternoon, Marianne takes a walk with Margaret and slips and falls in the rain. She is carried home by the dashing John Willoughby, with whom Marianne falls in love and they spend a great deal of time together, but on the morning she expects him to propose marriage to her, he instead leaves hurriedly for LondonSense and Sensibility (film) – Theatrical release poster
94. She Shoulda Said No! – She Shoulda Said No. is a 1949 exploitation film that follows in the spirit of morality tales such as the 1936 films Reefer Madness and Marihuana. Directed by Sam Newfield and starring Lila Leeds, it was produced to capitalize on the arrest of Leeds. Its relative success came only after the posters were redone. Leeds character is Anne Lester, an orphan who is trying to pay for her brothers college education. After meeting Markey, a dealer, Anne begins to believe that she must smoke marijuana to fit in with her friends. She then goes to a tea party, where she tries the drug for the first time and she is unaffected by the initial experiment, and loses her fear of drugs as she continues to use it willingly. Annes drug use results in the loss of many of her inhibitions, as the film progresses, she is fired from her job and begins selling drugs for Markey. Her brother hangs himself when he learns of her new job, finally, after 50 days in jail, she is released, cleaned up and ready to cooperate with the authorities regarding Markey. The film itself is semi-biographical, its story following what Leeds herself experienced, the film was inspired by the highly publicized arrest of movie stars Robert Mitchum and Leeds for marijuana possession. Leeds was sentenced to sixty days in prison and placed on probation for five years, upon her release, Leeds struggled to find work in Hollywood, and signed on to star in Wild Weed. The film gained approval from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics to use the drug references, the film used its plot to push many of the beliefs of the time, that drug-using youth would turn to crime and the theory of marijuana as a gateway drug. The latter was an argument for drug prohibition during the era. Via Franklin Productions, Kay filmed the production in six days, eureka Productions initially distributed the film, but it struggled to find an audience until Kroger Babbs Hallmark Productions acquired the rights for distribution. He pushed the sensuality of Leeds with new photographs and a new tagline. If its presentation saves but one girl or boy from becoming a dope fiend – then its story has been well told. Babb, who gained notoriety for his various marketing gimmicks, occasionally had Leeds make appearances, babb often booked the movie as a midnight presentation twice a week in the same town, David F. According to Friedman, Babbs presentations of the film made more money than any film the same theater would showcase over a typical films full booking. She Shoulda Said No. was not well-received critically upon its release, with The New York Times sayingShe Shoulda Said No! – Theatrical poster to She Shoulda Said 'No'! (1949).
95. Si Ronda – Si Ronda is a 1930 silent film from the Dutch East Indies which was directed by Lie Tek Swie and starred Bachtiar Effendi. Based on contemporary Betawi oral tradition, it follows the exploits of a bandit, skilled in silat, in the lenong stories from which the film was derived, Ronda was often depicted as a Robin Hood type of figure. The production, now thought lost, was one of a series of martial arts films released between 1929 and 1931, Si Ronda received little coverage in the media upon its release. A second adaptation of the tale, Si Ronda Macan Betawi, was made in 1978, Si Ronda was adapted from a lenong popular with ethnic Chinese and native audiences of the time. The Ronda stories follow the Betawi bandit of the same name, the Indonesian film scholar Misbach Yusa Biran suggests that Ronda was selected for adaptation because of its potential action sequences. In the domestic cinema, such sequences had generally been inspired by American works, similar stories to Si Rondas include those of Si Jampang and Si Pitung, these stage plays centred on extraordinary men who, though living outside the law, generally fought for the common populace. Adaptations of the genre, manifested as bandit films, became popular in domestic cinema following the release of Si Tjonat by Batavia Motion Picture in 1929 and this release was followed by the Wong brothers Rampok Preanger, and an adaptation of the Si Pitung stories in 1931. Si Ronda was directed by Lie Tek Swie and produced by Tan Khoen Yauw of Tans Film, the two had previously worked together on the companys highly profitable Njai Dasima in 1929. Cinematography was handled by A. Loepias, shot in black-and-white, this silent film starred Bachtiar Effendi, a set decorator with Tans, in his on-screen debut playing the title role. It also featured Momo, an actor who had appeared in the film Njai Dasima, Si Ronda was released in 1930, Effendi stated that it was released before Tans Nancy Bikin Pembalesan, a sequel to Njai Dasima, began screening in May 1930. Dutch newspapers indicate that it had screened in Medan, North Sumatra, Biran writes that the film received little coverage, he notes that Sinematek Indonesia has no news clippings related to Si Ronda. After Si Ronda, Lie and Tan collaborated on three further films, Lie left Tans in 1932, reportedly as his approach no longer matched Tans low-class target audience and caused the works to go over budget. Effendi continued to work with Tans until 1932, when he left to head the cinema magazine Doenia Film, Momo continued acting until 1941, first with Tans and later with Standard Film. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all Indonesian films from before 1950 are lost, however, JB Kristantos Katalog Film Indonesia records several as having survived at Sinematek Indonesias archives. Another film based on the Ronda stories, titled Si Ronda Macan Betawi, was released in 1978, directed by Fritz G. Schadt, it starred Dicky Zulkarnaen in the title role and Lenny Marlina as his lover. In this adaptation Ronda uses his skills to fight corrupt land owners. Si Ronda at the Internet Movie DatabaseSi Ronda – Bachtiar Effendi, who played the title role in Si Ronda
96. The Simpsons Movie – The Simpsons Movie is a 2007 American animated comedy film based on the Fox television series The Simpsons. As the townspeople exile him and eventually his family abandons him, Homer works to redeem his folly by stopping Russ Cargill, the head of the EPA. Previous attempts to create a The Simpsons film failed due to the lack of a script of appropriate length, eventually, producers James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, Al Jean, Richard Sakai, and Mike Scully began development of the film in 2001. A writing team consisting of Brooks, Groening, Jean, Scully, Ian Maxtone-Graham, George Meyer, David Mirkin, Mike Reiss, Matt Selman, John Swartzwelder and they conceived numerous plot ideas, with Groenings being the one developed into a film. The script was re-written over a hundred times, and this creativity continued after the animation had begun in 2006 and this meant hours of finished material was cut, which included cameo roles from Erin Brockovich, Minnie Driver, Isla Fisher, Kelsey Grammer, and Edward Norton. Hanks and Green Day appeared in the cut as themselves. Tie-in promotions were made with several companies, including Burger King and 7-Eleven, the film premiered in Springfield, Vermont, which had won the right to hold it through a competition organized by Fox. The film was a critical and commercial success, grossing over $527 million worldwide, at their memorial, Grampa Simpson foresees the destruction of the town, but only Marge takes this seriously. Later that day, Homer dares his son Bart to skateboard naked to Krusty Burger, Bart considers their neighbor Ned Flanders a better father figure after Homer refuses to take responsibility for the incident. Lisa and a new Irish friend named Colin convince the town to clean their lake. Meanwhile, Homer adopts a pig from Krusty Burger and names it Spider Pig, moments later, a squirrel jumps into the lake and becomes severely mutated, Flanders and Bart discover the creature before the EPA captures it. Russ Cargill, head of the EPA, presents five unthinkable options to U. S. President Arnold Schwarzenegger to keep the towns pollution contained, the slow-witted president picks option 3 without reading it, and Springfield is enclosed in a large glass dome. With the EPA on their trail, the Simpsons flee to Alaska, on the way, Homer tries to make some money at a carnival by riding a motorcycle around the inside of a metal cage. After three months of escape attempts, Springfields residents finally make a crack in the dome, pointing out the damage. After failing to talk Homer into it, his family eventually leave him for good, alone, Homer is stranded on an iceberg and floats away. Meanwhile, Marge and the children are captured by the EPA after a conversation of theirs is overheard by the NSA, after a mysterious Inuit shaman saves him from a polar bear, Homer has an epiphany and decides to return to Springfield to save the town from danger. As Homer arrives, a helicopter lowers a small but powerful bomb down a rope through a hole in the dome, the townspeople attempt to climb the rope to escape through the still-opened hole, but Homer slides down the rope and knocks them off along with the bomb. After reconciling with Bart, Homer drives a motorcycle along the dome, as a passenger of the motorcycle, Bart throws the bomb through the hole, seconds later it detonates, shattering the dome and freeing the townThe Simpsons Movie – Director David Silverman looked at some of the television episodes he had directed for inspiration.
97. The Sinking of the Lusitania – The Sinking of the Lusitania is a silent animated short film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. It is a work of propaganda re-creating the never-photographed 1915 sinking of the British liner RMS Lusitania, at twelve minutes it has been called the longest work of animation at the time of its release. The film is the earliest surviving animated documentary and serious, dramatic work of animation, in 1915 a German submarine torpedoed and sank the RMS Lusitania,128 Americans were among the 1,198 dead. In 1916, McCay rebelled against his employers stance and began work on the patriotic Sinking of the Lusitania on his own time with his own money, the film followed McCays earlier successes in animation, Little Nemo, How a Mosquito Operates, and Gertie the Dinosaur. McCay and his assistants spent twenty-two months making the film, the film opens with a live-action prologue in which McCay busies himself studying a picture of the Lusitania as a model for his film-in-progress. Intertitles boast of McCay as the originator and inventor of Animated Cartoons, McCay is shown working with a group of anonymous assistants on the first record of the sinking of the Lusitania. The liner passes the Statue of Liberty and leaves New York Harbor, after some time, a German submarine cuts through the waters and fires a torpedo at the Lusitania, which billows smoke that builds until it envelops the screen. Passengers scramble to lower lifeboats, some of which capsize in the confusion, the liner tilts from one side to the other and passengers are tossed into the ocean. A second blast rocks the Lusitania, which sinks slowly into the deep as more passengers fall off its edges, the liner vanishes from sight, and the film closes with a mother struggling to keep her baby above the waves. An intertitle declares, The man who fired the shot was decorated for it by the Kaiser, and yet they tell us not to hate the Hun. Winsor McCay produced prodigiously detailed and accurate drawings since early in life and he earned a living as a young man drawing portraits and posters in dime museums, and attracted large crowds with his ability to draw quickly in public. He began working as a newspaper illustrator full-time in 1898, and his greatest comic strip success was the childrens fantasy comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland, which he began in 1905. In 1906, McCay began performing on the circuit, doing chalk talks—performances during which he drew in front of a live audience. Inspired by the books his son brought home, McCay said he came to see the possibility of making moving pictures of his cartoons. His first animated film, Little Nemo, was composed of four thousand drawings on rice paper and his next film, How a Mosquito Operates, naturalistically shows a giant mosquito draw blood from a sleeping man until it burst. McCay followed this with a film that became a part of his vaudeville shows, in Gertie the Dinosaur. The British liner RMS Lusitania briefly held the record for largest passenger ship upon its completion in 1906, the Germans employed submarines in the North Atlantic during World War I, and in April 1915 the German government issued a warning that it would target British civilian ships. The Lusitania was torpedoed on May 7,1915, during a voyage from New York,128 Americans were among the 1,198 who lost their livesThe Sinking of the Lusitania – A still from the film showing the RMS Lusitania engulfed in smoke after being torpedoed
98. Ruma Maida – Ruma Maida is a 2009 Indonesian film written by Ayu Utami, directed by Teddy Soeriaatmadja and starring Atiqah Hasiholan, Yama Carlos, Nino Fernandez, and Frans Tumbuan. It details a struggle to save a historic house from a developer. After three months of pre-production, shooting began in Semarang, Central Java, and Kota, Jakarta, Ruma Maida, which uses different filming styles for scenes in the past and present, deals with the importance of education, history, and pluralism. Critical reception to the film was mixed, reviewers praised the visuals but disapproved of the plot and it was nominated for twelve Citra Awards at the 2009 Indonesian Film Festival, of which it won one. A young history student, Maida, a Christian, runs a school for street children in Jakarta. As Maida learns about Pahing, she decides to write her thesis about his life. One day her class is interrupted by the young Muslim architect Sakera, who has told to evict Maidas school by his employer. As Maida and Sakera argue in the streets, rioting breaks out around them, Sakera protects the half-Chinese Maida, then tells her that he will help her keep the house, although it is scheduled to be demolished within a week. After attempts to persuade Muchlisin to keep the original design fail, with the help of her mothers former lover Kuan, she discovers the true ownership of the house. After being tortured, Pahing was released to discover that his wife had been raped and killed, Pahing later died on a flight carrying medical supplies over Yogyakarta when the flight was shot down. Meanwhile, his son was raised by Maruyama – the kidnapper – and had his name changed to Dasaad Muchlisin, with this information, Maida, Sakera, and Kuan approach Muchlisin and tell him how the house features in his history. After a short silence, Muchlisin tells them to leave, instead, he renovates the building and dedicates it as a school for street children. The screenplay for Ruma Maida was written by Ayu Utami, her first such work, mainly known for her novels, she had avoided screenplays as she thought they were generally too commercially oriented. Considering the screenplay a way to encourage the generation to study Indonesian history, which she said could be fun, Utami decided to focus on education, diversity. Pre-production for Ruma Maida took three months, the characters were written without any particular actors in mind. Atiqah Hasiholan, who had starred in the Academy Award-submitted Jamila dan Sang Presiden, was cast as Maida. Yama Carlos, who played Sakera, was initially cast for another role, the actor cast as Muchlisin, Frans Tumbuan, was the only one auditioned as Soeriaatmadja thought the role was perfect for him. Soeriaatmadja later recalled that, including extras, Ruma Maida had the largest cast of any film he had made to that point, shooting for the film was conducted in Kota, Jakarta, and Semarang, Central Java, over a period of one monthRuma Maida – Promotional poster
99. Sound film – A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923. The primary steps in the commercialization of sound cinema were taken in the mid- to late 1920s, at first, the sound films which included synchronized dialogue, known as talking pictures, or talkies, were exclusively shorts. The earliest feature-length movies with recorded sound included only music and effects, the first feature film originally presented as a talkie was The Jazz Singer, released in October 1927. A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone, which was at the time the brand of sound-on-disc technology. Sound-on-film, however, would become the standard for talking pictures. By the early 1930s, the talkies were a global phenomenon, in the United States, they helped secure Hollywoods position as one of the worlds most powerful cultural/commercial centers of influence. In Europe, the new development was treated with suspicion by many filmmakers and critics, in Japan, where the popular film tradition integrated silent movie and live vocal performance, talking pictures were slow to take root. In India, sound was the element that led to the rapid expansion of the nations film industry. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself. On February 27,1888, a couple of days after photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge gave a lecture not far from the laboratory of Thomas Edison, the two inventors privately met. No agreement was reached, but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope, essentially a peep-show system, as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph. The two devices were brought together as the Kinetophone in 1895, but individual, cabinet viewing of motion pictures was soon to be outmoded by successes in film projection and these appear to be the first publicly exhibited films with projection of both image and recorded sound. Phonorama and yet another sound-film system—Théâtroscope—were also presented at the Exposition, three major problems persisted, leading to motion pictures and sound recording largely taking separate paths for a generation. The primary issue was synchronization, pictures and sound were recorded and played back by separate devices, sufficient playback volume was also hard to achieve. Finally, there was the challenge of recording fidelity, cinematic innovators attempted to cope with the fundamental synchronization problem in a variety of ways. In 1902, Léon Gaumont demonstrated his sound-on-disc Chronophone, involving an electrical connection he had recently patented, four years later, Gaumont introduced the Elgéphone, a compressed-air amplification system based on the Auxetophone, developed by British inventors Horace Short and Charles ParsonsSound film – 1908 poster advertising Gaumontu 's sound films. The Chronomégaphone, designed for large halls, employed compressed air to amplify the recorded sound.
100. Star Trek: The Motion Picture – Star Trek, The Motion Picture is a 1979 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the first Star Trek film and stars the cast of the original 1966–1969 Star Trek television series, the film is set in the twenty-third century when a mysterious and immensely powerful alien cloud known as VGer approaches Earth, destroying everything in its path. Kirk resumes command of his previous starship—the recently refitted USS Enterprise—to lead it on a mission to save the planet, when the original television series was cancelled in 1969, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry lobbied Paramount to continue the franchise through a film. The success of the series in syndication convinced the studio to work on a feature film in 1975. A series of writers attempted to craft a suitably epic script, Paramount instead planned on returning the franchise to its roots with a new television series, Star Trek, Phase II. With the cancellation of Phase II, writers rushed to adapt its planned pilot episode, In Thy Image, constant revisions to the story and shooting script continued to the extent of hourly script updates on shooting dates. The Enterprise was modified inside and out, costume designer Robert Fletcher provided new uniforms, Jerry Goldsmith composed the score, beginning an association with Star Trek that would continue until 2002. The final production cost ballooned to approximately $46 million, the film earned $139 million worldwide, falling short of studio expectations but enough for Paramount to propose a cheaper sequel. Roddenberry was forced out of control for The Wrath of Khan. In 2001, Wise oversaw a directors cut for a special DVD release of the film, with remastered audio, tightened and added scenes, and new computer-generated effects. In 2273, a Starfleet monitoring station, Epsilon Nine, detects an alien force, hidden in a cloud of energy. The cloud destroys three of the Klingon Empires new Ktinga-class warships and the station en route. On Earth, the starship Enterprise is undergoing a refit, her former commanding officer, James T. Kirk, has been promoted to Admiral. Starfleet dispatches Enterprise to investigate the cloud entity as the ship is the one in intercept range. Kirk takes command of the ship citing his experience, angering Captain Willard Decker, testing of Enterprises new systems goes poorly, two officers, including the science officer, are killed by a malfunctioning transporter, and improperly calibrated engines almost destroy the ship. Kirks unfamiliarity with the new systems of the Enterprise increases the tension between him and first officer Decker, Enterprise intercepts the energy cloud and is attacked by an alien vessel within. A probe appears on the bridge, attacks Spock and abducts the navigator and she is replaced by a robotic replica, another probe sent by VGer to study the crew. Decker is distraught over the loss of Ilia, with whom he had a romantic history and he becomes troubled as he attempts to extract information from the doppelgänger, which has Ilias memories and feelings buried withinStar Trek: The Motion Picture – Ray Bradbury was one of the science-fiction writers who offered a premise for the Star Trek feature film.
101. Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan – Star Trek II, The Wrath of Khan is a 1982 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the film based on Star Trek, and is a sequel to Star Trek. The plot features Admiral James T, when Khan escapes from a 15-year exile to exact revenge on Kirk, the crew of the Enterprise must stop him from acquiring a powerful terraforming device named Genesis. This film is the beginning of an arc that continues with the 1984 film Star Trek III, The Search for Spock and concludes with 1986s Star Trek IV. After the lackluster critical and commercial response to The Motion Picture, executive producer Harve Bennett wrote the films original outline, which Jack B. Sowards developed into a full script, director Nicholas Meyer completed the final script in 12 days, without accepting a writing credit. Meyers approach evoked the atmosphere of the original series. Nimoy had not intended to have a role in The Motion Pictures sequel, negative test audience reaction to Spocks death led to significant revisions of the ending over Meyers objections. The production used various cost-cutting techniques to keep within budget, including utilizing miniatures from past projects and re-using sets, effects footage, among the films technical achievements is it being the first feature film to contain a complete sequence created entirely with computer-generated graphics. The Wrath of Khan was released in North America on June 4,1982 and it was a box office success, earning US$97 million worldwide and setting a world record for first-day box office gross. Critical reaction to the film was positive, reviewers highlighted Khan, the pacing. Negative reaction focused on special effects and some of the acting. The Wrath of Khan is considered by some to be the best film of the Star Trek series, in the year 2285, Admiral James T. Kirk oversees a simulator session of Captain Spocks trainees, in the simulation, Lieutenant Saavik commands the starship USS Enterprise on a rescue mission to save the crew of the damaged ship Kobayashi Maru. When the Enterprise enters the Klingon Neutral Zone to reach the ship it is attacked by Klingon cruisers, the simulation is a no-win scenario designed to test the character of Starfleet officers. Later, Dr. McCoy joins Kirk on his birthday, seeing Kirk in low spirits, meanwhile, the USS Reliant is on a mission to search for a lifeless planet for testing of the Genesis Device, a technology designed to reorganize matter to create habitable worlds for colonization. 15 years prior, the Enterprise discovered Khans ship adrift in space, Kirk exiled Khan, after they were marooned, Ceti Alpha VI exploded, shifting the orbit of Ceti Alpha V and destroying its ecosystem. Khan blames Kirk for the death of his wife and plans revenge and he implants Chekov and Terrell with indigenous creatures that enter the ears of their victims and render them susceptible to mind control, and uses the officers to capture the ReliantStar Trek II: The Wrath of Khan – Gene Roddenberry was removed from a direct role in the development of The Wrath of Khan due to concerns that he was the main reason behind The Motion Picture 's lukewarm reception.
102. Star Trek III: The Search for Spock – Star Trek III, The Search for Spock is a 1984 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. After the death of Spock, the crew of the USS Enterprise returns to Earth, Kirk learns that Spocks spirit, or katra, is held in the mind of Dr. Leonard Bones McCoy, Kirk and company steal the Enterprise to return Spocks body to his home planet. The crew must also contend with hostile Klingons, led by Kruge, Paramount commissioned the film after positive critical and commercial reaction to The Wrath of Khan. Nimoy directed, the first Star Trek cast member to do so, producer Harve Bennett wrote the script starting from the end and working back, and intended the destruction of the Enterprise to be a shocking development. Bennett and Nimoy collaborated with effects house Industrial Light & Magic to develop storyboards and new ship designs, aside from a single day of location shooting, all of the films scenes were shot on Paramount and ILM soundstages. Composer James Horner returned to expand his themes from the previous film, the Search for Spock opened June 1,1984. In its first week of release, the film grossed over $16 million from almost 2,000 theaters across North America and it went on to gross $76 million at the domestic box office, toward a total of $87 million worldwide. Critical reaction to The Search for Spock was positive, but notably less so than the previous film, reviewers generally praised the cast and characters, while criticism tended to focus on the plot, the special effects were conflictingly received. Roger Ebert called the film a compromise between the tones of the first and second Star Trek films, the Search for Spock was released on multiple home video formats, including VHS, DVD, and Blu-ray high definition discs. Nimoy went on to direct The Search for Spocks sequel, Star Trek IV, the casualties of the fight include Admiral James T. Kirks Vulcan friend, Spock, whose casket was launched into space and eventually landed on the planet created by the Genesis Device. On arriving at Earth Spacedock, Doctor Leonard McCoy begins to act strangely and is detained, David Marcus —Kirks son, a key scientist in Genesiss development—and Lieutenant Saavik are investigating the Genesis planet on board the science vessel Grissom. Discovering an unexpected life form on the surface, Marcus and Saavik transport to the planet and they find that the Genesis Device has resurrected Spock in the form of a child, although his mind is not present. Marcus admits that he used unstable protomatter in the development of the Genesis Device, causing Spock to age rapidly, meanwhile, Kruge, the commander of a Klingon vessel, intercepts information about Genesis. Believing the device to be useful as a weapon, he takes his cloaked ship to the Genesis planet, destroys the Grissom. Spocks father, Sarek, confronts Kirk about his sons death, the pair learn that before he died, Spock transferred his katra, or living spirit, to McCoy. Spocks katra and body are needed to lay him to rest on his homeworld, Vulcan, disobeying orders, Kirk and his officers spring McCoy from detention, disable the USS Excelsior, and steal the Enterprise from Spacedock to return to the Genesis planet to retrieve Spocks body. In orbit, the undermanned Enterprise is attacked and disabled by Kruge, in the standoff that follows, Kruge orders that one of the hostages on the surface be executed. Marcus is killed defending Saavik and Spock, Kirk and company feign surrender and activate the Enterprises self-destruct sequence, killing the Klingon boarding party while the Enterprise crew transports to the planets surfaceStar Trek III: The Search for Spock – Visual supervisor Ken Ralston (far right) worked with Paramount early in production to develop plans for The Search for Spock 's effects.
103. Star Trek V: The Final Frontier – Star Trek V, The Final Frontier is a 1989 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the feature film based on Star Trek. The film was directed by cast member William Shatner, following two films directed by his co-star, Leonard Nimoy, Shatner also developed the initial storyline in which Sybok searches for God but instead finds an alien being. The script went through revisions to please the cast and studio. Despite a writers-guild strike cutting into the films pre-production, Paramount commenced filming in October 1988, production problems plagued the film on set and during location shooting in Yosemite National Park and the Mojave Desert. The films ending was reworked because of poor test-audience reaction and the failure of planned special effects, Jerry Goldsmith, composer for Star Trek, The Motion Picture, returned to score The Final Frontier. The Final Frontier was released in North America on June 9,1989 and it had the highest-opening gross of any film in the series at that point and was number one in its first week at the box office, but its grosses quickly dropped in subsequent weeks. The film received mixed to poor reviews by critics on release. The next entry in the series, Star Trek VI, The Undiscovered Country, the crew of the newly commissioned USS Enterprise are enjoying shore leave after the starships shakedown cruise goes poorly. At Yosemite National Park James T. Kirk, recently demoted back to Captain after the events of the two films, is camping with Spock and Dr. Leonard McCoy. Their leave is interrupted when the Enterprise is ordered by Starfleet Command to rescue human, Klingon, learning of the Enterprises mission, the Klingon Captain Klaa decides to pursue Kirk for personal glory. On Nimbus III, the Enterprise crew discovers that renegade Vulcan Sybok, Sybok reveals the hostage situation was a ruse to lure a starship to Nimbus III. Sybok wants to use a ship to reach the mythical planet Sha Ka Ree, the place where creation began, Sybok uses his unique ability to reveal and heal the innermost pain of a person through the mind meld to subvert the wills of the hostages and crew members. Only Spock and Kirk prove resistant to Sybok, Spock is unmoved by the experience and Kirk refuses the Vulcans offer, Sybok reluctantly declares a truce with Kirk, realizing he needs his leadership experience to navigate the Enterprise to Sha Ka Ree. The Enterprise successfully breaches the barrier, pursued by Klaas vessel, Sybok, Kirk, Spock, and McCoy journey to the surface, where Sybok calls out to his perceived vision of God. An entity appears, and when told of how Sybok breached the barrier, when a skeptical Kirk inquires, What does God need with a starship. The entity attacks him in retribution, the others doubt a god who would inflict harm on people for pleasure. Realizing his foolishness, Sybok sacrifices himself in an effort to combat the creature, intent on stopping the being, Kirk orders the Enterprise to fire a photon torpedo at their location, to little effectStar Trek V: The Final Frontier – Shatner reprised his role as Kirk while also serving as director.
104. Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country – Star Trek VI, The Undiscovered Country is a 1991 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the feature film based on Star Trek. Taking place after the events of Star Trek V, The Final Frontier, principal photography took place between April and September 1991. The production budget was smaller than anticipated because of the critical and commercial disappointment of The Final Frontier, because of a lack of sound stage space on the Paramount lot, many scenes were filmed around Hollywood. Meyer and cinematographer Hiro Narita aimed for a darker and more dramatic mood, subtly altering sets originally used for the television series Star Trek, producer Steven-Charles Jaffe led a second unit that filmed on an Alaskan glacier that stood in for a Klingon gulag. Cliff Eidelman produced the score, which is intentionally darker than previous Star Trek offerings. The film was released in North America on December 6,1991, the Undiscovered Country garnered positive reviews, with publications praising the lighthearted acting and facetious references. The film performed strongly at the box office and it posted the largest opening weekend gross of the series before going on to earn $96,888,996 worldwide. The film earned two Academy Award nominations, for Best Makeup and Best Sound Effects, and is the only Star Trek movie to win the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film. A special collectors edition DVD version of the film was released in 2004, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry died shortly before the movies premiere, just days after viewing the film. The film marked the final appearance together of the series cast. The loss of their key energy production facility and the destruction of the Klingon homeworlds ozone layer throws the Klingon Empire into turmoil, no longer able to maintain a hostile footing, the Klingons sue for peace with their longstanding enemy, the United Federation of Planets. Enterprises captain, James T. Kirk, whose son David was murdered by Klingons years earlier, opposes the negotiations, after a rendezvous between Enterprise and Gorkons battlecruiser they continue towards Earth, with the crews sharing a tense meal aboard Enterprise. Later that night, Enterprise appears to fire on the Klingon ship with a pair of photon torpedoes, during the confusion, two figures wearing Starfleet suits and gravity boots beam aboard the Klingon ship and grievously wound Gorkon before beaming away. Kirk surrenders to avoid a fight, and beams aboard the Klingon ship with Doctor Leonard McCoy to attempt to save Gorkons life, the chancellor dies, and Gorkons chief of staff, General Chang, puts Kirk and McCoy on trial for his assassination. The pair are found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment on the frozen asteroid Rura Penthe. Gorkons daughter, Azetbur, becomes the new chancellor, and continues diplomatic negotiations, for reasons of security, the conference is relocated, while several senior Starfleet officers want to rescue Kirk and McCoy, the Federation president refuses to risk full-scale war. Azetbur likewise refuses to invade Federation space, stating that only Kirk, once her betrayal is revealed, Martia transforms into Kirks double and fights him, but she is killed by the prison guards to silence any witnessesStar Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country – Christopher Plummer had worked with Shatner in radio plays and requested a more human look for his character, involving wearing "less severe" Klingon make-up.
105. Summer of '42 – Summer of 42 is a 1971 American coming-of-age comedy-drama film based on the memoirs of screenwriter Herman Raucher. Mulligan also has a role as the voice of the adult Hermie. Maureen Stapleton also appears in a small, uncredited voice role, the film opens with a series of still photographs appearing over melancholic music, representing the abstract memories of the unseen Herman Raucher, now a middle-aged man. We then hear Raucher recalling the summer he spent on the island in 1942, the film flashes back to a day that then 15-year-old Hermie and his friends – jock Oscy and introverted nerd Benjie – spent playing on the beach. They spot a young soldier carrying his new bride into a house on the beach and are struck by her beauty, especially Hermie and they continue spending afternoons on the beach where, in the midst of scantily-clad teenage girls, their thoughts invariably turn to sex. Later that day, Hermie finds her trying to carry bags of groceries by herself and they strike up a friendship and he agrees to return to help her with chores. Meanwhile, Oscy and Hermie, thanks to a sex manual discovered by Benjie, led by Oscy, they test this by going to the cinema and picking-up a trio of high-school girls. Oscy stakes out the most attractive one, Miriam, giving Hermie her less attractive friend, Aggie, and leaving Benjie with Gloria, frightened by the immediacy of sex, Benjie runs off, and is not seen by Hermie or Oscy again that night. Hermie and Oscy spend the entirety of the film attempting to put the moves on Miriam. Oscy pursues Miriam, eventually making out with her during the movie, Hermie finds himself succeeding with Aggie, who allows him to grope what he thinks is her breast, Oscy later points out Hermie was fondling her arm. The next morning, Hermie helps the bride move boxes into her attic, later, in preparation for a marshmallow roast on the beach with Aggie and Miriam, Hermie goes to the local drugstore. In a painfully humorous sequence, he builds up the nerve to ask the druggist for condoms and that night, Hermie roasts marshmallows with Aggie while Oscy succeeds in having sex with Miriam between the dunes. He is so successful he sneaks over to Hermie and Aggie to ask for more condoms, confused as to whats happening, Aggie follows Oscy back, where she sees him having sex with Miriam and runs home, upset. The next day, Hermie comes across the bride sitting outside her house, Hermie offers to keep her company that night and she says she looks forward to seeing him, revealing her name is Dorothy. Hermie, convinced he is at the brink of adulthood because of his relationship with Dorothy and he heads to her house, which is eerily quiet. Going in, he discovers a bottle of whiskey, several cigarette butts, Dorothys husband is dead, his plane shot down over France. Dorothy comes out of her bedroom, crying, and Hermie tells her Im sorry, the sense of empathy triggers her to channel to Hermie some of her loneliness. She turns on the player and invites Hermie to dance with herSummer of '42 – Theatrical release poster
106. Taare Zameen Par – Taare Zameen Par is a 2007 Indian drama film produced and directed by Aamir Khan. Darsheel Safary stars as 8-year-old Ishaan, and Khan plays his art teacher, creative director and writer Amole Gupte initially developed the idea with his wife Deepa Bhatia, who served as the films editor. Visual effects are by Tata Elxsis Visual Computing Labs, and the title animation—the first use of animation in a Bollywood film—was created by Dhimant Vyas. Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy composed the score, and Prasoon Joshi wrote the lyrics for many of the songs. Principal photography took place in Mumbai and in Panchganis New Era High School, the film explores the life and imagination of Ishaan, an 8-year-old dyslexic child. Although he excels in art, his academic performance leads his parents to send him to a boarding school. Ishaans new art teacher suspects that he is dyslexic and helps him to overcome his disability, the film made its theatrical debut in India on 21 December 2007, and UTV Home Entertainment released a DVD for Indian audiences in 2008. Disneys later release of the international edition DVD marked the first purchase of rights for an Indian film by a global company. Taare Zameen Par has received awards, including the Filmfare Best Film Award for 2008. It was Indias official entry for the 2009 Academy Awards Best Foreign Film, Ishaan Nandkishore Awasthi is an 8-year-old boy who dislikes school and fails every test or exam. He finds all subjects difficult, and is belittled and berated by his teachers, but Ishaans internal world is full of wonders that he is unable to convey to others, magical lands filled with colour and animated animals. He is an artist whose talent is unrecognised, Ishaans father, Nandkishore Awasthi, is a successful executive who expects his children to excel. His mother, housewife Maya Awasthi, is frustrated by her inability to educate her son, Ishaans elder brother, Yohaan, is an exemplary scholar and athlete, which Ishaan is frequently reminded of. After receiving a poor academic report, Ishaans parents send him to a boarding school. There he sinks into a state of fear and depression, despite being befriended by Rajan Damodharan and he even contemplates suicide by climbing up the fence in a terrace, which Rajan manages to save him from. Ishaans situation changes when a new art teacher, Ram Shankar Nikumbh and he reviews Ishaans work and concludes that his academic shortcomings are indicative of dyslexia. On his day off, Nikumbh sets off to Mumbai, to visit Ishaans parents, Nikumbh is surprised to learn that Ishaan is passionate about painting, and shows great talent in art. Nikumbh then asks Mr Awasthi as to why he sent Ishaan to a boarding school, Mr Awasthi replies that Ishaan was an ill-mannered boy and was a poor studentTaare Zameen Par – A publicity poster based on a scene from the film. Khan knew immediately when setting up the shot—part of the montage that details Ishaan's tutoring by Nikumbh—that it would be the "key art of the film". Khan noted, "This one shot tells you the entire story."
107. Tender Mercies – Tender Mercies is a 1983 American drama film directed by Bruce Beresford. Robert Duvall plays the role of Mac, the supporting cast includes Tess Harper, Betty Buckley, Wilford Brimley, Ellen Barkin, financed by EMI Films, Tender Mercies was shot largely in Waxahachie, Texas. The script was rejected by several American directors before the Australian Beresford accepted it, Duvall, who sang his own songs in the film, drove more than 600 miles throughout the state, tape recording local accents and playing in country music bands to prepare for the role. He and Beresford repeatedly clashed during production, at one point prompting the director to walk off the set, following poor test screening results, distributor Universal Pictures made little effort to publicize Tender Mercies, which Duvall attributed to the studios lack of understanding of country music. The film was released on March 4,1983, in a number of theaters. Although unsuccessful at the box office, it was acclaimed and earned five Academy Award nominations. Tender Mercies won Oscars for Best Original Screenplay for Foote and Best Actor for Duvall, Mac Sledge, a washed up, alcoholic country singer, awakens at a run-down Texas roadside motel and gas station after a night of heavy drinking. He meets the owner, a widow named Rosa Lee. Rosa Lee, whose husband was killed in the Vietnam War, is raising her son, Sonny. She agrees to let Mac stay under the condition that he not drink while working. The two begin to develop feelings for one another, mostly during quiet evenings sitting alone and sharing bits of their life stories, Mac resolves to give up alcohol and start his life anew. After some time passes, he and Rosa Lee wed and they start attending a Baptist church on a regular basis. One day, a reporter visits the motel and asks Mac whether he has stopped recording music. When Mac refuses to answer, the reporter explains he is writing a story about Mac and has interviewed his ex-wife, Dixie Scott, after the story is printed, the neighborhood learns of Macs past, and members of a local country–western band visit him to show their respect. Although he greets them politely, Mac remains reluctant to open up about his past, later, he secretly attends Dixies concert. She passionately sings several songs that Mac wrote years earlier, backstage, he talks to Dixies manager, his old friend Harry. Mac gives him a copy of a new song he has written, Mac tries to talk to Dixie, but she becomes angry upon seeing him and warns him to stay away from their 18-year-old daughter, Sue Anne. Upon his return home, Mac assures Rosa Lee he no longer has feelings for Dixie, later, Harry visits Mac to tell him, seemingly at Dixies urging, that the country music business has changed and his new song is no goodTender Mercies – Theatrical release poster
108. Tenebrae (film) – Tenebrae is a 1982 English-language Italian giallo film written and directed by Dario Argento. John Saxon and Daria Nicolodi co-star as Neals agent and assistant, Giuliano Gemma, John Steiner, Veronica Lario and Mirella DAngelo also feature. Argento was inspired by a series of incidents which saw an obsessed fan telephone the director to him for the damaging psychological effects of his previous work. The telephone calls culminated in death threats towards Argento, who channelled the experience into the writing of Tenebrae, several former members of Italian rock band Goblin provided Tenebraes music, a synth-heavy score inspired by rock and disco music. Tenebrae was a modest success in Italy, it reached theatres with little controversy after Argento made cuts to one of the most violent scenes, however, in the United Kingdom, it was added to the infamous list of video nasties and banned from sale until 1999. The films theatrical distribution in the United States was delayed until 1984, the film critic and author Maitland McDonagh said that it was in many respects. The finest film that Argento has ever made, Peter Neal, an American writer of violent horror novels, is in Italy to promote his latest work, Tenebrae. He is accompanied by his agent, Bullmer and his assistant. Neal is unaware that he has also followed to Rome by his embittered ex-wife. Just before Neal arrived in Rome, Elsa, a young female shoplifter, was murdered with a razor by an unseen assailant, the murderer sends Neal a letter informing him that his books have inspired him to go on a killing spree. Neal is soon contacted by the police in the form of Detective Giermani and his female partner, tilde, a beautiful lesbian journalist, is murdered at her home along with her lover Marion. Maria, the daughter of Neals landlord, is later hacked to death with a axe after discovering the killers lair. Neal notices that TV interviewer Christiano Berti has an intense interest in his work. That night, Neal and his Italian assistant Gianni watch Bertis house, Gianni approaches the house alone to get a better view and sees an assailant hack Berti to death with an axe. However, Gianni is unable to see the murderers face and he returns to Neal to find the novelist has been knocked unconscious on the lawn. Giermani discovers that Berti was obsessed with Neals novels, and believes the killings will stop now that Berti is dead, however, Bullmer, who is having an affair with Jane, is stabbed to death while waiting for his lover in a public square. Gianni is haunted by the thought that he missed the importance of something he saw at Bertis house and he returns to the house and suddenly remembers that he had heard Berti confessing to his attacker, I killed them all, I killed them all. Before Gianni can share this detail with anyone, he is strangled to death from the seat of his carTenebrae (film) – Original Italian theatrical release film poster
109. Terang Boelan – Terang Boelan is a 1937 film from the Dutch East Indies. Written by Saeroen, directed by Albert Balink, and starring Rd Mochtar, Roekiah and Eddie T. Effendi, the film was shot in the Indies and Singapore, and was partially inspired by the 1936 Hollywood film The Jungle Princess. It was aimed at native audiences and included music, which was popular at the time. Terang Boelan was a success in both the Indies and abroad, earning 200,000 Straits dollars in British Malaya. The Indonesian film historian Misbach Yusa Biran described it as a point in the history of Indonesian cinema for its catalytic effect on the industrys growth. Like many Indonesian films of the era, Terang Boelan has been lost since at least the 1970s, Rohaya must separate from her lover, Kasim, so that she can marry her fathers choice, the disreputable but rich Musa. The night before the wedding, Kasim plays the song Terang Boelan for Rohaya, the following day, Rohaya and Kasim escape from Sawoba Island to Malacca, where Kasim begins work at a drydock and Rohaya keeps busy as a housewife. They discover that Kasims old friend, Dullah, has lived in Malacca for some time and their life together is interrupted when Musa, who is revealed to be an opium dealer, discovers them. While Kasim is away at work, Rohayas father comes and takes her back to Sawoba, Kasim, having discovered Musas deeds, also returns to Sawoba and rallies the villagers to his side by telling them of Musas opium dealings. When it appears Kasim may lose, he is saved by Dullah, the villagers and Rohayas father agree that Kasim and Rohaya should be together, as they are truly in love. During 1934 and early 1935, all films released in the Dutch East Indies had been made by the American-educated Chinese-Indonesian director The Teng Chun. The Teng Chuns dominance was an effect of the Great Depression, the Great Depression had led to the Dutch East Indies government collecting higher taxes and cinemas selling tickets at lower prices, ensuring that there was a very low profit margin for local films. As a result, cinemas in the colony mainly showed Hollywood productions, the Teng Chun was able to continue his work only because his films often played to full theatres. The film cost 20 times as much as a local production, in part because of Balinks perfectionism. The Indonesian writer and cultural critic Armijn Pane wrote that Pareh had performed poorly with audiences as it was seen as looking at them through European eyes. Pareh bankrupted its producers, and enabled The Teng Chun to dominate the industry – although with less traditional stories – for a two years. By late 1936 Balink had obtained financial backing from several domestic and foreign companies with which he, the Wongs, and Franken opened the Dutch Indies Film Syndicate in Batavia. Although this new establishment focused mainly on newsreels and documentaries, on 1 January 1937 ANIF announced that it would produce several feature films, the Indonesian film historian Misbach Yusa Biran wrote that this gave Terang Boelan stylistic and thematic similarities to the earlier filmTerang Boelan – Theatrical poster, Batavia
110. Tjioeng Wanara – Tjioeng Wanara is a 1941 film from the Dutch East Indies directed and produced by Jo Eng Seka. Starring R Sukran, Elly Joenara and AB Djoenaedi, it featured more than 500 people in supporting roles. The film follows a prince named Tjioeng Wanara who must reclaim his throne from the cruel King of Galuh. The second production by Star Film, Tjioeng Wanara was released on 18 August 1941 and it was advertised heavily, emphasising the fact that the scholar Poerbatjaraka had served as the historical adviser and that the film was based on Balai Pustakas version of the legend. It premiered to commercial success, but received mixed reviews and this black-and-white production, which was screened until at least 1948, is now thought lost. In 1255 Saka, Permana Dikoesoemah is the King of Galuh, beloved by his people, the minister Aria Kebonan wants power for himself, and persuades the king to surrender the crown to him. Permana Dikoesoemah warns Aria Kebonan to respect him always and not to bother his wife and he then abdicates to meditate, ultimately ascending to a higher plane of existence. Aria Kebonan, meanwhile, magically gains the appearance, ensuring that the people of Galuh are unaware that they have a new king. Aria Kebonan proves to be an unpopular ruler, one day, he hears that both Naganingroem and the kings former concubine, Dewi Pangrenjep, are pregnant. With Dewi Pangrenjep, Aria Kebonan plans to eliminate Naganingroems son, during childbirth the son is replaced with a dog, while Dewi Pangrenjep takes the newborn and throws him into a river. He is later found and rescued by farmers, who name him Tjioeng Wanara, Dewi Pangrenjep, meanwhile, gives birth to a son, Aria Banga. Years pass, and Tjioeng Wanara grows to be a young man. Aria Banga, meanwhile, has taken over the throne and rules with an iron fist, Tjioeng Wanara returns to Galuh and overthrows the king, arresting Aria Kebonan and Dewi Pangrenjep, Aria Banga, however, is able to escape and establish the kingdom of Majapahit. Tjioeng Wanara rules kindly over his people and later moves his capital to Pajajaran, Tjioeng Wanara was directed and produced by Jo Eng Sek for Star Film. It was the production by both Jo and the company, following Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman in 1941. Poerbatjaraka, a scholar of literature, served as the historical adviser to the production. Cinematography for the film was handled by Chok Chin Hsien. By June 1941 production was almost complete, the film starred R Sukran, Elly Joenara, AB Djoenaedi, Muhamad Arief, and S WaldyTjioeng Wanara – One sheet
111. Transformers (film) – Transformers is a 2007 American science fiction action film based on the Transformers toy line created by Hasbro. The film, which combines animation with live-action, is directed by Michael Bay. It is the first installment of the live-action Transformers film series, the film was produced by Don Murphy and Tom DeSanto. They developed the project in 2003, and DeSanto wrote a treatment, Steven Spielberg came on board the following year, hiring Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman to write the screenplay. Armed Forces and General Motors loaned vehicles and aircraft during filming, hasbros promotional campaign for the film included deals with hundreds of companies. Advertising included a viral marketing campaign, coordinated releases of prequel comic books, toys, and books, as well as product placement deals with GM, Burger King, and eBay. The film won four awards from the Visual Effects Society and was nominated for three Academy Awards, for Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Visual Effects. LaBeoufs performance was praised by Empire, and Cullens reprisal of Optimus Prime from the 1980s television series was received by fans. A sequel, Revenge of the Fallen, was released on June 24,2009, a third film, Dark of the Moon, was released on June 29,2011, in 3-D and went on to gross over $1 billion. A fourth entry, Age of Extinction, was released on June 27,2014, a fifth installment, titled Transformers, The Last Knight, is scheduled for a June 23,2017 release. Several thousand years ago, the planet Cybertron was consumed by a war by the two Transformer factions, the Autobots led by Optimus Prime and the Decepticons led by Megatron. Optimus jettisoned the AllSpark, an artifact that brings life to the planet, into space. Megatron crashed in the Arctic Circle and froze, and was discovered in 1895 by explorer Archibald Witwicky, Witwicky activated Megatron’s navigational system, which scanned the AllSpark’s coordinates into his glasses. The glasses end up in the possession of his great-great-grandson Sam Witwicky, in the present, Sam buys his first car, a rusting Chevrolet Camaro, but discovers it has a life of its own. In modern Qatar, Blackout attacks and destroys a United States military base in a attempt to hack the military network to find information on Megatron. A team of Army Rangers led by Captain William Lennox escape across the desert and they fight Scorponok off, aided by aerial reinforcements, and travel home with Scorponok’s stinger, discovering sabot rounds damaged the armor. At the Pentagon, Secretary of Defense John Keller leads the investigation into the attack, Sound analyst Maggie Madsen catches another Decepticon, Frenzy, hacking into the network while onboard Air Force One. While the hack is thwarted, Frenzy downloads files on Archibald’s glasses, tracking down Sam with Barricade, disguised as a police carTransformers (film) – Theatrical release poster
112. Tropic Thunder – Tropic Thunder is a 2008 American satirical action comedy film co-written, produced, directed by, and starring Ben Stiller. The film also stars Robert Downey Jr. and Jack Black, the main plot revolves around a group of prima donna actors who are making a fictional Vietnam War film. When their frustrated director decides to drop them in the middle of a jungle, they are forced to rely on their skills in order to survive the real action. Written by Stiller, Justin Theroux and Etan Cohen, the film was produced by DreamWorks Pictures, Red Hour Films, Stillers idea for the film originated while playing a minor role in Empire of the Sun, and he later enlisted Theroux and Cohen to help complete the script. After the film was green-lit in 2006, filming took place in 2007 on the Hawaiian island of Kauai over thirteen weeks and was deemed the largest film production in the islands history. The films soundtrack and score debuted on August 5,2008, in its North American opening weekend, the film earned $26 million and retained the number one position for the first three weekends of release. The film grossed more than $188 million worldwide before its release on video on November 18,2008. Hook-handed Vietnam veteran Staff Sergeant John Four Leaf Taybacks memoir, Tropic Thunder, is being made into a film, rookie director Damien Cockburn cannot control them during filming of a large battle scene, and production is reported to be one month behind schedule a mere week into production. Furious studio executive Les Grossman orders Cockburn to resume filming as planned, acting on Four Leafs advice, Damien drops the actors into the middle of the jungle, with hidden cameras and rigged special effects explosions to film guerrilla-style. The actors have guns that fire blanks, along with a map, unknown to the actors and production, the group have been dropped in the middle of the Golden Triangle, the home of the heroin-producing Flaming Dragon gang. Just as the group are about to set off, Damien inadvertently steps on an old mine and is blown up. Tugg, believing Damien faked his death to encourage the cast to better performances, persuades the others that Damien is alive. Lazarus is unconvinced but joins them in their trek through the jungle, when Four Leaf and pyrotechnics operator Cody Underwood try to locate the dead director, they are captured by Flaming Dragon. Four Leaf is revealed to have hands, he confesses to Underwood that he served in the Coast Guard, has never left the United States. As the actors continue through the jungle, Kirk and Kevin discover that Tugg is leading them in the wrong direction, the four actors, tired of walking and hoping to be rescued, leave Tugg, who goes off by himself and is captured by Flaming Dragon. Taken to their factory, Tugg believes it is a POW camp from the script. The gang discovers he is the star of their film, the box office bomb Simple Jack. Meanwhile in Los Angeles, Tuggs agent Rick Pecker Peck is trying to negotiate with Les an unfulfilled term in Tuggs contract that entitles him to a TiVo, Flaming Dragon calls the two and demands a ransom for Tugg, but Les instead berates the gangTropic Thunder – Theatrical release poster
113. U2 3D – U2 3D is a 2007 American-produced 3D concert film featuring rock band U2 performing during the Vertigo Tour in 2006. The film contains performances of 14 songs, including tracks from How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, the concert footage includes political and social statements made during the shows. It is the second feature film, following their 1988 rockumentary Rattle. Among several cinematic firsts, U2 3D was the first live-action digital 3D film, the project was created to experiment with a new type of 3D film technology pioneered by producer Steve Schklair. After considering shooting American football games in 3D, Schklairs company 3ality Digital decided to create a film with U2. The band were hesitant to participate, but agreed to the project mainly as an experiment rather than a profit-making venture. Although set in Buenos Aires, U2 3D was shot at seven concerts across Latin America, the films complex setup involved shooting with up to 18 3D cameras simultaneously and capturing the footage digitally. The film was distributed by National Geographic Entertainment and was released in IMAX 3D. It peaked at number 19 at the United States box office and it received widely positive reviews, with critics praising the 3D technology and innovation. U2 3D won several awards, and its reception convinced some of the creators that the project marked a shift in filmmaking. U2 3D depicts a U2 concert in Buenos Aires during the bands Vertigo Tour, in the beginning of the film, a voice is heard chanting everyone in a crowd-filled stadium, followed by fans running through the venue. U2 begin the concert with Vertigo, followed by ten songs in the main set. Images are shown throughout the concert on the stages LED display, the main set ends with One, after which the group leave the stage. They return for an encore and perform The Fly, during which a succession of words, U2 end the show with With or Without You and leave the stage for the final time. As the closing credits begin, a performance of Yahweh is heard as animations from the stages LED display are shown. U2 reappear on stage in a scene performing the end of the song. In 2001, producers Jon and Peter Shapiro created a 2D IMAX concert film titled All Access, noting how 3D films out-performed 2D films, they also wanted their next project to be in the IMAX 3D format. While looking for a new digital 3D technology medium, the Shapiros met producer Steve Schklair, Schklair had recently developed a digital 3D filming technique known as active depth cut, which allowed for smooth cuts between shots that would normally not line up when filmed in 3DU2 3D – U2 3D
114. Uncle David – Uncle David is a 2010 British black comedy film directed by David Hoyle, Gary Reich, and Mike Nicholls. It was produced by Reich and stars Hoyle, an English performance artist, developed collectively under the banner of the Avant-Garde Alliance, it was filmed in October 2009. Created without a script, every scene was improvised and filmed in a single take, set in a caravan park on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent, South East England, a young man with a childlike mind named Ashley arrives to stay with his Uncle David. Escaping from his mother, Ashley enters into a sexual relationship with his uncle who offers his insights into the world. Eventually Ashley tells David that he wants to die, and David agrees to carry out the killing, the film premiered on 25 March 2010 at the London Lesbian and Gay Film Festival held in the BFI Southbank in central London. Reviews were mixed, but the film won awards at international film festivals. It was released on DVD by Peccadillo Pictures in 2011, late one night, Ashley – a young man with a childlike mentality – arrives at the caravan home of his Uncle David on the Isle of Sheppey. Ashley confides in his uncle that his mother has been abusing him by stubbing cigarettes out on his hand. David lambasts the mother and society in general, the two embrace in a kiss before going to bed together, the next morning, they awake and have breakfast in bed before David bathes Ashley in the bathtub, telling him a story about an unhappy nuclear family. Going to a local café and then a park bench, David continues to explain his anti-establishment opinions about society, Ashley reveals that he wants to die, and the two express their love for one another. The pair snort cocaine before playing in the local entertainment arcade, returning to the caravan, they engage in sexual strangulation and anal sex. Putting on make-up, they drink wine and dance to a remix of the Muse song Uprising. While Ashley puts on drag, David encourages him to himself, telling him that he is too nice for this Earth. The next morning, Ashley plays on the beach and builds sand castles, when Ashleys drunken mother phones, demanding to know where her son is, Uncle David feigns ignorance, telling her that he himself is not in Sheppey but in Manchester. Taking Ashley to a military bunker, he injects an unknown substance into his nephews vein as they kiss. Ashley enters a state of consciousness, and David guides him back to the caravan as they smoke marijuana. Once there, David gives Ashley a second injection, as they sit, after dark, David places his near-catatonic nephew in a dog bed, showing him a copy of a picture book titled Is Britain Great. He proceeds to give him a third and final injection, which he remarks will make Ashley lose consciousness, as Ashley dies, David professes that he has never loved anyone else as much beforeUncle David – Poster advertising the film's premiere at the British Film Institute.
115. Jason Voorhees – Jason Voorhees is the main character from the Friday the 13th series. He first appeared in Friday the 13th as the son of camp cook-turned-murderer Mrs. Voorhees. Created by Victor Miller, with contributions by Ron Kurz, Sean S. Cunningham, the character has subsequently been represented in various other media, including novels, video games, comic books, and a cross-over film with another iconic horror film character, Freddy Krueger. Kane Hodder is the best known of the stuntmen to portray Jason Voorhees, the characters physical appearance has gone through many transformations, with various special makeup effects artists making their mark on the characters design, including makeup artist Stan Winston. Tom Savinis initial design has been the basis for many of the later incarnations, the trademark hockey goalie mask did not appear until Friday the 13th Part III. Since Friday the 13th Part VI, Jason Lives, filmmakers have given Jason superhuman strength, regenerative powers, and near invulnerability. He has been seen as a character, whose motivation for killing has been cited as being driven by the immoral actions of his victims. Jason Voorhees has been featured in various magazines, referenced in feature films, parodied in television shows. Several toy lines have been released based on versions of the character from the Friday the 13th films. Jason Voorheess hockey mask is a widely recognized image in popular culture, Jason Voorhees first appears during a nightmare of the main character Alice in the original Friday the 13th film, he becomes the main antagonist of the series in its sequels. As well as the films, there have been books and comics that have expanded the universe of Jason. Jason made his first cinematic appearance in the original Friday the 13th on May 9,1980, in this film, 10-year-old Jason is portrayed in the memories of his mother, Mrs. Voorhees, and as a hallucination of the films protagonist, Alice. Though the character makes no contemporary appearance onscreen, he propels the films plot—Mrs, Voorhees, the cook at Camp Crystal Lake, seeks revenge for his death, which she blames on the camp counselors. Jasons second appearance was in the sequel, Friday the 13th Part 2, revealed to be alive, an adult Jason exacts revenge on Alice for decapitating his mother in the original film. Jason, returns to Crystal Lake, living there as a hermit, five years later a group of teenagers arrive to set up a new camp, only to be murdered one by one by Jason, who wears a pillow case over his head to hide his face. Ginny, the survivor, finds a cabin in the woods with a shrine built around the severed head of Mrs. Voorhees. Ginny fights back and slams a machete through Jasons shoulder, Jason is left for dead as Ginny is taken away in an ambulance. In Friday the 13th Part III, Jason escapes to a lake resort, Higgins HavenJason Voorhees – Friday the 13th character
116. The Whistleblower – The Whistleblower is a 2010 Canadian-German-American biographical crime drama film directed by Larysa Kondracki and starring Rachel Weisz. While there, she discovered a sex trafficking ring serving DynCorp employees, Bolkovac was fired and forced out of the country after attempting to shut down the ring. She took the story to BBC News in England and won a lawsuit against DynCorp. Kondracki wanted her debut film to concern human trafficking, and she encountered Bolkovacs story in college and she and Kirwan struggled to obtain financial support for the project. Eight years after Kondracki decided to produce the film, she secured funding, the Whistleblower—a co-production of Canada, Germany, and the United States—was filmed in Romania from October to December 2009. The Whistleblower premiered on September 13,2010, at the Toronto International Film Festival, the film was advertised as a fictionalization of events occurring during the late 1990s. Kondracki said that the facts are accurate but some details were omitted for the film, for example. The performances by Weisz and her co-stars were praised, but the violence depicted in several scenes was debated by critics. Kondracki and Weisz responded that what happened in Bosnia had been toned down for the film, the Whistleblower received several awards and nominations, including three nominations at the 2012 Genie Awards. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon hosted a screening of the film and promised action would be taken to prevent further instances of human trafficking, the Guardian reported that other UN officials attempted to downplay the events depicted and that initiatives against trafficking in Bosnia were aborted. After successfully advocating for a Muslim woman who experienced domestic abuse, Raya, a young Ukrainian woman, and her friend Luba are sold to a Bosnian sex-trafficking ring by a relative. Raya escapes with Irka, another girl forced into prostitution, while investigating their case, Kathryn uncovers a large-scale sexual slavery ring utilized by international personnel. A corrupt peacekeeper tips off the traffickers, and Raya is recaptured and tortured, although rescued from the woods by Kathryn, Irka is too afraid to proceed with the trial. When she brings the scandal to the attention of the UN, Kathryn discovers that it has covered up to protect lucrative defense. However, she finds allies in her investigation, Madeleine Rees, head of the Human Rights Commission, when Raya is found dead, Kathryn sends an email to fifty senior mission personnel detailing her findings, she is then fired from her job. She and Ward acquire evidence of an official admitting the scandal before she is forced to leave the country, and she brings it to the BBC News. The final credits note that after Kathryns departure, a number of peacekeepers were sent home, the Whistleblower is based on the experiences of Kathryn Bolkovac, an American police officer who in 1999 was assigned to serve as a peacekeeper with the United Nations in post-war Bosnia. While there, she discovered a sex-trafficking ring which served and was facilitated by other peacekeepersThe Whistleblower – Promotional poster
117. 29th Golden Raspberry Awards – Nominations were announced on January 21,2009. The Love Guru was the most nominated film of 2008, with seven, Award results were based on votes from approximately 650 journalists, cinema fans and film professionals from 20 countries. Awards were presented by John Wilson, the ceremonys founder, the Love Guru received the most awards, winning Worst Picture, Worst Actor, and Worst Screenplay. Paris Hilton received three awards, including Worst Actress for her work in The Hottie & the Nottie and Worst Supporting Actress for Repo. Hilton matched the number of awards received by an actor in a single year. Pierce Brosnan received Worst Supporting Actor for his role in Mamma Mia, the Movie, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull received the award for Worst Prequel, Remake, Rip-off or Sequel. Uwe Boll received the Worst Director award for the films 1968 Tunnel Rats, In the Name of the King and Postal, the most nominated film of 2008 was the box-office bomb The Love Guru, with seven nominations. Paid members of the Golden Raspberry Award Foundation voted to determine the winners, Award results were based on votes from approximately 650 journalists, cinema fans and professionals from the film industry. Voters were from 45 states in the United States and 19 other countries, the ceremony opened with a musical number which parodied the song Dancing Queen from Mamma Mia. Awards were presented by John Wilson, the ceremonys founder, awardees received a gold spray-painted raspberry worth $4.97. The Love Guru received three awards, Worst Picture, Worst Actor and Worst Screenplay, Worst Picture was the last award given out at the ceremony. The main thing wrong with it is no one said to Myers that it wasnt funny and he managed to offend the entire Indian population and his investors, said Wilson in a statement in The Guardian. Wilson shredded a copy of The Love Guru at the awards ceremony and she is the 21st century Zsa Zsa Gabor. She is famous for who she hangs out with, shes not famous for any talent she has yet exhibited. She may end up working with Uwe Boll and she could be the head vampire in BloodRayne 3, said Wilson of Hiltons performances. Pierce Brosnan received Worst Supporting Actor for his role in Mamma Mia, Award hosts Chip Dornell and Kelie McIver described Brosnan as an actor who could not sing, should not sing and arguably did not sing, in a role he should not have accepted. The Steven Spielberg film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull received the award for Worst Prequel, Remake, Uwe Boll received the Worst Director award for films 1968 Tunnel Rats, In the Name of the King and Postal. He also received a award for Worst Career Achievement29th Golden Raspberry Awards – John Wilson at 29th Golden Raspberry Awards
118. List of accolades received by 127 Hours – 127 Hours is a 2010 British independent biographical adventure film directed by Danny Boyle. It stars James Franco in the role as real-life mountain climber Aron Ralston. Adapted from Ralstons autobiography Between a Rock and a Hard Place,127 Hourss screenplay was written by Boyle, distributors Fox Searchlight and Pathé gave the feature limited releases in the United States and United Kingdom on 5 November 2010 and 7 January 2011, respectively. It grossed £35.8 million at the box office by the end of its theatrical run. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator surveyed 215 reviews and judged 93% to be positive, additionally,127 Hours appeared on more than two dozen movie reviewers Top Ten lists for the best movies of 2010. The film has received honors for its direction, music, cinematography and writing, at the 68th Golden Globe Awards ceremony,127 Hours earned three nominations, for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, Best Original Score and Best Screenplay. The picture was nominated in nine Satellite Award categories, including direction, score, sound, original song and it also received nine nominations from the Broadcast Film Critics Association. The 64th British Academy Film Awards nominated it for eight of their awards, including Best Director, Best Editing, Best Music, additionally,127 Hours was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film, but lost to The Kings Speech. Franco was named Best Actor by the New York Film Critics Online and 2010 Independent Spirit Awards and he also received recognition from the Screen Actors Guild, at their 17th annual ceremony. Francos arm amputation scene towards the end of 127 Hours was nominated at the viewer-voted 2011 MTV Movie Awards, boyles and Beaufoys efforts on the movies script earned them nominations from the Writers Guild of America and Evening Standard British Film Awards. Along with producer Christian Colson, Boyle garnered another nomination, this time from the Producers Guild of America, the Detroit Film Critics Society honored Boyle as Best Director. Suttirat Larlarbs input on the production design earned her one nomination from the Art Directors Guild. The films cinematography garnered nominations at the 2010 Houston Film Critics Awards, the American Film Institute listed 127 Hours as one of the ten best movies of 2010. 2010 in film General Specific Official website for 127 Hours Awards for 127 Hours at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by 127 Hours – James Franco 's performance has gained the most attention from award groups
119. 59th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories honoring films released in 1986. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. actors Chevy Chase, Paul Hogan, and Goldie Hawn co-hosted the show. Hawn hosted the gala for the time, having previously been a co-host of the 48th ceremony held in 1976. Meanwhile, this was Chase and Hogans first Oscars hosting stint, eight days earlier, in a ceremony held at The Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, California on March 22, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Catherine Hicks. Platoon won four awards including Best Picture, platoon and A Room with a View led all nominees with eight each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 30,1987. Marlee Matlin was the first deaf performer to win an Oscar, artie Shaw, Time Is All Youve Got and Down and Out in Americas joint win in the Best Documentary Feature category marked the fourth occurrence of a tie in Oscar history. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double dagger, ralph Bellamy Steven Spielberg The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. Determined to revive interest surrounding the awards and reverse declining ratings, actor Robin Williams was initially named a co-host, but he was forced to withdraw from emceeing duties due to his commitment toward his role in the upcoming film Good Morning, Vietnam. One of the biggest priorities for Goldwyn was to shorten the length of the show to at least three hours or less, in view of his goal, he told reporters regarding winners acceptance speeches, We are actually going to give them 45 seconds. The light will start blinking at 45 seconds and go red at 55 seconds, after one minute we will either cut to a commercial or go to something else. Weve also asked multiple winners to flip a coin and pick a spokesman, although Goldwyn attempted to move the Documentary and Short Film Categories to a separate ceremony from the broadcast, the AMPAS Board of Governors refused to do so. Several other people were involved with the production of the ceremony, oscar-winning costume designer Theoni V. Aldredge was hired as fashion consultant for the awards ceremony and supervised a fashion show segment showcasing the five nominees for Best Costume Design. Lionel Newman served as director and conductor for the ceremony. Actors Dom DeLuise, Pat Morita, and Telly Savalas performed the song Fugue for Tinhorns from the musical Guys and Dolls at the start of the ceremony. At the time of the announcement on February 11, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $119 million with an average of $23.9 million. Platoon was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $39.3 million in the box office receipts. The film was followed by Hannah and Her Sisters, Children of a Lesser God, A Room with a View, of the 50 grossing movies of the year,55 nominations went to 18 films on the list59th Academy Awards – Official poster
120. 60th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 22 categories honoring films released in 1987. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. Actor Chevy Chase hosted the show for the second consecutive year. Two weeks earlier in a ceremony held at The Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, California on March 27, the Last Emperor won nine awards including Best Picture and Best Director for Bernardo Bertolucci. For their performances in Moonstruck, Cher and Olympia Dukakis won Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, Michael Douglas won Best Actor for his role in Wall Street, Sean Connery won Best Supporting Actor for The Untouchables. The telecast garnered 42.2 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 60th Academy Awards were announced on February 16,1988, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Robert Wise, president of the Academy, the Last Emperor received the most nominations with nine total, Broadcast News came in second with seven. The winners were announced at the ceremony on April 11,1988. The Last Emperor became the film after 1958s Gigi to earn nine Oscar nominations. For the first time in Oscar history, all five Best Director nominees were born outside the United States. Best Actor winner Michael Douglas became the person to win Oscars for both acting and producing, he previously won a Best Picture award as co-producer of One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, the award honors “creative producers whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high quality of motion picture production. ”Billy Wilder Stephen Flick and John Pospisil, for the sound effects editing of RoboCop. The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers, in view of the 60th anniversary of the Academy Awards, the Academy hired film producer Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. in October 1987 to oversee the telecast for the second straight year. Three months later, Goldwyn selected actor and comedian Chevy Chase to emcee the 1988 ceremony and this marked the first time the facility served as the site for the Oscars since the 20th ceremony held in 1948. Additionally, Goldwyn and Passetta originally planned to feature pre-recorded red carpet arrivals footage of actors who had roles in the 59 previous Best Picture winners, however, the segment was dropped altogether due to traffic problems amongst guests arriving to the ceremony. Furthermore, the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike, which more than a month before the ceremony, affected the telecast. To compensate for the portions of the script, Goldwyn heavily utilized comedians such as John Candy, Billy Crystal, Eddie Murphy. At the time of the announcement on February 16, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $221 million with an average of $48.9 million. Fatal Attraction was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $142 million in the box office receipts60th Academy Awards – Official poster
121. 61st Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Allan Carr, ten days earlier, in a ceremony held at the Beverly Hills Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Angie Dickinson. Rain Man won four awards, including Best Actor for Dustin Hoffman, Best Director for Barry Levinson, the telecast garnered almost 43 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 61st Academy Awards were announced on February 15,1989, PST, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Richard Kahn, president of the Academy, and the actress Anne Archer. Rain Man led all nominees, with eight nominations, Dangerous Liaisons, the winners were announced at the award ceremony on March 29,1989. Best Actor winner Dustin Hoffman was the person to win the aforementioned category twice. Sigourney Weaver became the performer to receive two acting nominations in the same year. However, she became the first to lose both nominations. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with double dagger. At the time of the announcement on February 15, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $188 million. Rain Man was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees, the film was followed by Working Girl, The Accidental Tourist, Mississippi Burning, and finally Dangerous Liaisons. Of the top 50 grossing movies of the year,52 nominations went to 13 films, the other top 50 box office hits that earned nominations were Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Coming to America, Die Hard, Beetlejuice, and Willow. National Film Board of Canada Eastman Kodak Company Richard Williams For the animation direction of Who Framed Roger Rabbit, the following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers. In interviews with media outlets, he expressed that it was a dream come true to produce the Oscars. Notable changes were introduced in the production of the telecast, for the first time, presenters announced each winner with the phrase And the Oscar goes to. Rather than And the winner is, instead of hiring a host for the proceedings, Carr heavily relied on presenters often grouped in pairs that had some connection, either through family or the film industry. Several other people were involved in the production of the ceremony, Jeff Margolis served as director of the telecast. Lyricist and composer Marvin Hamlisch was hired as musical supervisor of the festivities, comedian and writer Bruce Vilanch was hired as a writer for the broadcast, a role he has had ever since61st Academy Awards – Official poster
122. 64th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the third consecutive year. Three weeks earlier, in a ceremony held at the Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles on March 7, the Silence of the Lambs won five awards including Best Picture. The telecast garnered more than 44 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 64th Academy Awards were announced on February 19,1992, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Karl Malden, president of the Academy, Bugsy led all nominees with ten nominations, JFK came in second with eight. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 30,1992. The Silence of the Lambs became the first horror film to win Best Picture, moreover, it was the third film to win the Big Five major categories for picture, directing, lead acting performances, and screenwriting. The other two films to attain this feat were 1934s It Happened One Night and 1975s One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, Beauty and the Beast earned the first Best Picture nomination for an animated feature film. Boyz n the Hoods John Singleton became the first African-American to be nominated for Best Director, nominated for Best Supporting Actress and Best Lead Actress respectively, Diane Ladd and Laura Dern became the first mother and daughter nominated in the same year. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with double dagger and he christened the 1992 ceremony with the theme Pure Joy of the Movies explaining that Motion pictures provide us with laughter, romance, adventure and a deeper understanding of ourselves. With all the events that are taking place today, its wonderful that we can still get away to see a film. A month before the festivities, Cates recruited actor and comedian Billy Crystal to host the ceremony for the third straight year, according to Variety columnist Army Archerd, Crystal planned to perform a bungee jump stunt as part of his entrance at the beginning of the ceremony. However, the act was scrapped due to high costs for the Academy. Instead, Crystal, who was wearing Hannibal Lecters mask from The Silence of the Lambs, was hauled onto the stage by two men, several other people were involved in the production of the ceremony. Choreographer Debbie Allen supervised the Best Song nominee performances and the Best Original Score dance number, Film composer and musician Bill Conti served as musical director of the ceremony. In tandem with the theme of the ceremony, Chuck Workman produced a montage highlighting famous movie scenes from past and present. At the time of the announcement on February 19, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $393 million with an average of $78.7 million per film. The Silence of the Lambs was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $130.7 million in box office receipts64th Academy Awards – Official poster
123. 65th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the fourth consecutive year. In related events, during a ceremony held at the Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles on March 6, Unforgiven won four Oscars including Best Picture, Best Director for Clint Eastwood, and Best Supporting Actor for Gene Hackman. Al Pacino and Emma Thompson won lead acting honors for Scent of a Woman and Howards End, marisa Tomei won Best Supporting Actress for My Cousin Vinny. The telecast garnered 45.7 million viewers in the United States, Howards End and Unforgiven led all nominees with nine nominations each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 29,1993. Best Director winner Clint Eastwood became the person nominated for lead acting and directing for the same film. Best Actor winner Al Pacino was the performer to receive nominations in the lead. He also became the first person to win in the acting category after achieving the aforementioned feat. By virtue of his second win in both music categories, Alan Menken became the third person to win two Oscars in two consecutive years. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, Academy Honorary Award Federico Fellini — In recognition of his place as one of the screen’s master storytellers. Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Awards The award recognizes individuals whose efforts have brought credit to the motion picture industry. In February 1993, actor and comedian Billy Crystal was chosen by Cates as host also for the fourth straight time, Cates justified the decision to hire him saying, He is a major movie star with a talent for moving the evenings entertainment along. As with previous ceremonies he produced, Cates centered the show around a theme, inspired by the Year of the Woman in which a record four women were elected to the United States Senate, Cates christened the 1993 show with the theme Oscar Celebrates Women and the Movies. In tandem with the theme, AMPAS gathered 67 female Oscar winners of every category for a photo that was shown at the start of the telecast. Actress and singer Liza Minnelli performed Ladies Day, a written by Fred Ebb. Oscar-winning documentarian Lynne Littman assembled a montage highlighting women in film, several other people participated in the production of the ceremony. Bill Conti served as conductor and musical supervisor for the ceremony, choreographer Debbie Allen supervised the Best Song nominee performances and the Ladies Night musical number65th Academy Awards – Official poster
124. 67th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories honoring the films released in 1994. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, comedian David Letterman hosted the show for the first time. Forrest Gump won six awards, including Best Picture, the telecast garnered more than 48 million viewers in the United States, making it the most watched Oscars telecast since the 55th Academy Awards in 1983. Forrest Gump earned the most nominations with thirteen and it was the most nominated film since 1966s Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf. and the fifth film to earn that many nominations. Bullets over Broadway, The Shawshank Redemption, Pulp Fiction tied for second with seven each, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 27,1995. For only the time in Oscar history, three of the four acting winners were previous winners. The 11th ceremony held in 1939 previously accomplished this feat and he also was the sixth person to win Best Actor twice. Best Supporting Actress winner Dianne Wiest became the first person to win two acting Oscars for performances in films directed by the same person and she first won in that same category for her role in Woody Allens 1986 film Hannah and Her Sisters. Franz Kafkas Its a Wonderful Life and Trevors joint win in the Best Live Action Short category marked the fifth occurrence of a tie in Oscar history, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger. Michelangelo Antonioni Quincy Jones Clint Eastwood The following individuals, in order of appearance and she added that her role in the upcoming movie Bogus would jeopardize her busy schedule. Producer Gil Cates hired actor, comedian, and Late Show host David Letterman as host of the 1995 ceremony, Cates explained his decision to hire the late night talk show host saying, Hes punctual, hes well groomed, and he knows how to keep an audience awake. As with previous ceremonies he produced, Cates centered the show around a theme, even with television, its not a community experience unless you have a very big family. So its unique to movies and theater, and its this very human thing, in tandem with the theme, the ceremonys opening number featured a montage produced by Chuck Workman featuring scenes of humorous moments from a variety of both comedic and non-comedic films. During that segment, actors Tim Curry, Kathy Najimy, several collections of film clips were shown throughout the broadcast highlighting various aspects of comedy such as troupes and dialogue. Several other people were involved with the production of the ceremony. Bill Conti served as director and conductor for the event. Production designer Roy Christopher designed a new stage for the ceremony which featured a proscenium which was designed to resemble the iris of a camera. Moreover, Christopher commented that the motif was inspired by the iris shot prominently featured in several comedic films67th Academy Awards – Official poster
125. 77th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories honoring films released in 2004. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates and was directed by Louis J. Horvitz, Actor Chris Rock hosted the show for the first time. The Aviator won the most awards of the night with five, Million Dollar Baby won four awards, including Best Picture. The telecast garnered over 42 million viewers in the United States, the Aviator received the most nominations with eleven, Finding Neverland and Million Dollar Baby tied for second with seven nominations each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 27,2005. At age 74, Clint Eastwood became the oldest winner for Best Director in Oscar history, Best Actor winner Jamie Foxx became the second actor and tenth individual overall to earn two acting nominations in the same year. By virtue of her portrayal of Katharine Hepburn, Best Supporting Actress winner Cate Blanchett was the first performer to portray a previous Oscar winner, al otro lado del río from The Motorcycle Diaries became the second song with non-English lyrics to win Best Original Song. The first to achieve this feat was the song from the 1960 Greek film Never on Sunday at the 33rd Academy Awards. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, sidney Lumet — In recognition of his brilliant services to screenwriters, performers and the art of the motion picture. Roger Mayer The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, opting for a younger face in an attempt to increase viewership, while renewing interest with the nominated films, producer Gil Cates selected actor and comedian Chris Rock to host the 2005 ceremony. Cates explained his decision to hire Rock for the telecast in a release saying. He always makes me laugh and he always has something interesting to say, Chris represents the best of the new generation of comics. Having him host the Oscars is terrific, by virtue of his selection, Rock became the first African American man to solo host the gala. Nearly a month before the ceremony Rock told Josh Wolk of Entertainment Weekly, Come on, no one performs, its not like a music show. What straight black man there and watches the Oscars. Political blogger Matt Drudge later reported that several anonymous AMPAS members wanted Rock fired from his job as a result of the comments. Furthermore, Wolk dismissed any controversy regarding Rocks comments and that Drudge exaggerated the hosts comments, GLAAD Executive Director Joan Garry also issue a statement in light of the controversy stating, Chris Rock isnt making fun of gays – hes poking fun at the Oscars. Rock appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno the Monday before the ceremony to clarify his comments, when Leno asked about the statement, Rock replied I did not say that77th Academy Awards – Official poster
126. 80th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Gil Cates and directed by Louis J, Actor Jon Stewart hosted the show for the second time, having previously presided over the 78th ceremony held in 2006. Two weeks earlier in a gala at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on February 9, No Country for Old Men won the most awards of the ceremony with four including Best Picture. The telecast garnered under 32 million viewers, making it the least watched Oscar broadcast since 1974, the nominations were announced on January 22,2008, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California by Sid Ganis, president of the Academy, and actress Kathy Bates. No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood tied for the most nominations with eight each, the winners were announced during the award ceremony of February 24,2008. Best Director winners Ethan and Joel Coen became the pair of directors to win the award for the same film. Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise first accomplished this feat for co-directing 1961s West Side Story, for only the second time in Oscar history, all four acting winners were born outside the United States. Daniel Day-Lewis became the person to win Best Actor twice. Cate Blanchett became the performer to receive double acting nominations in the same year. At age 82, Best Supporting Actor nominee Hal Holbrook was the oldest male acting nominee in Oscar history, Robert F. Boyle became the oldest recipient of the Academy Honorary award at the age of 98. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, Robert F. Boyle — In recognition of one of cinemas great careers in art direction. The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers, in September 2007, the Academy hired Gil Cates to oversee production of the telecast for a record 14th time. Ganis explained his decision to hire Cates as producer stating, Hes so talented…so creative and inventive, all of that will again translate into a night that people cant wait to experience. Immediately, Cates selected actor, comedian, and talk-show host Jon Stewart as host of the 2008 ceremony, Jon was a terrific host for the 78th Awards, Cates said about Stewart in a press release. He is smart, quick, funny, loves movies and is a great guy, what else could one ask for. Furthermore, the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike affected the telecast, the material could have been used, as the denial only affected the conditions under which the clips are shown. Previously, the 60th ceremony held in 1988 occurred 37 days after that years writers strike began, at the time, material was already completed in anticipation for the strike, and actors were in full attendance of the ceremony. In anticipation that the strike would continue through Oscar night, AMPAS developed a Plan B show that would not have included actors accepting their awards80th Academy Awards – Official poster
127. 81st Academy Awards – During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and was produced by Bill Condon and Laurence Mark, Actor Hugh Jackman hosted the show for the first time. Two weeks earlier in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on February 7, Slumdog Millionaire won eight awards, the most of the evening, including Best Picture and Best Director for Danny Boyle. The telecast garnered almost 37 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 81st Academy Awards were announced on January 22,2009, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Sid Ganis, president of the Academy, the Curious Case of Benjamin Button received the most nominations with thirteen, Slumdog Millionaire came in second with ten. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 22,2009. Slumdog Millionaire was the film to win Best Picture without any acting nominations. Sean Penn became the person to win Best Lead Actor twice. Best Supporting Actor winner Heath Ledger became the performer to win a posthumous acting Oscar. The first actor to receive this distinction was Peter Finch who posthumously won Best Actor for Network two months after his death in January 1977. With its six nominations, Best Animated Feature Film winner WALL-E tied with 1991s Beauty, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface. Jerry Lewis The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers, in September 2008, the Academy selected producers Bill Condon and Laurence Mark to co-produce the telecast. Nearly three months later, actor Hugh Jackman, who had previously emceed three consecutive Tony Awards ceremonies between 2003 and 2005, was chosen as host of the 2009 gala. Jackman expressed his anticipation of the awards in the few days preceding, notable changes were introduced in the production of the telecast. Another unique feature of the ceremony was that the orchestra performed onstage instead of being relegated to a pit, in a break from previous presentations, five previous Oscar-winning performers presented each of the acting categories as opposed to only one or two. In addition, the Academy announced that for the first time since Oscar began broadcasting on television, furthermore, a montage of upcoming 2009 films was shown over the ceremonys closing credits. Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony, chris Harrison hosted Road to the Oscars, a weekly behind-the-scenes video blog on the Oscar ceremony website. David Rockwell designed a new set and stage design for the ceremony, Film historian and author Robert Osborne greeted guests entering the festivities at the Hollywood and Highland Center81st Academy Awards – Official poster
128. 82nd Academy Awards – The ceremony was scheduled well after its usual late-February date to avoid conflicting with the 2010 Winter Olympics. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories, the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and was produced by Bill Mechanic and Adam Shankman and directed by Hamish Hamilton. Actors Alec Baldwin and Steve Martin hosted the show, Martin hosted for the third time, he first presided over the 73rd ceremony held in 2001 and last hosted the 75th ceremony held in 2003. Meanwhile, this was Baldwins first Oscars hosting stint and this was also the first telecast to have multiple hosts since the 59th ceremony held in 1987. On February 20,2010, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, the Hurt Locker won six awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Kathryn Bigelow, the first woman to win an Academy Award for Best Director. The telecast garnered nearly 42 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 82nd Academy Awards were announced on February 2,2010, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Tom Sherak, president of the Academy, Avatar and The Hurt Locker led the nominations with nine each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 7,2010. Kathryn Bigelow made history as the first female to win the Oscar for Best Director, up became only the second animated film to earn a Best Picture nomination. 1991s Beauty and the Beast was the first such film to achieve this feat, Best Adapted Screenplay winner Geoffrey Fletcher was the first African American winner of a screenwriting Oscar. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double dagger, the Academy held its 1st Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 14,2009, during which the following awards were presented. Lauren Bacall — In recognition of her place in the golden age of motion pictures. Roger Corman — For his rich engendering of films and filmmakers, gordon Willis — For unsurpassed mastery of light, shadow, color and motion. John Calley The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, because of the declining viewership of recent Academy Awards ceremonies, the Academy sought ideas to revamp the show while renewing interest with the nominated films. After the previous years telecast, which saw a 13% increase in viewership, AMPAS then-president Sid Ganis announced that the ceremony would feature ten Best Picture nominees, rather than traditional five. The expansion was a throwback to the Academys early years in the 1930s and 1940s, I cant wait to see what that list of ten looks like when the nominees are announced in February. Ganis also said that became difficult to get a clear winner, a cause of this was required a change in the voting system from first-past-the-post to alternative vote. Choreographer Adam Shankman and Bill Mechanic were hired as producers for the ceremony, many of the previous years well-received elements returned82nd Academy Awards – Official poster
129. 83rd Academy Awards – During the ceremony, Academy Awards were presented in 24 competitive categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Bruce Cohen and Don Mischer, actors James Franco and Anne Hathaway co-hosted the ceremony, marking the first time for each. In related events, the Academy held its second annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 13,2010. On February 12,2011, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, Inception and The Kings Speech won four awards each, with the latter film winning Best Picture. The telecast garnered almost 38 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 83rd Academy Awards were announced on January 25,2011, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Tom Sherak, president of the Academy, the Kings Speech led the nominations with twelve, followed by True Grit with ten. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 27,2011. Toy Story 3 became the animated film to be nominated for Best Picture. True Grit was the film after 2002s Gangs of New York to lose all ten of its nominations. He was also the first acting nominee since Michael Caine at the 45th ceremony in 1973 to achieve this distinction, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double-dagger. The Academy held its Second Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 13,2010, kevin Brownlow — For the wise and devoted chronicling of the cinematic parade. For a new kind of cinema, eli Wallach — For a lifetimes worth of indelible screen characters. Francis Ford Coppola The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers, in June 2010, the AMPAS hired Oscar-winning producer Bruce Cohen and veteran television producer Don Mischer to oversee production of the telecast. Im absolutely ecstatic that Bruce and Don have accepted my invitation to produce and direct the 83rd Academy Awards telecast, opting for younger faces for the ceremony, Cohen and Mischer hired actor James Franco, and actress Anne Hathaway as co-hosts of the 2011 ceremony. James Franco and Anne Hathaway personify the next generation of Hollywood icons — fresh, exciting and we hope to create an Oscar broadcast that will both showcase their incredible talents and entertain the world on February 27, said Cohen and Mischer regarding their selections to host the gala. We are completely thrilled that James and Anne will be joining forces with our brilliant creative team to do just that, Franco and Hathaway became the first male-female duo to co-host the awards show since comedian Jerry Lewis and actress Celeste Holm presided over the 29th ceremony in 1957. At age 28, Hathaway was also the youngest person to host an Oscar ceremony, furthermore, AMPAS announced that this years ceremony was the most interactive awards show in history. Also, via the Academys Twitter and Facebook pages, people could post questions for any actor or celebrity attending the festivities to answer, one of the four Oscar pre-show co-hosts would then pose selected questions to both nominees and attendees alike83rd Academy Awards – Official poster
130. 84th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Brian Grazer and Don Mischer, Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the ninth time. He first presided over the 62nd ceremony held in 1990 and had last hosted the 76th ceremony held in 2004, in related events, the Academy held its third annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 12,2011. On February 11,2012, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, the telecast garnered more than 39 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 84th Academy Awards were announced on January 24,2012, PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Tom Sherak, president of the Academy, and the actress Jennifer Lawrence. Hugo led all nominees with eleven nominations, The Artist came in second with ten, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on February 26,2012. The Artist was the silent feature to win Best Picture. The 1927 film Wings was the first such film to achieve this distinction at the awards ceremony in 1929. Moreover, it was also the first black-and-white feature to win Best Picture since 1993s Schindlers List, Best Actor winner Jean Dujardin became the first French actor to win an Oscar. With her latest win for Best Actress, Meryl Streep became the performer to win at least three acting Oscars. At age 82, Best Supporting Actor winner Christopher Plummer also made Oscar history by becoming the oldest ever performer to win a competitive acting Oscar, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger. The Academy held its 3rd Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 12,2011, James Earl Jones — For his legacy of consistent excellence and uncommon versatility. Dick Smith — For his unparalleled mastery of texture, shade, form, oprah Winfrey The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers. Because of the viewership of recent Academy Awards ceremonies, the Academy sought ideas to revamp the show while renewing interest with the nominated films. After a two-year experiment with ten Best Pictures nominees, AMPAS president Tom Sherak announced that the number of final nominees can now range from five to ten as opposed a fixed number. Academy then-executive director Bruce Davis explained, A Best Picture nomination should be an indication of extraordinary merit, If there are only eight pictures that truly earn that honor in a given year, we shouldnt feel an obligation to round out the number. Changes in the Best Animated Feature also were announced, originally, the Academy selected director Brett Ratner as co-producer of the ceremony with Don Mischer in August 2011. Actor and comedian Eddie Murphy was hired by Ratner to preside over hosting duties, Murphy subsequently stepped down as host the following day84th Academy Awards – Michel Hazanavicius, Best Director winner
131. 85th Academy Awards – The ceremony was the first in the Academys 85-year history to adopt the phrase The Oscars as the ceremonys official name during the broadcast and marketing. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories, the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Craig Zadan and Neil Meron and directed by Don Mischer. Actor Seth MacFarlane hosted the show for the first time, in related events, the Academy held its 4th annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on December 1,2012. On February 9,2013, in a ceremony at The Beverly Hills Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, Life of Pi won four awards including Best Director for Ang Lee. Argo won three awards, including Best Picture, the film to win an Academy Award for Best Picture without its director nominated. The telecast garnered more than 40 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 85th Academy Awards were announced on January 10,2013, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Seth MacFarlane, host of the ceremony, Lincoln received the most nominations with twelve total, and Life of Pi came in second with eleven. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 24,2013. Argo was the film to win Best Picture without a directing nomination, following 1927s Wings, 1932s Grand Hotel. As co-producer of Argo, George Clooney became the individual to win Oscars for both acting and producing. He was also the first singer nominee and also the first to host the show solo, silver Linings Playbook was the fourteenth film to earn nominations in all four acting categories, and the first since Reds in 1981. At age 22, Best Actress winner Jennifer Lawrence became the second-youngest winner in that category, with his third win for Best Lead Actor, Daniel Day-Lewis became the first three-time winner in that category. He also was the performer to win at least three acting Oscars. Amour was the fourth film nominated simultaneously for Best Picture and Best Foreign Language Film in the same year, at age nine, Quvenzhané Wallis became the youngest nominee for Best Actress and the youngest female acting nominee overall. Meanwhile, Emmanuelle Riva was the oldest nominee for Best Actress and this marked the first time in Oscar history that all five nominees in an acting category were all previous winners. Skyfall and Zero Dark Thirtys joint win in the Best Sound Editing category was the occurrence of a tie in Oscar history. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, the Academy held its 4th Annual Governors Awards ceremony on December 1,2012, during which the following awards were presented. Hal Needham — An innovator, mentor, and master technician who elevated his craft to an art, D. A. Pennebaker — Who redefined the language of film and taught a generation of filmmakers to look to reality for inspiration85th Academy Awards – Official poster
132. 86th Academy Awards – The ceremony was scheduled well after its usual late-February date to avoid conflicting with the 2014 Winter Olympics. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories, the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Neil Meron and Craig Zadan and directed by Hamish Hamilton. Actress Ellen DeGeneres hosted the show for the time, having previously hosted the 79th ceremony held in 2007. In related events, the Academy held its 5th annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 16,2013. On February 15,2014, in a ceremony at The Beverly Hills Hotel in Beverly Hills, California,12 Years a Slave won three awards including Best Picture. Gravity won the most awards with seven including Best Director for Alfonso Cuarón, the telecast garnered nearly 44 million viewers in the United States, making it the most watched Oscar ceremony since the 72nd Academy Awards in 2000. The nominees for the 86th Academy Awards were announced on January 16,2014, PST, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Cheryl Boone Isaacs, president of the Academy, and actor Chris Hemsworth. American Hustle and Gravity tied for the most nominations with ten each, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 2,2014. American Hustle became David O. Russells second consecutive film to earn nominations in all acting categories and it also was the third film after Gangs of New York and True Grit to lose all ten of its nominations. Steve McQueen became the first black director to direct a Best Picture winner, Alfonso Cuaron became the first person of Mexican descent to win Best Director. With Matthew McConaughey and Jared Letos respective wins in the Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor categories, additionally,3 other films also received nominations for both Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor. Cate Blanchett became the actress to have won both female acting awards in her career. Lupita Nyongo was the sixteenth Oscar acting winner to win for a film performance. Best Original Song co-winner Robert Lopez became the youngest individual to win an Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Award, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger. The Academy held its 5th Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 16,2013, angela Lansbury — An entertainment icon who has created some of cinemas most memorable characters, inspiring generations of actors. Steve Martin — In recognition of his talents and the unique inspiration he has brought to the art of motion pictures. Piero Tosi — A visionary whose incomparable costume designs shaped timeless, angelina Jolie The following individuals and groups, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers. Despite the mixed reception received from the years ceremony, the Academy rehired Neil Meron86th Academy Awards – Official poster
133. List of accolades received by Up – Up is a 2009 computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film, which premiered on May 29,2009, in North America and it was directed by Pete Docter, co-directed by Bob Peterson, and produced by Jonas Rivera. The film centers on a widower, named Carl Fredricksen, and a young Wilderness Explorer, named Russell. The movie received critical acclaim and box office success, opening in 3,766 theaters in the US, debuting at number one with $68,108,790. It garnered various awards and nominations, most of them for the Best Animated Picture category, up was nominated for five Academy Awards at the 2010 Ceremony, winning two, for Best Animated Feature and for Best Original Score. It was the fully animated film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the other was Beauty. Up became the third consecutive Pixar film to win the Academy Award for Animated Feature, after Ratatouille, the film also won the Golden Globe for Best Original Score and the Best Animated Feature Film at the 67th Golden Globe Awards. It received the Golden Tomato, from the website Rotten Tomatoes, for highest rating feature in 2009, with an approval of 98 percent from film critics, based on 259 reviews. The movie received nine nominations for the Annie Awards in eight categories and it also was selected as the Summer Movie Comedy at the 2009 Teen Choice Awards, and was also nominated for three Grammys at 52nd Grammy Awards, winning two of them. Furthermore, the film was nominated at the 2009 Satellite Awards in the categories Best Animated or Mixed Media Film, Best Original Screenplay, list of Pixar awards and nominations Official Website Awards for Up at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Up – Pete Docter won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.
134. Ben Affleck filmography – Ben Affleck is an American actor and filmmaker. His first screen appearance was at the age of eight in a part in the independent film The Dark End of the Street. Affleck played an antisemite in the sports film School Ties and featured as a regular on the television drama Against the Grain and he next starred with Bruce Willis in Michael Bays $554 million-grossing science fiction film Armageddon, which proved to be his biggest commercial success to that point. In 2000, Affleck formed a company with Damon and Sean Bailey, named LivePlanet, which produced Project Greenlight. He has served as the producer of several projects directed by the winners of the show. Affleck played opposite Kate Beckinsale in Bays war film Pearl Harbor and he later made a comeback with the biographical film Hollywoodland, in which his portrayal of the actor George Reeves earned him a Golden Globe nomination. In 2007, Affleck made his film directorial debut with Gone Baby Gone, a thriller based on the novel by Dennis Lehane. He went on to act in and direct two acclaimed features for Warner Bros. —the crime drama The Town and the thriller Argo, in 2014, Affleck played a man accused of murdering his wife in David Finchers thriller Gone Girl. List of awards and nominations received by Ben Affleck Ben Affleck at the Internet Movie DatabaseBen Affleck filmography – Ben Affleck filmography
135. Ajith Kumar filmography – Ajith Kumar is an Indian actor who works mainly in Tamil films. Apart from a role in the 1990 Tamil film En Veedu En Kanavar. He made his debut as an actor in Tamil cinema with Amaravathi. Despite being a success, the film helped him obtain more modelling assignments. After Amaravathis release, Ajith opted against acting, and instead tried pursuing a career in auto racing, while training for an amateur race, he injured his back and underwent three major surgeries, leaving him bed-ridden for a year-and-a-half. After recovering from the injury, he played supporting roles in Paasamalargal, the following year, he had his breakthrough with the romantic thriller Aasai. His performance earned him acclaim and established him as an up-and-coming actor in Tamil cinema. He was next seen as the lead in Agathiyans epistolary Kadhal Kottai. In 1997 he had five releases, all of which were commercial failures, Ajiths dual portrayal of twin brothers—where one is deaf-mute—in S. J. Suryas Vaali won him his first Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Actor. Impressed with his performance in film, Rajiv Menon cast Ajith in the ensemble drama Kandukondain Kandukondain. The following year, he collaborated with debutant director AR Murugadoss on the action film Dheena, the film was successful in establishing his reputation as an action hero and earning him the nickname Thala. He earned critical acclaim for his dual role performance in the vigilante film Citizen, and his last release of the year was Santosh Sivans Hindi film Aśoka, where he played a brief antagonistic role opposite Shah Rukh Khan. His performance as twin brothers in K. S. Ravikumars 2002 film Villain won him a second Filmfare Award, between 2003 and 2005 Ajith cut back on his acting career to focus on racing. During this time, he had his only commercial success with Attahasam, two years later he starred in Ravikumars Varalaru, in which he played three different roles. It became the highest-grossing Tamil film of year, and Ajith went on to receive his third Filmfare Award for his performance. In 2007 he was seen in two remakes—Kireedam and Billa, both of which earned him critical acclaim and his next two releases, Aegan and Aasal, were critical and commercial failures. Ajith played an antihero—as a money-minded, suspended police officer—in Venkat Prabhus Mankatha and it had the biggest opening of that year for a Tamil film, and became Ajiths biggest commercial success to that point. His next release, Billa II, Tamil cinemas first prequel and he followed that with the multi-starrer Arrambam and Sivas masala film Veeram, both of which were commercially successfulAjith Kumar filmography – Ajith Kumar in 2010
136. Alfred Hitchcock filmography – Alfred Hitchcock was an English director and filmmaker. His directorial debut was the 1925 release The Pleasure Garden, Hitchcock followed this with The Lodger, A Story of the London Fog, his first commercial and critical success. It featured many of the thematic elements his films would be known for such as an innocent man on the run and it also featured the first of his famous cameo appearances. Two years later he directed Blackmail which was his first sound film, in 1935 Hitchcock directed The 39 Steps. Three years later he directed The Lady Vanishes starring Margaret Lockwood, in 1940 Hitchcock transitioned to Hollywood productions, the first of which was the psychological thriller Rebecca starring Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine. He received his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director, Hitchcock worked with Fontaine again the following year on the film Suspicion which also starred Cary Grant. In 1943 Hitchcock directed another psychological thriller Shadow of a Doubt which starred Teresa Wright, three years later he reunited with Grant on Notorious which also starred Ingrid Bergman. The film included a three minute intermittent kissing scene between the leads shot specifically to skirt the Motion Picture Production Code which at the time limited such scenes to three seconds, in 1948 Hitchcock directed Rope which starred James Stewart. The film was his first in Technicolor and is remembered for its use of long takes to make the film appear to be a continuous shot. Three years later he directed Strangers on a Train, Hitchcock collaborated with Grace Kelly on three films, Dial M for Murder, Rear Window and To Catch a Thief. For Rear Window, Hitchcock received a nomination for Best Director at the Academy Awards,1955 marked his debut on television as the host of the anthology television series Alfred Hitchcock Presents which he also produced. In 1958 Hitchcock directed the psychological thriller Vertigo starring Stewart and Kim Novak, the film topped the 2012 poll of the British film magazine Sight & Sound of the 50 Greatest Films of All Time and also topped the American Film Institutes Top Ten in the mystery genre. He followed this with the spy thriller North by Northwest which starred Grant, in 1960 he directed Psycho, the biggest commercial success of his career and for which he received his fifth nomination for Best Director at the Academy Awards. Three years later he directed horror film The Birds starring Tippi Hedren, the following year he reunited with Hedren on the film Marnie which also starred Sean Connery. He received two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame to acknowledge his film and television achievements, in 1980 Hitchcock received a knighthood. List of unproduced Hitchcock projects List of awards and nominations received by Alfred Hitchcock Alfred Hitchcock at the Internet Movie DatabaseAlfred Hitchcock filmography – Studio publicity photo of Hitchcock in 1955
137. Amy Adams filmography – Amy Adams is an American actress who made her film debut in the 1999 black comedy Drop Dead Gorgeous. She went on to guest star in a variety of shows, including That 70s Show, Charmed, Buffy the Vampire Slayer. In 2002, she had her first major role in Steven Spielbergs biographical crime drama Catch Me If You Can, however, the film did not launch her career as Spielberg had hoped. Three years later, she made the breakthrough with the comedy-drama Junebug, Adams also appeared in the romantic comedy The Wedding Date that same year. In 2007, she starred in the Disney romantic comedy Enchanted, for which she won the Saturn Award for Best Actress, and was nominated for her first Golden Globe Award for Best Actress. She then starred in the comedy-drama Julie & Julia opposite Streep, the following year, she featured in David O. Russells biographical sports drama The Fighter, which garnered her a third nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She next starred in the musical comedy The Muppets, and in 2012, she appeared in Paul Thomas Andersons drama The Master, opposite Hoffman and her performance in the latter earned her a fourth Best Supporting Actress nomination at the Academy Awards. Adams had three releases in 2013. She played Lois Lane in the superhero film Man of Steel, reunited with Phoenix on the science fiction comedy-drama Her, for the last of these, she won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress and received her first Academy Award for Best Actress nomination. In 2014, Adams starred in the drama Lullaby, and portrayed American artist Margaret Keane in Tim Burtons comedy-drama Big Eyes, for the latter, she garnered a second consecutive Golden Globe Award for Best Actress, becoming the fourth actress to achieve this feat. In 2016, she reprised her role of Lane in Batman v Superman, Dawn of Justice, in the same year, Adams garnered critical acclaim for her performances in the science fiction drama Arrival and the psychological thriller Nocturnal Animals. List of awards and nominations received by Amy Adams Amy Adams filmography at the Internet Movie DatabaseAmy Adams filmography – Adams attending the Toronto International Film Festival in 2012
138. List of accolades received by An Education – An Education is a 2009 coming-of-age drama film directed by Lone Scherfig and written by Nick Hornby. It is based on the memoirs of the name by British journalist Lynn Barber. The film premiered on 18 January 2009 at the Sundance Film Festival, an Education earned over $26 million in its combined total gross at the box office. The film received three Academy Award nominations, but failed to win any, at the 63rd British Academy Film Awards An Education came away with one award from nine nominations. Mulligan was named Best Actress at the British Independent Film Awards, an Education received one nomination, Best Actress in a Drama Motion Picture, from the 67th Golden Globe Awards. Mulligan earned two awards for her performance at the Hollywood Film Festival and Houston Film Critics Society—Breakthrough Actress, an Education won Best Film from both the Sundance Film and Mill Valley Film Festivals, it would later go on to win Best Foreign Film at the Independent Spirit Awards. Four members of the cast were nominated for awards at the London Film Critics Circle, along with the film, Hornby subsequently received eleven more nominations for his work on the screenplay. The 16th Screen Actors Guild Awards saw the films cast earn a nomination for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture, the films music, costume, and hair and make-up also earned four nominations among them. Awards for An Education at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by An Education – Director Lone Scherfig at the Toronto International Film Festival
139. List of accolades received by The Artist (film) – The Artist is a 2011 French romantic comedy–drama film directed by Michel Hazanavicius, starring Jean Dujardin and Bérénice Bejo. The film is set in Hollywood between 1927 and 1932 and focuses on a film star and a rising actress, as silent cinema falls out of fashion and is replaced by the talkies. The film premiered at the 64th Cannes Film Festival on 15 May 2011 and it was released in France on 12 October 2011. The film earned a box office total of more than $133 million. Rotten Tomatoes, an aggregator, surveyed 275 reviews and judged 97% to be positive. The Artist became the most honoured French film in history, the film garnered several awards and nominations with particular praise for the direction, the acting of its cast, the screenplay, the score, the cinematography, the editing, and the costumes. The film garnered ten nominations at the 84th Academy Awards, and went on to win five awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Actor. It is the first silent feature to win Best Picture after Wings at the ceremony in 1929. Dujardin became the first French actor to win an Oscar, the film was named Best Feature at the 27th Independent Spirit Awards. It received twelve nominations at the 65th British Academy Film Awards, winning seven awards, including Best Film, Best Director, at the 37th César Awards ceremony, the film earned six awards, including Best Film and Best Actress. At the 18th Screen Actors Guild Awards, Dujardin won the award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role. The film won the Best Theatrical Motion Picture at the 23rd Producers Guild of America Awards, the 17th Critics Choice Awards, 77th New York Film Critics Circle Awards, and the 32nd London Film Critics Circle Awards named the film Best Picture. 2011 in film List of Academy Award records Awards for The Artist at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by The Artist (film) – Jean Dujardin received many awards and nominations for his performance in the film.
140. List of accolades received by Avatar (2009 film) – Avatar is a 2009 American science fiction film written and directed by James Cameron. Avatar grossed $2.7 billion worldwide, to become the film of all time, as well as in the United States. It also became the first film to more than $2 billion worldwide. Avatar was well received by critics, and accumulated an approval rating of 83% on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. Avatar won the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography, and Best Visual Effects, the film garnered four nominations at the 67th Golden Globe Awards ceremony, and received two awards for Best Film – Drama and Best Director. Avatar was nominated for eight British Academy Film Awards, winning Best Production Design, the films achievement in visual effects were praised by the Visual Effects Society, who honored it with six accolades during their annual awards ceremony. Avatar was also nominated for the Directors Guild of America Awards, the Producers Guild of America Awards, the film was nominated for ten Saturn Awards and it went on to win all ten at the 36th Saturn Awards ceremony. Zoe Saldanas win for the Saturn Award for Best Actress marked a rare occurrence for an all-CG character, Avatar received recognition from numerous North American critics associations. The film garnered nine nominations for the Critics Choice Awards of the Broadcast Film Critics Association where it won Best Action Film, the Austin Film Critics Association and the Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association placed the film on their lists of the years top ten films. According to park officials, photographs from the park became a source of inspiration for the floating Hallelujah Mountains seen in Avatar, official website Awards for Avatar at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Avatar (2009 film) – Writer, producer, and director of Avatar, James Cameron
141. Amitabh Bachchan filmography – Amitabh Bachchan is an Indian film actor, playback singer, producer and television personality. He made his debut in 1969 with Saat Hindustani. He later appeared as Dr. Bhaskar Banerjee in Hrishikesh Mukherjees Anand, in 1973, Bachchan played the role of Inspector Vijay Khanna in Prakash Mehras action film Zanjeer. He has since appeared in films with the character name Vijay. The same year, he appeared in Abhimaan and Namak Haraam, for the latter, he received the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor. Two years later he appeared along with Shashi Kapoor, in Yash Chopras Deewar and he was cited as the angry young man for his roles in Deewaar and Zanjeer. Later he starred in Ramesh Sippys Sholay, which is considered to be one of the greatest Indian films of all time, after appearing in the romantic drama Kabhie Kabhie, Bachchan starred in Manmohan Desais action comedy Amar Akbar Anthony. He won the Filmfare Award for Best Actor for his performance in the latter and he then played dual roles of Don and Vijay in Don. In the 1980s, Bachchan was cast in films, including the action films, Dostana, Shaan and Kaalia, the romantic film Silsila. His roles in Dostana and Shakti earned him the nominations for the Filmfare Award for Best Actor and he suffered a near-fatal injury while shooting for Coolie. He returned to the screen after a five-year absence with the box-office success Shahenshah, in 1990, Bachchan played the role of gangster Vijay Deenanath Chauhan in Mukul S. Anands Agneepath and later starred in Hum. Despite being a failure, the former garnered him the National Film Award for Best Actor and has since developed a cult status. He also earned the Filmfare Award for Best Actor for Hum, in 1996, he started his film production company Amitabh Bachchan Corporation whose first release Tere Mere Sapne was a box-office failure. In 2000, Bachchan appeared in a role in Aditya Chopras Mohabbatein. It won him the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor, the same year, he made his television debut as the host of the game show Kaun Banega Crorepati. He has since hosted its every season except for the third one and he then went on to play the roles of a short-tempered banker in Aankhen, a disillusioned father in Baghban, and a conflicted cop in Khakee. In 2005, he played the role of a teacher of a blind and deaf girl in Sanjay Leela Bhansalis Black, for which he received the National Award and he received another National Award for Best Actor for playing a progeria patient in R. Balkis Paa. He also portrayed the character of a friendly ghost in Bhoothnath, and its sequel Bhoothnath ReturnsAmitabh Bachchan filmography – Studio publicity photograph of Bachchan in 2009
142. List of accolades received by Black Swan – Black Swan is a 2010 independent psychological thriller film directed by Darren Aronofsky. It premiered as the film for the 67th Venice International Film Festival. The film had a release in selected cities in North America on December 3. After Black Swans opening weekend it grossed over $1.4 million, averaging around $80,200 per theater, when Black Swan finished its worldwide theatrical run, it had achieved blockbuster status with ticket revenue amounting to more than $325 million. Critics appreciated the film, with review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reporting a rating of 88 percent. The film was submitted for consideration for the Best Film Golden Lion at Venices International Film Festival, mila Kunis was later given the Emerging Performer award for her portrayal of Ninas rival Lily, at the same ceremony. Darren Arnonofsky also earned a nomination from the Directors Guild of America for Outstanding Achievement in Feature Film and he was also named Best Director by the San Diego Film Critics Society and San Francisco Film Critics Circle Awards. Natalie Portman has won a majority of the awards given to actresses for a leading 2010 film role. Out of the four nominations received from the 68th Golden Globe Awards, its only win was Best Actress in a motion picture. It also received five Academy Award nominations, which included Best Picture, Best Actress, Best Director, Best Cinematography and Best Film Editing, Of those, its sole win was for Best Actress. More recognition for the film came from the Screen Actors Guild at their 17th annual ceremony, a kiss shared between Kunis and Portman in Black Swan was nominated at the viewer-voted MTV Movie Awards and Teen Choice Awards. Black Swan swept the Austin Film Critics Association and Independent Spirit Awards, winning five, the film also won three awards at both the New York Film Critics Awards and the Oklahoma Film Critics Awards, and received a record 12 Broadcast Film Critics Association nominations. At the latter, the film was nominated in different categories, ranging from its production design, to costumes. Black Swan performed similarly at the 64th British Academy Film Awards, again with 12 nominations, another organization to laud the film with the same amount of nominations was the Alliance of Women Film Journalists. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the awards held that year,2010 in film Black Swan dance double controversy General Specific Official website Awards for Black Swan at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Black Swan – Natalie Portman gained much attention from critics and audiences, and won several acting awards.
143. Brad Pitt filmography – Brad Pitt is an American actor and film producer, whose acting career began in 1987 with uncredited roles in the films No Way Out and Less Than Zero. He subsequently appeared in episodes for shows during the late 1980s. He gained recognition in Thelma & Louise and A River Runs Through It, Pitt featured in the David Fincher-directed, commercially successful thriller Seven, in which he played a detective on the trail of a psychopathic serial killer. The role of a patient in the science fiction film 12 Monkeys earned him the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. He followed it with the role of Heinrich Harrer in the biopic Seven Years in Tibet, Pitt reteamed with Fincher to star in the apocalyptic film Fight Club in a role that required him learn boxing, taekwondo, and grappling. A critical and commercial success, the film has developed a cult status. Pitt portrayed Rusty Ryan in the successful heist film series Oceans Trilogy. In 2002, he earned a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for his guest appearance in the sitcom Friends, also that year, Pitt started a production company, Plan B Entertainment, whose first release was the epic war film Troy, starring Pitt. He played an assassin opposite Angelina Jolie in the successful action comedy Mr. & Mrs. Smith. Pitt produced the 2006 crime drama The Departed, and acted alongside Cate Blanchett in the multi-narrative drama Babel, pitts portrayal of the eponymous man who ages in reverse in the drama The Curious Case of Benjamin Button earned him an Academy Award for Best Actor nomination. He starred in the war film Inglourious Basterds, and produced the superhero film Kick-Ass. He also garnered a Best Actor nomination for the latter and his biggest commercial success came with the apocalyptic film World War Z, which has grossed a total of $540 million worldwide. Pitt produced the period drama 12 Years a Slave, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Picture, in 2014, he starred in the war film Fury which received positive reviews from critics and proved to be successful at the box office. List of awards and nominations received by Brad Pitt Brad Pitt filmography at the Internet Movie DatabaseBrad Pitt filmography – Brad Pitt at the premiere of Fury in Washington D.C
144. List of accolades received by Brokeback Mountain – Brokeback Mountain is a 2005 American epic romantic drama film directed by Ang Lee. Based on the story of the same name by author Annie Proulx. The film depicts the emotional and sexual relationship between two men, Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist in the American West between 1963 and 1983. Michelle Williams, Anne Hathaway, Linda Cardellini, Randy Quaid, Anna Faris, Brokeback Mountain premiered at the Venice International Film Festival, where it won the Golden Lion. Focus Features gave the film a release on December 9,2005 before a wide release on January 13,2006. The film grossed $178 million worldwide on a budget of $14 million. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes surveyed 234 reviews and judged 87% of them to be positive, Brokeback Mountain garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories, including for its directing, screenplay, acting, original score, and cinematography. At the 78th Academy Awards, Brokeback Mountain was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the film garnered seven nominations at the 63rd Golden Globe Awards, winning four for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Song, and Best Screenplay. However, Roger Ebert argued that claims of foul play were unjustified,2005 in film Brokeback Mountain Brokeback Mountain Accolades for Brokeback Mountain at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Brokeback Mountain – Ang Lee received many awards for his work on the film, including the Golden Lion and the Academy Award for Best Director.
145. James Cameron filmography – James Cameron is a Canadian director, screenwriter, and producer who has had an extensive career in film and television. Camerons debut was the 1978 science fiction short Xenogenesis, which he directed, wrote, in the early part of his career, he did various technical jobs such as special visual effects producer, set dresser assistant, matte artist, and photographer. His feature directorial debut was the 1981 release Piranha II, The Spawning, the next film he directed was the science fiction action thriller The Terminator. It starred Arnold Schwarzenegger as the cyborg assassin, and was Camerons breakthrough feature. In 1986, he directed and wrote the science fiction action sequel Aliens starring Sigourney Weaver and he followed this by directing another science fiction film The Abyss. In 1991, Cameron directed the sequel to The Terminator, Terminator 2, Judgment Day, three years later he directed a third Schwarzenegger-starring action film True Lies. In 1997, Cameron directed, wrote, and produced the epic disaster film Titanic which grossed over $1.84 billion at the worldwide box-office. He received the Academy Award for Best Director, the Academy Award for Best Film Editing and it had a total of 14 Oscar nominations and won 11. Cameron also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director and shared the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama with the other producers and he followed this by directing, and producing two underwater documentaries, Ghosts of the Abyss, and Aliens of the Deep. He returned to directing features in 2009 with the 3D science fiction film Avatar and it grossed over $2.78 billion at the worldwide box-office and became the highest grossing of all time breaking the record set by Titanic, and still holds this record as of 2014. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards and won three in technical categories, Cameron also earned a second Golden Globe Award for Best Director, and Best Motion Picture – Drama. He followed this by producing two 3D films, Sanctum and Cirque du Soleil, Worlds Away, as well as the documentary Deepsea Challenge 3D. Cameron made his debut in 1998 playing himself in the sitcom Mad About You. Two years later he produced the science fiction television series Dark Angel starring Jessica Alba. In 2005, he appeared in two documentaries about the sinking of the RMS Titanic, Last Mysteries of the Titanic, and he also made appearances as himself on the comedy-drama television series Entourage that same year. Cameron followed this by producing two biblical documentaries, The Exodus Decoded and Lost Tomb of Jesus. He executive produced and appeared in a third Titanic related documentary, Titanic, Final Word with James Cameron, James Cameron filmography at the Internet Movie DatabaseJames Cameron filmography – Cameron speaking at the Hollywood Walk of Fame awarding ceremony of producer Gale Anne Hurd in 2012
146. Carry On series on screen and stage – The Carry On series is a long-running British sequence of comedy films, stage shows and television programmes produced between 1958 and 1992. Distributed by Anglo-Amalgamated from 1958 to 1966, and the Rank Organisation from 1967 to 1978, the series humour relied largely on innuendo and double entendre. There were thirty-one films, three Christmas specials, one series of thirteen episodes, and three West End and provincial stage plays, all made on time and to a strict budget. Peter Rogers and Gerald Thomas were the sole producer and director respectively. They mostly employed the same crew and a group of actors. The Carry Ons comprise the largest number of films of any British series and, between 1958 and 1992, there were seven writers, principally Norman Hudis and Talbot Rothwell. The films were scored by three different composers, Bruce Montgomery from 1958–62, Eric Rogers and Max Harris who scored the 1976 film Carry On England. In 1969 the UK television channel ITV televised a Christmas special recorded by Thames Television, entitled Carry On Christmas, subsequent Christmas specials were recorded in 1972 and 1973. In 1975 a 13-episode television series was commissioned by ATV for ITV, Carry On Laughing ran for two seasons, with six half-hour episodes in season one and seven in season two. The writer Penelope Gilliatt wrote, The usual charge to make against the Carry On films is to say that they could be so much better done. They look dreadful, they seem to be edited with a slicer, the effects are perfunctory. But if all things were more elegant I dont really think the films would be more enjoyable. The Carry On Book of Statistics, the Official Carry On Facts, Figures and Statistics. Mr Carry On – The Life & Work of Peter Rogers, keeping the British End Up – Four Decades of Saucy Cinema. Carry On Films at The Whippit Inn What a Carry On Carry On Forever Carry on Films at IMDbCarry On series on screen and stage – The 2003 DVD logo depicting some of the actors from the series: from left to right; Bernard Bresslaw, Kenneth Williams, Joan Sims, Sid James, Hattie Jacques, Jim Dale, Barbara Windsor and Charles Hawtrey
147. Citra Award for Best Director – The Citra Award for Best Director is an award given at the Indonesian Film Festival to Indonesian film directors in recognition for their achievements. Initially winners were selected from all entries by a jury, since 1986 the shortlist has remained at five selections. The Citra Awards, then known as the Indonesian Film Festival Awards, were first given at the IFF in early 1955, the festival was then held intermittently, in 1960 and 1967. In 1973 the festival began to be held annually and this continued uninterrupted until after the 1992 IFF, when a sharp decline in film production led the festival to be discontinued. It was reinstated as an event in 2004, after receiving funds from the Indonesian government. The most recent winner is Riri Riza, who won a Citra Award at the 2016 IFF for his direction of Athirah, a total of 58 directors have been nominated for a Citra Award,22 of whom have won at least one. As of 2012 all recipients have been men, although female directors have competed since Ida Farida received a nomination in 1989 for her romance Semua Sayang Kamu. The most recognised director at the IFF has been Teguh Karya, four other directors have won multiple Citra Awards, Arifin C. Noer, Hanung Bramantyo, Sjumandjaja, and Slamet Rahardjo, three directors have received three nominations without winning. The award has been revoked once, in 2007, after Nayato Fio Nualas Ekskul was found to have violated copyright by reusing music from foreign films without permissionCitra Award for Best Director – Eros Djarot won a Citra Award for Tjoet Nja' Dhien.
148. Citra Award for Best Leading Actress – The Citra Award for Best Leading Actress is an award given at the Indonesian Film Festival to Indonesian actresses for their achievements in lead roles. The Citra Awards, described by Screen International as Indonesias equivalent to the Oscars, are the countrys most prestigious film awards and they are intended to recognise Indonesian achievements in film and draw the publics interest to the cinema industry. The Citra Awards, then known as the Indonesian Film Festival Awards, were first given at the IFF in early 1955, succeeding festivals were held in 1960 and 1967. From 1973 the IFF was held annually and this continued uninterrupted until after the 1992 IFF, when a sharp decline in film production led the festival to be discontinued. It was reinstated as an event in 2004, after receiving funds from the Indonesian government. The most recent winner is Tara Basro, who won a Citra Award at the 2015 IFF for her acting in A Copy of My Mind, a total of 74 actresses have been nominated for a Citra Award,24 of whom have won at least one. Four other actresses have won multiple Citra Awards, Jenny Rachman, Lydia Kandou, Meriam Bellina, Mieke Wijaya, noer, Nurul Arifin, Paramitha Rusady, and Zoraya Perucha – have received three nominations without winning. Four films have seen multiple cast members receive nominations, of these, only Mengejar Mas-Mas earned a win, with Dinna Olivia receiving the awardCitra Award for Best Leading Actress – Fifi Young won one of the inaugural Citra Awards for Best Actress.
149. Citra Award for Best Supporting Actress – The Citra Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award given at the Indonesian Film Festival to Indonesian actresses for their achievements in supporting roles. The Citra Awards, described by Screen International as Indonesias equivalent to the Oscars, are the countrys most prestigious film awards and they are intended to recognise Indonesian achievements in film and draw the publics interest to the cinema industry. Since 1986 the shortlist has remained at five selections, the Citra Awards, then known as the Indonesian Film Festival Awards, were first given at the IFF in early 1955, that years Best Supporting Actress was Endang Kusdiningsih for her role in Tarmina. Succeeding festivals were held in 1960 and 1967, from 1973 the IFF was held annually. This continued uninterrupted until after the 1992 IFF, when a decline in film production led the festival to be discontinued. It was reinstated as an event in 2004, after receiving funds from the Indonesian government. The most recent winner is Christine Hakim, who won a Citra Award at the 2015 IFF for her acting in Pendekar Tongkat Emas, a total of 68 actresses have been nominated for a Citra Award,26 of whom have won at least one. The most recognised actress at the IFF has been Nani Wijaya, only one other actress, Niniek L. Karim, has won multiple Citra Awards, whilst Rina Hasyim and Rima Melati have received at least five nominations. Seven films have seen multiple cast members receive nominations, four of which earned a win. As of 2013 Shanty is the actress to receive more than one nomination in a single year, in the 2007 ceremony she was nominated for her performances in Kala and MaafCitra Award for Best Supporting Actress – Endang Kusdiningsih won the award in 1955.
150. David Lynch filmography – David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, television director, visual artist, musician and occasional actor. Known for his surrealist films, he has developed his own cinematic style which has been dubbed Lynchian and is characterized by its dream imagery. The surreal and, in cases, violent elements to his films have earned them the reputation that they disturb. Lynchs first project was the 1967 short Six Men Getting Sick and his first feature-length project, 1977s Eraserhead, became a cult film and launched his commercial career. It also marked his first collaboration with Jack Nance, an actor who would appear in more of Lynchs productions until his death in 1996. Lynchs other feature films include the critically successful The Elephant Man, Blue Velvet and Mulholland Drive, all of which went on to earn Academy Award nominations, Lynch has also branched out into television, and later, internet-based series. His first foray into the medium was Twin Peaks, a joint venture with Mark Frost, Twin Peaks became a cult success, leading to Lynch and Frost working together on a number of other projects, including On the Air, and American Chronicles. In 2002 Lynch began producing two series of shorts released through his official website—the Flash-animated DumbLand, and Rabbits, having begun acting in his 1972 short The Amputee, Lynch went on to appear on-camera in Twin Peaks, Zelly and Me and Dune. From 2007, Lynch has appeared in a voice role in the animated series The Cleveland Show. Barney, Richard A. David Lynch, Interviews, talent Is An Asset, The Story of Sparks. David Lynch at the Internet Movie DatabaseDavid Lynch filmography – Lynch, speaking in 2007
151. Dhanush filmography – Dhanush is an Indian film actor, producer, lyricist and singer known for his work in Tamil cinema. He made his debut in 2002 with the coming of age drama, Thulluvadho Ilamai. His role as a man in Kaadhal Kondein —directed by his brother Selvaraghavan—won him critical acclaim. The following year, he starred in Subramaniam Sivas Thiruda Thirudi and this was followed by a series of commercial failures—Pudhukottaiyilirundhu Saravanan, Sullan and Dreams. He had two releases in 2005—Devathayai Kanden and Adhu Oru Kana Kaalam, the former was a financial success, and the latter brought him critical acclaim. In 2006, Dhanush starred in the mob film Pudhupettai, which was critically acclaimed and he next collaborated with debutant director Vetrimaaran in Polladhavan. Based on the Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves, it was critically acclaimed and his subsequent releases—Yaaradi Nee Mohini and Padikkadavan—were box-office successes. He collaborated with Vetrimaaran for the time in Aadukalam. His role as a rooster fight jockey in the film won him that years National Film Award for Best Actor, the following year, he received international attention with the song Why This Kolaveri Di, which was recorded for Aishwarya R. Dhanushs directorial debut 3. His role as a man who is suffering from bipolar disorder in the film won him his second Filmfare Award, Dhanush made his Bollywood debut with Anand L Rais Raanjhanaa. His performance as an obsessive one-sided lover in the film won him the Best Male Debut Award, the same year he was seen in the survival film Maryan, which won him Best Actor at the 61st Filmfare Awards South. In 2014, he produced and starred in cinematographer Velrajs directorial debut, Velaiilla Pattadhari and his performance as an unemployed graduate won critical acclaim and a third Filmfare Award in the Best Tamil Actor category. He co-starred with Amitabh Bachchan in R. Balkis Shamitabh, where he played a mute superstar and he played three roles in K. V. Anands romantic thriller Anegan, a moderate success. He followed that with Maari, a critical and commercial failure, and Thanga Magan, Dhanush had two releases in 2016—Prabhu Solomons Thodari, a critical and commercial failure, and the political thriller Kodi, where he played dual roles. All films are in Tamil, unless otherwise noted, wunderbar Films List of awards and nominations received by Dhanush Dhanush filmography at the Internet Movie DatabaseDhanush filmography – Dhanush in 2010
152. Madhuri Dixit filmography – Madhuri Dixit is an Indian actress known for her work in Bollywood films. She made her debut with the role of a young bride in the 1984 film Abodh. Dixit went on to appear in films over the next two years, including the dramas Awara Baap and Swati, though none of them garnered her much recognition. Her breakthrough role came in 1988 with N. Chandras thriller Tezaab, ek Do Teen, a dance number that she performed in the film, was widely popular. She continued to play the lead in the commercially successful action-dramas Ram Lakhan, Tridev, the role of a wealthy brat in the 1990 romantic drama Dil earned Dixit her first Filmfare Award for Best Actress. The following year, she starred in Saajan, and won a second Best Actress award at Filmfare for playing a woman who rebels against her manipulative mother-in-law in the drama Beta. Dixit featured alongside Jackie Shroff and Sanjay Dutt in the action thriller Khalnayak and she then played an avenger in the drama Anjaam to positive reviews. Dixits subsequent release was Sooraj Barjatyas Hum Aapke Hain Koun, a family drama which emerged as the highest-grossing Bollywood film to that point, and established her as a leading actress of Bollywood. The following year, she featured in Raja and Yaraana, in the latter she played a woman who attempts an escape from her abusive husband, both of her releases in 1996—Rajkumar and Prem Granth—were financial failures. However, Yash Chopras 1997 romantic film Dil To Pagal Hai was a success for her. She garnered critical acclaim for her work in the drama Mrityudand, three years later, she was paired opposite Anil Kapoor in the critically acclaimed drama Pukar, following which she portrayed five roles in the experimental film Gaja Gamini. Dixit was praised for her role as a woman fighting against gender discrimination in Lajja, a drama on womens rights. The year 2002 saw Dixit starring in two dramas, including Devdas opposite Shah Rukh Khan, in which she played the Chandramukhi character. For the film, she won a Filmfare Award in the Best Supporting Actress category, after a five-year absence from the screen, Dixit played a leading role in Anil Mehtas dance film Aaja Nachle. Despite the films failure at the box-office, her performance was praised and she followed it by playing the leader of a vigilante group in the crime drama Gulaab Gang alongside Juhi Chawla. List of awards and nominations received by Madhuri Dixit Madhuri Dixit at the Internet Movie DatabaseMadhuri Dixit filmography – Madhuri Dixit at the audio release of Dedh Ishqiya
153. James Franco filmography – James Franco is an American actor who started his career by appearing in an episode of the television series Pacific Blue. He landed his role in the comedy-drama television series Freaks and Geeks. After his film debut in Never Been Kissed, Franco won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Film for playing the actor in the 2001 television biopic James Dean. He went on to play Harry Osborn in the superhero film Spider-Man, for the last of the three, he garnered a nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor. His only screen appearance of 2003 was in the ballet film The Company, Franco directed and starred in the comedy The Ape. After playing the role in the romantic drama Tristan & Isolde. Two years later, he played against type in the action-comedy film Pineapple Express, for the former, he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Comedy. Franco portrayed the trapped canyoneer Aron Ralston in 127 Hours, a survival drama, Franco appeared in four films in 2011, including the poorly-received fantasy film Your Highness, and the science fiction film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a critical and commercial success. Franco had six roles in 2012 none of which had much success except the crime-comedy film Spring Breakers, in which he played a gangster to highly positive reviews. The following year, Franco played the role in the fantasy film Oz the Great and Powerful. For the first one, he was nominated for the Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actor - Fantasy, also in 2013, he directed and starred in the drama As I Lay Dying. He starred in the action thriller Good People, an adaptation of Marcus Sakeys 2008 novel of the same name, in the 2014 controversial satirical comedy The Interview, he was seen as a journalist instructed to assassinate a North Korean leader. He had nine film releases in 2015, most of which failed financially except the animated film The Little Prince, James Franco at the Internet Movie DatabaseJames Franco filmography – James Franco at the premier of the film Spider-Man 3 (2007)
154. List of awards and honors received by Judy Garland – Judy Garland received numerous awards and honors during her 40-year career. Garland won or was nominated for awards for her work in pictures, television, music recording. She was twice nominated for an Academy Award and was awarded a special Academy Juvenile Award in 1940, Garland won two Grammy Awards for her concert album Judy at Carnegie Hall. Garland has also received a number of awards and honors. She was the recipient of a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame and she has twice been honored on United States postage stamps and has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are presented annually by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts, Garland was nominated for two competitive awards and was the recipient of an Academy Juvenile Award. Garland won one award and was nominated for a second. The Grammy Awards are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts, Garland won two Grammys during her lifetime, and was posthumously awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award. Judy at Carnegie Hall won two more Grammys, for Best Engineering Contribution – Popular Recording and Best Album Cover—Non-Classical. The Grammy Hall of Fame Award is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old, as of 2011 six of Garlands recordings have received the award. The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences honors national prime time television entertainment, Garland was nominated for three Emmys. Judy Garland won a Special Tony Award in 1952 for her contributions to the revival of Vaudeville with her record-breaking 19-week stand at the Palace Theatre in New York City, since 1975, Garlands birthplace of Grand Rapids, Minnesota has held a yearly Judy Garland Festival in June. Her children Lorna and Joey Luft were in attendance, also in 1975, The Judy Garland Museum opened in Grand Rapids. The museum, dedicated to honoring Garlands talent and legacy, is supported in part by the Judy Garland Heirs Trust and has the personal support of all of Garlands children. Garlands childhood home in Grand Rapids opened to the public in 1995, the museum claims to hold the largest collection of Judy Garland memorabilia in the world. Garland has twice honored with commemorative postage stamps. These 25¢ stamps featured four films, The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, Stagecoach, the post office issued a stamp in 2006 honoring Garland in the Legends of Hollywood series. The stamp depicts Garland as Vicki Lester from A Star Is Born and was painted by illustrator Tim OBrienList of awards and honors received by Judy Garland – Judy Garland as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz, one of her two 1939 films for which she received an Academy Juvenile Award
155. George Formby on screen, stage, record and radio – The English comic, singer and actor George Formby performed in many mediums of light entertainment, including film, radio and theatre. His career spanned from 1915 until December 1960, during that time he became synonymous with playing a shy, innocent, gauche, accident-prone Lancashire lad. Formby began his life as a jockey but always held an ambition to become a performer. In 1915, against the wishes of his father, Formby made his debut in the film By the Shortest of Heads. Upon his fathers death in 1921, he began to build a performing career. In 1926 he began his career, singing light, comical songs. From 1934 he increasingly worked in film, and had become a star by the 1930s and 40s. He appeared on television for the first time in 1938 in the festive special Christmas Greetings and he became the UKs highest-paid entertainer during those decades. The film historian Brian McFarlane writes that Formby portrayed essentially gormless incompetents, and even more improbably to a middle-class girlfriend, usually in the clutches of some caddish type with a moustache. Invariably he scored on both counts, Formby appeared in his final film role in 1946, the commercially unsuccessful George in Civvy Street. He toured Canada, Australia, South Africa and Sweden and appeared on local and national radio during his travels. He continued to record songs and appear on television into the 1950s, on 16 December 1960 he appeared in The Friday Show and his biographer, David Bret, observes that the show is generally regarded as Georges greatest performance—it was certainly his most sincere. Formby died of an attack in 1961. Formby appeared on stage in numerous variety and music hall performances, although no full record existsGeorge Formby on screen, stage, record and radio – Formby entertaining British troops during the Second World War
156. Gerard Butler filmography – The Scottish actor Gerard Butler has been in numerous films and television series since his on-screen debut in 1997s Mrs Brown. After taking minor roles in such as the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies. Then he was cast as Erik, The Phantom in Joel Schumachers 2004 film adaptation of the musical The Phantom of the Opera alongside Emmy Rossum and it earning him a MTV Movie Award for Best Fight and an Empire Award for Best Actor nomination. That same year, Butler starred in the drama film P. S. I Love You with Hilary Swank and he played military leader Tullus Aufidius in the 2011 film Coriolanus, the modernised adaptation of Shakespeares tragedy of the same name. He also portrayed Sam Childers in the 2011 action biopic Machine Gun Preacher, in 2012, Butler co-starred in the biographical drama film Chasing Mavericks with Jonny Weston, and the romantic comedy film Playing for Keeps with Jessica Biel. Butler made his debut in 1998s The Young Persons Guide to Becoming a Rock Star. In the 2001 miniseries Attila, Butler took the role. Gerard Butler at the Internet Movie DatabaseGerard Butler filmography – At the 2011 Berlin International Film Festival
157. Mel Gibson filmography – Mel Gibson, AO is an American actor, director, producer and screenwriter who made his acting debut on the Australian television drama series The Sullivans. Gibson became a part of the Australian New Wave cinema movement in the early 1980s having starred in his role in George Millers dystopian action Mad Max. He reprised the role in its sequels, Mad Max 2 and he starred in Peter Weirs war drama Gallipoli and the romantic drama The Year of Living Dangerously. Gibson starred in Franco Zeffirellis Hamlet in 1990, as the character of William Shakespeares tragedy of the same name. It was the first film produced by Icon Productions, a company he co-founded alongside Bruce Davey. Gibsons directorial debut was The Man Without a Face, an adaptation of Isabelle Hollands novel of the same name, two years later he directed and produced Braveheart, an epic historical drama in which he also portrayed Sir William Wallace, a 13th century Scottish knight. The film earned him a Golden Globe Award for Best Director, Gibson went on to star in Ransom, Payback, What Women Want and The Patriot, and We Were Soldiers. Gibson directed, co-wrote and produced The Passion of the Christ in 2004, upon its release, the film received mixed reviews from critics and was criticized for its graphic violence and alleged undertones of antisemitism. Nevertheless, it amassed $370.3 million in the United States and $611.4 million worldwide, making it Gibsons highest-grossing film to date. Two years later he directed, co-wrote and produced Apocalypto, an adventure set in Central America depicting the final days of the Maya civilization before Spanish arrival in the 16th century. Gibson subsequently took a hiatus from directing during which time he landed roles in Edge of Darkness, Machete Kills, The Expendables 3. Gibson directed Hacksaw Ridge in 2016, a war drama focusing on American World War II veteran Desmond Doss. The film received praise from critics and audiences alike, as well as several awards, mel Gibson at the Internet Movie DatabaseMel Gibson filmography – Gibson at the 1990 Air America premiere
158. Grammy Award for Best Music Video – Originally called the Grammy Award for Best Video, Short Form, the award was first presented in 1984, as was a similar award for Best Long Form Music Video. From 1986 to 1997, the name was changed to Best Music Video. However, in 1988 and 1989, the criteria were changed. The awards were returned to the format in 1990. The category was called Best Short Form Music Video until 2014, Award recipients include the performers, directors, and producers associated with the winning videos. Johnny Cash, Peter Gabriel, Janet Jackson, and Michael Jackson hold the record for the most wins as a performer in this category, mark Romanek holds the record for the most wins as a director, with a total of three. Icelandic singer Björk holds the record for the most nominations as a performer without a win, ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year. ^ Director are only indicated if they were presented a Grammy Award. ^ Award was not presented. Music video categories presented this year included Best Concept Music Video, latin Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video List of Grammy Award categories List of most expensive music videos One shot Official website of the Grammy AwardsGrammy Award for Best Music Video – Two-time award winner Michael Jackson. Jackson was also a member of USA for Africa and was highly involved in the " We Are the World " project
159. List of accolades received by Haider (film) – Haider is a 2014 Indian crime-drama film directed by Vishal Bhardwaj, and produced by Bhardwaj and Siddharth Roy Kapur. The film stars Shahid Kapoor as the eponymous protagonist, and co-stars Tabu, Kay Kay Menon, Shraddha Kapoor, Bhardwaj wrote the dialogues for the film, and co-wrote the screenplay with Basharat Peer. Bhardwaj also composed the music and Gulzar wrote the lyrics, the film is a modern-day adaptation of William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet, and tells the story of Haider who searches for his missing father during the Kashmir conflict of 1995. Produced on a budget of ₹240 million, Haider was released on 2 October 2014, the film garnered awards and nominations in several categories, with particular praise for its direction, performances of Shahid Kapoor and Tabu, music and production design. As of June 2015, the film has won 36 awards, at the 62nd National Film Awards, Haider earned five awards, more than any other film at the ceremony, including Best Music Direction and Best Screenplay. Haider also won five awards at the 60th Filmfare Awards ceremony, including Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor and it also received nominations for Best Film and Best Director at the ceremony. At the 2015 Screen Awards, Haider received nominations for Best Film and Best Director, Haider also won nine awards at the 16th ceremony of the International Indian Film Academy Awards, including Best Actor and Best Supporting Actress. List of Bollywood films of 2014 Accolades for Haider at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Haider (film) – Shahid Kapoor 's portrayal of the titular character in Haider garnered him several awards
160. List of Harry Potter cast members – Several actors of the United Kingdom and Ireland have voiced or portrayed characters appearing in the Harry Potter film series based on the book series by J. K. Rowling. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint and Emma Watson have played Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, when they were cast only Radcliffe had previously acted in a film. Thirteen actors have appeared as the character in all eight films of the series. Some well-known British actors, who have not appeared in the series, were asked in jest why they had not been cast, when David Yates was directing the fifth film, Bill Nighy said that he hoped the director would cast him in Harry Potter. However, in 2009, Yates cast Nighy as Minister of Magic Rufus Scrimgeour in the seventh film, Nighy said, I am no longer the only English actor not to be in Harry Potter and I am very pleased. Jude Law once quipped, Nobodys asked me, I was a bit too old for Harry. I know some who are still waiting, Rowling gave a speech during the world premiere of the final film in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, on 7 July 2011 in London. The list below is sorted by film and character since some characters have been portrayed by multiple actors. Key indicates the actor or actress lent only his or her voice for his or her film character indicates the actor or actress portrayed the role in a scene or when the character was young. Indicates the actor or actress did not appear in any new footage for the film, a light grey cell indicates the character was not in the film adaptation. A Often, minor child parts—in this case, Harry as an infant—are played by twins or triplets to avoid overworking the children, the given names of each of the Saunders triplets are unknown, they were credited in the film as Saunders triplets. B Michael Gambon replaced Richard Harris as Albus Dumbledore from Prisoner of Azkaban onwards after Harriss death, C Warwick Davis played Filius Flitwick in the first two films as an old dwarf-like man with gray hair. In pre-production for the film, the producers told Davis there was no role for Flitwick. Davis played a much younger-looking man with black hair and a moustache who directed the choir at the Hogwarts Welcome Feast, and was credited as portraying Wizard. During pre-production for the film, director Mike Newell told Davis he wanted to keep his look from the last film. Davis now considers the character he has played some relative of Flitwick, in the sixth film, Harry specifically calls him Professor Flitwick, as does McGonagall in the seventh, calling him Filius. D Rob Knox was stabbed to death on 24 May 2008 before Half-Blood Prince was released, the cast and crew of Half-Blood Prince wore white ribbons to the London premiere of the film in tribute to Knox. E Vincent Crabbe is a recurring, minor character who appears in every book, jamie Waylett portrays the character in the first six filmsList of Harry Potter cast members – Daniel Radcliffe, who portrays the series' title character, Harry Potter, has been the icon of the film series since the release of the first film in 2001.
161. List of accolades received by Inglourious Basterds – Inglourious Basterds is a 2009 World War II film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino. It premiered on May 20,2009 at the 62nd Cannes Film Festival, before being released in theaters in the United States and Europe in August 2009 by The Weinstein Company. The film grossed over $38 million in its weekend, making it the box office number one. Inglourious Basterds opened internationally at one in 22 markets on 2,650 screens making $27.49 million. In total, the film has grossed over $320 million worldwide, making it Tarantinos second highest-grossing film to date, the film was submitted for consideration for the Palme dOr at the 62nd annual Cannes Film Festival, but lost to The White Ribbon. Waltz was later given the Best Actor Award, Inglourious Basterds received four nominations at the 67th Golden Globe Awards ceremony and came away with the award for Best Actor In A Supporting Role In A Motion Picture. Inglourious Basterds received eight Academy Awards nominations, the ceremony saw Waltz win for Best Supporting Actor, the film was nominated for six awards at the 63rd British Academy Film Awards, winning the Best Supporting Actor award. The film won two awards at the 16th Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role and Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. The film later went on to win four more of its nominations for Best Cast from the 15th Critics Choice Awards, waltzs performance in the film was named one of Time magazines Great Performances in film 2009. Awards for Inglourious Basterds at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Inglourious Basterds – Actors Eli Roth and Mélanie Laurent, with producer Lawrence Bender
162. James Nesbitt filmography – James Nesbitt is an actor from Northern Ireland whose filmography encompasses both television and film roles over a 30-year period. Nesbitts screen career began in the early 1980s with uncredited roles in episodes of the BBC Play For Today strand, which he had while attached to the Riverside Theatres youth group. His first credited role came in 1989, as a bit player in the John Ogdon biopic Virtuoso, which was followed by his first feature film role in 1991 in Hear My Song. As a casual actor in the early 1990s, Nesbitt mixed television and film roles, he appeared in episodes of Boon, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Covington Cross, Lovejoy, and Between the Lines. He also played roles in several Michael Winterbottom films, beginning with Loves Lies Bleeding in 1993 and continuing with Go Now in 1995, Jude in 1996, in 1997, he secured his breakout television role as Adam Williams in Cold Feet, a character he played until 2003. He starred in the ITV medical drama series Monroe and has a role as the dwarf Bofur in Peter Jacksons The Hobbit trilogy, after a break of eleven years, Nesbitt returned to the stage to make his London West End debut in Owen McCaffertys Shoot the Crow. James Nesbitt at the Internet Movie Database 0.0270270, URL retrieved on 5 March 2011James Nesbitt filmography – Nesbitt in 2008
163. John Gielgud, roles and awards – Sir John Gielgud, OM, CH was an English actor and theatre director. He appeared on stage, television and radio and in film in a career spanned eight decades. Film historian Brian McFarlane, writing for the British Film Institute, wrote of Gielgud that in terms of the performing arts, Gielgud, a member of the theatrical dynasty the Terry family, began working on stage in 1921 before attending the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. After completing his studies he worked in theatre and in the West End before establishing himself at the Old Vic in the 1930s. He continued working on the stage until 1990 both as a director and actor and he was active on television and radio, appearing in numerous plays and interviews, and was also in demand as a narrator. Gielgud is one of the few people who have won all four major annual American entertainment awards, these being an Oscar, an Emmy, a Grammy and he also won BAFTAs, Golden Globes, and a Laurence Olivier Award. He died on 21 May 2000, at the age of 96 and this table contains Gielguds known professional theatrical roles. It also contains the occasions when he acted and directed. It does not contain those productions where Gielgud was a director and this table contains Gielguds stage work as a director. It does not include those productions in which he also appeared, Gielgud took part in numerous radio broadcasts in his career, including interviews, poetry readings and talks about the theatre and acting. The following is a list of plays in which he was involved, notes References Archival material relating to John GielgudJohn Gielgud, roles and awards – Gielgud in 1936
164. List of accolades received by Kahaani – Kahaani is a 2012 Indian mystery thriller film directed and co-produced by Sujoy Ghosh. The film stars Vidya Balan as the protagonist, and features Parambrata Chatterjee, Nawazuddin Siddiqui, the film was edited by Namrata Rao, with the cinematography provided by Setu. Made on a budget of ₹80 million, Kahaani was released on 9 March 2012, the film garnered awards and nominations in several categories, with particular praise for its direction and the performance of the lead actress. As of 2014, the film has won 28 awards, at the 58th Filmfare Awards ceremony, Kahaani won five awards, including Best Director for Ghosh and Best Actress for Vidya, the film was also nominated for Best Film. It was nominated in thirteen categories at the Screen Awards ceremony, including Best Film, at the 14th ceremony of the Zee Cine Awards, the film won awards in five categories, including Best Film – Critics and Best Actress – Critics. At the 8th Star Guild Awards, Kahaani won four awards, including Best Director and Best Actress, in the 14th iteration of the International Indian Film Academy Awards, the film garnered five nominations, going on to win Best Actress and Best Editing for Rao. The film won three honours—Best Screenplay for Ghosh, Best Editing, and a Special Jury prize for Siddiqui—at the 60th ceremony of Indias National Film Awards, list of Bollywood films of 2012 Accolades for Kahaani at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Kahaani – Vidya Balan 's performance in Kahaani garnered her several awards and nominations
165. List of accolades received by Kaminey – Kaminey is a 2009 Indian caper thriller film directed by Vishal Bhardwaj and produced by Ronnie Screwvala. Shahid Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra, and Amol Gupte star in the lead roles, the films screenplay was written by Bhardwaj, Abhishek Chaubey, Sabrina Dhawan, and Supratik Sen. Bhardwaj also composed the soundtrack of the film, with lyrics written by Gulzar. Kaminey was edited by A. Sreekar Prasad, and Meghna Manchanda Sen, made on a budget of ₹350 million, Kaminey released on 14 August 2009 to critical acclaim and was a commercial success, grossing over ₹710 million. The films soundtrack was also a critical and commercial success, with the song Dhan Te Nan topping the charts, over the years, Kaminey achieved cult status. The film garnered awards and nominations in categories, with praise for its direction, performance of the cast, screenplay, musical score, cinematography, editing. At the 57th National Film Awards, Kaminey won Best Audiography for Subash Sahoo and it received a leading 19 nominations at the 2010 Screen Awards, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor, and Best Actress, winning Best Actor Popular for Kapoor. List of Bollywood films of 2009 Accolades for Kaminey at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Kaminey – Shahid Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra received several nominations for their respective performances in Kaminey
166. Kareena Kapoor filmography – Kareena Kapoor, also credited by her married name Kareena Kapoor Khan, is an Indian actress who has appeared in over 50 Bollywood films. Kapoor made her debut opposite Abhishek Bachchan in the 2000 drama Refugee. The following year, she appeared in five films, including the romance Mujhe Kucch Kehna Hai, the thriller Ajnabee, the latter emerged as the highest-grossing Bollywood film in overseas market to that point, and the success of these films established her in Bollywood. Kapoor portrayed a prostitute in the 2004 drama Chameli, which proved to be a point in her career. She won two Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress for these films, in 2007, Kapoor played a loquacious Sikh girl in Imtiaz Alis Jab We Met, a commercially successful comedy-drama co-starring Shahid Kapoor, for which she won the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. In 2009, Kapoor played a student in Rajkumar Hiranis comedy-drama 3 Idiots, co-starring Aamir Khan. In 2011, she played the lady in two top-grossing Hindi films—the action drama Bodyguard and the superhero film Ra. One. Among her four releases in 2012, the romantic comedy Ek Main Aur Ekk Tu saw Kapoor play a free-spirited hairdresser and she also received praise for playing a troubled actress in the drama Heroine and a mysterious prostitute in the thriller Talaash, The Answer Lies Within. Awards and nominations received by Kareena Kapoor Khan Kareena Kapoor Khan at the Internet Movie DatabaseKareena Kapoor filmography – Kapoor at an event for Bajrangi Bhaijaan in 2015
167. Anurag Kashyap filmography – Anurag Kashyap is an Indian filmmaker and actor, known for his work in Hindi cinema. After writing a television series Kabhie Kabhie, Kashyap co-wrote Ram Gopal Varmas crime drama Satya and he later wrote and directed a short television film, Last Train to Mahakali, and made his feature film debut with the yet-unreleased film Paanch. He next directed Black Friday, a film on the 1993 Bombay bombings and its release was barred by Indias Censor Board for two years, but was eventually released in 2007 to positive reviews. The same year, he directed the critical and commercial failure No Smoking, return of Hanuman, an animated film, was Kashyaps next directorial venture. In 2009, he directed Dev. D, a take on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyays Bengali novel Devdas. Despite positive reviews, the latter was a box-office failure, Kashyaps production company Anurag Kashyap Films released its first film Udaan —a critical success that earned him the Filmfare Award for Best Story and Best Screenplay. He then directed one of the films in the anthology film Mumbai Cutting. In 2011, he acted in Tigmanshu Dhulias crime thriller Shagird, after directing the thriller That Girl in Yellow Boots, the two-part crime film Gangs of Wasseypur was his next release, which garnered him the Filmfare Award for Best Dialogue. In 2013, he directed a film on eve teasing titled That Day After Everyday. In 2013, he co-produced The Lunchbox, a film that was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language, in 2011, Kashyap started another production company Phantom Films, whose first feature was the period drama Lootera. Kashyap co-produced and co-edited the comedy-drama Queen, which earned him the Filmfare Award for Best Editing, the following year, he served as the creative director in the mini-series Yudh starring Amitabh Bachchan, and subsequently presented two documentary film The World Before Her and Katiyabaaz. His next directorial ventures were the thriller Ugly and the period film Bombay Velvet, the latter opened to mixed reviews from critics and failed to recover its ₹1.2 billion investment. In 2015, he co-produced two commercially successful films, Hunterrr, NH10 and the critically acclaimed Masaan, Anurag Kashyap at the Internet Movie Database Anurag Kashyap at Rotten TomatoesAnurag Kashyap filmography – Kashyap attending the Rome Film Festival in 2007.
168. Aamir Khan filmography – Aamir Khan is an Indian actor, producer, director, playback singer and television personality. Khan first appeared on screen at the age of eight in a role in his uncle Nasir Hussains film Yaadon Ki Baaraat. As an adult, Khans first acting project was a role in the 1984 experimental social drama Holi. Khans first leading role came opposite Juhi Chawla in the highly successful tragic romance Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak and his performance in the film and in the thriller Raakh earned him a Special Mention at the 36th National Film Awards ceremony. He also played against type in the Deepa Mehta-directed Canadian-Indian co-production Earth, also in 2001, he starred alongside Saif Ali Khan and Akshaye Khanna in the acclaimed drama Dil Chahta Hai. Lagaan and Dil Chahta Hai are cited in the media as defining films of Hindi cinema, Khan made his directorial debut with Taare Zameen Par in 2007, a drama on dyslexia starring Darsheel Safary, in which Khan also played a supporting role. The film proved to be a critical and commercial success, winning him the National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare. He co-starred alongside Abhishek Bachchan and Uday Chopra as the antagonist of the adventure film Dhoom 3 in 2013, four of Khans films—Ghajini,3 Idiots, Dhoom 3, and PK— have held records for being the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all time. In addition to acting in films, Khan has developed and featured as the host of the talk show Satyamev Jayate. Aamir Khan at the Internet Movie Database Aamir Khan on Bollywood HungamaAamir Khan filmography – Khan at the Berlin International Film Festival in 2011
169. Latin Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video – No Me Dejes de Querer, performed by Gloria Estefan and directed by Emilio Estefan, was the first music video to be awarded. They were followed by Ricky Martin for the video She Bangs, shakiras Suerte was also awarded, and the recipient of the first Video of the Year award at the MTV Video Music Awards Latinoamérica. The English-language version of the video received four nominations at the MTV Video Music Awards of 2002, puerto-Rican band Calle 13 holds the record for the most wins as a performer in this category with four, Atrévete-te-te, La Perla, Calma Pueblo and Ojos Color Sol. Colombian singer-songwriter Juanes has been awarded twice for the videos for Volverte a Ver. Gabriel Coss holds the record for the most wins as a director, guatemalan singer Ricardo Arjona and Argentinean band Babasónicos hold the record for the most nominations without a win, with three each. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Latin Grammy Awards held that year, Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video Lo Nuestro Award for Video of the Year Los Premios MTV Latinoamérica for Video of the YearLatin Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video – Puerto Rican singer René Pérez of the band Calle 13 was awarded three times in the category, for the music videos for " Atrévete-te-te ", " La Perla " and "Calma Pueblo".
170. Laurel and Hardy filmography – This list only contains the films that Laurel and Hardy made together. For their solo films see Stan Laurel filmography and Oliver Hardy filmography, Laurel and Hardy were a motion picture comedy team whose official filmography consists of 106 films released between 1921 and 1951. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy were established as film comedians prior to their teaming, with Laurel appearing in over 50 silent films, Laurel and Hardy officially became a team the following year, in their eleventh silent short film The Second Hundred Years. The pair remained with the Roach studio until 1940, between 1941 and 1945 they appeared in eight features and one short for 20th Century Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. After finishing their movie commitments Laurel and Hardy concentrated on stage shows, in 1950, they made their last film Atoll K, a French/Italian co-production. In 1932 Laurel and Hardys short The Music Box won the Academy Award for Live Action Short Film, in 1960, Laurel was presented with an Honorary Academy Award for his creative pioneering in the field of cinema comedy. For their contributions to cinema Laurel and Hardy have been awarded separate stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, each book lists 105 films while, in its appendix, Skredvedts adds a 106th, Now Ill Tell One, a previously lost film that was partly rediscovered. Except where noted all of films were photographed in black and white, produced by Hal Roach. Also, except noted, all short films are two reels in length. All films made prior to 1928 are silent and all films made after 1929 are sound, releases from 1928 are silent except as noted while 1929 releases are identified as silent, all-talkie, or sound films with music and sound effects only. During the early days of sound American motion picture companies often made foreign-language versions of their films, the following is a list of known foreign-language versions of Laurel and Hardy films. Note, A lost German-language version of The Hollywood Revue of 1929 was made, Wir Schalten um auf Hollywood, apparently Laurel and Hardy do not appear in it. A. ^ A short film is defined as a motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less. The Films of Laurel and Hardy, secaucus, NJ, USA, Citadel Press, Inc. McCabe, John, Kilgore, Al, Bann, Richard W. Laurel, new York, NY, USA, E. P. Dutton. Laurel and Hardy, The Magic Behind the Movies, beverly Hills, CA, USA, Past Times. Laurel and Hardy — The Official SiteLaurel and Hardy filmography – Laurel (left) and Hardy in Bonnie Scotland (1935)
171. Laurence Olivier on stage and screen – Laurence Olivier was an English actor who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He also worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles, from 1935 he performed in radio broadcasts and, from 1956, had considerable success in television roles. In 1926 he joined the Birmingham Repertory Company, where he was given the chance to play a range of key roles. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, there his most celebrated roles included Shakespeares Richard III and Sophocless Oedipus. From 1963 to 1973 he was the director of Britains National Theatre. His own parts there included the role in Othello and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. In 1930, to money for his forthcoming marriage, Olivier began his film career with small roles in two films. In 1939 he appeared as Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights in a role that saw him nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor, the following year he was again nominated for the same award for his portrayal of Maxim de Winter in Rebecca. In 1944 he produced, directed and appeared as Henry V of England in Henry V, there were Oscar nominations for the film, including Best Picture and Best Actor, but it won none and the film instead won a Special Award. He won the Best Actor award for the 1948 film Hamlet and he later received Oscar nominations for roles in Richard III, The Entertainer, Othello, Sleuth, Marathon Man and The Boys from Brazil. In 1979 he was presented with an Honorary Award, at the Academy Awards. He was nominated for nine other acting Oscars and one each for production and direction, throughout his career Olivier appeared in radio dramas and poetry readings, and made his television debut in 1956. After being ill for the last twenty-two years of his life, in reflection, and about Oliviers pioneering of Britains National Theatre, the broadcaster Melvyn Bragg wrote, o one doubts that the National is perhaps his most enduring monument. Oliviers claim to theatrical greatness lay not only in his acting, but as, in the words of the English theatre director Peter Hall and this table contains Oliviers known professional theatrical roles. It also contains the occasions when he acted and directed. It does not contain those productions where he was a director and this table contains Oliviers stage work as a director. It does not include the 15 productions in which he also appeared, all the productions shown were for BBC radio. List of awards and nominations received by Laurence Olivier Notes ReferencesLaurence Olivier on stage and screen – Olivier in 1973
172. List of Academy Awards for Walt Disney – Walt Disney won or received a total of twenty-six Academy Awards, and holds the record for most Academy Awards in history. He won twenty-two competitive Academy Awards from a total of fifty-nine nominations, Disney won his first competitive Academy Award and received his first Honorary Academy Award at the 5th Academy Awards. He received the Honorary Academy Award for the creation of Mickey Mouse and won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject for the film Flowers, in the seven Academy Award ceremonies that followed, Disney consecutively earned nominations and won in the same category. Disney received three more Honorary Academy Awards, one in 1939 and two in 1942, at the 26th Academy Awards, Disney won the Academy Award in all four categories in which he was nominated, Best Short Subject, Best Short Subject, Best Documentary, and Best Documentary. In 1965, Disney earned his sole Best Picture nomination, for the film Mary Poppins and he was posthumously awarded his final Academy Award in 1969. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and SciencesList of Academy Awards for Walt Disney – Cartoonist and film producer Walt Disney
173. List of awards and nominations received by Madonna – Madonna is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. Born in Bay City, Michigan, on August 16,1958, after performing as a member of the pop musical groups Breakfast Club and Emmy, she released her self-titled debut album, Madonna in 1983, by Sire Records. She received a Best New Artist nomination at the 1984 MTV Video Music Awards for the song Borderline, Madonna was followed by a series of hit singles from her studio albums Like a Virgin and True Blue which gave her global recognition. Madonna became a pop icon for pushing the boundaries of content in popular music and imagery in her music videos. In 1985, she received a number of VMA nominations for her music videos, Billboard magazine listed her as the Top Pop Artist for 1985, as well as the Top Pop Singles Artist for the next two years. From 1987 to 1990, Madonna won a number of awards at the VMAs for the videos of her songs Like a Prayer, Express Yourself. MTV also honored her as the Artist of the Decade in 1989, in 1990, the Hollywood Walk of Fame committee decided to award Madonna with a star on the Hollywood Boulevard sidewalk, but she showed no interest in accepting the recognition. The Blond Ambition World Tour won the award for Most Creative Stage Production at the 1990 Pollstar Concert Industry Awards, alongside her music awards, Madonna was honored for her charitable works in helping cure AIDS, by the AIDS Project Los Angeles and American Foundation for AIDS Research. In 1992, Madonna won her first Grammy Award in the category of Best Long Form Music Video, the video release of her 1990 compilation album, The Immaculate Collection, also won the Best Long Form Video award at the VMAs. In 1996, Madonna played the role in the film, Evita. Madonnas seventh studio album, Ray of Light, became one of her most critically acclaimed releases and it also won her the VMA for Video of the Year for the title track. The Brit Awards have nominated Madonna in 12 categories, and in 2006 she won the International Female Solo Artist award, for her 10th studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor. In 2007, Madonna won another Grammy Award in the Best Long Form Music Video category and she has sold more than 300 million records worldwide and is recognized as the best-selling female recording artist of all time by Guinness World Records. Madonna has won 20 VMAs from a total of 68 nominations and she is the first female artist to receive the lifetime achievement Video Vanguard Award. As of December 2016, Madonna has won at least 309 awards from 650 nominations, Madonna was honored with the Commitment to Life Award for her contribution to the organization. Madonna was honored with the foundations Award of Courage in 1991, the American Moviegoers Awards are held annually by Moviefone, an American-based movie listing and information service. Madonna won Best Actress award for her role in Evita, the American Music Awards is an annual awards ceremony created by Dick Clark in 1973. Madonna has been nominated eighteen times and has won three awards, the AOL TV Viewer Awards is an award show held by America Online Inc. with the winners selected by the audience for their favorite shows, performers and moments on televisionList of awards and nominations received by Madonna – Madonna receiving the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song for " Masterpiece " at the 69th Golden Globe Awards in January 2012.
174. List of film directors of the Dutch East Indies – The colonys first directors, Heuveldorp and G. Kruger, were of European or mixed descent. Ethnic Chinese directors dominated the cinema for the remainder of its existence. The directors active in the Indies came from various backgrounds, some, like The Teng Chun, Fred Young, and the Wongs, had been interested in film since their youth. Others, such as Njoo Cheong Seng and Andjar, had a background in theatre, still others, including Albert Balink and Ismail, were journalists by trade. They were all men, the first woman to direct a film in the Indonesian archipelago, Ratna Asmara, between them, the 29 men directed some 103 films, at times working collaboratively, it was not unusual for them to take more than one role in production. However, they generally had less control than the producer. The list only counts fictional films directed by the subjects and does not include films from other genres or films in which the person held other roles, the names of persons credited with an abbreviated name are written in full, where availableList of film directors of the Dutch East Indies – The Wong brothers (one pictured) were the first ethnic Chinese directors in the Indies.
175. List of accolades received by Mary Kom (film) – Mary Kom is a 2014 Indian biographical sports drama film directed by Omung Kumar and produced by Sanjay Leela Bhansali and Viacom 18 Motion Pictures. The film features Priyanka Chopra in the role as the boxer Mary Kom, with Darshan Kumar and Sunil Thapa in supporting roles as her husband and mentor, Onler Kom. The film was written by Saiwyn Quadras, with the cinematography provided by Keiko Nakahara while Bhansali co-edited the film with Rajesh G. Pandey, the film follows Koms journey of becoming a boxer to her victory at the 2008 World Boxing Championships in Ningbo, China. The film received positive reviews from critics and was a commercial success. It grossed ₹940 million at the box-office against a budget of ₹150 million, Mary Kom has received various awards and nominations, with praise for its direction, Chopras performance, screenplay, editing, background score, and costume design. As of August 2015, the film has won 20 awards, at the 62nd National Film Awards, the film won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment. It was nominated for Best Film, and Best Actress for Chopra at the 60th Filmfare Awards, the film garnered eight nominations at the 21st Screen Awards, winning Best Actress for Chopra. List of Bollywood films of 2014 Accolades for Mary Kom at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Mary Kom (film) – Priyanka Chopra won critical acclaim and several awards for playing Mary Kom in the film.
176. Urmila Matondkar filmography – Urmila Matondkar is an Indian actress, who appears in Marathi, Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam language films. Apart from her skills, Matondkar gained popularity for her accomplished dancing skills. She made her debut as a child in Shreeram Lagoos 1980 marathi film Zaakol. Later, she appeared in Shekhar Kapoors critically acclaimed drama Masoom and her adult role debut was in the 1989 Malayalam thriller movie Chanakyan opposite Kamal Hasan, her Bollywood debut was in the 1992 fantasy film Chamatkar with Shah Rukh Khan. She successfully made the transition from child star to adult actress with Rangeela and her portrayal of Mili Joshi opposite Aamir Khan received praise from critics and garnered her first nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. In 1997, Matondkar received a nomination for Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in the successful drama Judaai. The following year, she starred in the crime drama Satya, one of the greatest film of Indian cinema, the same year, her dance performance in the iconic item number Chamma Chamma from China Gate won her rave reviews. She portrayed an obsessive lover in the 2001 romantic drama Pyaar Tune Kya Kiya, from 2003 to 2005, Matondkar starred in six consecutive films that garnered her widespread critical acclaim. In 2003, she portrayed a woman in the 2003 successful horror Bhoot. The same year, she starred in the drama Tehzeeb and the period drama Pinjar and these were followed by a role of a violent avenger in the 2004 neo-noir Ek Hasina Thi, which garnered her several Best Actress nominations. In 2005, she played a woman in the horror Naina. In 2014, she made her Marathi film debut in drama Ajoba, awards and nominations received by Urmila Matondkar Urmila Matondkar at the Internet Movie Database Urmila Matondkar on Bollywood HungamaUrmila Matondkar filmography – Urmila Matondkar in 2008
177. Matthew McConaughey filmography – Matthew McConaughey is an American actor who made his breakthrough by starring in the Richard Linklater-directed coming of age comedy Dazed and Confused in 1993. His first lead role was in the 1996 film adaptation of the John Grisham novel A Time to Kill, in 1998, he appeared in the Linklater-directed comedy-drama The Newton Boys. During the 2000s, McConaughey was typecast as a romantic lead in the films The Wedding Planner, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days, Failure to Launch. In the early 2010s, McConaughey became better known for his dramatic roles, in the same year he played the title role in the Southern Gothic crime film Killer Joe, for which he received the Saturn Award for Best Actor. The following year he starred in the coming-of-age drama Mud, mcConaugheys next role was as Ron Woodroof in the 2013 biographical drama Dallas Buyers Club. His performance garnered him the Academy Award for Best Actor, the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor, and he also appeared in the Martin Scorsese-directed The Wolf of Wall Street in 2013. In 2014, McConaughey played detective Rust Cohle in the crime drama series True Detective. The former earned McConaughey a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, list of awards and nominations received by Matthew McConaughey Matthew McConaughey at the Internet Movie DatabaseMatthew McConaughey filmography – McConaughey at the Goldene Kamera awards in 2014
178. Julianne Moore filmography – Julianne Moore is an American actress who made her acting debut on television in 1984 in the mystery series The Edge of Night. The following year she made her first appearance in the soap opera As the World Turns, which earned her a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Ingenue in a Drama Series in 1988. Moore went on to appear in the films, Money, Power, Murder. Her performance garnered acclaim as well as notoriety for a monologue her character delivers while nude below the waist. Among Moores releases of 1995 were Todd Haynes drama Safe and the romantic comedy Nine Months, the following year she portrayed French painter Dora Maar in the Merchant Ivory film Surviving Picasso opposite Anthony Hopkins and Natascha McElhone. In 1997 Moore portrayed a veteran actress in Paul Thomas Andersons drama Boogie Nights—a role that earned her first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She also appeared in Steven Spielbergs science fiction adventure sequel The Lost World, two years later she played a wartime adulteress in The End of the Affair for which she received her first Academy Award for Best Actress nomination. In 2001, Moore portrayed the character of Clarice Starling in the crime thriller sequel Hannibal. The following year she re-teamed with Todd Haynes on the drama Far from Heaven and starred in the Stephen Daldry-directed drama The Hours, playing a troubled 1950s suburban housewife in both films. She garnered the Volpi Cup for Best Actress from the Venice Film Festival for the former and she also received Academy Award nominations for both Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress. In 2006 Moore starred in the crime drama Freedomland and the Alfonso Cuarón-directed science fiction thriller Children of Men and she went on to play the socialite Barbara Daly Baekeland in Savage Grace and appeared opposite Colin Firth in the drama A Single Man. In 2012, she played politician Sarah Palin in the television drama Game Change. Two years later she starred in the satirical drama Maps to the Stars, Moore also appeared in The Hunger Games, Mockingjay – Part 1 which, as of July 2015, is her highest-grossing film, with a worldwide box office total of over $752 million. List of awards and nominations received by Julianne Moore Julianne Moore at the Internet Movie DatabaseJulianne Moore filmography – Moore at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2014
179. Katy Perry videography – American singer Katy Perry has released two video albums and has appeared in thirty-four music videos, eight films, twelve television shows, and thirteen television commercials. After appearing in music videos between 2004 and 2007, including Goodbye for Now and Cupids Chokehold, a video for Ur So Gay was released to introduce her to the music industry. In 2008, she released videos for I Kissed a Girl and Hot n Cold, videos for Thinking of You and Waking Up in Vegas were released the following year. Perrys third album Teenage Dream spawned the single California Gurls, whose video is set in the fictional land of Candyfornia. The Yoann Lemoine-directed video Teenage Dream depicts her as a euphoric teenager and her Firework video is based on self-empowerment, and won the MTV Video Music Award for Video of the Year. The video for E. T. takes place in outer space, Perry also released Last Friday Night —a video based on a hangover after a house party—and The One That Got Away—which focuses on flashbacks of days with a deceased lover. In 2012, she reissued her third album as Teenage Dream, The Complete Confection, the following year, Perry released her fourth studio album Prism, with Roar as its lead single, whose music video features her in a jungle after a plane crash. The video for her single, Unconditionally, is based on unconditional love. In the Birthday video, she impersonates five different characters to entertain at birthday parties and she became the first artist to have multiple videos, Dark Horse and Roar, each gain one billion views on Vevo. In addition to her videos, Perry has voiced Smurfette in The Smurfs. Her autobiographical documentary Katy Perry, Part of Me follows her through the California Dreams Tour, in the United States, the film is the eighth highest-grossing documentary of all time. She has appeared in shows, including in guest judging roles in American Idol and The X Factor. Katy Perrys official Vevo channel on YouTubeKaty Perry videography – Katy Perry at the premiere of Katy Perry: Part of Me in June 2012
180. Rajinikanth filmography – Rajinikanth is an Indian actor who has appeared in over 150 films, predominantly in Tamil cinema. He began his career by playing antagonistic and supporting roles before graduating to a lead actor. After starring in commercially successful films throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Writing for Slate, Grady Hendrix called him the biggest movie star youve never heard of. Rajinikanth has also worked in other Indian film industries such as Bollywood, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and he made his cinematic debut with K. Balachanders 1975 Tamil drama Apoorva Raagangal, in which he played a minor role of an abusive husband. He had his first major role in Balachanders Telugu drama film Anthuleni Katha and his style and mannerisms in the latter earned recognition from the audience. In 1977, he acted in 15 films, playing characters in most of them, including Avargal,16 Vayathinile, Aadu Puli Attam. He had positive roles in Kavikkuyil, the Kannada film Sahodarara Savaal, and his role as a failed lover in S. P. Muthuramans Bhuvana Oru Kelvikkuri won him critical acclaim. In 1978, he was cast as the lead in the Tamil film Bairavi. The same year, he received acclaim for his roles in Mullum Malarum and Aval Appadithan. He made his Malayalam cinema debut with I. V. Sasis fantasy drama Allauddinum Albhutha Vilakkum, by the end of the decade, he had worked in all South Indian languages and established a career in Tamil cinema. He played dual roles in the action thriller Billa, which was a remake of the Bollywood film Don and it was his biggest commercial success to that point and gave him the action-hero image. Balachanders Thillu Mullu, the Tamil remake of the Bollywood film Gol Maal, was Rajinikanths first full-length comedy film and he played triple roles in the 1982 Tamil film Moondru Mugam, which earned him a special prize at the Tamil Nadu State Film Awards ceremony. The following year, he made his Bollywood debut with Rama Rao Tatinenis Andha Kanoon, Muthuramans Nallavanuku Nallavan won him that years Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Actor. In 1985, he portrayed the Hindu saint Raghavendra Swami in his 100th film Sri Raghavendrar, a box-office failure. In the latter half of the 1980s, he starred in films in Tamil and Hindi, including Padikkadavan, Mr. Bharath, Bhagwaan Dada, Velaikaran, Guru Sishyan. During this time, he made his debut in American cinema with a role in the mystery adventure film Bloodstone. Rajinikanth continued to act in Bollywood, often playing supporting roles in such as Hum, Khoon Ka Karz