1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
3. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest. The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, politically, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is also in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and AntiguaCaribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
4. Indian Ocean – The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the worlds oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, the Indian Ocean is known as Ratnākara, the mine of gems in ancient Sanskrit literature, and as Hind Mahāsāgar, in Hindi. The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north in the Persian Gulf, the oceans continental shelves are narrow, averaging 200 kilometres in width. An exception is found off Australias western coast, where the width exceeds 1,000 kilometres. The average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m and its deepest point is Diamantina Deep in Diamantina Trench, at 8,047 m deep, Sunda Trench has a depth of 7, 258–7,725 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the basin is covered by pelagic sediments. The remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments, glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes. The major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca, the Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, which is accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere is in this ocean, marginal seas, gulfs, bays and straits of the Indian Ocean include, The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April, from May until October south, in the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder. When the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, and about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, and changes in the frequency, among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi, Shatt al-Arab, Indus, Godavari, Krishna, Narmada, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Jubba and Irrawaddy River. The oceans currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, during the winter monsoon, however, currents in the north are reversed. Deep water circulation is controlled primarily by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, north of 20° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C, exceeding 28 °C to the east. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures drop quickly, surface water salinity ranges from 32 to 37 parts per 1000, the highest occurring in the Arabian Sea and in a belt between southern Africa and south-western AustraliaIndian Ocean – The economically important Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue) were blocked by the Ottoman Empire in ca. 1453 with the fall of the Byzantine Empire. This spurred exploration, and a new sea route around Africa was found, triggering the Age of Discovery.
5. Pacific Ocean – The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan, trade, and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions also discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nationsPacific Ocean – Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507).
6. Paris – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a townParis – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
7. Marseille – Marseille, also known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France. Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia, Marseille was the most important trading centre in the region, Marseille is now Frances largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture, together with Košice, Slovakia and it hosted the European Football Championship in 2016, and will be the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to campuses of Aix-Marseille University and part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France. Marseille is the second largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third largest metropolitan area in France after Paris, further east still are the Sainte-Baume, the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the artists colony of lEstaque, further west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion. The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre, the citys main thoroughfare stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Further out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château dIf, the main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the fountain of Place Castellane. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, the railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement, it is linked by the Boulevard dAthènes to the Canebière. Marseille has a Mediterranean climate with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, december, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C during the day and 4 °C at night. Marseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in France is around 1,950 hours, less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent, over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall, Massalia, whose name was probably adapted from an existing language related to Ligurian, was the first Greek settlement in France. It was established within modern Marseille around 600 BC by colonists coming from Phocaea on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. The connection between Massalia and the Phoceans is mentioned in Thucydidess Peloponnesian War, he notes that the Phocaean project was opposed by the Carthaginians, the founding of Massalia has also been recorded as a legend. Protis was invited inland to a banquet held by the chief of the local Ligurian tribe for suitors seeking the hand of his daughter Gyptis in marriage, at the end of the banquet, Gyptis presented the ceremonial cup of wine to Protis, indicating her unequivocal choiceMarseille – Clockwise from top: Notre-Dame de la Garde • Old Port • La Joliette with CMA CGM Tower • Calanque of Sugiton
8. Unitary state – The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states,165 of them are governed as unitary states, unitary states are contrasted with federal states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is an example of a unitary state. Many unitary states have no areas possessing a degree of autonomy, in such countries, sub-national regions cannot decide their own laws. Examples are the Republic of Ireland and the Kingdom of Norway, in federal states, the sub-national governments share powers with the central government as equal actors through a written constitution, to which the consent of both is required to make amendments. This means that the units have a right of existence. The United States of America is an example of a federal state, under the U. S. Constitution, powers are shared between the federal government and the statesUnitary state – Unitary states
9. Economy of France – France has the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal figures and the tenth largest economy by PPP figures. It has the third-largest economy in Europe with Germany in 1st, the OECD is headquartered in Paris, the nations financial capital. The chemical industry is a key sector for France, helping to develop other manufacturing activities, Frances tourism industry is a major component of the economy, as France is the most visited destination in the world. Sophia Antipolis is the technology hub for the economy of France. According to the IMF, in 2013, France was the worlds 20th country by GDP per capita with $44,099 per inhabitant, in 2013, France was listed on the United Nationss Human Development Index with 0.884 and 25th on the Corruption Perceptions Index. Frances economy entered the recession of the late 2000s later and appeared to leave it earlier than most affected economies, with 31 of the 500 biggest companies of the world in 2015, France ranks 4th in the Fortune Global 500, behind the USA, China and Japan. Several French corporations rank amongst the largest in their industries such as AXA in insurance, luxury and consumer good are particularly relevant, with LOreal being the worlds largest cosmetic company while LVMH and PPR are the worlds two largest luxury product companies. France embarked on an ambitious and very successful programme of modernization under state coordination, the 1981 election of president François Mitterrand saw a short-lived increase in governmental control of the economy, nationalising many industries and private banks. This form of increased dirigisme, was criticised as early as 1982, by 1983, the government decided to renounce dirigisme and start an era of rigueur or corporatization. As a result, the government largely retreated from economic intervention, dirigisme has now essentially receded, the French economy grew and changed under government direction and planning much more than in other European countries. Labour conditions and wages are highly regulated, the government continues to own shares in corporations in a range of sectors, including banking, energy production and distribution, automobiles, transportation, and telecommunications. These differ from such as the US or UK where most of these companies have been privatized. In April and May 2012, France held an election in which the winner François Hollande had opposed austerity measures. French government bond interest rates fell 30% to record lows, less than 50 basis points above German government bond rates, the French government has run a budget deficit each year since the early 1970s. In mid-2012, French government debt levels reached €1,833 billion and this debt level was the equivalent of 91% of French GDP. In 2012 France was downgraded by ratings agencies Moodys, Standard&Poors, in December 2014 Frances credit rating was further downgraded by Fitch to the AA credit rating. Research and development spending is high in France at 2. 26% of GDP. Nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities, due to its heavy investment in nuclear power, France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialized countries in the worldEconomy of France – La Défense is a major business district in Europe
10. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict, at its founding, the UN had 51 member states, there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, the UNs mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in actions in Korea and the Congo. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military, the UN has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Trusteeship Council. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, the UNs most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UNs work, the organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UNs effectiveness have been mixed, some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France, four Policemen was coined to refer to four major Allied countries, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, which emerged in the Declaration by United Nations. Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries, the term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto, the foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. During the war, the United Nations became the term for the Allies. To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis, at the later meetings, Lord Halifax deputized for Mr. Eden, Wellington Koo for T. V. Soong, and Mr Gromyko for Mr. Molotov. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, and the facility was completed in 1952. Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi—is designated as international territory, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-GeneralUnited Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.
11. G7 – The Group of 7 is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The European Union is also represented within the G7 and these countries are the seven major advanced economies as reported by the International Monetary Fund, the G7 countries represent more than 64% of the net global wealth. A very high net national wealth and a very high Human Development Index are the requirements to be a member of this group. The G7 countries also represent 46% of the global GDP evaluated at market exchange rates, the 42nd G7 summit was held in Japan in May 2016. Other recent G7 meetings include that of May 2013 in Aylesbury, United Kingdom with a meeting in The Hague. The G7s precursor was the Group of Six, the intent was to discuss current world issues in a frank and informal manner. The G6 followed an unofficial gathering starting in 1974 of senior officials from the United States. They were called the Library group or the Group of Five because they met informally in the White House Library in Washington, the Library Group were the top five of the worlds then leading economies as ranked by per capita GDP. Canada became the member to begin attending the summits in 1976. Following 1994s G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held meetings with leaders of the G7 after the groups summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 – or, colloquially and it was seen as a way to encourage Yeltsins capitalist reforms. After the 1997 meeting Russia was formally invited to the meeting and formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in a new governmental political forum. However Russia was ejected from the group in 2014 following the Russian annexation of Crimea and its goal was fine tuning of short term economic policies among participant countries to monitor developments in the world economy and assess economic policies. Since 1975, the group meets annually on summit site to discuss economic policies, since 1987, in 1996, the G7 launched an initiative for the 42 heavily indebted poor countries. In 1999 the G7 announced their plan to cancel 90% of bilateral, in 2005 the G7 announced, debt reductions of up to 100% to be negotiated on a case by case basis. In 2008 the G7 met twice in Washington, D. C. to discuss the financial crisis of 2007-2010. The group of finance ministers pledged to take all steps to stem the crisis. On March 2,2014, the G7 condemned the Russian Federations violation of the sovereignty and this was the first G7 meeting neither taking place in a member nation nor having the host leader participating in the meetingG7 – Summit site of the 2015 G7 summit: Schloss Elmau in the Bavarian Alps, Germany
12. G8 – The G8 is an inter-governmental political forum of the world′s major highly industrialized economies in countries that view themselves as democracies. The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven, or G7, Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended following the annexation of Crimea, however, the European Union is represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a nonenumerated participant, but originally could not host or chair summits. The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was able to host, collectively, in 2012 the G8 nations comprised 50.1 percent of 2012 global nominal GDP and 40.9 percent of global GDP. G7 can refer to the states in aggregate or to the annual summit meeting of the G7 heads of government. The former term, G6, is now applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union. G7 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7 finance ministers, G7 foreign ministers, or G7 environment ministers. Each calendar year the responsibility of hosting the G8 is rotated through the states in the following order, France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy. The holder of the sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year. Nevertheless, the G7/G8 retains its relevance as a group for the West. The concept of a forum for the major industrialized countries emerged prior to the 1973 oil crisis. When running the idea past President Nixon, he noted that he would be out of town and offered use of the White House, taking their name from the setting, this original group of four became known as the Library Group. In mid-1973, at the World Bank-IMF meetings, Shultz proposed the addition of Japan to the four nations. The informal gathering of senior officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan. Presidents, moreover, Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau was forced into an early election, of the members of the Group of Five, all were new to the job with the exception of Pierre Trudeau. S. President Gerald Ford could get together in a retreat and discuss election results. Until the 1985 Plaza Accord no one outside a tight official circle knew when the seven finance ministers met, the summit was announced the day before and a communiqué was issued afterwards. Following 1994s G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held meetings with leaders of the G7 after the groups summitsG8 – At the 34th G8 Summit at Toyako, Hokkaido, formal photo during Tanabata matsuri event for world leaders— Silvio Berlusconi (Italy), Dmitry Medvedev (Russia), Angela Merkel (Germany), Gordon Brown (UK), Yasuo Fukuda (Japan), George W. Bush (U.S.), Stephen Harper (Canada), Nicolas Sarkozy (France), José Manuel Barroso (EU)—July 7, 2008.
13. NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense, military and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was later clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achievedNATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
14. Latin Union – It was created in 1954 in Madrid, Spain, and existed as a functional institution from 1983 to 2012. Its membership rose from 12 to 36 states, including countries in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, french, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish are used as working languages. All the texts of general diffusion are translated into four languages. The Union is composed of three bodies, namely, the Congress, the Executive Council, and the General Secretariat. The Congress, which consists of the representatives of all the Member States, a President and two Vice-Presidents are also elected by the Congress. As of December 2010, Oleg Serebrian from the Republic of Moldova is the current President, there are also two auxiliary bodies of the Congress, namely, the Commission of Adhesions and the Commission of Candidacies. The Commission of Adhesions is composed of 10 Member States and responsible for promoting the adhesions of all the Member States of the Union. The Commission of Candidacies is composed of 9 Member States and responsible for examining the validity of the candidacies, the Executive Council is the executive branch of the Union. It consists of 12 Member States, which are elected by the Congress every four years, since December 2010 Andorra, Brazil, Ecuador, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Uruguay, and Venezuela are the members of the council. The Secretary is in charge of the execution of the programmes and implements the decisions made by the Congress, jose Luis Dicenta Ballester is currently the Secretary-General of the Union. For some activities, the Union may collaborate with other public or private institutionsLatin Union
15. United Nations Security Council – The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of an international organization. The Security Council consists of fifteen members, the great powers that were the victors of World War II—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, Republic of China, and the United States—serve as the bodys five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General, the Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The bodys presidency rotates monthly among its members, Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016,103,510 peacekeeping soldiers and 16,471 civilians are deployed on 16 peacekeeping operations and 1 special political mission. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. The term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. The most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the rights of permanent members. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conferences failure, the UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17 January 1946, the Security Council met for the first time at Church House, Westminster, in London, United Kingdom. The Security Council was largely paralysed in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and USSR and their allies, and the Council generally was only able to intervene in unrelated conflicts. Cold War divisions also paralysed the Security Councils Military Staff Committee, the committee continued to exist on paper but largely abandoned its work in the mid-1950s. By the 1970s, the UN budget for social and economic development was far greater than its budget for peacekeeping. After the Cold War, the UN saw an expansion in its peacekeeping duties. Between 1988 and 2000, the number of adopted Security Council resolutions more than doubled, undersecretary-General Brian Urquhart later described the hopes raised by these successes as a false renaissance for the organization, given the more troubled missions that followed. In 1994, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda failed to intervene in the Rwandan Genocide in the face of Security Council indecision, in the late 1990s, UN-authorised international interventions took a wider variety of formsUnited Nations Security Council – UN Security Council Chamber in New York City
16. List of countries with nuclear weapons – There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be nuclear-weapon states under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, in order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are, the United States, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, France, and China. Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, three states that were not parties to the Treaty have conducted tests, namely India, Pakistan. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003, Israel is also widely known to have nuclear weapons, though it maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity regarding this, and is not known definitively to have conducted a nuclear test. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institutes SIPRI Yearbook of 2014, according to Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Nuclear Notebook 2014, the total number of nuclear weapons worldwide is estimated at 10,144. South Africa developed nuclear weapons but then disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT, nations that are known or thought to have nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to informally as the nuclear club. This list is known in global politics as the Nuclear Club. With the exception of Russia and the United States these figures are estimates, in particular, under the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty thousands of Russian and U. S. nuclear warheads are inactive in stockpiles awaiting processing. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors, from a high of 68,000 active weapons in 1985, as of 2016 there are some 4,000 active nuclear warheads and 10,100 total nuclear warheads in the world. Many of the weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled. These five states are also the UN Security Councils permanent members with veto power. It tested the first nuclear weapon on July 16,1945 at 5,30 am and it was the first nation to develop the hydrogen bomb, testing an experimental prototype in 1952 and a deployable weapon in 1954. Throughout the Cold War it continued to modernize and enlarge its nuclear arsenal, the U. S. nuclear arsenal contained 31,175 warheads at its Cold War height. During the Cold War, the United States built approximately 70,000 nuclear warheads, the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon in 1949, in a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during and after World War II. The Soviet Union was the nation to have developed and tested a nuclear weapon. The direct motivation for Soviet weapons development was to achieve a balance of power during the Cold War and it tested its first megaton-range hydrogen bomb in 1955. The Soviet Union also tested the most powerful explosive ever detonated by humans, with a yield of 100 megatons. After its dissolution in 1991, the Soviet weapons entered officially into the possession of the Russian Federation, the Soviet nuclear arsenal contained some 45,000 warheads at its peak, the Soviet Union built about 55,000 nuclear warheads since 1949List of countries with nuclear weapons – An early stage in the " Trinity " fireball, the first nuclear explosion, 1945
17. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages, French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues doïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to Frances past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, a French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is a language in 29 countries, most of which are members of la francophonie. As of 2015, 40% of the population is in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas. French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union, 1/5 of Europeans who do not have French as a mother tongue speak French as a second language. As a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 17th and 18th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas, Africa, most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 77 to 110 million native speakers, approximately 274 million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates 700 million by 2050, in 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Under the Constitution of France, French has been the language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases, French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. French is the language of about 23% of the Swiss population. French is also a language of Luxembourg, Monaco, and Aosta Valley, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands. A plurality of the worlds French-speaking population lives in Africa and this number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050, French is the fastest growing language on the continent. French is mostly a language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Libreville. There is not a single African French, but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages, sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growthFrench language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
18. Languages of France – The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages. The French language is the official language of France according to the second article of the French Constitution. Several regional languages are spoken to varying degrees as a secondary language after French, such as German dialects, Celtic languages. Some of these languages have also spoken in neighbouring countries, such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland. The official language of the French Republic is French and the French government is, by law, the government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising be available in French, see Toubon Law. The French government, however, does not mandate the use of French by private individuals or corporations or in any other media, a revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July 2008. 24 of those languages are indigenous to the European territory of the state all the others are from overseas areas of the French Republic. The category of languages of France is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go so far as to any official status. Following his election as President, François Hollande reasserted in 2012 his campaign platform to ratify the European Charter, the regional languages of France are sometimes called patois, but this term is often considered derogatory. The topic of the teaching of languages in public primary and secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages. Opponents contend that local languages are often non-standardised, of practical usefulness. The topic also leads to wider questions of autonomy of the régions. Regarding other languages, English, Spanish, Italian and German are the most commonly studied languages in French schools. Some of the languages of France are also languages, some of which enjoy a recognised or official status in the respective neighbouring state or territory. French itself is also a language, being spoken in neighbouring Andorra, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco. A large number of immigrant languages are spoken in France, with a handful having a significant number of home speakers, berber the language of North Africans is one of the most spoken languages in France, about 2,200,000 speakers. Maghrebi Arabic, is the most common language in French homesLanguages of France – Regional languages and their dialects in Metropolitan France
19. La Francophonie – The organization comprises 57 member states and governments, three associate members and twenty observers. French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Élisée Reclus, coined the word Francophonie in 1880 to refer to the community of people and countries using the French language. Francophonie was then coined a second time by Léopold Sédar Senghor, founder of the Négritude movement, in the review Esprit in 1962, the modern organisation was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, solidarité, an allusion to Frances motto liberté, égalité, fraternité. Finally in 2005, the adoption of a new Charter of the Francophonie gives the name to the Agency of international Organization of the Francophonie, the position of Secretary-General was created in 1997 at the seventh leaders summit held in Hanoi. Abdou Diouf, the president of the Republic of Senegal. At the 2014 summit in Dakar, former Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean was chosen to lead the organization starting in January 2015, the Secretary General of the Francophonie is elected during the Summit. He/she is the keystone of the device and of the Francophonie. He/she is the spokesperson and the official representative internationally of the actions of the Francophonie. The Secretary General is responsible for proposing priority areas for multilateral Francophonie actions, his/her job is to facilitate Francophone multilateral cooperation and to ensure that programs and activities of all operating agencies work in harmony. The Secretary General carries out his/her four-year mandate under the authority of the three institutions of the Francophonie, the Summits, the Ministerial Conference and the Permanent Council. It is chaired by the Head of state and government of the host country, armenia is to play host to the next summit in 2018 and Tunisia is to host in 2020. The Ministerial Conference of the Francophonie gathers the foreign or francophone affairs ministers of member states and this conference ensures that the decisions made during the previous Summits are carried out and to plan the next Summit. It also recommends new members and observers to the Summit and this conference also supervises the execution of the Summit decisions made by the ministerial conferences on a day-to-day basis, about the examination of the propositions of the budget distribution. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Francophonie is constituted by member sections representing 77 parliaments or interparliamentary organizations, the Secretary General is the French senator Jacques Legendre. The Agency of the Francophonie is the operator of the cultural, scientific, technical, economic. It is also the seat of the Secretary General and is used by him as an administrative support. For this reason, it is a place of exchange and dialogue, the Agencys headquarters are in Paris and it has three regional branches in Libreville, Gabon, Lomé, Togo, and Hanoi, VietnamLa Francophonie – Flags of the Francophonie members.
20. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language, over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Romans and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire, in the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VIs attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its holder, Edward III of England. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine. The war ended with a Valois victory in 1453, victory in the Hundred Years War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into an absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, Henry, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century, French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, The Sun King, builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, the Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, and coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established, France slowly recovered economically, and enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its very low fertility rate. Long wars in Indochina and Algeria drained French resources and ended in political defeat, in the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments, since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO. It played a role in the unification process after 1945 that led to the European UnionHistory of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
21. French people – The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area then became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would later develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France. With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the processFrench people – Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"
22. Libretto – A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro, sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources. In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, Libretti for operas, oratorios and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries generally were written by someone other than the composer, often a well-known poet. Metastasio was one of the most highly regarded librettists in Europe and his libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted 18th-century librettist was Lorenzo Da Ponte, who wrote the libretti for three of Mozarts greatest operas, as well as for other composers. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Auber, Bellini, Donizetti, Rossini and Verdi. The French writers duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli, the libretto is not always written before the music. Some composers wrote their own libretti, Richard Wagner is perhaps most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, too, wrote the libretti for two of his works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchners play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck, sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer, this can involve adaptation, as was the case with Rimsky-Korsakov and his librettist Belsky, or an entirely original work. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics, thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the book. In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements - music, lyrics and libretto, Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen. A famous case of the latter is Wagners 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris, since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. The libretto of a musical, on the hand, is almost always written in proseLibretto – Cover of a 1921 libretto for Giordano's Andrea Chénier
23. Prix de Rome – The Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state, the prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, and engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, the Minister of Culture, the Prix de Rome was initially created for painters and sculptors in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by completing a very difficult elimination contest, the prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, was open to their students. From 1666, the winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720, the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture, six painters, four sculptors, and two architects would be sent to the French Academy in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666. Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories, painting and sculpture, in 1803, music was added, and after 1804 there was a prix for engraving as well. The primary winner took the First Grand Prize and the Second Prizes were awarded to the runners-up, in 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, in this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance. Jacques-Louis David, having failed to win the three years in a row, considered suicide. Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Ernest Chausson and Maurice Ravel attempted the Prix de Rome, but did not gain recognition. Ravel tried a total of five times to win the prize, during World War II the prize winners were accommodated in the Villa Paradiso in Nice. The Prix de Rome was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, since then, a number of contests have been created, and the academies, together with the Institut de France, were merged by the State and the Minister of Culture. Selected residents now have an opportunity for study during an 18-month stay at The Academy of France in Rome, the heyday of the Prix de Rome was during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The Prix de Rome for Architecture was created in 1720, the engraving prize was created in 1804. A Prix de Rome was also established in the Kingdom of Holland by Lodewijk Napoleon to award young artists and architects, during the years 1807–1810 prize winners were sent to Paris and onwards to Rome for study. Suspended in 1851 it was reinstated in 1870 by William III of the Netherlands, since then the winners have been selected by the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the main headings of architecture and the visual arts. The Belgian Prix de Rome is an award for artists, created in 1832Prix de Rome – Palazzo Mancini, Rome, the seat of the Académie since 1725. Etching by Giovanni Battista Piranesi, 1752.
24. Hector Berlioz – Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts. Berlioz made significant contributions to the orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and he also composed around 50 songs. His influence was critical for the development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss. Hector Berlioz was born in France at La Côte-Saint-André in the département of Isère, Louis was an agnostic, with a liberal outlook, his mother, Marie-Antoinette, was a devout Roman Catholic. He had five siblings in all, three of whom did not survive to adulthood, the other two, Nanci and Adèle, remained close to Berlioz throughout his life. Berlioz was not a prodigy, unlike some other famous composers of the time, he began studying music at age 12, writing small compositions. As a result of his fathers discouragement, he never learned to play the piano and he became proficient at guitar, flageolet and flute. He learned harmony from textbooks alone—he was not formally trained, the majority of his early compositions were romances and chamber pieces. While yet at age twelve, as recalled in his Mémoires, he experienced his first passion for a woman and he also began to visit the Paris Conservatoire library, seeking out scores of Glucks operas and making personal copies of parts of them. He recalled in his Mémoires his first encounter with Luigi Cherubini, Cherubini attempted to throw the impetuous Berlioz out of the library since he was not a formal music student at that time. Berlioz also heard two operas by Gaspare Spontini, a composer who influenced him through their friendship, and whom he later championed when working as a critic, from then on, he devoted himself to composition. He was encouraged in his endeavors by Jean-François Le Sueur, director of the Royal Chapel, in 1823, he wrote his first article—a letter to the journal Le corsaire defending Spontinis La vestale. Despite his parents disapproval, in 1824 he formally abandoned his studies to pursue a career in music. This work was rehearsed and revised after the rehearsal but not performed until the following year, Berlioz later claimed to have burnt the score, but it was re-discovered in 1991. Later that year or in 1825, he began to compose the opera Les francs-juges, the work survives only in fragments, the overture has been much recorded and is sometimes played in concert. In 1826 he began attending the Conservatoire to study composition under Jean-François Le Sueur and he also submitted a fugue to the Prix de Rome, but was eliminated in the primary round. Winning the prize would become an obsession until he won it in 1830Hector Berlioz – Crop of a carte de visite photo of Hector Berlioz by Franck, Paris, c. 1855
25. Alain Prost – Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion dhonneur is a French former racing driver. A four-time Formula One Drivers Champion, only Sebastian Vettel, Juan Manuel Fangio, from 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories. Schumacher surpassed Prosts total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix, in 1999, Prost received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor sport category. Prost discovered karting at the age of 14 during a family holiday and he progressed through motor sports junior ranks, winning the French and European Formula Three championships, before joining the McLaren Formula One team in 1980 at the age of 24. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Prost formed a fierce rivalry mainly with Ayrton Senna, but also Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell. In 1986, at the last race of the season, he beat Mansell and Piquet of Williams to the title after Mansell retired late on in the race, and Piquet was pulled in for a late precautionary pit stop. Senna joined Prost at McLaren in 1988 and the two had a series of clashes, including a collision at the 1989 Japanese Grand Prix that gave Prost his third Drivers Championship. A year later at the venue they collided again, but this time Prost, driving for Ferrari. Before the end of a winless 1991 season Prost was fired by Ferrari for his criticism of the team. After a sabbatical in 1992, Prost joined the Williams team, with a competitive car, Prost won the 1993 championship and retired from Formula One driving at the end of the year. In 1997, Prost took over the French Ligier team, running it as Prost Grand Prix until it went bankrupt in 2002. From 2003 to 2012 he competed in the Andros Trophy, which is an ice racing championship, taking 38 race victories, Prost employed a smooth, relaxed style behind the wheel, deliberately modeling himself on personal heroes like Jackie Stewart and Jim Clark. He was nicknamed The Professor for his approach to competition. Though it was not a name he particularly cared for, he would later that it was an appropriate summation of his approach to his racing. Skilled at setting up his car for race conditions, Prost would often conserve his brakes and tyres early in a race, Prost had one younger brother called Daniel, who died of cancer in September 1986. Although short, standing at 1.67 m Prost was an active, athletic child, in doing so he broke his nose several times. He considered careers as a gym instructor or a professional footballer before he discovered kart racing at the age of 14 while on a family holiday and this new sport quickly became his career of choice. They have two sons, Nicolas and Sacha Prost, Prost also has a daughter, VictoriaAlain Prost – Prost in 2012
26. Order of the British Empire – There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, occasionally, honorary appointees are, incorrectly, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor. The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal lettersOrder of the British Empire – Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
27. French People – The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area then became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would later develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France. With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the processFrench People – Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"
28. 2001 Belgian Grand Prix – The 2001 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 September 2001 at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. The race was the 14th race of the 2001 Formula One season, and he also eclipsed Prosts record for the most total career points, scoring 10 more points to bring his career total to 769, beating Prosts 768.5. Juan Pablo Montoya took pole position for the race, the second of his Formula One career, but an engine failure on lap two left Ferraris Michael Schumacher, who also took the fastest lap, to win the race by 10 seconds from the McLaren of David Coulthard. Giancarlo Fisichella completed the podium in third, the podium finish of the Benetton Team prior to their renaming to Renault F1. 1. ^ Both the Arrows and Minardi drivers set a time outside 107%, the first start was aborted when Heinz-Harald Frentzen stalled on the grid. At the start of the formation lap, pole-sitter Juan Pablo Montoya also stalled. As a result, both were relegated to the back of the grid for the second start, on lap four, Luciano Burti, while speeding through Blanchimont, made contact with Eddie Irvines rear wheel, causing his front wing to break off. He lost grip and speared straight into the barrier at over 180 mph. The resulting injuries caused him to miss the rest of the season, the race restarted over 36 laps, with the results of this part of the race counting as the overall results. Irvine did not take part in the restart, and nor did Kimi Räikkönen or Fernando Alonso, at the start of the third formation lap, Ralf Schumacher couldnt leave the grid, due to the pit jack being left on his car following a rear wing change. Jean Alesi was able to hold off Ralf Schumacher to score his first point for Jordan, Fisichella completed the entire race without changing his front tyres throughout the race, thereby saving time during pit-stops. Bold text indicates the World Champions, note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings2001 Belgian Grand Prix – 2001 Belgian Grand Prix
29. Kart racing – Kart racing or karting is a variant of open-wheel motorsport with small, open, four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts, or gearbox/shifter karts depending on the design. They are usually raced on scaled-down circuits, Karting is commonly perceived as the stepping stone to the higher ranks of motorsports. Karts vary widely in speed and some can reach speeds exceeding 260 kilometres per hour, American Art Ingels is generally accepted to be the father of karting. A veteran hot rodder and a car builder at Kurtis Kraft. Instantly popular, Karting rapidly spread to countries, and currently has a large following in Europe. The first kart manufacturer was an American company, Go Kart Manufacturing Co, in 1959, McCulloch was the first company to produce engines for karts. Its first engine, the McCulloch MC-10, was an adapted chainsaw two-stroke engine, later, in the 1960s, motorcycle engines were also adapted for kart use, before dedicated manufacturers, especially in Italy, started to build engines for the sport. The chassis are made of steel tubing, there is no suspension, therefore chassis have to be flexible enough to work as a suspension and stiff enough not to break or give way on a turn. Kart chassis are classified in the USA as Open, Caged, all Commission Internationale de Karting - Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile or CIK-FIA approved chassis are Straight and Open. Open karts have no roll cage, Caged karts have a roll cage surrounding the driver, they are mostly used on dirt tracks. In Straight chassis the driver sits in the center, Straight chassis are used for sprint racing. In Offset chassis the driver sits on the left side, Offset chassis are used for left-turn-only speedway racing. The stiffness of the chassis enables different handling characteristics for different circumstances, typically, for dry conditions a stiffer chassis is preferable, while in wet or other poor traction conditions, a more flexible chassis may work better. The best chassis allow for stiffening bars at the rear, front, braking is achieved by a disc brake mounted on the rear axle. Front disc brakes are used in most shifter kart classes and are popular in other classes, however. Shifter karts have dual master cylinders, one for the front, professionally raced karts typically weigh 165 to 175 lb, complete without driver. Avanti, Tony Kart, Trulli, Birel, CRG, Gillard, Intrepid, Kosmic, Zanardi or FA Kart, emmick, Coyote, Bandit, Shadow, MGM, Titan, PRC and Margay are American companies producing kart chassis. Amusement park go-karts can be powered by 4-stroke engines or electric motors and they are adequate for racing and fun kart applicationsKart racing – Rotax World Final kart racing
30. McLaren – McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has competed in and won the Indianapolis 500. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari and they are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 182 races,12 drivers championships and eight constructors championships. The team is an owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972, the combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but later their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, however, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing the role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. At the end of 2013, after the teams worst season since 2004, McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 world championship. In 1964 and 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, then Feltham, during this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and also entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it. He continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that teams form to be waning, Bruce made the teams Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race. His race ended after nine laps due to an oil leak. Neither car brought great success, the best result being a fourth at Monaco, for 1968, after driving McLarens sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, who was already racing for McLaren in Can-Am. That years new M7A car, Herds final design for the team, was powered by Cosworths new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine, Hulme also won the Italian and Canadian Grands Prix later in the year, helping the team to second in the constructors championship. The year 1970 started with a place each for Hulme. After his death, Teddy Mayer took over control of the team, Hulme continued with Dan Gurney. Gurney won the first two Can-Am events at Mosport and St. Jovite and placed ninth in the third, but left the team mid-season, and Gethin took over from thereMcLaren – The McLaren Racing team's founder Bruce McLaren
31. 1980 Argentine Grand Prix – The 1980 Argentine Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 January 1980 at the Autodromo Municipal Ciudad de Buenos Aires in Argentina. It was the round of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the 16th Argentine Grand Prix and it was the sixth to be held on the #15 variation of this racing facility in Buenos Aires. The race was held over 53 laps of the 5. 81-kilometre circuit for a race distance of 308 kilometres. The race was won by Australian driver Alan Jones driving a Williams FW07 and it was Jones sixth World Championship victory. Jones won by 24 seconds over Brazilian driver Nelson Piquet driving a Brabham BT49 and it was a prelude of the season to come as Jones, the rising star of 1979 and Piquet, the emerging talent of the newly competitive Brabham team, would fight out the 1980 season. Another future world champion, Finnish driver Keke Rosberg finished third driving a Fittipaldi F7 and it was Fittipaldi Automotives best result since Emerson Fittipaldi finished second at the 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix. Keke Rosberg scored his first ever podium, and future four-time World Champion Alain Prost joined a group when he scored a point on his Formula 1 début. Alan Jones Jacques Laffite Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings1980 Argentine Grand Prix – 1980 Argentine Grand Prix
32. Renault F1 – Renault are currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault Sport Formula One Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977, in 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams, although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986, then again from 1989 to 1997, Renault returned to Formula One in 2000 when it acquired the Enstone-based Benetton Formula team. In 2002 Renault re-branded the team as Renault F1 Team and started to use Renault as their constructor name, for the 2011 Formula One season the team competed under the name Lotus Renault GP but retained the Renault constructor name. In 2012, the changed their constructor name to Lotus and operated as Lotus F1 Team until the end of 2015. Renault has also supplied engines to teams, including Red Bull Racing, Benetton Formula. In addition to its two own F1 World Constructors Championships and two Drivers Championships, as a supplier, Renault has contributed to nine other World Drivers Championships. It has collected over 160 wins as engine supplier, ranking third in Formula One history, Renaults first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car, the Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V61.5 L turbocharged engine, the first regularly used turbo engine in Formula One history. The first race the team, under the name Equipe Renault Elf, entered was the 1977 French Grand Prix, the round of the season. The teams début was delayed until the round, the British Grand Prix. The cars first qualifying session was not a success, and Jabouille qualified 21st out of the 30 runners and 26 starters,1.62 seconds behind pole sitter James Hunt in the McLaren. Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the turbo failed on lap 17. The team missed the German and Austrian Grands Prix as the car was being improved after its British disappointment and they returned for the Dutch Grand Prix, and the qualifying performance was much improved as Jabouille qualified tenth. He had a start, but ran as high as sixth before the suspension failed on lap 40. The teams poor qualifying form returned in Italy, as Jabouille qualified 20th and he ran outside the top 10 until his engine failed on lap 24, continuing their awful run of reliability. After this, Renault did not travel to the finale in JapanRenault F1 – Renault 1.5 litre turbo engine
33. Nelson Piquet – Nelson Piquet Souto Maior, known as Nelson Piquet, is a Brazilian former racing driver and businessman. Since his retirement, Piquet has been ranked among the greatest Formula One drivers in various motorsport polls, Piquet had a brief career in tennis before losing interest in the sport and subsequently took up karting and hid his identity to prevent his father discovering his hobby. He became the Brazilian national karting champion in 1971-72 and won the Formula Vee championship in 1976, with advice from Emerson Fittipaldi, Piquet went to Europe to further success by taking the record number of wins in Formula Three in 1978, defeating Jackie Stewarts all-time record. In the same year, he made his Formula One debut with the Ensign team and drove for McLaren, in 1979, Piquet moved to the Brabham team and finished the runner-up in 1980 before winning the championship in 1981. Piquets poor performances in 1982 saw a resurgence for 1983 and his world championship. For 1984–85, Piquet had once again lost chances to win the championship and he moved to the Williams team in 1986 and was a title contender until the final round in Australia. Piquet took his third and final championship in 1987 during a battle with team-mate Nigel Mansell which left the pairs relationship sour. Piquet subsequently moved to Lotus for 1988–89 where he experienced his third drop in form and he eventually went to the Benetton team for 1990-91 where he managed to win three races before retiring. After retiring from Formula One, Piquet tried his hand at the Indianapolis 500 for two years and he also tried his hand at sports car racing during and after his Formula One career. Piquet is currently retired and runs several businesses in Brazil and manages his sons Nelson Piquet Jr. Piquet was born in Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, the son of Estácio Gonçalves Souto Maior, a Brazilian physician. His father moved his family to the new capital, Brasília, in 1960, Piquet had two brothers, Alexis, and Geraldo, and a sister Genusa. Piquet was the youngest of the children, Piquet started kart racing at the age of 14, but because his father did not approve of his racing career, he used his mothers maiden name Piquet misspelt as Piket to hide his identity. His father wanted Piquet to be a tennis player and was given a scholarship at a school in Atlanta. Piquet started playing tennis at the age of 11 and he won tournaments in Brazil and eventually took a trip to California to test his skill against tougher American players. During his time, he had learned to speak English and greatly matured and his short tennis career saw Piquet to be prized as a good player, but not thought sufficiently exciting for the sport to devote his career to motor racing. Piquet dropped out of a University two years into a course in 1974. In the 1978 British Formula 3 season he broke Jackie Stewarts record of the most wins in a season, Piquet made his Formula One debut for Ensign in Germany, starting 21st only to retire on lap 31 with a broken engine. After the race, Piquet signed a deal with the McLaren of BS Fabrications to race in the three races, where he left good impressionsNelson Piquet – Piquet in 2013
34. Nigel Mansell – Nigel Ernest James Mansell, CBE is a British former racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship and the CART Indy Car World Series. His career in Formula One spanned 15 seasons, with his two full seasons of top-level racing being spent in the CART series. He held the record for the most number of set in a single season. He was rated in the top 10 Formula One drivers of all time by longtime Formula One commentator Murray Walker, in 2008, ESPN. com ranked him 24th on their Top 25 Drivers of All Time list. He was also ranked No.9 of the 50 greatest F1 drivers of all time by the Times Online on a list that included such drivers as Prost, Senna, Jackie Stewart. Mansell raced in the Grand Prix Masters series in 2005, and he later signed a one-off race deal for the Scuderia Ecosse GT race team to drive their number 63 Ferrari F430 GT2 car at Silverstone on 6 May 2007. He has since competed in sports car races with his sons Leo and Greg. Mansell was inducted to the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 2005 and he is the current president of one of the UKs largest Youth Work Charities, UK Youth. He is also President of the IAM, in September 2014, it was announced that Mansell would be opening a Mitsubishi franchise on Jersey later in the month. Defeated Erik Spaulding in semi-final 2017 Belleair Club Championship, Nigel Ernest James Mansell was born on 8 August 1953 in Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire, the son of Eric, an engineer and Joyce Mansell. Mansell spent 11 years of his life as a Special Constable on the Isle of Man during his driving career, during this period, he also developed a golf course in Devon. He had a slow start to his racing career, using his own money to help work his way up the ranks. After considerable success in racing, he moved to the Formula Ford series to the disapproval of his father. In 1976, Mansell won six of the nine races he took part in and he entered 42 races the following year and won 33 to become the 1977 British Formula Ford champion, despite suffering a broken neck in a qualifying session at Brands Hatch. Doctors told him he had been close to quadriplegia, that he would be confined for six months. Mansell discharged himself from the hospital and returned to racing, Three weeks before the accident he had resigned from his job as an aerospace engineer, having previously sold most of his personal belongings to finance his foray into Formula Ford. Later that year he was given the chance to race a Lola T570 Formula 3 car at Silverstone and he finished fourth and decided that he was ready to move into the higher formula. Mansell raced in Formula Three in 1978–1980, Mansells first season in Formula Three started with a pole position and a second-place finishNigel Mansell – Mansell at the 2007 British Grand Prix.
35. 1986 Australian Grand Prix – The 1986 Australian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 26 October 1986 at the Adelaide Street Circuit, Adelaide, Australia. It was the last of 16 races in the 1986 Formula One season, the drivers in contention for the title were, Nigel Mansell, Nelson Piquet, both of whom were racing for the Williams-Honda team, and McLarens Alain Prost. Mansell took pole position for the race, but a start off the grid enabled team-mate Piquet, Ayrton Senna and Keke Rosberg to overtake him. A few laps into the race, Finlands Keke Rosberg, in his final Grand Prix, One lap later, Mansells race ended as his left-rear tyre exploded on the main straight with 19 laps remaining. The title was then between Piquet and Prost with the Frenchman needing to finish ahead of the Brazilian to successfully defend his title, following the tyre failures of Rosberg and Mansell, the Williams team called Piquet in for a precautionary tyre change leaving him 15 seconds behind. He made a charge to close the gap to 4.2 seconds. It was not until the 2007 Brazilian Grand Prix that there were three possible drivers title contenders entering the final race of the season. Coming into the race, three drivers had a chance of winning the title, british driver Nigel Mansell was the leader, six points behind was defending champion Alain Prost, and one point behind Prost was Mansells teammate at Williams, Nelson Piquet. In fourth was Ayrton Senna, who was guaranteed to finish in that position regardless of what happened, Prost was aiming to become the first driver since Australias Jack Brabham in 1959 and 1960 to win back-to-back World Drivers Championships. The Williams-Honda cars of Mansell and Piquet were superior in speed to Prosts McLaren-TAG, however, Prosts consistency had seen him accumulate points all year, while the Williams pair battled with one another and their mind games eroded what would have been a dominant season for the team. To win the championship Mansell needed either third position or higher, for Prost or Piquet to win the championship, they would have to win the race, and see Mansell, who had won more races for the year, finish in fourth position or lower. Unlike the Drivers Championship, the Constructors Championship had already decided in Williams favour. Mansell took pole position for the race with a time of 1 minute 18.403 seconds and his teammate, Nelson Piquet, and Lotus Ayrton Senna were the only drivers within a second of Mansells time. The third title contender, Alain Prost, was on the row of the grid in fourth. The prospect of a three way battle for the Drivers Championship crown attracted a capacity crowd of 150,000 to the tight, but fast Adelaide circuit. Mansell started from pole position but yielded the lead to Ayrton Sennas Lotus at the corner on lap 1. On lap 23 Piquet spun, although no damage was sustained to the car, Prost suffered a puncture a few laps later and he dropped to fourth position after having to pit. The battle became one for the lead on lap 63 when Rosberg suffered a rear tyre failure1986 Australian Grand Prix – 1986 Australian Grand Prix
36. Williams F1 – Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded and is run by team owner Sir Frank Williams, the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations, Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf-Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called FW then a number, Williams first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the year, and Switzerlands Clay Regazzoni won Williams first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. Williams won nine Constructors Championships between 1980 and 1997 and this stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones, Rosberg, Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most successfully with Renault, Williams won five of their nine constructors titles with the French company. Williams F1 also has business interests beyond Formula One racing, in April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, despite the promise of a new owner in the form of Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team rebranded as Wolf-Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Eventually Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as Williams Grand Prix Engineering, Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the Williams-Head partnership. In February 2011, Williams F1 announced their intention to float via a public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Swiss-based Bank am Bellevue AG will act as sole global co-ordinator of up to 27. 39% of existing shares, Sir Frank Williams will remain majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO. The shares are valued at between 24 and 29 euros, which values the Williams F1 team at 265 million euros. In February 2017 the shares are divided in this way, Frank Williams 52, 25%, Brad Hollinger 14, 75%, Patrick Head 9%, 20% on the market place. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season, lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix. The new team failed to score a point, achieving a best finish of 7th at the Italian Grand Prix, for the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car, the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom PryceWilliams F1 – The Williams FW06 from 1978, being raced at Silverstone in 2007.
37. 1988 Formula One season – The 1988 Formula One season was the 42nd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1988 FIA Formula One World Championship which commenced on 3 April 1988, two titles were awarded, the Formula One World Championship for Drivers, won by Ayrton Senna, and the Formula One World Championship for Constructors, easily taken by McLaren-Honda. Alain Prost finished as runner up since he had to drop more scores than Senna with only the best 11 results eligible. Senna won eight races and Prost seven, with McLaren setting a record for a 16-race season for most races won, McLaren also scored a then-record 199 points, more than triple those of runner-up Ferrari, who scored a mere 65. Ferrari driver Gerhard Berger finished third in the drivers championship, Ferraris season was marred by the death of its founder Enzo Ferrari. The team did score an emotional 1-2 at its home race in Italy. The following drivers and constructors competed in the 1988 season, as they had a contract with Ford, Benetton had exclusive use of the Cosworth DFR engine. The DFR, a development of the customer DFZ engine used by teams in 1988, was reportedly the most powerful non-turbo engine. Of the teams running turbocharged engines, only McLaren and Lotus produced completely new cars for the season, Ferrari, Arrows, Zakspeed and Osella all fronted with updated versions of their 1987 cars and engines. Honda also went all out and produced the RA168E which was designed to cope with the new 2.5 bar turbo limit. This was hoped to give Honda teams an advantage as all other engines had been originally designed for previous years higher boost levels. The turbo powered cars were producing approximately 300 bhp less than in 1987 thanks to the FIAs controversial pop-off valves. The March team introduced a new designer to Formula One in 1988, one who would go on to produce many Grand Prix, adrian Newey designed the sleek looking and aerodynamically effective March 881 for the teams second season back in F1. Like Williams, March took a gamble on the new 600 bhp Judd V8 engine, looking for an advantage now that they couldnt rely on superior Honda turbo power, Williams added their reactive suspension system, introduced late in 1987, to the new Williams FW12. As Williams would find out, the power needed to run the suspension made the already underpowered Judd V8 sluggish compared to its rivals. There were three new teams on the grid this year – BMS Scuderia Italia, Rial and EuroBrun – while Coloni was embarking on its first full season after entering two races towards the end of 1987. Between them, these four teams entered five cars, thus increasing the number of participants at each race to 31, dallara were late in producing their first Formula One car, forcing the BMS team into using a modified Formula 3000 chassis in the first race in Brazil. Their new car, the F188, appeared in Round 2 in San Marino, while there were new teams on the grid in 1988, the Brabham team would not appear in a Grand Prix season for the first time since 19611988 Formula One season – Triple world champion Ayrton Senna won his first title in 1988.
38. 1991 Formula One season – The 1991 Formula One season was the 45th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1991 FIA Formula One World Championship, which commenced on 10 March 1991, Ayrton Senna won his third and last Drivers World Championship and McLaren-Honda won the Constructors Championship. Sennas main title challenger was Nigel Mansell at Williams, who won five races on his return to the team compared to Sennas seven. Sennas fierce rival Alain Prost failed to win a race with Ferrari in stark contrast to his title challenge the year before,1991 also saw the debuts of future world champions Michael Schumacher and Mika Häkkinen. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1991 FIA Formula One World Championship and he was partnered by Riccardo Patrese, retained from 1990. Ferrari kept Alain Prost as lead driver and replaced the departed Mansell with Jean Alesi, Benetton began the season with two experienced Brazilian drivers, Roberto Moreno and triple world champion Nelson Piquet. During the season, Moreno was controversially replaced by German rookie Michael Schumacher, former greats Lotus had had a torrid 1990 with a severe career-ending accident for Martin Donnelly, loss of title sponsorship from Camel and a management buyout. Originally, the team had appointed Donnelly as number one driver as Martin was hoped to come back racing by April 1991, Lotus also went back to using Judd V8 power in 1991 after a dismal 1990 using the fast but fragile Lamborghini V12 engine. Three teams that started the 1990 season would not make the start of the 1991 season, the Osella team was now Fondmetal, though driver Olivier Grouillard was retained along with the 1989 Osella car and most of the staff. The Arrows team was renamed Footwork after an investment by Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi, there were two entirely new entrants for the 1991 season, Jordan Grand Prix, a successful team in International Formula 3000. The other new team was the Modena Team and it originally began life in late 1990 as GLAS with Mexican investment. But, the Mexican investors pulled out before the season even began, Lamborghini stepped in and provided financial assistance to save the team and relocated the team to Modena, Italy and initiated the subsequent name-change. The team signed up drivers Nicola Larini and Eric van de Poele, although the team was a de facto factory effort by Lamborghini, Lamborghini entered the team under a separate name to avoid being associated with a struggling team. But this did not stop journalists and fans alike from referring to the team as Lambo though,1991 would in fact turn out to be the teams only season in the sport. At the start of the season, pre-qualifying was needed for five teams, both cars of the Jordan, Dallara and Modena teams and the entrants of the Fondmetal. A change to the system in 1991 saw the winning driver now awarded 10 points instead of 9 as previously. More significantly, points from all races would now count towards the championship, the season started off at the Phoenix street circuit that had a modified layout to make it more of a challenge to drivers. Senna took pole ahead of Prost, Patrese, Mansell, Piquet, at the start, Senna and Prost maintained their places while Mansell sliced ahead of Patrese and Piquet lost out to Alesi and Berger1991 Formula One season – Defending champion Ayrton Senna won a second consecutive title with McLaren.
39. Pont du Gard – The Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct that crosses the Gardon River near the town of Vers-Pont-du-Gard in southern France. The Pont du Gard is the highest of all elevated Roman aqueducts and it was added to UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites in 1985 because of its historical importance. The aqueduct bridge is part of the Nîmes aqueduct, a 50-kilometre system built in the first century AD to carry water from a spring at Uzès to the Roman colony of Nemausus. Because of the terrain between the two points, the mostly underground aqueduct followed a long, winding route that called for a bridge across the gorge of the Gardon River. The bridge has three tiers of arches, stands 48.8 m high, and descends a mere 2, the aqueduct formerly carried an estimated 200,000 m3 of water a day to the fountains, baths and homes of the citizens of Nîmes. After the Roman Empire collapsed and the fell into disuse. It attracted increasing attention starting in the 18th century, and became an important tourist destination, today it is one of Frances most popular tourist attractions, and has attracted the attention of a succession of literary and artistic visitors. The location of Nemausus was somewhat inconvenient when it came to providing a water supply, the only real alternative was to look to the north and in particular to the area around Ucetia, where there are natural springs. The Nîmes aqueduct was built to water from the springs of the Fontaine dEure near Uzès to the castellum divisorum in Nemausus. From there, it was distributed to fountains, baths and private homes around the city, the straight-line distance between the two is only about 20 km but the aqueduct takes a winding route measuring around 50 km. This was necessary to circumvent the southernmost foothills of the Massif Central and they are difficult to cross, as they are covered in dense vegetation and garrigue and indented by deep valleys. It was impractical for the Romans to attempt to tunnel through the hills, a roughly V-shaped course around the eastern end of the Garrigues de Nîmes was therefore the only practical way of transporting the water from the spring to the city. The aqueducts average gradient is only 1 in 3,000 and it varies widely along its course, but is as little as 1 in 20,000 in some sections. The Pont du Gard itself descends 2.5 cm in 456 m, the average gradient between the start and end of the aqueduct is far shallower than was usual for Roman aqueducts – only about a tenth of the average gradient of some of the aqueducts in Rome. This height limit governed the profile and gradients of the entire aqueduct, the gradient profile before the Pont du Gard is relatively steep, descending at 0.67 metres per kilometre, but thereafter it descends by only 6 metres over the remaining 25 kilometres. It is estimated that the aqueduct supplied the city with around 200,000 cubic metres of water a day that took nearly 27 hours to flow from the source to the city. The water arrived in the castellum divisorum at Nîmes – an open, shallow and it would have been surrounded by a balustrade within some sort of enclosure, probably under some kind of small but elaborate pavilion. When it was excavated, traces of a roof, Corinthian columnsPont du Gard – Pont du Gard
40. French occupation of Tunisia – The French protectorate of Tunisia that was established lasted until the independence of Tunisia on 20 March 1956. Tunisia had been a province of the Ottoman Empire since the Conquest of Tunis, in 1770, Admiral De Broves for Louis XV bombarded the cities of Bizerte, Porto Farina and Monastir in retaliation for acts of piracy. In the 19th century Tunisian commercial contacts with Europe were numerous, France had also made a major loan to Tunisia in the mid-19th century. The Tunisian government was weak, with an inefficient tax system that brought it one-fifth of the tax collected. The economy was crippled with a series of droughts and the elimination of corsairs by Western fleets, lastly, Tunisians had little control on foreign trade as ancient 16th century agreements with European powers limited custom taxes to 3%. As a result, its industry was devastated by imports. Following the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Frances international prestige was severely damaged, the Italian representative failed through clumsiness, but the British representative Richard Wood was more successful. In order to limit French influence, Wood obtained the reinstatement of Tunisia as a province of the Ottoman Empire in 1871, Great Britain continued to try to exert influence through commercial ventures, these were not successful, however. There were also various Tunisian land ownership disputes among France, Britain, the French wished to take control of Tunisia, neighbour of the French colony of Algeria, and to suppress Italian and British influence there. At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, an arrangement was made for France to take over Tunisia while Great Britain obtained control of Cyprus from the Ottomans. Finally, the use of Tunisian territory as a sanctuary by rebel Khroumir bands gave a pretext for the military intervention, on 28 April 1881,28,000 men under General Forgemol de Bostquénard entered Tunisia. On 1 May, the city of Bizerte surrendered to the 8,000 men of Jules Aimé Bréart, Bréart entered Tunis between May 3 and May 6,1881. He had in his possession the Bardo Treaty establishing a protectorate on Tunisia, surprised, Sadok Bey requested several hours for reflection, and immediately gathered his cabinet. Some of its members insisted that the bey should escape towards Kairouan to organize the resistance, the Bardo Treaty was signed by both parties, under the threat of the French troops on 12 May 1881. An insurrection soon broke out in the south on 10 June 1881, six ironclads were dispatched from Toulon to join the French Navy ships in Tunisian waters. In Sfax, three ironclads from the Division of the Levant were already present, together with four cannon boats, Sfax was bombarded, and on 16 July the city was invested after hard fighting, with 7 dead and 32 wounded for the French. At Kairouan 32,000 men,6,000 horses and 20,000 tons of supplies, Kairouan was taken without a fight on 28 October 1881. Great Britain and Germany silently approved the invasion of the country, in 1882, Paul Cambon energetically took advantage of his position as Resident, leaving the Bey essentially powerless, and in effect administering Tunisia as another French colonyFrench occupation of Tunisia – French Chasseurs d'Afrique on outpost in Tunis, 1881. Tunisian uniforms in 1881.
41. German Empire – The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence also helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron, chemicals, and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies, Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, however, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system. After at first attempting to control, causing massive uprisings. This left a republic to manage a devastated and unsatisfied populace, the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris. German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism and he envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany. The war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, the new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871. During the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the sameGerman Empire
42. Benjamin Franklin – Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a polymath and a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman. As a scientist, he was a figure in the American Enlightenment. As an inventor, he is known for the rod, bifocals. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphias fire department and the University of Pennsylvania, Franklin earned the title of The First American for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation, in the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat. To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin the most accomplished American of his age, Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richards Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, after 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British policies. He pioneered and was first president of The Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and he organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769. Franklin became a hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France, during the Revolution, he became the first US Postmaster General. He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, from 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective, Franklins father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a soap-maker and a candle-maker. Josiah was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23,1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith-farmer, and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15,1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife, Mary Morrill, Josiah Franklin had seventeen children with his two wives. He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to Boston in 1683, after her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9,1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their child, was Josiah Franklins fifteenth child and tenthBenjamin Franklin – Benjamin Franklin
43. U.S. hundred dollar bill – The United States one hundred-dollar bill is a denomination of United States currency featuring statesman, inventor, diplomat and American founding father Benjamin Franklin on the obverse of the bill. On the reverse of the banknote is an image of Independence Hall, the $100 bill is the largest denomination that has been printed since July 13,1969, when the denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 were retired. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the life of a $100 bill in circulation is 90 months before it is replaced due to wear and tear. The bills are also referred to as Bens, Benjamins or Franklins, in reference to the use of Benjamin Franklins portrait on the denomination, or as C-Notes. The bill is one of two denominations printed today that does not feature a President of the United States, the other is the $10 bill, featuring Alexander Hamilton. It is also the denomination today to feature a building not located in Washington. One hundred hundred-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in mustard-colored straps, the Series 2009 $100 bill redesign was unveiled on April 21,2010, and was issued to the public on October 8,2013. The new bill costs 12.6 cents to produce and has a blue ribbon woven into the center of the currency with 100 and Liberty Bells, alternating,1861, Three-year 100 dollar Interest Bearing Notes were issued that paid 7. 3% interest per year. These notes were not primarily designed to circulate, and were payable to the purchaser of the dollar bill. The obverse of the featured a portrait of General Winfield Scott. 1862, The first $100 United States Note was issued, variations of this note were issued that resulted in slightly different wording on the reverse, the note was issued again in Series of 1863. 1863, Both one and two and one half year Interest Bearing Notes were issued that paid 5% interest, the one-year Interest Bearing Notes featured a vignette of George Washington in the center, and allegorical figures representing The Guardian to the right and Justice to the left. The two-year notes featured a vignette of the U. S. treasury building in the center, a farmer and mechanic to the left, and sailors firing a cannon to the right. 1863, The first $100 Gold Certificates were issued with an eagle to the left. The reverse was printed in orange instead of green like all other U. S. federal government issued notes of the time. 1864, Compound Interest Treasury Notes were issued that were intended to circulate for three years and paid 6% interest compounded semi-annually, the obverse is similar to the 1863 one-year Interest Bearing Note. 1869, A new $100 United States Note was issued with a portrait of Abraham Lincoln on the left of the obverse, although this note is technically a United States Note, TREASURY NOTE appeared on it instead of UNITED STATES NOTE. 1870, A new $100 Gold Certificate with a portrait of Thomas Hart Benton on the side of the obverse was issuedU.S. hundred dollar bill – One Hundred dollars
44. Bernadette Soubirous – Bernadette Soubirous was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes, France, and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. She would later receive recognition when the lady who appeared to her herself as the Immaculate Conception. These masks were placed on her face and hands before she was moved to her crystal reliquary in June 1925, the Marian shrine at Lourdes went on to become a major pilgrimage site, attracting over five million pilgrims of all denominations each year. On 8 December 1933, Pope Pius XI declared Bernadette Soubirous a Saint of the Catholic Church. Her feast-day was initially fixed for 18 February—the day her Lady promised to make her happy, not in this life, Bernadette was the daughter of François Soubirous, a miller, and Louise, a laundress. She was the eldest of nine children—Bernadette, Jean, Toinette, Jean-Marie, Jean-Marie, Justin, Pierre, Jean, Bernadette was born on 7 January 1844 and baptized at the local parish church, St. Pierres, on 9 January, her parents wedding anniversary. Bernadettes godmother was Bernarde Casterot, her mothers sister, a wealthy widow who owned a tavern. Hard times had fallen on France and the lived in extreme poverty. She contracted cholera as a toddler and suffered severe asthma for the rest of her life, Bernadette attended the day school conducted by the Sisters of Charity and Christian Instruction from Nevers. On 11 February 1858, Bernadette, then aged 14, was out gathering firewood with her sister Marie and a friend near the grotto of Massabielle when she experienced her first vision. While the other girls crossed the stream in front of the grotto and walked on, Bernadette stayed behind. She finally sat down to take her shoes off in order to cross the water and was lowering her stocking when she heard the sound of rushing wind, a wild rose in a natural niche in the grotto, however, did move. From the niche, or rather the dark alcove behind it, came a light. This was the first of 18 visions of what she referred to as aquero, in later testimony, she called it a small young lady. Her sister and her stated that they had seen nothing. On 14 February, after Sunday Mass, Bernadette, with her sister Marie and some other girls, Bernadette knelt down immediately, saying she saw aquero again and falling into a trance. When one of the girls threw holy water at the niche and another threw a rock from above that shattered on the ground, on her next visit,18 February, she said that the vision asked her to return to the grotto every day for a fortnight. This period of almost daily visions came to be known as la Quinzaine sacrée, initially, her parents, especially her mother, were embarrassed and tried to forbid her to goBernadette Soubirous – Saint Bernadette of Lourdes
45. Saint Gildard (Lurcy-le-Bourg) – Saint Gildard, or Saint Gildardus, is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. He was a priest in the century of Lurcy-le-Bourg, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nevers. His name remains in the convent of St. Gildard, operated by the Sisters of Charity of Nevers, the Bollandists have little to say on the saint—he was a priest in the seventh century who edified with his virtues the parish of Lurcy-le-Bourg. Local historians agree that little is known of this saint and repeat what was written in Les Petits Bollandistes, crosnies also reports that an ancient ceremony directs that the celebration is to be accompanied with wine and warm bread rolls. Gildards body was buried in a church dedicated to a Saint Loup. In the course of time, after miracles had occurred, the church came to be called after both saints, and later again the name of Lupus was forgotten. The church suffered greatly during the Hundred Years War, and the parish became so depopulated that the church was empty, by the mid-nineteenth century, a wine press was in operation in two of the church bays, while the grounds were overgrown with vines. In 1853, Dominique-Augustin Dufêtre, bishop of Nevers, assigned the church to be rebuilt as a house for the Sisters of Charity of Nevers. By that time, not much was left but a building, the remains of the thirteenth-century were used to build the Saint Gildard Convent. This is the motherhouse of the Sisters of Charity of Nevers, where in 1866 Bernadette of Lourdes entered to do her novitiate and her body was buried on the convent grounds, in a special crypt, separate from the graves of the other sistersSaint Gildard (Lurcy-le-Bourg) – Saint Gildard Convent of the Sisters of Charity of Nevers
46. Saint Gildard – Saint Gildard or Gildardus, or Gildaredus also known as Saint Godard or Godardus, was the Bishop of Rouen from 488 to 525. He is venerated as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, earlier versions of the Roman Martyrology contend that he was the twin brother of Saint Medard—that they were born on the same day, were consecrated bishop on the same day, and died on the same day. However, in 511 Gildard attended the First Council of Orléans, convoked by Clovis I and he is commemorated in Rouen, with his supposed brother. Alban Butler adds that he governed the see of Rouen with great zeal during the space of fifteen years and his body was buried at St. Marys Church in Rouen, which later was named after him. According to Butler, his body was removed during Norman incursions and moved to the Abbey of St. Medard in Soissons and that Gildard is venerated in the first place is due to the association with Medard, according to Felice Lifshitz. No cult was promoted and his relics, kept in Notre Dame in suburban Rouen, in Soissons, Gildard was provided for the first time with literary traditions and his cult was promoted. Church of Saint-Médard-et-Saint-Gildard, in Crépon, Calvados, France, 12th–14th century, Church of Saint-Médard-et-Saint-Gildard, in Fel, Orne, France, 12th century. Church of St Medard and St Gildard, parish church in Little Bytham, Lincolnshire, England, dating back to Anglo-Saxon periodSaint Gildard – Church of St Medard and St Gildard, Little Bytham
47. Merir – Merir or Melieli is a small outlying island of the Palau group, in the western Pacific Ocean. The island measures 0.90 km² and is uninhabited, there is an abandoned village in the north-west of the island which previously hosted a radio station. The island itself is covered with trees but it is surrounded by a beach around which is a lagoon, outside this, the whole is surrounded by a coral reef and the open ocean. Together with the islands of Sonsorol and Fanna, which are 110 km to the north-west, and the island of Pulo Anna 50 km away, Merir forms the state of Sonsorol in the republic of PalauMerir – Luxuriant vegetation and beach scene in western Merir
48. Simone Weil – Simone Weil was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher, taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous on continental Europe and her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her, Albert Camus described her as the only great spirit of our times. Weil was born in her parents apartment in Paris on 3 February 1909 and her mother was Saolomea Weil and her father Bernard was a medical doctor. Both were Alsatian Jews who had moved to Paris after the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany, Weil was a healthy baby for her first six months, until she had a severe attack of appendicitis—thereafter she struggled with poor health throughout her life. She was the second of her parents two children, her brother was mathematician André Weil, with whom she would always enjoy a close relationship. Their parents were agnostic and fairly affluent, raising their children in an attentive and supportive atmosphere, Weil suffered some distress due to her fathers having to leave home for several years due to being drafted in World War I. According to several Weil scholars, such as Eva Fogelman and Robert Coles, despite the fact that Weil was generally highly affectionate, she almost always avoided any form of physical contact, even with female friends. From her late years, Weil would generally disguise her fragile beauty by adopting a masculine appearance, hardly ever using makeup. Weil was a student, proficient in Ancient Greek by age 12. She later learned Sanskrit after reading the Bhagavad Gita, like the Renaissance thinker Pico della Mirandola, her interests in other religions were universal and she attempted to understand each religious tradition as an expression of transcendent wisdom. As a teenager, Weil studied at the Lycée Henri IV under the tutelage of her admired teacher Émile Chartier and her first attempt at the entrance examination for the École Normale Supérieure in June 1927 ended in failure, due to her low marks in history. In 1928 she was successful in gaining admission and she finished first in the exam for the certificate of General Philosophy and Logic, Simone de Beauvoir finished second. During these years, Weil attracted much attention with her radical opinions and she was called the Red virgin, and even The Martian by her admired mentor. At the École Normale Supérieure, she studied philosophy, earning her DES in 1931 with a thesis under the title Science et perfection dans Descartes and she received her agrégation that same year. Weil taught philosophy at a school for girls in Le PuySimone Weil – Simone Weil, 1921
49. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the governments external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role in European diplomacy and warfare before 1815, in the 19th century it built a colonial empire second only to the British Empire, but was humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which marked the rise of Germany to dominance in Europe. France was on the side of the First World War. Since 1945 France has been a member of the United Nations, of NATO. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany, as a charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. France is also a member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Under the long reigns of kings Louis XIV and Louis XV, France was second in size to Russia but first in terms of economic and it fought numerous expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria, warfare defined the foreign policies of Louis XIV, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, while his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent support staff. His chief engineer Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns, the finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system, Louis XIV made France prouder in psychology but poorer in wealth, military glory and cultural splendor were exalted above economic growth. Under Louis XIV, France fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, Louis XV did merge Lorraine and Corsica into France. However France was badly defeated in the Seven Years War and forced to give up its holdings in North America and it ceded New France to Great Britain and Louisiana to Spain, and was left with a bitter grudge that sought revenge in 1778 by helping the Americans win independence. Norman Davies characterized Louis XVs reign as one of debilitating stagnation, characterized by lost wars, a few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his highly negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. Jerome Blum described him as a perpetual adolescent called to do a mans job, France played a key role helping the American Patriots win their War of Independence against Britain 1775–1783. Motivated by a rivalry with Britain and by revenge for its territorial losses during Seven Years WarForeign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
50. Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the Lepénisation des esprits or Le Pen-isation of spirits due to its effect on mainstream political opinion. Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and he advocates immigration restrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers, and euroscepticism. His progress to the round in the 21 April 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life. His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become president of France have made him a figure in French political life. He was expelled from the party by his daughter Marine Le Pen on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements and found himself marginalized in the French political landscape. Jean-Marie Le Pen was born on 20 June 1928 in La Trinité-sur-Mer, a seaside village in Brittany, the son of Anne Marie Hervé and Jean Le Pen. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his fathers boat was blown up by a mine in 1942 and he was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes, then at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, and started to sell the monarchist Action Françaises newspaper, Aspects de la France and he was repeatedly convicted of assault. Le Pen started his career as the head of the student union in Toulouse. He became president of the Association corporative des étudiants en droit and he was excluded from this organisation in 1951. After his time in the military, he studied political science and his graduate thesis, submitted in 1971 by him and Jean-Loup Vincent, was titled Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945 or The anarchist movement in France since 1945. After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the army in the Foreign Legion. He arrived in Indochina after the 1954 battle of Dien Bien Phu, which had been lost by France, Le Pen was then sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire. In 1953, a year before the beginning of the Algerian War, he contacted President Vincent Auriol, within two days, there were 40 volunteers from his university, a group that would later help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Paris in 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a member of Pierre Poujades UDCA populist party, Le Pen,28 years old, was the youngest member of the Assembly. The next year, following his break with Poujade, Le Pen was reelected to the National Assembly as a member of the Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans party, Le Pen claimed that he had lost his left eye when he was savagely beaten during the 1958 election campaignJean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen MEP
51. John Calvin – John Calvin was an influential French theologian, pastor and reformer during the Protestant Reformation. Various Congregational, Reformed, and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy. He also exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon, in addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, and various other theological treatises. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530, at the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees. He continued to support the movement in Geneva, and in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of government and liturgy. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva. He was denounced by Calvin and burned at the stake for heresy by the city council, following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvins opponents were forced out. Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both in Geneva and throughout Europe, John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France. He was the first of four sons who survived infancy and his mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai. She died of a cause in Calvins childhood, after having borne four more children. Calvins father, Gérard Cauvin, had a career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court, he died in 1531. Gérard intended his three sons — Charles, Jean, and Antoine — for the priesthood, however, by age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church. He also won the patronage of a family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, Paris, once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student. In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu, according to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529John Calvin – Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
52. Wikify – Wiki markup, also known as wikitext language and wikicode, is a lightweight markup language used to write pages at wiki-based websites that is a simplified/alternative/intermediate to HTML. Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML and it was created in 1995 to format pages on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is no accepted standard wikitext language. The grammar, structure, justification, keywords and so on depend on the wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites, MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. All wikitext markup languages have a way of hyperlinking to other pages within the site. Many wikis, especially the ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls free links, Creole is an effort for a common wiki markup language to be used across different Wikis. There are several engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007 and it is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is a more user-friendly online rich-text editor and an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup source code, VisualEditor was developed by the Wikimedia Foundation in partnership with Wikia. In 2013, the beta was available for Mediawiki. org, in 2015, VisualEditor was offered to all users of most language editions of Wikipedia. What you see is Wiki - Questioning WYSIWYG in the Internet Age MediaWiki alternative parsers MediaWikis simple text formatWikify – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.
53. French architecture – French architecture ranks high among Frances many accomplishments. A crucial factor in development, coined the Roman Architectural Revolution, was the invention of concrete. Social elements such as wealth and high densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new solutions of their own. Notable examples in France during the period are Alyscamps in Arles, the Alyscamps is a large Roman necropolis, which is a short distance outside the walls of the old town of Arles. It was one of the most famous necropolises of the ancient world, the name is a corruption of the Latin Elisii Campi. They were famous in the Middle Ages and are referred to by Ariosto in Orlando Furioso, the Alyscamps continued to be used well into medieval times, although the removal of Saint Trophimus relics to the cathedral in 1152 reduced its prestige. Plans often continued the Roman basilica tradition, but also influences from as far away as Syria and Armenia. In the East, most structures were in timber, but stone was more common for significant buildings in the West, most major churches have been rebuilt, usually more than once, but many Merovingian plans have been reconstructed from archaeology. There are no Roman precedents for this Frankish innovation, a number of other buildings, now lost, including the Merovingian foundations of Saint-Denis, St. Gereon in Cologne, and the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, are described as similarly ornate. Architecture of a Romanesque style developed simultaneously in parts of France in the 10th century, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band. The Angoulême Cathedral is one of several instances in which the Byzantine churches of Constantinople seem to have been influential in the design in which the spaces are roofed by domes. This structure has necessitated the use of thick walls. There are radiating chapels around the apse, which is a typically French feature and was to evolve into the chevette, notre-Dame in Domfront, Normandy is a cruciform church with a short apsidal east end. The nave has lost its aisle, and has some of its length. The crossing has a tower rises in two differentiated stages and is surmounted by a pyramidical spire of a type seen widely in France and Germany. The Abbey of Fongombault in France shows the influence of the Abbey of Cluny, the cruciform plan is clearly visible. There is a chevette of chapels surrounding the chance apse, the crossing is surmounted by a tower. Begun in the 1060s, it was a prototype for Gothic facades, the spires and the pinnacles, which appear to rise inevitably from the towers, are of the early 13th centuryFrench architecture – South side of the Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, view from the Seine
54. Vichy France – Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. In particular, it represents the southern, unoccupied Free Zone that governed the southern part of the country, from 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of France as a whole, Germany militarily occupied northern France. Thus, while Paris remained the de jure capital of France, following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy. The Vichy government remained in existence, but as a de facto client and it vanished in late 1944 when the Allies occupied all of France. After being appointed Premier by President Albert Lebrun, Marshal Pétain ordered the French Governments military representatives to sign an armistice with Germany on 22 June 1940, Pétain subsequently established an authoritarian regime when the National Assembly of the French Third Republic granted him full powers on 10 July 1940. At that point, the Third Republic was dissolved, calling for National Regeneration, the French Government at Vichy reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy, with central planning a key feature. Labour unions came under government control. The independence of women was reversed, with a put on motherhood. Paris lost its status in European art and culture. The media were tightly controlled and stressed virulent anti-Semitism, and, after June 1941, the French State maintained nominal sovereignty over the whole of French territory, but had effective full sovereignty only in the unoccupied southern zone libre. It had limited and only civil authority in the zones under military occupation. The occupation was to be a state of affairs, pending the conclusion of the war. The French Government at Vichy never joined the Axis alliance, Germany kept two million French soldiers prisoner, carrying out forced labour. They were hostages to ensure that Vichy would reduce its forces and pay a heavy tribute in gold, food. French police were ordered to round up immigrant Jews and other such as communists. Public opinion in some quarters turned against the French government and the occupying German forces over time, when it became clear that Germany was losing the war, and resistance to them increased. Most of the legal French governments leaders at Vichy fled or were subject to show trials by the GPRF, thousands of collaborators were summarily executed by local communists and the Resistance in so-called savage purges. The last of the French State exiles were captured in the Sigmaringen enclave by de Gaulles French 1st Armoured Division in April 1945, in 1940, Marshal Pétain was known as a First World War hero, the victor of the battle of VerdunVichy France – French prisoners of war are marched off under German guard, 1940
55. Falaise pocket – The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War. A pocket was formed around Falaise, Calvados, in which the German Army Group B, with the 7th Army, the battle is also referred to as the Battle of the Falaise Gap, the Chambois Pocket, the Falaise-Chambois Pocket, the Argentan–Falaise Pocket or the Trun–Chambois Gap. The battle resulted in the destruction of most of Army Group B west of the Seine river, which opened the way to Paris and the Franco-German border for the Allied armies. Following Operation Cobra, the American breakout from the Normandy beachhead, rapid advances were made to the south, despite lacking the resources to defeat the U. S. S. Four depleted panzer divisions were not enough to defeat the First U. S. Army, Operation Lüttich was a disaster, which drove the Germans deeper into the Allied envelopment. The Germans began to withdraw on 17 August and on 19 August, by the evening of 21 August, the pocket had been sealed, with c. 50,000 Germans trapped inside. Many Germans escaped but losses in men and equipment were huge, two days later the Allied Liberation of Paris was completed and on 30 August, the remnants of Army Group B retreated across the Seine, which ended Operation Overlord. Early Allied objectives in the wake of the D-Day invasion of German-occupied France, included the deep water port of Cherbourg, Cherbourg was not captured by the VII U. S. Corps until 27 June and the German defence of Caen lasted until 20 July, Army advanced down the west side of the Cotentin Peninsula to Avranches. On 25 July the First U. S. Army commander, the First U. S. Army broke through the German defences near St. Lô and by the end of the third day had advanced 15 mi south of its start line at several points. On 30 July, Avranches was captured and within 24 hours the VIII U. S, Corps of the Third U. S. Army crossed the bridge at Pontaubault into Brittany and continued south and west through open country, almost without opposition. The U. S. advance was swift and by 8 August, Le Mans, after Operation Cobra, Operation Bluecoat and Operation Spring, the German army in Normandy was so reduced that only a few SS fanatics still entertained hopes of avoiding defeat. On the Eastern Front, Operation Bagration had begun against Army Group Centre which left no possibility of reinforcement of the Western Front, eight of the nine Panzer divisions in Normandy were to be used in the attack but only four could be made ready in time. The German commanders protested that their forces were incapable of an offensive but the warnings were ignored and Operation Lüttich, the Allies were forewarned by Ultra signals intercepts and although the offensive continued until 13 August the threat of Operation Lüttich had been ended within 24 hours. Operation Lüttich had led to the most powerful remaining German units being defeated at the west end of the Cotentin Peninsula by the First U. S. Army, Bradley said This is an opportunity that comes to a commander not more than once in a century. Were about to destroy a hostile army and go all the way from here to the German border. The First Canadian Army was ordered to capture high ground north of Falaise to trap Army Group B, the Canadians planned Operation Totalize, with attacks by strategic bombers and a novel night attack using Kangaroo armoured personnel carriers. By 10 August, Anglo-Canadian forces had reached Hill 195, north of Falaise, the following day, Simonds relieved the armoured divisions with infantry divisions, ending the offensive. SFalaise pocket – A Cromwell tank and Willys MB jeep pass an abandoned German 88 mm (3.46 in) PaK 43 anti-tank gun during Totalize
56. Charles de Gaulle – Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, in 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was an officer of the First World War, wounded several times. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions, during the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders, he was then appointed Under-Secretary for War. Refusing to accept his governments armistice with Nazi Germany, de Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and he led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the RPF party. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, when the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a presidency. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies and he restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations, De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and the exorbitant privilege of the US dollar. In his later years, his support for an independent Quebec, De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization. He died a year later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his Presidential memoirs unfinished, many French political parties and figures claim the Gaullist legacy. De Gaulle was ranked as Le Plus Grand Français de tous les temps, De Gaulle was born in the industrial region of Lille in the Nord departement, the third of five children. He was raised in a devoutly Catholic and traditional family and his father, Henri de Gaulle, was a professor of history and literature at a Jesuit college who eventually founded his own school. Henri de Gaulle came from a line of parliamentary gentry from Normandy and Burgundy. De Gaulles mother, Jeanne, descended from a family of entrepreneurs from LilleCharles de Gaulle – Charles de Gaulle in 1961
57. Louisiana Purchase – The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory by the United States from France in 1803. The U. S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs, the Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. Its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves, the Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. Napoleon in 1800, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, however, Frances failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States. The Americans originally sought to purchase only the city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands. The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition, they argued that it was unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Constitution did not contain provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics and it was controlled by the French, who had a few small settlements along the Mississippi and other main rivers. Following French defeat in the Seven Years War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi, the United States controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans. The main issue for the Americans was free transit of the Mississippi to the sea, as the lands were being gradually settled by a few American migrants, many Americans, including Jefferson, assumed that the territory would be acquired piece by piece. The risk of power taking it from a weakened Spain made a profound reconsideration of this policy necessary. New Orleans was already important for shipping goods to and from the areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pinckneys Treaty, signed with Spain on October 27,1795, gave American merchants right of deposit in New Orleans, Americans used this right to transport products such as flour, tobacco, pork, bacon, lard, feathers, cider, butter, and cheese. The treaty also recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi, in 1798 Spain revoked this treaty, prohibiting American use of New Orleans, and greatly upsetting the Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo took over from the Marquess of Casa Calvo, Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisiana for French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, but the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control, until a transfer of power to France on November 30,1803, another ceremony was held in St. Louis a few months later, in part because during winter conditions the news of the New Orleans formalities did not reach Upper Louisiana. The March 9–10,1804, event is remembered as Three Flags Day, James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston had traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans in January 1803. Their instructions were to negotiate or purchase control of New Orleans and its environs, the Louisiana Purchase was by far the largest territorial gain in U. S. historyLouisiana Purchase – 1804 map of " Louisiana ", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains
58. Bourbon Family Compact – The Pacte de Famille is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. The first of these was made on November 7,1733 by King Philip V of Spain, Philip V was the grandson of Louis XIV and had become the first Bourbon King of Spain in 1700 upon the extinction of Spanish Habsburgs. In addition, Spanish possessions in Italy were ceded to the branch of the House of Habsburg. He had married Maria Leszczyńska, the daughter of King Stanislaus I of Poland, because of this marriage alliance France became involved in the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. Philip V formed a plan to use this conflict to win back lost territory in Italy for his sons, because of his close relationship with Louis XV their alliance became known as the Family Compact. Louis failed to restore Stanislas to the Polish throne, but the Bourbons would gain the Duchy of Lorraine, the second Family Compact was made on October 25,1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, the result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip Vs fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain, Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louiss first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years War against Great Britain, charless alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. The agreement involved Spains allies Naples and Tuscany, when Spain became involved, the British occupied the Philippines and Cuba. Charles III recovered these possessions in the Treaty of Paris, on April 12,1779 France and Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez, by which Spain joined the American Revolutionary War against Great Britain. This Pact was seen as a renewal of the third Pacte de Famille, in August 1796 Manuel Godoy negotiated and signed the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso with France which required that Spain declare war on Great Britain. This treaty can not be considered a Family Compact, since the French Bourbons at that time had killed or fled France because of the French revolution. François Velde, The Pacte de Famille of 1761, in English, includes French-language text of the PactBourbon Family Compact – Both Kingdoms (France & Spain) to the House of Bourbon.
59. Antoine de la Sale – Antoine de la Sale was a French courtier, educator and writer. He participated in a number of campaigns in his youth and he only began writing when he had reached middle age. He lived in Italy at the time, but returned to France in the 1440s, where he acted as umpire in tournaments and he became the tutor of the sons of Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, to whom he dedicated a moral work in 1451. His most successful work was Little John of Saintré, written in 1456 and he was born in Provence, probably at Arles, the illegitimate son of Bernardon de la Salle, a celebrated Gascon mercenary, mentioned in Froissarts Chronicles. His mother was a peasant, Perrinette Damendel, in 1402 Antoine entered the court of the third Angevin dynasty at Anjou, probably as a page. In 1407 he was at Messina with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, the next years he perhaps spent in Brabant, for he was present at two tournaments given at Brussels and Ghent. In 1415 he took part in the expedition by John I of Portugal against the Moors in Ceuta. In 1420 he accompanied the 17-year-old Louis III of Anjou in his attempt to assert his claim as King of Naples and he travelled from Norcia to the Monti Sibillini and the neighboring Pilates Lake. The story of his adventures on this trip and of the legends and Sibyls grotto form a chapter of La Salade. In 1426 La Sale probably returned with Louis III of Anjou, who was also comte de Provence, to Provence, where he was acting as viguier of Arles in 1429. The title is of course a play on his own name, but he explains it as being due to the subject matter of the book. The work covered geography, history, protocol and military tactics, one complete original copy has survived, and two early printed editions. It includes Queen Sibyls Paradise, and Trip to the Lipari Isles, in 1439 he was again in Italy in charge of the castle of Capua, with John II and his young wife, Marie de Bourbon, when the place was besieged by the king of Aragon. La Sale married Lione de la Sellana de Brusa in the same year and he was about fifty-three, she was fifteen. René abandoned Naples in 1442, and Antoine no doubt returned to France about the same time. His advice was sought at the tournaments which celebrated the marriage of the unfortunate Margaret of Anjou at Nancy in 1445, for his new pupils he wrote at Chatelet-sur-Oise, in 1451, a moral work entitled La Salle. He followed his patron to Genappe in Brabant when the Dauphin took refuge at the Burgundian court, Cent Nouvelles nouvelles, a collection of licentious stories supposed to be narrated by various persons at the court of Philippe le Bon, was apparently collected or edited by him. A completed copy of this was presented to the Duke of Burgundy at Dijon in 1462, if then La Sale was the author, he probably was still living, otherwise the last mention of him is in 1461Antoine de la Sale – Frontispiece of an 1830 edition of Little John of Saintré, showing a fictitious author's portrait
60. Breton language – Breton /ˈbrɛtən/ is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages, Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly related Brittonic languages. The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue doïl, Gallo is consequently close to French, although not mutually intelligible, and a Romance language descended from Latin. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709, Breton is spoken in West Brittany, roughly to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche-Bernard. It comes from a Brittonic language community that extended from Great Britain to Armorica and had even established a toehold in Galicia. Old Breton is attested from the 9th century and it was the language of the upper classes until the 12th century, after which it became the language of commoners in Lower Brittany. The nobility, followed by the bourgeoisie, adopted French, the written language of the Duchy of Brittany was Latin, switching to French in the 15th century. There exists a tradition of Breton literature. Some Old Breton vocabulary remains in the present day as philosophical, during the French Revolution, the government introduced policies favouring French over the regional languages, which it pejoratively referred to as patois. The revolutionaries assumed that reactionary and monarchist forces preferred regional languages to try to keep the peasant masses underinformed, in 1794, Bertrand Barère submitted his report on the patois to the Committee of Public Safety in which he said that federalism and superstition speak Breton. Teachers humiliated students for using their regional languages, and such practices prevailed until the late 1960s, the majority of todays speakers are more than 60 years old, and Breton is now classified as an endangered language. At the beginning of the 20th century, half of the population of Lower Brittany knew only Breton, by 1950, there were only 100,000 monolingual Bretons, and this rapid decline has continued, with likely no monolingual speakers left today. A statistical survey in 1997 found around 300,000 speakers in Lower Brittany, few 15- to 19-year-olds spoke Breton. In 1925, Professor Roparz Hemon founded the Breton-language review Gwalarn, during its 19-year run, Gwalarn tried to raise the language to the level of a great international language. Its publication encouraged the creation of literature in all genres. In 1946, Al Liamm replaced Gwalarn, other Breton-language periodicals have been published, which established a fairly large body of literature for a minority language. In 1977, Diwan schools were founded to teach Breton by immersion and they taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school. See the education section for more information, the Asterix comic series has been translated into BretonBreton language – Bilingual sign Huelgoat, Brittany
61. Jean-Paul Sartre – Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology and his work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre was also noted for his relationship with prominent feminist. Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, Sartres introduction to his philosophy is his work Existentialism and Humanism, originally presented as a lecture. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but refused it, saying that he always declined official honours, Jean-Paul Sartre was born on 21 June 1905 in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer. His mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer, when Sartre was two years old, his father died of a fever overseas. When he was twelve, Sartres mother remarried, and the moved to La Rochelle. As a teenager in the 1920s, Sartre became attracted to philosophy upon reading Henri Bergsons essay Time and Free Will and he attended the Cours Hattemer, a private school in Paris. It was at ENS that Sartre began his lifelong, sometimes fractious, perhaps the most decisive influence on Sartres philosophical development was his weekly attendance at Alexandre Kojèves seminars, which continued for a number of years. From his first years in the École Normale, Sartre was one of its fiercest pranksters, in 1927, his antimilitarist satirical cartoon in the revue of the school, coauthored with Georges Canguilhem, particularly upset the director Gustave Lanson. Many newspapers, including Le Petit Parisien, announced the event on 25 May, thousands, including journalists and curious spectators, showed up, unaware that what they were witnessing was a stunt involving a Lindbergh look-alike. The publics resultant outcry forced Lanson to resign, in 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and later went on to become a noted philosopher, writer, and feminist. The two became inseparable and lifelong companions, initiating a romantic relationship, though they were not monogamous, the first time Sartre took the exam to become a college instructor, he failed. He took it a time and virtually tied for first place with Beauvoir, although Sartre was eventually awarded first place in his class. Sartre was drafted into the French Army from 1929 to 1931 and he later argued in 1959 that each French person was responsible for the collective crimes during the Algerian War of Independence. From 1931 until 1945, Sartre taught at various lycées of Le Havre, Laon, in 1932, Sartre discovered Voyage au bout de la nuit by Louis-Ferdinand Céline, a book that had a remarkable influence on him. In 1933–34, he succeeded Raymond Aron at the Institut français dAllemagne in Berlin where he studied Edmund Husserls phenomenological philosophy, Aron had already advised him in 1930 to read Emmanuel Levinass Théorie de l’intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl. The Neo-Hegelian revival led by Alexandre Kojève and Jean Hyppolite in the 1930s inspired a generation of French thinkers, including SartreJean-Paul Sartre – Sartre in 1950
62. Picardy – Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is now part of the new region of Hauts-de-France and it is located in the northern part of France. The historical province of Picardy stretched from north of Noyon to Calais, via the whole of the Somme department, the province of Artois separated Picardy from French Flanders. From the 5th century the area was part of the Frankish Empire, and in the period it encompassed the six countships of Boulogne, Montreuil, Ponthieu, Amiénois, Vermandois. According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region part of West Francia. The name Picardy was not used until the 12th or 13th century, during this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands. In the Latin Quarter of Paris, people identified a Picard Nation of students at Sorbonne University, during the Hundred Years War, Picardy was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358. From 1419 onwards, the Picardy counties were gradually acquired by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good, in 1477, King Louis XI of France led an army and occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control all of Picardy, in the 16th century, the government of Picardy was created. This became a new region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the half of the Aisne département. In 1557, Picardy was invaded by Habsburg forces under the command of Emmanuel Philibert, after a seventeen-day siege, St. Quentin would be ransacked, while Noyon would be burned by the Habsburg army. In the 17th century, a disease similar to English sweat originated from the region. It was called Suette des picards or Picardy sweat, the sugar industry has continued to play a prominent role in the economy of the region. One of the most significant historical events to occur in Picardy was the series of battles fought along the Somme during World War I. From September 1914 to August 1918, four major battles, including the Battle of the Somme, were fought by British, French, and German forces in the fields of Northern Picardy. In 2009, the Regional Committee for local government reform proposed to reduce the number of French regions, Picardy would have disappeared, and each department would have joined a nearby region. The Oise would have incorporated in the Île-de-France, the Somme would have been incorporated in the Nord-Pas-de-CalaisPicardy – This painting by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes recalls the "Golden Age" in the history of the province of Picardy. The Walters Art Museum.
63. Rennes – Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department, renness history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the cities of the historic province of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, administrative, since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants, during the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant digital innovation centre in France, in 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 700,000 inhabitants. With more than 63,000 students in 2013, is also the eighth-largest university campus of France, the inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French. In 2012, lExpress named Rennes as the most liveable city in France, Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. It has a long history due to its location at the confluence of two rivers and its proximity to the regions from which arose various challenges to the borders of Brittany. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head, large hoards of their coins were unearthed in the treasure of Amanlis found in June 1835 and that of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande, discovered in February 1941. The museum at Rennes contains a representative collection. In 57 BC the Redones joined the Gaulish coalition against Rome which was suppressed by Crassus, in 52 BC, the Redones responded to the call of Vercingetorix to furnish a large contingent of warriors. The oldest known Rennais is Titus Flavius Postuminus, known to us from his steles found in Rennes in 1969. As indicated by his name, he would have been born under the Flavian dynasty, under the reign of Titus, one of the steles tells us, in Latin, that he took charge over all the public affairs in the Civitas Riedonum. He was twice duumvir and flamen for life for Mars Mullo, during the Roman era, the strategic position of the town contributed to its importance. To the west the principal Roman route, via Osismii, stretched from Condate Riedonum to Vorgium, in 275, the threat of barbarians led to the erection of a robust brick wall around Rennes. The Holy See of Rennes had been established by 453, with a church having occupied the site of the current Rennes Cathedral since the start of the 6th century. One of the earliest bishops of Rennes, Melaine - who would become the patron saint - played an important role in the peace treaty between the Franks and the Armoricans in 497Rennes
64. Toulouse – Toulouse is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region. The city lies on the banks of the River Garonne,150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea,230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and it is the fourth-largest city in France with 466,297 inhabitants in January 2014. The Toulouse Metro area is, with 1312304 inhabitants as of 2014, Frances 4th metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon and Marseille and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, the Airbus Group, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. The city also hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNESs Toulouse Space Centre, thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites, Airbus Groups satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse. The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the Universities of Paris, Lyon and Lille. The air route between Toulouse Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014, according to the rankings of LExpress and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France, sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, the city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a subtropical climate which can be qualified as submediterranean due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone. The Garonne Valley was a point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm, in 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odos victory was an obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe. Charles Martel, a later, won the Battle of Tours. The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th centuryToulouse – Montage of Toulouse Top: Pont Saint Pierre and Garonne River Middle: Place du Capitole, Pont Neuf Bottom: Capitole de Toulouse, Ariane 5 at Cité de l'espace, Médiathèque José Cabanis
65. Louis XIV – Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time, contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by bloodLouis XIV – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
66. Basque language – Basque is the language spoken by the Basques. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the languages of Europe and indeed, as a language isolate. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, the Basque language is spoken by 27% of Basques in all territories. Of these, 93% are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country, native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish territories and the three ancient provinces in France. However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising the Basque language was more than merely tolerated, overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of process, a standardized form of the Basque language. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain and they take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region, a language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, the Basque alphabet uses the Latin script. In Basque, the name of the language is officially Euskara, three etymological theories of the name Euskara are taken seriously by linguists and Vasconists. In French, the language is normally called basque, though in recent times euskara has become common, Spanish has a greater variety of names for the language. Today, it is most commonly referred to as el vasco, la lengua vasca, both terms, vasco and basque, are inherited from Latin ethnonym Vascones, which in turn goes back to the Greek term οὐασκώνους, an ethnonym used by Strabo in his Geographica. The Spanish term Vascuence, derived from Latin vasconĭce, has acquired negative connotations over the centuries and is not well-liked amongst Basque speakers generally, Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them. It is the last remaining descendant of one of the languages of Western Europe. Consequently, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the comparative method except by applying it to differences between dialects within the language. Little is known of its origins, but a form of the Basque language likely was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages to the area. Others find this unlikely, see the aizkora controversy, Latin inscriptions in Gallia Aquitania preserve a number of words with cognates in the reconstructed proto-Basque language, for instance, the personal names Nescato and CisonBasque language – Family transmission of Basque language (Basque as initial language)
67. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness, An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartres main purpose is to assert the individuals existence as prior to the individuals essence and his overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. While a prisoner of war in 1940 and 1941, Sartre read Martin Heideggers Being and Time, reading Being and Time initiated Sartres own philosophical enquiry. Born into the reality of ones body, in a material universe. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to them appear. Sartres existentialism shares its philosophical starting point with René Descartes, The first thing we can be aware of is our existence, in Nausea, the main characters feeling of dizziness towards his own existence is induced by things, not thinking. This dizziness occurs in the face of ones freedom and responsibility for giving a meaning to reality, as an important break with Descartes, Sartre rejects the primacy of knowledge, as summed up in the phrase Existence precedes essence and offers a different conception of knowledge and consciousness. Important ideas in Being and Nothingness build on Edmund Husserls phenomenology, to both philosophers, consciousness is intentional, meaning that there is only consciousness of something. For Sartre, intentionality implies that there is no form of self that is hidden inside consciousness, an ego must be a structure outside consciousness, so that there can be consciousness of the ego. Being and Nothingness is a reply to Martin Heideggers Being and Time, in which he addressed being in its own right and laid ground for Sartres thought. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, being, based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, in the first chapter, Sartre develops a theory of nothingness which is central to the whole book, especially to his account for bad faith and freedom. For him, nothingness is not just a concept that sums up negative judgements such as Pierre is not here. Though it is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation, a concrete nothingness, e. g. not being able to see, is part of a totality, the life of the blind man in this world. This totality is modified by the nothingness which is part of it, in the totality of consciousness and phenomenon, both can be considered separately, but exist only as a whole. The human attitude of inquiry, of asking questions, puts consciousness at distance from the world, every question brings up the possibility of a negative answer, of non-being, e. g. For Sartre, this is how nothingness can exist at all, non-being can neither be part of the being-in-itself nor can it be as a complement of it. Being-for-itself is the origin of negation, the relation between being-for-itself and being-in-itself is one of questioning the latterBeing and Nothingness – Cover of the first edition