1. Film industry – The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i. e. Though the expense involved in making movies almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve. Hollywood is the oldest film industry of the world and the largest in terms of box office gross, other centers include Hong Kong and in Europe the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Germany are the countries that lead movie production. The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.3 billion in 2015. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were, Asia-Pacific with US$14.1 billion, North America with US$11.1 billion and Europe, distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U. S. movies are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian movies are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian movies are filmed in the Americas, Europe, Singapore etc. The cinema of the United States, often referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States cinema is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and also the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the nexus of the U. S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School. However, four of the six film studios are owned by East Coast companies. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is fully based in Southern California. And while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, California, its parent company, most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, between 2009-2015, Hollywood consistently grossed $10 billion annually. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family, friends, the film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895, the Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edisons Vitascope. Nestor Studios was Hollywoods first movie studio, founded on October 27,1911 It was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company and it was then owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley. The first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern, other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestors move westFilm industry – A scene from Raja Harishchandra (1913) – credited as the second full-length Indian motion picture, after Pundalik (1912).
2. Video recording – Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary greatly in the resolution of the display and refresh rate, video can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, tapes, DVDs, computer files etc. Video was originally exclusively a live technology, charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the electrical impulses. Video recorders were sold for $50,000 in 1956, however, prices gradually dropped over the years, in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder decks and tapes into the consumer market. The use of techniques in video created digital video, which allowed higher quality and, eventually. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape, the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards specify 29.97 frames, film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of an image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive, analog display devices reproduce each frame in the same way, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats, abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence, when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material, aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height, the screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4,3, or about 1.33,1. High definition televisions use a ratio of 16,9. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375,1. Therefore, a 720 by 480 pixel NTSC DV image displayes with the 4,3 aspect ratio if the pixels are thin, the popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical videoVideo recording – Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios
3. Special effect – Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are divided into the categories of optical effects. Mechanical effects are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting and this includes the use of mechanized props, scenery, scale models, animatronics, pyrotechnics and atmospheric effects, creating physical wind, rain, fog, snow, clouds, etc. Making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building are examples of mechanical effects, mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with doors or walls to enhance a fight scene. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background, since the 1990s, computer generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. It gives filmmakers greater control, and allows many effects to be accomplished safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs. As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI, in 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the worlds first special effects movie by combining different sections of 30 negatives into a single image. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, as the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the place, restarted filming. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century and it wasnt only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was also the first type of photographic trickery only possible in a motion picture, i. e. the stop trick. Georges Méliès accidentally discovered the same stop trick, according to Méliès, his camera jammed while filming a street scene in Paris. When he screened the film, he found that the trick had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction. Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph. From 1910 to 1920, the innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, Dawn combined this technique with the glass shot. Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, from the partially exposed film, a single frame is then projected onto an easel, where the matte is then drawnSpecial effect – Bluescreens are commonly used in chroma key special effects.
4. Translation – Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. While interpreting—the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages—antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature, there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation, on the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated, because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for services and has facilitated language localization. Translation studies systematically study the theory and practice of translation, the English word translation derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, across + ferre, to carry or to bring. Thus translatio is a carrying across or a bringing across, in this case, the Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of translation on translatio. The Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of translation from an alternative Latin word, traductio, the Ancient Greek term for translation, μετάφρασις, has supplied English with metaphrase — as contrasted with paraphrase. Metaphrase corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to formal equivalence, nevertheless, metaphrase and paraphrase may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity, the ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase and paraphrase. Literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed, Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of imitation, i. e. of adapted translation, When a painter copies from the life. He has no privilege to alter features and lineaments, despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. The grammatical differences between languages and free-word-order languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a language, translators have borrowed those terms. However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, an etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. For example, the English actual should not be confused with the cognate French actuel, the Polish aktualny, the Swedish aktuell, the translators role as a bridge for carrying across values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translators role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, the main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as CiceroTranslation – Rosetta Stone
5. Culture – Culture can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E. B, Tylor, it is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is the way of life, especially the customs and beliefs. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a concept in anthropology. The word is used in a sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of culture that emerged in the 20th century. When used as a count noun, a culture is the set of customs, traditions, in this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes culture is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a context, meaning something similar. His use, and that of many writers after him, refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human. To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, thus a contrast between culture and civilization is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Cultural invention has come to any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior. Humanity is in a global accelerating culture change period, driven by the expansion of commerce, the mass media, and above all. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change, Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action. These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change, for example, the U. S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors, Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practicesCulture – Human symbolic expression developed as prehistoric humans reached behavioral modernity
6. Film stock – Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with an emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, the emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be developed into a visible photograph. In addition to light, all films are sensitive to X-rays. Most are at least slightly sensitive to ultraviolet light. Some special-purpose films are sensitive into the region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film there is one layer of silver salts. When the exposed grains are developed, the salts are converted to metallic silver. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, dyes, which adsorb to the surface of the silver salts, make the crystals sensitive to different colors. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by the green, during development, the exposed silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, following development, the silver is converted back to silver salts in the bleach step. It is removed from the film in the fix step, fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, early motion picture experiments in the 1880s were performed using a fragile paper roll film, with which it was difficult to view a single, continuously moving image without a complex apparatus. The first transparent and flexible film base material was celluloid, which was discovered and refined for use by John Carbutt, Hannibal Goodwin. Eastman Kodak made celluloid film commercially available in 1889, Thomas Henry Blair, the stock had a frosted base to facilitate easier viewing by transmitted light. By November 1891 William Dickson, at Edisons laboratory, was using Blairs stock for Kinetoscope experiments, Blairs company supplied film to Edison for five yearsFilm stock – A film strip
7. Shakespeare on screen – The Guinness Book of Records lists 410 feature-length film and TV versions of William Shakespeares plays as having been produced, making Shakespeare the most filmed author ever in any language. The Internet Movie Database lists Shakespeare as having writing credit on 1,171 films, with 21 films in active production, the earliest known production is King John from 1899. Stuart Blackton directors Florence Turner as Titania William V. Additionally, for example, the title comes from a line in a song, drawn from a line in a play, Were the world mine, Demetrius being bated / The rest Id give to be to you translated. Strange Magic, animation musical with faerie characters Much Ado About Nothing A CBS Television presentation of Joseph Papps New York Shakespeare Festival Production Nick Havinga and A. J. Coriolanus Ralph Fiennes as Coriolanus Gerard Butler as Tullus Aufidius Vanessa Redgrave as Volumnia Brian Cox as Menenius This is a summary of the main article Hamlet on screen, see also the main article for the play Hamlet. Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead Tom Stoppard director Renaissance Man Penny Marshall director The Lion King Roger Allers, BBC film of the Royal National Theatres stage version. It was televised with a documentary, including interviews with the director. Akira Kurosawa director Tatsuya Nakadai as Lord Hidetora Peter A Thousand Acres, jocelyn Moorhouse director Jason Robards as Larry Cook Jessica Lange as Ginny Michelle Pfeiffer as Rose Jennifer Jason Leigh as Caroline King of Texas, a Western adaptation of King Lear. Anthony Hopkins as Othello Bob Hoskins as Iago Penelope Wilton as Desdemona Othello videotape of the Royal Shakespeare Companys stage production, george Cukor director Ronald Colman as Anthony John All Night Long, an adaptation set in the contemporary London jazz scene. Basil Dearden director Patrick McGoohan as Johnnie Cousin Paul Harris as Aurelius Rex Marti Stevens as Delia Lane Catch My Soul is adapted from the musical based on the play. Omkara Vishal Bhardwaj director Ajay Devgan as Omkara Omi Shukla Saif Ali Khan as Langda Tyagi Kareena Kapoor as Dolly Mishra Iago is a directed by Volfango De Biasi. Iago is a school student about to graduate who falls in love with his fellow student Desdemona. Hrid Majharey - A tragic love story inspired by Othello. Ranjan Ghosh writer-director Abir Chatterjee as Abhijit Mukherjee Raima Sen as Debjani Elements of Shakespeares Macbeth, see also the main article for the play Romeo and Juliet. The War of the Roses Henry VI – House of Lancaster is a direct filming, from the stage, of Michael Bogdanov and this play is formed from Shakespeares Henry VI Part 1 and from the earlier scenes of Shakespeares Henry VI Part 2. The War of the Roses Henry VI – House of York is a direct filming, from the stage, of Michael Bogdanov and this play is formed from the later scenes of Shakespeares Henry VI Part 2 and from Shakespeares Henry VI Part 3. BBC Television Shakespeare The Life and Death of King John Released in the USA as part of the Complete Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare series, Stratford Festival King John Filmed version of the Stratford Festivals 2014 stage production. The War of the Roses Richard II is a direct filming, from the stage, of Michael Bogdanov, the War of the Roses Richard III A direct filming, from the stage, of Michael Bogdanov and Michael Penningtons 7-play sequence based on Shakespeares history playsShakespeare on screen – Plays
8. Henry VI, part 3 – Henry VI, Part 3 is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1591, and set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England. It was the success of this sequence of plays which firmly established Shakespeares reputation as a playwright, Henry VI, Part 3 features the longest soliloquy in all of Shakespeare, and has more battle scenes than any other of Shakespeares plays. The play begins where 2 Henry VI left off, with the victorious Yorkists pursuing Henry, upon reaching the parliamentary chambers in London, York seats himself in the throne, and a confrontation ensues between his supporters and Henrys. Margaret attacks Yorks castle at Wakefield, and the Yorkists lose the ensuing battle, during the conflict, Clifford murders Yorks twelve-year-old son, Rutland. However, George Plantagenet, Richard and Edwards brother, has vowed to join their cause, having been encouraged to do so by his sister, additionally, Warwick has been joined in the conflict by his own younger brother, Montague. The Yorkists regroup, and at the Battle of Towton, Clifford is killed, following the battle, Edward is proclaimed king, George is proclaimed Duke of Clarence and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, although he complains to Edward that this is an ominous dukedom. King Edward and George then leave the court, and Richard reveals to the audience his ambition to rise to power and take the throne from his brother, although as yet he is unsure how to go about it. After Towton, Warwick goes to France to secure for Edward the hand of Louis XIs sister-in-law, Lady Bona, thus ensuring peace between the two nations by uniting in marriage their two monarchies. Warwick arrives at the French court to find that Margaret, Prince Edward, just as Louis is about to agree to supply Margaret with troops, Warwick intervenes, and convinces Louis that it is in his interests to support Edward and approve the marriage. Back in England, however, the recently widowed Lady Grey has come to King Edward requesting her late husbands lands be returned to her, rather than granting her suit, however, captivated by her beauty Edward marries her, against the advice of both George and Richard. Shortly thereafter, George and Montague also defect to the Lancastrians, Warwick then invades England with French troops, and Edward is taken prisoner. Henry is restored to the throne, and appoints Warwick and George as his Lords Protector, soon thereafter, however, Edward is rescued by Richard, Hastings and Stanley. News of the escape reaches Henrys court, and the young Earl of Richmond is sent into exile in France for safety, meanwhile, Edward reorganises his forces, and confronts Warwicks army. At the Battle of Barnet, George betrays Warwick, and rejoins the Yorkists and this throws Warwicks forces into disarray, and the Yorkists win the battle, during which both Warwick and Montague are killed. Oxford and the Duke of Somerset now assume command of the Lancastrian forces, meanwhile, Henry sits on the molehill York was on and laments his problems. He is met by a father who has killed his son, Henry is captured by two gamekeepers loyal to Edward, and imprisoned in the Tower of London, while Edward goes to meet the Lancastrian/French force. In the subsequent Battle of Tewkesbury the Yorkists rout the Lancastrians, capturing Margaret, Prince Edward, Somerset, at this point, Richard goes to London to kill Henry. At Richards arrival at the Tower, the two argue, and in a rage Richard stabs Henry, with his dying breath, Henry prophesies Richards future villainy and the chaos that will engulf the countryHenry VI, part 3 – First page of The third Part of Henry the Sixt, with the death of the Duke of Yorke from the First Folio (1623).
9. Order of the British Empire – There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, occasionally, honorary appointees are, incorrectly, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor. The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal lettersOrder of the British Empire – Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
10. Edward IV of England – Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England, before becoming king, he was 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was also the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Edward of York was born at Rouen in France, the second son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood and he bore the title Earl of March before his fathers death and his accession to the throne. Edwards father Richard, Duke of York, had been heir to King Henry VI until the birth of Henrys son Edward in 1453, Richard carried on a factional struggle with the kings Beaufort relatives. He established a dominant position after his victory at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, in which his chief rival Edmund Beaufort, however, Henrys Queen, Margaret of Anjou, rebuilt a powerful faction to oppose the Yorkists over the following years. The Yorkist leaders fled from England after the collapse of their army in the confrontation at Ludford Bridge, the Duke of York took refuge in Ireland, while Edward went with the Nevilles to Calais where Warwick was governor. In 1460 Edward landed in Kent with Salisbury, Warwick and Salisburys brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, raised an army and this left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimers Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461 and he then united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margarets army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans, during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters. Edwards father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henrys heir, and he then advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461, Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England, Lancastrian resistance continued in the north, but posed no serious threat to the new regime and was finally extinguished by Warwicks brother John Neville in the Battle of Hexham in 1464. Henry VI had escaped into the Pennines, where he spent a year in hiding, Queen Margaret fled abroad with the young Prince Edward and many of their leading supporters. Even at the age of nineteen, Edward exhibited remarkable military acumen and he also had a notable physique and was described as handsome and affable. His height is estimated at 6 feet 4.5 inches, making him the tallest among all English, Scottish, most of Englands leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, however, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage. Warwick, acting on Edwards behalf, made arrangements with King Louis XI of France for Edward to marry either Louis daughter Anne or his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy. He was humiliated and enraged to discover that, while he was negotiating, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, Edwards marriage to Elizabeth Woodville has been criticised as an impulsive action that did not add anything to the security of England or the York dynastyEdward IV of England – Edward IV
11. Cedric Hardwicke – Sir Cedric Webster Hardwicke was an English stage and film actor whose career spanned nearly fifty years. His theatre work included performances in productions of the plays of Shakespeare and Shaw. Hardwicke was born in Lye, West Midlands, to Dr Edwin Webster Hardwicke and his wife and he attended Bridgnorth Grammar School in Shropshire, after which he intended to train as a doctor but failed to pass the necessary examinations. He turned to the theatre and trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, in 1928, he married the English actress Helena Pickard. Their son was actor Edward Hardwicke and his second marriage, which also produced one child and ended in divorce, was to Mary Scott, from 1950 to 1961. Hardwicke made his first appearance on stage at the Lyceum Theatre, London, in 1912 during the run of Frederick Melvilles melodrama The Monk and the Woman, when he took over the part of Brother John. During that year he was at Her Majestys Theatre understudying, and subsequently appeared at the Garrick Theatre in Charles Kleins play Find the Woman, in 1913 he joined Bensons Company and toured in the provinces, South Africa and Rhodesia. World War I intervened in his career, and from 1914 to 1921 he served as an officer in the Judge Advocates branch of the British Army in France and he was one of the last members of the British Expeditionary Force to leave France. Other stage successes included The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse, Antigone and A Majority of One, in 1928, while appearing with Edith Day, Paul Robeson and Alberta Hunter in the London production of Showboat, he married actress Helena Pickard. In December 1935, Hardwicke was elected Rede Lecturer to Cambridge University for 1936, in the late 1930s, he moved to the US, initially for film work. In the early 1940s he continued his career, touring. He returned to America late in 1945 and appeared with Ethel Barrymore in December in a revival of Shaws Pygmalion, in 1946, he starred opposite Katharine Cornell as King Creon in her production of Jean Anouilhs adaptation of the Greek tragedy Antigone. In 1951–52, he appeared on Broadway in Shaws Don Juan in Hell with Agnes Moorehead, Charles Boyer, hardwickes first appearance in a British film was in 1931, and from the late 1930s he was in great demand in Hollywood. He played David Livingstone opposite Spencer Tracys Henry Morton Stanley in Stanley and Livingstone in 1939, in 1940 he played Mr Jones in a screen version of Joseph Conrads novel Victory. He starred in The Ghost of Frankenstein, as the unfortunate Ludwig von Frankenstein, alongside Lon Chaney Jr. and Bela Lugosi. Hardwicke played in films as Les Misérables, King Solomons Mines, The Keys of the Kingdom, The Winslow Boy, Alfred Hitchcocks Rope. DeMilles 1956 film The Ten Commandments and he appeared in a 1956 episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents entitled Wet Saturday in which he portrayed Mr. Princey, an aristocratic gentleman who tries to cover up a murder to avoid public scandal. On 6 March 1958, he guest-starred on NBCs country variety series, The Ford Show, during the 1961–62 television season, Hardwicke starred as Professor Crayton in Gertrude Bergs sitcom Mrs. G. Goes to College, which ran for twenty-six weeks on CBSCedric Hardwicke – on the radio show Three Thirds of the Nation, 3 June 1942
12. Eadweard Muybridge – Eadweard Muybridge was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the name Eadweard Muybridge, believing it to be the original Anglo-Saxon form of his name, at age 20, he emigrated to America, first to New York, as a bookseller, and then to San Francisco. He returned to England in 1861, and took up photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process. He went back to San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs of Yosemite Valley made him world-famous, in 1874 he shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wifes lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable homicide. He travelled for more than a year in Central America on an expedition in 1875. He spent much of his later years giving lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences, travelling back to England. He also edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly influenced visual artists and he returned to his native England permanently in 1894, and in 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown. Edward James Muggeridge was born and raised in England, Muggeridge changed his name several times, starting with Muggridge. In 1855, in the United States, he used the surname Muygridge, after he returned from Britain to the United States in 1867, he used the surname Muybridge. In addition, he used the pseudonym Helios to sign many of his photographs and he also used this as the name of his studio and made it the middle name for his only son, Florado Helios Muybridge, born in 1874. While travelling on an expedition in the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America in 1875. After an 1882 trip to England, he changed the spelling of his first name to Eadweard and he used Eadweard Muybridge for the rest of his career, but his gravestone carries his name as Eadweard Maybridge. Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge, he had three brothers. His father was a grain and coal merchant, with spaces on the ground floor of their house adjacent to the River Thames at No.30 High Street. After his father died in 1843, his mother carried on the business and his cousin Norman Selfe who also grew up in Kingston upon Thames moved to Australia and, following a family tradition, became a renowned engineer. Edwards younger brother George born in 1833 is found living with his Uncle Samuel in 1851 after the death of his Father in 1843 which establishes the lineage of Edward James Muggeridge. He started a career as a agent for the London Printing and Publishing Company. At the time, the city was booming, with 40 bookstores, nearly 60 hotels, later in his life, he wrote about also having spent time in New Orleans and New York City during his early years in the United StatesEadweard Muybridge – Eadweard Muybridge
13. American bison – The American bison, also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds. Bison were seen in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750. Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described, the bison, smaller in size and with a more rounded hump. Furthermore, the bison has been suggested to consist of a northern. However, this is not supported. The wood bison is one of the largest wild species of bovid in the world, surpassed by only the Asian gaur and it is the largest extant land animal in the Americas. The American bison is the mammal of the United States. The term buffalo is considered to be a misnomer for this animal, and could be confused with true buffalos, the Asian water buffalo. The name buffalo is listed in dictionaries as an acceptable name for American buffalo or bison. In reference to animal, the term buffalo dates to 1625 in North American usage when the term was first recorded for the American mammal. It thus has a longer history than the term bison. The American bison is very related to the wisent or European bison. In Plains Indian languages in general, male and female buffaloes are distinguished, a bison has a shaggy, long, dark-brown winter coat, and a lighter-weight, lighter-brown summer coat. As is typical in ungulates, the bison is slightly larger than the female and, in some cases. Plains bison are often in the range of sizes. Head-and-body lengths range from 2 to 3.5 m long, shoulder heights in the species can range from 152 to 186 cm. Weights can range from 318 to 1,000 kg Mature bulls tend to be larger than cows. Cow weights have had reported medians of 450 to 495 kg, with one small sample averaging 479 kg, the heaviest wild bull ever recorded weighed 1,270 kgAmerican bison
14. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
15. Motion pictures – A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, much terminology later used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slidesMotion pictures – A vintage Fox movietone motion picture camera
16. Celluloid – Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Generally considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869, Celluloid is easily molded and shaped, and it was first widely used as an ivory replacement. The main use was in movie and photography industries, which used only celluloid films prior to acetate films that were introduced in the 1950s. Celluloid is highly flammable, difficult and expensive to produce and no longer used, although its most common uses today are in table tennis balls, musical instruments. Collodion, invented in 1848 and used as a wound dressing, Parkes patented his discovery after realising a solid residue remained after evaporation of the solvent from photographic collodion. Parkes patented it as a clothing waterproofer for woven fabrics in the same year, later Parkes showcased Parkesine at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, where he was awarded a bronze medal for his efforts. The introduction of Parkesine is generally regarded as the birth of the plastics industry and he used cloth, ivory dust, and shellac, and on April 6,1869, patented a method of covering billiard balls with the addition of collodion. With assistance from Peter Kinnear and other investors, Hyatt formed the Albany Billiard Ball Company in Albany, New York, in 1870, John and his brother Isaiah patented a process of making a horn-like material with the inclusion of cellulose nitrate and camphor. Isaiah Hyatt dubbed his material celluloid in 1872, english inventor Daniel Spill had worked with Parkes and formed the Xylonite Co. to take over Parkes patents, describing the new plastic products as Xylonite. He took exception to the Hyatts claims and pursued the brothers in a number of cases between 1877 and 1884. The judge ruled all manufacturing of celluloid could continue both in Spills British Xylonite Company and Hyatts Celluloid Manufacturing Company, Hyatt used heat and pressure to simplify the manufacture of these compounds. Over the years, celluloid has become the term used for this type of plastic. English photographer John Carbutt founded the Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 with the intention of producing gelatin dry plates, the Celluloid Manufacturing Company was contracted for this work by means of thinly slicing layers out of celluloid blocks and then removing the slice marks with heated pressure plates. After this, the strips were coated with a photosensitive gelatin emulsion. It is not certain exactly how long it took for Carbutt to standardize his process, a 15-inch-wide sheet of Carbutts film was used by William Dickson for the early Edison motion picture experiments on a cylinder drum Kinetograph. However, the film base produced by this means was still considered too stiff for the needs of motion picture photography. By 1889, more flexible celluloids for photographic film were developed and this ability to produce photographic images on a flexible material was a crucial step toward the advent of motion pictures. Most movie and photography films prior to the move to acetate films in the fifties were made of celluloidCelluloid – 9.5 mm motion picture film
17. Academy Award – The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people. The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, however, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture. The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see also § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronzeAcademy Award – Academy Awards
18. Jacques Cousteau – Jacques-Yves Cousteau AC was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française, Cousteau also directed films, most notably the documentary adaptation of the book, The Silent World, which won a Palme dor at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. He remained the only person to win a Palme dOr for a documentary film, Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, Gironde, France to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau. Cousteau completed his studies at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he entered the École Navale and graduated as a gunnery officer, after an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea. The accident caused him to both his arms and could have even killed him. This caused Cousteau to have to change his plans in becoming a naval pilot, Cousteau also belonged to the information service of the French Navy, and was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan and in the USSR. On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had two sons, Jean-Michel and Philippe and his sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simones death from cancer and they already had a daughter Diane Cousteau and a son Pierre-Yves Cousteau, born during Cousteaus marriage to his first wife. The years of World War II were decisive for the history of diving, after the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who also lived there. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world. In 1943, they made the film Épaves, in which used two of the very first Aqua-Lung prototypes. These prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt by the Air Liquide company, following instructions from Cousteau, at that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a pen anti-semite who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout and who received the death sentence in 1946. However, this was commuted to a life sentence. During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which finally made extended underwater exploration possible, a little later it became the GERS, then the COMISMER, and finally more recently the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung while attempting a new record with the GERS near Toulon. The small team also undertook the exploration of the Roman wreck of Mahdia and it was the first underwater archaeology operation using autonomous diving, opening the way for scientific underwater archaeologyJacques Cousteau – Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1972
19. Underwater photography – Underwater photography is the process of taking photographs while under water. Underwater photography can also be categorised as an art form and a method for recording data, successful underwater imaging is usually done with specialized equipment and techniques. However, it offers exciting and rare photographic opportunities, the primary obstacle faced by underwater photographers is the loss of color and contrast when submerged to any significant depth. The longer wavelengths of sunlight are absorbed quickly by the surrounding water, the loss of color increases not only vertically through the water column, but also horizontally, so subjects farther away from the camera also appear colorless and indistinct. This effect occurs in clear water, such as that found around tropical coral reefs. Underwater photographers solve this problem by combining two techniques, the first is to get the camera as close to the photographic subject as possible, minimizing the horizontal loss of color. Many serious underwater photographers consider any more than one yard or meter unacceptable. The second technique is the use of a flash to restore colour lost to depth, fill flash, used effectively, paints in missing colors by providing full-spectrum visible light to the overall exposure. Another environmental effect is range of visibility, the water is seldom optimally clear, and the dissolved and suspended matter can reduce visibility by both absorption and scattering of light. Some cameras are made for use underwater, including modern digital cameras. The first amphibious camera was the Calypso, reintroduced as the Nikonos in 1963, the Nikonos range was designed specifically for use underwater. Nikon ended the Nikonos series in 2001 and its use has declined, Sea and Sea USA made the Motor Marine III, an amphibious range-finder camera for 35mm film. Most such housings are specific to the camera, materials range from relatively inexpensive plastic to high-priced aluminum. Housings allow many options, users can choose housings specific to their everyday land cameras, digital media can hold many more shots than standard film. This gives digital cameras an advantage, since it is impractical to film underwater. Other comparisons between digital and film photography also apply, and the use of film under water has declined, Underwater housings have control knobs and buttons that reach the camera inside, allowing use of most of its normal functions. These housings may also have connectors to attach external flash units, some basic housings allow the use of the flash on the camera, but the on-board flash may not be powerful enough or properly placed for underwater use. More-advanced housings either redirect the on-board strobe to fire a slave strobe via a fiber-optic cable, housings are made waterproof by silicone or other elastomer O-rings at the crucial joints and where control spindles and pushbuttons pass through the housingUnderwater photography – A United States Navy Mass Communication Specialist conducting underwater photography training
20. The Day I Became a Woman – The Day I Became a Woman is a 2000 award-winning Iranian drama film directed by Marzieh Meshkini. It tells three stories, each depicting a different stage in the lives of Iranian women and it premièred at the 2000 Venice Film Festival and won several festival awards during 2000. Critical response was positive with some calling it Felliniesque, the film tells three different stories about women struggling for identity in Iran. Hava is a girl who, on her ninth birthday, is told by her mother and grandmother that she has become a woman with particular responsibilities. She may no longer play with her best friend, a boy, Hava is given the choice when to start taking on those responsibilities—noon that day. A stick pushed into the ground will mark time as the shadow at noon will align with the stick, Ahoo is a married woman who is taking part in a cycling race. Ahead of the rest, Ahoo is pursued by her husband on horseback and he tries to persuade her to stop cycling and come home, and then threatens her with divorce. When Ahoo defiantly continues cycling, her husband brings a mullah who divorces them, later, tribal superiors and male family members come to stop Ahoo as she tries to escape the social constraints of being a woman. Hoora is a widow who has recently inherited a great deal of money. She decides to buy all of the possessions she has ever wanted. She ties strings to her fingers to remind her what to buy and they take her and her new belongings to the beach. As she floats out to a ship, seemingly free from the bonds of womanhood. It was shot on Kish Island in the Hormozgān Province in southern Iran, Makhmalbaf was on the island at the same time, shooting Testing Democracy. Some commentators have suggested that Makhmalbaf was the director of The Day I Became a Woman. Critic Jonathan Rosenbaum has argued against these claims, Meshkini has said that as a female filmmaker, she found making a film in Iran particularly difficult, having to prove her abilities to the cast and crew before being accepted by them. The Day I Became a Woman premièred at the 2000 Venice Film Festival and it went on to play at several festivals including the Toronto International Film Festival, the London Film Festival and the New York New Directors/New Films Festival. It was given a release in American theatres on April 6,2001. On its release in Iran, it was temporarily banned, critical response to the film was generally positiveThe Day I Became a Woman – Movie poster
21. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeablyIran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
22. Austin Nichols – Austin Nichols is an American actor and director, known for his role as Julian Baker in The CW drama series One Tree Hill. He is also known for his roles in the films The Day After Tomorrow and he starred as John Monad in the HBO drama series John from Cincinnati, and portrayed Spencer Monroe in the AMC horror drama series The Walking Dead. Nichols was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and moved to Austin and he was named after the Austin Nichols distilling company, producers of Wild Turkey bourbon. His father, David Nichols, is a radiologist, and his mother, Kay was a national champion ten times and an international champion once. He has one sister, Ashley. Nichols was raised near Lake Austin and attended Casis Elementary School, Nichols began competitive water skiing from the age of two. He represented the United States junior water ski team in the Pan-American Championships in 1997, at age thirteen, he was ranked third in the world. Nichols had intended to become a water skier until he injured his shoulder in Florida. While at McCallum High School in Austin, he played basketball but was absolutely awful, Nichols interest in acting was sparked when he was fifteen and began to take acting lessons. He moved to Los Angeles after high school and his acting career began when he gate-crashed a party at the Sundance Film Festival and was signed by a manager. He had previously appeared in two films, Durango Kids in 1999 and Holiday in the Sun in 2001, One critic wrote that Nichols transforms himself from a cardboard jock and frat boy caricature to a likeable vulnerable human being with surprising sensibilities. Aguirre commended Nichols as a stellar talent able to play his character with total abandon to self ego, in 2004, Nichols was cast as J. D. an intelligent rich kid and romantic rival to Jake Gyllenhaals main character in the environmental blockbuster, The Day After Tomorrow. The film received negative reviews but was a box office success, also in 2004, he appeared in Wimbledon, opposite Kirsten Dunst and Paul Bettany. The film was received by critics, though it was only a mild success at the U. S. box office. Nichols acting as Jake Hammond, an arrogant tennis pro, was described as effectively unlikeable, for the role, Nichols had to learn tennis from scratch, he was trained to look professional by Pat Cash, who was taken aback by Nichols skill. Cash observed, Its absolutely as good as anybodys on the circuit and he hits it like a bullet. By the end of their training, Nichols and Bettany were able to have rallies and play points, after this success, Nichols then had a minor role in an obscure and panned 2005 film, Thanks to Gravity. Nichols followed this with short guest spots on episodes of Pasadena and Surface, before being cast in a successful 2006 film, Glory RoadAustin Nichols – Austin Nichols at the 2012 Comic-Con
23. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
24. Six Feet Under (TV series) – Six Feet Under is an American drama television series created and produced by Alan Ball. It premiered on the cable network HBO in the United States on June 3,2001 and ended on August 21,2005. The show depicts members of the Fisher family, who run a home in Los Angeles. The series traces these characters lives over the course of five years, the ensemble drama stars Peter Krause, Michael C. Hall, Frances Conroy, Lauren Ambrose, Freddy Rodriguez, Mathew St. Patrick, the series was produced by Actual Size Films and The Greenblatt/Janollari Studio, and was shot on location in Los Angeles and in Hollywood studios. Six Feet Under received widespread acclaim, particularly for its writing and acting. Regarded by many as one of the greatest TV dramas of all time, it has since included on TIME magazines All-TIME100 TV Shows. It has also described as having one of the finest series finales in the history of television. It won numerous awards, including nine Emmy Awards, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, and a Peabody Award. The show stars Peter Krause as Nathaniel Samuel Nate Fisher, Jr. whose funeral director father dies and bequeaths to him and his brother, David, the Fisher clan also includes widow, Ruth, and daughter, Claire. Other regulars include mortician and family friend, Federico Diaz, Nates on-again/off-again girlfriend, Brenda Chenowith, on one level, the show is a conventional family drama, dealing with such issues as interpersonal relationships, infidelity, and religion. At the same time, the show is distinguished by its focus on the topic of death. The show also utilises dark humor and surrealism running throughout, sometimes, the characters converse with other, recurring deceased characters, most notably Nathaniel Fisher, Sr. The shows creator, Alan Ball, avers that this represents the characters internal dialogues expressed in the form of external conversations. Although overall plots and characters were created by Alan Ball, there are conflicting reports on how the series was conceived, in one instance, Ball stated that he came up with the premise of the show after the deaths of his sister and father. However, in an interview, he intimates that HBO entertainment president Carolyn Strauss proposed the idea to him. Ball stated in an interview, The show focuses on human mortality, the nature of life and death feeding off of each other. Throughout its five-season, 63-episode run, major characters experience crises which are in relation to their environmentSix Feet Under (TV series) – Six Feet Under
25. Deadwood (TV series) – The show features a large ensemble cast, and many historical figures appear as characters, such as Seth Bullock, George Crook, Wyatt Earp, E. B. Farnum, George Hearst, Wild Bill Hickok, Calamity Jane, Jack McCall, Sol Star, Al Swearengen, the plot lines involving these characters include historical truths as well as substantial fictional elements. Milch used actual diaries and newspapers from 1870s Deadwood residents as reference points for characters, events, Some of the characters are fully fictional, although they may have been based on actual persons. Deadwood received wide acclaim, particularly for Milchs writing and Ian McShanes co-lead performance. It also won eight Emmy Awards and one Golden Globe, TV Guide ranked it #8 on their 2013 list of 60 shows that were Cancelled Too Soon. There were initial plans to conclude the series with two TV films, but those plans never came to fruition, in 2015, talks resumed between HBO and Milch, and in January 2016, HBO green-lit a script to be written. The show was produced by Red Board Productions and Roscoe Productions in association with HBO, Garret Dillahunt portrays Jack McCall during season one and Francis Walcott during season two. Milch has pointed out repeatedly in interviews that the intent of the show was to study the way that comes together from chaos by organizing itself around symbols. Initially, he intended to study this within Roman civilization, but HBOs Rome series was already in production, Milch and his colleagues later bought many of Parkers books and papers as references for Deadwood. The first season takes place six months after the founding of the camp, in 1876, Seth Bullock leaves his job as a marshal in Montana to establish a hardware business in the gold-mining camp of Deadwood, along with his friend and business partner, Sol Star. Wild Bill Hickok, the infamous gunslinger of the west, is on a journey to Deadwood, accompanied by Charlie Utter. Al Swearengen is the owner of The Gem, a local saloon, other notable residents include Dr. Amos Cochran, A. W. Merrick, owner and editor of the local newspaper The Pioneer, and E. B. Farnum, proprietor of The Grand Central Hotel, Brom Garret, a wealthy businessman from New York City, lives at The Grand Central Hotel with his wife, Alma, who nurses a secret laudanum habit. Aware that Garret is interested in prospecting, Swearengen and Farnum deceive him into purchasing a gold claim in a confidence game. Newly arrived Cy Tolliver and his purchase an abandoned hotel across from The Gem and begin renovations, then open the Bella Union Saloon. Brom Garret soon learns that his claim is worthless and demands Swearengen reimburse his money. Swearengen orders Dan Dority to kill Garret and make it look like an accident, Dority throws Garret off a cliff, only to discover that the claim is actually a rich one after all. Newly widowed Alma Garret asks Wild Bill Hickok for guidance regarding the gold claim, Hickok asks Bullock to advise Garret, Bullock agreesDeadwood (TV series) – Deadwood
26. Jake Gyllenhaal – Jacob Benjamin Jake Gyllenhaal is an American actor. He subsequently appeared in indie film, The Good Girl. In 2005, Gyllenhaal portrayed Anthony Swoff Swofford in Jarhead, Gwyneth Paltrows love interest in Proof, Gyllenhaal was born in Los Angeles, California, the son of film producer and screenwriter Naomi Foner and film director Stephen Gyllenhaal. Actress Maggie Gyllenhaal, his sister, appeared with him in the film Donnie Darko. Gyllenhaals father, who was raised as a Swedenborgian, is of Swedish and English descent, jakes last ancestor to be born in Sweden was his great-great-grandfather, Anders Leonard Gyllenhaal. Jakes mother is Jewish, she was born in New York City, to a family from Russia, Gyllenhaal has said that he considers himself Jewish. His parents insisted that he have summer jobs to support himself and he worked as a lifeguard. Gyllenhaal said his parents encouraged artistic expression, I do have parents who supported me in certain ways. In other ways, they were lacking, definitely, its in expression and creativity where my family has always been best at. As a child, Gyllenhaal was regularly exposed to filmmaking due to his familys ties to the industry. He made his debut as Billy Crystals son in the 1991 comedy film City Slickers. His parents did not allow him to appear in the 1992 film The Mighty Ducks because it would have required his leaving home for two months, in subsequent years, his parents allowed him to audition for roles but regularly forbade him to take them if he were chosen. He was allowed to appear in his fathers films several times, Gyllenhaal appeared in the 1993 film A Dangerous Woman, in Bop Gun, a 1994 episode of Homicide, Life on the Street, and in the 1998 comedy Homegrown. Along with their mother, Jake and Maggie appeared in two episodes of Molto Mario, an Italian cooking show on the Food Network. Prior to his year in high school, the only other film not directed by his father, in which Gyllenhaal was allowed to perform, was the 1993 film Josh. Gyllenhaal dropped out two years to concentrate on acting but has expressed intentions to eventually finish his degree. The film earned $32 million and was described in the Sacramento News, Donnie Darko, Gyllenhaals second film, was not a box office success upon its initial 2001 release but eventually became a cult favorite. After the critical success of Donnie Darko, Gyllenhaals next role was as Pilot Kelston in 2002s Highway alongside Jared Leto and his performance was described by one critic as silly, cliched and straight to videoJake Gyllenhaal – Gyllenhaal at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival
27. Kirsten Dunst – Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress. She made her debut in Woody Allens short film Oedipus Wrecks for the anthology film New York Stories. At the age of twelve, Dunst gained widespread recognition as Claudia in Interview with the Vampire and she appeared in Little Women the same year and in Jumanji the following year. Dunst achieved fame for her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in Sam Raimis Spider-Man trilogy and she played the title role in Sofia Coppolas biographical film Marie Antoinette and starred in the comedy film How to Lose Friends & Alienate People. She won the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and she starred in the second season of the television series Fargo in 2015, playing the role of Peggy Blumquist, a slightly delusional and neurotic hairdresser. In 2001, Dunst made her debut in the film Get Over It. She also sang the jazz song After Youve Gone for the end credits of the film The Cats Meow, Dunst was born in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, to Klaus Hermann Dunst and Inez Dunst. She has a brother, Christian. Her father worked as a medical services executive, and her mother worked for Lufthansa as an attendant and was an artist. Dunsts father is German, originally from Hamburg, and Dunsts mother was born in New Jersey, until the age of eleven, Dunst lived in Brick Township, New Jersey, where she attended Ranney School. In 1993, her parents separated, and she moved with her mother and brother to Los Angeles, California. In 1995, her mother filed for divorce, after graduating from Notre Dame in 2000, Dunst continued the acting career that she had begun. As a teenager, she found it difficult to deal with her rising fame, however, she later expressed that her mother always had the best intentions. When asked if she had any regrets about the way she spent her childhood, Dunst said, Well, its not a way to grow up. I have my stuff to work out, I dont think anybody can sit around and say, My life is more screwed up than yours. Dunst began her career when she was three years old as a fashion model in television commercials. She was signed with Ford Models and Elite Model Management, at the age of six, she made her feature film debut in a minor role in Woody Allens short film Oedipus Wrecks that was released as one-third of the anthology film New York Stories. Soon after, she co-starred with Tom Hanks in the comedy-drama The Bonfire of the Vanities, based on Tom Wolfes novel of the same name, where she played the daughter of Hanks characterKirsten Dunst – Dunst at the 2013 premiere of Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues in Sydney, Australia
28. HBO – Home Box Office is an American premium cable and satellite television network that is owned by Time Warner through its respective flagship company Home Box Office, Inc. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, in 2014, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.79 billion, compared to the US$1.68 billion it accrued in 2013. HBO has 49 million subscribers in the United States and 130 million worldwide as of 2016, the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature and HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015, and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017. In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, HBO subscribers generally pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels even before paying for the channel itself. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box – usually digital – in order to receive HBO, many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, and a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. The new system, which Dolan named Sterling Information Services, became the first urban underground cable system in the United States. In that same year, Time-Life, Inc. purchased a 20% stake in Dolans company, in the summer of 1971, while on a family vacation in France, Charles Dolan began to think of ideas to make Sterling Manhattan profitable. He came up with the concept for a television service. Dolan later presented his idea to Time-Life management, though satellite distribution seemed only a distant possibility at the time, he persuaded Time-Life to back him on the project. To gauge whether consumers would be interested in subscribing to a pay television service, in a meeting of Dolan and some Time-Life executives who were working on the project, various other names were discussed for the new service. Home Box Office launched on November 8,1972, however, HBOs launch came without fanfare in the press, as it was not covered by any local or national media outlets. Home Box Office distributed its first sports event immediately after the film, Four months later in February 1973, Home Box Office aired its first television special, the Pennsylvania Polka Festival. Home Box Office would use a network of relay towers to distribute its programming to cable systems throughout its service area. Sterling Manhattan Cable continued to lose money because the company had only a small base of 20,000 customers in Manhattan. Time-Life dropped the Sterling name and the company was renamed Manhattan Cable Television under Time-Lifes control in March 1973, Gerald Levin, who had been with Home Box Office since it began operations as its vice president of programming, replaced Dolan as the companys president and chief executive officer. In September 1973, Time-Life, Inc. completed its acquisition of the pay service. HBO would eventually increase its fortunes within two years, by April 1975, the service had around 100,000 subscribers in Pennsylvania and New York state, in 1974, they settled on using a geostationary communications satellite to transmit HBO to cable providers throughout the United StatesHBO – The RCA Satcom domestic communication satellite launched on December 13, 1975, spurred the cable television industry to unprecedented heights – with the assistance of HBO.
29. Austrian-American – Austrian Americans are European Americans of Austrian descent. According to the 2000 U. S. census, there were 735,128 Americans of full or partial Austrian descent, the states with the largest Austrian American populations were New York, California, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Jersey, and Ohio. Before World War II, Austrian migration to United States was difficult to determine, because Austria as an independent country was established in 1918, however, after the initial wave of settlers, Austrian immigration was low during the first half of the nineteenth century. During this period, fewer than 1,000 Austrians emigrated to the United States, most of the emigrated were Tyroleans in search of land, people who fled the oppressive Metternich regime. These political refugees were mostly anticlerical and against slavery and they were liberals and adapted quickly to their new country. The immigration of Austrians increased during the half of 19th century. Many Austrians worked in the United States as miners, servants, many Austrians settled in New York City, Pittsburgh, and Chicago. Many of these came from Burgenland. During the years 1901-1910 alone, Austrians were one of the ten most significant immigrant groups in the United States, most of these newly immigrated Austrians were cosmopolitan and followed a left-wing ideology. They found employment in Chicago stockyards and Pennsylvania cement and steel factories, many of them, more than 35 percent, returned to Austria with the savings they had made by their employment. Since the First World War and until the end of the Great Depression, during the postwar period of 1919 to 1924, fewer than 20,000 Austrians arrived in the United States, most of them from Burgenland. Also, laws restricting immigration to the U. S. imposed by the Austrian government limited Austrian emigration, however, in the late 1930s, a new Austrian wave of immigrants began arriving in the United States. Most of them were Jews fleeing the Nazi persecution which started with the Annexation of Austria in 1938, in 1941, some 29,000 Jewish Austrians had emigrated to the United States. Most of them were doctors, lawyers, architects and artists, much later, between 1945–1960, some 40,000 Austrians entered the United States. Since the 1960s, however, Austrian immigration has been negligible, mostly because Austria is nowadays a developed nation where poverty and political oppression is scarce. According to the 1990 U. S. census,948,558 people claimed be of Austrian descent, when in the 19th century, Austrian immigrants adapted quickly to American society because the Austrian Empire had also been a melting pot of many cultures and languages. Most Austrian Americans speak American English and German, however, most Austrians are Roman Catholic. The Austrian contribution in the 19th century regarding the missionization of Native Americans is remarkable, however, in the nineteenth century, Austrians also had to work with Irish Catholic priests, who could not speak the German language, to baptize the natives and convert them to CatholicismAustrian-American
30. Sword and sorcery – Sword and sorcery is a subgenre of fantasy generally characterized by sword-wielding heroes engaged in exciting and violent conflicts. An element of romance is often present, as is an element of magic, unlike works of high fantasy, the tales, though dramatic, focus mainly on personal battles rather than world-endangering matters. Sword and sorcery commonly overlaps with heroic fantasy, a film genre tangentially related to sword and sorcery, at least in name, is sword-and-sandal, though its subjects are generally oriented to biblical times and early history, instead of fantasy. Not to be confused with cloak and dagger or cloak and sword and he had initially proposed the term epic fantasy. However, the celebrated American sword-and-sorcery author Fritz Leiber replied in the journal Ancalagon suggesting and he expanded on this in the July 1961 issue of Amra, commenting, I feel more certain than ever that this field should be called the sword-and-sorcery story. This accurately describes the points of culture-level and supernatural element and also distinguishes it from the cloak-and-sword story—and from the cloak-and-dagger story too. Since its inception, many attempts have been made to redefine precisely what sword, although many have debated the finer points, the consensus characterizes it by a strong bias toward fast-paced, action-rich tales set within a quasi-mythical or fantastical framework. Unlike high fantasy, the stakes in sword and sorcery tend to be personal, settings are typically exotic, and protagonists often morally compromised. Many sword and sorcery tales have been turned into a series of adventures. Their lower stakes and less-than world-threatening dangers make this more plausible than a repetition of the perils of epic fantasy, so too does the nature of the heroes, most sword-and-sorcery protagonists, travellers by nature, find peace after adventure deathly dull. At one extreme, the heroes of E. R. Sword and sorcery ultimately draws from mythology and classical epics such as Homers Odyssey and it is also influenced by historical fiction. Sir Walter Scott, under the influence of romantic collection of folklore and ballads, however, very few of his writings contain fantastic elements, in most, the appearance of such is explained away. However, its themes of adventure in a strange society influenced the adventures set in foreign lands by H. Rider Haggard, haggards works included many fantastic elements. However, these historical swashbucklers lack the supernatural element that defines the genre. Another influence was early fantasy fiction such as Lord Dunsanys The Fortress Unvanquishable, Save for Sacnoth, all of these authors influenced sword and sorcery for the plots, characters, and landscapes used. In addition, many sword and sorcery writers, such as Robert E. Sword and sorcery proper only truly began in the pulp fantasy magazines. Particularly important was the magazine Weird Tales, which published Howards Conan stories and C. L. Moores Jirel of Joiry tales, as well as key S&S influences like Lovecraft and Clark Ashton Smith. The genre has been defined, strongly, by the work of Robert E. Howard, particularly his tales of Conan the Barbarian and Kull of Atlantis, mostly in Weird Tales from 1932 and 1929 respectivelySword and sorcery – Fantasy
31. Conan the Barbarian – The character was created by writer Robert E. Howard in 1932 via a series of fantasy stories published in Weird Tales magazine. Conan the Barbarian was created by Robert E. Howard in a series of stories published in Weird Tales magazine in 1932. For months, Howard had been in search of a new character to market to the burgeoning pulp outlets of the early 1930s, in October 1931, he submitted the short story People of the Dark to Clayton Publications new magazine, Strange Tales of Mystery and Terror. Some Howard scholars believe this Conan to be a forerunner of the famous character. In February 1932, Howard vacationed at a town on the lower Rio Grande. During this trip, he conceived the character of Conan and also wrote the poem Cimmeria. Having digested these prior influences after he returned from his trip, Howard rewrote a rejected story, replacing his existing character Kull of Atlantis with his new hero, and retitling it The Phoenix on the Sword. Howard also wrote The Frost-Giants Daughter, inspired by the Greek myth of Daphne, although The Frost-Giants Daughter was rejected, the magazine accepted The Phoenix on the Sword after it received the requested polishing. The Phoenix on the Sword appeared in Weird Tales cover-dated December 1932, editor Farnsworth Wright subsequently prompted Howard to write an 8, 000-word essay for personal use detailing the Hyborian Age, the fictional setting for Conan. Using this essay as his guideline, Howard began plotting The Tower of the Elephant, the publication and success of The Tower of the Elephant would spur Howard to write many more Conan stories for Weird Tales. By the time of Howards suicide in 1936, he had written 21 complete stories,17 of which had been published, following Howards death, the copyright of the Conan stories passed through several hands. Eventually, under the guidance of L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter, the stories were edited, revised, for roughly forty years, the original versions of Howards Conan stories remained out of print. In 1977 the publisher Berkley Books issued three volumes using the earliest published form of the texts from Weird Tales, but these failed to displace the edited versions. In the 1980s and 1990s, the holders of the Conan franchise permitted Howards stories to go out of print entirely. The Gollancz edition mostly used the versions of the stories as published in Weird Tales, in 2003, another British publisher, Wandering Star Books, made an effort both to restore Howards original manuscripts and to provide a more scholarly and historical view of the Conan stories. It published hardcover editions in England, which were republished in the United States by the Del Rey imprint of Ballantine Books. The first book, Conan of Cimmeria, Volume One includes Howards notes on his fictional setting, as well as letters and this was followed by Conan of Cimmeria, Volume Two and Conan of Cimmeria, Volume Three. These three volumes combined include all of the original, unedited Conan stories, the various stories of Conan the Barbarian occur in the fictional Hyborian Age, set after the destruction of Atlantis and before the rise of the known ancient civilizationsConan the Barbarian – A map of Robert E. Howard's Hyborian Age.
32. The Running Man (1987 film) – It is very loosely based on the 1982 novel The Running Man, written by Stephen King and published under the pseudonym Richard Bachman. Original director Andrew Davis was fired one week into filming and replaced by Glaser, schwarzenegger has stated this was a terrible decision as Glaser shot the movie like it was a television show, losing all the deeper themes. Schwarzenegger believes this hurt the movie, paula Abdul is credited with the choreography of the Running Man dance troupe. In 2017, after an economic collapse, the U. S. has become a totalitarian police state. Instead of joining the resistance, Richards seeks shelter at his brothers apartment and he finds it is now occupied by Amber Mendez, a composer for ICS, the network that broadcasts The Running Man. Richards asks Mendez about the whereabouts of his brother, and she says that he was taken for re-education, taking Amber hostage, Richards attempts to flee to Hawaii, but she alerts airport security and Richards is captured and taken to ICS. There, Killian blackmails him into participating in The Running Man in exchange for Laughlin and Weiss not participating, but learns that Killian had enrolled them as runners anyway. As the game begins, Richards and his friends are attacked by the first stalker, Subzero, then Laughlin and Weiss search for the networks uplink facilities, which they realize are in the game zone. Amber sees a news report on Richards capture and, suspicious of the medias veracity. She learns the truth about the massacre, but is captured by her own ICS colleagues, the runners split up, each pair pursued by a different stalker. Buzzsaw critically wounds Laughlin, but is killed by Richards, Weiss and Amber locate the uplink and learn the access codes, but Dynamo finds them and electrocutes Weiss. Ambers screams lead Richards to her, and, as the two evade Dynamo, the buggy flips, trapping him inside. Refusing to kill an opponent, Richards leaves Dynamo alive. He and Amber then return to Laughlin, who, before dying, back at ICS, Killian sees Richards popularity growing, with viewers betting on him instead of the stalkers. Off-camera, Killian tries to offer Richards a job as a stalker, but, Fireball goes after Amber, but Richards rescues her and kills him using his own weaponry. Frustrated and running out of options, Killian seeks Captain Freedom, however, when Freedom refuses, the network creates digital body doubles of Freedom, Richards and Amber, which are then used to fake Richards´ and Amber´s deaths on screen. In the game zone, Richards and Amber are found by Mic and taken to the resistances hideout, using the access codes, the rebels get into ICS control room, broadcasting footage that exonerates Richards and reveals the truth about the games previous winners. As Richards heads to the studio floor, shocking the audience who had watched him supposedly die, Amber fights and kills DynamoThe Running Man (1987 film) – Theatrical release poster
33. True Lies – It is a loose remake of the 1991 French comedy film La Totale. The film follows U. S. government agent Harry Tasker, for her performance, Curtis won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy and the Saturn Award for Best Actress, while Cameron won the Saturn Award for Best Director. The film ultimately grossed $378 million worldwide at the box-office and was nominated at the Academy Awards and BAFTAs in the Best Visual Effect category. Harry suspects that antiques dealer Juno Skinner has ties to Aziz, though the initial investigation proves fruitless, Aziz correctly identifies Harry as a spy and tries to kill him. Harry kills two of Azizs men and pursues the leader through the streets of Washington, D. C. as a result, Harry misses the birthday party that Helen and Dana had arranged for him. Harry heads to Helens office the day to surprise her for lunch. He uses Omega Sector resources to learn that Simon is a car salesman. While masked, Harry and a team of agents kidnap Helen while she is at Simons trailer, using a voice masking device, Harry interrogates Helen and learns that, due to his constant absence, she is desperately seeking adventure. Harry thus arranges for Helen to participate in a spy mission. The figure turns out to be Harry, who hopes to surprise Helen, however, things take a turn for the worse when Azizs men burst in, kidnap the couple, and take them to an island in the Florida Keys. He then orders the couple to be tortured, Harry reveals his life to an understandably shocked Helen. The couple stage an escape, Harry fighting off Azizs men with an improvised flamethrower, Aziz preps one of the warheads to detonate in ninety minutes, and loads the rest onto trucks to be taken elsewhere. During the ensuing chaos, Helen is captured by Juno and taken with the convoy on the Overseas Highway, having tracked Harry via Helens tracker, he is rescued by agents led by Gib and together they begin pursuit the convoy, sending two Harrier Jump Jets. The jets destroy part of the bridge to cut off the escape route. Upon safely returning to the mainland, they learn that Aziz and his men have control of a Miami skyscraper via helicopter and have kidnapped Dana. Harry commandeers one of the jets to rescue his daughter, faisal poses as part of a news team requested by Aziz, providing enough distraction for Dana to steal the ignition key and flee the room. Aziz chases Dana onto a crane when Harry arrives. Harry is able to rescue Dana while he and Aziz struggle in the cockpit, Aziz becomes ensnared on the end of one of the planes missiles, which Harry fires at the passing terrorist helicopter — destroying it and the remaining bomb on boardTrue Lies – Theatrical release poster
34. Terminator Salvation – Terminator Salvation is a 2009 American post-apocalyptic science fiction war film directed by McG and starring Christian Bale and Sam Worthington. It is the installment of the Terminator franchise. It focuses on the war between Skynets machine network and humanity, the remnants of the military have organized as the Resistance. Bale portrays John Connor, Resistance fighter and central character to the franchise, Terminator Salvation also featured Anton Yelchin as a young Kyle Reese, a character first introduced in The Terminator, and the film depicts the origin of the T-800 Terminator. Terminator Salvation was released on May 21,2009 in the United States and Canada, followed by early June releases in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Warner Bros. handled the North American release while Columbia Pictures handled the international release. The film grossed over $371 million worldwide and met mixed reviews. A reboot of the franchise occurred with the release of Terminator Genisys in 2015. In 2003, Dr. Serena Kogan of Cyberdyne Systems convinces death row inmate Marcus Wright to sign over his body for medical research following his execution. In 2018, John Connor leads an attack on a Skynet base, where he discovers human prisoners and schematics for a new type of Terminator, incorporating living tissue, Connor survives a violent assault on the base, which is later destroyed in a nuclear explosion. Following Connors departure, Wright emerges from the wreckage and begins walking towards Los Angeles. Connor returns to the Resistance headquarters located aboard a nuclear submarine, the Resistance has discovered a hidden signal containing a code protocol which they believe can initiate a permanent shutdown of Skynets machines. Working on this intelligence, the militia plan to launch an offensive against the Skynet base in San Francisco. Connor learns he is second on this list, following Kyle Reese, the Resistance leaders are unaware of Reeses importance, but Connor knows Reese will eventually travel back in time and become his father. Arriving at the ruins of Los Angeles, Wright encounters Reese, Reese and Star are subsequently abducted and taken prisoner by Skynet. Later, two Resistance A-10 airplanes are shot down trying to intercept a machine transport. Wright locates downed pilot Blair Williams, as they make their way to Connors base, attempting to save his life, the Resistance fighters discover that Wright is indeed a cyborg, with a mechanical endoskeleton and a partially artificial cerebral cortex. Although Wright believes himself to be human, Connor thinks that Wright has been sent to execute him, Connor pleads with General Ashdown to delay the offensive so he can formulate a plan to extract the human captives, but Ashdown refuses and relieves Connor of his command. However, the Resistance disobey Ashdowns orders and instead, await Connors signal, Wright enters the base, interfaces with the computer, and disables perimeter defenses so that Connor can infiltrate the cellblock and release human prisonersTerminator Salvation – International theatrical release poster
35. Golden Globe Award – Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a part of the film industrys awards season. The 74th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film, the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, was held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel. In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish an honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as a figure within the entertainment industry. The official name of the award became the Cecil B. In 1963, the Miss Golden Globe concept was introduced, in its inaugural year, two Miss Golden Globes were named, one for film and one for television. The two Miss Golden Globes named that year were Eva Six and Donna Douglas, respectively, in 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned. It was unveiled at a conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. The broadcast of the Golden Globe Awards, telecast to 167 countries worldwide, generally ranks as the third most-watched awards show each year, behind only the Oscars, gervais returned to host the 68th and 69th Golden Globe Awards the next two years. Tina Fey and Amy Poehler hosted the 70th, 71st and 72nd Golden Globe Awards in 2015, the Golden Globe Awards theme song, which debuted in 2012, was written by Japanese musician and songwriter Yoshiki Hayashi. On January 7,2008, it was announced due to the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike. The ceremony was faced with a threat by striking writers to picket the event, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association was forced to adopt another approach for the broadcast. In acting categories, Meryl Streep holds the record for the most competitive Golden Globe wins with eight, however, including honorary awards, such as the Henrietta Award, World Film Favorite Actor/Actress Award, or Cecil B. DeMille Award, Barbra Streisand leads with nine, additionally, Streisand won for composing the song Evergreen, producing the Best Picture, and directing Yentl in 1984. Jack Nicholson, Angela Lansbury, Alan Alda and Shirley MacLaine have six awards each, behind them are Rosalind Russell and Jessica Lange with five wins. Meryl Streep also holds the record for most nominations with thirty, at the 46th Golden Globe Awards an anomaly occurred, a three way-tie for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – DramaGolden Globe Award – The Golden Globe statuette
36. Terminator 2: Judgment Day – Terminator 2, Judgment Day is a 1991 American science-fiction action film co-written, produced and directed by James Cameron. The film stars Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, Robert Patrick and it is the sequel to the 1984 film The Terminator, and the second installment in the Terminator franchise. A second, less advanced Terminator is also sent back in time to protect John, after a troubled pre-production characterized by legal disputes, Mario Kassar of Carolco Pictures emerged with the franchises property rights in early 1990. This paved the way for the completion of the screenplay by a Cameron-led production team, the production of Terminator 2 required a $102 million budget making it the most expensive film made up to that point. Much of the massive budget was spent on filming and special effects. The film was released on July 3,1991, in time for the U. S, Terminator 2 was a critical and commercial success and influenced popular culture, especially the use of visual effects in films. It received many accolades, including four Academy Awards for Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, Best Makeup, in 1995, John Connor is living in Los Angeles with foster parents. Skynet sends a new Terminator, designated as T-1000, back in time to kill John, the T-1000 arrives under a freeway, kills a policeman and assumes his identity. Meanwhile, the future John Connor has sent back a reprogrammed T-800 Terminator to protect his young counterpart, the Terminator and the T-1000 converge on John in a shopping mall, and a chase ensues after which John and the Terminator escape together on a motorcycle. Fearing that the T-1000 will kill Sarah in order to get to him and they encounter Sarah as she is escaping from the hospital, although she is initially reluctant to trust the T-800. After the trio escapes from the T-1000 in a police car, in addition, it would create machines that will hunt and kill the remnants of humanity. Finding him at his home, she wounds him but finds herself unable to kill him in front of his family, John and the Terminator arrive and inform Dyson of the future consequences of his work. They learn that much of his research has been engineered from the damaged CPU. Convincing him that these items and his designs must be destroyed, they break into the Cyberdyne building and retrieve the CPU, the police arrive and Dyson is shot, but he manages to trigger several explosives, destroying the lab and his research while sacrificing himself. The T-1000 relentlessly pursues the trio, eventually cornering them in a steel mill. The T-1000 and the Terminator engage in combat, with the advanced model severely damaging its adversary. The T-800 is seemingly shut down until its emergency back-up system brings it back online, the T-1000 nearly kills John and Sarah until the T-800 appears and shoots it into a vat of molten steel with an M79 grenade launcher, destroying it. John tosses the arm and CPU of the original Terminator into the vat as well, as Sarah expresses relief that the ordeal is over, the Terminator explains that to ensure that he is not used for reverse engineering he must also be destroyedTerminator 2: Judgment Day – Theatrical release poster
37. Junior (1994 film) – Junior is a 1994 American comedy film directed and produced by Ivan Reitman, and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Danny DeVito and Emma Thompson. The film was released in the United States on November 23,1994, the film follows Alex Hesse, an Austrian-American scientist who agrees to undergo a male pregnancy as part of a scientific experiment. Despite the films reception, Schwarzenegger and Thompson received Golden Globe nominations for their performances. The films theme song, Patty Smyths Look What Love Has Done was also recognized and it is also Schwarzeneggers third collaboration with DeVito, following 1988s Twins and preceding 1993s Last Action Hero, and second with Pamela Reed after 1990s Kindergarten Cop. Unfortunately, they are not allowed to test it on women since the Food and Drug Administration has not yet approved the drug, so Hesse, in response, Hesse breaks into the laboratory and locks himself in. Diana Reddin from the ovum cryogenics department and that night, Hesse has a nightmare in which his potential offspring has his own face pasted onto it. That day, he complains to Arbogast that his nipples are hurting him, later, the normally aloof Hesse inexplicably lightens up and chats incessantly about walks, massages, and naps. Reddin tells Hesse that being a woman is not as great as it sounds, meanwhile, Arbogasts pregnant ex-wife, Angela, wants him to be the doctor delivering her baby. Hesse begins to wonder what it would be like to be a father and he later begins overreacting, with Angela noting his practice of mixing cuisines. It is revealed that the Junior ovum is actually from Reddins own body, banes wants to take credit for the experiment despite having no role in it. Arbogast disguises Hesse as a woman and hides him in a retreat for expecting mothers outside the city, eventually, after a visit from Reddin, Hesse experiences abdominal pain due to the damage that the baby is doing to his abdomen. While shut away in his room, Hesse calls both Arbogast and Reddin. When Arborgasts car arrives at the hospital, he disappoints the media when he brings out his own pregnant ex-wife, banes, who had summoned the university dean and the press to witness the worlds first pregnant man, is discredited and fired. Meanwhile, Reddin and Hesse have snuck to the back of the hospital, while acting as Hesses decoy double, at the hospital, Angela goes into labor. Hesse has an emergency caesarean section, where he is given an epidural even though hes at risk as is the baby. Reddin, not being able to help Hesse through this time, is sent by Arbogast to keep Angela company, Reddin walks into the waiting room to find Angela in labor and ends up being her labor coach, since theres no hospital staff available. Arbogast announces the arrival to Reddin, who is on hands, Reddin hands Angela over to Arbogast and rushes off to see Hesse as Arbogast has Angela prepped for childbirth. Reddin visits Hesse in the Post-op, getting her first glance at her baby, Arbogast delivers Angelas child and the two reconcile to raise the boy, Jake, as their ownJunior (1994 film) – Theatrical release poster
38. Box Office Mojo – Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic, algorithmic way, founded in 1999. In 2008, Box Office Mojo was bought by the Internet Movie Database, the website is widely used within the film industry as a source of data. From 2002–11, Box Office Mojo had forums popular with film fans, on October 10,2014, the websites URL was redirected to Amazons IMDB. com website for one day, but the website returned the following day without explanation. Brandon Gray began the site in 1999, in 2002, Gray partnered with Sean Saulsbury and grew the site to nearly two million readers. In July 2008, the company was purchased by Amazon. com through its subsidiary, Box Office Mojo had forums with more than 16,500 registered users. On November 2,2011 the forums were closed along with any user accounts. Tracking is still very closely to the day by day, actual tabulation of distributors. The site also creates an overall chart, combining all box office returns from around the world, excluding the United States. The overall weekend chart currently tracks the Top 40 films as well as approximately fifty additional films with no ranking, the site additionally has yearly and all time features for its various territories. Box Office Mojo was as of June 2009 reporting limited data from overseas and is work on improvements, most of the international charts have not been updated since November 2014. On October 10,2014, all traffic to Box Office Mojo was redirected to IMDbs box office page, queries about the closure to IMDb and Amazon representatives were met with no response. Neither Brandon Gray, who founded the website but left several years ago after its sale to Amazon, nor Ray Subers, on Ray Subers Twitter account, he revealed the websites return, but also stated he would not answer any questions pertaining to closure. Subers subsequently left the website seven months laterBox Office Mojo – Box Office Mojo homepage
39. Robert Redford – Charles Robert Redford Jr. is an American actor, director, producer, businessman, environmentalist, and philanthropist. Redford is the founder of the Sundance Film Festival, Redfords career began in 1960 as a guest star on numerous TV shows, including, The Untouchables, Perry Mason, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, and The Twilight Zone, among others. He earned an Emmy nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Voice of Charlie Pont and his greatest Broadway success was as the stuffy newlywed husband of Elizabeth Ashley in Neil Simons Barefoot in the Park. Redford made his debut in War Hunt. His role in Inside Daisy Clover won him a Golden Globe for best new star and he starred in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, which was a huge success and made him a major star. The popular and acclaimed All the Presidents Men was a film for Redford. The first film that Redford directed, Ordinary People, was one of the most critically and publicly acclaimed films of the decade, winning four Oscars, and in the same year, he starred in Brubaker. He starred in Out of Africa, which was a critical and box office success. He released his film as a director, A River Runs Through It. Redford won the 1980 Academy Award for Best Director in 1981 for directing Ordinary People and he was previously nominated for Best Actor in 1974 for his performance in The Sting, and went on to receive Best Director and Best Picture nominations in 1995 for Quiz Show. He won a second Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2002, in 2010, he was made a chevalier of the Légion dHonneur. He has won BAFTA, Directors Guild of America, Golden Globe, in April 2014, Time Magazine included Redford in their annual TIME100 as one of the Most Influential People in the World, declaring him the Godfather of Indie Film. In 2016, President Barack Obama honored Redford with a Presidential Medal of Freedom, Redford was born on August 18,1936, in Santa Monica, California to Martha W. and Charles Robert Redford, Sr. a milkman-turned-accountant. He has a stepbrother, William, from his fathers remarriage, Redford is of English, Irish, Scottish, and Scots-Irish ancestry. Redfords family moved to Van Nuys, California, while his father worked in El Segundo and he attended Van Nuys High School, where he was classmates with baseball pitcher Don Drysdale. He has described himself as having been a bad student, finding inspiration outside the classroom and he hit tennis balls with Pancho Gonzales at the Los Angeles Tennis Club to warm him up. After graduating from school in 1954, he attended the University of Colorado in Boulder for a year and a half. While there, he worked at the restaurant/bar The Sink, a painting of his likeness is prominent in the bars murals, while at Colorado, Redford began drinking heavily, and as a result lost his half-scholarship and was kicked out of schoolRobert Redford – Robert Redford in 2012
40. 300 (film) – 300 is a 2006 American epic fantasy war film based on the 1998 comic series of the same name by Frank Miller and Lynn Varley. Both are fictionalized retellings of the Battle of Thermopylae within the Persian Wars, the film was directed by Zack Snyder, while Miller served as executive producer and consultant. It was filmed mostly with a chroma key technique, to help replicate the imagery of the original comic book. The plot revolves around King Leonidas, who leads 300 Spartans into battle against the Persian god-King Xerxes, as the battle rages, Queen Gorgo attempts to rally support in Sparta for her husband. The story is framed by a narrative by the Spartan soldier Dilios. Through this narrative technique, various fantastical creatures are introduced, placing 300 within the genre of historical fantasy, the events are revealed to be a story told by Delios, the only one of the 300 Spartans to survive the battle. 300 was released in conventional and IMAX theaters in the United States on March 9,2007, and on DVD, Blu-ray Disc. A sequel, entitled Rise of an Empire, which is based on Millers unpublished graphic novel prequel Xerxes, was released on March 7,2014. In 479 BC, one year after the famed Battle of Thermopylae, Dilios, the Ephors consult the Oracle, who decrees that Sparta will not go to war during the Carneia. As Leonidas angrily departs, a messenger from Xerxes appears, rewarding the Ephors for their covert support, at Thermopylae, they construct the wall made up of stones and slain Persian scouts as mortar, angering the Persian Emissary. Stelios, an elite Spartan soldier, orders him to go back to the Persian lines, meanwhile, Leonidas encounters Ephialtes, a deformed Spartan whose parents fled Sparta to spare him certain infanticide. Ephialtes asks to redeem his fathers name by joining Leonidas army, warning him of a path the Persians could use to outflank. Though sympathetic, Leonidas rejects him since his deformity physically prevents him from holding his shield high enough, potentially compromising the phalanx formation, the battle begins soon after the Spartans refusal to lay down their weapons. Using the Hot Gates to their advantage, as well as their superior fighting skills, in response, Xerxes sends in his elite guard, the Immortals, later that night. Despite some Spartans being killed, they defeat the Immortals. On the second day, Xerxes sends in new waves of armies from Asia and other Persian city-states, including war elephants, to crush the Spartans once and for all, but to no avail. Meanwhile, Ephialtes defects to Xerxes to whom he reveals the secret path in exchange for wealth, luxury, the Arcadians retreat upon learning of Ephialtes betrayal, but the Spartans stay. Leonidas orders an injured but reluctant Dilios to return to Sparta and tell them of what has happened, in Sparta, Queen Gorgo tries to persuade the Spartan Council to send reinforcements to aid the 300300 (film) – Theatrical release poster
41. Alien vs. Predator (film) – Alien vs. Predator is a 2004 science fiction action horror film directed by Paul W. S. Anderson and starring Sanaa Lathan, Lance Henriksen and Raoul Bova. Anderson, Dan OBannon and Ronald Shusett wrote the story, and Anderson and their writing was influenced by Aztec mythology, the comic book series, and the writings of Erich von Däniken. Set in 2004, this follows a group of archaeologists assembled by billionaire Charles Bishop Weyland for an expedition near the Antarctic to investigate a mysterious heat signal. Weyland hopes to claim the find for himself, and his group discovers a pyramid below the surface of a whaling station, hieroglyphs and sculptures reveal that the pyramid is a hunting ground for young Predators who kill Aliens as a rite of passage. The humans are caught in the middle of a battle between the two species and attempt to prevent the Aliens from reaching the surface, the film was released on August 13,2004 in North America and received negative reviews from film critics. The film grossed over $172 million at the box office. The film was followed by a sequel, Aliens vs. Predator, in 2004, a satellite detects a mysterious heat bloom beneath Bouvetøya, an island about one thousand miles off the coast of Antarctica. Wealthy industrialist Charles Bishop Weyland discovers through thermal imaging that there is a pyramid buried 2000 feet beneath the ice and he attempts to claim it for his multinational communications company, Weyland Industries, a subsidiary of the Weyland Corporation, and assembles a team of experts to investigate. The team includes archaeologists, linguistic experts, drillers, mercenaries, as a Predator ship reaches Earths orbit, it fires a beam that creates a passage through the ice towards the source of the heat bloom. When the team arrives at the whaling station above the heat source, they find the passage. Meanwhile, three Predators arrive and kill all the humans on the surface and they make their way down to the pyramid and arrive just as the team unwittingly activates the structure. The Alien Queen awakes from cryogenic stasis and begins to produce eggs, when the eggs hatch, several facehuggers attach themselves to humans trapped in the sacrificial chamber. Chestbursters emerge from the humans and quickly grow into adult Aliens, conflict erupts between the Predators, Aliens, and humans, resulting in several deaths. Two Predators are killed by an Alien, and Weyland is killed by the remaining Predator, Scar, while allowing Alexa, the two witness the Predator kill a facehugger and an Alien with a shuriken before unmasking and marking himself with the blood of the facehugger. After Alexa and Sebastian leave, another facehugger attaches itself to the unmasked Predator, through translation of the pyramids hieroglyphs, Alexa and Sebastian learn that the Predators have been visiting Earth for thousands of years. It was they who taught early human civilizations how to build pyramids, if overwhelmed, the Predators would activate a self-destruct device to eliminate the Aliens and themselves. The two deduce that this is why the current Predators are at the pyramid, and that the bloom was to attract humans for the sole purpose of making new Aliens to hunt. Alexa and Sebastian decide that the Predators must be allowed to succeed in their hunt so that the Aliens do not reach the surface, then Sebastian is captured by an Alien, leaving only Alexa and Scar to fight against the AliensAlien vs. Predator (film) – Theatrical release poster
42. Atlantis: The Lost Empire – Set in 1914, the film tells the story of a young man who gains possession of a sacred book, which he believes will guide him and a crew of mercenaries to the lost city of Atlantis. Development of the film began after production had finished on The Hunchback of Notre Dame, instead of another musical, the production team decided to do an action-adventure film inspired by the works of Jules Verne. Atlantis was notable for adopting the distinctive style of comic book creator Mike Mignola. Linguist Marc Okrand created a language specifically for use in Atlantis, the film was released at a time when audience interest in animated films was shifting away from hand-drawn animation toward films with full CGI. Atlantis, The Lost Empire premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California on June 3,2001, released by Walt Disney Pictures, Atlantis performed modestly at the box office. Budgeted at $100 million, the film grossed over $186 million worldwide, due to the films lackluster box office performance, Disney quietly canceled both a spin-off television series and an underwater attraction at its Disneyland theme park. Some critics praised it as a departure from typical Disney animated features. Atlantis was nominated for a number of awards, including seven Annie Awards, the film was released on VHS and DVD on January 29,2002, the Blu-ray released on June 11,2013. Atlantis is considered to be a favorite, due in part to Mignolas unique artistic influence. A direct-to-video sequel, Atlantis, Milos Return, was released in 2003, many centuries ago, a large tidal wave triggered by a distant explosion threatens to drown the island of Atlantis. The crystal consumes her and creates a barrier that protects the citys innermost district. She leaves behind her daughter, Princess Kida, as the island sinks beneath the ocean. After the museum board declines his proposal to search for the journal, Whitmore has already funded a successful effort to retrieve the journal as repayment of a debt to Milos grandfather, recruiting Milo to lead an expedition to Atlantis, as soon as he receives it. The expedition departs with a team of specialists led by Commander Lyle Rourke and they set out in the Ulysses, a massive submarine. During the journey, they are attacked by the monstrous Leviathan, the Ulysses is subsequently destroyed, but Milo, Rourke, and part of the crew escape by making their way to an underground cavern, described in the journal as the entrance to Atlantis. After traveling through a network of caves and a dormant volcano and they are greeted by Kida who resembles a young woman and discover that the Atlantean language is the basis of many existing languages. Kida enlists Milos aid in deciphering the Atlantean written language, long forgotten by the natives and he is surprised this is not mentioned in the journal, but recalls that a page is missing. Returning to the surface with Kida, Milo discovers Rourke has the missing page, Rourke and the crew betray Milo, intending to bring the crystal to the surface and sell itAtlantis: The Lost Empire – Theatrical release poster
43. B movie – A B movie is a low-budget commercial movie, but one that is not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, although the U. S. production of movies intended as second features largely ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in the broader sense it maintains today. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction, early B movies were often part of series in which the star repeatedly played the same character. Almost always shorter than the films they were paired with. The term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more handsomely budgeted headliners, latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels, but series are less common. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures, the term is also now used loosely to refer to some higher-budgeted, mainstream films with exploitation-style content, usually in genres traditionally associated with the B movie. From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies and they are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, and they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black. Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine and Pam Grier, the term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work primarily or exclusively in B pictures. In 1927–28, at the end of the silent era, the production cost of a feature from a major Hollywood studio ranged from $190,000 at Fox to $275,000 at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. That average reflected both specials that might cost as much as $1 million and films made quickly for around $50,000. These cheaper films allowed the studios to derive value from facilities. Studios in the leagues of the industry, such as Columbia Pictures and Film Booking Offices of America. Their movies, with short running times, targeted theaters that had to economize on rental and operating costs, particularly small-town and urban neighborhood venues. A new programming scheme developed that would become standard practice, a newsreel, a short and/or serial. The second feature, which screened before the main event. The majors clearance rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents timely access to top-quality films, the low-budget picture of the 1920s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywoods Golden Age. The major studios, at first resistant to the double feature, all established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature marketB movie – The "King of the Bs", Roger Corman, produced and directed The Raven (1963) for American International Pictures. Vincent Price headlines a cast of veteran character actors along with a young Jack Nicholson.
44. Bale Out – Bale Out, RevoLucians Christian Bale Remix. is a satirical dance remix by American composer Lucian Piane, also known as RevoLucian, released on February 2,2009, to YouTube and Myspace. The piece parodies Christian Bale by utilizing audio from a July 2008 rant made by the actor on the set of Terminator Salvation. The day after its release, the YouTube page for the song had been viewed over 200,000 times, the Associated Press called it a hypnotic dance track, and United Press International noted it was catchy, characterizing it as a YouTube sensation. Gil Kaufman of MTV. com described the piece as a techno-ripping, time magazines website called the track hilarious, and Nine News characterized it as a raging online success. The director of Terminator Salvation McG liked the remix and put a copy of it on his iPod, in July 2008, Christian Bale was filming a scene in New Mexico for the film Terminator Salvation with actress Bryce Dallas Howard. The films director of photography, Shane Hurlbut, walked into Bales line of sight, Bale said he would quit the film if Hurlbut repeated the error and was not subsequently fired. Hurlbut responded calmly and apologized several times to Bale, and continued shooting for seven hours after the incident, the website TMZ. com reported the occurrence soon after it happened, and posted an audio recording on February 2,2009. The event did not become widely publicized until after TMZ. com had posted the audio of Bales outburst, TMZ. com reported that film executives for Terminator Salvation sent a copy of the audio recording to the films insurance company, in case Bale refused to continue filming. Four days after the recording was posted to the Internet, Bale appeared as a guest on Los Angeles radio station KROQ-FM. He said he acted like a punk, and that he and Hurlbut talked after the conflict and resolved this completely. Bale acknowledged the two worked together for hours after the episode, and at least a month after that. Senator John Kerry at the University of Florida, the Associated Press reported that Piane was drawn to the musicality of Bales rage-filled voice. Piane spent three hours working on the remix, when I heard Christian Bale flip out I had to remix the track. Its good to hear that clubs have started playing it as it is very funny. In an interview with LA Weekly, Piane commented that he wants his remix remembered, instead of Bales outburst, so I figured, remembering that one time Christian Bale went crazy on set, maybe people will remember the remix. The Bale Out mashup incorporates audio clips of Bale lashing out, the chorus includes a clip of Bale saying its fucking distracting, and What dont you fuckin understand. The sound collage includes clips of Barbra Streisand from a 2006 exchange with a supporter of former-President George W. Bush, Piane told the Associated Press, I dont know if Christian Bale is enjoying it, but I hope he does. I think Ive taken something that made him look really badBale Out – Christian Bale in July 2008, the same month as his outburst
45. Barton Fink – Barton Fink is a 1991 American period film written, produced, directed and edited by the Coen brothers. The Coens wrote the screenplay for Barton Fink in three weeks while experiencing difficulty during the writing of Millers Crossing and they began filming the former soon after Millers Crossing was finished. The film is influenced by works of several directors, particularly Roman Polanskis Repulsion. Barton Fink had its premiere at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1991, in a rare sweep, it won the Palme dOr, as well as awards for Best Director and Best Actor. Although the film was a box office bomb, only grossing $6 million against its $9 million budget, it received positive reviews and was nominated for three Academy Awards. The diverse elements of the film have led it to defy efforts at classification, with the work being variously referred to as a film noir, a horror film, a Künstlerroman. P. Mayhew are often seen as fictional representations, despite disagreement around certain details of the work, Barton Fink continues to be positively received, with screenwriter Charlie Kaufman among its admirers. In 1941, Barton Finks first Broadway play, Bare Ruined Choirs, has achieved critical and his agent informs him that Capitol Pictures in Hollywood has offered him a thousand dollars per week to write film scripts. Barton hesitates, worried that moving to California would separate him from the common man and he accepts the offer, however, and checks into the Hotel Earle, a large and unusually deserted building. His room is sparse and draped in subdued colors, its decoration is a small painting of a woman on the beach. In his first meeting with Capitol Pictures boss Jack Lipnick, Barton explains that he chose the Earle because he wants lodging that is less Hollywood, Lipnick promises that his only concern is Bartons writing ability and assigns his new employee to a wrestling film. Back in his room, however, Barton is unable to write and he is distracted by sounds coming from the room next door, and he phones the front desk to complain. His neighbor, Charlie Meadows, is the source of the noise and visits Barton to apologize, as they talk, Barton proclaims his affection for the common man, and Charlie describes his life as an insurance salesman. Later, Barton falls asleep, but is awakened by the incessant whine of a mosquito, still unable to proceed beyond the first lines of his script, Barton consults producer Ben Geisler for advice. Irritated, the frenetic Geisler takes him to lunch and orders him to another writer for assistance. While in the room, Barton meets the novelist William Preston Bill Mayhew. They briefly discuss movie writing and arrange a meeting later in the day. When Barton arrives, Mayhew is drunk and yelling wildly and his secretary, Audrey Taylor, reschedules the meeting and confesses to Barton that she and Mayhew are in loveBarton Fink – Theatrical release poster
46. Battlefield Earth (film) – Battlefield Earth is a 2000 American science fiction action film based upon the first half of L. Ron Hubbards 1982 novel of the same name. Travolta, a long-time Scientologist, had sought for years to make a film of the novel by Hubbard. He was unable to obtain funding from any major studio due to concerns about the script, prospects. The project was taken on in 1998 by an independent production company, Franchise Pictures. Franchise Pictures was later sued by its investors and was bankrupted in 2004 after it emerged that it had overstated the films budget by $31 million. Battlefield Earth was released on May 12,2000, the film was a critical and commercial failure, and has been called one of the worst films of all time. Audiences were reported to have ridiculed early screenings and stayed away from the film after its opening weekend, which led to Battlefield Earth failing to recoup its costs. The film went on to receive a total of eight Golden Raspberry Awards and it has since become a cult film in the so bad, its good vein. Travolta originally envisioned Battlefield Earth as the first of two films to be adapted from the book, as the only covered the first half of the novel. However, the poor performance at the box office, as well as the collapse of Franchise Pictures. In the year 3000, Earth has been ruled for 1,000 years by the Psychlos, the remnants of humanity are either enslaved by the Psychlos and used for manual labor or survive in primitive tribes living in remote areas outside Psychlo control. Jonnie Goodboy Tyler, a member of one tribe, leaves his home in the Rocky Mountains on a journey of exploration. Terl, the Psychlo security chief on Earth, has been condemned by his superiors to remain indefinitely at his post on Earth as punishment for an incident involving the Senators daughter. Aided by his deputy, Ker, Terl devises a plan to buy his way off the planet by making a fortune using human slaves to mine gold in radioactive areas. Psychlos are unable to visit such areas due to the interaction of the gas they breathe with radionuclide particles. Terl selects Jonnie as his foreman for the project and gives him a Psychlo education using a rapid-learning machine, Terl gives Jonnie a party of slaves and a Psychlo flying shuttle and orders him to go out and find gold. After learning the Psychlos language, history, and myriad other things from the learning machine. He obtains gold from Fort Knox to satisfy Terls demands, Jonnie and his followers find an abandoned underground U. S. military base with working aircraft, weapons, fuel, and nuclear weaponsBattlefield Earth (film) – Theatrical release poster
47. Blackrock (film) – Blackrock is a 1997 Australian drama thriller film directed by Steven Vidler and written by Nick Enright. Marking Vidlers directorial debut, the film was adapted from the play of the name, also written by Enright. The film stars Laurence Breuls, Simon Lyndon and Linda Cropper, the film follows Jared, a young surfer who witnesses his friends raping a girl. When she is murdered the next day, Jared is torn between revealing what he saw and protecting his friends. Leighs family opposed the fictionalisation of her murder, though protests against the film were abandoned after it received backing from the New South Wales Film. While the film was never marketed as being based on a true story, the film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival, and was also shown at the Boston Film Festival, though it never found an American distributor. It was nominated for five AACTA Awards, including Best Film and it received generally positive reviews in Australia, where it grossed $1.1 million at the box office. Outside Australia, where audiences were less familiar with Leighs murder, Blackrock is an Australian beachside working-class suburb where surfing is popular among youths like Jared. His first serious girlfriend is Rachel, who comes from a wealthier part of the city. One day, Ricko, a popular among the local youths. Rachels father, a photographer who takes provocative images of women, forbids her from attending the party, while driving to the party, Toby sees Tracy, Cherie and two other girls, and gives them a ride. Jared flirts with Tracy at the party and subsequently gets into a fight with Toby, Ricko comes to Jareds defence, though Jared breaks up the fight after Ricko has hit Toby several times. Tracy comes to comfort Toby and Jared leaves the party to head to the beach alone, Jared sees Toby having consensual sex with Tracy on the beach. He then witnesses three of his male friends interrupting the couple and raping Tracy, Tracy calls out for help, though Jared, who is visibly disturbed by what he is witnessing, does not intervene. Toby and the three boys, who never noticed Jared was watching, flee the area. Jared also runs away, leaving Tracy alone and distressed, later that night Rachel, who has snuck out of home to attend the party, finds Tracys beaten corpse on the beach. Jared initially tells the police nothing of what he saw and he is torn between the need to tell the truth and the desire to protect his friends, his anger leads to the breakdown of his relationships with both Rachel and Diane. Despite Jareds silence, police arrest Toby and the three boys within a few daysBlackrock (film) – Theatrical release poster
48. The Boys from Baghdad High – The Boys from Baghdad High, also known as Baghdad High, is a British-American-French television documentary film. It was first shown in the United Kingdom at the 2007 Sheffield Doc/Fest and it also aired in many other countries including France, Australia, the United States, Canada, Germany and the Netherlands. It documents the lives of four Iraqi schoolboys of different religious or ethnic backgrounds over the course of one year in the form of a video diary, the documentary was filmed by the boys themselves, who were given video cameras for the project. The Boys from Baghdad High received high viewership when it aired in the UK. The documentary also received the Radio Times Readers Award, and a nomination for the Amnesty International 2008 Television Documentary, entering their final year in 2006, each has high expectations for the year ahead and hope to graduate so they can have a chance to attend university. At the same time, the boys must also deal with the sectarian violence that is starting to extend into Karrada. Many of their students, unmotivated and academically underperforming, are absent from school. Ali Shadman is one of the few Kurdish people remaining in Baghdad and his family are struggling financially and resort to siphoning petrol from their car to run their back-up generator when the power grid fails. When the generator breaks down one night, Ali begins to wonder why he is fixing it against a backdrop of gunfire, another night, he reports the neighbourhoods news but explains there is nothing to speak of other than the usual explosions, violence, and death. Anmar Refat, a Syriac Christian, tries to remain philosophical and his family, however, are more nervous about any nearby gunfire, as their Christian beliefs increase the threat to their lives if anyone were to find out about them. Hayder Khalid, a Shia Muslim, hopes to become a famous singer-songwriter and he frequently downloads music videos of English-language pop music so he can learn popular English songs and dance moves. Mohammad Raed, a Sunni Muslim, is the clown at school. Unaware of his behaviour at school, his mother believes he is hard-working, self-sufficient and mature, Mohammad, feeling lonely, adopts a bird with a broken wing and a mouse he finds in the house. This brings him comfort, but his mother later demands that he get rid of the mouse as she does not want vermin in the house. Mohammads family rejoice when Saddam Hussein is sentenced, and feel that his execution was justified. Conversely, Anmars family is upset at his execution, as they feel that the people who came into power were no better than Hussein was. Hyders mother says that many Iraqi people were hopeful about the arrival of American forces, and she notes that the bloodshed has yet to stop as the Sunni continues to kill the Shiite, and vice versa. As the film continues, Hyders family loses its income and they start to sell their furniture to earn extra money, at the end of the year, the boys must pass seven final exams to graduateThe Boys from Baghdad High – Tribeca Film Festival poster
49. Branded to Kill – Branded to Kill is a 1967 Japanese yakuza film directed by Seijun Suzuki and starring Joe Shishido, Koji Nanbara and Annu Mari. It was a low budget, production number for the Nikkatsu Company. The story follows Goro Hanada in his life as a contract killer and he falls in love with a woman named Misako, who recruits him for a seemingly impossible mission. When the mission fails, he becomes hunted by the phantom Number One Killer, the studio was unhappy with the original script and called in Suzuki to rewrite and direct it at the last minute. Suzuki came up many of his ideas the night before or on the set while filming. He gave the film a satirical, anarchic and visually eclectic bent which the studio had previously warned him away from and it was a commercial and critical disappointment and Suzuki was ostensibly fired for making movies that make no sense and no money. Suzuki successfully sued Nikkatsu with support from student groups, like-minded filmmakers, Suzuki was blacklisted and did not make another feature film for 10 years but became a counterculture hero. The film grew a following, which expanded overseas in the 1980s. Film critics and enthusiasts now regard it as an absurdist masterpiece and it has been cited as an influence by filmmakers such as Jim Jarmusch, John Woo, Chan-wook Park and Quentin Tarantino, and composer John Zorn. Thirty-four years after Branded to Kill, Suzuki filmed Pistol Opera with Nikkatsu, the company has also hosted two major retrospectives spotlighting his career. Goro Hanada, the Japanese underworlds third-ranked hitman, and his wife, Mami, fly into Tokyo and are met by Kasuga, Kasuga petitions Hanada to assist him in breaking back into the profession. Hanada agrees and the three go to a club owned by the yakuza boss Michihiko Yabuhara, the two men are hired to escort a client from Sagami Beach to Nagano. After the meeting, Yabuhara covertly seduces Hanadas wife, Hanada and Kasuga pick up a car designated for the job which unexpectedly has a corpse in the back seat. They dispose of the body, then meet the client and proceed towards their destination, en route Hanada spots an ambush. He dispatches a number of gunmen while Kasuga panics and flails about in hysterics, foaming at the mouth, Kasuga charges an ambusher, Koh, the fourth-ranked hitman, and they kill each other. Hanada leaves the client to secure Kohs car but hears three gunshots and rushes back to find the client is safe and three additional ambushers have been shot cleanly through the forehead. At a second ambush, Hanada kills more gunmen and sets Sakura, Sakura madly rushes towards the client but is shot dead by him. On his way home Hanadas car breaks down, Misako, a mysterious woman with a deathwish, stops and gives him a rideBranded to Kill – Original Japanese theatrical poster
50. Bride of Frankenstein – Bride of Frankenstein is a 1935 American science fiction horror film, the first sequel to Universal Pictures 1931 hit Frankenstein. It is considered one of the few sequels to a film that is even better than the original film on which it is based. As with the first film, Bride of Frankenstein was directed by James Whale, the sequel features Elsa Lanchester in the dual role of Mary Shelley and the Monsters mate at the end of the film. Colin Clive reprises his role as Henry Frankenstein, and Ernest Thesiger plays the role of Doctor Septimus Pretorius, the movie starts as an immediate sequel to the events that concluded the earlier film, and is rooted in a subplot of the original Mary Shelley novel, Frankenstein. The preparation to film the sequel began shortly after the premiere of the first film, principal photography began in January 1935, with creative personnel from the original returning in front of and behind the camera. Bride of Frankenstein was released to critical and popular acclaim, although it encountered difficulties with some state, since its release the films reputation has grown, and it has been hailed as Whales masterpiece. On a stormy night, Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron praise Mary Shelley for her story of Frankenstein, reminding them that her intention was to impart a moral lesson, Mary says she has more of the story to tell. The scene shifts to the end of the 1931 Frankenstein, villagers gathered around the burning windmill cheer the apparent death of the Monster. Their joy is tempered by the realization that Henry Frankenstein is also apparently dead, Hans, father of the girl the creature drowned in the previous film, wants to see the Monsters bones. He falls into a pit underneath the mill, where the Monster – having survived the fire – strangles him. Hauling himself from the pit, the Monster casts Hans wife into it to her death and he next encounters Minnie, who flees in terror. Henrys body is returned to his fiancée Elizabeth at his castle home. Minnie arrives to sound the alarm about the Monster, but her warning goes unheeded, Elizabeth, seeing Henry move, realizes he is still alive. Nursed back to health by Elizabeth, Henry has renounced his creation, a hysterical Elizabeth cries that she sees death coming, foreshadowing the arrival of Henrys former mentor, Doctor Septimus Pretorius. In his rooms, Pretorius shows Henry several homunculi he has created, including a queen, king, archbishop, devil, ballerina. Pretorius wishes to work with Henry to create a mate for the Monster and offers a toast to their venture, To a new world of gods, upon forcing Henry to help him, Pretorius will grow an artificial brain while Henry gathers the parts for the mate. The Monster saves a young shepherdess from drowning and her screams upon seeing him alert two hunters, who shoot and injure the creature. The hunters raise a mob that sets out in pursuit, captured and trussed to a pole, the Monster is hauled to a dungeon and chainedBride of Frankenstein – theatrical release poster
51. Cannibal Holocaust – Cannibal Holocaust is a 1980 Italian cannibal film directed by Ruggero Deodato from a screenplay by Gianfranco Clerici. It stars Carl Gabriel Yorke, Robert Kerman, Francesca Ciardi, Perry Pirkanen, influenced by the works of Mondo director Gualtiero Jacopetti, the film was inspired by Italian media reporting of Red Brigade terrorism. The coverage included news reports Deodato believed to be staged, an idea which became an aspect of the films story. Cannibal Holocaust was filmed primarily in the Amazon rainforest of Colombia with indigenous tribes interacting with American and Italian actors, the film tells the story of a missing documentary film crew who had gone to the Amazon to film cannibal tribes. A rescue mission, led by the New York University anthropologist Harold Monroe, recovers the film crews lost cans of film, which an American television station wishes to broadcast. Upon viewing the reels, Monroe is appalled by the teams actions, Cannibal Holocaust achieved notoriety as its graphic violence aroused a great deal of controversy. After its premiere in Italy, it was ordered to be seized by a local magistrate and he was later charged with making a snuff film due to rumors that claimed some actors were killed on camera. Some nations have since revoked the ban, though it is upheld in several countries. Critics have suggested that the film is a commentary about civilized versus uncivilized society, in 1979, an American film crew disappears in the Amazon rainforest in Peru while filming a documentary about indigenous cannibal tribes. The team consists of Alan Yates, the director, Faye Daniels, his girlfriend and script girl, Harold Monroe, an anthropologist at New York University, agrees to lead a rescue team in hopes of finding the missing filmmakers. In anticipation of his arrival, the military conducts a raid on the local Yacumo tribe, Monroe flies in via floatplane and is introduced to his guides, Chaco and his assistant, Miguel. After several days of trekking through the jungle, the group encounters the Yacumo tribe and they arrange the release of their hostage in exchange for being taken to the Yacumo village. Once there, the group initially meets hostility and learns that the filmmakers caused great unrest among the people, Monroe and his guides head deeper into the rainforest to locate two warring cannibal tribes, the Ya̧nomamö and the Shamatari. They encounter a group of Shamatari warriors and follow them to a riverbank where they save a group of Ya̧nomamö from death. The Ya̧nomamö invite Monroe and his back to their village. To gain their trust, Monroe bathes naked in a river, a group of Ya̧nomamö women emerge to join him and playfully bathe with him. Afterwards, they take him to a shrine where he discovers the remains of the filmmakers. Upset and angered, Monroe decides it is of utmost importance to recover the films and he confronts the Ya̧nomamö, and plays a tape recorder of tribal music for themCannibal Holocaust – Theatrical release poster
52. Casino Royale (2006 film) – Casino Royale is the 21st film in the Eon Productions James Bond film series and the first to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. Directed by Martin Campbell and written by Neal Purvis & Robert Wade and Paul Haggis, Casino Royale is set at the beginning of Bonds career as Agent 007, just as he is earning his licence to kill. The story arc continues in the following Bond film Quantum of Solace, Skyfall and Spectre also feature explicit references to characters and events in this film. Additionally, the character Miss Moneypenny is, for the first time in the series, casting the film involved a widespread search for a new actor to portray James Bond, and significant controversy surrounded Craig when he was selected to succeed Pierce Brosnan in October 2005. Location filming took place in the Czech Republic, the Bahamas, Italy, although part of the storyline is set in Montenegro, no filming took place there. Casino Royale was produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 14 November 2006. It received positive response, with reviewers highlighting Craigs reinvention of the character. It earned almost $600 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing James Bond film until the release of Skyfall in 2012. In Prague, James Bond assassinates turncoat MI6 section chief Dryden in his office as well as his terrorist contact in a bathroom in Lahore, earning him a licence to kill and status as a 00 agent. In Uganda, the mysterious liaison Mr. White introduces warlord Steven Obanno of the Lords Resistance Army to Le Chiffre, a terrorist financier. Obanno entrusts Le Chiffre with a sum of money, which the former uses to short-sell stock in the aerospace company Skyfleet. In turn, the funds will be used to establish an account for Obanno. In Madagascar, Bond pursues bomb maker Mollaka to an African embassy, shooting him dead, in London, MI6 chief M admonishes Bond for his rashness in violating diplomatic immunity, and advises him to rethink his future as an agent. Clues from Mollaka point to corrupt Greek official Alex Dimitrios, Bond finds Dimitrios in the Bahamas and after seducing his wife Solange, pursues him to Miami. Bond kills Dimitrios and follows his henchman to the airport and he thwarts the destruction of Skyfleets airliner, costing Le Chiffre his investment. To recoup the money, Le Chiffre sets up a high-stakes Texas hold em tournament at the Casino Royale in Montenegro. MI6 enters Bond in the tournament, believing a defeat will force Le Chiffre to seek asylum with the British government, on the train to Montenegro, Bond meets Vesper Lynd, a British Treasury agent there to protect the governments $10 million buy-in. In Montenegro, Bond and Vesper meet their MI6 contact, René Mathis, Bond gains the upper hand at the start of the game until a break, where Obanno, infuriated over the loss of his money, ambushes Le Chiffre in his suiteCasino Royale (2006 film) – British cinema poster for Casino Royale, designed by Empire Design
53. The Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – The Cat and the Canary is a 1927 American silent horror film adaptation of John Willards 1922 black comedy play of the same name. Directed by German Expressionist filmmaker Paul Leni, the film stars Laura La Plante as Annabelle West, Forrest Stanley as Charles Charlie Wilder, and Creighton Hale as Paul Jones. The plot revolves around the death of Cyrus West, who is Annabelle, Charlie, and Pauls uncle, Annabelle inherits her uncles fortune, but when she and her family spend the night in his haunted mansion they are stalked by a mysterious figure. Meanwhile, a known as the Cat escapes from an asylum. The film is part of a genre of horror films inspired by 1920s Broadway stage plays. Paul Lenis adaptation of Willards play blended expressionism with humor, a style Leni was notable for, Lenis style of directing made The Cat and the Canary influential in the old dark house genre of films popular from the 1930s through the 1950s. The film was one of Universals early horror productions and is considered the cornerstone of Universals school of horror, the play has been filmed five other times, with the most notable in 1939 starring comedic actor Bob Hope and Paulette Goddard. In a decaying mansion overlooking the Hudson River, millionaire Cyrus West approaches death and his greedy family descends upon him like cats around a canary, causing him to become insane. West orders that his last will and testament remain locked in a safe, as the appointed time arrives, Wests lawyer, Roger Crosby, discovers that a second will mysteriously appeared in the safe. The second will may only be opened if the terms of the first will are not fulfilled, the caretaker of the West mansion, Mammy Pleasant, blames the manifestation of the second will on the ghost of Cyrus West, a notion that the astonished Crosby quickly rejects. As midnight approaches, Wests relatives arrive at the mansion, nephews Harry Blythe, Charles Charlie Wilder, Paul Jones, his sister Susan Sillsby and her niece Cecily Young, Cyrus Wests fortune is bequeathed to the most distant relative bearing the name West, Annabelle. The will, however, stipulates that to inherit the fortune, she must be judged sane by a doctor, if she is deemed insane, the fortune is passed to the person named in the second will. The fortune includes the West diamonds which her uncle hid years ago, Annabelle realizes that she is now like her uncle, in a cage surrounded by cats. While the family prepares for dinner, a guard barges in, the guard tells Cecily, Hes a maniac who thinks hes a cat, and tears his victims like they were canaries. Meanwhile, Crosby suspects someone in the family try to harm Annabelle. Before he speaks the name, a hairy hand with long nails emerges from a secret passage in a bookshelf and pulls him in. When she explains what happened to Crosby, the family immediately concludes that she is insane, alone in her assigned room, Annabelle examines a note slipped to her which reveals the location of the family jewels, fashioned into an elaborate necklace. She follows the instructions and soon discovers the hiding placeThe Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – original 1927 window card
54. Chandralekha (1948 film) – Chandralekha is a 1948 Indian Tamil-language historical adventure film directed and produced by S. S. Vasan. Starring T. R. Rajakumari, M. K, the development of Chandralekha began in the early 1940s when, after two successive box office hits, Vasan announced that his next film would be titled Chandralekha. However, when he launched a campaign for the film. Veppathur Kittoo, one of his artists, eventually developed a story based on a chapter of George W. M. Reynolds novel Robert Macaire, or, The French bandit in England. The original director T. G. Raghavachari directed more than half of the film, then left the project because of disagreements with Vasan, originally made in Tamil and later in Hindi, Chandralekha was in production for five years from 1943 to 1948. It went through a number of changes to the script, cast, and production, Vasan mortgaged all of his property and even sold his jewellery to complete the film. Cinematography was by Kamal Ghosh and K. Ramnoth, the music was largely inspired by both Indian and Western classical music, it was composed by S. Rajeswara Rao and by M. D. Parthasarathy, with lyrics by Papanasam Sivan and Kothamangalam Subbu. Chandralekha was released on 8 April 1948 and received positive reviews. As a result, Vasan released the film in Hindi with some changes on 24 December of the year. South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout the country with the films release, the film inspired South Indian film producers to market their Hindi films in North India. It was dubbed in English, Japanese, Danish and other languages and was screened at Indian. Veerasimhan and Sasankan are the sons of a king, while passing through a village on his horse, Veerasimhan meets a village dancer named Chandralekha and they fall in love. At the palace, the king decides to abdicate in favour of Veerasimhan and this enrages the younger brother Sasankan, he forms a gang of thieves who embark on a crime spree. Chandralekhas father is injured in the chaos and dies soon after. Chandralekha, now orphaned, joins a band of travelling musicians whose caravan is raided by Sasankans men, Sasankan orders Chandralekha to dance for him, which she does only after being flogged, but she soon manages to escape. Later, Sasankan ambushes Veerasimhan and takes him prisoner, Chandralekha watches Sasankans men imprisoning Veerasimhan in a cave and sealing its entrance with a boulder. She rescues him with the help of elephants from a circus troupe. Veerasimhan and Chandralekha join the circus to hide themselves from Sasankans men, after returning to the palace, Sasankan imprisons his parents and declares himself kingChandralekha (1948 film) – International poster
55. Conan the Barbarian (1982 film) – Conan the Barbarian is a 1982 American fantasy adventure film directed and co-written by John Milius. It is based on stories by Robert E. Howard, a fiction writer of the 1930s, about the adventures of the eponymous character in a fictional pre-historic world of dark magic. Buzz Feitshans and Raffaella De Laurentiis produced the film for her father Dino De Laurentiis, ideas for a Conan film were proposed as early as 1970. Pressman and associate producer Edward Summer began an effort to get the film made in 1975. It took them two years to obtain the rights, after which they recruited Schwarzenegger for the lead role. Pressman lacked capital for the endeavor, and in 1979, after having his proposals for investments rejected by the major studios, Milius was appointed as director and he rewrote Stones script. The final screenplay integrated scenes from Howards stories and from such as Kwaidan. Filming took place in Spain over five months, in the regions around Madrid, the sets, designed by Ron Cobb, were based on Dark Age cultures and Frank Frazettas paintings of Conan. Milius eschewed optical effects, preferring to realize his ideas with mechanical constructs, Schwarzenegger performed most of his own stunts, and two types of swords, costing $10,000 each, were forged for his character. The editing process took over a year and several violent scenes were cut, academics and critics interpreted the film as advancing the themes of fascism or individualism, and the fascist angle featured in most of the criticisms of the film. Critics also negatively reviewed Schwarzeneggers acting and the violent scenes. Despite the criticisms, Conan was popular with young males, the film earned Schwarzenegger worldwide recognition. Conan has been released on home media, the sales of which had increased the films gross to more than $300 million by 2007. The films success led to the 1984 sequel Conan the Destroyer. A sword is forged by a blacksmith, who shows it to his young son, Conan, as he tells him of the Riddle of Steel, an aphorism on the importance of the metal to their people. One day, the Cimmerians are massacred by a band of warriors led by Thulsa Doom, Conans father is killed by dogs, the children are taken into slavery and then chained to a large mill, the Wheel of Pain. Conan survives into adulthood, building his muscles after years of pushing the heavy grindstone and his master eventually trains him to be a gladiator, after winning many pit fights and receiving training and education in the East, Conan is freed. He soon stumbles upon a tomb and retrieves a fine swordConan the Barbarian (1982 film) – Main promotional art by Renato Casaro for the film
56. A Cure for Pokeritis – A Cure for Pokeritis is a 1912 short silent film starring John Bunny and Flora Finch. After Bunnys death, a re-release was announced with the alternative title A Sure Cure for Pokeritis and this domestic comedy depicts a woman who stops her husbands gambling habit by having her cousin stage a fake police raid on the weekly poker game. It was one of many similar shorts produced by Vitagraph Studios, whose popularity made Bunny, although its style of humor is dated, it has been recognized as a historically important representative of its period and genre. Upon returning home from an evening spent losing at poker, George Brown swears off gambling forever, when George talks in his sleep, she becomes suspicious and has her cousin Freddie Dewdrop follow him, allowing her to learn the truth. Together with the wives of the poker players, she enacts a plan to end the gambling. Freddie and the members of his Bible study group dress up as police officers, the gamblers wives then arrive, and the police leave the men to be scolded, purportedly in place of being arrested. As the film ends, the Browns reconcile, the intended names of the characters played by John Bunny and Flora Finch are not entirely clear. In the film itself, the letter written to gather the wives together identifies the two characters as Mary and George Brown. However, Vitagraphs in-house publication included cast lists for all of the studios films, there, the main characters are referred to as Mr. and Mrs. Bunny Sharpe, and Mr. Brown is given as the name of one of the minor characters. The number of these shorts originally produced is unknown because Vitagraphs films were not archived. Estimates vary considerably, totals in excess of 150,200, the film was an early example of efforts to move beyond theater blocking conventions. During the police raid, depth was demonstrated by having action take place in both the foreground and the background, and by allowing actors to move between them and this cinematography technique improved the realism and pacing of the scene. Theaters projected silent films with a variety of musical accompaniment, depending on the film and the venue, accompanying music might have been the performance of a live pianist or orchestra, recorded music, or absent entirely. Some films were distributed with cue sheets indicating when music was to be played, beginning in 1910, Vitagraph provided lists of this nature for all of their films. Vitagraphs recommended music for A Cure for Pokeritis began with Im Glad Im Married, the studio suggested either I Dont Believe You or Im an Honorary Member of the Patsy Club be played as George presented his purported lodge membership. His sleep-talking was to be accompanied by If You Talk in Your Sleep, Dont Mention My Name, whoops, My Dear was to score the police raid, and Dont Take Me Home would play as the film ended. The Bunnygraphs, as a genre, were representative of the cinema of the period, a Cure for Pokeritis, released February 23,1912, was individually well-received, including in showings outside the United States. The Thames Star, a New Zealand newspaper, described the film as screamingly funny, after John Bunnys death, interest in his films led Vitagraph in 1917 to announce the re-release of this film, along with many of his other works, as Favorite Film FeaturesA Cure for Pokeritis – John Bunny and Flora Finch as George and Mary Brown
57. Diary of a Camper – Diary of a Camper is a short American film made using id Softwares 1996 first-person shooter video game Quake, released in 1996. It was created by United Ranger Films, then a subdivision of a group of video game players, or clan. The film was first released over the Internet as a game demo file. The video is considered the first known example of machinima—the art of using real-time, virtual 3D environments, often game engines. Although players had previously recorded segments of gameplay, these were usually deathmatches or speedruns, Diary of a Camper was the first demo to contain a narrative with text-based dialogue, instead of merely showing gameplay. Commentators have called the primitive, but acknowledge its importance in establishing video games as a medium for filmmaking. Diary of a Camper occurs entirely within the Quake map DM6, after exploring some of the area, the Rangers gather and decide to send two members, Sphinx and Pyoveli, to scout a room above. Shortly after they teleport into the room, the camper waiting there kills them both, as confirmed by in-game text messages appear on the screen. The remaining three Rangers—ColdSun, ArchV, and an unidentified member—realize their comrades fate and return fire from a distance, examining the remains, they identify their foe as John Romero. Diary of a Camper is built on the ability to record gameplay, using this feature, players could efficiently record game events, rather than the rendered video itself, and later replay them in real-time through the game engine. Dooms successor, Quake, offered new opportunities for both gameplay and customization, while preserving the demo recording ability. In the book Machinima, Kelland, Morris, and Lloyd stated that multiplayer games became popular, almost a sport, Paul Marino, executive director of the Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences, used a different analogy, Players began to record deathmatches with a more cinematic flair. He viewpoint of the player became the viewpoint of a director, the groups new demo surprised the Quake community by exploiting the game differently. According to Henry Lowood, Diary of a Camper contains the action and gore of previous gameplay demos, a BusinessWeek article compared the events of the film to those of a typical deathmatch. Like many of its predecessors, the demo was recorded in Quakes networked multiplayer deathmatch mode, the players were choreographed like actors. Delivering their lines as plain text, Lowood called the film a transformation of competitive play to. Minimal theatrical play, emphasized through the inclusion of references to gameplay, before Diary of a Campers release, Uwe Girlich, a German doctoral candidate, had documented the Quake demo file format, in which the player coordinates and the camera positions may be different. He added that for people too much spare-time Quake can replace a full 3D modelling systemDiary of a Camper – A scene from Diary of a Camper
58. Djaoeh Dimata – Djaoeh Dimata is a 1948 film from what is now Indonesia written and directed by Andjar Asmara for the South Pacific Film Corporation. Starring Ratna Asmara and Ali Joego, it follows a woman who goes to Jakarta to find work after her husband is blinded in an accident, sPFCs first production, Djaoeh Dimata took two to three months to film and cost almost 130,000 gulden. The films cast remained active in the Indonesian film industry, some for another thirty years, a copy of the film is stored at Sinematek Indonesia. A poor villager, Asrad, is blinded following a traffic accident, as a result, his wife Soelastri travels to the capital, Jakarta, to find a job. As Asrad does not trust his wife and fears she may be unfaithful, Soelastri becomes a singer, and – unknown to Asrad – soon achieves wide acclaim. Her most popular song, Djaoeh Dimata, receives heavy airplay on the radio, ultimately Soelastri is brought home by Soekarto, who attempts to pass her off as a maid for Asrad. When Asrad recognises his wifes voice, they are reconciled, the first two years of the 1940s saw a growth in the cinema of the Dutch East Indies, with over forty domestic productions released. Following the Japanese occupation in February 1942, production slowed greatly and nearly all film studios were closed, the last studio, the ethnic Chinese-owned Multi Film, was confiscated by the Japanese to establish the film production company Nippon Eigasha in Jakarta, the colonys capital. This included Multi Films equipment, with which Nippon Eigasha produced one feature film – Rd Ariffiens Berdjoang – six short films, and several newsreels. After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, a number of native Indonesian employees of Nippon Eigasha formed Berita Film Indonesia and this company was allied with the newly proclaimed Indonesian government. During the ensuing revolution, allied Dutch and British forces occupied Jakarta in November 1945, the Dutch took over the studio, and production of newsreels at Multi Films studios began in 1947 under the banner Regerings Film Bedrijf. The following year the Dutch established a company to produce fictional films. This new company, the South Pacific Film Corporation, was subsidised in part by the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration, however, as with his pre-war ventures, the native Indonesian Andjar was more of an acting and dialogue coach, the Dutch cinematographer, A. A. Denninghoff-Stelling, held more power over the final product. Max Tera served as assistant cinematographer on this black-and-white film, the film starred Ratna Asmara, Ali Yugo, Iskandar Sucarno, and Djauhari Effendi, all of whom had previous theatrical experience. Ratna and Ali, together with Andjar, had been members of the travelling troupe Dardanella in the early 1930s, Iskandar and Djauhari, meanwhile, had been active in the theatre during the occupation, both made their feature film debuts with Djaoeh Dimata. Principal photography was conducted on sets constructed by artistic director Hajopan Bajo Angin in SFPCs studio in Jakarta. The companys equipment was of quality, but conditions were detrimental to filmingDjaoeh Dimata – Newspaper advertisement, Surabaya
59. Dredd – Dredd is a 2012 science fiction action film directed by Pete Travis and written and produced by Alex Garland. It is based on the 2000 AD comic strip Judge Dredd and its eponymous character created by John Wagner and Carlos Ezquerra. Karl Urban stars as Judge Dredd, a law enforcer given the power of judge, jury and executioner in a vast, dystopic metropolis called Mega-City One that lies in a post-apocalyptic wasteland. Dredd and his partner, Judge Anderson, are forced to bring order to a 200-storey high-rise block of flats and deal with its resident drug lord. Garland began writing the script in 2006, although the development of a new Judge Dredd film adaptation, produced by British studio DNA Films, Dredd began principal photography, using 3D cameras throughout, in November 2010. Filming took place on sets and locations in Cape Town. Dredd was released on 7 September 2012 in the United Kingdom, despite the positive critical response, the film earned just over $41 million at the box office on an estimated budget of $30–45 million. Dredd saw greater success following its release, and has since been recognised as a cult film. The theatrical gross made an unlikely, but home media sales. The future United States is a dystopic irradiated wasteland known as the Cursed Earth, on the east coast lies Mega-City One, a violent metropolis with 800 million residents and 17,000 crimes reported daily. The only force for order are the Judges, who act as judge, jury, Judge Dredd is tasked by the Chief Judge with evaluating new recruit Cassandra Anderson, a powerful psychic who failed the aptitude tests to become a Judge. Dredd and Anderson are sent in to investigate and learn of a drug den and they arrest a thug named Kay, whom Andersons mind probe reveals to be the one who carried out the drug dealers executions. Dredd decides to take him in for questioning, Ma-Ma orders Dredd and Anderson killed, forcing the Judges to fight their way through dozens of armed thugs. Arriving at the 76th floor, the Judges are assaulted by Ma-Ma and her men with Vulcan cannons that rip through the walls, the Judges breach an outer wall and call for backup. Meanwhile, Ma-Ma sends her henchman Caleb to search for the Judges, when they meet, Dredd throws Caleb off the tower in full view of Ma-Ma. Dredd suspects Ma-Ma is desperate to keep Kay quiet and beats him for information, Anderson reads Kays mind and learns that Peach Trees is the centre of Slo-Mo production and distribution. Anderson suggests they hide while awaiting assistance but Dredd insists they move up the tower, Judges Volt and Guthrie respond to Dredds call, but Ma-Mas computer expert denies them entry by persuading them the security system is malfunctioning. A pair of armed teens confront Dredd and Anderson, allowing Kay to disarm, Kay then escapes with her as hostage, and takes her to Ma-Mas base on the top floorDredd – Theatrical release poster
60. Eraserhead – Eraserhead is a 1977 American surrealist body horror film written, produced, and directed by filmmaker David Lynch. Shot in black-and-white, Eraserhead is Lynchs first feature-length film, coming after several short works, the film was produced with the assistance of the American Film Institute during the directors time studying there. Throughout the film, Spencer experiences dreams or hallucinations, featuring his child, Eraserhead spent several years in principal photography because of the difficulty of funding the film, donations from Fisk and his wife Sissy Spacek kept production afloat. The film was shot on several locations owned by the AFI in California, including Greystone Mansion, Lynch and sound designer Alan Splet spent a year working on the films audio after their studio was soundproofed. The films soundtrack features music by Fats Waller and includes the song In Heaven. Initially opening to small audiences and little interest, Eraserhead gained popularity over several runs as a midnight movie. Since its release, the film has earned positive reviews, the surrealist imagery and sexual undercurrents have been seen as key thematic elements, and the intricate sound design as its technical highlight. Thematic analysis of the film has also highlighted these issues and has elaborated on Spencers fatalism, in 2004, the film was preserved in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress as being culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. The Man in the Planet pulls levers in his home in space, a giant spermatozoon-like creature emerges from Spencers mouth, floating into the void. The Man in the Planet appears to control the creature with his levers, in an industrial cityscape, Spencer walks home with his groceries. He is stopped outside his apartment by the Beautiful Girl Across the Hall, Spencer leaves his groceries in his apartment, which is filled with piles of dirt and dead vegetation. That night, Spencer visits Xs home, conversing awkwardly with her mother, at the dinner table, he is asked to carve a chicken that Xs talkative father, Bill has made, the bird writhes on the plate and gushes blood. After dinner, Spencer is cornered by Xs mother, who tries to kiss him and she tells him that X has had his child and that the two must marry. X, however, is not sure if what she bore is a child, the couple move into Spencers one-room apartment and begin caring for the child—a swaddled bundle with an inhuman, snakelike face, resembling the spermatozoon-like creature. The infant refuses all food, crying incessantly and intolerably, the sound drives X hysterical, and she leaves Spencer and the child. Spencer attempts to care for the child, and he learns that it struggles to breathe and has developed painful sores. Spencer begins experiencing visions, again seeing the Man in the Planet, as well as the Lady in the Radiator, soon afterwards, Spencers head sinks into a pool of blood and falls from the sky, landing on a street below. A boy finds it, bringing it to a factory to be turned into erasersEraserhead – Film poster
61. Evita (1996 film) – Evita is a 1996 American musical drama film based on Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webbers musical of the same name. The film depicts the life of Eva Perón, detailing her beginnings, rise to fame, political career, after Stone stepped down from the project in 1994, Parker agreed to write and direct the film. Recording sessions for the songs and soundtrack took place at CTS Studios in London, England. Parker worked with Rice and Lloyd Webber to compose the soundtrack, reworking the songs by creating the music first. They also wrote a new song, You Must Love Me, principal photography commenced in February 1996, and concluded in May of that year. Filming took place on locations in Buenos Aires and Budapest, the films production in Argentina was met with controversy, as the cast and crew faced protests over fears that the project would tarnish Evas image. Evita held its premiere at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, California, Hollywood Pictures gave the film a platform release which involved releasing it in select cities, before expanding distribution in the following weeks. The film had a release on December 25,1996. Evita was a success, grossing $141 million worldwide against a budget of $55 million. The film received a critical response, reviewers praised Madonnas performance. In a cinema in Buenos Aires on July 26,1952, as the nation goes into public mourning, Ché, a member of the public, marvels at the spectacle and promises to show how Eva did nothing, for years. At the age of 15, Eva lives in the town of Junín. She persuades a tango singer, Agustín Magaldi, with whom she is having an affair, after Magaldi leaves her, she goes through several relationships with increasingly influential men, becoming a model, actress and radio personality. She meets Colonel Juan Perón at a following the 1944 San Juan earthquake. Peróns connection with Eva adds to his populist image, since they are both from the working class. Eva has a show during Peróns rise and uses all her skills to promote him. The groundswell of support that Eva generates forces the government to release Perón, Perón wins election to the presidency and marries Eva, who promises that the new government will serve the descamisados. At the start of the Perón government, Eva dresses glamorously, soon after, she embarks on what is called her Rainbow Tour to EuropeEvita (1996 film) – United States Theatrical release poster
62. The Fifth Element – The Fifth Element is a 1997 English-language French science fiction action film directed and co-written by Luc Besson. It stars Bruce Willis, Gary Oldman and Milla Jovovich, Dallas joins forces with her to recover four mystical stones essential for the defence of Earth against an impending attack. Besson started writing the story that became The Fifth Element when he was 16 years old, Besson wanted to shoot the film in France, but suitable locations could not be found, filming took place instead in London and Mauritania. Comics writers Jean Moebius Giraud and Jean-Claude Mézières, whose comics provided inspiration for parts of the film, were hired for production design, Costume design was by Jean Paul Gaultier. The Fifth Element received mainly positive reviews, although it tended to polarize critics and it has been called both the best and worst summer blockbuster of all time. The film was a success, earning more than $263 million at the box office on a $90 million budget. The Mondoshawans promise their human contact, a priest from a secret order, in 2263, the great evil appears in deep space in the form of a giant ball of black fire, and destroys an attacking Earth spaceship. The Mondoshawans’ current contact on Earth, priest Vito Cornelius, informs the President of the Federated Territories of the history of the great evil and the weapon that can stop it. As the Mondoshawans return to Earth they are ambushed by Mangalores, a race hired by the industrialist Jean-Baptiste Emanuel Zorg, the Mondoshawans’ spacecraft is destroyed, though the stones are not on board, the only item recovered is a hand of The Fifth Element. Scientists take it to a New York City laboratory and use it to reconstruct a powerful woman who takes the name Leeloo. Terrified of the surroundings, she breaks out of confinement and jumps off a high ledge, crashing into the flying taxicab of Korben Dallas. Dallas delivers Leeloo to Cornelius and his apprentice, David, whereupon Cornelius learns that the Mondoshawans entrusted the four element stones to the alien Diva Plavalaguna, an opera singer. Zorg kills many of the Mangalores because of their failure to obtain the stones, meanwhile, Cornelius instructs David to prepare the ancient temple designed to house the stones, then stows away on the space plane transporting Dallas to the cruise liner. Plavalaguna is killed when the Mangalores attack the ship. During his struggle with the Mangalores he kills their leader, discovering the case to be empty, Zorg returns to the ship and deactivates his bomb, but a dying Mangalore sets off his own device, destroying the ship and killing Zorg. Dallas, Cornelius, Leeloo, and talk-show host Ruby Rhod escape with the stones aboard Zorg’s spacecraft, the four join up with David at the weapon chamber in the Egyptian temple as the great evil approaches. They arrange the stones and activate them with their corresponding elements, Dallas confesses his love for Leeloo and kisses her. In an interview Besson stated The Fifth Element was not a big theme movie and he wanted viewers to reach the point where Leeloo states Whats the use of saving life when you see what you do with itThe Fifth Element – International release poster
63. Film Booking Offices of America – Film Booking Offices of America, also known as FBO Pictures Corporation, was an American film studio of the silent era, a producer and distributor of mostly low-budget films. Robertson-Cole bought the Hallmark Exchanges from Frank J. Hall in 1920, Robertson-Cole initiated movie production in the United States in 1920. That year, it incorporated Robertson-Cole Studios, Inc. and bought 460 acres in Santa Monica, the property, which became known as the R. C. Ranch, enabled Robertson-Cole to centralize movie production, which previously had been scattered, the movie company had relied on equipment rentals to produce motion pictures. In 1923, the studio contracted with Western actor Fred Thomson, Thomson was just one of numerous screen cowboys with whom FBO became identified. The studio, whose market was Americas small towns, also put out many romantic melodramas, non-Western action pictures. In 1926, financier Joseph P. Kennedy led a group acquired the company. In June 1928, using RCA Photophone technology, FBO became only the second Hollywood studio to release a feature-length talkie, a few months later, Kennedy and RCA chief David Sarnoff arranged the merger that created RKO, one of the major studios of Hollywoods Golden Age. The company that would become FBO began as the U. S. -based movie subsidiary of the British importer, exporter and this organization was similar in structure to the French Pathé Exchange company, a subsidiary of the French Pathé Frères company. From its U. S. headquarters in New York City, R-C Pictures, as it was sometimes known, in 1919, the company forged an alliance with Exhibitors Mutual Distributing, a corporate descendant of the Mutual Film studio. The first of R-Cs own feature productions to be released was The Wonder Man, directed by John G. Adolfi and starring Georges Carpentier, which debuted May 29,1920. With its move into production, Robertson-Cole established a 13. 5-acre studio in Los Angeless fortuitously named Colegrove district, then adjacent to, in January 1921, Robertson-Cole absorbed Hallmark Pictures, which had acquired the Exhibitors Mutual interests the previous year. That year, the British owners of the studio entered into a relationship with Joseph P. Kennedy. Joseph Kennedy was then a broker at the New York banking firm of Hayden, Stone, as well as the owner of Maine–New Hampshire Theatres, though he failed to arrange the sale R-Cs general partners were looking for, Kennedys involvement with the studio was far from over. In 1922, Robertson-Cole underwent a reorganization as the companys founders departed. The flagship U. S. distribution business changed its name to Film Booking Offices of America, between the 1922 reorganization and October 1923, one of the companys new American investors, Pat Powers, was effectively in command. Powers had previously led his own filmmaking company, part of the merger that created the large Universal studio in 1912. Powers apparently changed the name of Robertson-Cole/FBO to the Powers Studio for a brief period, in 1923, the studio launched a series of boxing-themed shorts, Fighting Blood, starring George OHaraFilm Booking Offices of America – FBO logo from 1927.
64. Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within – Final Fantasy, The Spirits Within is a 2001 American computer-animated science fiction film directed by Hironobu Sakaguchi, creator of the Final Fantasy series of role-playing video games. It was the first photorealistic computer-animated feature film and remains the most expensive video game-inspired film of all time and it features the voices of Ming-Na Wen, Alec Baldwin, Donald Sutherland, James Woods, Ving Rhames, Peri Gilpin and Steve Buscemi. Aki and Sid must fight against General Hein, who wishes to use violent means to end the conflict. Square Pictures rendered the film using some of the most advanced processing capabilities available for film animation at the time, a render farm consisting of 960 workstations was tasked with rendering each of the films 141,964 frames. It took a staff of 200 about four years to complete The Spirits Within, Square intended to make the character of Aki Ross into the worlds first photorealistic computer-animated actress, with plans for appearances in multiple films in different roles. The Spirits Within debuted to mixed reception, but was widely praised for the realism of the computer-animated characters. Due to rising costs, the film exceeded its original budget towards the end of production, reaching a final cost of $137 million. The film has been called a box office bomb and is blamed for the demise of Square Pictures, in 2065, Earth is infested by alien life forms known as Phantoms. By physical contact Phantoms consume the Gaia spirit of living beings, killing them instantly, the surviving humans live in barrier cities, areas protected by an energy shield that prevents Phantoms from entering, and are engaged in an ongoing struggle to free the planet. It is revealed that Gray was once involved with Aki. Upon returning to her city, Aki joins Sid and appears before the leadership council along with General Hein. However, this revelation leads Hein to incorrectly conclude that she is being controlled by the Phantoms, Aki and the Deep Eyes squad succeed in finding the seventh spirit as Akis infection begins to worsen and she slips into unconsciousness. Her dream reveals to her that the Phantoms are the spirits of dead aliens brought to Earth on a fragment of their destroyed planet, Sid uses the seventh spirit to bring Akis infection back under control, reviving her. To scare the council into giving him clearance to fire the Zeus cannon, though Hein intended that only a few Phantoms enter, his plan goes awry and legions of Phantoms invade the entire city. Aki, Sid and the Deep Eyes attempt to reach Akis spaceship, their means of escape, Hein escapes and boards the Zeus space-station where he finally receives authorisation to fire the cannon. Sid finds the spirit at the crater site of the alien asteroids impact on Earth. He lowers a shielded vehicle, with Aki and Gray aboard, just before they can reach it, Hein fires the Zeus cannon into the crater, not only destroying the eighth spirit but also revealing the Phantom Gaia. Aki has a vision of the Phantom home planet, where she is able to receive the spirit from the alien particles in herselfFinal Fantasy: The Spirits Within – Theatrical release poster
65. From The Doctor to my son Thomas – Capaldi filmed the 42-second video in character as the 12th incarnation of The Doctor in the BBC science-fiction series Doctor Who. Capaldis message had an effect on Thomas, his father said that the boy smiled for the first time since learning of his grandmothers death. Thomas father Ross Goodall posted the video to YouTube on 6 November 2014 and he later explained to media that he wanted to make the video available to his family and had no idea it would become popular online. CNN reported that after its appearance on YouTube, the video was viewed over 200,000 times in its first 48 hours online and this more than doubled the next day, and less than a week later it had over 900,000 total views. BBC News observed that Capaldis message had become a viral video, the Guardian and The Daily Telegraph called the recording by Capaldi a touching video to a young child suffering from grief. CNN and MTV characterised the video similarly, as did Spanish, the Independent wrote that Capaldi displayed a kinder face of his personality by sending the message. BT commented it was Capaldis best contribution as the character of the Doctor to date, the video had a positive impact on those with mental health problems. Autism Daily Newscast reported favourably on the Doctors actions, the Hollywood Reporter observed that as his character the Doctor, Capaldi was using his role to support mental health. Hollywood Life said their reporters were moved to tears after watching Capaldis video, Peter Harness, writer of the episode Kill the Moon, said that Capaldis video was his favourite highlight from ten years of Doctor Who. The Scottish actor and film director Peter Capaldi was cast in 2013 as the 12th incarnation of the Doctor and his casting was announced on 4 August 2013 in a special BBC programme hosted by Zoë Ball. Capaldi first appeared as the Doctor in a cameo in the 50th anniversary special The Day of the Doctor, before appearing in the 2013 Christmas special The Time of the Doctor. A lifelong fan of the series, Capaldi had played Lobus Caecilius in the 2008 episode The Fires of Pompeii, before taking the role, Capaldi said that he had to seriously consider the increased visibility that would come with the part. The Goodall family were all fans of Doctor Who, describing themselves as Whovians, Thomas decorated his home with objects related to the television series. Capaldi wrote back to Thomas thanking him, and sent a note to the childs father saying that he intended to send a video message, Capaldi enclosed guidance to Ross Goodall on how to organise a tour of the production studios for Doctor Who. Ross Goodall subsequently communicated with Capaldi through the agent, to inform him that Thomass grandmother had died. He told Capaldi that his son was not dealing well with the grief from his grandmothers death, the family received the subsequent video message to Thomas from Capaldi three weeks after the death of the childs grandmother. Capaldi appears in character as the Doctor and addresses Thomas directly and he expresses his gratitude at receiving the childs letter, saying that it had pleased him. He then speaks to Thomas about grief, mentioning the Doctors adventures with travelling companion Clara Oswald and he tells Thomas that negative events impact Clara and himself in their journeys through the universe and time travel, and that occasionally they feel depressed tooFrom The Doctor to my son Thomas – Peter Capaldi in excerpt from his video
66. Fuck (film) – Fuck is a 2005 American documentary film by director Steve Anderson about the word fuck. The film argues that the word is an part of societal discussions about freedom of speech. It examines the term from perspectives which include art, linguistics, society and comedy, scholars and celebrities analyze perceptions of the word from differing perspectives. Journalist Sam Donaldson talks about the versatility of the word, musician Alanis Morissette comments that the word contains power because of its taboo nature. The film features the last recorded interview of author Hunter S. Thompson before his suicide, scholars, including linguist Reinhold Aman, journalism analyst David Shaw and Oxford English Dictionary editor Jesse Sheidlower, explain the history and evolution of the word. Language professor Geoffrey Nunberg observes that the treatment by society reflects changes in our culture during the 20th century. Anderson was exposed to public conceptions surrounding the word fuck by comedian George Carlins monologue Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television and he named the film Fuck despite anticipating problems with marketing. Animator Bill Plympton provided sequences illustrating key concepts in the film, the documentary was first shown at the AFI Film Festival on November 7,2005, at ArcLight Hollywood in Hollywood. Film critic A. O. Scott called the documentary a battle between advocates of morality and supporters of freedom of expression. The Washington Post and the New York Daily News criticized its length, in his 2009 book Fuck, Word Taboo and Protecting Our First Amendment Liberties, law professor Christopher M. Fairman called the movie the most important film using fuck. The American Film Institute said, Ultimately, Fuck is a movie about free speech, freedom of expression must extend to words that offend. Love it or hate it, fuck is here to stay, Fuck begins with a segment from the 1965 propaganda film Perversion for Profit, followed by a clip from SpongeBob SquarePants which states that the word can be used as a sentence enhancer. The word fuck is used 857 times during the film, scholarly analysis is provided by Maledicta publisher Reinhold Aman, journalism analyst David Shaw and Oxford English Dictionary editor Jesse Sheidlower. Language professor Geoffrey Nunberg says, You could think of that as standing in for most of the changes that happened in the 20th century, the film next features author Hunter S. Thompson in his final documented interview. Fuck later includes archival footage of comedians Lenny Bruce and George Carlin, Carlins 1972 monologue Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television is excerpted in the film. Journalist Sam Donaldson comments on the versatility of fuck, Its one of those all-purpose words, Bill Maher comments, Its the ultimate bad word, observing that thanks to Lenny Bruce, comedy clubs have become the freest free-speech zone in the United States. Connolly states that fuck sounds exactly like what it is, noting that the impact of saying fuck off cannot be translated. He says that if you are in Lhasa airport and someone is fiddling with your luggage, yelling fuck off will effectively communicate that they should stop, Morissette says, The f-word is specialFuck (film) – Theatrical release poster
67. Gagak Item – Gagak Item is a 1939 bandit film from the Dutch East Indies directed by Joshua and Othniel Wong for Tans Film. Starring Rd Mochtar, Roekiah, and Eddy T. Effendi, the black-and-white film, which featured the cast and crew from the 1937 hit Terang Boelan, was a commercial success and received positive reviews upon release. Gagak Item was directed by brothers Joshua and Othniel Wong, filming the work in black-and-white and it was produced by Tan Khoen Yauw of Tans Film and starred Rd Mochtar, Roekiah, Eddy T. Effendi, and Kartolo. Through these prior films Mochtar and Roekiah had become a screen couple. Saeroen, a journalist-turned-screenwriter for Terang Boelan and Fatima, returned to write the script to Gagak Item, the film, a love story, followed a girl and a masked man known as Gagak Item and was set in rural Buitenzorg. The titular bandit was similar to Zorro, a popular in the Indies at the time. When writing the script Saeroen continued the formula he had used in Terang Boelan, including action, music, beautiful vistas and physical comedy. The film had six songs performed by Hugo Dumas musical troupe Lief Java, Gagak Item featured vocals by kroncong singer Annie Landouw. Gagak Item was released in late 1939 and was screened in Batavia, the capital of the Indies, Medan, North Sumatra, some screenings of the film, also advertised under the Dutch title De Zwarte Raaf, had Dutch-language subtitles. A novelisation of the film, published by the Yogyakarta-based Kolff-Buning, Gagak Item was a commercial and critical success, although not as much as Tans earlier production. An anonymous review in Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad praised the film, especially its music, the reviewer opined that the film would be a great success and that the film industry in the Indies was showing promising developments. Another review in the paper found that, although one may shake ones head over the cultural value of indigenous films. The review praised Roekiahs demure acting, following the success of Gagak Item the Wongs, Saeroen, Roekiah, and Mochtar continued to work with Tans Film. Their next production, Siti Akbari, was successful, although again not as profitable as Terang Boelan or Fatima. Saeroen, Joshua Wong, and Mochtar left the company in 1940, Wong and Mochtar after payment disputes, through 1941 Tans Film produced fewer movies than its competitors, and was ultimately shut down following the Japanese occupation in early 1942. Gagak Item was screened as late as January 1951, movies in the Indies were recorded on highly flammable nitrate film, and after a fire destroyed much of Produksi Film Negaras warehouse in 1952, old films shot on nitrate were deliberately destroyed. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all Indonesian films from before 1950 are lost, Gagak Item at the Internet Movie DatabaseGagak Item – Newspaper advertisement
68. Greed (film) – Greed is a 1924 American silent film, written and directed by Erich von Stroheim and based on the 1899 Frank Norris novel McTeague. It stars Gibson Gowland as Dr. John McTeague, ZaSu Pitts as his wife Trina Sieppe and Jean Hersholt as McTeagues friend, the film tells the story of McTeague, a San Francisco dentist, who marries his best friend Schoulers girlfriend Trina. Shortly after their engagement, Trina wins a prize of $5,000. Schouler jealously informs the authorities that McTeague had been practicing dentistry without a license, while living in squalor, McTeague becomes a violent alcoholic and Trina becomes greedily obsessed with her winnings, refusing to spend any of them, despite how poor she and her husband have become. Eventually McTeague murders Trina for the money and flees to Death Valley, Schouler catches up with him there for a final confrontation. Stroheim shot more than 85 hours of footage and obsessed over accuracy during the filming, Two months were spent shooting in Death Valley for the films final sequence and many of the cast and crew became ill. Greed was one of the few films of its time to be entirely on location. Stroheim used sophisticated filming techniques such as deep-focus cinematography and montage editing and he considered Greed to be a Greek tragedy, in which environment and heredity controlled the characters fates and reduced them to primitive bête humaines. During the making of Greed, the company merged into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Thalberg had fired Stroheim a few years earlier at Universal Pictures, originally almost eight hours long, Greed was edited against Stroheims wishes to about two-and-a-half hours. Only twelve people saw the full-length 42-reel version, now lost, Stroheim later called Greed his most fully realized work and was hurt both professionally and personally by the studios re-editing of it. The uncut version has been called the holy grail for film archivists, in 1999 Turner Entertainment created a four-hour version of Greed that used existing stills of cut scenes to reconstruct the film. John McTeague is a miner working in Placer County, California, a traveling dentist calling himself Dr. Painless Potter visits the town, and McTeagues mother begs Potter to take her son on as an apprentice. Potter agrees and McTeague eventually becomes a dentist, practicing on Polk Street in San Francisco, Marcus Schouler brings Trina Sieppe, his cousin and intended fiancée, into McTeagues office for dental work. Schouler and McTeague are friends and McTeague gladly agrees to examine her, as they wait for an opening, Trina buys a lottery ticket. McTeague becomes enamored with Trina and begs Schouler for permission to court Trina, after seeing McTeagues conviction, Schouler agrees. Trina eventually agrees to marry McTeague and shortly afterwards her lottery ticket wins her $5,000, Schouler bitterly claims that the money should have been his, causing a rift between McTeague and Schouler. After McTeague and Trina wed, they continue to live in their apartment with Trina refusing to spend her $5,000Greed (film) – Theatrical release poster
69. Hotel Chevalier – Hotel Chevalier is an American-French short film written and directed by Wes Anderson and released in 2007. Starring Jason Schwartzman and Natalie Portman as former lovers who reunite in a Paris hotel room and it was shot on location in a Parisian hotel by a small crew and self-financed by Anderson, who initially intended it to be a stand-alone work. Its first showing was at the Venice Film Festival première of the film on September 2,2007. The day after the films première, it was freely available from the iTunes Store for one month. The film garnered universal critical acclaim from reviewers, who compared it favorably with The Darjeeling Limited and praised its richness, poignancy. In a hotel lobby, the answers an phone call from a guests room. A man lies on a bed in a yellow bathrobe, watching the black-and-white American war film Stalag 17. After ordering room service from the concierge in broken French, he receives a call from a woman whose voice he recognizes and she tells him she is on her way from the airport and asks for his room number. Despite objecting that he did not tell her she could come and he then hurriedly attempts to tidy the room – pausing to play the opening bars of the song Where Do You Go To. by Peter Sarstedt on his stereo system – and runs a bath. The man is lying on the bed, now in a gray suit. Hearing a knock, he starts the song playing again before opening the door to a woman, after staring at him for several seconds, the woman breaks the silence by asking what music is playing. Receiving no response, she steps into the room and presents the man with a bouquet of flowers, when she moves to kiss him on the mouth, he turns his head away and they embrace instead. He closes the door and asks how she found him, she replies that it wasnt actually that hard and she moves around the room browsing through his possessions, brushes her teeth with his toothbrush and declines to take the bath he had run for her. Stepping back into the bedroom, the turns to face the man and confronts him. They lie back on the bed looking at one another before being interrupted by the arrival of room service, once alone again, the two kiss and the man begins to undress the woman. They have an exchange about not having slept with other people and when he notices bruises on her arm after undressing her further. Lying on top of him, she tells the man that she not want to lose his friendship. He responds coldly that he never be friend, but holds her when she embraces himHotel Chevalier – Promotional film poster
70. How a Mosquito Operates – How a Mosquito Operates is a silent animated film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. The six-minute short depicts a giant mosquito tormenting a sleeping man, the film is one of the earliest works of animation, and its technical quality is considered far ahead of its contemporaries. It is also known under the titles The Story of a Mosquito and Winsor McCay, McCay had a reputation for his proficient drawing skills, best remembered in the elaborate cartooning of the childrens comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland he began in 1905. He delved into the art of animation with the film Little Nemo. McCay gave the film a more coherent story and more developed characterization than in the Nemo film, with timing, motion. How a Mosquito Operates had a reception when McCay first showed it as part of his vaudeville act. He further developed the character animation he introduced in Mosquito with his best-known animated work, a man looks around apprehensively before entering his room. A giant mosquito with a top hat and briefcase flies in after him through a transom and it repeatedly feeds on the sleeping man, who tries in vain to shoo it away. The mosquito eventually drinks itself so full that it explodes, how a Mosquito Operates is one of the earliest examples of line-drawn animation. McCay used minimal backgrounds and capitalized on strengths of the medium, then in its infancy. No intertitles interrupt the silent visuals, rather than merely expanding like a balloon, as the mosquito drinks its abdomen fills consistent with its bodily structure in a naturalistic way. The heavier it becomes, the difficulty it has keeping its balance. In its excitement as it feeds, it does push-ups on the mans nose, the mosquito has a personality, egotistical, persistent, and calculating. It makes eye contact with the viewers and waves at them, McCay balances horror with humor, as when the mosquito finds itself so engorged with blood that it must lie down. Winsor McCay developed prodigiously accurate and detailed drawing skills early in life, as a young man, he earned a living drawing portraits and posters in dime museums, and attracted large crowds with his ability to draw quickly in public. McCay began working as a newspaper illustrator in 1898. His greatest comic-strip success was the childrens fantasy Little Nemo in Slumberland, McCay began performing on the vaudeville circuit the following year, doing chalk talks—performances in which he drew in front of a live audience. Inspired by flip books his son Robert brought home, McCay said he came to see the possibility of making moving pictures of his cartoonsHow a Mosquito Operates – How a Mosquito Operates
71. The Human Centipede (First Sequence) – The Human Centipede is a 2009 Dutch horror film written, directed, and co-produced by Tom Six. The film tells the story of a German surgeon who kidnaps three tourists and joins them surgically, mouth to anus, forming a human centipede, a conjoined triplet and it stars Dieter Laser as the creator of the centipede, Dr. Josef Heiter, with Ashley C. Williams, Ashlynn Yennie, and Akihiro Kitamura as his victims, according to Six, the concept of the film arose from a joke he made with friends about punishing a child molester by stitching his mouth to the anus of a fat truck driver. Inspiration for the film came from Nazi medical experiments carried out during World War II. When approaching investors prior to filming, Six did not mention the mouth-to-anus aspect of the plot, the financiers of The Human Centipede did not discover the full nature of the film until it was complete. The film received mixed reviews from mainstream film critics. The film was released in the United States on a theatrical release on 30 April 2010. A sequel, entitled Full Sequence, also written and directed by Six, was released in 2011. Lindsay and Jenny, two American tourists in Germany, are drugged and involuntarily detained by crazed surgeon Dr. Josef Heiter when they help at his house after they get a flat tire. The women awake in a medical ward. They witness Heiter kill a kidnapped truck driver after Heiter informs him he is not a match, Heiter secures a new male captive, Japanese tourist Katsuro. The doctor explains that he is an expert at separating Siamese twins. He describes in detail how he will surgically connect his three victims mouth-to-anus, so that they share a single digestive system, after Lindsay tries to escape and fails, Heiter explains that he had previously experimented with creating what he called a three-dog, also joined mouth-to-anus. However, the three-dog died shortly after surgery, Heiter performs the surgery, placing Katsuro at the lead, Lindsay in the middle and Jenny at the rear. During his procedure, he severs the ligaments within his victims knees to prevent leg extension and he then connects his victims together in a straight line with their mouths surgically attached to the anus of the victim in front of them. Once the operation is complete, Heiter attempts to train his centipede as a pet, often belittling Katsuro with racist insults, when Katsuro defecates, Lindsay is forced to swallow his excrement while the doctor watches in delight. However, he becomes irritated after being kept awake by the constant screaming of Katsuro. He offers the two detectives water spiked with sedatives in hopes of knocking the two unconscious, after being given the water, the detectives become suspicious and obtain a search warrant for his homeThe Human Centipede (First Sequence) – Theatrical release poster
72. Into Temptation (film) – Into Temptation is a 2009 independent drama film written and directed by Patrick Coyle, and starring Jeremy Sisto, Kristin Chenoweth, Brian Baumgartner, Bruce A. It tells the story of a prostitute who confesses to a Catholic priest that she plans to kill herself on her birthday, the priest attempts to find and save her, and in doing so plunges himself into a darker side of society. The film was inspired by Coyles father, a kind. The script won the McKnight Screenwriting Fellowship from the IFP Minnesota Center for Media Arts, into Temptation was filmed and set in Coyles hometown of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Several supporting roles were filled with actors from the Minneapolis – Saint Paul theater area and it was produced by Ten Ten Films and Farnam Street II, and distributed by First Look International. With a budget of less than $1 million, filming began in May 2008, cinematography was provided by David Doyle, Russell Holsapple composed the score, and Lee Percy worked as editor. Into Temptation was optioned in Hollywood, but talks fell through due to complications from the global recession, the film did not receive a national release but played at theaters in several cities. The film received positive reviews. It was released on DVD on October 27,2009, Father John Buerlein is the mild-mannered Catholic priest of a small parish in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Overworked and underpaid, he has grown jaded with the profession and has trouble connecting with his parishioners, during confession, a mysterious and unnamed prostitute confesses to a sin she has not yet committed, she plans to commit suicide on her birthday. The confession ends abruptly, and he is unable to stop the woman before she disappears and he only knows she wears a crucifix and is an Aries, which means her birthday is soon. Father John grows obsessed with finding and helping this woman, on his way home, Father John meets a homeless man named Gus, but with no money for him, he gives him a rosary instead. Later, he seeks counsel from his friend Father Ralph OBrien, Father John returns to the red-light district and speaks to a prostitute named Miriam, who suggests a powerful pimp named James St. Clair might know about the woman. As they speak in a bar, the mysterious prostitute enters and solicits a john, as she goes, Father John catches a glimpse of the crucifix she is wearing and tries to chase her down. She leaves in the car before he can catch them. Back at church, his sermons start to grow more unorthodox, meanwhile, Father John is contacted by his ex-girlfriend Nadine Brennan, who tells him she is divorcing her husband and still harbors romantic feelings for Father John. Meanwhile, Linda visits her dying, elderly stepfather Donald Dupree, Linda confronts him about their past, but claims she has forgiven him his sins, even though he continues to deny any wrongdoing. A drunk Nadine goes to talk to Father John in confession about her loneliness and he admits to caring for her as well, but they agree to remain friendsInto Temptation (film) – DVD release cover
73. Jaws (film) – Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchleys 1974 novel of the same name. The screenplay is credited to both Benchley, who wrote the first drafts, and actor-writer Carl Gottlieb, who rewrote the script during principal photography, shot mostly on location on Marthas Vineyard in Massachusetts, the film had a troubled production, going over budget and past schedule. Spielberg and others have compared this approach to that of classic thriller director Alfred Hitchcock. Now considered one of the greatest films made, Jaws was the prototypical summer blockbuster. Jaws became the film of all time until the release of Star Wars. It won several awards for its soundtrack and editing and it was followed by three sequels, none with the participation of Spielberg or Benchley, and many imitative thrillers. In 2001, Jaws was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, being deemed culturally, historically, during a late-night beach party on Amity Island, a young woman goes swimming in the ocean. While treading water, she is pulled under. The next morning, her remains are found on shore. The medical examiner ruling the death a shark attack leads Police Chief Martin Brody to close the beaches, Mayor Larry Vaughn overrules him, fearing it will ruin the towns summer economy. The coroner now concurs with the theory that the girl was killed in a boating accident. Brody reluctantly accepts their conclusion until another fatal shark attack occurs shortly after, a bounty is then placed on the shark, resulting in an amateur shark-hunting frenzy. Local professional shark hunter Quint offers his services for $10,000, meanwhile, consulting oceanographer Matt Hooper examines the first victims remains and confirms the death was from a shark attack. When local fishermen catch a tiger shark, the mayor proclaims the beaches safe. Hooper disputes it being the predator, confirming this after no human remains are found inside it. Hooper and Brody find a vessel while searching the night waters in Hoopers boat. Underwater, Hooper retrieves a sizable great white sharks tooth embedded in the submerged hull and he drops it after finding a partial corpse. Vaughn discounts Brody and Hoopers claims that a great white shark is responsible and refuses to close the beachesJaws (film) – Theatrical release poster
74. Kalidas (film) – Kalidas, also known as Kalidasa, is a 1931 Indian Tamil-language biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani. It is notable for being the first Tamil language sound film, Kalidas, principally in Tamil, contained additional dialogue in Telugu and Hindi. While Rajalakshmi spoke Tamil, Venkatesan spoke only Telugu due to his lack of fluency in Tamil, the sound was recorded using German-made technology. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of Indias first sound film Alam Ara, Kalidas was released with high expectations on 31 October 1931, coinciding with Diwali day. It was the only Tamil film to be produced and released that year, despite numerous technical flaws, it received critical acclaim, with praise for Rajalakshmis singing performance, and it became a major commercial success. The success of Kalidas spawned other films based upon Kālidāsa, including Mahakavi Kalidasa, Mahakavi Kalidasu, in addition to its commercial success, Kalidas was a major breakthrough for Rajalakshmis career, and made her a bankable singing star. Because no print, gramophone record, or songbook of the film is known to survive, Vidhyadhari is the daughter of Vijayavarman, the king of Thejavathi. His minister wants the princess to marry his son but she refuses, annoyed, the minister sets out to find another potential husband for Vidhyadhari. In the forest, the finds a illiterate cowman sitting in a tree. The minister persuades the cowman to come to the palace and has Vidhyadhari marry him, when Vidhyadhari realises she has been cheated, and is married to a farmhand, she prays to the goddess Kali for a remedy. Kali appears before her, names her husband Kalidas and endows him with literary talents. Kalidas is the first sound film to be produced in South Indian cinema, and it was based on the life of the Sanskrit poet and playwright Kālidāsa. The film was produced by Ardeshir Irani, who directed Indias first sound film Alam Ara, P. G. Venkatesan was chosen to play the title role. L. V. Prasad—who later founded Prasad Studios—appeared in a role as a temple priest. Theatre artiste T. P. Rajalakshmi was chosen to play the female protagonist, according to film historian Randor Guy, before this, Rajalakshmi had acted in many silent films, and Kalidas was her first sound film. Supporting roles were played by Thevaram Rajambal, T. Susheela Devi, J. Sushila, the sound was recorded by German technicians using German-made equipment. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of Alam Ara, it was completed using either 6,000 feet or 10,000 feet of film, Film historian Film News Anandan stated that Kalidas was produced in a hurry, and was technically flawed. While Kalidas primary language was Tamil, the actors spoke a variety of languages, including Tamil, TeluguKalidas (film) – Kalidas
75. Lage Raho Munna Bhai – Lage Raho Munna Bhai is a 2006 Indian comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. It is the follow-up to the 2003 film Munna Bhai M. B. B. S, with Sanjay Dutt reprising his role as Munna Bhai, a Mumbai underworld don. In Lage Raho Munna Bhai, the lead character starts to see the spirit of Mahatma Gandhi. Through his interactions with Gandhi, he begins to practice what he refers to as Gandhigiri to help people solve their problems. The film won critical acclaim from critics and had a number of prominent screenings. It was the recipient of a number of awards, including four National Film Awards, Lage Raho Munna Bhai was the first Hindi film to be shown at the United Nations, and was screened at the Tous Les Cinema du Monde section of the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. The film popularised the term Gandhigiri, Vidhu Vinod Chopra submitted the film as an independent entry for the 2007 Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. To prepare for the contest, Munnas sidekick Circuit kidnaps and bribes a group of professors to provide the answers for Munna, after winning the contest, Munna is granted an interview with Janhavi wherein he presents himself as a professor of history and a Gandhi specialist. Janhavi subsequently asks Munna to present a lecture on Gandhi to a community of citizens who live in her home. To prepare for this event, Munna engages in study at a Gandhi institute. For three days and nights, Munna reads about the life and ideologies of Gandhi and it is during this period that the image of Gandhi, addressed by his nickname Bapu, appears and offers help and advice to Munna. Gandhi encourages Munna to tell the truth about himself to Janhavi, with Gandhis help, Munna succeeds in impressing Jahnavi and cultivates a new lifestyle based upon Gandhism. Munna starts to co-host a radio-show with Janhavi and Gandhis image, one of the most prominent of these details the story of Lucky Singh and his daughter Simran. Lucky is a businessman who employs Circuit and Munna Bhai to conduct underworld activities for him. His daughter, Simran, is engaged to marry Sunny, the son of the powerful businessman Kkhurana, maharaj also convinces Kkhurana to reject the marriage between Simran and Sunny when it is revealed that Simran is considered to be a manglik. Lucky appropriates the Second Innings House by sending Munna to Goa, in response, Munna launches a non-violent protest to reclaim the house. He calls this protest Get Well Soon, Lucky and asks his radio audience to send Lucky flowers to help him recover from the disease of dishonesty. During this time Munna tells Janhavi the truth, Munna receives another setback when he is tricked by Lucky into revealing his conversations with Gandhi before a public audienceLage Raho Munna Bhai – Theatrical release poster
76. Latter Days – Latter Days is a 2003 American romantic comedy-drama film about a gay relationship between a closeted Mormon missionary and his openly gay neighbor. The film was written and directed by C, jay Cox and stars Steve Sandvoss as the missionary, Aaron, and Wes Ramsey as the neighbor, Christian. Joseph Gordon-Levitt appears as Elder Ryder, and Rebekah Johnson as Julie Taylor, mary Kay Place, Erik Palladino, Amber Benson, and Jacqueline Bisset have supporting roles. Latter Days premiered at the Philadelphia International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival on July 10,2003 and was released in various states of USA over the next 12 months, later the film was released in a few other countries and shown at several gay film festivals. It was the first film to portray openly the clash between the principles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and homosexuality, and its exhibition in some U. S. states was controversial. Various religious groups demanded that the film be withdrawn from theaters, the film was met with mixed reactions from film critics, but was popular with most film festival attendees. At the North American box office however, Latter Days only made $834,685, in 2004, freelance writer T. Fabris made Latter Days into a novel, which was published by Alyson Publications. Elder Aaron Davis, a young Mormon from Pocatello, Idaho, is sent to Los Angeles with three missionaries to spread the Mormon faith. They move into an apartment next to openly gay party boy Christian Markelli and his roommate Julie, Christian and Julie work as waiters at Lilas, a trendy restaurant owned by retired actress Lila Montagne. Christian makes a bet with his co-workers that he can seduce one of the Mormons, and soon realizes that Aaron, Aaron and Christian become acquainted after several encounters in the apartment complex. When Christian accidentally cuts himself on a metal hose reel and faints, Aaron helps him indoors, Christian attempts to seduce Aaron, but the hesitant Mormon becomes upset by Christians remark that sex doesnt have to mean anything. Aaron accuses him of being shallow and walks out, worried that Aaron is correct, Christian joins Project Angel Food, delivering meals to people with AIDS. Aarons fellow missionary, Paul Ryder, has a cycling accident, returning to his apartment, a distraught Aaron encounters Christian, who tries to comfort him with a hug. Both men are overwhelmed by their feelings and end up kissing, failing to notice the return of Aarons roommates, Aaron is sent home in disgrace, leading Christian to confront Ryder, who is angry that Christian corrupted Aaron for no reason. Christian admits that he initially just wanted to win a bet, recognizing Christians distress, Ryder tells him that Aarons flight has a five-hour layover in Salt Lake City. Christian finds Aaron standing in the snow outside the airport terminal, Christian confesses his love, and despite his misgivings, Aaron admits his own feelings of love. With all flights canceled due to a snowstorm, Christian and Aaron spend a night in a motel. When Christian awakes, he finds Aaron gone, Aarons pocket watch, a family heirloom, has been left behindLatter Days – Theatrical release poster
77. Little Nemo (1911 film) – Little Nemo, also known as Winsor McCay, The Famous Cartoonist of the N. Y. Herald and His Moving Comics, is a 1911 silent animated film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. One of the earliest animated films, it was McCays first and its expressive character animation distinguished the film from the experiments of earlier animators. Inspired by flip books his son home, McCay came to see the potential of the animated film medium. He claimed to be the first to make films, though James Stuart Blackton. The shorts four thousand drawings on paper were shot at Vitagraph Studios under Blacktons supervision. Most of the running time is made up of a live-action sequence in which McCay bets his colleagues that he can make drawings that move. He wins the bet with four minutes of animation in which the Little Nemo characters perform, interact, Little Nemo debuted in movie theaters on April 8,1911, and four days later McCay began using it as part of his vaudeville act. Its good reception motivated him to each of the animated frames of the originally black-and-white film. The films success led McCay to devote time to animation. He followed up Little Nemo with How a Mosquito Operates in 1912 and his film, Gertie the Dinosaur. Winsor McCay had worked prolifically as a commercial artist and cartoonist by the time he started making comic strips such as Dream of the Rarebit Fiend. In 1906, McCay began performing on the circuit, doing chalk talks—performances in which he drew before live audiences. Inspired by flip books his son Robert brought home, McCay came to see the possibility of making moving pictures of his cartoons, in 1900, Blackton produced The Enchanted Drawing, a trick film in which an artist interacts with a drawing on an easel. Blackton used chalk drawings in 1906 to animate the film Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, Cohls films, such as 1908s Fantasmagorie, were dreamlike nonnarrative pieces in which characters and scenes continually changed shape. Cohls films were first distributed in the United States in 1909, according to McCay biographer John Canemaker, McCay combined the interactive qualities of Blacktons films with the abstract, shapeshifting qualities of Cohls into his own films. In the films of all three, the artist interacts with the animation, considered McCays masterpiece, Little Nemo in Slumberland debuted in October 1905 as a full-page Sunday strip the New York Herald. Its child protagonist, whose appearance was based on McCays son Robert, had dreams that would be interrupted with his awakening in the last panelLittle Nemo (1911 film) – Little Nemo and the Princess ride away in the mouth of a dragon.
78. The Lord of the Rings (1978 film) – The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 American high fantasy animated film directed by Ralph Bakshi. It is an adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkiens high fantasy epic The Lord of the Rings, comprising The Fellowship of the Ring and the first half of The Two Towers. Set in Middle-earth, the film follows a group of hobbits, elves, men, dwarves and they embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring made by the Dark Lord Sauron, and ensure his destruction. The film is notable for its use of rotoscoping, a technique in which scenes are first shot in live-action. It uses a hybrid of traditional cel animation and rotoscoped live action footage, the screenplay was written by Peter S. Beagle, based on an earlier draft by Chris Conkling. Although Bakshis The Lord of the Rings was a success, it received mixed reactions from critics. Early in the Second Age of Middle-earth, elven smiths forge nine Rings of Power for mortal men, seven for the Dwarf-Lords, soon after, the Dark Lord Sauron makes the One Ring, and uses it to attempt to conquer Middle-earth. Following the Last Alliance of Elves and Mens fall, the Ring is seized by Prince Isildur, and after Isildur was killed by orcs, over time, Sauron captures the Nine Rings and creates the Ringwraiths. The One Ring is discovered by Déagol, whose friend, Sméagol, kills him, the Ring twists his body and mind, and he becomes the creature Gollum. Hundreds of years later, Bilbo Baggins finds the Ring in Gollums cave, years later, during Bilbos birthday celebration, the wizard Gandalf tells him to leave the Ring for his relative Frodo. Bilbo reluctantly agrees, and leaves the Shire, seventeen years pass, during which Gandalf learns that evil forces have discovered that the Ring is in the possession of a Baggins. Gandalf meets with Frodo to explain the Rings history and the danger it poses and he is accompanied by three hobbit friends, Pippin, Merry, and Sam. After a narrow escape from the Ringwraiths, the hobbits eventually come to Bree, Frodo is stabbed atop Weathertop mountain by the chief of the Ringwraiths, and becomes sickened as the journey progresses. The Ringwraiths catch up with them shortly after they meet the elf Legolas, and at a standoff at the ford of Rivendell, at Rivendell, Frodo is healed by Elrond. He meets Gandalf again, after the latter escapes Saruman, who plans to ally with Sauron, at a council, Bilbo, Gandalf, and others debate the One Ring, and Frodo volunteers to go to Mordor, where the Ring can be destroyed. Thereafter Frodo sets off from Rivendell with eight companions, Gandalf, Aragorn, Boromir, son of the Steward of Gondor, Legolas, Gimli the dwarf and their attempt to cross the Misty Mountains is foiled by heavy snow, and they are forced into Moria. There, they are attacked by orcs, and Gandalf falls into an abyss while battling a balrog, the remaining Fellowship continue through the elf-haven Lothlórien, where they meet the elf queen Galadriel. Boromir tries to take the Ring from Frodo, and Frodo continue his quest alone, Boromir is killed by orcs while trying to defend Merry and PippinThe Lord of the Rings (1978 film) – Theatrical release poster by Tom Jung
79. Lord of the Universe – Lord of the Universe is a 1974 American documentary film about Prem Rawat at an event in November 1973 at the Houston Astrodome called Millennium 73. Lord of the Universe was first broadcast on PBS on February 2,1974, the documentary chronicles Maharaj Ji, his followers and anti-Vietnam War activist Rennie Davis who was a spokesperson of the Divine Light Mission at the time. A counterpoint is presented by Abbie Hoffman, who appears as a commentator and it includes interviews with several individuals, including followers, ex-followers, a mahatma, a born-again Christian, and a follower of Hare Krishna. The production team of Top Value Television produced the documentary, using Portapak video cameras, the TVTV team followed Maharaj Ji across the United States over a period of six weeks, and edited a large amount of tape down to the fifty-eight-minute piece. It was the first documentary made on 1⁄2 in video tape broadcast nationally, the documentary was generally well-received, and garnered its TVTV production team the 1974 Alfred I. du Pont/Columbia University Award in Broadcast Journalism. The documentary received a review in the New York Post, and positive reviews in The New York Times, The Boston Globe, the Los Angeles Times. The San Francisco Bay Guardian wrote that the TVTV team had improved since their previous work, Rennie Davis, a follower of Guru Maharaj Ji, was one of the spokespersons and speakers at the Millennium 73 event. His speech is featured in the documentary, in a later part of the film, a loudspeaker voice announces, Those premies who came in private cars can leave now. Those who came in rented buses can stay and meditate until further notice, adherents of other belief systems also appear in the documentary, including a born-again Christian who criticizes devotees for following the devil, and a Hare Krishna follower. A separate storyline is seen concurrently through the coverage of the Millennium 73 event, involving a man named Michael who has come to Houston, Texas, once Michael has received the Knowledge, he defends the secrecy behind the rituals. One of them says that after receiving Knowledge from Maharaj Ji, he was told that this free gift required lifetime devotion, Maharaj Ji is shown in a scene in the Astrodome relating a satsang to the attendants. He is seen dressed in gold-colored clothing and a crown, the story he relates to the crowd involves a young boy who comes to Houston, while searching for a Superman comic book. While seated on the platform, Maharaj Ji is surrounded by flashing moon signs and women wearing decorative garlands, the stage is decorated with glitter and neon lights, and Maharaj Jis brother performs rock music songs. Abbie Hoffman gives a comment in the documentary, stating, If this guy is God. The documentary was produced by Top Value Television in association with TV Lab, TVTV had received initial funding for the documentary through a small grant from the Stern Foundation, and an additional promise from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Several camera crews used 1⁄2 in black and white portapaks and followed Maharaj Ji, the TVTV production team debated whether to include the secret techniques of Maharaj Ji in the documentary and finally decided that it was vital to disclose these practices in the piece. They chose to have an ex-premie divulge these practices rather than use a narration, but they were fearful of potential repercussions, TVTV member Tom Weinberg found a man who demonstrated meditation techniques in the documentary, which he described as being the Knowledge. Producer Megan Williams stated that TVTV crew members empathized with the experiences of Maharaj Jis followers, nevertheless, many in the crew of TVTV felt superior to these lost souls describing the followers as gurunoidsLord of the Universe – 1991 VHS edition
80. Manhunter (film) – Manhunter is a 1986 American crime horror film based on the novel Red Dragon by Thomas Harris. Written and directed by Michael Mann, it stars William Petersen as FBI profiler Will Graham, also featured are Tom Noonan as serial killer Francis Dollarhyde, Dennis Farina as Grahams FBI superior Jack Crawford, and Brian Cox as incarcerated killer Hannibal Lecktor. The film focuses on Graham coming out of retirement to lend his talents to an investigation on Dollarhyde, in doing so, he must confront the demons of his past and meet with Lecktor, who nearly counted Graham amongst his victims. The film features heavily stylized use of color to convey this sense of duality, and the nature of the characters similarity has been explored in academic readings of the film. It was the first film adaptation of Harris Hannibal Lecter novels, as well as the first adaptation of Red Dragon, opening to mixed reviews, Manhunter fared poorly at the box office at the time of its release, making only $8.6 million in the United States. However, it has been reappraised in recent reviews and now enjoys a more favorable reception. Its resurgent popularity, which may be due to adaptations of Harris books and Petersens success in CSI. Will Graham is a former FBI criminal profiler who has retired because of a breakdown after being attacked by a cannibalistic serial killer. Graham is approached at his Florida home by his former FBI superior Jack Crawford, having found the killers fingerprints, Graham meets with Crawford. They are accosted by tabloid journalist Freddy Lounds, with whom Graham has a bitter history, Graham pays a visit to Lecktor, a former psychiatrist, in his cell and asks for his insight into the killers motivations. After a tense conversation, Lecktor agrees to look at the case file, a little later, Lecktor contrives and manages to obtain Grahams home address by deceit during his phone privileges. Graham travels to the first crime scene in Birmingham, Alabama, where he is contacted by Crawford, Crawford also patches Graham through to Frederick Chilton, Lecktors warden, who has found a note in Lecktors personal effects. Reading it, they realize it is from the Tooth Fairy, Crawford brings Graham to the FBI Academy at Quantico, where a missing section of the note is analyzed to determine what Lecktor has removed. It is found to be an instruction to communicate through the section of the National Tattler. After a sting operation fails to catch the killer, Lounds is kidnapped by the Tooth Fairy, Lounds is forced to tape-record a statement before being set on fire in a wheelchair and killed, his flaming body rolled into the parking garage of the National Tattler as a warning. Graham is told by Crawford that they have cracked Lecktors coded message to the Tooth Fairy—it is Grahams home address with an instruction to kill the family, Graham rushes home to find his family safe but terrified. After the FBI moves Grahams family to a house, he tries to explain to his son Kevin why he had retired previously. At his job in a St. Louis film lab, Francis Dollarhyde—The Tooth Fairy—approaches a blind co-worker, Reba McClane and they go to Dollarhydes home, where Reba is oblivious to the fact that Dollarhyde is watching home-movie footage of his planned next victimManhunter (film) – Theatrical release poster
81. Mayabazar – Mayabazar is a 1957 Indian epic fantasy film directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy. Nagi Reddy and Aluri Chakrapani under their banner, Vijaya Vauhini Studios, the film was shot in both Telugu and Tamil with the same title, but with a few differences in the cast. The story is an adaptation of the folk tale Sasirekha Parinayam and it revolves around the roles of Krishna and Ghatotkacha, as they try to reunite Arjunas son Abhimanyu with his love, Balaramas daughter. The first mythological film produced by their studio, Mayabazar marked a milestone for Nagi Reddy, in addition to the technical crew,400 studio workers – including light men, carpenters, and painters – participated in the development of the film. Director Reddy was meticulous with the pre-production and casting phases, which took nearly a year to complete, though Rama Rao was initially reluctant to play the lead role, his portrayal of Krishna received acclaim and yielded more offers to reprise the same role in several unrelated films. The soundtrack features songs, with most of the musical score composed by Ghantasala. Telugu lyrics were written by Pingali Nagendrarao and Tamil lyrics were written by Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass, four of the songs were composed by S. Rajeswara Rao prior to his unexplained departure from the project. One of them was accompanied by the first illusion of moonlight in Indian cinema, Mayabazar had a final film-reel length of 5,888 metres. The films Telugu version was released on 27 March 1957, the Tamil version was released two later, on 12 April. Both were critically and commercially successful, with a run of 100 days in 24 theatres. Mayabazar was also dubbed into Kannada, the film is considered a landmark in both Telugu and Tamil cinema, with praise for its cast and technical aspects, despite the limitations of technology at the time. Mayabazar was screened at the Public Gardens in Hyderabad for its 50th anniversary on 7 April 2007, Raavi Kondala Rao novelized the films script based on Venkata Reddys screenplay. A May 2013 CNN-News18 poll selected Mayabazar as the greatest Indian film of all time, the updated version was released on 30 January 2010 in 45 theatres in Andhra Pradesh. It was a success that generated mostly positive reviews, one critic only expressing a preference for the original. Subhadra marries a Pandava named Arjuna and their son Abhimanyu falls in love with Balaramas daughter, Sasirekha. The families consent to their marrying when they reach adulthood, when Abhimanyu and Sasirekha have grown up, Krishna introduces them to each other. One day, the Pandavas are invited by Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas to join in a game of dice, Duryodhanas uncle, Shakuni, manipulates the results of the game, thereby costing the Pandavas their wealth, their liberty and their wife Draupadi. Duryodhanas brother, Dushasana, attempts to disrobe Draupadi and he is seen by Krishna, who, furious, comes to her rescueMayabazar – Theatrical release poster of the Telugu version
82. Meerkat Manor: The Story Begins – Meerkat Manor, The Story Begins is a 2008 television film created by Discovery Films and Oxford Scientific Films as a prequel to the Animal Planet series Meerkat Manor. A scripted documentary narrated by Whoopi Goldberg, the details the life of a meerkat named Flower from birth to her becoming the leader of a meerkat group called the Whiskers. The film is based on the notes of the Kalahari Meerkat Project. Shot over two years at the Kuruman River Reserve in Northern Cape, South Africa, the film employed a larger crew than the series. Some scenes were shot at a park in the United Kingdom, while others were created using camera tricks. The 75-minute film premiered at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival before its premiere on Animal Planet on May 25,2008. The Kalahari Meerkat Project noted that the film was not completely accurate but praised it overall, several reviewers praised Goldbergs narration, but the script was criticized as being too simplistic for adult viewers. The meerkat Flower is born in the Kalahari Desert on March 15,2000, to Holly, after an attack by a rival group, the Lazuli, the Whiskers are forced to surrender their territory and move to a new home. A hawk kills Holly when Flower is a old. Flowers sister Viale becomes the matriarch and chooses Youssarian, a roving male from the Lazuli. Flower mates with Yossarians brother, Zaphod, but Viale kills the resulting pups and banishes Flower from the group, during a time of starvation and drought, Viale attempts to lead the group across a road to forage. As she crosses, she is struck and killed by a passing truck, as the Whiskers attempt to adjust to the loss of their leader, a snake approaches the group. Flower steps in to lead an attack to drive it off, in doing so, she becomes the new leader of the group. Zaphod returns to the group to be her mate, while Yossarian steps aside, Flower leads the Whiskers back to their original home, and after a brief battle, the Whiskers reclaim it from the Lazuli. At end of the film, an on-screen note describes Flowers death during the season of Meerkat Manor. Created by Oxford Scientific Films for Discovery Films, Meerkat Manor, The Story Begins is a biography of Flower. Caroline Hawkins, creator of the series, wrote the script using notes taken by Kalahari Meerkat Project researchers, Hawkins notes that Oxford Scientific Films believes the film is the first natural history prequel to be created. The film was directed by Chris Barker and Mike Slee, while Whoopi Goldberg, breaking from the series pure documentary format, the film does not include footage of the project meerkats depicted in the storyMeerkat Manor: The Story Begins – Region 1 DVD cover
83. Mind Meld – Shatner and Nimoy portrayed the characters James T. Kirk and Spock respectively in the 1960s Star Trek television series, the 1970s animated television series and they talk about differences they had with Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, and about the strained relationships between Shatner and some of the other cast members. It was in film that Nimoy first publicly revealed that he had struggled with alcoholism while he was acting in the original television series. Shatner talks about the death of his wife, Nerine Kidd. Mind Meld was produced to advertise Shatners personal website, filming took place at Nimoys home on September 5,2001, and Billy West narrated the title sequence. The films title refers to a practice in Star Trek—a mind meld is a telepathic link that Vulcans are able to create with other organisms. Mind Meld was released for sale on Shatners website on November 6,2001, coinciding with the release of the cut of Star Trek. Mind Meld attracted some notoriety because of a sound in one scene that became a popular subject of flatulence humor among Star Trek fans. Shatner denied being the source of sound in multiple interviews, he and Mind Melds director, Peter Jaysen. The film received mixed reviews from critics, william Shatner and Leonard Nimoy respectively portrayed James T. In Mind Meld, they discuss the Star Trek media franchise, the film is, except for the title sequence, composed entirely of Shatner and Nimoy in conversation. Many of the topics they discuss were inspired by questions from fans. The film starts in Nimoys backyard, where the two sit on chairs, and then moves into Nimoys library, which is filled with souvenirs. The film focuses on the effects Star Trek had on the lives of Shatner and Nimoy and they talk about Star Treks origins and the death of DeForest Kelley, who had portrayed Leonard McCoy in both The Original Series and The Animated Series. Shatner and Nimoy also discuss interactions between themselves and others on the set of Star Trek, including conflicts, both Shatner and Nimoy describe having had strained relationships with Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek, and attest to other members of the Original Series cast disliking Shatner. Only one of these cast members is referred to by name, Nichelle Nichols, I never fully comprehended what it was that was bothering them, says Shatner. Both men describe Star Trek as having put personal pressures on them that negatively affected their family lives. It took me a while, Nimoy says, but I got rid of all that anger when I realized that I never had to worry about work ever since Star Trek went on the airMind Meld – Original DVD cover (2001)
84. Mother India – Mother India is a 1957 Indian Hindi-language epic drama film, directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Nargis, Sunil Dutt, Rajendra Kumar, and Raaj Kumar. Despite her hardship, she sets a goddess-like moral example of an ideal Indian woman, the title of the film was chosen to counter American author Katherine Mayos 1927 polemical book Mother India, which vilified Indian culture. Mother India metaphorically represents India as a nation in the aftermath of independence, while some authors treat Radha as the symbol of women empowerment, others see her cast in female stereotypes. The Oedipal elements between Radha and her son Birju have also discussed by authors. The film was shot in Mumbais Mehboob Studios and in the villages of Maharashtra, Gujarat, the music by Naushad introduced Western classical music and Hollywood-style orchestra to Hindi cinema. The film was the most expensive Hindi cinema production and earned the highest revenue for any Hindi film at that time, adjusted for inflation, Mother India still ranks among the all-time Indian box office hits. Mother India became a definitive cultural classic and is regarded as one of the best films in Indian and it was Indias first submission for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1958, where it got the nomination and lost the award by just one vote. The film won the All India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film, the Filmfare Best Film Award for 1957, the film is set in 1957, the present day at the time of shooting. When construction of a canal to the village is completed, Radha. She remembers her past, when she was newly married, the wedding between Radha and Shamu is paid for by Radhas mother-in-law, who borrows the money from the moneylender Sukhilala. While Shamu works to bring more of their land into use. Soon after, Radhas youngest son and her mother-in-law die, a severe storm and the resulting flood destroys houses in the village and ruins the harvest. Sukhilala offers to save Radha and her sons if she trades her body to him for food, Radha vehemently refused his offer, but had to also lose her infant to the atrocities of the storm. Although the villagers begin initially to evacuate the village, they decide to stay and rebuild it, several years later, Radhas two surviving children, Birju and Ramu, are young men. Birju, embittered since childhood by the demands of Sukhilala, takes out his frustrations by pestering the village girls, especially Sukhilalas daughter, Ramu, by contrast, has a calmer temperament and is married soon after. Birjus anger finally becomes dangerous and, after being provoked, he attacks Sukhilala and his daughter and he is chased out of the village and becomes a bandit. Radha promises Sukhilala that she will not let Birju cause harm to Sukhilalas family, on Rupas wedding day, Birju returns with his gang of bandits to exact his revenge. He kills Sukhilala and kidnaps Rupa, when he tries to flee the village on his horse, Radha, his mother, shoots himMother India – Film poster
85. Mughal-e-Azam – Mughal-e-Azam is a 1960 Indian epic historical drama film directed by K. Asif and produced by Shapoorji Pallonji. Starring Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Madhubala, and Durga Khote, Salims father, Emperor Akbar, disapproves of the relationship, which leads to a war between father and son. The development of Mughal-e-Azam began in 1944, when Asif read a set in the reign of Emperor Akbar. Production was plagued by delays and financial uncertainty, before its principal photography began in the early 1950s, the project had lost a financier and undergone a complete change of cast. Mughal-e-Azam cost more to produce than any previous Indian motion picture, Mughal-e-Azam had the widest release of any Indian film up to that time, and patrons often queued all day for tickets. Released on 5 August 1960, it broke box office records in India and became the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all time, the accolades awarded to the film include one National Film Award and three Filmfare Awards at the 8th Filmfare Awards. Mughal-e-Azam was the first black-and-white Hindi film to be coloured. The colour version, released in November 2004, was a commercial success, the film is widely considered to be a milestone of its genre, earning praise from critics for its grandeur and attention to detail. Film scholars have welcomed its portrayal of enduring themes, but question its historical accuracy, Emperor Akbar, who does not have a male heir, undertakes a pilgrimage to a shrine to pray that his wife Jodhabai give birth to a son. Later, a maid brings the news of his sons birth. Overjoyed at his prayers being answered, Akbar gives the maid his ring, the son, Prince Salim, grows up to be spoiled, flippant, and self-indulgent. His father sends him off to war, to teach him courage, fourteen years later, Salim returns as a distinguished soldier and falls in love with court dancer Nadira, whom the emperor has renamed Anarkali, meaning pomegranate blossom. The relationship is discovered by the jealous Bahar, a dancer of a higher rank, unsuccessful in winning Salims love, she exposes his forbidden relationship with Anarkali. Salim pleads to marry Anarkali, but his father refuses, despite her treatment, Anarkali refuses to reject Salim, as Akbar demands. Salim rebels and amasses an army to confront Akbar and rescue Anarkali, defeated in battle, Salim is sentenced to death by his father, but is told that the sentence will be revoked if Anarkali, now in hiding, is handed over to die in his place. Anarkali gives herself up to save the life, and is condemned to death by being entombed alive. Before her sentence is carried out, she begs to have a few hours with Salim as his make-believe wife and her request is granted, as she has agreed to drug Salim so that he cannot interfere with her entombment. As Anarkali is being walled up, Akbar is reminded that he owes her mother a favourMughal-e-Azam – Theatrical poster
86. Not My Life – Not My Life is a 2011 American independent documentary film about human trafficking and contemporary slavery. The film was written, produced, and directed by Robert Bilheimer, Bilheimer planned Not My Life as the second installment in a trilogy, the first being A Closer Walk and the third being the unproduced Take Me Home. The first and last scenes of the film take place in Ghana, the film also depicts sex trafficking victims, some of whom are only five or six years old. Fifty people are interviewed in the film, including investigative journalist Paul Radu of Bucharest, Katherine Chon of the Polaris Project, and Iana Matei of Reaching Out Romania. Don Brewster of Agape International Missions says that all of the girls they have rescued from child sex tourism in Cambodia identify Americans as the clients who were the most abusive to them. The film was dedicated to Richard Young, its cinematographer and co-director and it had its premiere the following month at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City. The narration was completely rerecorded in 2011, replacing Ashley Judds voice with that of Glenn Close, the version of the film that was aired by CNN International as part of the CNN Freedom Project was shorter than the version shown at the premiere. In 2014, a version of the film was released. The film also focuses on the people and organizations engaged in working against human trafficking, the film asserts that most victims of human trafficking are children. Actress Lucy Liu said that people who watch Not My Life will be shocked to find is happening in America, Lucy Popescu of CineVue criticized the film for focusing on the victims, arguing that the perpetrators of trafficking should have been dealt with more prominently. Not My Life was named Best World Documentary at the Harlem International Film Festival in September 2012, Not My Life is a documentary film about human trafficking and contemporary slavery. The focus of the film is on trafficking victims, especially women and children, Not My Life has been called a cautionary tale. It depicts the commodification of millions of people and identifies the practices of traffickers as undermining international economics, security, sustainability, Not My Life calls attention to the fact that, in the United States, the sentencing for human trafficking is less severe than for drug trafficking. The film indicates a relationship between slavery and globalization. It asserts that most human trafficking victims are children, although the filmmakers have recognized the fact that millions of adults are also trafficked. The film depicts human trafficking as a matter of good and evil, provides interviews with survivors of human trafficking, throughout the film, Robert Bilheimer encourages viewers to personally combat human trafficking. Bilheimer was sparing in his use of statistics in the film, according to Nancy Keefe Rhodes of Stone Canoe, a U. S. S. Fully as coercive and wantonly cruel, according to Rhodes, Bilheimer rescue modern slaves from representation as exotic creatures, to restore their humanity and allow audiences to relate to themNot My Life – Not My Life
87. Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman – Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman is a 1941 detective film from the Dutch East Indies. The first production by Star Film, it was produced by Jo Eng Sek, starring L. V. Wijnhamer, Jr. Elly Joenara, and Mohamad Arief, it followed the social worker Pah Wongso as he investigated a murder to clear his protégés name. The first film of its genre to be produced in the Indies, Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman was made to capitalize on the popularity of Wijnhamer and Hollywood characters such as Charlie Chan and Mr. Moto. Released in April 1941 to popular acclaim, it had a critical reception. A sequel to this film, which is possibly lost, Pah Wongso Tersangka, was released later that year, Pah Wongso is a nut seller, social worker, and schoolmaster who lives in Batavia and takes care of the local poor. One day, his young protégé Wisnoe saves the life of a woman named Siti when she is almost hit by a carriage. In thanks, her father Haji Abdullah gives Wisnoe a job at his rice mill, Wisnoes zeal and diligence quickly make him stand out from his fellow employees, and he begins to woo Siti, who returns his affections. However, Wisnoes cousin Bardja is envious of his newfound success, a gambler who frequents prostitutes, Bardja is smitten with Siti, who does not love him. Hoping to eliminate his competition, Bardja hires some thugs to kill Wisnoe, this attempt fails and he decides to steal from his rich uncle, but is caught in the act. In the ensuing struggle, he kills the man, then frames Wisnoe for the murder. Wisnoe is arrested, and soon Pah Wongso – warned by Siti of Bardjas previous treachery – begins to investigate the case, ultimately he discovers that Bardja is the true murderer and confronts him, resulting in a battle to the death. Wongso emerges victorious, and Wisnoes name is cleared, Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman was produced by Jo Eng Sek, a businessman who had produced the film Si Tjonat in 1929. Cinematography on this film was handled by Cho Chin Hsin. The film was the first production of Star Film, a studio which Jo and Cho had established in Prinsenland and this led Jo to make a detective film which he thought would be successful with ethnic Chinese audiences. For this, he approached L. V. Wijnhamer, Jr. Wijnhamer accepted the role, to support Wongso, stage actress Elly Joenara was cast as Siti, making her film debut, while Mohamad Arief appeared as Wisnu. Other cast members included Djoenaedi, R. Sukran, and Miss Satijem, to ensure that fight scenes went smoothly, Jo hired members of Primo Oesmans silat and boxing group to perform as criminals, Oesman, a professional boxer, also appeared in the film. Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman was rated for audiences over the age of 17 and it premiered at the Rex Theatre in Batavia on 1 April 1941, following a short speech by Wijnhamer. It had reached Surabaya by June, where it was advertised as a film of intrigue, life, although intended predominantly for domestic consumption, it was also screened in China, Singapore and British MalayaPah Wongso Pendekar Boediman – Poster
88. Palpatine – Sheev Palpatine is a fictional character of the Star Wars franchise, mainly portrayed by Ian McDiarmid. In the original trilogy, he is depicted as the aged, pale-faced and cloaked Emperor of the Galactic Empire, as Sidious, he instigates the Clone Wars, nearly destroys the Jedi, and transforms the Republic into the Empire. He also manipulates Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker into turning to the dark side, Palpatines reign is brought to an end when Vader kills him to save his son, Luke Skywalker. The Emperor is briefly mentioned in the original Star Wars, the first film in the original trilogy, grand Moff Tarkin explains to his fellow Imperials that the Emperor has dissolved the Senate. The Emperor first appeared in The Empire Strikes Back and he appears in hologram form to address Darth Vader, his Sith apprentice. He tells Vader that Luke Skywalker is becoming a threat to the Empire. Vader convinces him that Luke would be an asset if turned to the dark side. In 1983s Return of the Jedi, the Emperor appears in person to oversee the last stages of the second Death Stars construction and he assures Darth Vader that they will together turn Luke, now revealed to be Vaders son, to the dark side. Unknown to Vader, the Emperor plans to replace his apprentice with Luke, when Vader brings Luke before his master, the Emperor tempts Luke to join the dark side by appealing to the young Jedis fear for his friends, whom he has lured into a trap. This leads to a duel in which Luke defeats and nearly kills Vader. The Emperor tells Luke to kill Vader and take his place, enraged, the Emperor attacks Luke with Force lightning. Moved by his sons cries for help, Vader throws the Emperor into the Death Stars reactor shaft, as Sidious, he influences the corrupt Trade Federation to blockade and invade Naboo. Queen Padmé Amidala of Naboo flees to the planet Coruscant to receive counsel from Palpatine, after a plea for help from the senate results in bureaucratic delays, Palpatine persuades the queen to make a motion to have Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum removed from office. When Padmé attempts to liberate Naboo, Sidious sends his Sith apprentice Darth Maul there to capture her, the invasion is eventually thwarted and Maul is defeated in a lightsaber duel with Obi-Wan Kenobi. Palpatine uses the crisis to be elected the new Chancellor of the Republic and he then returns to Naboo, where he befriends the young Anakin Skywalker, telling him that, We will watch your career with great interest. In the 2002 sequel Star Wars, Episode II – Attack of the Clones, since the Separatists are secretly building a battle droid army, Palpatine uses the situation to have himself granted emergency powers. Palpatine feigns reluctance to accept this authority, promising to return it to the Senate once the crisis has ended and his first act is to allow the creation of a clone army to counter the Separatist threat, this results in the opening salvo of the Clone Wars. With the galaxy now at war as Sidious planned, Dooku brings him the plans for a new superweaponPalpatine – Ian McDiarmid as Senator Palpatine in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace.
89. Persuasion (1995 film) – Persuasion is a 1995 period drama film directed by Roger Michell and based on Jane Austens 1817 novel of the same name. In her theatrical debut, the British actress Amanda Root stars as protagonist Anne Elliot, while Ciarán Hinds plays her romantic interest. The film is set in 19th century England, nine years after Anne was persuaded by others to reject Wentworths proposal of marriage, Persuasion follows the two as they become reacquainted with each other, while supporting characters threaten to interfere. The film was adapted by the writer Nick Dear, who considered the more mature than Austens other novels. He characterised it as one of realism and truthfulness, particularly in telling the story of two separated and then reunited. As Austens narrative style conveys Annes thoughts internally, Dear and Root felt compelled to express the characters emotions using comparatively little dialogue, Persuasion was shot in chronological order, allowing the actress to portray Annes development from being downtrodden to happy and blossoming. Originally the BBC was the producer of Persuasion, until it partnered with the American company WGBH Boston. This decision gave the production a larger budget and allowed it to be filmed at locations featured in the novel, including Lyme Regis, Michell believed this was Austens most emotional and poignant novel, as well as her most autobiographical. While directing, he avoided what he felt was the polished, artificial feel of other 19th-century depictions, Costume designer Alexandra Byrne produced clothing that appeared lived-in, winning a BAFTA for her efforts. Persuasion was filmed during a period of popularity for Austens works, the film originally aired on 16 April 1995, when it broadcast on the British television channel BBC Two. Sony Pictures Classics released the film in American cinemas on 27 September 1995, persuasions cinematic release attracted the attention of film critics, and it received generally positive reviews, with many praising Roots performance. Film scholars have observed significant changes from the source material, as well as class. The film opens by cutting back and forth between scenes of a ship carrying Admiral Croft, and a buggy carrying Mr. Shepherd. Shepherd and Clay are accosted by creditors due to the debts owed by the owner, Sir Walter Elliot. Sir Walter, a vain foppish baronet, is faced with financial ruin unless he retrenches, Wentworth is now wealthy from serving in the Wars, and has returned to England, presumably to find a wife. Later, Anne expresses to Lady Russell her unhappiness at her familys current financial predicament, Anne visits her other sister Mary, a hypochondriac who has married into a local farming family. Captain Wentworth comes to dine with the Musgroves, but Anne avoids going when she volunteers to nurse Marys injured son. The following morning at breakfast, Anne and Mary are suddenly met briefly by Wentworth, Anne later hears that Wentworth thought her so altered that he would not have known againPersuasion (1995 film) – Theatrical release poster
90. The Power of Nightmares – The Power of Nightmares, The Rise of the Politics of Fear is a BBC television documentary series by Adam Curtis. It mainly consists of footage, with Curtis narrating. The series was originally broadcast in the United Kingdom in 2004, the Power of Nightmares was praised by film critics in Britain and the United States. Its message and content have also been the subject of various critiques, the first part of the series explains the origins of Islamism and neoconservatism. He then becomes convinced that his vision can only be accomplished through use of a vanguard to lead a revolution against the established order. Qutb is executed in 1966, but he influences Ayman al-Zawahiri, inspired by the 1979 Iranian revolution, Zawahiri and his allies assassinate Egyptian president Anwar Al-Sadat in 1981 in the hopes of starting their own revolution. They continued to believe that a vanguard was necessary to rise up and overthrow the corrupt regime and they conclude that an emphasis on individual liberty was the undoing of Johnsons plans. They envisioned restructuring America by uniting the American people against a common evil and these factions, the neoconservatives, came to power during the 1980s under the Reagan administration, with their allies Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld. Curtis argues that the Soviet Union was on the verge of collapsing anyway, however, the Islamists see it quite differently. In their triumph, they believe they have the power to create pure Islamic states in Egypt, attempts to create such Islamic states are blocked by force. The Islamists then try to foment revolutions in Egypt and Algeria by using terrorism to scare the people rising up against their leaders. But the people are terrified by the violence, and the Algerian government exploits that fear as a way to hang on to power, in the end, the Islamists declare the entire populations of the countries to be thoroughly contaminated by western values. Finally, in Algeria, they begin to turn on each other, the neoconservatives, along with their conservative Christian allies, attempt to demonize Clinton throughout his presidency with various real and fabricated stories of corruption and immorality. To their disappointment, the American people do not turn against Clinton, meanwhile, Islamist attempts at revolution end in massive bloodshed, leaving the Islamists without popular support. Zawahiri and bin Laden flee to the safety of Afghanistan. To fight Western-inspired moral decay, they must deal a blow to its source, the final part addresses the actual rise of al-Qaeda. They find a former associate of bin Laden, Jamal al-Fadl, in 2003, they extend the War on Terror to a war on general perceived evils with the invasion of Iraq. The ideas and tactics also spread to the United Kingdom, where Tony Blair uses the threat of terrorism to give him a new moral authorityThe Power of Nightmares – Title screen
91. Prometheus (2012 film) – It is set in the late 21st century and centers on the crew of the spaceship Prometheus as it follows a star map discovered among the artifacts of several ancient Earth cultures. Seeking the origins of humanity, the crew arrives on a distant world, development of the film began in the early 2000s as a fifth installment in the Alien franchise. Scott and director James Cameron developed ideas for a film that would serve as a prequel to Scotts 1979 science-fiction horror film Alien, by 2003, the development of Alien vs. Predator took precedence, and the project remained dormant until 2009 when Scott again showed interest. Spaihts wrote a script for a prequel to the events of the Alien films, in late 2010, Lindelof joined the project to rewrite Spaihtss script, and he and Scott developed a story that precedes the story of Alien but is not directly connected to that franchise. According to Scott, although the film shares strands of Aliens DNA, so to speak, Prometheus entered production in April 2010, with extensive design phases during which the technology and creatures that the film required were developed. Principal photography began in March 2011, with an estimated US$120–130 million budget, the project was shot using 3D cameras throughout, almost entirely on practical sets, and on location in England, Iceland, Spain, and Scotland. It was promoted with a campaign that included viral activities on the web. Three videos featuring the leading actors in character, which expanded on elements of the fictional universe, were released and met with a generally positive reception. Prometheus was released on June 1,2012, in the United Kingdom and on June 8,2012, the film grossed over $403 million worldwide. A sequel, Alien, Covenant, is scheduled to be released on May 19,2017, as a spacecraft departs a planet, a humanoid alien drinks an iridescent liquid and then dissolves. The remains of the cascade into a waterfall. The aliens DNA strands mix with the water, in 2089, archaeologists Elizabeth Shaw and Charlie Holloway discover a star map in Scotland that matches others from several unconnected ancient cultures. They interpret this as an invitation from humanitys forerunners, the Engineers, Peter Weyland, the elderly CEO of Weyland Corporation, funds an expedition to follow the map to the distant moon LV-223 aboard the scientific vessel Prometheus. The ships crew travels in stasis while the android David monitors their voyage, arriving in December 2093, mission director Meredith Vickers informs them of their mission to find the Engineers, and not to make contact without her permission. The Prometheus lands on the barren, mountainous surface near an artificial structure. Inside they find stone cylinders, a statue of a humanoid head. The crew finds other bodies, leading them to surmise the species is extinct, crew members Millburn and Fifield grow uncomfortable with the discoveries and attempt to return to Prometheus, but become stranded in the structure when they get lost. The expedition is cut short when a storm forces the crew to return to the ship, David secretly takes a cylinder from the structure, while the remaining cylinders begin leaking a dark liquidPrometheus (2012 film) – Theatrical release poster
92. The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (film) – The Revolution Will Not Be Televised was directed by Irish filmmakers Kim Bartley and Donnacha Ó Briain. Given direct access to Chávez, the filmmakers intended to make a biography of the president. They spent seven months filming in Venezuela, following Chávez and his staff, as the coup unfolded on 11 April, Bartley and Ó Briain filmed on the streets of the capital, Caracas, capturing footage of protesters and the erupting violence. Later, they filmed many of the political upheavals inside Miraflores, Bartley and Ó Briain conceived of the film after Bartley returned from documenting the aftermath of the 1999 Vargas mudslides for an Irish charity. At BSÉs request, the filmmakers partnered with an experienced producer. Funding for the €200,000 production was provided by BSÉ, Bartley and Ó Briain shot more than 200 hours of material, editing focused on identifying footage that would make the film entertaining and drive the plot. It was at this stage that the films coverage narrowed to concentrate more on the coup attempt, the film was positively received by mainstream film critics and won several awards. Reviewers cited the filmmakers unprecedented proximity to key events and praised the film for its narrative, criticism focused on its lack of context. First shown on television in Europe and Venezuela in 2003, The Revolution Will Not Be Televised later appeared at film festivals, independent activists held unofficial screenings, and Venezuelan government officials encouraged its circulation to build support for Chávezs administration. The film is shown on Venezuelan television, and in the capital it is often broadcast during contentious political conjunctures. The film is cited as an accurate portrayal or a misrepresentation of the events of April 2002. Throughout much of the century, Venezuela was beset by political, civil. After Juan Vicente Gómezs long reign as president ended in 1935, although the military remained influential, Venezuelas government has since been chosen by civilians through democratic processes. Until 1998, the dominant political parties were Acción Democrática and COPEI, in 1989, during the second term in office for Acción Democráticas Carlos Andrés Pérez, Venezuela was hit by a severe economic crisis. A wave of protests known as the Caracazo engulfed the country, hugo Chávez, then a Lieutenant Colonel in the army, had formed a secret revolutionary group in the early 1980s and was planning a rebellious intervention. He later felt the Caracazo was an opportunity for his movement. Three years later, Chávez saw another chance, in February 1992, a second coup attempt, without his involvement, also failed. Chávez enjoyed some support for his actionsThe Revolution Will Not Be Televised (film) – Hugo Chávez in 2003
93. RKO Pictures – RKO Pictures Inc. also known as RKO Radio Pictures and in its later years RKO Teleradio Pictures, was an American film production and distribution company. It was one of the Big Five studios of Hollywoods Golden Age, RCA chief David Sarnoff engineered the merger to create a market for the companys sound-on-film technology, RCA Photophone. By the mid-1940s, the studio was under the control of investor Floyd Odlum, RKO has long been celebrated for its series of musicals starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers in the mid-to-late 1930s. Actors Katharine Hepburn and, later, Robert Mitchum had their first major successes at the studio, cary Grant was a mainstay for years. The work of producer Val Lewtons low-budget horror unit and RKOs many ventures into the now known as film noir have been acclaimed, largely after the fact, by film critics. The studio produced two of the most famous films in motion picture history, King Kong and Citizen Kane, RKO Pictures is also a member of Motion Picture Association of America. Maverick industrialist Howard Hughes took over RKO in 1948, after years of turmoil and decline under his control, Hughes sold the troubled studio to General Tire and Rubber Company in 1955. The original RKO Pictures ceased production in 1957 and was dissolved two years later. In 1981, broadcaster RKO General, the heir, revived it as a production subsidiary. In October 1927, Warner Bros. released The Jazz Singer and its success prompted Hollywood to convert from silent to sound film production en masse. The Radio Corporation of America controlled an advanced optical sound-on-film system, RCA Photophone, the industrys two largest major studios, Paramount and Loews/MGM, with two other studios Universal and First National, were poised to contract with ERPI for sound conversion as well. Next on the agenda was securing a string of exhibition venues like those the leading Hollywood production companies owned, Kennedy began investigating the possibility of such a purchase. Around that time, the large Keith-Albee-Orpheum circuit of theaters, built around the medium of live vaudeville, was attempting a transition to the movie business. In mid-1927, the operations of Pathé Exchange and Cecil B. De Milles Producers Distributing Corporation had united under KAOs control, early in 1928, KAO general manager John J. Murdock, who had assumed the presidency of Pathé, turned to Kennedy as an adviser in consolidating the studio with De Milles company, PDC. This was the relationship Sarnoff and Kennedy sought, on October 23,1928, RCA announced the creation of the Radio-Keith-Orpheum holding company, with Sarnoff as chairman of the board. Kennedy, who withdrew from his positions in the merged companies, kept Pathé separate from RKO. RCA owned the governing stock interest in RKO,22 percent, in the early 1930s, the companys production and distribution arm, presided over by former FBO vice-president Joseph IRKO Pictures – RKO Radio Pictures Inc.
94. St. Elmo (1914 film) – St. Elmo is a 1914 American silent drama film produced by the Balboa Amusement Producing Company and distributed by William Foxs Box Office Attractions Company. It was the first feature-length film adaptation of Augusta Jane Evanss 1866 novel of the same name, the story follows the life of the title character, who kills his cousin over the love of Agnes, falls from grace, and eventually finds redemption and love with Edna. It is disputed who directed the film, many sources credit Bertram Bracken, some reviewers praised the scenery and overall production quality, considering the film an improvement over staged adaptations of the novels. Others found the scenery irrelevant and the story confusing, despite mixed reviews, the film was financially successful, reportedly setting box office records. The following year, a adaptation of an unrelated Evans novel. As with most Balboa films, St. Elmo is now believed lost, St. Elmo Murray and Murray Hammond, his cousin and best friend, are both in love with a young woman named Agnes Hunt. Although Agnes loves Murray, she rejects him for being too poor, instead, she accepts the wealthy St. Elmos marriage proposal. St. Elmos mother holds a ball to celebrate the engagement, after the betrothal is publicly announced, Murray and Agnes meet covertly in the gardens. St. Elmo discovers their affair, challenges Murray to a duel, the Devil possesses St. Elmo, and he becomes a cruel wanderer, spreading misery and misfortune where he travels. Twenty years later, the ingenue Edna Earle is traveling by train, hoping to find employment in a cotton mill after the death of her father, the train derails, and St. Elmo saves her from the burning wreckage. This act sets St. Elmo on the path to salvation as he, initially planning to depart for distant lands, a vision of Christ leads him to aid the impoverished. Freed from the Devil, he becomes a minister and marries Edna, with the novels success came broad cultural impact. Various consumer products, hotels, steamboats, railway carriages, and even towns were named after the book. Other stage versions, many of which were successful, were quickly developed after her death later that year. The first film versions of the story followed shortly, in 1910, the Thanhouser Company chose St. Elmo for its second production, and Vitagraph Studios produced its own adaptation the same year. In 1914, while working for the Balboa Amusement Producing Company, filming took place in Long Beach, California, where the Balboa studios were located. Footage of a church under construction across the street from the studio was used for a scene in which one was built by St. Elmo. Contemporary writers credited Bertram Bracken as director, as do some modern sources, others consider the film the directorial debut of J. Gordon EdwardsSt. Elmo (1914 film) – Theatrical release poster
95. She Shoulda Said No! – She Shoulda Said No. is a 1949 exploitation film that follows in the spirit of morality tales such as the 1936 films Reefer Madness and Marihuana. Directed by Sam Newfield and starring Lila Leeds, it was produced to capitalize on the arrest of Leeds. Its relative success came only after the posters were redone. Leeds character is Anne Lester, an orphan who is trying to pay for her brothers college education. After meeting Markey, a dealer, Anne begins to believe that she must smoke marijuana to fit in with her friends. She then goes to a tea party, where she tries the drug for the first time and she is unaffected by the initial experiment, and loses her fear of drugs as she continues to use it willingly. Annes drug use results in the loss of many of her inhibitions, as the film progresses, she is fired from her job and begins selling drugs for Markey. Her brother hangs himself when he learns of her new job, finally, after 50 days in jail, she is released, cleaned up and ready to cooperate with the authorities regarding Markey. The film itself is semi-biographical, its story following what Leeds herself experienced, the film was inspired by the highly publicized arrest of movie stars Robert Mitchum and Leeds for marijuana possession. Leeds was sentenced to sixty days in prison and placed on probation for five years, upon her release, Leeds struggled to find work in Hollywood, and signed on to star in Wild Weed. The film gained approval from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics to use the drug references, the film used its plot to push many of the beliefs of the time, that drug-using youth would turn to crime and the theory of marijuana as a gateway drug. The latter was an argument for drug prohibition during the era. Via Franklin Productions, Kay filmed the production in six days, eureka Productions initially distributed the film, but it struggled to find an audience until Kroger Babbs Hallmark Productions acquired the rights for distribution. He pushed the sensuality of Leeds with new photographs and a new tagline. If its presentation saves but one girl or boy from becoming a dope fiend – then its story has been well told. Babb, who gained notoriety for his various marketing gimmicks, occasionally had Leeds make appearances, babb often booked the movie as a midnight presentation twice a week in the same town, David F. According to Friedman, Babbs presentations of the film made more money than any film the same theater would showcase over a typical films full booking. She Shoulda Said No. was not well-received critically upon its release, with The New York Times sayingShe Shoulda Said No! – Theatrical poster to She Shoulda Said 'No'! (1949).
96. Sherlock Holmes Baffled – Sherlock Holmes Baffled is a very short American silent film created in 1900 with cinematography by Arthur Marvin. It is the earliest known film to feature Arthur Conan Doyles detective character Sherlock Holmes, the inclusion of the character also makes it the first recorded detective film. In the film, a thief who can appear and disappear at will steals a sack of items from Sherlock Holmes, at each point, Holmess attempts to thwart the intruder end in failure. Originally shown in Mutoscope machines in arcades, Sherlock Holmes Baffled has a time of 30 seconds. Although produced in 1900, it was registered in 1903. The identities of the playing the first screen Holmes and his assailant are not recorded. Assumed to be lost for years, the film was rediscovered in 1968 as a paper print in the Library of Congress. Sherlock Holmes enters his room to find it being burgled. After Holmes recovers his property, the bag vanishes from his hand into that of the thief, at this point the movie ends abruptly with Holmes looking baffled. The film was produced by the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company and was intended to be shown on the Mutoscope, like Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope the Mutoscope did not project on a screen, and provided viewing to only one person at a time. Cheaper and simpler than the Kinetoscope, the system marketed by the American Mutoscope Company quickly dominated the coin-in-the-slot peep-show business. The cards were lit by light bulbs inside the machine. Earlier machines had relied on reflected natural light, Biograph film was not ready-perforated, the camera itself punched a sprocket hole on each side of the frame as the film was exposed at 30 frames per second. Sherlock Holmes Baffled ran to 86.56 metres in length, the director and cinematographer of Sherlock Holmes Baffled was Arthur W. Marvin, a staff cameraman for Biograph. Marvin completed over 418 short films between 1897 and 1911, and was known for filming vaudeville entertainers and he later became known as the cameraman for the early silent films of D. W. Griffith. The identities of the first screen Holmes and his assailant are not recorded, according to Christopher Redmonds Sherlock Holmes Handbook, the film was shot on April 26,1900. Julie McKuras states that the film was released in May of the same year, despite being in circulation, Sherlock Holmes Baffled was only registered on February 24,1903, and this is the date seen on the films copyright title card. The occasionally suggested date of 1905 is probably due to confusion with a Vitagraph film titled Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, or, because motion pictures were not covered by copyright laws until 1912, paper prints were submitted by studios wishing to register their worksSherlock Holmes Baffled – Holmes first encounters the intruder.
97. The Simpsons Movie – The Simpsons Movie is a 2007 American animated comedy film based on the Fox television series The Simpsons. As the townspeople exile him and eventually his family abandons him, Homer works to redeem his folly by stopping Russ Cargill, the head of the EPA. Previous attempts to create a The Simpsons film failed due to the lack of a script of appropriate length, eventually, producers James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, Al Jean, Richard Sakai, and Mike Scully began development of the film in 2001. A writing team consisting of Brooks, Groening, Jean, Scully, Ian Maxtone-Graham, George Meyer, David Mirkin, Mike Reiss, Matt Selman, John Swartzwelder and they conceived numerous plot ideas, with Groenings being the one developed into a film. The script was re-written over a hundred times, and this creativity continued after the animation had begun in 2006 and this meant hours of finished material was cut, which included cameo roles from Erin Brockovich, Minnie Driver, Isla Fisher, Kelsey Grammer, and Edward Norton. Hanks and Green Day appeared in the cut as themselves. Tie-in promotions were made with several companies, including Burger King and 7-Eleven, the film premiered in Springfield, Vermont, which had won the right to hold it through a competition organized by Fox. The film was a critical and commercial success, grossing over $527 million worldwide, at their memorial, Grampa Simpson foresees the destruction of the town, but only Marge takes this seriously. Later that day, Homer dares his son Bart to skateboard naked to Krusty Burger, Bart considers their neighbor Ned Flanders a better father figure after Homer refuses to take responsibility for the incident. Lisa and a new Irish friend named Colin convince the town to clean their lake. Meanwhile, Homer adopts a pig from Krusty Burger and names it Spider Pig, moments later, a squirrel jumps into the lake and becomes severely mutated, Flanders and Bart discover the creature before the EPA captures it. Russ Cargill, head of the EPA, presents five unthinkable options to U. S. President Arnold Schwarzenegger to keep the towns pollution contained, the slow-witted president picks option 3 without reading it, and Springfield is enclosed in a large glass dome. With the EPA on their trail, the Simpsons flee to Alaska, on the way, Homer tries to make some money at a carnival by riding a motorcycle around the inside of a metal cage. After three months of escape attempts, Springfields residents finally make a crack in the dome, pointing out the damage. After failing to talk Homer into it, his family eventually leave him for good, alone, Homer is stranded on an iceberg and floats away. Meanwhile, Marge and the children are captured by the EPA after a conversation of theirs is overheard by the NSA, after a mysterious Inuit shaman saves him from a polar bear, Homer has an epiphany and decides to return to Springfield to save the town from danger. As Homer arrives, a helicopter lowers a small but powerful bomb down a rope through a hole in the dome, the townspeople attempt to climb the rope to escape through the still-opened hole, but Homer slides down the rope and knocks them off along with the bomb. After reconciling with Bart, Homer drives a motorcycle along the dome, as a passenger of the motorcycle, Bart throws the bomb through the hole, seconds later it detonates, shattering the dome and freeing the townThe Simpsons Movie – Director David Silverman looked at some of the television episodes he had directed for inspiration.
98. Khan Noonien Singh – Khan Noonien Singh, commonly shortened to Khan, is a fictional character in the Star Trek science fiction franchise. The character first appeared in the Star Trek, The Original Series episode Space Seed, in the 2013 film Star Trek Into Darkness, he is played by Benedict Cumberbatch. The character once controlled more than a quarter of the Earth during the Eugenics Wars of the 1990s, after being revived from suspended animation in 2267 by the crew of the Starship Enterprise, Khan attempts to capture the starship, but is thwarted by James T. Kirk and exiled on Ceti Alpha V to create a new society with his people, in Star Trek II, The Wrath of Khan, set fifteen years after Space Seed, Khan escapes his exile and sets out to exact revenge upon Kirk. Harve Bennett, executive producer for Star Trek II, chose Khan as the villain for the film, to reflect the time spent marooned on an inhospitable world, Khan was given a costume that looked as though it had been scavenged from different items and showed off Montalbáns physique. Montalbáns portrayal has been received by critics and fans, Khan was voted one of the ten greatest film villains by the Online Film Critics Society. In Star Trek Into Darkness, set in the continuity established in Star Trek. Khan is given the false identity John Harrison and coerced by Admiral Marcus into building weapons for Starfleet in exchange for the lives of Khans crew and he ultimately rebels and comes into conflict with the crew of Enterprise. Khan makes his appearance in the episode Space Seed, first broadcast on February 16,1967. While most of the supermen were killed or sentenced to death, Botany Bay is discovered by the crew of the Starship Enterprise in 2267, with Khan and 72 of the 84 crew members of Botany Bay still alive, cryogenically frozen in suspended animation. When Khans sleep chamber malfunctions, he is transported to Enterprise, mcGivers agrees to help Khan revive the other supermen, allowing him to organize an attempted takeover. To coerce the Enterprise crew to cooperate with him, Khan places Captain James T, Kirk in the ships decompression chamber and threatens to kill Kirk unless the crew submits. McGivers cannot stand by as her Captain dies and frees Kirk, Khan heads to engineering and sets the ships engines to self-destruct, whereupon he is incapacitated by Kirk. Spock wonders what the seed Kirk has planted will bear in a hundred years, Khan returns in the 1982 feature film Star Trek II, The Wrath of Khan. Captain Clark Terrell and First Officer Pavel Chekov of USS Reliant are searching for a world to test the Genesis device. They beam down to what they believe is Ceti Alpha VI, Khans followers capture Terrell and Chekov, and Khan explains that the barren world is Ceti Alpha V, the sixth planet of the system exploded shortly after Khan and his followers were marooned. Only twenty of Khans followers survive, swearing vengeance on Kirk, Khan implants Ceti eels in Terrell and Chekovs brains, rendering them vulnerable to suggestion. Khan then seizes control of Reliant, intent on capturing the Genesis device, Khan lures Enterprise to the space station Regula I, and he launches a surprise attack that disables Kirks shipKhan Noonien Singh – Khan Noonien Singh as he appears in " Space Seed "
99. The Sinking of the Lusitania – The Sinking of the Lusitania is a silent animated short film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. It is a work of propaganda re-creating the never-photographed 1915 sinking of the British liner RMS Lusitania, at twelve minutes it has been called the longest work of animation at the time of its release. The film is the earliest surviving animated documentary and serious, dramatic work of animation, in 1915 a German submarine torpedoed and sank the RMS Lusitania,128 Americans were among the 1,198 dead. In 1916, McCay rebelled against his employers stance and began work on the patriotic Sinking of the Lusitania on his own time with his own money, the film followed McCays earlier successes in animation, Little Nemo, How a Mosquito Operates, and Gertie the Dinosaur. McCay and his assistants spent twenty-two months making the film, the film opens with a live-action prologue in which McCay busies himself studying a picture of the Lusitania as a model for his film-in-progress. Intertitles boast of McCay as the originator and inventor of Animated Cartoons, McCay is shown working with a group of anonymous assistants on the first record of the sinking of the Lusitania. The liner passes the Statue of Liberty and leaves New York Harbor, after some time, a German submarine cuts through the waters and fires a torpedo at the Lusitania, which billows smoke that builds until it envelops the screen. Passengers scramble to lower lifeboats, some of which capsize in the confusion, the liner tilts from one side to the other and passengers are tossed into the ocean. A second blast rocks the Lusitania, which sinks slowly into the deep as more passengers fall off its edges, the liner vanishes from sight, and the film closes with a mother struggling to keep her baby above the waves. An intertitle declares, The man who fired the shot was decorated for it by the Kaiser, and yet they tell us not to hate the Hun. Winsor McCay produced prodigiously detailed and accurate drawings since early in life and he earned a living as a young man drawing portraits and posters in dime museums, and attracted large crowds with his ability to draw quickly in public. He began working as a newspaper illustrator full-time in 1898, and his greatest comic strip success was the childrens fantasy comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland, which he began in 1905. In 1906, McCay began performing on the circuit, doing chalk talks—performances during which he drew in front of a live audience. Inspired by the books his son brought home, McCay said he came to see the possibility of making moving pictures of his cartoons. His first animated film, Little Nemo, was composed of four thousand drawings on rice paper and his next film, How a Mosquito Operates, naturalistically shows a giant mosquito draw blood from a sleeping man until it burst. McCay followed this with a film that became a part of his vaudeville shows, in Gertie the Dinosaur. The British liner RMS Lusitania briefly held the record for largest passenger ship upon its completion in 1906, the Germans employed submarines in the North Atlantic during World War I, and in April 1915 the German government issued a warning that it would target British civilian ships. The Lusitania was torpedoed on May 7,1915, during a voyage from New York,128 Americans were among the 1,198 who lost their livesThe Sinking of the Lusitania – A still from the film showing the RMS Lusitania engulfed in smoke after being torpedoed
100. Soeara Berbisa – Soeara Berbisa is a 1941 film from the Dutch East Indies. Produced by Ang Hock Liem for Union Films and directed by R Hu, this film starred Raden Soekarno, Ratna Djoewita, Oedjang. The story, written by Djojopranoto, follows two men who compete for the affections of a woman before learning that they are long-lost brothers. Completed between September and October 1941, Soeara Berbisa featured keroncong music and was partly in western Java. It was released to coincide with the Eid al-Fitr holiday, advertisements emphasised the films appeal to both Native and Dutch audiences, and a review in De Indische Courant was positive. Although the film – Unions penultimate production – was screened as late as 1949, the young athlete Mitra and his sweetheart Neng Mardinah are to be wed. However, a man named Mardjohan has fallen in love with Mardinah. In the backlash over the rumours, Mitra abandons the city and his beloved, there, Mitra finds work at a factory which is, coincidentally, owned by Mardjohan. Refusing the romantic advances of a worker there, he leaves the factory, one day, he comes across Mardjohan, gravely injured following an accident. Mitra saves the man, then him for treatment. Mardjohans mother, seeing Mitra, believes that he is her son who went missing when he was aged three and she finds several witnesses who testify of the resemblance, and is ultimately able to prove her suspicions. Meanwhile, Mitras name is cleared, and he is reunited with Mardinah, the screenplay was written by Djojopranoto, who replaced Unions former screenwriter Saeroen after the latter left for rival company Star Film following Wanita dan Satria. The film began production by September 1941, and by October it was nearly complete, Soeara Berbisa starred Raden Soekarno and Ratna Djoewita, and featured the acting talents of Oedjang and Soehaena. This black-and-white film included several songs, and was partly shot in the Preanger region of west Java. A review in the Surabaya edition of De Indische Courant, however and that newspaper gave a positive review, describing Soeara Berbisa as a tense film with humorous moments and beautiful scenery. Its review ended with a recommendation that people and their parents see the film. Soeara Berbisa was open to audiences of all ages, to reach educated audiences, Union claimed to have paid attention to dialogue, arranged it as best as possible in accordance with the wants of the Indonesian people. Unions final production, Mega Mendoeng, was directed by Boen and it again starred Soekarno, though this time alongside the new find SofiatiSoeara Berbisa – Newspaper advertisement
101. Ruma Maida – Ruma Maida is a 2009 Indonesian film written by Ayu Utami, directed by Teddy Soeriaatmadja and starring Atiqah Hasiholan, Yama Carlos, Nino Fernandez, and Frans Tumbuan. It details a struggle to save a historic house from a developer. After three months of pre-production, shooting began in Semarang, Central Java, and Kota, Jakarta, Ruma Maida, which uses different filming styles for scenes in the past and present, deals with the importance of education, history, and pluralism. Critical reception to the film was mixed, reviewers praised the visuals but disapproved of the plot and it was nominated for twelve Citra Awards at the 2009 Indonesian Film Festival, of which it won one. A young history student, Maida, a Christian, runs a school for street children in Jakarta. As Maida learns about Pahing, she decides to write her thesis about his life. One day her class is interrupted by the young Muslim architect Sakera, who has told to evict Maidas school by his employer. As Maida and Sakera argue in the streets, rioting breaks out around them, Sakera protects the half-Chinese Maida, then tells her that he will help her keep the house, although it is scheduled to be demolished within a week. After attempts to persuade Muchlisin to keep the original design fail, with the help of her mothers former lover Kuan, she discovers the true ownership of the house. After being tortured, Pahing was released to discover that his wife had been raped and killed, Pahing later died on a flight carrying medical supplies over Yogyakarta when the flight was shot down. Meanwhile, his son was raised by Maruyama – the kidnapper – and had his name changed to Dasaad Muchlisin, with this information, Maida, Sakera, and Kuan approach Muchlisin and tell him how the house features in his history. After a short silence, Muchlisin tells them to leave, instead, he renovates the building and dedicates it as a school for street children. The screenplay for Ruma Maida was written by Ayu Utami, her first such work, mainly known for her novels, she had avoided screenplays as she thought they were generally too commercially oriented. Considering the screenplay a way to encourage the generation to study Indonesian history, which she said could be fun, Utami decided to focus on education, diversity. Pre-production for Ruma Maida took three months, the characters were written without any particular actors in mind. Atiqah Hasiholan, who had starred in the Academy Award-submitted Jamila dan Sang Presiden, was cast as Maida. Yama Carlos, who played Sakera, was initially cast for another role, the actor cast as Muchlisin, Frans Tumbuan, was the only one auditioned as Soeriaatmadja thought the role was perfect for him. Soeriaatmadja later recalled that, including extras, Ruma Maida had the largest cast of any film he had made to that point, shooting for the film was conducted in Kota, Jakarta, and Semarang, Central Java, over a period of one monthRuma Maida – Promotional poster
102. Sorga Ka Toedjoe – Sorga Ka Toedjoe is a 1940 film from the Dutch East Indies directed by Joshua and Othniel Wong for Tans Film. It follows a couple who are reunited after years of separation by another, younger couple. The black-and-white film, the first production by Tans Film after the departure of Rd Mochtar and it was a commercial and critical success. Roekiah and Djoemala took leading roles in three films before Tans closed in 1942. Sorga Ka Toedjoe is now thought lost, Rasminah is living with her blind aunt Hadidjah in Puncak, a village south-east of Buitenzorg. Hadidjah has been separated from her husband, Kasimin, for several years, now she sings the kroncong song Sorga Ka Toedjoe, which Kasimin declared to be a symbol of his love, at 5 p. m. every day. Unknown to Hadidjah, Kasimin is alive and well, he also sings Sorga Ka Toedjoe every day at the same time. Following an encounter with the rich and detestable Parta, who intends to take her as his second wife, several days later, having found work, she returns to Puncak to pick up Hadidjah and take her to Batavia. However, Parta and his cohort Doel are waiting in ambush, when Rasminahs carriage is stuck in a rut, the two begin to chase after her. Rasminah runs into the woods and, after several close calls, there she rests the night, without seeing the owner. The following morning, Rasminah is awakened by the sound of a guitar, played by the houses owner, afraid that he is collaborating with her pursuer, she sneaks outside, only to be confronted by Parta and Doel. Retreating, she is chased by the pair, Hoesin intervenes and, after a fierce fight, defeats the two and chases them away. He then reassures Rasminah and escorts her home, over the following days Hoesin repeatedly visits Rasminah, and slowly the two begin to fall in love. When Rasminah takes her aunt to Batavia to live, Hoesin follows and they begin discussing their future together, but Rasminah insists that she will only marry when her aunt is reunited with Kasimin. Kasimin and Hadidjah are reunited, allowing Hoesin and Rasminah to begin their own preparations, Sorga Ka Toedjoe was directed by brothers Joshua and Othniel Wong for Tans Film, a company owned by the ethnic Chinese brothers Khoen Yauw and Khoen Hian. The Tan brothers, who owned a pair of cinemas, had been active in the industry since Njai Dasima in 1929. The Wongs had worked for Tans since 1938, when they directed the hit film Fatima, Sorga Ka Toedjoe was shot in black-and-white, with some scenes filmed at Telaga Warna, near Buitenzorg. The film starred Roekiah, Rd Djoemala, Kartolo, and Annie Landouw and featured Titing, Ismail, Roekiah had regularly been paired on-screen with Rd. Mochtar – despite being married to Kartolo – beginning with Terang BoelanSorga Ka Toedjoe – Newspaper advertisement
103. Jack Sparrow – Captain Jack Sparrow is a fictional character and the main protagonist in the Pirates of the Caribbean film series. He first appears in the 2003 film Pirates of the Caribbean and he later appears in the sequels Dead Mans Chest, At Worlds End, On Stranger Tides, and Dead Men Tell No Tales. In the films, Sparrow is one of the nine pirate lords in the Brethren Court and he can be treacherous and survives mostly by using wit and negotiation rather than by force, opting to flee most dangerous situations and to fight only when necessary. Sparrow is introduced seeking to regain his ship, the Black Pearl, from his mutinous first mate, later he attempts to escape his blood debt to the legendary Davy Jones while battling the East India Trading Company. The characters role expanded as the films progressed, the Pirates of the Caribbean series was inspired by the Disney theme park ride of the same name, and when the ride was revamped in 2006, the character of Captain Jack Sparrow was added to it. Captain Jack Sparrow first appears in The Curse of the Black Pearl when he arrives in Port Royal in Jamaica to commandeer a ship, despite rescuing Elizabeth Swann, the daughter of Governor Weatherby Swann, from drowning, he is jailed for piracy. That night, a pirate ship called the Black Pearl attacks Port Royal. The Black Pearls captain, Hector Barbossa, desperately seeks one last gold coin to break an ancient Aztec curse that he, a blacksmith named Will Turner frees Sparrow to aid him in rescuing Elizabeth. They commandeer the HMS Interceptor and recruit a crew in Tortuga in Haiti before heading to Isla de Muerta. Along the way, Will learns that Sparrow was the Black Pearls captain until Barbossa led a mutiny ten years earlier and took over the ship, Sparrow tells Turner that his father was a pirate known as Bootstrap Bill Turner. The rescue attempt goes awry and Barbossa maroons Jack and Elizabeth on the island he had stranded Sparrow before. Elizabeth creates a fire from rum barrels and they are rescued by the British Royal Navy. Sparrow cuts a deal with Commodore James Norrington to lead Norrington to the Black Pearl, Norrington refuses until Elizabeth, desperate to save Will, spontaneously accepts Norringtons earlier marriage proposal. Right before the climactic battle with the pirates at Isla de Muerta, Sparrow swipes a cursed coin from the treasure chest, making himself immortal. He shoots his rival with the pistol he has carried for ten years just as Will breaks the curse, despite having assisted the Navy, Sparrow is sentenced to hang. At Sparrows execution in Port Royal, Will saves Sparrow, Elizabeth intervenes, declaring her love for Will who is pardoned, while Sparrow escapes by tumbling off a sea wall. The Black Pearl and her new crew arrive in time to retrieve him, impressed by the wily pirate, Norrington allows him one days head start before giving chase. A year following the events of the first film, Sparrow searches for the Dead Mans Chest, Sparrow made a bargain with Jones to raise the sunken Black Pearl and make Sparrow captain for thirteen yearsJack Sparrow – Johnny Depp as Captain Jack Sparrow
104. Star Trek: The Motion Picture – Star Trek, The Motion Picture is a 1979 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the first Star Trek film and stars the cast of the original 1966–1969 Star Trek television series, the film is set in the twenty-third century when a mysterious and immensely powerful alien cloud known as VGer approaches Earth, destroying everything in its path. Kirk resumes command of his previous starship—the recently refitted USS Enterprise—to lead it on a mission to save the planet, when the original television series was cancelled in 1969, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry lobbied Paramount to continue the franchise through a film. The success of the series in syndication convinced the studio to work on a feature film in 1975. A series of writers attempted to craft a suitably epic script, Paramount instead planned on returning the franchise to its roots with a new television series, Star Trek, Phase II. With the cancellation of Phase II, writers rushed to adapt its planned pilot episode, In Thy Image, constant revisions to the story and shooting script continued to the extent of hourly script updates on shooting dates. The Enterprise was modified inside and out, costume designer Robert Fletcher provided new uniforms, Jerry Goldsmith composed the score, beginning an association with Star Trek that would continue until 2002. The final production cost ballooned to approximately $46 million, the film earned $139 million worldwide, falling short of studio expectations but enough for Paramount to propose a cheaper sequel. Roddenberry was forced out of control for The Wrath of Khan. In 2001, Wise oversaw a directors cut for a special DVD release of the film, with remastered audio, tightened and added scenes, and new computer-generated effects. In 2273, a Starfleet monitoring station, Epsilon Nine, detects an alien force, hidden in a cloud of energy. The cloud destroys three of the Klingon Empires new Ktinga-class warships and the station en route. On Earth, the starship Enterprise is undergoing a refit, her former commanding officer, James T. Kirk, has been promoted to Admiral. Starfleet dispatches Enterprise to investigate the cloud entity as the ship is the one in intercept range. Kirk takes command of the ship citing his experience, angering Captain Willard Decker, testing of Enterprises new systems goes poorly, two officers, including the science officer, are killed by a malfunctioning transporter, and improperly calibrated engines almost destroy the ship. Kirks unfamiliarity with the new systems of the Enterprise increases the tension between him and first officer Decker, Enterprise intercepts the energy cloud and is attacked by an alien vessel within. A probe appears on the bridge, attacks Spock and abducts the navigator and she is replaced by a robotic replica, another probe sent by VGer to study the crew. Decker is distraught over the loss of Ilia, with whom he had a romantic history and he becomes troubled as he attempts to extract information from the doppelgänger, which has Ilias memories and feelings buried withinStar Trek: The Motion Picture – Ray Bradbury was one of the science-fiction writers who offered a premise for the Star Trek feature film.
105. Star Trek III: The Search for Spock – Star Trek III, The Search for Spock is a 1984 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. After the death of Spock, the crew of the USS Enterprise returns to Earth, Kirk learns that Spocks spirit, or katra, is held in the mind of Dr. Leonard Bones McCoy, Kirk and company steal the Enterprise to return Spocks body to his home planet. The crew must also contend with hostile Klingons, led by Kruge, Paramount commissioned the film after positive critical and commercial reaction to The Wrath of Khan. Nimoy directed, the first Star Trek cast member to do so, producer Harve Bennett wrote the script starting from the end and working back, and intended the destruction of the Enterprise to be a shocking development. Bennett and Nimoy collaborated with effects house Industrial Light & Magic to develop storyboards and new ship designs, aside from a single day of location shooting, all of the films scenes were shot on Paramount and ILM soundstages. Composer James Horner returned to expand his themes from the previous film, the Search for Spock opened June 1,1984. In its first week of release, the film grossed over $16 million from almost 2,000 theaters across North America and it went on to gross $76 million at the domestic box office, toward a total of $87 million worldwide. Critical reaction to The Search for Spock was positive, but notably less so than the previous film, reviewers generally praised the cast and characters, while criticism tended to focus on the plot, the special effects were conflictingly received. Roger Ebert called the film a compromise between the tones of the first and second Star Trek films, the Search for Spock was released on multiple home video formats, including VHS, DVD, and Blu-ray high definition discs. Nimoy went on to direct The Search for Spocks sequel, Star Trek IV, the casualties of the fight include Admiral James T. Kirks Vulcan friend, Spock, whose casket was launched into space and eventually landed on the planet created by the Genesis Device. On arriving at Earth Spacedock, Doctor Leonard McCoy begins to act strangely and is detained, David Marcus —Kirks son, a key scientist in Genesiss development—and Lieutenant Saavik are investigating the Genesis planet on board the science vessel Grissom. Discovering an unexpected life form on the surface, Marcus and Saavik transport to the planet and they find that the Genesis Device has resurrected Spock in the form of a child, although his mind is not present. Marcus admits that he used unstable protomatter in the development of the Genesis Device, causing Spock to age rapidly, meanwhile, Kruge, the commander of a Klingon vessel, intercepts information about Genesis. Believing the device to be useful as a weapon, he takes his cloaked ship to the Genesis planet, destroys the Grissom. Spocks father, Sarek, confronts Kirk about his sons death, the pair learn that before he died, Spock transferred his katra, or living spirit, to McCoy. Spocks katra and body are needed to lay him to rest on his homeworld, Vulcan, disobeying orders, Kirk and his officers spring McCoy from detention, disable the USS Excelsior, and steal the Enterprise from Spacedock to return to the Genesis planet to retrieve Spocks body. In orbit, the undermanned Enterprise is attacked and disabled by Kruge, in the standoff that follows, Kruge orders that one of the hostages on the surface be executed. Marcus is killed defending Saavik and Spock, Kirk and company feign surrender and activate the Enterprises self-destruct sequence, killing the Klingon boarding party while the Enterprise crew transports to the planets surfaceStar Trek III: The Search for Spock – Visual supervisor Ken Ralston (far right) worked with Paramount early in production to develop plans for The Search for Spock 's effects.
106. Star Trek V: The Final Frontier – Star Trek V, The Final Frontier is a 1989 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the feature film based on Star Trek. The film was directed by cast member William Shatner, following two films directed by his co-star, Leonard Nimoy, Shatner also developed the initial storyline in which Sybok searches for God but instead finds an alien being. The script went through revisions to please the cast and studio. Despite a writers-guild strike cutting into the films pre-production, Paramount commenced filming in October 1988, production problems plagued the film on set and during location shooting in Yosemite National Park and the Mojave Desert. The films ending was reworked because of poor test-audience reaction and the failure of planned special effects, Jerry Goldsmith, composer for Star Trek, The Motion Picture, returned to score The Final Frontier. The Final Frontier was released in North America on June 9,1989 and it had the highest-opening gross of any film in the series at that point and was number one in its first week at the box office, but its grosses quickly dropped in subsequent weeks. The film received mixed to poor reviews by critics on release. The next entry in the series, Star Trek VI, The Undiscovered Country, the crew of the newly commissioned USS Enterprise are enjoying shore leave after the starships shakedown cruise goes poorly. At Yosemite National Park James T. Kirk, recently demoted back to Captain after the events of the two films, is camping with Spock and Dr. Leonard McCoy. Their leave is interrupted when the Enterprise is ordered by Starfleet Command to rescue human, Klingon, learning of the Enterprises mission, the Klingon Captain Klaa decides to pursue Kirk for personal glory. On Nimbus III, the Enterprise crew discovers that renegade Vulcan Sybok, Sybok reveals the hostage situation was a ruse to lure a starship to Nimbus III. Sybok wants to use a ship to reach the mythical planet Sha Ka Ree, the place where creation began, Sybok uses his unique ability to reveal and heal the innermost pain of a person through the mind meld to subvert the wills of the hostages and crew members. Only Spock and Kirk prove resistant to Sybok, Spock is unmoved by the experience and Kirk refuses the Vulcans offer, Sybok reluctantly declares a truce with Kirk, realizing he needs his leadership experience to navigate the Enterprise to Sha Ka Ree. The Enterprise successfully breaches the barrier, pursued by Klaas vessel, Sybok, Kirk, Spock, and McCoy journey to the surface, where Sybok calls out to his perceived vision of God. An entity appears, and when told of how Sybok breached the barrier, when a skeptical Kirk inquires, What does God need with a starship. The entity attacks him in retribution, the others doubt a god who would inflict harm on people for pleasure. Realizing his foolishness, Sybok sacrifices himself in an effort to combat the creature, intent on stopping the being, Kirk orders the Enterprise to fire a photon torpedo at their location, to little effectStar Trek V: The Final Frontier – Shatner reprised his role as Kirk while also serving as director.
107. Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country – Star Trek VI, The Undiscovered Country is a 1991 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures. It is the feature film based on Star Trek. Taking place after the events of Star Trek V, The Final Frontier, principal photography took place between April and September 1991. The production budget was smaller than anticipated because of the critical and commercial disappointment of The Final Frontier, because of a lack of sound stage space on the Paramount lot, many scenes were filmed around Hollywood. Meyer and cinematographer Hiro Narita aimed for a darker and more dramatic mood, subtly altering sets originally used for the television series Star Trek, producer Steven-Charles Jaffe led a second unit that filmed on an Alaskan glacier that stood in for a Klingon gulag. Cliff Eidelman produced the score, which is intentionally darker than previous Star Trek offerings. The film was released in North America on December 6,1991, the Undiscovered Country garnered positive reviews, with publications praising the lighthearted acting and facetious references. The film performed strongly at the box office and it posted the largest opening weekend gross of the series before going on to earn $96,888,996 worldwide. The film earned two Academy Award nominations, for Best Makeup and Best Sound Effects, and is the only Star Trek movie to win the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film. A special collectors edition DVD version of the film was released in 2004, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry died shortly before the movies premiere, just days after viewing the film. The film marked the final appearance together of the series cast. The loss of their key energy production facility and the destruction of the Klingon homeworlds ozone layer throws the Klingon Empire into turmoil, no longer able to maintain a hostile footing, the Klingons sue for peace with their longstanding enemy, the United Federation of Planets. Enterprises captain, James T. Kirk, whose son David was murdered by Klingons years earlier, opposes the negotiations, after a rendezvous between Enterprise and Gorkons battlecruiser they continue towards Earth, with the crews sharing a tense meal aboard Enterprise. Later that night, Enterprise appears to fire on the Klingon ship with a pair of photon torpedoes, during the confusion, two figures wearing Starfleet suits and gravity boots beam aboard the Klingon ship and grievously wound Gorkon before beaming away. Kirk surrenders to avoid a fight, and beams aboard the Klingon ship with Doctor Leonard McCoy to attempt to save Gorkons life, the chancellor dies, and Gorkons chief of staff, General Chang, puts Kirk and McCoy on trial for his assassination. The pair are found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment on the frozen asteroid Rura Penthe. Gorkons daughter, Azetbur, becomes the new chancellor, and continues diplomatic negotiations, for reasons of security, the conference is relocated, while several senior Starfleet officers want to rescue Kirk and McCoy, the Federation president refuses to risk full-scale war. Azetbur likewise refuses to invade Federation space, stating that only Kirk, once her betrayal is revealed, Martia transforms into Kirks double and fights him, but she is killed by the prison guards to silence any witnessesStar Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country – Christopher Plummer had worked with Shatner in radio plays and requested a more human look for his character, involving wearing "less severe" Klingon make-up.
108. Subway Sadie – Subway Sadie is a 1926 American comedy-drama silent film directed by Alfred Santell. However, after Sadie receives a promotion, she must choose between her new job and marrying Herb, the cast also includes Charles Murray, Peggy Shaw, Gaston Glass, and Bernard Randall. The film began production in May 1926, arthur Edeson served as cinematographer, shooting around Central Park in areas like casinos and nightclubs. Distributed by First National Pictures, the film premiered in New York on September 12,1926, many publications wrote positively of the film, praising its acting and Santells direction. Today, it remains unknown if a print of Subway Sadie has survived, salesgirl Sadie Hermann, employed in a New York City fur store, has always dreamed of traveling to Paris. Herb and Sadie are soon engaged to be married, but as Sadie has been promoted from saleslady to firm buyer she must cancel the date to sail to Paris for the job. Sadie prepares to leave, but then receives a message from Herb, Sadie chooses to visit him, and she decides to forgo her new job and marry Herb instead, Herb revealing that his father is the president of the subway company. Alfred Santell directed Subway Sadie, from a written by Adele Comandini. The pair adapted a story by Mildred Cram entitled Sadie of the Desert. On May 3,1926, the film entered production, Santell and Al Rockett, the films producer and production manager, selected the actors to appear in the film. Jack Mulhall was cast in the lead as Herb McCarthy, although he had ridden on a subway many times, he did not take notice of the guards, so as preparation for playing the character he rode on a subway for practically an entire day to observe them. Mulhall said of Santell, That mans a great director and he can make people feel perfectly natural. Hes got what Chaplin did when he directed A Woman of Paris—he and Lewis Milestone and Mal St. Clair all have that same touch, they all belong to the new school of directors, theyre not so busy thinking about technique that they have actors turning into marionettes. Chosen to play female lead Sadie Hermann, Dorothy Mackaill opined that the film would appeal to every girl in America and she believed that there is not a situation in this picture which could not happen to any girl. That is one of the things I like about it, there is nothing in it that could not be true. The rest of the cast includes Charles Murray as a driver, Peggy Shaw as Ethel, Gaston Glass as Fred Perry, arthur Edeson served as the cinematographer for Subway Sadie, shooting the silent film in black-and-white. Filming took place at locations in Central Park, including Cleopatras Needle and a local casino inn. A nightclub scene was shot in New YorkSubway Sadie – Lobby card
109. Taare Zameen Par – Taare Zameen Par is a 2007 Indian drama film produced and directed by Aamir Khan. Darsheel Safary stars as 8-year-old Ishaan, and Khan plays his art teacher, creative director and writer Amole Gupte initially developed the idea with his wife Deepa Bhatia, who served as the films editor. Visual effects are by Tata Elxsis Visual Computing Labs, and the title animation—the first use of animation in a Bollywood film—was created by Dhimant Vyas. Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy composed the score, and Prasoon Joshi wrote the lyrics for many of the songs. Principal photography took place in Mumbai and in Panchganis New Era High School, the film explores the life and imagination of Ishaan, an 8-year-old dyslexic child. Although he excels in art, his academic performance leads his parents to send him to a boarding school. Ishaans new art teacher suspects that he is dyslexic and helps him to overcome his disability, the film made its theatrical debut in India on 21 December 2007, and UTV Home Entertainment released a DVD for Indian audiences in 2008. Disneys later release of the international edition DVD marked the first purchase of rights for an Indian film by a global company. Taare Zameen Par has received awards, including the Filmfare Best Film Award for 2008. It was Indias official entry for the 2009 Academy Awards Best Foreign Film, Ishaan Nandkishore Awasthi is an 8-year-old boy who dislikes school and fails every test or exam. He finds all subjects difficult, and is belittled and berated by his teachers, but Ishaans internal world is full of wonders that he is unable to convey to others, magical lands filled with colour and animated animals. He is an artist whose talent is unrecognised, Ishaans father, Nandkishore Awasthi, is a successful executive who expects his children to excel. His mother, housewife Maya Awasthi, is frustrated by her inability to educate her son, Ishaans elder brother, Yohaan, is an exemplary scholar and athlete, which Ishaan is frequently reminded of. After receiving a poor academic report, Ishaans parents send him to a boarding school. There he sinks into a state of fear and depression, despite being befriended by Rajan Damodharan and he even contemplates suicide by climbing up the fence in a terrace, which Rajan manages to save him from. Ishaans situation changes when a new art teacher, Ram Shankar Nikumbh and he reviews Ishaans work and concludes that his academic shortcomings are indicative of dyslexia. On his day off, Nikumbh sets off to Mumbai, to visit Ishaans parents, Nikumbh is surprised to learn that Ishaan is passionate about painting, and shows great talent in art. Nikumbh then asks Mr Awasthi as to why he sent Ishaan to a boarding school, Mr Awasthi replies that Ishaan was an ill-mannered boy and was a poor studentTaare Zameen Par – A publicity poster based on a scene from the film. Khan knew immediately when setting up the shot—part of the montage that details Ishaan's tutoring by Nikumbh—that it would be the "key art of the film". Khan noted, "This one shot tells you the entire story."
110. Tank Girl (film) – Tank Girl is a 1995 American science fiction action comedy film directed by Rachel Talalay. Tank Girl is set in a drought-ravaged Australia, years after an impact event. It follows the antihero Tank Girl as she, Jet Girl, and genetically modified supersoldiers called the Rippers fight Water & Power, an oppressive corporation led by Kesslee. After reading an issue of the Tank Girl comic she had received as a gift and she selected Catherine Hardwicke to be the production designer, and worked closely with Martin and Hewlett during the making of the film. Tank Girl was filmed primarily in White Sands, New Mexico, the films critically praised soundtrack was assembled by Courtney Love, and the Rippers makeup and prosthetics team was headed by Stan Winston. Winstons studio wanted to work on the project so much that they cut their prices in half in order to meet the films budget. Financially unsuccessful, Tank Girl recouped only about $6 million of its $25 million budget at the box office, Martin and Hewlett have since spoken negatively of their experiences creating the film. Talalay blamed some of the negative reception on studio edits over which she had no control. Despite the negative reception and box office failure of the film, it has been cited as an example of a comic book film with a cult following. In 2022, a comet strikes Earth causing an 11-year drought, by 2033, most of the little remaining water is held in reserve by Kesslee and his Water & Power corporation, which uses the water to control the population. Rebecca Buck – Tank Girl – is a member of a commune in the Australian outback that operates the last water well not controlled by the corporation. In an attack on the commune, W&P troops kill Tank Girls boyfriend, Richard, rather than killing her, Kesslee tortures and enslaves the defiant Tank Girl. Jet Girl, a talented but introverted jet mechanic who has given up trying to escape W&P, urges Tank Girl to make trouble for their captors. Among other forms of torture, W&P personnel push her down into a pipe to induce claustrophobia. The mysterious Rippers slaughter guards at the W&P compound, then escape undetected, Kesslee uses Tank Girl to lure the Rippers into the open, but they gravely wound Kesslee and let Tank Girl and Jet Girl escape. Jet Girl steals a jet from W&P and Tank Girl steals a tank. The girls learn from the eccentric Sub Girl that Sam is working at a sex club called Liquid Silver. They infiltrate the club, rescue Sam from a pedophile, Rat Face, W&P troops break up the performance and re-capture SamTank Girl (film) – Theatrical release poster
111. Tenebrae (film) – Tenebrae is a 1982 English-language Italian giallo film written and directed by Dario Argento. John Saxon and Daria Nicolodi co-star as Neals agent and assistant, Giuliano Gemma, John Steiner, Veronica Lario and Mirella DAngelo also feature. Argento was inspired by a series of incidents which saw an obsessed fan telephone the director to him for the damaging psychological effects of his previous work. The telephone calls culminated in death threats towards Argento, who channelled the experience into the writing of Tenebrae, several former members of Italian rock band Goblin provided Tenebraes music, a synth-heavy score inspired by rock and disco music. Tenebrae was a modest success in Italy, it reached theatres with little controversy after Argento made cuts to one of the most violent scenes, however, in the United Kingdom, it was added to the infamous list of video nasties and banned from sale until 1999. The films theatrical distribution in the United States was delayed until 1984, the film critic and author Maitland McDonagh said that it was in many respects. The finest film that Argento has ever made, Peter Neal, an American writer of violent horror novels, is in Italy to promote his latest work, Tenebrae. He is accompanied by his agent, Bullmer and his assistant. Neal is unaware that he has also followed to Rome by his embittered ex-wife. Just before Neal arrived in Rome, Elsa, a young female shoplifter, was murdered with a razor by an unseen assailant, the murderer sends Neal a letter informing him that his books have inspired him to go on a killing spree. Neal is soon contacted by the police in the form of Detective Giermani and his female partner, tilde, a beautiful lesbian journalist, is murdered at her home along with her lover Marion. Maria, the daughter of Neals landlord, is later hacked to death with a axe after discovering the killers lair. Neal notices that TV interviewer Christiano Berti has an intense interest in his work. That night, Neal and his Italian assistant Gianni watch Bertis house, Gianni approaches the house alone to get a better view and sees an assailant hack Berti to death with an axe. However, Gianni is unable to see the murderers face and he returns to Neal to find the novelist has been knocked unconscious on the lawn. Giermani discovers that Berti was obsessed with Neals novels, and believes the killings will stop now that Berti is dead, however, Bullmer, who is having an affair with Jane, is stabbed to death while waiting for his lover in a public square. Gianni is haunted by the thought that he missed the importance of something he saw at Bertis house and he returns to the house and suddenly remembers that he had heard Berti confessing to his attacker, I killed them all, I killed them all. Before Gianni can share this detail with anyone, he is strangled to death from the seat of his carTenebrae (film) – Original Italian theatrical release film poster
112. Terang Boelan – Terang Boelan is a 1937 film from the Dutch East Indies. Written by Saeroen, directed by Albert Balink, and starring Rd Mochtar, Roekiah and Eddie T. Effendi, the film was shot in the Indies and Singapore, and was partially inspired by the 1936 Hollywood film The Jungle Princess. It was aimed at native audiences and included music, which was popular at the time. Terang Boelan was a success in both the Indies and abroad, earning 200,000 Straits dollars in British Malaya. The Indonesian film historian Misbach Yusa Biran described it as a point in the history of Indonesian cinema for its catalytic effect on the industrys growth. Like many Indonesian films of the era, Terang Boelan has been lost since at least the 1970s, Rohaya must separate from her lover, Kasim, so that she can marry her fathers choice, the disreputable but rich Musa. The night before the wedding, Kasim plays the song Terang Boelan for Rohaya, the following day, Rohaya and Kasim escape from Sawoba Island to Malacca, where Kasim begins work at a drydock and Rohaya keeps busy as a housewife. They discover that Kasims old friend, Dullah, has lived in Malacca for some time and their life together is interrupted when Musa, who is revealed to be an opium dealer, discovers them. While Kasim is away at work, Rohayas father comes and takes her back to Sawoba, Kasim, having discovered Musas deeds, also returns to Sawoba and rallies the villagers to his side by telling them of Musas opium dealings. When it appears Kasim may lose, he is saved by Dullah, the villagers and Rohayas father agree that Kasim and Rohaya should be together, as they are truly in love. During 1934 and early 1935, all films released in the Dutch East Indies had been made by the American-educated Chinese-Indonesian director The Teng Chun. The Teng Chuns dominance was an effect of the Great Depression, the Great Depression had led to the Dutch East Indies government collecting higher taxes and cinemas selling tickets at lower prices, ensuring that there was a very low profit margin for local films. As a result, cinemas in the colony mainly showed Hollywood productions, the Teng Chun was able to continue his work only because his films often played to full theatres. The film cost 20 times as much as a local production, in part because of Balinks perfectionism. The Indonesian writer and cultural critic Armijn Pane wrote that Pareh had performed poorly with audiences as it was seen as looking at them through European eyes. Pareh bankrupted its producers, and enabled The Teng Chun to dominate the industry – although with less traditional stories – for a two years. By late 1936 Balink had obtained financial backing from several domestic and foreign companies with which he, the Wongs, and Franken opened the Dutch Indies Film Syndicate in Batavia. Although this new establishment focused mainly on newsreels and documentaries, on 1 January 1937 ANIF announced that it would produce several feature films, the Indonesian film historian Misbach Yusa Biran wrote that this gave Terang Boelan stylistic and thematic similarities to the earlier filmTerang Boelan – Theatrical poster, Batavia
113. Tjioeng Wanara – Tjioeng Wanara is a 1941 film from the Dutch East Indies directed and produced by Jo Eng Seka. Starring R Sukran, Elly Joenara and AB Djoenaedi, it featured more than 500 people in supporting roles. The film follows a prince named Tjioeng Wanara who must reclaim his throne from the cruel King of Galuh. The second production by Star Film, Tjioeng Wanara was released on 18 August 1941 and it was advertised heavily, emphasising the fact that the scholar Poerbatjaraka had served as the historical adviser and that the film was based on Balai Pustakas version of the legend. It premiered to commercial success, but received mixed reviews and this black-and-white production, which was screened until at least 1948, is now thought lost. In 1255 Saka, Permana Dikoesoemah is the King of Galuh, beloved by his people, the minister Aria Kebonan wants power for himself, and persuades the king to surrender the crown to him. Permana Dikoesoemah warns Aria Kebonan to respect him always and not to bother his wife and he then abdicates to meditate, ultimately ascending to a higher plane of existence. Aria Kebonan, meanwhile, magically gains the appearance, ensuring that the people of Galuh are unaware that they have a new king. Aria Kebonan proves to be an unpopular ruler, one day, he hears that both Naganingroem and the kings former concubine, Dewi Pangrenjep, are pregnant. With Dewi Pangrenjep, Aria Kebonan plans to eliminate Naganingroems son, during childbirth the son is replaced with a dog, while Dewi Pangrenjep takes the newborn and throws him into a river. He is later found and rescued by farmers, who name him Tjioeng Wanara, Dewi Pangrenjep, meanwhile, gives birth to a son, Aria Banga. Years pass, and Tjioeng Wanara grows to be a young man. Aria Banga, meanwhile, has taken over the throne and rules with an iron fist, Tjioeng Wanara returns to Galuh and overthrows the king, arresting Aria Kebonan and Dewi Pangrenjep, Aria Banga, however, is able to escape and establish the kingdom of Majapahit. Tjioeng Wanara rules kindly over his people and later moves his capital to Pajajaran, Tjioeng Wanara was directed and produced by Jo Eng Sek for Star Film. It was the production by both Jo and the company, following Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman in 1941. Poerbatjaraka, a scholar of literature, served as the historical adviser to the production. Cinematography for the film was handled by Chok Chin Hsien. By June 1941 production was almost complete, the film starred R Sukran, Elly Joenara, AB Djoenaedi, Muhamad Arief, and S WaldyTjioeng Wanara – One sheet
114. Transformers (film) – Transformers is a 2007 American science fiction action film based on the Transformers toy line created by Hasbro. The film, which combines animation with live-action, is directed by Michael Bay. It is the first installment of the live-action Transformers film series, the film was produced by Don Murphy and Tom DeSanto. They developed the project in 2003, and DeSanto wrote a treatment, Steven Spielberg came on board the following year, hiring Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman to write the screenplay. Armed Forces and General Motors loaned vehicles and aircraft during filming, hasbros promotional campaign for the film included deals with hundreds of companies. Advertising included a viral marketing campaign, coordinated releases of prequel comic books, toys, and books, as well as product placement deals with GM, Burger King, and eBay. The film won four awards from the Visual Effects Society and was nominated for three Academy Awards, for Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Visual Effects. LaBeoufs performance was praised by Empire, and Cullens reprisal of Optimus Prime from the 1980s television series was received by fans. A sequel, Revenge of the Fallen, was released on June 24,2009, a third film, Dark of the Moon, was released on June 29,2011, in 3-D and went on to gross over $1 billion. A fourth entry, Age of Extinction, was released on June 27,2014, a fifth installment, titled Transformers, The Last Knight, is scheduled for a June 23,2017 release. Several thousand years ago, the planet Cybertron was consumed by a war by the two Transformer factions, the Autobots led by Optimus Prime and the Decepticons led by Megatron. Optimus jettisoned the AllSpark, an artifact that brings life to the planet, into space. Megatron crashed in the Arctic Circle and froze, and was discovered in 1895 by explorer Archibald Witwicky, Witwicky activated Megatron’s navigational system, which scanned the AllSpark’s coordinates into his glasses. The glasses end up in the possession of his great-great-grandson Sam Witwicky, in the present, Sam buys his first car, a rusting Chevrolet Camaro, but discovers it has a life of its own. In modern Qatar, Blackout attacks and destroys a United States military base in a attempt to hack the military network to find information on Megatron. A team of Army Rangers led by Captain William Lennox escape across the desert and they fight Scorponok off, aided by aerial reinforcements, and travel home with Scorponok’s stinger, discovering sabot rounds damaged the armor. At the Pentagon, Secretary of Defense John Keller leads the investigation into the attack, Sound analyst Maggie Madsen catches another Decepticon, Frenzy, hacking into the network while onboard Air Force One. While the hack is thwarted, Frenzy downloads files on Archibald’s glasses, tracking down Sam with Barricade, disguised as a police carTransformers (film) – Theatrical release poster
115. 29th Golden Raspberry Awards – Nominations were announced on January 21,2009. The Love Guru was the most nominated film of 2008, with seven, Award results were based on votes from approximately 650 journalists, cinema fans and film professionals from 20 countries. Awards were presented by John Wilson, the ceremonys founder, the Love Guru received the most awards, winning Worst Picture, Worst Actor, and Worst Screenplay. Paris Hilton received three awards, including Worst Actress for her work in The Hottie & the Nottie and Worst Supporting Actress for Repo. Hilton matched the number of awards received by an actor in a single year. Pierce Brosnan received Worst Supporting Actor for his role in Mamma Mia, the Movie, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull received the award for Worst Prequel, Remake, Rip-off or Sequel. Uwe Boll received the Worst Director award for the films 1968 Tunnel Rats, In the Name of the King and Postal, the most nominated film of 2008 was the box-office bomb The Love Guru, with seven nominations. Paid members of the Golden Raspberry Award Foundation voted to determine the winners, Award results were based on votes from approximately 650 journalists, cinema fans and professionals from the film industry. Voters were from 45 states in the United States and 19 other countries, the ceremony opened with a musical number which parodied the song Dancing Queen from Mamma Mia. Awards were presented by John Wilson, the ceremonys founder, awardees received a gold spray-painted raspberry worth $4.97. The Love Guru received three awards, Worst Picture, Worst Actor and Worst Screenplay, Worst Picture was the last award given out at the ceremony. The main thing wrong with it is no one said to Myers that it wasnt funny and he managed to offend the entire Indian population and his investors, said Wilson in a statement in The Guardian. Wilson shredded a copy of The Love Guru at the awards ceremony and she is the 21st century Zsa Zsa Gabor. She is famous for who she hangs out with, shes not famous for any talent she has yet exhibited. She may end up working with Uwe Boll and she could be the head vampire in BloodRayne 3, said Wilson of Hiltons performances. Pierce Brosnan received Worst Supporting Actor for his role in Mamma Mia, Award hosts Chip Dornell and Kelie McIver described Brosnan as an actor who could not sing, should not sing and arguably did not sing, in a role he should not have accepted. The Steven Spielberg film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull received the award for Worst Prequel, Remake, Uwe Boll received the Worst Director award for films 1968 Tunnel Rats, In the Name of the King and Postal. He also received a award for Worst Career Achievement29th Golden Raspberry Awards – John Wilson at 29th Golden Raspberry Awards
116. Academy Award for Best Actor – The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered a performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Emil Jannings receiving the award for his roles in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the branch of AMPAS. In the first three years of the awards, actors were nominated as the best in their categories, at that time, all of their work during the qualifying period was listed after the award. The following year, this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actor is nominated for a performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year, since its inception, the award has been given to 79 actors. Daniel Day-Lewis has received the most awards in this category with three Oscars, spencer Tracy and Laurence Olivier were nominated on nine occasions, more than any other actor. As of the 2017 ceremony, Casey Affleck is the most recent winner in category for his role as Lee Chandler in Manchester by the Sea. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of release in Los Angeles County. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31, for the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1,1932 to December 31,1933Academy Award for Best Actor – Emil Jannings (center) was the first winner in this category for his roles in 1928's The Last Command and 1927's The Way of All Flesh.
117. Academy Award for Best Actress – The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered a performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Janet Gaynor receiving the award for her roles in 7th Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the branch of AMPAS. In the first three years of the awards, actresses were nominated as the best in their categories, at that time, all of their work during the qualifying period was listed after the award. The following year, this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actress is nominated for a performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year, one actress has been nominated posthumously, Jeanne Eagels. Only three film characters have been nominated more than once in this category, elizabeth I of England, Leslie Crosbie in The Letter, and Esther Blodgett in A Star is Born. Six women on the list have received an Honorary Academy Award for their acting, they are Greta Garbo, Barbara Stanwyck, Mary Pickford, Deborah Kerr, Gena Rowlands, since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actresses. Katharine Hepburn has won the most awards in this category, with four Oscars, meryl Streep, who has a total of 20 Oscar nominations, has been nominated in this category on 16 occasions, resulting in two awards. As of the 2017 ceremony, Emma Stone is the most recent winner in category for her role as Mia Dolan in La La Land. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of release in Los Angeles County. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31, for the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1,1932 to December 31,1933Academy Award for Best Actress – Janet Gaynor was the first winner in this category for her roles in 7th Heaven (1927), Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (1927), and Street Angel (1928).
118. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress – The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered a performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, however, winners received full-sized statuettes, currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS, winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy. Since its inception, the award has given to 78 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each, despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress. As of the 2017 ceremony, Viola Davis is the most recent winner in category for her role as Rose Maxson in Fences. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of release in Los Angeles County. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, University of Toronto Press, inside Oscar, The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York, United States, Ballantine Books, oscars. org Oscar. com The Academy Awards DatabaseAcademy Award for Best Supporting Actress – Alice Brady won for her performance in 1937's In Old Chicago.
119. 1st Academy Awards – AMPAS president Douglas Fairbanks hosted the show. Tickets cost $5,270 people attended the event and the ceremony lasted fifteen minutes. Awards were created by Louis B, Mayer, founder of Louis B. Mayer Pictures Corporation. It is the only Academy Awards ceremony not to be broadcast either on radio or television, during the ceremony, the AMPAS presented Academy Awards in twelve categories. Winners were announced three months before the live event, some nominations were announced without reference to a specific film, such as for Ralph Hammeras and Nugent Slaughter, who received nominations in the now defunct category of Engineering Effects. Unlike later ceremonies, an actor or director could be awarded for works within a calendar year. Emil Jannings, for example, was given the Best Actor award for his work in both The Way of All Flesh and The Last Command, moreover, Charlie Chaplin and Warner Brothers each received an Honorary Award. Major winners at the ceremony included 7th Heaven and Sunrise, which received three awards, and Wings, receiving two awards. Among its honors, Sunrise won the award for Unique and Artistic Picture and these two categories at the time were seen as equally the top award of the night intended to honor different and equally important aspects of superior film making. The next year, the Academy dropped the Unique and Artistic Picture award, in 1927, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was established by Louis B. Mayer, originator of Louis B. Mayer Pictures Corporation, which then would be joined into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, mayers purpose in creating the award was to unite the five branches of the film industry, including actors, directors, producers, technicians, and writers. Mayer commented on the creation of the awards I found that the best way to handle was to hang medals all over them, if I got them cups and awards theyd kill them to produce what I wanted. Thats why the Academy Award was created, Mayer asked Cedric Gibbons, art director of MGM, to design an Academy Award trophy. Nominees were notified through a telegram in February 1928, in August 1928, Mayer contacted the Academy Central Board of Judges to decide winners. The ceremony was held on May 16,1929, at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, located in Los Angeles and it consisted of a private dinner with thirty-six banquet tables, where 270 people attended and tickets cost five dollars. Actors and actresses arrived at the hotel in luxury vehicles, where many attended to encourage celebrities. The ceremony was not broadcast on radio or television, and was hosted by AMPAS director Fairbanks, winners were announced three months before the ceremony. Three categories were eliminated for subsequent presentations, Best Engineering Effects, Best Title Writing, the larger film producers received the preponderance of awards, Fox Films Corporation, MGM, Paramount Pictures, Radio-Keith-Orpheum and Warner Brothers Production1st Academy Awards – The first Academy Awards was at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
120. 59th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories honoring films released in 1986. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. actors Chevy Chase, Paul Hogan, and Goldie Hawn co-hosted the show. Hawn hosted the gala for the time, having previously been a co-host of the 48th ceremony held in 1976. Meanwhile, this was Chase and Hogans first Oscars hosting stint, eight days earlier, in a ceremony held at The Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, California on March 22, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Catherine Hicks. Platoon won four awards including Best Picture, platoon and A Room with a View led all nominees with eight each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 30,1987. Marlee Matlin was the first deaf performer to win an Oscar, artie Shaw, Time Is All Youve Got and Down and Out in Americas joint win in the Best Documentary Feature category marked the fourth occurrence of a tie in Oscar history. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double dagger, ralph Bellamy Steven Spielberg The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. Determined to revive interest surrounding the awards and reverse declining ratings, actor Robin Williams was initially named a co-host, but he was forced to withdraw from emceeing duties due to his commitment toward his role in the upcoming film Good Morning, Vietnam. One of the biggest priorities for Goldwyn was to shorten the length of the show to at least three hours or less, in view of his goal, he told reporters regarding winners acceptance speeches, We are actually going to give them 45 seconds. The light will start blinking at 45 seconds and go red at 55 seconds, after one minute we will either cut to a commercial or go to something else. Weve also asked multiple winners to flip a coin and pick a spokesman, although Goldwyn attempted to move the Documentary and Short Film Categories to a separate ceremony from the broadcast, the AMPAS Board of Governors refused to do so. Several other people were involved with the production of the ceremony, oscar-winning costume designer Theoni V. Aldredge was hired as fashion consultant for the awards ceremony and supervised a fashion show segment showcasing the five nominees for Best Costume Design. Lionel Newman served as director and conductor for the ceremony. Actors Dom DeLuise, Pat Morita, and Telly Savalas performed the song Fugue for Tinhorns from the musical Guys and Dolls at the start of the ceremony. At the time of the announcement on February 11, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $119 million with an average of $23.9 million. Platoon was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $39.3 million in the box office receipts. The film was followed by Hannah and Her Sisters, Children of a Lesser God, A Room with a View, of the 50 grossing movies of the year,55 nominations went to 18 films on the list59th Academy Awards – Official poster
121. 60th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 22 categories honoring films released in 1987. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. Actor Chevy Chase hosted the show for the second consecutive year. Two weeks earlier in a ceremony held at The Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, California on March 27, the Last Emperor won nine awards including Best Picture and Best Director for Bernardo Bertolucci. For their performances in Moonstruck, Cher and Olympia Dukakis won Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, Michael Douglas won Best Actor for his role in Wall Street, Sean Connery won Best Supporting Actor for The Untouchables. The telecast garnered 42.2 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 60th Academy Awards were announced on February 16,1988, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Robert Wise, president of the Academy, the Last Emperor received the most nominations with nine total, Broadcast News came in second with seven. The winners were announced at the ceremony on April 11,1988. The Last Emperor became the film after 1958s Gigi to earn nine Oscar nominations. For the first time in Oscar history, all five Best Director nominees were born outside the United States. Best Actor winner Michael Douglas became the person to win Oscars for both acting and producing, he previously won a Best Picture award as co-producer of One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, the award honors “creative producers whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high quality of motion picture production. ”Billy Wilder Stephen Flick and John Pospisil, for the sound effects editing of RoboCop. The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers, in view of the 60th anniversary of the Academy Awards, the Academy hired film producer Samuel Goldwyn, Jr. in October 1987 to oversee the telecast for the second straight year. Three months later, Goldwyn selected actor and comedian Chevy Chase to emcee the 1988 ceremony and this marked the first time the facility served as the site for the Oscars since the 20th ceremony held in 1948. Additionally, Goldwyn and Passetta originally planned to feature pre-recorded red carpet arrivals footage of actors who had roles in the 59 previous Best Picture winners, however, the segment was dropped altogether due to traffic problems amongst guests arriving to the ceremony. Furthermore, the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike, which more than a month before the ceremony, affected the telecast. To compensate for the portions of the script, Goldwyn heavily utilized comedians such as John Candy, Billy Crystal, Eddie Murphy. At the time of the announcement on February 16, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $221 million with an average of $48.9 million. Fatal Attraction was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $142 million in the box office receipts60th Academy Awards – Official poster
122. 62nd Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the first time. Driving Miss Daisy won four awards including Best Picture and Best Actress for Jessica Tandy, the telecast garnered more than 40 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 62nd Academy Awards were announced on February 14,1990, PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Karl Malden, president of the Academy, and the actress Geena Davis. Driving Miss Daisy received the most nominations with nine total, Born on the Fourth of July came in second with eight, winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 26,1990. Driving Miss Daisy became the film to win Best Picture without a Best Director nomination. At age 80, Jessica Tandy became the oldest winner of competitive acting Oscar at the time, kenneth Branagh was the fifth person nominated for Best Lead Actor and Best Director for the same film. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double-dagger, akira Kurosawa Howard W. Koch The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. The committee later determined that Carrs biggest mistake was allowing the opening number to run for 12 minutes. Producer and former Directors Guild of America president Gilbert Cates, who headed the committee, newly elected AMPAS president Karl Malden also commented on the last years telecast, Some of the people in the Academy felt the show got a little out of control. In September 1989, Cates was chosen as producer of the 1990 telecast, the following January, actor and comedian Billy Crystal was chosen as host of the ceremony. We are extremely pleased to have Billy host the show, Cates said in a press release justifying his choice and his unique talents and his ability to handle the unexpected will be important assets this year. Cates christened the show with the theme Around the World in 3 1/2 Hours commenting that it would a party thrown around the world and he also explained, The world is changing, and hopefully the awards show is changing, matching the changes in the world. In tandem with the theme, several presenters announced the winners from various international locales such as Buenos Aires, London, Moscow. Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony, documentary filmmaker Chuck Workman assembled a montage saluting 100 Years at the Movies that was shown at the beginning of the telecast. Film composer and musician Bill Conti served as director for the ceremony. Dancer and singer Paula Abdul supervised the Best Song nominee performances, singer Diana Ross performed the Oscar-winning song Over the Rainbow in a tribute to the 50th anniversary of The Wizard of Oz. At the time of the announcement on February 14, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $244 million with an average of $48.9 million62nd Academy Awards – Official poster
123. 65th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the fourth consecutive year. In related events, during a ceremony held at the Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles on March 6, Unforgiven won four Oscars including Best Picture, Best Director for Clint Eastwood, and Best Supporting Actor for Gene Hackman. Al Pacino and Emma Thompson won lead acting honors for Scent of a Woman and Howards End, marisa Tomei won Best Supporting Actress for My Cousin Vinny. The telecast garnered 45.7 million viewers in the United States, Howards End and Unforgiven led all nominees with nine nominations each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 29,1993. Best Director winner Clint Eastwood became the person nominated for lead acting and directing for the same film. Best Actor winner Al Pacino was the performer to receive nominations in the lead. He also became the first person to win in the acting category after achieving the aforementioned feat. By virtue of his second win in both music categories, Alan Menken became the third person to win two Oscars in two consecutive years. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, Academy Honorary Award Federico Fellini — In recognition of his place as one of the screen’s master storytellers. Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Awards The award recognizes individuals whose efforts have brought credit to the motion picture industry. In February 1993, actor and comedian Billy Crystal was chosen by Cates as host also for the fourth straight time, Cates justified the decision to hire him saying, He is a major movie star with a talent for moving the evenings entertainment along. As with previous ceremonies he produced, Cates centered the show around a theme, inspired by the Year of the Woman in which a record four women were elected to the United States Senate, Cates christened the 1993 show with the theme Oscar Celebrates Women and the Movies. In tandem with the theme, AMPAS gathered 67 female Oscar winners of every category for a photo that was shown at the start of the telecast. Actress and singer Liza Minnelli performed Ladies Day, a written by Fred Ebb. Oscar-winning documentarian Lynne Littman assembled a montage highlighting women in film, several other people participated in the production of the ceremony. Bill Conti served as conductor and musical supervisor for the ceremony, choreographer Debbie Allen supervised the Best Song nominee performances and the Ladies Night musical number65th Academy Awards – Official poster
124. 67th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories honoring the films released in 1994. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, comedian David Letterman hosted the show for the first time. Forrest Gump won six awards, including Best Picture, the telecast garnered more than 48 million viewers in the United States, making it the most watched Oscars telecast since the 55th Academy Awards in 1983. Forrest Gump earned the most nominations with thirteen and it was the most nominated film since 1966s Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf. and the fifth film to earn that many nominations. Bullets over Broadway, The Shawshank Redemption, Pulp Fiction tied for second with seven each, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 27,1995. For only the time in Oscar history, three of the four acting winners were previous winners. The 11th ceremony held in 1939 previously accomplished this feat and he also was the sixth person to win Best Actor twice. Best Supporting Actress winner Dianne Wiest became the first person to win two acting Oscars for performances in films directed by the same person and she first won in that same category for her role in Woody Allens 1986 film Hannah and Her Sisters. Franz Kafkas Its a Wonderful Life and Trevors joint win in the Best Live Action Short category marked the fifth occurrence of a tie in Oscar history, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger. Michelangelo Antonioni Quincy Jones Clint Eastwood The following individuals, in order of appearance and she added that her role in the upcoming movie Bogus would jeopardize her busy schedule. Producer Gil Cates hired actor, comedian, and Late Show host David Letterman as host of the 1995 ceremony, Cates explained his decision to hire the late night talk show host saying, Hes punctual, hes well groomed, and he knows how to keep an audience awake. As with previous ceremonies he produced, Cates centered the show around a theme, even with television, its not a community experience unless you have a very big family. So its unique to movies and theater, and its this very human thing, in tandem with the theme, the ceremonys opening number featured a montage produced by Chuck Workman featuring scenes of humorous moments from a variety of both comedic and non-comedic films. During that segment, actors Tim Curry, Kathy Najimy, several collections of film clips were shown throughout the broadcast highlighting various aspects of comedy such as troupes and dialogue. Several other people were involved with the production of the ceremony. Bill Conti served as director and conductor for the event. Production designer Roy Christopher designed a new stage for the ceremony which featured a proscenium which was designed to resemble the iris of a camera. Moreover, Christopher commented that the motif was inspired by the iris shot prominently featured in several comedic films67th Academy Awards – Official poster
125. 68th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Quincy Jones, Actress Whoopi Goldberg hosted the show for the second time, having previously presided over the 66th ceremony in 1994. Braveheart won five awards, including Best Director for Mel Gibson, the telecast garnered almost 45 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 68th Academy Awardswere announced on February 13,1996, PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater by president of the Academy, and the music producer Quincy Jones. Braveheart led all nominees with ten nominations, Apollo 13 came in second with nine, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 25,1996. Braveheart was the film to win Best Picture with no acting nominations. With her Best Supporting Actress win for Mighty Aphrodite, Mira Sorvino became the second actress to win the aforementioned category for a performance in a film directed by Woody Allen. Best Adapted Screenplay winner Emma Thompson was the first person to win Oscars for both acting and screenwriting and she had previously won Best Actress for her performance in the 1992 film Howards End. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, chuck Jones Kirk Douglas John Lasseter for Toy Story The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers. As a result of the reception of David Lettermans stint as host from the preceding years ceremony, veteran film. In November 1995, AMPAS recruited music producer and Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award recipient Quincy Jones as producer of the 1996 ceremony, Jones immediately selected actress and comedian Whoopi Goldberg to host the ceremony. One segment that was staged during the ceremony was a fashion show showcasing the nominees for Best Costume Design. Initially, actor Jack Nicholson was approached to introduce the segment along with models Naomi Campbell, however, actor Pierce Brosnan accepted the role of presenter of the segment and award after Nicholson declined those respective duties. Several other people and elements were involved with the production of the ceremony. Jeff Margolis served as director for the program, Actress and talk show host Oprah Winfrey interviewed several nominees and other attendees during a seven-minute red carpet arrival segment shown at the beginning of the telecast. Musician and saxophonist Tom Scott served as director for the ceremony. Choreographer Jamie King supervised the performances of the Best Song nominees, Babe, the pig from the eponymous film, and Miss Piggy participated in a comedy sketch during the proceedings. Beginning with this ceremony, the AMPAS music branch divided the category of Best Original Score into two categories, Best Dramatic Score and Best Musical or Comedy Score68th Academy Awards – Official poster
126. 70th Academy Awards – During the show, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories honoring films released in 1997. The ceremony, which was televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the sixth time. He first presided over the 62nd ceremony held in 1990, Titanic won a record-tying eleven awards including Best Director for James Cameron and Best Picture. The telecast garnered more than 57 million viewers in the United States, Titanic received the most nominations with a record-tying fourteen, Good Will Hunting and L. A. Confidential came in second with nine apiece. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 23,1998. With eleven awards, Titanic tied with Ben-Hur for the most academy awards in Oscar history and it also became the first film to win Best Picture without a screenplay nomination since 1965s The Sound of Music. Both won for their roles in As Good as it Gets, at age 87, Stuart also became the oldest performer nominated for a competitive Oscar. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, stanley Donen The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. In December 1997, the Academy hired veteran Oscar telecast producer Gil Cates to oversee the 1998 ceremony, “Gil has become the consummate Oscar show producer, consistently garnering top television ratings for the telecast, ” said AMPAS president Robert Rehme in a press release announcing the selection. “His shows are full of wit, charm and surprise. ”A few days later, actor, Cates explained his reason to bring back the veteran comedian saying, Billys performance last year was spectacular. In an article published in USA Today he initially requested to Cates, however, pressure from the Academy, Cates, and several friends and family members made him reconsider his decision. His sixth stint would make him only to Bob Hope in number of ceremonies hosted. Each former winner was acknowledged by announcer Norman Rose with the films he or she won for, at the end of the segment newly minted winners Kim Bassinger, Helen Hunt, and Robin Williams joined them. This marked the largest gathering of winners since the 50th ceremony held in 1978. Several others participated in the production of the ceremony, bill Conti served as musical director for the telecast. Dancer Daniel Ezralow choreographed a dance number showcasing the nominees for Best Original Comedy or Musical Score, bart the Bear made a surprise appearance during the presentation of the Best Sound award with Mike Myers. At the time of the announcement on February 10, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees was $579 million with an average of $116 million per film. Titanic was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $338.7 million in box office receipts70th Academy Awards – Official poster
127. 71st Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates, actress Whoopi Goldberg hosted the show for the third time. She first hosted the 66th ceremony held in 1994 and had last hosted the 68th ceremony in 1996, Shakespeare in Love won seven awards including Best Picture. The telecast garnered nearly 46 million viewers in the United States, Shakespeare in Love earned the most nominations with thirteen, Saving Private Ryan came in second place with eleven. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 21,1999. Life Is Beautiful was the second film nominated simultaneously for Best Picture, moreover, its seven nominations were the most for a foreign language film, to date. Best Actor winner Roberto Benigni was the person to direct himself to an acting Oscar win. Laurence Olivier first achieved this feat for his performance in 1948s Hamlet and he also became the fourth individual to earn acting, directing, screenwriting nominations for the same film. In addition, Benigni was the performer to win an Oscar for a non-English speaking role. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, elia Kazan Norman F. Jewison The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. In June 1998, Academy president Robert Rehme announced that the show would be held on a Sunday for the first time in history, AMPAS and network ABC hoped to capitalize on the high television ratings and viewership that benefit programs airing on that particular day of the week. The Academy also stated that the move to Sunday would ease concerns about traffic gridlock, the following January, Gil Cates was selected as producer of the telecast. He immediately selected Oscar-winning actress Whoopi Goldberg as host of the 1999 ceremony, Cates explained his decision to bring back Goldberg as host saying, The audience adores Whoopi and that affection, plus Whoopis extraordinary talent makes her a terrific host for the show. In a statement, Goldberg expressed that she was honored and excited to be selected to emcee the telecast commenting, who would have thought that I would be hosting the last Oscar telecast of the century. Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony and its related events, bill Conti served as musical director for the festivities. For the first time, the Academy produced its own pre-show that preceded the main telecast, produced by Dennis Doty, the half-hour program was hosted by actress Geena Davis and CNN reporter Jim Moret. At the time of the announcement on February 9, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees was $302 million with an average of $60.4 million per film. Saving Private Ryan was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $194.2 million in box office receipts71st Academy Awards – Official poster
128. 73rd Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates and was directed by Louis J. Horvitz, actor Steve Martin hosted the show for the first time. Gladiator won five awards including Best Picture, the telecast garnered almost 43 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 73rd Academy Awards were announced on February 13,2001, by Robert Rehme, president of the Academy, Gladiator received the most nominations with twelve. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon came in second with ten, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 25,2001. Gladiator became the first film to win Best Picture without a directing or screenwriting win since 1949s All the Kings Men, Best Director winner Steven Soderbergh, who received nominations for both Erin Brockovich and Traffic, was the third person to receive double directing nominations in the same year. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon became the third film nominated simultaneously for Best Picture, moreover, its ten nominations were the most for a foreign language film. With four wins, the tied with Fanny and Alexander as the most awarded foreign language films in Academy Awards history. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, jack Cardiff Ernest Lehman Dino De Laurentiis The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers. Despite earning both praise and increased viewership from last years ceremony, actor Billy Crystal announced that he would not host the ceremony for a second consecutive year. He listed his role in the film Americas Sweethearts and his directing and producing duties for the made-for-television film 61* as obstacles preventing him from reprising his role as emcee. Shortly after being selected as producer for the gala, Gil Cates hired actor. Cates explained his choice of Martin as host saying, Hes a movie star, hes funny, hes classy, additionally, AMPAS president Robert Rehme approved of the selection stating, Steve is a man of great style. I am simply elated to have him on board and he was at the top of our list, we offered and he accepted, it was as simple as that. ”Martin expressed his delight in hosting the gala jokingly retoring, If you cant win em, join em. In view of the taking place in the year 2001, Cates christened the show with a theme saluting the Stanley Kubrick science fiction film 2001. Throughout the broadcast, the orchestra conducted by film composer Bill Conti performed a version of Also Sprach Zarathustra composed by Brazilian jazz musician Eumir Deodato. Furthermore,2001 author Arthur C. Clarke presented the Best Adapted Screenplay award from his home in Sri Lanka, several others participated in the production of the ceremony. Production designer Roy Christopher designed a new stage for the show which featured gigantic louvered cove that curved from the floor to the ceiling via the auditoriums backstage wall73rd Academy Awards – Official poster
129. 74th Academy Awards – The 74th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, took place on March 24,2002, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories honoring films released in 2001, the ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Laura Ziskin and directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Actress Whoopi Goldberg hosted the show for the fourth time and she first hosted the 66th ceremony held in 1994 and had last hosted the 71st ceremony in 1999. A Beautiful Mind won four awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Ron Howard, other winners included The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring also with four awards, Black Hawk Down and Moulin Rouge. With two, and The Accountant, For the Birds, Gosford Park, Iris, Monsters Ball, Monsters, murder on a Sunday Morning, No Mans Land, Pearl Harbor, Shrek, Thoth, and Training Day, with one. Despite a record length of four hours and twenty-three minutes, the telecast garnered nearly 42 million viewers in the United States, the Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring earned the most nominations with thirteen. It was the film to earn that many nominations. A Beautiful Mind and Moulin Rouge, tied for second place with eight apiece. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 24,2002. Denzel Washington was the second African-American to win Best Actor in a Leading Role, halle Berry became the first African-American to win Best Actress in a Leading Role. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, Sidney Poitier Robert Redford Arthur Hiller The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. The Academy wanted to find a new venue for the festivities amid limited seating and this was the first time the ceremony was held in Hollywood since the 32nd ceremony took place at the Pantages Theatre in 1960. In view of the return of the Oscars to Hollywood, the Academy hired film producer, AMPAS president Frank Pierson explained the decision to hire Ziskin saying, This show is one of the most difficult—if not the most difficult—producing jobs in show business. Laura Ziskin brings intelligence, experience and wit expressed in everything she has done and this marked the first occurrence that a woman produced the Oscars solo. Four months later, Whoopi Goldberg was selected as host of the 2002 ceremony, I look forward to collaborating with Whoopi to put on a meaningful and entertaining evening. Furthermore, the September 11 attacks affected the telecast and its surrounding events, however, due to security concerns the Academy announced that red carpet bleacher seats would now be limited on a reservation basis based on a random selection and a background check. Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony, actors Glenn Close and Donald Sutherland served as announcers during the show. The orchestra led by composer and telecast musical supervisor John Williams74th Academy Awards – Official poster by Alex Ross
130. 76th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Joe Roth and was directed by Louis J. Horvitz, Actor Billy Crystal hosted for the eighth time. He first presided over the 62nd ceremony held in 1990 and had last hosted the 72nd ceremony held in 2000, mcNamara, Harvie Krumpet, Lost in Translation, Monster, and Two Soldiers with one. The telecast garnered nearly 44 million viewers in North America the United States, the nominees for the 76th Academy Awards were announced on January 27,2004, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Frank Pierson, president of the Academy, and the actress Sigourney Weaver. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King received the most nominations with eleven, Master and Commander, the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on February 29,2004. With eleven awards, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King tied with Ben-Hur, moreover, its clean sweep of its eleven nominations surpassed Gigi and The Last Emperors nine awards for the largest sweep for a single film in Oscar history. The film was also the film to win Best Picture without any acting nominations. Best Director nominee Sofia Coppola became the first American woman and third overall to be nominated in that category. By virtue of her father Francis Ford Coppola and grandfather Carmines previous wins, with Sean Penn and Tim Robbinss respective wins in the Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor categories, Mystic River became fourth film to win both male acting awards. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, blake Edwards — In recognition of his writing, directing and producing an extraordinary body of work for the screen. The following individuals presented awards or performed individual numbers, in light of the record low viewership from the preceding years ceremony, the Academy sought to make several changes and hire a new producer for the upcoming show. AMPAS announced that previous years where the ceremony typically was held in either late March or early April. This marked the first time since the 14th ceremony that the awards were held outside the time frame. In August 2003, the Academy hired film producer Joe Roth to oversee production of the ceremony, the following month, Roth recruited veteran Oscar host Billy Crystal to emcee the awards gala for the eight time. To stir interest surrounding the awards, Roth produced three trailers promoting the ceremony that each was set to different pop tunes, the trailers contained clips of previous ceremonies with slogans such as Expected the unexpected and Its Oscar night occasionally flashing between scenes. These promotional spots were shown at theaters, on several cable channels. Billy Crystals opening monologue poked fun at the change between the time he had hosted the ceremony in 1991, and the current one, Things were so different then and you know how different it was76th Academy Awards – Official poster
131. 82nd Academy Awards – The ceremony was scheduled well after its usual late-February date to avoid conflicting with the 2010 Winter Olympics. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories, the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and was produced by Bill Mechanic and Adam Shankman and directed by Hamish Hamilton. Actors Alec Baldwin and Steve Martin hosted the show, Martin hosted for the third time, he first presided over the 73rd ceremony held in 2001 and last hosted the 75th ceremony held in 2003. Meanwhile, this was Baldwins first Oscars hosting stint and this was also the first telecast to have multiple hosts since the 59th ceremony held in 1987. On February 20,2010, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, the Hurt Locker won six awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Kathryn Bigelow, the first woman to win an Academy Award for Best Director. The telecast garnered nearly 42 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 82nd Academy Awards were announced on February 2,2010, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Tom Sherak, president of the Academy, Avatar and The Hurt Locker led the nominations with nine each. The winners were announced during the ceremony on March 7,2010. Kathryn Bigelow made history as the first female to win the Oscar for Best Director, up became only the second animated film to earn a Best Picture nomination. 1991s Beauty and the Beast was the first such film to achieve this feat, Best Adapted Screenplay winner Geoffrey Fletcher was the first African American winner of a screenwriting Oscar. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double dagger, the Academy held its 1st Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 14,2009, during which the following awards were presented. Lauren Bacall — In recognition of her place in the golden age of motion pictures. Roger Corman — For his rich engendering of films and filmmakers, gordon Willis — For unsurpassed mastery of light, shadow, color and motion. John Calley The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, because of the declining viewership of recent Academy Awards ceremonies, the Academy sought ideas to revamp the show while renewing interest with the nominated films. After the previous years telecast, which saw a 13% increase in viewership, AMPAS then-president Sid Ganis announced that the ceremony would feature ten Best Picture nominees, rather than traditional five. The expansion was a throwback to the Academys early years in the 1930s and 1940s, I cant wait to see what that list of ten looks like when the nominees are announced in February. Ganis also said that became difficult to get a clear winner, a cause of this was required a change in the voting system from first-past-the-post to alternative vote. Choreographer Adam Shankman and Bill Mechanic were hired as producers for the ceremony, many of the previous years well-received elements returned82nd Academy Awards – Official poster
132. 83rd Academy Awards – During the ceremony, Academy Awards were presented in 24 competitive categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Bruce Cohen and Don Mischer, actors James Franco and Anne Hathaway co-hosted the ceremony, marking the first time for each. In related events, the Academy held its second annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 13,2010. On February 12,2011, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, Inception and The Kings Speech won four awards each, with the latter film winning Best Picture. The telecast garnered almost 38 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 83rd Academy Awards were announced on January 25,2011, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Tom Sherak, president of the Academy, the Kings Speech led the nominations with twelve, followed by True Grit with ten. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 27,2011. Toy Story 3 became the animated film to be nominated for Best Picture. True Grit was the film after 2002s Gangs of New York to lose all ten of its nominations. He was also the first acting nominee since Michael Caine at the 45th ceremony in 1973 to achieve this distinction, winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double-dagger. The Academy held its Second Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 13,2010, kevin Brownlow — For the wise and devoted chronicling of the cinematic parade. For a new kind of cinema, eli Wallach — For a lifetimes worth of indelible screen characters. Francis Ford Coppola The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers, in June 2010, the AMPAS hired Oscar-winning producer Bruce Cohen and veteran television producer Don Mischer to oversee production of the telecast. Im absolutely ecstatic that Bruce and Don have accepted my invitation to produce and direct the 83rd Academy Awards telecast, opting for younger faces for the ceremony, Cohen and Mischer hired actor James Franco, and actress Anne Hathaway as co-hosts of the 2011 ceremony. James Franco and Anne Hathaway personify the next generation of Hollywood icons — fresh, exciting and we hope to create an Oscar broadcast that will both showcase their incredible talents and entertain the world on February 27, said Cohen and Mischer regarding their selections to host the gala. We are completely thrilled that James and Anne will be joining forces with our brilliant creative team to do just that, Franco and Hathaway became the first male-female duo to co-host the awards show since comedian Jerry Lewis and actress Celeste Holm presided over the 29th ceremony in 1957. At age 28, Hathaway was also the youngest person to host an Oscar ceremony, furthermore, AMPAS announced that this years ceremony was the most interactive awards show in history. Also, via the Academys Twitter and Facebook pages, people could post questions for any actor or celebrity attending the festivities to answer, one of the four Oscar pre-show co-hosts would then pose selected questions to both nominees and attendees alike83rd Academy Awards – Official poster
133. 85th Academy Awards – The ceremony was the first in the Academys 85-year history to adopt the phrase The Oscars as the ceremonys official name during the broadcast and marketing. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories, the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, and produced by Craig Zadan and Neil Meron and directed by Don Mischer. Actor Seth MacFarlane hosted the show for the first time, in related events, the Academy held its 4th annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on December 1,2012. On February 9,2013, in a ceremony at The Beverly Hills Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, Life of Pi won four awards including Best Director for Ang Lee. Argo won three awards, including Best Picture, the film to win an Academy Award for Best Picture without its director nominated. The telecast garnered more than 40 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 85th Academy Awards were announced on January 10,2013, at 5,38 a. m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Seth MacFarlane, host of the ceremony, Lincoln received the most nominations with twelve total, and Life of Pi came in second with eleven. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 24,2013. Argo was the film to win Best Picture without a directing nomination, following 1927s Wings, 1932s Grand Hotel. As co-producer of Argo, George Clooney became the individual to win Oscars for both acting and producing. He was also the first singer nominee and also the first to host the show solo, silver Linings Playbook was the fourteenth film to earn nominations in all four acting categories, and the first since Reds in 1981. At age 22, Best Actress winner Jennifer Lawrence became the second-youngest winner in that category, with his third win for Best Lead Actor, Daniel Day-Lewis became the first three-time winner in that category. He also was the performer to win at least three acting Oscars. Amour was the fourth film nominated simultaneously for Best Picture and Best Foreign Language Film in the same year, at age nine, Quvenzhané Wallis became the youngest nominee for Best Actress and the youngest female acting nominee overall. Meanwhile, Emmanuelle Riva was the oldest nominee for Best Actress and this marked the first time in Oscar history that all five nominees in an acting category were all previous winners. Skyfall and Zero Dark Thirtys joint win in the Best Sound Editing category was the occurrence of a tie in Oscar history. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, the Academy held its 4th Annual Governors Awards ceremony on December 1,2012, during which the following awards were presented. Hal Needham — An innovator, mentor, and master technician who elevated his craft to an art, D. A. Pennebaker — Who redefined the language of film and taught a generation of filmmakers to look to reality for inspiration85th Academy Awards – Official poster
134. 88th Academy Awards – During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by David Hill and Reginald Hudlin, Actor Chris Rock hosted the show for the second time, having previously hosted the 77th ceremony held in 2005. In related events, the Academy held its 7th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 14,2015. On February 13,2016, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, Spotlight won two awards including Best Picture, and Mad Max, Fury Road won six awards, the most for the evening. The Revenant earned three awards including Best Director for Alejandro G. Iñárritu and Best Actor for Leonardo DiCaprio, brie Larson won Best Actress for Room, while Mark Rylance and Alicia Vikander won supporting acting honors for Bridge of Spies and The Danish Girl, respectively. The telecast garnered 34.42 million viewers in the United States, the nominees for the 88th Academy Awards were announced on January 14,2016, at 5,30 a. m. PST, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by directors Guillermo del Toro and Ang Lee, Academy president Cheryl Boone Isaacs, the Revenant led all nominees with twelve nominations, Mad Max, Fury Road came in second with ten. The winners were announced during the ceremony on February 28,2016. With two Oscars, Spotlight was the first film since 1952s The Greatest Show on Earth to win Best Picture with only one other award, Alejandro G. Iñárritu became the third individual to win two consecutive Oscars for Best Director. At the age of 87, Ennio Morricone was believed to be the oldest competitive winner in Oscar history, having previously won for Gravity and Birdman, Emmanuel Lubezki became the first person to win three consecutive Best Cinematography awards. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, and indicated with a double dagger, gena Rowlands — Who has illuminated the human experience through her brilliant, passionate and fearless performances. Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award Debbie Reynolds — For her charitable contributions, the following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. Due to the reception and lower ratings resulting from the previous years ceremony, producers Neil Meron. Shortly afterwards, actor Neil Patrick Harris announced that he would not host the Oscars for a second time, in an interview released from The Huffington Post, he said I dont know that my family nor my soul could take it. It was fun to check off the list, but for the amount of time spent, in September 2015, AMPAS recruited David Hill and Reginald Hudlin as producers of the ceremony. Were delighted to have this talented team on board, AMPAS president Cheryl Boone Isaacs said in a release announcing the decision. His vast experience as an events producer, coupled with Reginalds energy, creativity. The following month, Hill and Hudlin selected actor and comedian Chris Rock to host the 2016 telecast and they explained their decision to hire Rock back as host saying, Chris Rock is truly the MVP of the entertainment industry88th Academy Awards – Chris Rock will host the 88th Academy Awards.
135. List of accolades received by The Act of Killing – The Act of Killing is a 2012 Danish-British-Norwegian documentary film directed by Joshua Oppenheimer, Christine Cynn, and an anonymous Indonesian co-director. As many of the institutions and people responsible remained in power, the film first screened in September 2012 at the Telluride Film Festival in Colorado, and had its public premiere on July 19,2013, in New York City. Its worldwide box office earnings totaled over $0.5 million, the Act of Killing has received worldwide critical acclaim. Rotten Tomatoes, an aggregator, surveyed 137 reviews and judged 96% to be positive. Metacritic, another review aggregator, evaluated 30 reviews, finding an average score of 89 out of 100, included in many of the awards was the anonymous Indonesian co-director, who was unable to share in the recognition because of the danger posed by his or her participation. The Act of Killing was screened only in underground venues in Indonesia, in Oppenheimers BAFTAs acceptance speech, he reported that the subject is receiving more attention, and that the film is helping to catalyse a change in how Indonesia talks about its past. When it was nominated for an Oscar, the Indonesian government responded with a statement about the killings. The response marks the first time the government has admitted wrongdoing, the nomination also stoked controversy in China, where it had not been well known that Chinese people were the target of a significant amount of the violence. Awards for The Act of Killing at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by The Act of Killing
136. Ajith Kumar filmography – Ajith Kumar is an Indian actor who works mainly in Tamil films. Apart from a role in the 1990 Tamil film En Veedu En Kanavar. He made his debut as an actor in Tamil cinema with Amaravathi. Despite being a success, the film helped him obtain more modelling assignments. After Amaravathis release, Ajith opted against acting, and instead tried pursuing a career in auto racing, while training for an amateur race, he injured his back and underwent three major surgeries, leaving him bed-ridden for a year-and-a-half. After recovering from the injury, he played supporting roles in Paasamalargal, the following year, he had his breakthrough with the romantic thriller Aasai. His performance earned him acclaim and established him as an up-and-coming actor in Tamil cinema. He was next seen as the lead in Agathiyans epistolary Kadhal Kottai. In 1997 he had five releases, all of which were commercial failures, Ajiths dual portrayal of twin brothers—where one is deaf-mute—in S. J. Suryas Vaali won him his first Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Actor. Impressed with his performance in film, Rajiv Menon cast Ajith in the ensemble drama Kandukondain Kandukondain. The following year, he collaborated with debutant director AR Murugadoss on the action film Dheena, the film was successful in establishing his reputation as an action hero and earning him the nickname Thala. He earned critical acclaim for his dual role performance in the vigilante film Citizen, and his last release of the year was Santosh Sivans Hindi film Aśoka, where he played a brief antagonistic role opposite Shah Rukh Khan. His performance as twin brothers in K. S. Ravikumars 2002 film Villain won him a second Filmfare Award, between 2003 and 2005 Ajith cut back on his acting career to focus on racing. During this time, he had his only commercial success with Attahasam, two years later he starred in Ravikumars Varalaru, in which he played three different roles. It became the highest-grossing Tamil film of year, and Ajith went on to receive his third Filmfare Award for his performance. In 2007 he was seen in two remakes—Kireedam and Billa, both of which earned him critical acclaim and his next two releases, Aegan and Aasal, were critical and commercial failures. Ajith played an antihero—as a money-minded, suspended police officer—in Venkat Prabhus Mankatha and it had the biggest opening of that year for a Tamil film, and became Ajiths biggest commercial success to that point. His next release, Billa II, Tamil cinemas first prequel and he followed that with the multi-starrer Arrambam and Sivas masala film Veeram, both of which were commercially successfulAjith Kumar filmography – Ajith Kumar in 2010
137. Alastair Sim on stage and screen – The Scottish actor Alastair Sim performed in many mediums of light entertainment, including theatre, film and television. His career spanned from 1930 until his death, during that time he was a memorable character player of faded Anglo-Scottish gentility, whimsically put-upon countenance, and sepulchral, sometimes minatory, laugh. In 1930 he made his stage debut as a messenger in Othello at the Savoy Theatre, London—with Paul Robeson. During the next five years he appeared on stage in New York and the UK, in 1935 he made his film debut, appearing in The Riverside Murder, he appeared in four films that year, and five the following. His film career progressed and by the mid 1940s he was a figure in the theatre. The Times highlighted some of his notable films, including Green for Danger, The Happiest Days of Your Life, Scrooge, An Inspector Calls, The Green Man. Sim had been Rector of the University of Edinburgh in 1951, notes References Alastair Sim at the BFI Alastair Sim at the British Film Institutes Screenonline Alastair Sim at the Internet Movie Database Alastair Sim at the TCM Movie DatabaseAlastair Sim on stage and screen – Sim as the Laird in Geordie, 1955
138. List of accolades received by American Hustle – American Hustle is a 2013 American crime comedy-drama film directed by David O. Russell. The screenplay, written by Eric Warren Singer and Russell, is based on the FBI ABSCAM operation of the late 1970s and it was filmed in Boston, Worcester, and New York City. It stars an ensemble cast of Christian Bale, Amy Adams, Bradley Cooper, columbia Pictures initially provided a limited release to American Hustle at six theaters on December 13,2013. It was later given a release at over 2,500 theaters in the United States. The film has grossed a total of over $251 million on a budget of $40 million. As of 2014, it is also Russells highest-grossing film to date, rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, surveyed 254 reviews and judged 93 percent to be positive. At the 86th Academy Awards, American Hustle joint-led the nominations with Gravity and it was also the fifteenth film in Oscar history to be nominated in all four acting categories. However, the film did not win any awards at the ceremony, American Hustle was nominated for ten British Academy Film Awards and went on to win Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Lawrence, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Makeup and Hair. At the 20th Screen Actors Guild Awards, the film won Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture and it was also nominated at the Directors Guild Awards, Producers Guild Awards, and Writers Guild Awards. The American Film Institute included the film in their list of top ten films of 2013,2013 in film Awards for American Hustle at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by American Hustle – Jennifer Lawrence received numerous nominations for her performance in American Hustle
139. List of accolades received by Argo (2012 film) – Argo is a 2012 political thriller directed by Ben Affleck, and produced by Grant Heslov, Affleck and George Clooney. Bryan Cranston, Alan Arkin, and John Goodman feature in supporting roles, Argo grossed over $232 million at the worldwide box office on a production budget of $44.5 million. Rotten Tomatoes, an aggregator, surveyed 305 reviews and judged 96% to be positive. Argo garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories, with praise for its direction, screenplay. It became only the film in Oscar history to win Best Picture without a directing nomination. Argo earned five nominations at the 70th Golden Globes, winning for Best Motion Picture – Drama, at the 66th British Academy Film Awards, the film received seven nominations, and won for Best Film and Best Direction. At the Producers Guild of America Awards, Argo won for Best Theatrical Motion Picture, Affleck received the Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Award from the Directors Guild of America. The cast garnered the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture, both the American Film Institute and the National Board of Review included the film in their annual listing of the top ten films of 2012. 2012 in film Awards for Argo at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Argo (2012 film) – Ben Affleck received many awards and nominations for directing, producing, and acting in the film.
140. Abhishek Bachchan filmography – Abhishek Bachchan is an Indian actor and producer known for his work in Bollywood films. He made his debut in 2000, opposite Kareena Kapoor, in the J. P. Dutta-directed war drama Refugee and his portrayal of the titular unnamed refugee garnered him a nomination for Best Male Debut at the Filmfare Awards ceremony. However, the film was a box office failure, as were a series of his subsequent films, including Bas Itna Sa Khwaab Hai, and Shararat. His career prospects improved in 2004, when he played a gangster in the Mani Ratnam-directed political drama Yuva, and a police officer in Sanjay Gadhvis action thriller Dhoom. For the former, he won his first Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor, in 2005, Bachchan starred in the crime comedy Bunty Aur Babli opposite Rani Mukerji, and the Ram Gopal Varma-directed thriller Sarkar. The former was the second highest-grossing film of the year, in both films he co-starred with his father, Amitabh Bachchan. That same year, he appeared in the Bengali film Antarmahal. The following year, Bachchan appeared in the Karan Johar-directed romantic drama Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna, for which he received his third consecutive Best Supporting Actor award at Filmfare. Also that year, he reunited with Dutta on the romantic drama Umrao Jaan. The latter was the highest grossing Bollywood film to that point, Bachchan next starred alongside Aishwarya Rai in Guru, a biopic inspired by the life of the businessman Dhirubhai Ambani. His titular role in the film was positively received, in 2008, Bachchan starred in Varmas Sarkar Raj, the romantic comedy Dostana, and the superhero film Drona. The following year, Bachchan produced and appeared in Paa, a comedy-drama which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi, in the same year, he also starred in the Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra-directed satire Delhi-6. Bachchan then suffered a setback in his career as he starred in another series of films that performed poorly at the box-office, including Ratnams drama Raavan. His supporting role in the comedy Bol Bachchan, opposite Ajay Devgan, list of awards and nominations received by Abhishek Bachchan Abhishek Bachchan at the Internet Movie Database Abhishek Bachchan on Bollywood HungamaAbhishek Bachchan filmography – Bachchan at the launch of Yomics World in 2011
141. List of accolades received by Barfi! – Barfi. is a 2012 Indian romantic comedy-drama film written and directed by Anurag Basu and produced by UTV Motion Pictures. The film features Ranbir Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra, and Ileana DCruz in the roles, with Saurabh Shukla, Ashish Vidyarthi. The screenplay which incorporates a nonlinear narrative was co-written by Basu with his wife Tani, pritam Chakraborty composed the musical and background score while Akiv Ali edited the film, with the cinematography provided by Ravi Varman. Set between 1972 and 2012, the film narrates the story of the character from Darjeeling. Made on a budget of approximately ₹300 million, Barfi. opened worldwide on 14 September 2012 to wide critical acclaim and it was a major commercial success, grossing ₹1.75 billion at the box office. Barfi. has received awards and nominations, with praise for its direction. As of June 2015, the film has won 70 awards, at the 58th Filmfare Awards, Barfi. received the most nominations, winning a leading seven awards, including Best Film and Best Actor for Kapoor. At the 14th IIFA Awards, it won fourteen awards, out of twenty-one nominations, including the Best Film, at the 14th Zee Cine Awards, Barfi. received nine awards, including Best Film, Best Director for Basu and Best Actress for Chopra. List of Bollywood films of 2012 Awards for Barfi. at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Barfi! – Priyanka Chopra, Ranbir Kapoor, and Ileana D'Cruz received several awards and nominations for their performances in Barfi!
142. List of accolades received by Blue Jasmine – Blue Jasmine is a 2013 American black comedy-drama film written and directed by Woody Allen. It stars Cate Blanchett as a New York socialite, Jeanette Jasmine French, bobby Canavale, Andrew Dice Clay and Sally Hawkins feature in supporting roles. The film premiered in six theaters in New York and Los Angeles on July 26,2013, sony Picture Classics later gave it a wide release on August 23, in more than 1,200 theaters in the United States and Canada. The film has grossed a total of over $97 million on a production budget of $18 million. Rotten Tomatoes, an aggregator, surveyed 196 reviews and judged 91 percent to be positive. Blue Jasmine has garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories with particular praise for Blanchetts portrayal of the titular protagonist. At the 2014 Academy Awards ceremony, Blue Jasmine had three nominations, Best Actress for Blanchett, Best Supporting Actress for Hawkins and Best Original Screenplay for Allen, Blanchett also won Best Actress at the BAFTAs, Screen Actors Guild Awards, Independent Spirit Awards and Satellite Awards. Allens screenplay was nominated at the Writers Guild of America Awards. ^ Each date is linked to the article about the awards held that year,2013 in film Awards for Blue Jasmine at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Blue Jasmine – Cate Blanchett received many awards and nominations for her lead acting role in the film.
143. List of accolades received by Brokeback Mountain – Brokeback Mountain is a 2005 American epic romantic drama film directed by Ang Lee. Based on the story of the same name by author Annie Proulx. The film depicts the emotional and sexual relationship between two men, Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist in the American West between 1963 and 1983. Michelle Williams, Anne Hathaway, Linda Cardellini, Randy Quaid, Anna Faris, Brokeback Mountain premiered at the Venice International Film Festival, where it won the Golden Lion. Focus Features gave the film a release on December 9,2005 before a wide release on January 13,2006. The film grossed $178 million worldwide on a budget of $14 million. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes surveyed 234 reviews and judged 87% of them to be positive, Brokeback Mountain garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories, including for its directing, screenplay, acting, original score, and cinematography. At the 78th Academy Awards, Brokeback Mountain was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the film garnered seven nominations at the 63rd Golden Globe Awards, winning four for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Song, and Best Screenplay. However, Roger Ebert argued that claims of foul play were unjustified,2005 in film Brokeback Mountain Brokeback Mountain Accolades for Brokeback Mountain at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Brokeback Mountain – Ang Lee received many awards for his work on the film, including the Golden Lion and the Academy Award for Best Director.
144. Carry On series on screen and stage – The Carry On series is a long-running British sequence of comedy films, stage shows and television programmes produced between 1958 and 1992. Distributed by Anglo-Amalgamated from 1958 to 1966, and the Rank Organisation from 1967 to 1978, the series humour relied largely on innuendo and double entendre. There were thirty-one films, three Christmas specials, one series of thirteen episodes, and three West End and provincial stage plays, all made on time and to a strict budget. Peter Rogers and Gerald Thomas were the sole producer and director respectively. They mostly employed the same crew and a group of actors. The Carry Ons comprise the largest number of films of any British series and, between 1958 and 1992, there were seven writers, principally Norman Hudis and Talbot Rothwell. The films were scored by three different composers, Bruce Montgomery from 1958–62, Eric Rogers and Max Harris who scored the 1976 film Carry On England. In 1969 the UK television channel ITV televised a Christmas special recorded by Thames Television, entitled Carry On Christmas, subsequent Christmas specials were recorded in 1972 and 1973. In 1975 a 13-episode television series was commissioned by ATV for ITV, Carry On Laughing ran for two seasons, with six half-hour episodes in season one and seven in season two. The writer Penelope Gilliatt wrote, The usual charge to make against the Carry On films is to say that they could be so much better done. They look dreadful, they seem to be edited with a slicer, the effects are perfunctory. But if all things were more elegant I dont really think the films would be more enjoyable. The Carry On Book of Statistics, the Official Carry On Facts, Figures and Statistics. Mr Carry On – The Life & Work of Peter Rogers, keeping the British End Up – Four Decades of Saucy Cinema. Carry On Films at The Whippit Inn What a Carry On Carry On Forever Carry on Films at IMDbCarry On series on screen and stage – The 2003 DVD logo depicting some of the actors from the series: from left to right; Bernard Bresslaw, Kenneth Williams, Joan Sims, Sid James, Hattie Jacques, Jim Dale, Barbara Windsor and Charles Hawtrey
145. Charlie Chaplin filmography – Charlie Chaplin was an English actor, comedian, and filmmaker whose work in motion pictures spanned from 1914 until 1967. During his early years in film, he established as a worldwide cinematic idol renowned for his tramp persona. In the 1910s and 1920s, he was considered the most famous person on the planet, Chaplin was born in London and began acting on stage at the age of nine. In 1913, while on tour in the United States with Fred Karnos comedy group, during his time at Keystone, he began writing and directing some of the films in which he starred. Chaplin signed with the Essanay Film Manufacturing Company in 1915, in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Chaplin was accused of being a Communist sympathiser, which he denied. He remained a British subject and, while travelling to England in 1952 to attend the premiere of his film Limelight, Chaplin eventually settled in Switzerland, where he remained for the rest of his life. He made his last two films in England, during his lifetime, Chaplin received three awards from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. At the first Academy Awards ceremony, held on 16 May 1929, he was nominated for Best Actor. The Academy dropped his two nominations, and he won an award for writing, directing, producing. In 1972, he returned to the United States after nearly two decades to receive honorary award, this time for his overall achievements in cinema. The following year, Chaplins score for Limelight received the Academy Award for Best Music, although 20 years old by this time, Limelight had not been released in the Los Angeles area until 1972, and had not been eligible for Academy Award consideration before then. Chaplin also received Academy Award nominations in 1940 for Best Actor, in 1942, Chaplin released a new version of The Gold Rush, taking the original silent 1925 film and composing and recording a musical score which was not released in 1925. The Gold Rush was nominated for Best Music and his last nomination was in 1947 for his screenplay of Monsieur Verdoux. As of 2011, six of the films Chaplin starred in have been added to the American National Film Registry, The Immigrant, The Kid, The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, also selected was Show People, which features Chaplin in an unbilled cameo appearance. For his work in pictures, Chaplin has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1964 Chaplin established his official filmography with the publication of his book, the filmography consisted of 80 motion pictures released since 1914. Further detail was added to it in David Robinsons 1985 biography, Chaplin, His Life and Art, in 2010 the 82nd film was added with the discovery of A Thief Catcher, an early Keystone film hitherto thought lost. All of Chaplins films up to and including The Circus were silent, City Lights and Modern Times were essentially silent films, although they were made with soundtracks consisting of music and sound effects, with talking sequences in the latter filmCharlie Chaplin filmography – Charlie Chaplin in his "Tramp" persona
146. Jessica Chastain on screen and stage – Jessica Chastain is an American actress who has appeared in film, television, and stage. As a final-year student at the Juilliard School, she was signed on for a talent holding deal by the television producer John Wells. From 2004 to 2010, she had guest roles in television shows, including ER, Veronica Mars and Law & Order. She also appeared in productions with Michelle Williams for The Cherry Orchard in 2004. In 2008, Chastain made her debut as the title character in Jolene. She had a role in Stolen, a critically panned mystery-thriller. The year 2011 proved to be a breakthrough for Chastain, for the latter, Chastain received her first Academy Award nomination in the supporting actress category. In 2012, she voiced Gia in the $747 million-grossing animated film Madagascar 3, also in 2012, Chastain made her Broadway debut with a revival of The Heiress, playing the role of a naive young girl who transforms into a powerful woman. In 2013, she starred in the horror film Mama, and played a married woman in Ned Bensons The Disappearance of Eleanor Rigby. Chastains biggest live-action commercial successes came in the two years with the science fiction films, Interstellar and The Martian, both of which grossed over $600 million worldwide. In the former, directed by Christopher Nolan, she played a scientist, list of awards and nominations received by Jessica Chastain Jessica Chastain at the Internet Movie Database Jessica Chastain at the Internet Broadway DatabaseJessica Chastain on screen and stage – Chastain attending the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival
147. Christian Bale filmography – British actor Christian Bale has starred in various films, as well as advertisements and a video game. He made his debut in 1986, on the television film Anastasia. The following year, he made his debut starring alongside John Malkovich. Bales role of a boy, interned in China by the Japanese. Two years later, Bale had a role in Henry V. It has been considered one of the best Shakespeare film adaptations ever made, in 1992, Bale starred as Jack Kelly in the Walt Disney musical drama Newsies, which was a critical and commercial failure, however, it gained a cult following. He received a role in the 1994 drama Little Women, which garnered positive reviews, Bale lent his voice for the Disney animated film Pocahontas in 1995, although it received a mixed reception and attained box office success. He starred as British journalist Arthur Stuart in the Todd Haynes-directed drama Velvet Goldmine, although critics were divided on the film, Bales role was eagerly anticipated. Bale portrayed Demetrius in the critically praised 1999 film A Midsummer Nights Dream, the same year, he portrayed Jesus of Nazareth in the television movie Mary, Mother of Jesus. In 2000, Bale starred in the psychological thriller American Psycho in which he played the serial killer Patrick Bateman and his portrayal received positive reviews from critics and is often considered his breakthrough role. The same year, he starred alongside Samuel L. Jackson in the critically praised action crime film Shaft and he co-starred with Nicolas Cage and Penélope Cruz in the romance drama Captain Corellis Mandolin. The film was panned by critics and had a poor commercial performance. For the portrayal of Trevor Reznik in the psychological thriller The Machinist, although the film was commended by critics, it was a commercial failure. Bale starred as Bruce Wayne / Batman in Batman Begins, a reboot of the Batman film series directed by Christopher Nolan and his portrayal of Wayne / Batman was critically acclaimed and the movie became a box office success. He subsequently lent his voice in the Batman Begins based video game with the same title, in 2006, he portrayed German-American aviator Dieter Dengler in the war drama Rescue Dawn. Despite positive reviews, the film was a box office flop, the same year, he starred in The Prestige alongside Hugh Jackman and Scarlett Johansson. It received positive reviews and was a success in the box office. Bale co-starred with Russell Crowe in the Western 3,10 to Yuma which was received by movie criticsChristian Bale filmography – Bale at the red carpet film premiere of Public Enemies during the 2009 Los Angeles Film Festival.
148. Citra Award for Best Leading Actor – The Citra Award for Best Leading Actor is an award given at the Indonesian Film Festival to Indonesian actors for their achievements in lead roles. Described by Screen International as Indonesias equivalent to the Oscars, the Citra Awards are the countrys most prestigious film awards and they are intended to recognise Indonesian achievements in film and draw the publics interest to the cinema industry. The shortlist has remained at five selections since 1987, initially known as the Indonesian Film Festival Awards, the Citra Award was first given at the IFF in 1955. There were two recipients that year, A. N, alcaff of Lewat Djam Malam and A. Hadi of Tarmina. Succeeding festivals were held in 1960 and 1967, the IFF was held annually from 1973. Awards were presented at all IFF ceremonies except in 1980, that year, after the 1992 IFF, a sharp decline in film production led the festival to be discontinued. It was reinstated as an event in 2004, after receiving funds from the Indonesian government. The most recent winner of this Citra Award is Dedy Soetomo, a total of 61 actors have been nominated for a Citra Award for Best Leading Actor,26 of whom have won at least one. As of 2012 the most recognised actor at the IFF is Deddy Mizwar, the only other actor to receive three wins is Sukarno M. Noor, while three other actors have won two Citra Awards, Benyamin Sueb, Slamet Rahardjo, and Tio Pakusadewo. The actor with the most nominations without a win is Ray Sahetapy, two films have seen multiple cast members receive nominations. Of these, only Nagabonar Jadi 2 earned a win, with Mizwar receiving the award, four actors – Mizwar, Nicholas Saputra, Reza Rahadian, and Zainal Abidin – have received more than one nomination in a single year, each won for one of their nominationsCitra Award for Best Leading Actor – Rhoma Irama received a nomination in 1992 for Nada dan Dakwah.
149. Dadasaheb Phalke Award – The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is Indias highest award in cinema. It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals, as of 2014, the award comprises a Swarna Kamal medallion, a shawl, and a cash prize of ₹1,000,000. First presented in 1969, the award was introduced by the Government of India to commemorate Dadasaheb Phalkes contribution to Indian cinema. Phalke, who is known as and often regarded as the father of Indian cinema, was an Indian film-maker who directed Indias first full-length feature film. The first recipient of the award was actress Devika Rani, who was honoured at the 17th National Film Awards, as of 2015, there have been 47 awardees. Among those, actor Prithviraj Kapoor is the posthumous recipient. His actor-filmmaker son, Raj Kapoor, accepted the award on his behalf at the 19th National Film Awards in 1971 and was himself a recipient in 1987 at the 35th National Film Awards ceremony. The most recent recipient of the award is actor Manoj Kumar who was honoured at the 63rd National Film Awards ceremony, gulzar, Nihalani, Govind, Chatterjee, Saibal, eds. Official Page for Directorate of Film Festivals, India National Film Awards ArchivesDadasaheb Phalke Award – Dadasaheb Phalke, often credited as "the father of Indian cinema", made India's first full-length feature Raja Harishchandra (1913).
150. List of accolades received by Dallas Buyers Club – Dallas Buyers Club is a 2013 American biographical drama film directed by Jean-Marc Vallée based on a screenplay written by Craig Borten and Melisa Wallack. Jared Leto and Jennifer Garner feature in supporting roles, Dallas Buyers Club premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 7,2013. Focus Features initially gave the film a release at nine theaters on November 1 before expanding it on November 22 to over 600 theaters in the United States. The film grossed a total of over $55 million on a production budget of $5 million. Rotten Tomatoes, an aggregator, surveyed 234 reviews and judged 94% to be positive. Dallas Buyers Club garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories with particular praise for the performances of actors, McConaughey and Leto. At the 86th Academy Awards, the film received six nominations, including Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, Best Actor for McConaughey, McConaughey and Leto went on to win their respective categories – only the fifth film in Oscars history to win both awards. Hairstylist Adruitha Lee, and makeup artist Robin Mathews won for Best Makeup, Mathews makeup budget for the film was only $250. At the 71st Golden Globe Awards, McConaughey won for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, at the Screen Actors Guild Awards the film had three nominations, winning Best Actor for McConaughey and Best Supporting Actor for Leto. Borten and Wallacks screenplay was nominated for Best Original Screenplay at the Writers Guild of America Awards. The National Board of Review named Dallas Buyers Club one of the top ten independent films of 2013, Awards for Dallas Buyers Club at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Dallas Buyers Club
151. Dhanush filmography – Dhanush is an Indian film actor, producer, lyricist and singer known for his work in Tamil cinema. He made his debut in 2002 with the coming of age drama, Thulluvadho Ilamai. His role as a man in Kaadhal Kondein —directed by his brother Selvaraghavan—won him critical acclaim. The following year, he starred in Subramaniam Sivas Thiruda Thirudi and this was followed by a series of commercial failures—Pudhukottaiyilirundhu Saravanan, Sullan and Dreams. He had two releases in 2005—Devathayai Kanden and Adhu Oru Kana Kaalam, the former was a financial success, and the latter brought him critical acclaim. In 2006, Dhanush starred in the mob film Pudhupettai, which was critically acclaimed and he next collaborated with debutant director Vetrimaaran in Polladhavan. Based on the Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves, it was critically acclaimed and his subsequent releases—Yaaradi Nee Mohini and Padikkadavan—were box-office successes. He collaborated with Vetrimaaran for the time in Aadukalam. His role as a rooster fight jockey in the film won him that years National Film Award for Best Actor, the following year, he received international attention with the song Why This Kolaveri Di, which was recorded for Aishwarya R. Dhanushs directorial debut 3. His role as a man who is suffering from bipolar disorder in the film won him his second Filmfare Award, Dhanush made his Bollywood debut with Anand L Rais Raanjhanaa. His performance as an obsessive one-sided lover in the film won him the Best Male Debut Award, the same year he was seen in the survival film Maryan, which won him Best Actor at the 61st Filmfare Awards South. In 2014, he produced and starred in cinematographer Velrajs directorial debut, Velaiilla Pattadhari and his performance as an unemployed graduate won critical acclaim and a third Filmfare Award in the Best Tamil Actor category. He co-starred with Amitabh Bachchan in R. Balkis Shamitabh, where he played a mute superstar and he played three roles in K. V. Anands romantic thriller Anegan, a moderate success. He followed that with Maari, a critical and commercial failure, and Thanga Magan, Dhanush had two releases in 2016—Prabhu Solomons Thodari, a critical and commercial failure, and the political thriller Kodi, where he played dual roles. All films are in Tamil, unless otherwise noted, wunderbar Films List of awards and nominations received by Dhanush Dhanush filmography at the Internet Movie DatabaseDhanush filmography – Dhanush in 2010
152. Leonardo DiCaprio filmography – Leonardo DiCaprio is an American actor and producer who started his career performing as a child on television. Two years later, he played Tobias Wolff opposite Robert De Niro in This Boys Life and he followed this with a supporting role in Whats Eating Gilbert Grape, which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 1995, DiCaprio played the American author Jim Carroll in The Basketball Diaries, the following year he played Romeo Montague in the Baz Luhrmann-directed film Romeo + Juliet. DiCaprio starred opposite Kate Winslet in the James Cameron-directed film Titanic, the film became the highest grossing at the worldwide box-office, and made him famous globally. For his performance, he received the MTV Movie Award for Best Male Performance and he founded his own production company, Appian Way, in 2004. The next two films he starred in were both directed by Scorsese, the Howard Hughes biopic The Aviator and the crime drama The Departed. For his portrayal of Hughes in the former, DiCaprio won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, DiCaprio produced the environmental documentary The 11th Hour and the comedy-drama Gardener of Eden in 2007. The following year, he reunited with Kate Winslet in the Sam Mendes-directed drama Revolutionary Road, DiCaprio reteamed with Scorsese in 2010 in the psychological thriller Shutter Island and also starred in the Christopher Nolan-directed science fiction heist thriller Inception. In 2011, he portrayed J. Edgar Hoover, the first director of the FBI, the following year, he played a supporting role in the Quentin Tarantino-directed western Django Unchained. The latter earned him a third Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, in 2015, DiCaprio played fur trapper Hugh Glass in the survival drama The Revenant, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor. List of awards and nominations received by Leonardo DiCaprio Leonardo DiCaprio filmography at the Internet Movie Database Leonardo DiCaprio at the TCM Movie DatabaseLeonardo DiCaprio filmography – DiCaprio at the London premiere of The Wolf of Wall Street in 2014
153. Madhuri Dixit filmography – Madhuri Dixit is an Indian actress known for her work in Bollywood films. She made her debut with the role of a young bride in the 1984 film Abodh. Dixit went on to appear in films over the next two years, including the dramas Awara Baap and Swati, though none of them garnered her much recognition. Her breakthrough role came in 1988 with N. Chandras thriller Tezaab, ek Do Teen, a dance number that she performed in the film, was widely popular. She continued to play the lead in the commercially successful action-dramas Ram Lakhan, Tridev, the role of a wealthy brat in the 1990 romantic drama Dil earned Dixit her first Filmfare Award for Best Actress. The following year, she starred in Saajan, and won a second Best Actress award at Filmfare for playing a woman who rebels against her manipulative mother-in-law in the drama Beta. Dixit featured alongside Jackie Shroff and Sanjay Dutt in the action thriller Khalnayak and she then played an avenger in the drama Anjaam to positive reviews. Dixits subsequent release was Sooraj Barjatyas Hum Aapke Hain Koun, a family drama which emerged as the highest-grossing Bollywood film to that point, and established her as a leading actress of Bollywood. The following year, she featured in Raja and Yaraana, in the latter she played a woman who attempts an escape from her abusive husband, both of her releases in 1996—Rajkumar and Prem Granth—were financial failures. However, Yash Chopras 1997 romantic film Dil To Pagal Hai was a success for her. She garnered critical acclaim for her work in the drama Mrityudand, three years later, she was paired opposite Anil Kapoor in the critically acclaimed drama Pukar, following which she portrayed five roles in the experimental film Gaja Gamini. Dixit was praised for her role as a woman fighting against gender discrimination in Lajja, a drama on womens rights. The year 2002 saw Dixit starring in two dramas, including Devdas opposite Shah Rukh Khan, in which she played the Chandramukhi character. For the film, she won a Filmfare Award in the Best Supporting Actress category, after a five-year absence from the screen, Dixit played a leading role in Anil Mehtas dance film Aaja Nachle. Despite the films failure at the box-office, her performance was praised and she followed it by playing the leader of a vigilante group in the crime drama Gulaab Gang alongside Juhi Chawla. List of awards and nominations received by Madhuri Dixit Madhuri Dixit at the Internet Movie DatabaseMadhuri Dixit filmography – Madhuri Dixit at the audio release of Dedh Ishqiya
154. James Franco filmography – James Franco is an American actor who started his career by appearing in an episode of the television series Pacific Blue. He landed his role in the comedy-drama television series Freaks and Geeks. After his film debut in Never Been Kissed, Franco won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Film for playing the actor in the 2001 television biopic James Dean. He went on to play Harry Osborn in the superhero film Spider-Man, for the last of the three, he garnered a nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor. His only screen appearance of 2003 was in the ballet film The Company, Franco directed and starred in the comedy The Ape. After playing the role in the romantic drama Tristan & Isolde. Two years later, he played against type in the action-comedy film Pineapple Express, for the former, he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Comedy. Franco portrayed the trapped canyoneer Aron Ralston in 127 Hours, a survival drama, Franco appeared in four films in 2011, including the poorly-received fantasy film Your Highness, and the science fiction film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a critical and commercial success. Franco had six roles in 2012 none of which had much success except the crime-comedy film Spring Breakers, in which he played a gangster to highly positive reviews. The following year, Franco played the role in the fantasy film Oz the Great and Powerful. For the first one, he was nominated for the Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actor - Fantasy, also in 2013, he directed and starred in the drama As I Lay Dying. He starred in the action thriller Good People, an adaptation of Marcus Sakeys 2008 novel of the same name, in the 2014 controversial satirical comedy The Interview, he was seen as a journalist instructed to assassinate a North Korean leader. He had nine film releases in 2015, most of which failed financially except the animated film The Little Prince, James Franco at the Internet Movie DatabaseJames Franco filmography – James Franco at the premier of the film Spider-Man 3 (2007)
155. George Formby on screen, stage, record and radio – The English comic, singer and actor George Formby performed in many mediums of light entertainment, including film, radio and theatre. His career spanned from 1915 until December 1960, during that time he became synonymous with playing a shy, innocent, gauche, accident-prone Lancashire lad. Formby began his life as a jockey but always held an ambition to become a performer. In 1915, against the wishes of his father, Formby made his debut in the film By the Shortest of Heads. Upon his fathers death in 1921, he began to build a performing career. In 1926 he began his career, singing light, comical songs. From 1934 he increasingly worked in film, and had become a star by the 1930s and 40s. He appeared on television for the first time in 1938 in the festive special Christmas Greetings and he became the UKs highest-paid entertainer during those decades. The film historian Brian McFarlane writes that Formby portrayed essentially gormless incompetents, and even more improbably to a middle-class girlfriend, usually in the clutches of some caddish type with a moustache. Invariably he scored on both counts, Formby appeared in his final film role in 1946, the commercially unsuccessful George in Civvy Street. He toured Canada, Australia, South Africa and Sweden and appeared on local and national radio during his travels. He continued to record songs and appear on television into the 1950s, on 16 December 1960 he appeared in The Friday Show and his biographer, David Bret, observes that the show is generally regarded as Georges greatest performance—it was certainly his most sincere. Formby died of an attack in 1961. Formby appeared on stage in numerous variety and music hall performances, although no full record existsGeorge Formby on screen, stage, record and radio – Formby entertaining British troops during the Second World War
156. Gerard Butler filmography – The Scottish actor Gerard Butler has been in numerous films and television series since his on-screen debut in 1997s Mrs Brown. After taking minor roles in such as the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies. Then he was cast as Erik, The Phantom in Joel Schumachers 2004 film adaptation of the musical The Phantom of the Opera alongside Emmy Rossum and it earning him a MTV Movie Award for Best Fight and an Empire Award for Best Actor nomination. That same year, Butler starred in the drama film P. S. I Love You with Hilary Swank and he played military leader Tullus Aufidius in the 2011 film Coriolanus, the modernised adaptation of Shakespeares tragedy of the same name. He also portrayed Sam Childers in the 2011 action biopic Machine Gun Preacher, in 2012, Butler co-starred in the biographical drama film Chasing Mavericks with Jonny Weston, and the romantic comedy film Playing for Keeps with Jessica Biel. Butler made his debut in 1998s The Young Persons Guide to Becoming a Rock Star. In the 2001 miniseries Attila, Butler took the role. Gerard Butler at the Internet Movie DatabaseGerard Butler filmography – At the 2011 Berlin International Film Festival
157. List of accolades received by Gosford Park – Gosford Park is a 2001 mystery comedy-drama film directed by Robert Altman and written by Julian Fellowes. It premiered on November 7,2001 at the London Film Festival, the film then received a limited release across theaters in the United States on December 26,2001, before being widely released in January 2002 by USA Films. It was released on February 1,2002 in the United Kingdom, Gosford Park has earned over $87 million in its combined total gross at the box office. The film received seven Academy Awards nominations, the ceremony saw Fellowes win for Best Original Screenplay, at the 55th British Academy Film Awards, Gosford Park came away with two awards from nine nominations. Three of the films actresses earned nominations for Best European Actress at the European Film Awards, the film received five nominations at the 59th Golden Globe Awards and Altman won the award for Best Director. Gosford Park won all six of the awards that it was nominated for at the National Society of Film Critics and the New York Film Critics Circle. The film won two awards at the 8th Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role and Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. The film went on to win four more Best Cast awards from the Broadcast Film Critics Association, Florida Film Critics Circle, Fellowes received recognition for the films screenplay from the Writers Guild of America, where he won the Best Original Screenplay award. He subsequently received three awards and three nominations. Fellowes was also nominated for Best Newcomer at the British Academy Film Awards, the films score composer, Patrick Doyle received two nominations for his work. Doyle was nominated for Composer of the Year from the American Film Institute, the films costume, hair and make-up also earned three nominations between them. In 2008 the American Film Institute nominated the film for the Top 10 Mystery Films list, general Specific Awards for Gosford Park at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Gosford Park – Helen Mirren, nominated for twelve awards for her role as Mrs. Wilson
158. Grammy Award for Best Music Video – Originally called the Grammy Award for Best Video, Short Form, the award was first presented in 1984, as was a similar award for Best Long Form Music Video. From 1986 to 1997, the name was changed to Best Music Video. However, in 1988 and 1989, the criteria were changed. The awards were returned to the format in 1990. The category was called Best Short Form Music Video until 2014, Award recipients include the performers, directors, and producers associated with the winning videos. Johnny Cash, Peter Gabriel, Janet Jackson, and Michael Jackson hold the record for the most wins as a performer in this category, mark Romanek holds the record for the most wins as a director, with a total of three. Icelandic singer Björk holds the record for the most nominations as a performer without a win, ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year. ^ Director are only indicated if they were presented a Grammy Award. ^ Award was not presented. Music video categories presented this year included Best Concept Music Video, latin Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video List of Grammy Award categories List of most expensive music videos One shot Official website of the Grammy AwardsGrammy Award for Best Music Video – Two-time award winner Michael Jackson. Jackson was also a member of USA for Africa and was highly involved in the " We Are the World " project
159. List of accolades received by Gravity (film) – Gravity is a 2013 3D science-fiction thriller film directed, co-produced, co-written, and co-edited by Alfonso Cuarón. The films musical score was composed by Steven Price, with the cinematography provided by Cuaróns longtime collaborator, the film stars Sandra Bullock and George Clooney as astronauts involved in the mid-orbit destruction of a space shuttle and their attempt to return to Earth. Gravity premiered at the 70th Venice International Film Festival on August 28,2013 where it won the Future Film Festival Digital Award, the film then received a wide release at over 3,500 theaters in the United States and Canada on October 4,2013 by Warner Bros. On its opening weekend, it grossed over $55 million which broke the North American opening weekend record for the month of October, Gravity grossed a worldwide total of over $723 million on a budget of $100 million. As of 2015, it is Clooneys highest-grossing film to date, rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, surveyed 311 reviews and judged 96 percent to be positive. Gravity garnered awards and nominations in a variety of categories with particular praise for its direction, cinematography, score, the film received ten nominations at the 86th Academy Awards, the most nominations of 2014s ceremony tied with American Hustle. It went on to earn the most awards at the ceremony, winning seven including Best Director for Cuarón, Best Cinematography for Lubezki, Best Original Score for Price, the film received four nominations at the 71st Golden Globe Awards, with Cuarón winning for Best Director. Gravity led the nominations at the 67th British Academy Film Awards with eleven nominations, at the Producers Guild Awards, Gravity tied for Best Theatrical Motion Picture with 12 Years a Slave. Cuarón received the Best Director award from the Directors Guild of America, at the 40th Saturn Awards, Gravity joint-led the nominations with The Hobbit, The Desolation of Smaug, both films receiving eight nominations. The film went on to win five Saturn Awards including Best Science Fiction Film, Best Director for Cuarón, the films visual effects were acclaimed by the Visual Effects Society, which gave the film six awards including their top award for Outstanding Visual Effects in an Effects Driven Film. Both the American Film Institute and National Board of Review included the film in their list of top ten films of 2013, ^ Each date is linked to the article about the awards held that year wherever possible. 2013 in film Accolades for Gravity at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Gravity (film) – From left: producer David Heyman, actress Sandra Bullock, and director Alfonso Cuarón at San Diego Comic-Con in 2013
160. List of Tom Hanks performances – Tom Hanks is an American actor and producer who has had an extensive career in films, television and on the stage. Hanks made his acting debut on the stage playing Grumio. He made his debut with a minor role in the horror film He Knows Youre Alone. In the same year. His role in the led to guest appearances on a variety of long running television shows including Happy Days. Hanks appearance on the show led film director Ron Howard to cast him in his first leading role in the romantic comedy Splash. Although he also appeared in low budget made for tv movie Mazes and he went on to host Saturday Night Live for the first time in 1985, star in films such as Nothing in Common and Dragnet before playing his breakthrough role in the age-changing comedy Big. For his performance in the film, Hanks garnered his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor, the year after, Hanks starred in the film The Burbs. In 1993, he starred opposite Meg Ryan in the Nora Ephron-directed romantic comedy Sleepless in Seattle, later that year, he played the role of a gay lawyer suffering from AIDS, fighting discrimination in his law firm in the drama Philadelphia. For his performance, Hanks earned his first Academy Award for Best Actor, in 1995, he played astronaut Jim Lovell, in Howard-directed historical drama, Apollo 13, and voiced Sheriff Woody in the animated film Toy Story. Hanks made his debut as a director and screenwriter in the 1996 musical comedy That Thing You Do, later in the same year, he founded with Gary Goetzman, his own film and television production company called Playtone. Later that year, he reunited with Meg Ryan in another Ephron directed-romantic comedy and he also reprised his role in Toy Story, for its sequel, Toy Story 2. In 2000, Hanks starred in Cast Away, which earned him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, in 2001, he executive produced Emmy Award-winning World War II mini-series Band of Brothers and the romantic comedy, My Big Fat Greek Wedding. The following year at the age of 45, he became the youngest person to receive the lifetime achievement award from the American Film Institute and this was followed in 2004, by BAFTA Los Angeles awarding him the Stanley Kubrick Britannia Award for Excellence in Film. In 2006, he played Professor Robert Langdon in the Howard-directed adaptation of the book of the same name. Two years later he executive produced musical comedy Mamma Mia and Emmy Award-winning mini-series John Adams, in 2010, he reprised his role in Toy Story in its second sequel, Toy Story 3 and also executive produced the Emmy Award-winning mini-series The Pacific. He made a return in 2011 to directing in the romantic comedy Larry Crowne, the following year he starred in The Wachowskis-directed film adaptation of the novel of the same name Cloud Atlas and executive produced the Emmy Award-winning mini-series Game Change. Hanks made his Broadway debut in 2013 in Ephrons play, Lucky Guy, list of awards and nominations received by Tom Hanks Tom Hanks at the Internet Movie Database Tom Hanks at the TCM Movie DatabaseList of Tom Hanks performances – Hanks receiving the Kennedy Center Honors medallion in December 2014
161. List of Harry Potter cast members – Several actors of the United Kingdom and Ireland have voiced or portrayed characters appearing in the Harry Potter film series based on the book series by J. K. Rowling. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint and Emma Watson have played Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, when they were cast only Radcliffe had previously acted in a film. Thirteen actors have appeared as the character in all eight films of the series. Some well-known British actors, who have not appeared in the series, were asked in jest why they had not been cast, when David Yates was directing the fifth film, Bill Nighy said that he hoped the director would cast him in Harry Potter. However, in 2009, Yates cast Nighy as Minister of Magic Rufus Scrimgeour in the seventh film, Nighy said, I am no longer the only English actor not to be in Harry Potter and I am very pleased. Jude Law once quipped, Nobodys asked me, I was a bit too old for Harry. I know some who are still waiting, Rowling gave a speech during the world premiere of the final film in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, on 7 July 2011 in London. The list below is sorted by film and character since some characters have been portrayed by multiple actors. Key indicates the actor or actress lent only his or her voice for his or her film character indicates the actor or actress portrayed the role in a scene or when the character was young. Indicates the actor or actress did not appear in any new footage for the film, a light grey cell indicates the character was not in the film adaptation. A Often, minor child parts—in this case, Harry as an infant—are played by twins or triplets to avoid overworking the children, the given names of each of the Saunders triplets are unknown, they were credited in the film as Saunders triplets. B Michael Gambon replaced Richard Harris as Albus Dumbledore from Prisoner of Azkaban onwards after Harriss death, C Warwick Davis played Filius Flitwick in the first two films as an old dwarf-like man with gray hair. In pre-production for the film, the producers told Davis there was no role for Flitwick. Davis played a much younger-looking man with black hair and a moustache who directed the choir at the Hogwarts Welcome Feast, and was credited as portraying Wizard. During pre-production for the film, director Mike Newell told Davis he wanted to keep his look from the last film. Davis now considers the character he has played some relative of Flitwick, in the sixth film, Harry specifically calls him Professor Flitwick, as does McGonagall in the seventh, calling him Filius. D Rob Knox was stabbed to death on 24 May 2008 before Half-Blood Prince was released, the cast and crew of Half-Blood Prince wore white ribbons to the London premiere of the film in tribute to Knox. E Vincent Crabbe is a recurring, minor character who appears in every book, jamie Waylett portrays the character in the first six filmsList of Harry Potter cast members – Daniel Radcliffe, who portrays the series' title character, Harry Potter, has been the icon of the film series since the release of the first film in 2001.
162. List of accolades received by The Hurt Locker – The Hurt Locker is a 2009 Iraq War film written by Mark Boal and directed by Kathryn Bigelow. The film premiered on September 4,2008 at the 65th Venice International Film Festival and it was released in Italy by Warner Bros. Following a showing at the 33rd Toronto International Film Festival, Summit Entertainment picked the film up for distribution in the United States. The Hurt Locker was released in the United States on June 26,2009, with a release at four theaters in Los Angeles. The film grossed over $145,000 on its opening weekend, the following weekend, beginning July 3, the film grossed over $131,000 at nine theaters. It held the highest per-screen average of any movie playing theatrically in the United States for the first two weeks of its release, gradually moving into the top 20 chart, Summit Entertainment then released The Hurt Locker to more screens. The film grossed $49.2 million worldwide, and was a success against its budget of $15 million, the Hurt Locker has earned various awards and nominations, with the nominations in categories ranging from recognition of the screenplay to its direction and editing to the casts acting performance. Kathryn Bigelow dominated the Best Director category at the critics circles, the 67th Golden Globe Awards ceremony saw The Hurt Locker receive three nominations for Best Motion Picture Drama, Director and Screenplay, but it failed to win any. The film garnered nine nominations at the 82nd Academy Awards, the saw the film come away with six awards, including Best Motion Picture, Director. Bigelow became the first woman to win the Academy Award for Best Director, the film won the Best Theatrical Motion Picture and Outstanding Directorial Achievement at the 21st Producers Guild of America Awards and the 62nd Directors Guild of America Awards respectively. The 35th LA Film Critics Association Awards, 75th NY Film Critics Circle Awards, both the American Film Institute and the Associated Press included The Hurt Locker in their Top Ten Films of 2009 lists. The Associated Press also placed the film at number six on their Top Ten Films of the Decade list, Awards for The Hurt Locker at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by The Hurt Locker – Kathryn Bigelow, director of The Hurt Locker at the 82nd Academy Awards
163. James Nesbitt filmography – James Nesbitt is an actor from Northern Ireland whose filmography encompasses both television and film roles over a 30-year period. Nesbitts screen career began in the early 1980s with uncredited roles in episodes of the BBC Play For Today strand, which he had while attached to the Riverside Theatres youth group. His first credited role came in 1989, as a bit player in the John Ogdon biopic Virtuoso, which was followed by his first feature film role in 1991 in Hear My Song. As a casual actor in the early 1990s, Nesbitt mixed television and film roles, he appeared in episodes of Boon, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Covington Cross, Lovejoy, and Between the Lines. He also played roles in several Michael Winterbottom films, beginning with Loves Lies Bleeding in 1993 and continuing with Go Now in 1995, Jude in 1996, in 1997, he secured his breakout television role as Adam Williams in Cold Feet, a character he played until 2003. He starred in the ITV medical drama series Monroe and has a role as the dwarf Bofur in Peter Jacksons The Hobbit trilogy, after a break of eleven years, Nesbitt returned to the stage to make his London West End debut in Owen McCaffertys Shoot the Crow. James Nesbitt at the Internet Movie Database 0.0270270, URL retrieved on 5 March 2011James Nesbitt filmography – Nesbitt in 2008
164. Jennifer Lopez filmography – American entertainer Jennifer Lopez has appeared in many motion pictures and television programs. She is one of the highest paid actresses in Hollywood and is the highest paid actress of Latin descent and she is also the richest actress in Hollywood, with an estimated net worth of $320 million. Lopez made her debut at age 16 with a small role in the 1986 film My Little Girl. From there, she received her first high-profile job in 1991 as a Fly Girl dancer on the comedy program In Living Color. Second Chances and Hotel Malibu ran for only a brief period, lopezs first major film role came in the 1995 motion picture Money Train, alongside Wesley Snipes and Woody Harrelson. The film faced negative reviews and is considered to be a box office bomb and her next two film roles in Jack and Blood and Wine were received similarly, however, critics were divided by the latter. Lopez received her first leading role in the Selena biopic of the name in 1997. The film was a commercial and critical success and is cited by critics as her breakout role. Later that year, Lopez starred as Terri Flores in the film Anaconda, in 1998, Lopez starred alongside George Clooney in the crime film Out of Sight. The film met positive reviews and was a box office success. In the same year, she lent her voice to the animated film Antz. Following the launch of her career in 1999, Lopez returned to films as the star of the 2000 psychological thriller The Cell. In 2001, Lopez starred in the films The Wedding Planner and Angel Eyes, the simultaneous release of The Wedding Planner and her second album J. Lo made Lopez the first person in history to have a number one album and film in the same week. Lopez starred alongside Ralph Fiennes in the romantic comedy Maid in Manhattan in 2002, the film received mixed reviews, despite its box office success. In 2003 and 2004 she starred alongside then-boyfriend Ben Affleck in the films Gigli, critics wrote negatively for both films, and Gigli is considered one of the worst films of all time. Lopez retained box office success co-starring in the 2004 film Shall We Dance and she then co-starred opposite Jane Fonda in the romantic comedy Monster-in-Law. Following the role, Lopez starred in the independent films An Unfinished Life, Bordertown and El Cantante, following the birth of her twins in 2008, Lopez took a break from her career. She made her return to the screen and the big screen in 2010, making a guest appearance in an episode of How I Met Your MotherJennifer Lopez filmography – Lopez at the FIFA World Cup 2014 opening ceremony
165. John Barrymore on stage, screen and radio – John Barrymore was an American actor of stage, screen and radio who appeared in more than 40 plays,60 films and 100 radio shows. That year he began to work in full-length films. During the 1920s film roles became more serious, and he appeared in the role in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In between his roles, he also took the lead in two major stage productions of Shakespeare. Such was the success of Hamlet, that Warner Bros. signed Barrymore to a film contract, when his time with Warner Bros. finished, he signed a contract with United Artists to make three features, The Beloved Rogue, Tempest and Eternal Love. At the end of the MGM contract he became a movie actor. He was inducted to the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8,1960, in 1935 he was hospitalized after being unable to remember neither his seven lines for the film Hat, Coat, and Glove, nor his characters name. Barrymore also enjoyed a career on radio, which included broadcasting six of Shakespeares plays in a Streamlined Shakespeare seriesJohn Barrymore on stage, screen and radio – Barrymore drew a picture of himself and Ethel in A Slice of Life, 1912
166. John Gielgud, roles and awards – Sir John Gielgud, OM, CH was an English actor and theatre director. He appeared on stage, television and radio and in film in a career spanned eight decades. Film historian Brian McFarlane, writing for the British Film Institute, wrote of Gielgud that in terms of the performing arts, Gielgud, a member of the theatrical dynasty the Terry family, began working on stage in 1921 before attending the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. After completing his studies he worked in theatre and in the West End before establishing himself at the Old Vic in the 1930s. He continued working on the stage until 1990 both as a director and actor and he was active on television and radio, appearing in numerous plays and interviews, and was also in demand as a narrator. Gielgud is one of the few people who have won all four major annual American entertainment awards, these being an Oscar, an Emmy, a Grammy and he also won BAFTAs, Golden Globes, and a Laurence Olivier Award. He died on 21 May 2000, at the age of 96 and this table contains Gielguds known professional theatrical roles. It also contains the occasions when he acted and directed. It does not contain those productions where Gielgud was a director and this table contains Gielguds stage work as a director. It does not include those productions in which he also appeared, Gielgud took part in numerous radio broadcasts in his career, including interviews, poetry readings and talks about the theatre and acting. The following is a list of plays in which he was involved, notes References Archival material relating to John GielgudJohn Gielgud, roles and awards – Gielgud in 1936
167. List of accolades received by Kahaani – Kahaani is a 2012 Indian mystery thriller film directed and co-produced by Sujoy Ghosh. The film stars Vidya Balan as the protagonist, and features Parambrata Chatterjee, Nawazuddin Siddiqui, the film was edited by Namrata Rao, with the cinematography provided by Setu. Made on a budget of ₹80 million, Kahaani was released on 9 March 2012, the film garnered awards and nominations in several categories, with particular praise for its direction and the performance of the lead actress. As of 2014, the film has won 28 awards, at the 58th Filmfare Awards ceremony, Kahaani won five awards, including Best Director for Ghosh and Best Actress for Vidya, the film was also nominated for Best Film. It was nominated in thirteen categories at the Screen Awards ceremony, including Best Film, at the 14th ceremony of the Zee Cine Awards, the film won awards in five categories, including Best Film – Critics and Best Actress – Critics. At the 8th Star Guild Awards, Kahaani won four awards, including Best Director and Best Actress, in the 14th iteration of the International Indian Film Academy Awards, the film garnered five nominations, going on to win Best Actress and Best Editing for Rao. The film won three honours—Best Screenplay for Ghosh, Best Editing, and a Special Jury prize for Siddiqui—at the 60th ceremony of Indias National Film Awards, list of Bollywood films of 2012 Accolades for Kahaani at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Kahaani – Vidya Balan 's performance in Kahaani garnered her several awards and nominations
168. List of accolades received by Kaminey – Kaminey is a 2009 Indian caper thriller film directed by Vishal Bhardwaj and produced by Ronnie Screwvala. Shahid Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra, and Amol Gupte star in the lead roles, the films screenplay was written by Bhardwaj, Abhishek Chaubey, Sabrina Dhawan, and Supratik Sen. Bhardwaj also composed the soundtrack of the film, with lyrics written by Gulzar. Kaminey was edited by A. Sreekar Prasad, and Meghna Manchanda Sen, made on a budget of ₹350 million, Kaminey released on 14 August 2009 to critical acclaim and was a commercial success, grossing over ₹710 million. The films soundtrack was also a critical and commercial success, with the song Dhan Te Nan topping the charts, over the years, Kaminey achieved cult status. The film garnered awards and nominations in categories, with praise for its direction, performance of the cast, screenplay, musical score, cinematography, editing. At the 57th National Film Awards, Kaminey won Best Audiography for Subash Sahoo and it received a leading 19 nominations at the 2010 Screen Awards, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor, and Best Actress, winning Best Actor Popular for Kapoor. List of Bollywood films of 2009 Accolades for Kaminey at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Kaminey – Shahid Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra received several nominations for their respective performances in Kaminey
169. Kareena Kapoor filmography – Kareena Kapoor, also credited by her married name Kareena Kapoor Khan, is an Indian actress who has appeared in over 50 Bollywood films. Kapoor made her debut opposite Abhishek Bachchan in the 2000 drama Refugee. The following year, she appeared in five films, including the romance Mujhe Kucch Kehna Hai, the thriller Ajnabee, the latter emerged as the highest-grossing Bollywood film in overseas market to that point, and the success of these films established her in Bollywood. Kapoor portrayed a prostitute in the 2004 drama Chameli, which proved to be a point in her career. She won two Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress for these films, in 2007, Kapoor played a loquacious Sikh girl in Imtiaz Alis Jab We Met, a commercially successful comedy-drama co-starring Shahid Kapoor, for which she won the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. In 2009, Kapoor played a student in Rajkumar Hiranis comedy-drama 3 Idiots, co-starring Aamir Khan. In 2011, she played the lady in two top-grossing Hindi films—the action drama Bodyguard and the superhero film Ra. One. Among her four releases in 2012, the romantic comedy Ek Main Aur Ekk Tu saw Kapoor play a free-spirited hairdresser and she also received praise for playing a troubled actress in the drama Heroine and a mysterious prostitute in the thriller Talaash, The Answer Lies Within. Awards and nominations received by Kareena Kapoor Khan Kareena Kapoor Khan at the Internet Movie DatabaseKareena Kapoor filmography – Kapoor at an event for Bajrangi Bhaijaan in 2015
170. Anurag Kashyap filmography – Anurag Kashyap is an Indian filmmaker and actor, known for his work in Hindi cinema. After writing a television series Kabhie Kabhie, Kashyap co-wrote Ram Gopal Varmas crime drama Satya and he later wrote and directed a short television film, Last Train to Mahakali, and made his feature film debut with the yet-unreleased film Paanch. He next directed Black Friday, a film on the 1993 Bombay bombings and its release was barred by Indias Censor Board for two years, but was eventually released in 2007 to positive reviews. The same year, he directed the critical and commercial failure No Smoking, return of Hanuman, an animated film, was Kashyaps next directorial venture. In 2009, he directed Dev. D, a take on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyays Bengali novel Devdas. Despite positive reviews, the latter was a box-office failure, Kashyaps production company Anurag Kashyap Films released its first film Udaan —a critical success that earned him the Filmfare Award for Best Story and Best Screenplay. He then directed one of the films in the anthology film Mumbai Cutting. In 2011, he acted in Tigmanshu Dhulias crime thriller Shagird, after directing the thriller That Girl in Yellow Boots, the two-part crime film Gangs of Wasseypur was his next release, which garnered him the Filmfare Award for Best Dialogue. In 2013, he directed a film on eve teasing titled That Day After Everyday. In 2013, he co-produced The Lunchbox, a film that was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language, in 2011, Kashyap started another production company Phantom Films, whose first feature was the period drama Lootera. Kashyap co-produced and co-edited the comedy-drama Queen, which earned him the Filmfare Award for Best Editing, the following year, he served as the creative director in the mini-series Yudh starring Amitabh Bachchan, and subsequently presented two documentary film The World Before Her and Katiyabaaz. His next directorial ventures were the thriller Ugly and the period film Bombay Velvet, the latter opened to mixed reviews from critics and failed to recover its ₹1.2 billion investment. In 2015, he co-produced two commercially successful films, Hunterrr, NH10 and the critically acclaimed Masaan, Anurag Kashyap at the Internet Movie Database Anurag Kashyap at Rotten TomatoesAnurag Kashyap filmography – Kashyap attending the Rome Film Festival in 2007.
171. Gene Kelly filmography – Gene Kelly was an American dancer, actor, singer, director, producer and choreographer whose work in motion pictures spans from 1942 to 1996. He is probably best known today for his performances in musicals, notably An American in Paris, Kelly made his Hollywood film debut in For Me and My Gal, co-starring with Judy Garland. Afterward, he went on to work as an actor, dancer and subsequently, choreographer, in these films, his choreography included experiments with a combination of dance and animation and dance scenes involving special effects. In addition to his work as an actor and choreographer, Kelly directed or co-directed several films, Kelly appeared in several non-musical dramatic and comedy films as well. Kelly received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor for his performance in Anchors Aweigh and he was voted the 15th most popular film actor on the American Film Institute’s millennium list, while his Singin in the Rain was voted the most popular movie musical of all time. This filmography below contains a listing of Gene Kellys feature films. His musicals are indicated with an eighth note symbol. The Films of Gene Kelly, Song and Dance Man, Gene Kelly at the Internet Movie Database Gene Kelly filmography at the TCM Movie DatabaseGene Kelly filmography – Kelly in 1943
172. Kerala State Film Award for Best Actress – Until 1997, the awards were managed directly by the Department of Cultural Affairs, Government of Kerala. Since 1998, the Kerala State Chalachitra Academy, an autonomous non-profit organisation functioning under the Department of Cultural Affairs, has been exercising control over the awards. The awardees, decided by an independent jury formed by the academy, are declared by the Minister for Cultural Affairs and are presented by the Chief Minister. The 1st Kerala State Film Awards ceremony was held in 1970 with Sheela receiving the Best Actress award for her role in Kallichellamma, the following year, Sharada was recognised for her performances in two films—Thriveni and Thara. Since then, several actresses have been awarded for more than one film during a year, throughout the years, accounting for ties and repeat winners, the Government of Kerala has presented a total of 49 Best Actress awards to 33 different actresses. Urvashi has been the most frequent winner in category, with five awards. She is followed by Sheela and Srividya with three awards each, as of 2017, eight actresses—Jayabharathi, Seema, Samyuktha Varma, Suhasini Maniratnam, Navya Nair, Meera Jasmine, Kavya Madhavan and Shweta Menon—have won the award two times in their careers. The 2005 ceremony was the occasion when the category was tied, Kavya Madhavan and Geetu Mohandas shared the award for their performances in Perumazhakkalam. Rajisha Vijayan, the most recent recipient, was awarded for her debut film Anuraga Karikkin VellamKerala State Film Award for Best Actress – Suhasini, Navya Nair, Meera Jasmine, Kavya Madhavan, and Shweta Menon (from top to bottom), all have won the award two times in their careers.
173. Salman Khan filmography – Salman Khan is an actor who appears in Bollywood films. During the early 1990s, he starred in the action drama Baaghi, A Rebel for Love, the action film Patthar Ke Phool, and the romance Saajan, all of which were financially successful. However, his other releases during this period, including Suryavanshi, Jaagruti, also that year, he featured alongside Aamir Khan in the comedy Andaz Apna Apna, which despite being a box-office flop has developed a cult status in India. Khan went on to play with Shah Rukh Khan in Rakesh Roshans melodramatic thriller Karan Arjun, for the latter, he was awarded the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 1999, Khan starred in three successful productions, the comedy Biwi No.1, the romantic drama Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. In 2003, Khan earned praise for playing a scorned lover in the romantic film Tere Naam and he went on to play the lead in the top-grossing Hindi films Garv, Mujhse Shaadi Karogi, No Entry, and Partner. Khan made his debut by hosting two seasons of the game show 10 Ka Dum. Following a series of commercial failures from 2006–08, he starred in the action thriller Wanted, greater commercial success followed with Dabangg, and Khan featured as the host of the television game show Bigg Boss, going on to host six more seasons of the show. In 2011, Khan produced the childrens film Chillar Party under his production company Salman Khan Being Human Productions, also that year, he starred in two of the highest-grossing films of the year—the action-comedy film Ready and the action drama Bodyguard. Khan followed these roles in a number of top-grossing films that made him the first actor with nine films grossing over ₹1 billion at the box-office. These include a role in Bajrangi Bhaijaan, for which Khan received his nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Actor. As a producer of the film, Khan won a National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment, sultan followed, a sports drama about the life of the eponymous fictional wrestling champion. List of awards and nominations received by Salman Khan Salman Khan at the Internet Movie DatabaseSalman Khan filmography – Salman Khan at the launch of a song from the film Ek Tha Tiger (2012)
174. Manisha Koirala filmography – Manisha Koirala is a Nepalese actress known for her work in Bollywood films. Koiralas acting debut was in the Nepali film Pheri Bhetaula, two years later, she made her Bollywood debut in Subhash Ghais Saudagar, which was a commercial success. However, she followed this by appearing in a series of films which performed poorly at the box office, including First Love Letter, Anmol, Koiralas career had a turnaround when she starred as the daughter of a freedom fighter in Vidhu Vinod Chopras 1942, A Love Story. Her performance was acclaimed and she earned a nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. For playing the daughter of a mute and deaf couple in Sanjay Leela Bhansalis Khamoshi, The Musical and she followed this with leading roles in Agni Sakshi and Gupt, The Hidden Truth, which were among the highest-grossing Indian films of their respective years. She played a terrorist opposite Shah Rukh Khan in Dil Se. the first Indian film to reach the top ten in the United Kingdom box office. However, Koiralas roles in films which performed poorly at the box office, such as Dil Ke Jharokhe Mein and she made her television debut in 2000 as the co-host of the game show Sawaal Dus Crore Ka with Anupam Kher. The shows poor ratings led to both Kher and Koirala being fired, for her role as a gangsters girlfriend in Ram Gopal Varmas 2002 crime drama Company, she received her third Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress. Koirala also appeared in the controversial film Ek Chhotisi Love Story in which she played a woman secretly spied upon by a teenage voyeur. The following year, her portrayal of Bengali writer Sushmita Banerjee in the drama Escape from Taliban garnered her the Bengal Film Journalists Association Award for Best Actress, Koiralas career continued to decline during the early to mid 2000s, as she appeared in less mainstream films. In 2004, she made her debut as a producer with the film Paisa Vasool, the following year, she portrayed Mughal princess Jahan Ara in the historical drama Taj Mahal, An Eternal Love Story. In 2008, Koirala starred in Rituparno Ghoshs Khela, where she played a woman in a troubled marriage, two years later, she appeared as an adulterous wife in the Malayalam drama Elektra. The following year, she played a Kashmiri Muslim attempting to restore a childhood friendship in Onirs anthology film I Am, in 2012, she appeared in Ram Gopal Varmas horror sequel Bhoot Returns as the mother of a possessed daughter. Later that year, she took a break from acting after being diagnosed with ovarian cancer, after six months of treatment, Koirala recovered from the condition. In 2015, she returned to acting with the psychological thriller Chehere, manisha Koirala at the Internet Movie DatabaseManisha Koirala filmography – Koirala in 2012
175. Laurel and Hardy filmography – This list only contains the films that Laurel and Hardy made together. For their solo films see Stan Laurel filmography and Oliver Hardy filmography, Laurel and Hardy were a motion picture comedy team whose official filmography consists of 106 films released between 1921 and 1951. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy were established as film comedians prior to their teaming, with Laurel appearing in over 50 silent films, Laurel and Hardy officially became a team the following year, in their eleventh silent short film The Second Hundred Years. The pair remained with the Roach studio until 1940, between 1941 and 1945 they appeared in eight features and one short for 20th Century Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. After finishing their movie commitments Laurel and Hardy concentrated on stage shows, in 1950, they made their last film Atoll K, a French/Italian co-production. In 1932 Laurel and Hardys short The Music Box won the Academy Award for Live Action Short Film, in 1960, Laurel was presented with an Honorary Academy Award for his creative pioneering in the field of cinema comedy. For their contributions to cinema Laurel and Hardy have been awarded separate stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, each book lists 105 films while, in its appendix, Skredvedts adds a 106th, Now Ill Tell One, a previously lost film that was partly rediscovered. Except where noted all of films were photographed in black and white, produced by Hal Roach. Also, except noted, all short films are two reels in length. All films made prior to 1928 are silent and all films made after 1929 are sound, releases from 1928 are silent except as noted while 1929 releases are identified as silent, all-talkie, or sound films with music and sound effects only. During the early days of sound American motion picture companies often made foreign-language versions of their films, the following is a list of known foreign-language versions of Laurel and Hardy films. Note, A lost German-language version of The Hollywood Revue of 1929 was made, Wir Schalten um auf Hollywood, apparently Laurel and Hardy do not appear in it. A. ^ A short film is defined as a motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less. The Films of Laurel and Hardy, secaucus, NJ, USA, Citadel Press, Inc. McCabe, John, Kilgore, Al, Bann, Richard W. Laurel, new York, NY, USA, E. P. Dutton. Laurel and Hardy, The Magic Behind the Movies, beverly Hills, CA, USA, Past Times. Laurel and Hardy — The Official SiteLaurel and Hardy filmography – Laurel (left) and Hardy in Bonnie Scotland (1935)
176. List of Academy Awards for Walt Disney – Walt Disney won or received a total of twenty-six Academy Awards, and holds the record for most Academy Awards in history. He won twenty-two competitive Academy Awards from a total of fifty-nine nominations, Disney won his first competitive Academy Award and received his first Honorary Academy Award at the 5th Academy Awards. He received the Honorary Academy Award for the creation of Mickey Mouse and won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject for the film Flowers, in the seven Academy Award ceremonies that followed, Disney consecutively earned nominations and won in the same category. Disney received three more Honorary Academy Awards, one in 1939 and two in 1942, at the 26th Academy Awards, Disney won the Academy Award in all four categories in which he was nominated, Best Short Subject, Best Short Subject, Best Documentary, and Best Documentary. In 1965, Disney earned his sole Best Picture nomination, for the film Mary Poppins and he was posthumously awarded his final Academy Award in 1969. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and SciencesList of Academy Awards for Walt Disney – Cartoonist and film producer Walt Disney
177. List of James Bond films – James Bond is a fictional character created by novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. Bond is a British secret agent working for MI6 who also answers by his codename,007 and he has been portrayed on film by actors Sean Connery, David Niven, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig, in twenty-six productions. Only two films were not made by Eon Productions, Eon now holds the full adaptation rights to all of Flemings Bond novels. In 1961 producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman joined forces to purchase the rights to Flemings novels. They founded the production company Eon Productions and, with backing by United Artists, began working on Dr. No. Following Dr. Nos release in 1962, Broccoli and Saltzman created the holding company Danjaq to ensure future productions in the James Bond film series, the series currently encompasses twenty-four films, with the most recent, Spectre, released in October 2015. Accounting for the effects of inflation the Bond films have amassed over $14 billion at current prices, in 1982, Albert R. Broccoli received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award. After Ratoffs death, the rights were passed on to Charles K. Feldman, although Eon Productions and McClory joined forces to produce Thunderball, McClory still retained the rights to the story and adapted Thunderball into 1983s Never Say Never Again. The current distribution rights to both of those films are held by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the studio which distributes Eons regular series, in 1961, producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman joined forces to adapt Ian Flemings James Bond novels. Released in 1962, it starred Sean Connery, who after being cast as Bond, No with From Russia with Love in 1963 and Goldfinger the following year. Afterwards, Eon Productions joined forces with Kevin McClory to produce Thunderball, Connery was renegotiating his contract by then, and got released from it during the production of his fifth film, 1967s You Only Live Twice. Connery refused to play the role further, and his replacement was Roger Moore. Having filled his original deal, Moore started to negotiate contracts on a basis, signing to do a fourth Bond film. Follow-up Octopussy was the first distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, who purchased United Artists in 1981, Timothy Dalton took over the role, starring in The Living Daylights and Licence to Kill. Pre-production work for the third James Bond film starring Timothy Dalton, fulfilling his three-film contract, daltons contract had expired when the lawsuits were settled in 1992. Brosnan had two films that decade, Tomorrow Never Dies in 1997 and The World Is Not Enough in 1999. Pierce Brosnan had signed a deal for four films when he was cast in the role of James Bond and this was fulfilled with the production of Die Another Day in 2002. Afterwards Eon decided to reboot the series with a younger actor, Daniel Craig was eventually cast as Bond in Casino Royale, released in 2006List of James Bond films – Roald Dahl, who wrote the script for You Only Live Twice
178. List of accolades received by David Lynch – David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, television director, visual artist, musician and occasional actor. Known for his surrealist films, he has developed his own cinematic style, which has been dubbed Lynchian. Indeed, the surreal and in many violent elements to his films have earned them the reputation that they disturb. Lynchs oeuvre encompasses work in cinema and television. In the course of his career, Lynch has received multiple awards, amongst these are three Academy Award nominations for Best Director, and a nomination for best screenplay. Lynch has twice won Frances César Award for Best Foreign Film, as well as the Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival, the Elephant Man is a 1980 American drama film based on the true story of Joseph Merrick, a severely deformed man in 19th century London. The film was directed by Lynch, who wrote the screenplay with Eric Bergren and it stars John Hurt, Anthony Hopkins, Anne Bancroft, John Gielgud, Wendy Hiller, Michael Elphick, Hannah Gordon, and Freddie Jones. Blue Velvet is a 1986 American mystery film written and directed by Lynch, the movie exhibits elements of both film noir and surrealism. The film features Kyle MacLachlan, Isabella Rossellini, Dennis Hopper, Wild at Heart is a 1990 American film written and directed by Lynch, and based on Barry Giffords 1989 novel Wild at Heart. Twin Peaks, Fire Walk with Me is a 1992 American psychological horror film directed by Lynch, the Straight Story is a 1999 film directed by Lynch. The film was edited and produced by Mary Sweeney, who also co-wrote the script with John E. Roach, the film stars Richard Farnsworth, Sissy Spacek and Harry Dean Stanton. The Straight Story is based on the story of Alvin Straights journey across Iowa. Mulholland Drive is a 2001 American neo-noir psychological thriller written and directed by Lynch, starring Justin Theroux, Naomi Watts, and Laura Harring. The film tells the story of an actress named Betty Elms, newly arrived in Los Angeles, California. The story includes several other seemingly unrelated vignettes that eventually connect in various ways, inland Empire is a 2006 mystery film. The film stars Laura Dern, Justin Theroux, Harry Dean Stanton, Grace Zabriskie, Jeremy Irons, twin Peaks is an American television serial drama created by Lynch and Mark Frost. The series follows the investigation headed by FBI Special Agent Dale Cooper, of the murder of a teenager and homecoming queen. Lynch has also honored by the French government with induction into the Legion of Honour, first being honored as a Chevalier in 2002List of accolades received by David Lynch – Lynch at the 42nd Primetime Emmy Awards
179. List of accolades received by Enthiran – Enthiran is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language science fiction film directed by S. Shankar and produced by Kalanithi Maran. Shankar wrote the screenplay and co-wrote the dialogues with Sujatha Rangarajan and Madhan Karky, the film stars Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai Bachchan in the lead roles with Danny Denzongpa, Santhanam, and Karunas playing supporting roles. The films story revolves around a struggle to control his creation. The plan backfires when the falls in love with the scientists fiancée and is further manipulated by a rival scientist to bring destruction to all who stand in its way. The film was dubbed into Hindi as Robot, produced on an estimated budget of ₹1.32 billion, Enthiran yielded a revenue of ₹1.79 billion according to a report by the Sun TV Network. The film garnered awards and nominations in categories, with particular praise for its cinematography, visual effects, art direction, costume design. As of 2016, the film has won 22 awards from 35 nominations, at the 58th National Film Awards ceremony, Enthiran won two awards for Best Special Effects and Best Production Design. The film was nominated in nine categories at the 58th Filmfare Awards South, winning Best Cinematographer, Best Art Director, and Best Costume Design. At the 5th Vijay Awards, the film was nominated in fourteen categories and won in seven, including Best Villain and Favourite Hero, Favourite Film, Enthiran won three awards at the 12th IIFA Awards under the Best Special Effects, Best Art Direction, and Best Makeup categories. Among other wins, the film received three Norway Tamil Film Festival Awards, two Screen Awards, one Mirchi Music Award, and an award at the 24th Tokyo International Film Festival. List of Tamil films of 2010 Notes Citations Bibliography Dhananjayan, G. Enthiran – The Robot, the Best of Tamil Cinema,1931 to 2010,1977 –2010. Accolades for Enthiran at the Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by Enthiran – Rajinikanth (left) with Aishwarya Rai Bachchan (right) during the audio launch of Enthiran ' s Hindi version, Robot. The former's performance in the film garnered him several awards and nominations
180. List of film directors of the Dutch East Indies – The colonys first directors, Heuveldorp and G. Kruger, were of European or mixed descent. Ethnic Chinese directors dominated the cinema for the remainder of its existence. The directors active in the Indies came from various backgrounds, some, like The Teng Chun, Fred Young, and the Wongs, had been interested in film since their youth. Others, such as Njoo Cheong Seng and Andjar, had a background in theatre, still others, including Albert Balink and Ismail, were journalists by trade. They were all men, the first woman to direct a film in the Indonesian archipelago, Ratna Asmara, between them, the 29 men directed some 103 films, at times working collaboratively, it was not unusual for them to take more than one role in production. However, they generally had less control than the producer. The list only counts fictional films directed by the subjects and does not include films from other genres or films in which the person held other roles, the names of persons credited with an abbreviated name are written in full, where availableList of film directors of the Dutch East Indies – The Wong brothers (one pictured) were the first ethnic Chinese directors in the Indies.
181. List of films of the Dutch East Indies – A total of 112 fictional films are known to have been produced in the Dutch East Indies between 1926 and the colonys dissolution in 1949. The earliest motion pictures, imported from abroad, were shown in late 1900, Dutch companies were also producing documentary films about the Indies to be shown in the Netherlands. The first reports of film production in the Indies date from 1923. The first locally produced film, Loetoeng Kasaroeng, was directed by L. Heuveldorp, between 1926 and 1933 numerous other local productions were released. Although Dutchmen like Heuveldorp and G. Krugers continued to be active in the industry, the Tan brothers and The Teng Chun were major producers during this period, while the Wong brothers were among the more prominent directors. During the mid-1930s, production dropped as a result of the Great Depression, the release of Albert Balinks commercially and critically successful Terang Boelan in 1937 led to renewed interest in filmmaking, and 1941 saw thirty locally produced films. The majority of films produced during the occupation were short propaganda pieces, generally films produced in the Indies dealt with traditional stories or were adapted from existing works. The early films were silent, with Karnadi Anemer Bangkong generally considered the first talkie, later films would be in Dutch, Malay, or an indigenous language. According to the Indonesian film scholar Misbach Yusa Biran, the released during this period could not be classified as truly Indonesian films as there was no sense of nationalism within them. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all films from before 1950 are lostList of films of the Dutch East Indies – Film poster for Loetoeng Kasaroeng, the first locally produced film released in the Dutch East Indies
182. List of frequent David Lynch collaborators – David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, television director, visual artist, musician, and occasional actor. Known for his surrealist films, he has developed his own cinematic style, known as Lynchian. The surreal and, in cases, violent elements to his films have been said to disturb. The most prolific of Lynchs frequently used actors was Jack Nance, who first worked with Lynch on 1977s Eraserhead, the following lists include all of the cast and crew members with whom Lynch has worked on three or more separate projects. Lynchs partnership with actress Laura Dern spans three feature films, and was included on a list of 40 Great Actor & Director Partnerships by the film magazine Empire. However, the campaign was unsuccessful, with Dern not receiving a nomination for the award, Lynch has also worked with actor Kyle MacLachlan on several projects, MacLachlan has been described as an on-screen incarnation of Lynchs own persona. The pairs working relationship has also compared to that between director François Truffaut and actor Jean-Pierre Léaud. MacLachlan has commented that he felt unstoppable working with Lynch on Twin Peaks due to the strength of their prior collaborations, actress Sheryl Lee was first cast as the deceased character Laura Palmer in Twin Peaks. Wild at Heart featured several other Twin Peaks alumni, including Grace Zabriskie, Lynch has worked with Angelo Badalamenti on a large number of projects, having first collaborated with the composer on Blue Velvet in 1986. Lynch and Badalamenti also worked to write and produce two albums for singer Julee Cruise, penning music for 1989s Floating into the Night. Cruise also joined the pair in crafting the music for Blue Velvet, Twin Peaks and Industrial Symphony No.1. Casting director Johanna Ray has worked with Lynch on multiple projects, beginning with Blue Velvet and continuing through the majority of Lynchs feature films, rays son Eric Da Re was also involved in Twin Peaks, as an actor. Lynch also worked with sound designer Alan Splet several times until the dea