1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Metropolitan France – Metropolitan France is the part of France in Europe. It comprises mainland France and nearby islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, including Corsica. Overseas France is the collective name for the part of France outside Europe: French overseas regions, territories, the sui generis collectivity of New Caledonia. Metropolitan France and Overseas France together form the French Republic. Metropolitan France accounts for 82.2 % of the land territory, 95.9 % of the population of the French Republic. The five overseas regions -- Mayotte -- have the same political status as metropolitan France's regions. In overseas France, a person from metropolitan France is often called a métro, short for métropolitain. Similar terms existed to describe European colonial powers. By extension "metropolis" and "metropolitan" came to mean "motherland", country as opposed to its colonies overseas. There are some people in overseas France who object to the use of the term la France métropolitaine due to its colonial origins. They prefer to call it "the European territory of France", as the Treaties of the European Union do. Likewise, they oppose treating overseas France and metropolitan France as separate entities. Since the end of the 1990s INSEE has included the five overseas departments in its figures for France. Other branches of the French administration may have different definitions of what la France entière is. The World Bank refers to this as "France" only, not "the whole of France" as INSEE does.Metropolitan France – Metropolitan France
3. Western Europe – Western Europe, also West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of the European continent. There may be differences between the purely geographic definitions of the term. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. In East Asia, Western Europe was historically known in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty. In his writings, Ricci referred as "Matteo of the Far West". The term was still in use in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the West, influenced by the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their economic systems.Western Europe – The Great Schism in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe at the time.
4. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 4.8 % of its total surface. North America is the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, Europe. North America was reached by its first human populations via crossing the Bering land bridge. The Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. The Americas are usually accepted as having been named by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam. For Waldseemüller, no one should object after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa".North America – Map of North America, from 1621.
5. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. The West Indies team continues to represent many of those nations. The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the primary accent with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, although not all sources agree. Usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system. The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea.Caribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
6. South America – South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas, the model used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It includes twelve sovereign states, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Panama may also be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers. Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has become a first regional power. Most of the population lives near the continent's eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. Most of the continent lies in the tropics. The continent's ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas.South America – A composite relief image of South America.
7. Indian Ocean – The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is named after the country of India. The Indian Ocean is known as Ratnākara, "the mine of gems" in Hindi. The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow, averaging 200 kilometres in width. An exception is found off Australia's western coast, where the width exceeds 1,000 kilometres. The average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Diamantina Deep in Diamantina Trench, at 8,047 m deep; also sometimes considered is Sunda Trench, at a depth of 7,258–7,725 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze. The remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the southern latitudes. The choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. The centre of the Eastern Hemisphere is in this Ocean. Marginal seas, gulfs, straits of the Indian Ocean include: The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate.Indian Ocean – The economically important Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue) were blocked by the Ottoman Empire in ca. 1453 with the fall of the Byzantine Empire. This spurred exploration, and a new sea route around Africa was found, triggering the Age of Discovery.
8. Pacific Ocean – The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. He named Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific starting in 1519. Magellan called the Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan until the eighteenth century. Sailing east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands and Papua New Guinea.Pacific Ocean – Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507).
9. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
10. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
11. Aire urbaineAire urbaine – Urban areas of France in 2010, broken down by communes:
12. Lyon – Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon is France's third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 after Paris. The city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Lyon was historically an important area for the weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema: Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematographe in Lyon. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical, biotech industries. The city in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, Euronews, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. Dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from bringing their armies into the developing conflict.Lyon – Top, the Basilique de Notre-Dame de Fourvière, the Place des Terreaux with the Fontaine Bartholdi and Lyon City Hall at night. Centre, the Parc de la Tête d'Or, the Confluence district and the old city. Bottom, the Pont Lafayette, the Part-Dieu district with the Place Bellecour in the foreground during the Festival of Lights.
13. Villeurbanne – Villeurbanne is a commune in the Metropolis of Lyon in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is situated northeast of Lyon, with which it forms the heart of the metropolitan area in France after that of Paris. Villeurbanne is the second-largest city in the metropolitan area. In 2013, Villeurbanne was elected the city with the best administration of France, which attracts more people. The current location of downtown Villeurbanne is known to have been inhabited as back as 6000 BC. Its current name comes from a Gallo-Roman area, established at about the same time as Lyon and known as the Villa Urbana. It would then become Urbanum, then Villa Urbane and, ultimately, Villeurbanne. Villeurbanne has belonged since 1349. It was then separated by the river La Rize, a former branch of the Rhône River. Until the 19th century, the city was merely a patchwork of distinct villages separated by undeveloped land. These villages have mostly nowadays form the neighborhoods of Charpennes, Cusset, Croix-Luizet, Maisons-Neuves, etc.. With the industrial era, Villeurbanne's economy soared: the textile industry was the first followed by mechanical and chemical ones. The factories lured in numerous immigrants, most notably from Italy. Transforming to an industrial town, Villeurbanne underwent a tremendous demographic boom in the late 1920s. From 3,000 inhabitants in 1928, its population rocketed in 1931.Villeurbanne – The city hall
14. Marseille – Marseille, also known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France. Marseille is now the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture, together with Košice, Slovakia, in 2013. It will be the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France, the Metropolis of Aix-Marseille-Provence. Marseille is the second largest city after Paris and Lyon. Further east still are the Sainte-Baume, the French Riviera. Beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m Mont Sainte Victoire. The airport lies on the Étang de Berre. The city's main thoroughfare stretches eastward to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank Fort Saint-Jean on the north. The commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde. The station -- Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles -- is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière. Marseille warm to hot, mostly dry summers.Marseille – Clockwise from top: Notre-Dame de la Garde • Old Port • La Joliette with CMA CGM Tower • Calanque of Sugiton
15. Democracy – Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy was originally conceived in Classical Greece, where political representatives were chosen by a jury from amongst the male citizens: rich and poor. While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system for example, excluded women from political participation. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, monarchic elements. Political rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are also present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy.Democracy – A woman casts her vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.
16. Unitary state – The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 165 of them are governed as unitary states. Unitary states are contrasted with federal states. In a unitary state, their powers may be narrowed, by the central government. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is an example of a unitary state. Many unitary states have no areas possessing a degree of autonomy. In such countries, sub-national regions cannot decide their own laws. Examples are the Republic of Ireland and the Kingdom of Norway. This means that the sub-national units have a right of existence and powers that cannot be unilaterally changed by the central government. The United States of America is an example of a federal state. Under the U.S. Constitution, powers are shared between the federal government and the states.Unitary state – Unitary states
17. Semi-presidential system – There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the premier-presidential system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament. The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet. This subtype is used in Burkina Faso, France, Georgia, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, Niger, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Sri Lanka and Ukraine. Under the president-parliamentary system, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the assembly majority. The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the support of the parliament majority for his choice. This form of semi-presidentialism is much closer to pure presidentialism. It is used in Armenia, Georgia between 2004 and 2013, Mozambique, Namibia, Russia, Taiwan and Ukraine between 1996 and 2005, again from 2010 to 2014. It was used in Germany during the Weimarer Republik, as the constitutional regime between 1919 and 1933 is called unofficially. The powers that are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. It is up to the president to decide, how much "autonomy" he leaves to "his" prime minister to act on his own. Semi-presidential systems may sometimes experience periods in which the President and the Prime Minister are from differing political parties. This is called "cohabitation", a term which originated in France when the situation first arose in the 1980s. In most cases, cohabitation results from a system in which the two executives are not elected at the same time or for the same term.Semi-presidential system – Presidential republics with a full presidential system.
18. Republic – In modern times, the definition of a republic is commonly referred to a government which excludes a monarch. Both ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. Republics had a democratic aspect. In modern republics the executive is legitimized both by popular suffrage. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". The term originates as the Latin translation of Greek politeia. It was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as republic. In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had signoria based governments. In the late Middle Ages, writers, such as Giovanni Villani, began writing from other types of regime. They used terms such as a free people, to describe the states. The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical writers, most importantly Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica. The term can literally be translated as "public matter". It was most often used by Roman writers to refer to the government, even during the period of the Roman Empire. Likewise, in Polish, the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used to Poland.Republic – Vaishali was the capital of the Vajjian Confederacy, an early republic.
19. Economy of France – France has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal figures and the ninth largest economy by PPP figures. It has the third-largest economy in Europe with Germany in 1st. The OECD is headquartered in the nation's financial capital. The industry is a key sector for France, helping to develop other manufacturing activities and contributing to economic growth. France's industry is a major component of the economy, as France is the most visited destination in the world. Sophia Antipolis is the major hub for the economy of France. According in 2013, France was the world's 20th country by GDP per capita with $44,099 per inhabitant. In 2013, France was listed on the United Nations's Human Development Index on the Corruption Perceptions Index. France's economy appeared to leave it earlier than most affected economies, only enduring four-quarters of contraction. With 31 of the 500 biggest companies of the world in 2015, France ranks 4th in the Fortune Global 500, behind the USA, Japan. French corporations rank amongst the largest in their industries such as AXA in insurance and Air France in air transportation. France embarked under state coordination. The 1981 election of president François Mitterrand saw a short-lived increase in governmental control of the economy, nationalising private banks. This form of increased dirigisme, was criticised early as 1982. By 1983, the government decided to start an era of rigueur or corporatization.Economy of France – La Défense is a major business district in Europe
20. European Union – The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. The EU operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmental decision-making. The Maastricht Treaty introduced European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. Additionally, 26 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8, the G-20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a potential superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of Steel Community, declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe." The supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak.European Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
21. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United Nations is in Manhattan, experiences extraterritoriality. Main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna. The organization is financed from its member states. The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference in April -- June 1945; the UN began operation. The organization participated in major actions in the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the state of Israel in 1947. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions with varying degrees of success. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is an office held by South Korean Ban Ki-moon since 2007. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with other agencies to participate in the UN's work. A number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between countries.United Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.
22. G7 – The Group of 7 is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States. The European Union is also represented within the G7. A very high Human Development Index are the main requirements to be a member of this group. The G7 countries also represent 46 % of the global GDP evaluated at 32 % of the global purchasing power parity GDP. The 42nd G7 summit was held in May 2016. Recent G7 meetings include that of May 2013 in Aylesbury, United Kingdom with an emergency meeting in The Hague, Netherlands on March 24, 2014. The G7's precursor was the'Group of Six'. The intent was "to discuss current world issues in a informal manner". The G6 followed an unofficial gathering starting in 1974 of financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan and France. They were called the "Group of Five" because they met informally in the White House Library in Washington, DC.. The "Library Group" were the top five of the world's then leading economies as ranked by per capita GDP. Canada became the seventh member to begin attending the summits in 1976, after which the G7 Summit was used. Following 1994's summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 -- or, colloquially, the +1. It was seen as a way to encourage Yeltsin's capitalist reforms.G7 – Summit site of the 2015 G7 summit: Schloss Elmau in the Bavarian Alps, Germany
23. G8 – The G8 is an inter-governmental political forum of the world′s major highly industrialized economies in countries that view themselves as democracies. Collectively, in 2012 the G8 nations comprised 50.1 percent of 2012 global nominal GDP and 40.9 percent of global GDP. The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven, or G7, in 1976 with the addition of Canada. Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. The European Union is represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits. The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was able to host and chair a summit. "G7" can refer to the member states in aggregate or to the annual summit meeting of the G7 heads of government. The former term, G6, is now frequently applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union. G7 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7 finance ministers, G7 foreign ministers, or G7 environment ministers. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, determines which ministerial meetings will take place. Nevertheless, the G7/G8 retains its relevance as a "steering group for the West", special significance for Japan. The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized countries emerged prior to the 1973 oil crisis. Taking their name from the setting, this original group of four became known as the "Library Group". In mid-1973, at the World Bank-IMF meetings, Shultz proposed the addition of Japan to the original four nations, who agreed. The informal gathering of financial officials from the United States, France became known as the "Group of Five."G8 – At the 34th G8 Summit at Toyako, Hokkaido, formal photo during Tanabata matsuri event for world leaders— Silvio Berlusconi (Italy), Dmitry Medvedev (Russia), Angela Merkel (Germany), Gordon Brown (UK), Yasuo Fukuda (Japan), George W. Bush (U.S.), Stephen Harper (Canada), Nicolas Sarkozy (France), José Manuel Barroso (EU)—July 7, 2008.
24. NATO – The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides. Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members' spending is supposed to amount to 2 % of GDP. The course of the Cold War led with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 2004. The Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a receptive hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. Talks for a military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The creation of NATO can be seen as the institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation.NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
25. Latin Union – It was existed as a functional institution from 1983 to 2012. Its membership rose including countries in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, the Asia-Pacific region. French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish are used as working languages. All the texts of general diffusion are translated with some also going into Romanian and Catalan. The Union is composed of three main bodies, namely, the Congress, the General Secretariat. The Congress, which consists of the representatives of all the Member States, meets in ordinary assembly every two years. Two Vice-Presidents are also elected by the Congress. As of December 2010, Oleg Serebrian from the Republic of Moldova is the current President. There are also two auxiliary bodies of the Congress, namely, the Commission of Candidacies. The Commission of Adhesions is composed of 10 Member States and responsible for promoting the adhesions of all the Member States of the Union. The Executive Council is the executive branch of the Union. Since December 2010 Venezuela are the members of the council. Jose Luis Dicenta Ballester is currently the Secretary-General of the Union. For some activities, the Union may collaborate with other private institutions.Latin Union
26. United Nations Security Council – The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946. The Security Council consists of fifteen members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member candidates for Secretary-General. The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members. Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016, 16,471 civilians are deployed on 16 peacekeeping operations and 1 special political mission. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations. The earliest concrete plan for a new organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1 21 additional states had signed. The most contentious issue in successive talks proved to be the veto rights of permanent members. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty votes to ten. On 17 the Security Council met for the first time at Church House, Westminster, in London, United Kingdom.United Nations Security Council – UN Security Council Chamber in New York City
27. List of countries with nuclear weapons – There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear-weapon states" under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, the Russian Federation, China. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's SIPRI Yearbook of 2014, Israel has approximately 80 nuclear warheads. According to Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Nuclear Notebook 2014, the total number of nuclear weapons worldwide is estimated at 10,144. South Africa developed nuclear weapons but then disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT. Nations that are known or thought to have nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to informally as the nuclear club. This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club." With the exception of Russia and the United States these figures are estimates, in some cases quite unreliable estimates. In particular, under the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty thousands of Russian and U.S. nuclear warheads are inactive in stockpiles awaiting processing. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors. Many of the decommissioned weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled, not destroyed. These five states are also the UN Security Council's permanent members with veto power. It was the first nation to develop the bomb, testing a deployable weapon in 1954.List of countries with nuclear weapons – An early stage in the " Trinity " fireball, the first nuclear explosion, 1945
28. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. French has evolved from the spoken Latin in Gaul, more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl -- languages historically spoken in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. Nation may be referred to as "Francophone" in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which are members of the community of French-speaking countries. French is the fourth most widely spoken tongue in the European Union. 1/5 of non-Francophone Europeans speak French. Most second-language speakers reside in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 190 million secondary speakers. Approximately million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates million by 2050, 80 % of whom will be in Africa. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese.French language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
29. Languages of France – The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages. Regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees as a secondary language after French, such as German dialects, Celtic languages and other Gallo-Romance languages. Some of these languages have also been spoken in neighbouring countries, such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy or Spain. The French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. The government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising be available in French; see Toubon Law. The French government, however, does not mandate the use of French in any other media. A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented at Versailles in July 2008. 24 of those languages are indigenous to the European territory of the state while all the others are from overseas areas of the French Republic. The category of languages of France is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go so as to provide any official status. This term is often considered derogatory. The topic of the teaching of regional languages in public secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the measure state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages and to show respect to the local culture. Opponents contend that the curriculum and funding of public schools are already too strained. The topic also leads to wider controversial questions of autonomy of the régions. Regarding other languages, English, Spanish, German are the most commonly studied foreign languages in French schools.Languages of France – Regional languages and their dialects in Metropolitan France
30. La Francophonie – The organization comprises governments, twenty observers. The modern organisation was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, égalité, fraternité. Finally in 2005, the adoption of a new Charter of the Francophonie gives the name to the Agency of international Organization of the Francophonie. The position of Secretary-General was created in 1997 at the seventh leaders' summit held in Hanoi. The former president of the Republic of Senegal, became Secretary General in January 2003. At the 2014 summit in Dakar, former Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean was chosen to lead the organization starting in January 2015. The Secretary General of the Francophonie is elected during the Summit. He/she is the keystone of the institutional device and of the Francophonie and leads the organization. He/she is the spokesperson and the official representative internationally of the political actions of the Francophonie. The Secretary General is responsible for proposing priority areas for multilateral Francophonie actions. His/her job is to ensure that activities of all operating agencies work in harmony. It is chaired by the Head of state and government of the host country, this person assumes that responsibility until the next Summit. Armenia is to play host to the next summit in 2018 and Tunisia is to host in 2020. This conference ensures that the decisions made during the previous Summits are carried out and to plan the next Summit.La Francophonie – Flags of the Francophonie members.
31. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. Including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois later in the war. The war ended in 1453. Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. Scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide empire was established in the 16th century. Political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution.History of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
32. French people – The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, cultural. France was still regional differences in the late 19th century. According to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness, the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries. European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France strongly advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has recently been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves. The 2005 French riots in some impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks.French people – Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"
33. Falaise pocket – The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War. Four depleted panzer divisions were not enough to defeat the First U.S. Army. Operation Lüttich was a disaster, which drove the Germans deeper into the Allied envelopment. The Germans began to withdraw on 17 August and on 19 August, the Allies linked up in Chambois. By the evening of 21 August, the pocket had been sealed, with c. 50,000 Germans trapped inside. Many Germans escaped but losses in men and equipment were huge. Cherbourg was not captured by the VII U.S. On 25 July the First U.S. Army commander, Lieutenant-General Omar Bradley began Operation Cobra. On 30 July, Avranches was captured and within 24 hours the VIII U.S. Corps of the Third U.S. Army crossed the bridge at Pontaubault into Brittany and continued south and west through open country, almost without opposition. The U.S. advance was swift and by 8 August, Le Mans, the former headquarters of the German 7th Army, had been captured. On the Eastern Front, Operation Bagration had begun against Army Group Centre which left no possibility of reinforcement of the Western Front. Eight of the nine Panzer divisions in Normandy were to be used in the attack but only four could be made ready in time. The German commanders protested that their forces were incapable of an offensive but the warnings were ignored and Operation Lüttich, commenced on 7 August around Mortain. Bradley said This is an opportunity that comes to a commander not more than once in a century.Falaise pocket – A Cromwell tank and Willys MB jeep pass an abandoned German 88 mm (3.46 in) PaK 43 anti-tank gun during Totalize
34. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations -- including all of the great powers -- eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Axis. It directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. In December 1941, Japan quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union invaded Germany and its allies. Thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political social structure of the world. The United Nations was established to prevent future conflicts. The great powers -- the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, France -- became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to create a common identity. This article uses the conventional dating.World War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
35. Operation Overlord – The invaders were able to establish a beachhead as part of Operation Overlord after a successful "D-Day," the first day of the invasion. Allied land forces came from the United States, Free French forces. The Normandy invasion began with naval bombardments. Land forces used on D-Day sailed along the south coast of the most important of these being Portsmouth. Allied forces rehearsed their D-Day roles for months before the invasion. There were several leaks prior to or on D-Day. Through the Cicero affair, the Germans obtained documents containing references to Overlord, but these documents lacked all detail. After being told, Eisenhower reduced Miller to lieutenant colonel and sent him back to the U.S. where he retired. Another such leak was General Charles de Gaulle's radio message after D-Day. He, unlike all the other leaders, stated that this invasion was the real invasion. This had the potential to ruin the Allied deceptions Fortitude North and Fortitude South. In contrast, Gen. Eisenhower referred to the landings as the initial invasion. A full moon occurred on 6 June. Allied Expeditionary Force Supreme Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower had tentatively selected 5 June as the date for the assault. The weather was fine during most of May, but deteriorated in early June.Operation Overlord – Into the Jaws of Death by Robert F. Sargent. Assault craft land one of the first waves at Omaha Beach. The U.S. Coast Guard caption identifies the unit as Company E, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division.
36. Pocket (military) – A salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. The salient is surrounded on three sides making the troops occupying the salient vulnerable. The enemy's line facing a salient is referred to as a re-entrant. A deep salient is vulnerable to forming a pocket in which the defenders of the salient become isolated. Salients can be formed in a number of ways. In trench warfare, they were commonly formed by the failure of a broad frontal attack. The line bulged forward to protect a piece of high ground, in a curve that became known as the Mule Shoe Salient. In World War I, the British occupied a large salient for most of the war. Formed as a result of the First Battle of Ypres, it became one of the most bloody sectors of the Western Front. A similar salient existed around the French city of Verdun; the Battle of Verdun around it cost heavy casualties. Also in World War I, the Germans occupied a small salient in front of Fromelles called the Sugarloaf due to its distinctive shape. Being small, it provided advantage by allowing them to enfilade the stretches of no man's land on either flank. Also in World War II, the German Army launched a attack against advancing Allied forces in the Ardennes in December 1944. This battle is commonly known as the Battle of the Bulge. During the military intervention on the island of Cyprus in 1974, Turkish Forces reached as far south as the Turkish Cypriot village of Louroujina.Pocket (military) – Battle of the Bulge: The Ardennes on December 15, 1944, as the offensive began. See image below for the development of the salient.
37. Falaise, Calvados – Falaise is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Falaise lies on the river Ante, about 30 kilometres southeast of Caen. Evidence of settlement from this time has been found at an agricultural area just north-east of the modern town. Falaise as it is sited today, probably came into being around the castle. The town was the birthplace of William the Conqueror, first of England. The Château de Falaise, which overlooks the town from a high crag, was formerly the seat of the Dukes of Normandy. The town is also the place where Rabbi Yom Tov of Falaise, grandchild of Rashi held his rabbinical court. 50,000 taken prisoner. Two-thirds of Falaise was destroyed by Allied bombing before the town was taken by a combined force of Polish troops. Falaise was largely restored after the war. Communes of the Calvados department Castle William the Conqueror in Falaise, France. Normandieweb on Falaise A Conqueror's change of heart Personal blog with good images of the William the Conqueror statue in FalaiseFalaise, Calvados – Falaise
38. Army Group BArmy Group B – Flag for the Commander in Chief of Army Group 1941–1945
39. Western Allies – The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc, a more common term in English than Western Bloc. The press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the Free World or the Western world. Makers of Modern Strategy. Ed. Peter Paret. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1971. 702. Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. 447,454.Western Allies – Political situation in Europe during the Cold War
40. Seine – The Seine is a 777-kilometre long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It is navigable by ocean-going vessels far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur. The Seine rises of Dijon. The source has been owned since 1864. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. Oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial riverboats can use the river to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges. The river is only 24 metres above level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. 105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.Seine – The Seine in Paris
41. Liberation of Paris – 25 August, the bulk of the 2nd Armored Division and US 4th Infantry Division entered the city. Although the Allied strategy emphasized destroying German forces retreating towards the Rhine, the French Resistance, led by Henri Rol-Tanguy, staged an uprising in Paris. The Supreme Commander of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, did not consider the liberation of Paris to be a primary objective. General Eisenhower stated that it was too early for an assault on Paris. He was aware that Adolf Hitler had ordered the German military to completely destroy Paris should the Allies attack. Paris was considered historically, to risk its destruction. General Eisenhower was keen to avoid the Siege of Leningrad. Transportation systems rebuilt. All of these supplies were desperately needed in other areas of the effort. General Charles de Gaulle of the French Army threatened bypassing the SHAEF chain of command. That employees of the Paris Métro, the Gendarmerie, police went on strike; postal workers followed the next day. They were soon joined across the city causing a general strike to break out on 18 August. On 16 35 young FFI members were betrayed by an agent of the Gestapo. They had gone to a secret meeting near the grande cascade in the Bois de Boulogne. There, they then finished off with hand grenades.Liberation of Paris – Parisians line the Champs Élysées as French 2e DB tanks and half tracks roll down the avenue from the Arc de Triomphe toward Place de la Concorde on 26 August
42. Sophie Blanchard – Sophie Blanchard was a French aeronaut and the wife of ballooning pioneer Jean-Pierre Blanchard. After her husband's death she continued ballooning, making more than 60 ascents. Known throughout Europe for her ballooning exploits, Blanchard entertained Napoleon Bonaparte, who promoted her to the role of "Aeronaut of the Official Festivals", replacing André-Jacques Garnerin. On the restoration of the monarchy in 1814 she performed for Louis XVIII, who named her "Official Aeronaut of the Restoration". Ballooning was a risky business for the pioneers. Blanchard lost consciousness on a few occasions, almost drowned when her balloon crashed in a marsh. She fell to her death. Sophie Blanchard was born Marie Madeleine-Sophie Armant to Protestant parents near La Rochelle. Little is known of her life to Jean-Pierre Blanchard, the world's first professional balloonist. The date of her marriage is unclear; sources most state 1804, the year of her first ascent. She later died in poverty. She was fearless in the air. Her husband were in an accident on a joint flight in 1807, in which they crashed and he sustained a head injury. The shock apparently left her mute for a while. Sophie made her first ascent in Marseilles on 27 December 1804.Sophie Blanchard – Blanchard shown in an 1859 engraving by Jules Porreau
43. Aeronautics – The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of "aeronautical Art, Science and Engineering" and "the profession of Aeronautics." Wiser investigators sought to gain some rational understanding through the study of flight. An early example appears in Egyptian texts. Later Islamic scientists also made such studies. Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance and Cayley in 1799, both began their investigations with studies of bird flight. Man-carrying kites are believed to have been used extensively in ancient China. In 1282 the European explorer Marco Polo described the Chinese techniques then current. The Chinese also constructed rotary-wing toys. The medium for his balloon would be an "aether" whose composition he did not know. Although his designs were rational, they were not based on particularly good science. Many such as a four-person screw-type helicopter, have severe flaws. He did at least understand that "An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object." Da Vinci's work did not reappear until it had been overtaken by the work of George Cayley. The modern era of lighter-than-air flight began early in the 17th century with Galileo's experiments in which he showed that air has weight. These would be able to lift an airship.Aeronautics – Space Shuttle Atlantis on a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.
44. Balloon (aircraft) – In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy. A balloon may be free, moving with the wind, or tethered to a fixed point. It is distinct from an airship, a powered aerostat that can propel itself through the air in a controlled manner. Many balloons have a capsule suspended beneath the main envelope for carrying people or equipment. A balloon is conceptually the simplest of all flying machines. The balloon is a fabric envelope filled with a gas, lighter than the surrounding atmosphere. As the entire balloon is less dense than its surroundings, it rises, taking along with it a basket, attached underneath, which carries passengers or payload. The Rozière type has both heated and unheated lifting gases in separate gasbags. This type of balloon is sometimes used for long-distance record flights, such as the recent circumnavigations, but is not otherwise in use. The balloon are still in common use. They are popular for balloonist activity. The manned balloon flight was by a larger Montgolfier balloon, probably on 15 October 1783. The free flight was by the same Montgolfier balloon on 21 November 1783. When heated, air expands, so a given volume of space contains less air. If its power is greater than the weight of the balloon containing it, it will lift the balloon upwards.Balloon (aircraft) – A hot air balloon in flight.
45. Jean-Pierre Blanchard – Jean-Pierre Blanchard was a French inventor, best known as a pioneer in balloon flight. Blanchard made his first successful balloon flight in Paris March 1784 in a hydrogen gas balloon launched from the Champ de Mars. Blanchard adopted the Latin tag Sic itur astra as his motto. Clothing ballon was produced with exaggerated puffed sleeves and rounded skirts, or with printed images of balloons. Hair was coiffed à la montgolfier, au globe volant, à la Blanchard. Blanchard was awarded a substantial pension by Louis XVI. Blanchard toured Europe, demonstrating his balloons. He holds the record of first balloon flights in Belgium, Germany, Poland. Subsequent development of the parachute focussed on making it more compact. On 9 Blanchard conducted the first balloon flight in the Americas. He launched his balloon in Deptford, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Blanchard left the United States in 1797. He married Marie Madeleine-Sophie Armant in 1804. On February 1808, Blanchard had a heart attack while in his balloon at the Hague. He died roughly a year later from his severe injuries. His widow continued to support herself with ballooning demonstrations until it also killed her.Jean-Pierre Blanchard – Jean-Pierre Blanchard, engraving after a portrait by Richard Livesay
46. Bourbon Restoration – The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France reigned in highly conservative fashion, the exiles returned. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up all the territorial gains made since 1789. The Bourbon Restoration lasted from 6 April 1814 until the popular uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830. There was an interlude in spring 1815—the "Hundred Days"—when the return of Napoleon forced the Bourbons to flee France. When Napoleon was again defeated they returned to power in July. During the Restoration, the new Bourbon regime was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the absolutist Ancien Régime, so it had some limits on its power. The period was characterized by consequent consistent occurrences of civil unrest and disturbances. It also saw the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a major power in French politics. The eras of Napoleon brought a series of major changes to France which the Restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris. The political geography was completely reorganized and made uniform. France was divided into 80+ departments, which have endured into the 21st century. Each department had an identical administrative structure, was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris.Bourbon Restoration – Louis XVIII makes a return at the Hôtel de Ville de Paris on August 29th, 1814
47. Louis XVIII of France – Until his accession to the throne of France, Louis held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 the National Convention deposed King Louis XVI, later executed by guillotine. When Louis XVI's son, died in June 1795, Louis XVIII succeeded his nephew as titular King. During Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in Prussia, the United Kingdom and Russia. When the Sixth Coalition finally defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. Napoleon escaped from his exile in Elba, however, restored his French Empire. A Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for slightly less than a decade. The Bourbon Restoration regime was a constitutional monarchy. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced substantially by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children; therefore, upon the crown passed to Charles, Count of Artois. He was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin he was a Fils de France. Louis Stanislas was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth in accordance with tradition, being nameless before his baptism. By this act, he became also a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit.Louis XVIII of France – Portrait by Robert Lefèvre, c.1822
48. Aviation accidents and incidents – If the aircraft is destroyed or severely damaged so that it must be written off, it is further defined as a hull loss accident. 583: The Tenerife airport disaster, which occurred on March 27, 1977, remains the accident with the highest number of airliner passenger fatalities. There were no survivors from the KLM aircraft; 61 of the 396 passengers and crew on the Pan Am aircraft survived. Pilot error was the primary cause as the KLM captain began his takeoff run although he did not have ATC clearance. Another cause was dense fog. The KLM flight crew could not see the Pan Am aircraft on the runway until immediately prior to the collision. The accident had a lasting influence on the industry, particularly in the area of communication. An increased emphasis was placed on using standardized phraseology in air traffic control communication by both controllers and pilots alike. Furthermore, all members of the cabin crew are now able to question the captain's judgment concerning the safety of the airliner. Pilots were able to keep the plane flying for 32 minutes after the mechanical failure before crashing into a mountain. All 15 crew members and 505 of the 509 passengers on board died. The death toll was exacerbated by delays in the rescue operation. Although a number of people survived, by the time the Japanese rescue teams arrived at the crash site all but four had succumbed to their injuries. The collision was mainly the result of the Kazakh pilot flying lower than the assigned clearance altitude. All 349 passengers and crew on board both aircraft died.Aviation accidents and incidents – A pilot ejects from his F-16 less than a second before it impacts the ground.
49. Jardin de Tivoli, Paris – There were such gardens in succession between 1795-1842, none of which are remaining today. Its main entrance was located rue de Clichy, with a secondary entrance on Saint-Lazare. Two principal buildings were at n 102, la rue Saint-Lazare, at n ° 27, la rue de Clichy. A pavilion, attributed to architect François Dominique Barreau de Chefdeville, housed a mineralogical collection. There on Thursdays Boutin received his friends, including architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart. The park put under sequestration. In 1795, the Folie Boutin opened to the public, becoming the ancestor of amusement parks. During its time as a public garden, it was a favorite spot for Parisian high society, with amusements including panoramas, marionnettes, magic lantern shows. Boutin's heirs recovered Tivoli by a lawsuit in 1797. In 1799, a bath opened on the site. Following the damage caused before their departure for Spain, the garden was closed on August 30, 1810. In 1812, it was reintegrated with the Grand Tivoli site. Part of the land was sold to banker Pierre-Laurent Hainguerlot and subsequently the Spanish legation. The Second Tivoli disappeared after an evening party given for Charles X's coronation on 7 June. On February 1826, the Boutin heirs sold the land to Jonas-Philip Hagerman and Sylvain Mignon, when it became the Quartier de l'Europe.Jardin de Tivoli, Paris – Location of the Tivoli gardens, 1826, from the Panorama de la ville de Paris par AM Perrot
50. Hortus deliciarum – Hortus deliciarum is a medieval manuscript compiled by Herrad of Landsberg at the Hohenburg Abbey in Alsace, better known today as Mont Sainte-Odile. It was an illuminated encyclopedia, begun in 1167 at the convent. It is the first encyclopedia, evidently written by a woman. It was one of the most celebrated illuminated manuscripts of the period. The majority of the work is with glosses in German. Most of the manuscript was not original, but was a compendium of 12th knowledge. The manuscript drew from texts by classical and Arab writers. Interspersed with writings from other sources were poems by Herrad, addressed to the nuns, almost all of which were set to music. The most famous portion of the manuscript is the illustrations, of which there were 336, which symbolised various themes, including theosophical, literary themes. These works are well regarded. In 1870, the manuscript was destroyed when the library housing it in Strasbourg was bombed during a siege on the city. Hortus deliciarum is one of the first sources of polyphony originating from a convent. The manuscript contained at least 20 song texts, all of which were originally notated with music. Those that can be recognized now are mainly note against note in texture. The notation was in semi-quadratic neumes with pairs of four-line staves.Hortus deliciarum – Philosophia et septem artes liberales (Philosophy and the Seven Liberal Arts), as illustrated in Hortus deliciarum. (Description of the illumination)
51. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
52. Illuminated manuscript – An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders and miniature illustrations. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject; for an art-historical account, see miniature. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire. Had it not been for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity, most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe. As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians. The majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many survive from the Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity. The majority of these manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from the 13th century onward, an increasing number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls. A very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus, which does not last nearly as long as vellum or parchment. Beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper. Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced in the early 16th century, but in much smaller numbers, mostly for the very wealthy. Manuscripts are among the most common items to survive from the Middle Ages; many thousands survive.Illuminated manuscript – In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated.
53. Encyclopedia – Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years; the oldest still in existence, Naturalis Historia, was written starting in ca. AD 77 by Pliny the Elder and was not fully revised at the time of his death in AD 79. The modern encyclopedia evolved out of dictionaries around the 17th century. Some modern encyclopedias, such as Wikipedia, are electronic and often freely available. Together, the phrase literally translates as "complete instruction" or "complete knowledge". One of the oldest vernacular uses was by François Rabelais in his Pantagruel in 1532. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -pedia, e.g. Banglapedia. In British usage, the spellings encyclopedia and encyclopaedia are both current. In American usage, only the former is commonly used. Webster's Third New International Dictionary features encyclopedia as the main headword and encyclopaedia as a minor variant. In addition, cyclopedia and cyclopaedia are now rarely used shortened forms of the word originating in the 17th century. The modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Historically, both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts, but they are significantly different in structure.Encyclopedia – Brockhaus Enzyklopädie
54. Hell – In many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, hell is a place of torment and punishment in an afterlife. It is viewed as punishment. Religions with a linear history often depict hells as eternal destinations. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions often include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Limbo. Hell is sometimes portrayed as populated with demons who torment those dwelling there. Many are ruled by a god such as Nergal, Hades, Hel, Enma or the Devil. Subsequently, the word was used to transfer a concept to Christian theology and its vocabulary. Some have theorized that English hell is derived from Old Norse hel. However, this is very unlikely as hel appears before the Viking invasions. Furthermore, the word has a Proto-Germanic origin. Hell appears in several religions. It is commonly inhabited by the souls of dead people. A fable about hell which recurs across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons.Hell – Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)
55. Admiral – Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank. The word "admiral" in Middle English comes from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea". Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as "Amir of Amirs", i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as "ammiratus ammiratorum". The Sicilians and later Genoese used them as one word, amiral, from their Aragon opponents. The Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example, Horatio Nelson's highest rank was admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is officer. Some navies have also used army-type titles such as the Cromwellian "general at sea". Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Admiral of Castile was a post with a long and important history in Spain. . ISBN 978-0-7139-9934-1Admiral – Admiral Royal Australian Navy
56. Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars – Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars was a French naval officer important in France's anexation of French Polynesia. He was born at the castle near Saumur. Aristide Aubert Dupetit-Thouars was of the heroes of the Battle of the Nile. He joined the French Navy in 1804, where he was a young hand in the Boulogne fleet. Between 1823-25 he remained her captain on the Brazil station. He was promoted in 1824. Dupetit Thouars frequently had a decisive role in the conquest of Algiers, where he established the attack plans. During the battle, he commanded the 20-gun Griffon. He was later put in the Pacific Ocean. In 1834 he played a key role in protecting French shipping interests against the Peruvians. He accomplished a circumnavigation between 1836 and 1839 on Vénus. He was made July 1841 in charge of the Pacific Naval Division. His mission was to take possession of the Marquesas Islands. He was initially denounced by the French government, which feared a conflict with Great Britain. Relations between France and Great Britain soured considerably during the reign of Louis-Philippe, due to this "Pritchard Affair".Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars – Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars
57. Tahiti – The island is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 183,645 inhabitants, accounting for 68.5 percent of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, political centre of French Polynesia. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 800 CE. They represent about 70 percent of the island's population with the rest made up of Europeans, those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France. It was not until 1946 that the indigenous Tahitians were legally authorised to be French citizens. French is the only official language although the Tahitian language is widely spoken. Tahiti is the largest island in French Polynesia lying close to Moorea island. It is located 4,400 kilometres south of Hawaii, 5,700 km from Australia. The island covers an area of 1,045 km2. The highest peak is Mont Orohena. Mount Ronui in the southeast rises to 1,332 m. The portion is known as Tahiti Nui, while the much smaller southeastern portion is known as Tahiti Iti or Tai'arapū. Tahiti Nui is heavily populated along the coast, especially around Papeete.Tahiti – Tahiti is famous for black sand beaches.
58. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι -- arkhi - and πέλαγος -- pélagos through the Italian arcipelago. It is now used to refer to any island group or, sometimes, to a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Archipelagos may be found isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago. Archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs may also be the result of erosion, deposition, elevation. Depending on their geological origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as'oceanic islands','continental fragments', and'continental islands'. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin. Continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the British Isles, the Bahamas, Greece, New York City are examples of well-known archipelagos. The largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Archipelago". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Archipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
59. Passionate Minds – Passionate Minds: The Great Enlightenment Love Affair is a book by author David Bodanis. Written in the form of a novel, the book deals with his mistress, scientist Émilie du Châtelet. It also discusses the theories they propounded about life, the nature of the universe. The bibliographic citation of the book in question is: Bodanis, David. Passionate Minds: The Great Love Affair of the Enlightenment. New York, NY, USA: Crown. ISBN 9780307237200. Retrieved November 2015. The novel is set in Western Europe known as the Age of Enlightenment. People began to question society and the ruling classes. The story is set against a backdrop of political turmoil. The book takes place over a period of 43 years, from 1706 to 1749. The book utilizes several themes to convey its story to the reader. Predominate themes include the rights of women. Though not actively campaigning for women's rights, this book highlights the way in which woman were treated during the pre-Enlightenment period.Passionate Minds – The front cover of Passionate Minds
60. Voltaire – He was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, historical and scientific works. Voltaire wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. Voltaire was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, Voltaire frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, the French institutions of his day. Sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Voltaire, pretending to work as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father found out, Voltaire sent Voltaire to law, this time in Caen, Normandy. Nevertheless, Voltaire continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. At The Hague, he fell with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From on, he had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government. These activities were to result to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his own daughter, led in the Bastille.Voltaire – Portrait by Nicolas de Largillière
61. Territorial formation of France – This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world. Metropolitan France is that part, in Europe. Occidental France, which arose from the Treaty of Verdun of 843, remained stable for many years. The Capetians, were too much occupied with imposing their authority in their own realm to be expansionist. They deftly exploited dissent among their turbulent vassals, applying pressure on the Church and towns. The great conflicts with the kings of England were important occasions for asserting royal power. Of Languedoc to the French kingdom were two important stages in the unification of the kingdom. France soon lost the County of Barcelona, from the end of the 9th century. The crossing beyond Rhone, which for a long time remained the frontier, did not begin with the purchase of the Dauphiné. From 1635 to 1748, Richelieu and Louis XIV undertook an expansion of the frontiers of the kingdom towards the Rhine. Their aim was to check the aspiration of the Austrian house towards its own predominance in Europe. The loss of French Flanders had brought the frontier close to the French capital. Alsace, Artois and Franche-Comté were annexed between 1697. The Duchy of Lorraine remained some time an enclave in the French kingdom before it too was incorporated in 1766.Territorial formation of France – France in the Carolingian Empire from 843 to 888
62. Arbel Fauvet Rail – Arbel Fauvet Rail is a railway rolling stock manufacturer based in Douai, France. In 2010 the company was renamed AFR Titagarh. The factory made a variety of different metal parts including wheels for railway vehicles. In 1894 the Forges de Douai was founded as public company as directors. Parts for other military equipment began to be produced around this time in Douai. In 1910 a third plant was opened which included an open hearth furnace, other equipment for the working of steel. By 1914 the Société Arbel was employing 2500 workers. Much of the buildings also removed or destroyed. Re construction was complete by 1922. In 1929 the company was renamed Établissements Arbel in 1936. During the Second World War the factory was extensively damaged in 1944. After rebuilding, the factory in Douai continued the tradition of wagon metal forming. After 1970 the plant became a subsidiary of Arbel Industrie. In 1985 the operations were merged with Fauvet Girel to form Arbel Fauvet Rail. In 1914 Edouard Fauvet established a factory in La Courneuve.Arbel Fauvet Rail – builder's plate of a 1931 tank wagon
63. Merir – Merir or Melieli is a small outlying island of the Palau group, in the western Pacific Ocean. The island is uninhabited. There is an abandoned village in the north-west of the island which previously hosted a station. The island it is surrounded by a beach around, a lagoon. Outside this, the whole is surrounded by the open ocean.Merir – Luxuriant vegetation and beach scene in western Merir
64. Simone Weil – Simone Weil was a French philosopher, mystic, political activist. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. Taking a path, unusual among left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1960s, her work became famous on continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times". Weil was born in her parents' apartment on 3 February 1909. Her mother was her father Bernard was a medical doctor. Both were Alsatian Jews who had moved to Paris by Germany. Weil was a healthy baby for her first six months, until she had a severe attack of appendicitis -- thereafter she struggled throughout her life. She was the second of her parents' two children; her older brother was mathematician André Weil, with whom she would always enjoy a close relationship. Their parents were fairly affluent, raising their children in an attentive and supportive atmosphere. Weil suffered some distress due to her father's having to leave home for several years due to being drafted in World War I.Simone Weil – Simone Weil, 1921
65. Bischwiller – Bischwiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France just west of the Moder River. The city is 7.8 kilometers southeast of Haguenau, 8 kilometers west-northwest from the German border and the Rhine River, lies 22 kilometers north-northeast of Strasbourg. The Moder river, a Rhine tributary, flows across the town. Among the other streams which cross the area can be cited the following tributaries of the Morder: the Rothbaechel, the Erlengraben and the Waschgraben. The last one is formed by the confluence of two smaller streams named Weihergraben and Schnuchgraben. Due to its large Turkish minority, Bischwiller is often dubbed "Turkwiller". Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Rapp, comte Jean, Memoirs of General Count Rapp: First Aide-de-camp to Napoleon, H. Colburn and Company Official websiteBischwiller – La Laub, former town hall, now a museum
66. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the government's external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role before 1815. France fared poorly in the Second World War. Since 1945 France has been a founding member of the United Nations, of the European Coal and Steel Community. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany. It fought expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria and Spain. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. While his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent staff. His chief Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns and besieging enemy cities. Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system.Foreign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
67. Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the "Lepénisation des esprits" or lepénisation of spirits due to its noticeable effect on mainstream political opinion. He focuses on issues related to France, the European Union, France's high rate of unemployment. Le Pen advocates the penalty, raising incentives for euroscepticism. His longevity in his five attempts to become president of France have made a major figure in political life. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his father's boat was blown up by a mine in 1942. He was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes, then at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, started to sell the monarchist Action Française's newspaper, "Aspects de la France", in the street. He was repeatedly convicted of assault. Le Pen started his political career as the head of the student union in Toulouse. He was excluded from this organisation in 1951. After his time in the military, he studied political science and law at Panthéon-Assas University. After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the army in the Foreign Legion. Le Pen was then sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire.Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen MEP
68. John Calvin – John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Various Congregational, Reformed, Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. He was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy. Calvin also exchanged cordial and supportive letters including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, he wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, various other theological treatises. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, Calvin broke around 1530. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, he proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees. In 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. During this period, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva. Calvin was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out. He spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a province of the Kingdom of France. Calvin was the first of four sons who survived infancy. Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai.John Calvin – Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
69. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution. She was the second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. To Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of her four children. The Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Maria Antonia was born in Vienna. She was her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. Shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her three-year older sister Maria Carolina, with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. As to her relationship with her mother, her daughter loved each other. Despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in any language commonly used at court, such as Italian. Conversations with her were stilted.Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
70. Wikify – Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML, which, in turn, is served to web browsers. It was created on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is commonly accepted standard language. Justification, keywords and so on depend on the particular wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may support use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites. MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. There are different syntax conventions for these links. Many wikis, especially the earlier ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls "free links". Creole is an effort for a "common language to be used across different Wikis". There are several wiki engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007. It is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup code.Wikify – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.
71. French architecture – French architecture ranks high among France's many accomplishments. A crucial factor in this development, coined the Roman Architectural Revolution, was the invention of concrete. Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new solutions of their own. Notable examples in France during the period are Alyscamps in Arles and Maison Carrée in Nîmes. The Alyscamps is a large Roman necropolis, a short distance outside the walls of the old town of Arles. It was one of the most famous necropolises of the ancient world. The name is a corruption of the Latin Elisii Campi. They are referred to by Ariosto in Orlando Furioso and by Dante in the Inferno. The Alyscamps continued to be used well into medieval times, although the removal of Saint Trophimus' relics to the cathedral in 1152 reduced its prestige. Plans often continued the Roman tradition, but also took influences from as far away as Syria and Armenia. Many Merovingian plans have been reconstructed from archaeology. There are no Roman precedents for this Frankish innovation. Architecture of a Romanesque style developed simultaneously in the 10th century and prior to the later influence of the Abbey of Cluny. This structure has necessitated the use of very thick walls, the domes spring. There are radiating chapels around the apse, to evolve into the chevette.French architecture – South side of the Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, view from the Seine
72. Vichy France – Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. In particular, it represents the southern, unoccupied "Free Zone" that governed the southern part of the country. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of France as a whole, Germany militarily occupied northern France. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy. The Vichy government remained in existence, but as a de facto client and puppet of Nazi Germany. It vanished in late 1944 when the Allies occupied all of France. After being appointed Premier by President Albert Lebrun, Marshal Pétain ordered the French Government's military representatives to sign an armistice with Germany on 22 June 1940. Pétain subsequently established an authoritarian regime when the National Assembly of the French Third Republic granted him full powers on 10 July 1940. At that point, the Third Republic was dissolved. Calling for "National Regeneration", the French Government at Vichy reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy, with central planning a key feature. Labour unions came under tight government control. The independence of women was reversed, with an emphasis put on motherhood. Conservative Catholics became prominent. Paris lost its status in European culture. The media stressed virulent anti-Semitism, after June anti-Bolshevism.Vichy France – French prisoners of war are marched off under German guard, 1940
73. Charles de Gaulle – Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic. In 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era and his memory continues to influence French politics. Born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions. He led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the undisputed leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, the interim government of France following its Liberation. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, which quickly became a classic of modern French literature. When the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a strong presidency, he was elected in the latter role. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies. He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations.Charles de Gaulle – Charles de Gaulle in 1961
74. Vaux-le-Vicomte – The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is a baroque French château located in Maincy, near Melun, 55 kilometres southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne département of France. Their collaboration marked the beginning of the "Louis XIV style" combining architecture, interior design and design. The garden's visual axis is an example of this style. Fouquet was an avid patron of the arts, attracting many artists with his generosity. Fouquet's cultivated personality subsequently brought out the best in the three. To secure the necessary grounds for the elaborate plans for Vaux-le-Vicomte's castle, Fouquet purchased and demolished three villages. The displaced villagers were then employed in the maintenance of the gardens. It was said to cost as much as 16 million livres. Its patron became for a short time a focus for fine feasts, literature and arts. The playwright Molière were among the artists close to Fouquet. At the inauguration of Vaux-le-Vicomte, a Molière play was performed, with a dinner event organized by François Vatel and an impressive firework show. The superintendent's home too luxurious. Fouquet's intentions were to flatter the king: Fouquet's plan backfired. Jean-Baptiste Colbert led the king to believe that his minister's magnificence was funded by the misappropriation of public funds. Colbert, who then replaced Fouquet as superintendent of finances, arrested him.Vaux-le-Vicomte – View from the rond d'eau of the garden
75. Louisiana Purchase – The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory by the United States from France in 1803. The U.S. paid a cancellation of debts worth million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Its population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. Napoleon in 1800, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. The Americans originally sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but quickly accepted the bargain. The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition; they argued that it was unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Jefferson agreed that the U.S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics. It was controlled by the French, who had a small settlements along the Mississippi and main rivers. Following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi. The United States controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans.Louisiana Purchase – 1804 map of " Louisiana ", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains
76. Bourbon Family Compact – The Pacte de Famille is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. Philip V had become the first Bourbon King of Spain upon the extinction of Spanish Habsburgs. In addition, Spanish possessions in Italy were ceded to the surviving branch of the House of Habsburg. Louis XV was Philip's nephew. He had married Maria Leszczyńska, the daughter of King Stanislaus I of Poland. Because of this marriage alliance France became involved in the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. Philip V formed a plan to use this conflict to win back lost territory in Italy for his sons. He allied Spain to France. Because of his close relationship with Louis XV their alliance became known as the Family Compact. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris. Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louis's first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. The agreement involved Spain's allies Naples and Tuscany.Bourbon Family Compact – Both Kingdoms (France & Spain) to the House of Bourbon.
77. Antoine de la Sale – Antoine de la Sale was a French courtier, educator and writer. He only began writing when he had reached middle age, in the late 1430s. He became the tutor of Saint-Pol, to whom he dedicated a moral work in 1451. His most successful work was Little John of Saintré, written in 1456, when he was reaching the age of seventy. He was born in Provence, probably at the illegitimate son of Bernardon de la Salle, a celebrated Gascon mercenary, mentioned in Froissart's Chronicles. His mother was Perrinette Damendel. In 1402 Antoine entered the court of the third Angevin dynasty at Anjou, probably as a page. In 1407 he was with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, who had gone there to enforce his claim to the kingdom of Sicily. The next years he perhaps spent for he was present at two tournaments given at Brussels and Ghent. In 1415 he took part in the successful expedition against the Moors in Ceuta. In 1420 he accompanied the 17-year-old Louis III of Anjou in his attempt to assert his claim as King of Naples. He travelled to the Monti Sibillini and the neighboring Pilate's Lake. The work covered geography, history, military tactics. One original copy has survived, two early printed editions. These are have often been edited separately.Antoine de la Sale – Frontispiece of an 1830 edition of Little John of Saintré, showing a fictitious author's portrait
78. Albert Camus – Albert Camus was an Algerian and French philosopher, author, journalist based in France. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. Camus wrote in his essay The Rebel that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. Camus won the Nobel Prize in 1957. He did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite usually being classified in his lifetime. In a 1945 interview, he rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked.". He was studied at the University of Algiers, from which he graduated in 1936. In 1949, he founded the Group for International Liaisons to "denounce two ideologies found in the USA". Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in Dréan in French Algeria. His mother could only hear out of her left ear. Lucien died on 11 October. An illiterate house cleaner, lived without many basic material possessions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers. In 1923, he eventually was admitted to the University of Algiers. After he contracted tuberculosis in 1930, he had to end his football activities; he had been a goalkeeper for a prominent Algerian team.Albert Camus – Portrait from New York World-Telegram and Sun Photograph Collection, 1957.
79. Breton language – Breton /ˈbrɛtən/ is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany, France. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages. Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly-related Brittonic languages. The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue d'oïl. Gallo is consequently close to French, although not mutually intelligible, a Romance language descended from Latin. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709. Breton is spoken in West Brittany, roughly to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche-Bernard. It comes from a Brittonic community that once had even established a toehold in Galicia. Old Breton is attested from the 9th century. It was the language of the upper classes until the 12th century, after which it became the language of commoners in Lower Brittany. The nobility, followed by the bourgeoisie, adopted French. The written language of the Duchy of Brittany was Latin, switching to French in the 15th century. There exists a limited tradition of Breton literature. Some Old Breton vocabulary remains in the present day as philosophical and scientific terms in Modern Breton. During the French Revolution, the government introduced policies favouring French over the regional languages, which it pejoratively referred to as patois.Breton language – Bilingual sign Huelgoat, Brittany
80. Claude Debussy – Achille-Claude Debussy, known since the 1890s as Claude-Achille Debussy or Claude Debussy, was a French composer. Maurice Ravel were the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music, though Debussy disliked the term when applied to his compositions. Debussy was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1903. Debussy's music is noted for its sensory frequent usage of nontraditional tonalities. He was born August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, the oldest of five children. Manuel-Achille Debussy, owned a china shop there; his mother, Victorine Manoury Debussy, was a seamstress. In 1871 Debussy drew the attention of Marie Mauté de Fleurville, who claimed to have been a pupil of Frédéric Chopin. He always believed her, although there is no independent evidence to support her claim. In 1872, at age ten, Debussy entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he spent the next 11 years. Debussy also became a lifelong friend of distinguished pianist Isidor Philipp. After Debussy's death, many pianists sought Philipp's advice on playing Debussy's works. He was experimental from the outset, favoring intervals that were not taught at the Academy. Like Georges Bizet, Debussy was an outstanding sight reader, who could have had a professional career had he so wished. The pieces he played in public at this time included sonata movements by Beethoven, Schumann and Weber, Chopin's Ballade No. 2, a movement from the Piano Concerto No.Claude Debussy – Claude Debussy in 1908
81. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
82. Jean-Paul Sartre – Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, literary critic. Sartre was one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism. His work continues to influence these disciplines. He was also noted with prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir. Together, de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought. Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is Existentialism and Humanism originally presented as a lecture. Jean-Paul Sartre was born as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, Anne-Marie Schweitzer. His mother was of the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. When Sartre was two years old, his father died of a fever overseas. When he was twelve, the family moved to La Rochelle, where he was frequently bullied. Sartre attended a private school in Paris. It was at ENS that Sartre began his lifelong, sometimes fractious, friendship with Raymond Aron. Perhaps the most decisive influence on Sartre's philosophical development was his weekly attendance at Alexandre Kojève's seminars, which continued for a number of years. From his first years in the École Normale, he was one of its fiercest pranksters. In 1927, his satirical cartoon in the revue of the school, coauthored with Georges Canguilhem, particularly upset the director Gustave Lanson.Jean-Paul Sartre – Sartre in 1950
83. Picardy – Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It is located in the northern part of France. The historical province of Picardy stretched via the north of the Aisne department. The province of Artois separated Picardy from French Flanders. According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region became part of West Francia, the later Kingdom of France. The name "Picardy" was not used until the 12th or 13th century. During this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands. In the Latin Quarter of Paris, people identified a "Picard Nation" of students at Sorbonne University, most of whom actually came from Flanders. During the Hundred Years' War, Picardy was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358. In 1477, King Louis XI of France led an army and occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control all of Picardy and most of Artois. In the 16th century, the government of Picardy was created. This became a new administrative region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the northern half of the Aisne département, a small fringe in the north of the Oise département.Picardy – This painting by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes recalls the "Golden Age" in the history of the province of Picardy. The Walters Art Museum.
84. Rennes – Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department. Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the ancient Duchy of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, garrison city of the Kingdom of France. Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown through rural flight and its modern industrial development partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high industry. It is now a digital innovation centre in France. In 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about inhabitants. In 2013 is also the eighth-largest university campus of France. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais, Rennaise in French. In 2012, l'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France". Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head.Rennes
85. Sarah Bernhardt – Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage and early film actress. She is regarded as one of the finest actors of all time. She developed a reputation as tragedienne, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah". In her later career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced. Bernhardt was born as Rosine Bernardt, the daughter of Julie Bernardt and an unknown father. Julie was one of six children of an itinerant Jewish spectacle merchant, "vision specialist" and petty criminal, Sara Hirsch. Five weeks after his first wife's death in 1829, Julie's father married Sara Kinsbergen. He had abandoned his five daughters and one son by 1835. Julie, together with her younger sister Rosine, left for Paris, where she was known by the name "Youle". Julie had five daughters, including a twin who died in 1843. Sarah Bernhardt added an "h" to her surname. Her birth records were lost in a fire in 1871. When Bernhardt was young her mother sent her to Grandchamp, an Augustine school near Versailles. Much of the uncertainty about the facts of Bernhardt's life arises from her tendency to distort. Fils, described her as a notorious liar.Sarah Bernhardt – Bernhardt around 1878
86. Toulouse – Toulouse is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region. It is the fourth-largest city in France with 458,298 inhabitants in January 2013. Moreover, with 1,291,517 inhabitants at the January 2013 census, the Toulouse metropolitan area is also the fourth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Marseille. The city also hosts the largest space centre in Europe. Airbus Group's satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse. The route between Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The city is traversed by the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a subtropical climate which can be qualified as "submediterranean" due to its proximity to the Mediterranean zone. The Garonne Valley was a focal point for trade between the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd BC, when it became a military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm.Toulouse – Montage of Toulouse Top: Pont Saint Pierre and Garonne River Middle: Place du Capitole, Pont Neuf Bottom: Capitole de Toulouse, Ariane 5 at Cité de l'espace, Médiathèque José Cabanis
87. Girondist – The Girondins were members of a loosely-knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. They were part of the Jacobin movement, though not every Girondin was a member of the Jacobin Club. The Girondins campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain, a radical faction within the Jacobin Club. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondins and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The term became standard with Lamartine's History of the Girondists in 1847. Girondin leader Jacques-Pierre Brissot proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution internationally, thus the Girondins were the war party in 1792–93. Other prominent Girondins included Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in the English-born, sometime American activist Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the killing of the fiery radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday, executed. Five were lawyers: Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Jean Jay. The other, Jean François Ducos, was a tradesman.Girondist – The Girondists in the La Force Prison after their arrest. Woodcut from 1845.
88. Louis XIV – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
89. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – Not to be confused with Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, a second declaration, written in 1793 but never formally adopted. The Declaration was directly influenced by Thomas Jefferson, working with General Lafayette, who introduced it. It became the basis for a nation of free individuals protected equally by law. It is included in the preamble of the constitutions of both the Fourth French Republic and Fifth Republic and is still current. The inspiration and content of the document emerged largely from the ideals of the American Revolution. In August 1789, Honoré Mirabeau played a central role in conceptualizing and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The draft was later modified during the debates. A second and lengthier declaration, known as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, was written in 1793 but never formally adopted. Declaration of Independence which preceded it. Thomas Jefferson—the primary author of the U.S. Declaration of Independence—was at the time in France as a U.S. diplomat, worked closely with Lafayette in designing a bill of rights for France. In the ratification by the states of the U.S. Constitution in 1788, critics had demanded a written Bill of Rights. In response, James Madison's proposal for a U.S. Bill of Rights was introduced in New York on 8 June 1789, 11 weeks before the French declaration. Considering the 6 to 8 weeks it took news to cross the Atlantic, it is possible that the French knew of the American text.Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights.
90. Basque language – Basque is the language spoken by the Basques. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and indeed, as any other known language. The Basque language is spoken in all territories. Of these, the remaining 7 % are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that the three "ancient provinces" in France. However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardized form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, Upper Navarrese in Spain, Navarrese -- Lapurdian and Souletin in France. The dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. This is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving the only one in Western Europe. Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.Basque language – Family transmission of Basque language (Basque as initial language)
91. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre's main purpose is to assert the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence. His overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. Reading Being and Time initiated Sartre's own philosophical enquiry. Born into the material reality of one's body, in a material universe, one finds oneself inserted into being. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, to make them appear, or to annihilate them. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, phenomena through criticism of both earlier phenomenologists well as idealists, empiricists. Based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, being-for-itself is the being of consciousness. When we go about the world, we have expectations which are often not fulfilled. So Sartre claims, "It is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation." This essentially means that in being a waiter, grocer, etc. one must believe that their social role is equivalent to their human existence. It is also essential for an existent to understand that negation allows the self to enter what Sartre calls the "great human stream". The difference between projection remains at the heart of human subjects who are swept up by their "bad faith". Let us consider this waiter in the café.Being and Nothingness – Cover of the first edition
92. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014