1. Romance language – Around 800 million people are native speakers worldwide, mainly in Europe and the Americas, but also elsewhere. Additionally, the major Romance languages are in widespread use as lingua francas. This is especially the case for French, throughout Central and West Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and the Maghreb. The five most widely spoken Romance languages of native speakers are Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian. Despite other influences, the phonology, lexicon of all Romance languages consist mainly of evolved forms of Vulgar Latin. However, some notable differences occur between their Roman ancestor. From this adverb the romance originated, which applied initially to anything written romanice, or "in the Roman vernacular". The word ` romance' with the modern sense of love affair has the same origin. For example, the Portuguese fresta is descended from Latin fenestra "window", but now means "skylight" and "slit". Cognates have become rare, such as finiestra in Spanish, or dropped out of use entirely. Galician has the less frequently used ventá and xanela. It is hardly ever used in speaking. The literature is often hard to interpret or generalize. Many of its speakers were soldiers, slaves, forced resettlers, more likely to be natives of conquered lands than natives of Rome. Other scholars argue that the distinctions are more rightly viewed as indicative of register differences normally found within any language.Romance language – Roman
2. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
3. Quebec – Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's populous province, after Ontario. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live including the Island of Montreal. The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums in 1980 and 1995; both were voted down by voters, the latter defeated by a very narrow margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada." These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become a economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The proclamation restricted the province along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River.Quebec – The arrival of Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, on the site of Quebec City.
4. New Brunswick – New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally bilingual province. Fredericton is the capital, Saint John is the most populous city. In the 2011 nationwide census, Statistics Canada estimated the provincial population to have been 751,171, being on an area of almost 73,000 km2. There is also a large Francophone minority, chiefly of Acadian origin. The current premier of the province is Brian Gallant. It was created as a result of the partitioning of the British colony of Nova Scotia in 1784. The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on red pennon above it. The province is named for the city of Braunschweig, located in modern-day Lower Saxony in northern Germany. Braunschweig is the ancestral home of his successors. The original First Nations inhabitants of New Brunswick were members of three distinct tribes. They occupied the eastern and coastal areas of the province. They were responsible for the Augustine Mound, a ground built about 800 B.C. near Metepnákiaq. The western portion of the province was the traditional home of the Wolastoqiyik people. The smaller Passamaquoddy tribe occupied lands in the southwest of the province. The colony relocated the following year to Port Royal, Nova Scotia.New Brunswick – The Coming of the Loyalists, painting by Henry Sandham showing a romanticised view of the Loyalists' arrival in New Brunswick.
5. Ontario – Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, the nation's most populous city, Toronto. There is about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into two regions, Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is located in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is heavily forested. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme northeast, mainly swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions; Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario. The highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. The Carolinian zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment.Ontario – Algonquin Provincial Park, Cache Lake
6. Belgium – Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is bordering Germany. Historically, Belgium, Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries; it once covered a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. The region was called Belgica after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. Until the 17th century the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three communities, that exist next to each other. Its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia. Related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union. Brussels, hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area.Belgium – Charlemagne and Charles V
7. Switzerland – Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: Romansh. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz; Suisse; Svizzera; and Svizra or. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages. The English Switzerland is a compound containing an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, also in use since the 16th century. The name originates as an exonym, applied pars pro toto to the troops of the Confederacy. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica.Switzerland – Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
8. Haiti – Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti, is a sovereign state in the Western Hemisphere. The country is located in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. The region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain first discovered the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic. When Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or Asia. On Christmas Columbus' flagship the Santa Maria, ran aground north of what is now Limonade. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. The development of sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, led to the colony being in the world. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe -- I -- built it to withstand a possible foreign attack. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most recently, in February 2004, a d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided in Haiti.Haiti – Burning of the town of Cap-Français
9. Luxembourg – Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south. Its culture, languages are highly intertwined with its neighbors, making essentially a mixture of Germanic cultures. It comprises two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, the Gutland in the south. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. Luxembourg had a population in October 2012, ranking the least-populous country in Europe. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and the world's highest GDP per capita, according to the United Nations in 2014. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history. Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union.Luxembourg – Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg city's fortifications
10. U.S. – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization climbed to over 80% in 2010 and leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided inadequate federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of legal slavery in the country.U.S. – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
11. Maine – Maine is the northernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 41st most populous of the U.S. states and territories. Maine is the northernmost east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior, picturesque waterways; and also its seafood cuisine, especially clams and lobster. There is a continental climate throughout the state, even in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland. The capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. As Maine entered only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become an independent state. On March 1820, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state under the Missouri Compromise. The legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine.Maine – The coast of Maine near Acadia National Park
12. Louisiana – Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are the local government's equivalent to counties. The largest by land area is Plaquemines. Louisiana is bordered to the south. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp. These contain a southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibis and egrets. There are also fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of orchids and carnivorous plants. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named La Louisiane.Louisiana – Louisiana entrance sign off Interstate 20 in Madison Parish east of Tallulah.
13. African French – African French is the generic name of the varieties of French spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries. Africa is thus the continent with the most French speakers in the world. French arrived as a colonial language. These French speakers are now an important part of the Francophonie. In each of the African countries French is spoken with local specificities in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. The French variety spoken by Maghrebis and Berbers in Northwest Africa, which has second language speakers. The French variety spoken in the Horn of Africa. The French variety spoken in the Indian Ocean, which has around 1.6 million first and second language speakers. The French spoken in this region is not to be confused with the creole languages, which are also spoken in the area. In the colonial period, a form of creole French known as Petit nègre was also present in West Africa. The term has since, however, become a pejorative term for poorly spoken African French. V.Y. Code-switching has been studied since colonial times by different institutions of linguistics. Le petit français is the result of a superposition of the structure of a local language with a lexical knowledge of French. The specific structures, though very different, are juxtaposed, marking the beginning of the process.African French – French-language graffiti on Avenue Habib Bourguiba in Tunis, in March 2012. The graffiti says: "LONG LIVE TUNISIA (Vive la Tunisie), free and democratic".
14. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
15. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
16. Italian language – Italian is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Istria. Italian is spoken by small minorities in places such as Crimea, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Tunisia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and regional languages. Including Italian speakers on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera. Its influence is also widespread in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. Its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Unlike most Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. However, some surrounding regions has a longer history. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.Italian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
17. Portuguese language – Portuguese is a Romance language and the sole official language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau. Portuguese is also termed "the language of Camões", after one of the greatest literary figures in Luís Vaz de Camões. The museum is the first of its kind in the world. There are plans to reconstruct it. When the Romans arrived in 216 BCE, they brought the Latin language with them, from which all Romance languages descend. Between 711 CE, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples. Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia. It is in administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period, the language was increasingly used for other written forms. Portugal became an independent kingdom under King Afonso I of Portugal. The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal. The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral in 1516. 85 % are fluent.Portuguese language – Multilingual sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan. Return immigration of Japanese Brazilians has led to a large Portuguese-speaking community in the town.
18. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
19. Romanian language – It has the Republic of Moldova. It is one of the official languages of the Latin Union. Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated during the 5th -- 8th centuries. To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian. Eastern Romance languages, like the other branches of Romance languages, descend during early centuries AD. These vestiges of military usage are unique to Romanian in its family. This linguistic evidence challenges the Roeslerian theory. The vestiges from sermo castrensis particularize the Romanian language in the area, together with its isolated history. The Roman Empire withdrew in 271 -- 272 AD leaving it to the Goths. During the Middle Ages, Romanian became influenced by Greek. Romanian only enters the historical record in the early 16th century. In 1534, Tranquillo Andronico notes: "Valachi nunc se Romanos vocant". He subsequently quotes the expression:" Știi Românește?". . After travelling through Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania Ferrante Capecci accounts in 1575 that the indigenous population of these regions call themselves "românești".Romanian language – Neacșu's letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian
20. Catalan language – Catalan is a Romance language named after Catalonia, in northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France. It is a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the city of Alghero on the Italian island of Sardinia, where a variation of it is spoken. The Generalitat de Catalunya spends part of its annual budget in other territories. Catalan evolved around the eastern Pyrenees in the 9th century. The union of Aragon with the other territories of Spain in 1479 marked the start of the decline of the language. Catalan was banned in both states in the early 18th century. 19th-century Spain saw the officialization of the language during the Second Spanish Republic. However, the Francoist dictatorship banned the language again. There is no parallel in Europe of such community. Catalan dialects are mutually intelligible. They are divided into two blocks, Eastern and Western, differing mostly in pronunciation. "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two varieties of the same language. There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Valencian Academy of the Language in Valencia. Catalan shares many traits with its neighboring Romance languages.Catalan language – Homilies d'Organyà (12th century)
21. Occitan language – Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc by its native speakers, is a Romance language. It is spoken in Italy's Occitan Valleys, Monaco, Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to unofficially as Occitania. Occitan is also spoken in the linguistic enclave of Guardia Piemontese. However, there is controversy about the unity of the language, as some think that Occitan is a macrolanguage. Others include Catalan in this family, as the distance between some Occitan dialects is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. In fact, Catalan was considered an Occitan dialect until the end of the 19th century. Occitan is an official language in Catalonia, where a subdialect of Gascon known as Aranese is spoken in the Val d'Aran. Occitan's closest relative is Catalan. Since September 2010, the Parliament of Catalonia has considered Aranese Occitan to be the officially preferred language for use in the Val d'Aran. Instead, there are competing norms for writing Occitan, some of which attempt to be pan-dialectal, whereas others are based on particular dialects. Others have Catalan and Spanish cognates. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of mutual intelligibility. The long-term survival of Occitan is in grave doubt. The name Occitan comes from d'òc, òc being the Occitan word for yes. This was not, of the only defining characteristic of each group.Occitan language – Main cities of Occitania, written in the Occitan language
22. Neapolitan language – Neapolitan is the language of much of southern continental Italy, including the city of Naples. On October 2008, a law by the Region of Campania stated that Neapolitan was to be protected. Neapolitan has had a significant influence on the intonation of Rioplatense Spanish, of the Buenos Aires region of Argentina, the whole of Uruguay. In western Abruzzo and Lazio the dialects give way to Italian dialects such as Romanesco. In southern Apulia, the dialects give way to the Sicilian language. However, in the United States traditional Neapolitan is significantly different from contemporary Neapolitan spoken in Naples. English words are often used among second-generation speakers. Neapolitan is generally considered Italo-Dalmatian. They are all generally mutually intelligible. Neapolitan are of variable mutual comprehensibility, depending on factors both affective and linguistic. Its evolution has been similar to that of Italian and other Romance languages in Vulgar Latin. Other effects of the Oscan substratum are postulated too, although substratum claims are highly controversial. In addition, the language was also affected by the Greek language. There have never been any successful attempts to standardize the language. Neapolitan has enjoyed a rich literary, theatrical history.Neapolitan language – Neapolitan dialects
23. Celtic languages – The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. Some people speak Celtic languages in the Celtic diaspora areas of the United States, Canada, New Zealand. In all these areas, the Celtic languages are now only spoken by minorities though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. Welsh is the only Celtic language not classified as "endangered" by UNESCO. The spread to Cape Breton and Patagonia occurred in modern times. SIL Ethnologue lists six "living" Celtic languages, of which four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Gaelic or Goidelic languages, the Brittonic languages. Cornish and Manx, died in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages, however, revitalisation movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and children and produced some native speakers. Taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of Celtic languages as of the 2000s. In 2010, there were more than 1.4 million speakers of Celtic languages. Shelta, based largely on Irish with influence from an undocumented source. Some forms of Welsh-Romani or Kååle also combined Romany itself with Welsh language and English language forms. Beurla-reagaird, Highland travellers language Celtic divided into various branches: Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language. Anciently spoken in Switzerland and in Northern-Central Italy, from the Alps to Umbria.Celtic languages – Classification of Indo-European languages. (click to enlarge)
24. Gaul – It covered an area of 494,169 km ². According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Aquitania. During the 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Gallia remains a name of France in modern modern Latin. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly "milk-white" skin of the Gauls. Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh "gallu", "capacity, power", thus meaning "powerful people". The English Gaul is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. As adjectives, English has Gaulish and Gallic. The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, the diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant. Also unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the Gael. The dichotomic words gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. By 500 BC, there is strong influence throughout most of France. By the 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the entire territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, southwest Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Hungary.Gaul – Map of Roman Gaul (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886)
25. Germanic languages – It is the third most spoken Indo-European subdivision, behind Italic and Indo-Iranian, ahead of Balto-Slavic languages. Limburgish varieties have roughly 1.3 million speakers along the Dutch–Belgian–German border. The main North Germanic languages are Norwegian, Danish, Faroese, which have a combined total of about 20 million speakers. The East Germanic branch included Gothic, Burgundian, Vandalic, all of which are now extinct. The last to die off was Crimean Gothic, spoken in the late 18th century in some isolated areas of Crimea. The total number of Germanic languages throughout history is unknown, as some of them -- especially Germanic languages -- disappeared after the Migration Period. Proto-Germanic, along with all of its descendants, is characterized by a number of unique linguistic features, most famously the consonant change known as Grimm's law. Furthermore, it is the facto language of the United Kingdom, Australia. It is also a recognized language in Nicaragua and Malaysia. German is an official language of Austria, Belgium, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Switzerland and has regional status in Italy, Poland, Namibia and Denmark. German also continues to be spoken by immigrant communities in North America, South America, Central America, Australia. A German dialect, Pennsylvania Dutch, is still present amongst Anabaptist populations in Pennsylvania in the United States. Dutch is an official language of Aruba, Belgium, Curaçao, Suriname. Dutch was scrapped after Indonesian independence. Was replaced by Afrikaans, a partially mutually intelligible daughter language of Dutch.Germanic languages – Countries where a Germanic language is the first language of the majority of the population
26. Old Frankish – Frankish, Old Franconian, or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century. It gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French. Old Dutch is the term for the Old Franconian dialects spoken until about the 12th century. During the Merovingian period, Frankish had significant influence on the Romance languages spoken in Gaul. As a result, placenames have a Germanic origin. France itself is still known as "Frankrijk", i.e. the "Frankish Realm". A notable exception is the Bergakker inscription, which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish. Compare the somewhat analogous usage, versus linguistic contexts of Old English vs. Anglo-Saxon. The English term Old Frankish is, for historical reasons, usually not used in the context of their language. It is more often used in Dutch contexts. The language spoken by the Salian Franks has sometimes been referred to as Old West Low Franconian, as distinguishable from Old Low Franconian more broadly. The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. They remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify. The language spoken by the Franks was part of the West Germanic group, which had features from Proto-Germanic in the late Jastorf culture. The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of morphological innovations not found in North and East Germanic.Old Frankish – North Germanic
27. Franks – Some Franks raided Roman territory, while other Frankish tribes joined the Roman troops of Gaul. In later times, Franks became the military rulers of the northern part of Roman Gaul. The Salian Franks lived in what is now Northern France, Belgium and the southern Netherlands. The kingdom was acknowledged after 357 AD. Descendants of the Salians, founded one of the Germanic monarchies that would absorb large parts of the Western Roman Empire. The Frankish state consolidated its hold by the end of the 8th century developing into the Carolingian Empire. This empire would gradually evolve into the state of the Holy Roman Empire. The Franks in the east became part of the Germans, Dutch, Flemings and Luxembourgers. The Franconian languages, which are called Frankisch in Dutch or Fränkisch in German, originated at least partly in the Old Frankish language of the Franks. Nowadays, the Dutch names for France are Frankreich and Frankrijk, respectively, both meaning "Realm of the Franks". The name Franci was originally socio-political. Following the precedents of Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English. It has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation. It is traditionally assumed that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin". There is also another theory that suggests that Frank comes from the Latin word meaning.Franks – Aristocratic Frankish grave goods from the Merovingian period
28. Francophonie – Francophonie, sometimes also spelt Francophonia in English, is the quality of speaking French. It is not to be confused with the Organisation Internationale la Francophonie, sometimes informally called "la Francophonie". Francophone space are syntagmatic expressions that are sometimes misunderstood or misused. They can be synonymous but most of the time they are complementary. • "francophonie", with a small "f", refers to populations and people who speak French for communication or/and in their daily lives. Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie French languageFrancophonie – Flags of the Francophonie members.
29. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United Nations is in Manhattan, experiences extraterritoriality. Main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna. The organization is financed from its member states. The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference in April -- June 1945; the UN began operation. The organization participated in major actions in the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the state of Israel in 1947. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions with varying degrees of success. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is an office held by South Korean Ban Ki-moon since 2007. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with other agencies to participate in the UN's work. A number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between countries.United Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.
30. European Union – The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. The EU operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmental decision-making. The Maastricht Treaty introduced European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. Additionally, 26 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8, the G-20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a potential superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of Steel Community, declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe." The supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak.European Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
31. English language – English is a West Germanic language, first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea. English is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. It is the third most common native language in the world, after Mandarin and Spanish. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. A set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England, was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries. English is an Indo-European language, belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Most closely related to English are the Frisian languages, English and Frisian form the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic. Modern English descends from Middle English, which in turn descends from Old English. English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares new language features with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, Swedish. These shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor, which linguists call Proto-Germanic. Its cognates in Indo-European languages begin with / p /.English language – The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulf, handwritten in half-uncial script: Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."
32. German language – German is a West Germanic language, mainly spoken in Central Europe. Major languages which are most similar to German include other members of the West Germanic branch, such as Afrikaans, Dutch, English. It is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English. German derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family. Fewer are borrowed from French and English. With slightly different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language. Like English, German is also notable with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world. The history of the German language begins with the German consonant shift during the migration period, which separated Old High German dialects from Old Saxon. When Martin Luther translated the Bible, he based his translation primarily on the bureaucratic language used in Saxony, also known as Meißner Deutsch. Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, ending the period of Early New High German. Until about 1800, standard German was mainly a written language: in northern Germany, the local Low German dialects were spoken. Standard German, markedly different, was often learned as a foreign language with uncertain pronunciation. German pronunciation was considered the standard in prescriptive pronunciation guides though; however, the actual pronunciation of Standard German varies from region to region. German was the language in the Habsburg Empire, which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe.German language – Old Frisian (Alt-Friesisch)
33. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. French has evolved from the spoken Latin in Gaul, more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl -- languages historically spoken in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. Nation may be referred to as "Francophone" in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which are members of the community of French-speaking countries. French is the fourth most widely spoken tongue in the European Union. 1/5 of non-Francophone Europeans speak French. Most second-language speakers reside in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 190 million secondary speakers. Approximately million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates million by 2050, 80 % of whom will be in Africa. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese.French language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
34. Organisation internationale de la Francophonie – The organization comprises governments, twenty observers. The modern organisation was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, égalité, fraternité. Finally in 2005, the adoption of a new Charter of the Francophonie gives the name to the Agency of international Organization of the Francophonie. The position of Secretary-General was created in 1997 at the seventh leaders' summit held in Hanoi. The former president of the Republic of Senegal, became Secretary General in January 2003. At the 2014 summit in Dakar, former Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean was chosen to lead the organization starting in January 2015. The Secretary General of the Francophonie is elected during the Summit. He/she is the keystone of the institutional device and of the Francophonie and leads the organization. He/she is the spokesperson and the official representative internationally of the political actions of the Francophonie. The Secretary General is responsible for proposing priority areas for multilateral Francophonie actions. His/her job is to ensure that activities of all operating agencies work in harmony. It is chaired by the Head of state and government of the host country, this person assumes that responsibility until the next Summit. Armenia is to play host to the next summit in 2018 and Tunisia is to host in 2020. This conference ensures that the decisions made during the previous Summits are carried out and to plan the next Summit.Organisation internationale de la Francophonie – Flags of the Francophonie members.
35. French culture – The culture of France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, by foreign and internal forces and groups. From the 19th century, France has also played an important role in cinema, fashion, cuisine and technology. The importance of French culture waned over the centuries, depending on its economic, political and military importance. French today is marked both by great regional and socioeconomic differences and strong unifying tendencies. Some action has been taken by the government in order to promote the French language. For instance, they have established a system of preferential loans for supporting French cinema. France counts some of them being very different from standard French, such as Breton and Alsatian. Some regional languages are Roman, like French, such as Occitan. Many of these languages have enthusiastic advocates; however, the real importance of local languages remains subject to debate. Bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools to support teaching these other languages. In French schools, pupils are expected to learn at least two foreign languages, the first of, typically English. A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented at Versailles in July 2008. A 2011 European poll found that a third of the French population "does not believe there is any sort of spirit, life force. In a poll published by Le Monde, 63 % of the French population describes itself as not adhering any religion. According to Eurobarometer poll in 2012 Christianity is the largest religion in France accounting 60% of French citizens.French culture – Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto " Liberté, égalité, fraternité ", as the French put it, this painting has become the primary symbol of the French Republic.
36. Second language – In contrast, a foreign language is a language, learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, are used primarily as second linguas franca. More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned to one's native language, especially in context of second language acquisition. A person's first language is not necessarily the one they use most or are most comfortable with. This can happen when young children move, to a new language environment. The distinction between learning was made by Stephen Krashen as part of his Monitor Theory. According to Krashen, the acquisition of a language is a natural process; whereas learning a language is a conscious one. In the former, the student needs to partake in natural communicative situations. In the latter, correction is present, as is the study of grammatical rules isolated from natural language. Not all educators in second language agree to this distinction; however, the study of how a second language is learned/acquired is referred to as second-language acquisition. . SLA has been influenced by both psychological theories. One of the linguistic theories hypothesizes that a device or module of sorts in the brain contains innate knowledge. Psychological theories, on the other hand, hypothesize that cognitive mechanisms, responsible for much of human learning, process language. These theories have all influenced second-language pedagogy.Second language – Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students ' efforts at placing the diaeresis and acute accent diacritics used in Spanish orthography.
37. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
38. Louis Pasteur – Louis Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. His discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. Pasteur created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support in clinical medicine. He was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Pasteur performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. This experiment won the Alhumbert Prize of the academy. He is often regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. He also made significant discoveries on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what we now call optical isomers. His work led the way in the structure of organic compounds. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals. Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner. Pasteur was the third child of Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui.Louis Pasteur – Photograph by Nadar
39. Ferdinand de Lesseps – Eventually, the project was bought out by the United States, which solved the medical problems and changed the design to a non-sea level canal with locks. It was completed in 1914. The origins of de Lesseps' family are traceable back far as the end of the 14th century. His ancestors, it is believed, settled at Bayonne during the region's occupation by the English. From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of he himself occupied several diplomatic posts from 1825 to 1849. His father was made a count by Emperor Napoleon I. She was a daughter of wife Francisca Antonia Gallegos. Ferdinand de Lesseps was born November 1805 in Versailles, Yvelines. His first years were spent in Italy, where his father was occupied with his consular duties. De Lesseps was educated at the College of Henry IV in Paris. From the age of 18 years to 20 De Lesseps was employed in the commissary department of the army. From 1825 to 1827 De Lesseps acted at Lisbon where his uncle, Barthélemy de Lesseps, was the French chargé d'affaires. This uncle was an old companion of the only survivor of the expedition in which La Pérouse perished. Barthélemy de Lesseps had left the expedition in Kamchatka to travel to St Petersburg overland. In 1828 de Lesseps was sent to Tunis, where his father was consul-general.Ferdinand de Lesseps – Ferdinand de Lesseps
40. Jules Verne – Verne has been the most-translated author in the world since 1979, ranking between Agatha Christie and William Shakespeare. He has sometimes been called the "Father of Science Fiction", a title that has also been given to H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback. In 1829, the Verne family moved some hundred meters away to No. 2 Quai Jean-Bart, where Verne's brother Paul was born the same year. Anna, Mathilde, Marie, would follow. At the age of six, Verne was sent to boarding school at 5 Place du Bouffay in Nantes. Mme Sambin, was the widow of a naval captain who had disappeared some 30 years before. In 1836, Verne went on to a Catholic school suiting the pious religious tastes of his father. Verne quickly distinguished himself in mémoire, geography, Greek, singing. In 1836, Pierre Verne bought a vacation house at 29 Rue des Réformés in the village of Chantenay on the Loire River. In his brief memoir "Souvenirs d'enfance de jeunesse", Verne recalled a deep fascination with the river and with the many merchant vessels navigating it. In 1840, the Vernes moved again at No. 6 Rue Jean-Jacques-Rousseau, where the family's youngest child, Marie, was born in 1842. In the same year Verne entered the Petit Séminaire de Saint-Donatien, as a lay student. His unfinished novel prêtre en 1839, written in his teens and the earliest of his prose works to survive, describes the seminary in disparaging terms. From 1844 to 1846, his brother were enrolled in the Lycée Royal. After finishing classes in philosophy, he took the baccalauréat at Rennes and received the grade "Fairly good" on 29 July 1846.Jules Verne – Photograph by Nadar c. 1878
41. Ernest Renan – Joseph Ernest Renan was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations, philosopher, historian, writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany. Renan is his political theories, especially concerning nationalism and national identity. Renan was born to a family of fishermen. Renan was aware of the conflict between his father's and his mother's political beliefs. His sister, Henriette, twelve years his senior, became the moral head of the household. Having in vain attempted to keep a school for girls at Tréguier, she went to Paris as a teacher in a young ladies' boarding-school. Ernest, meanwhile, was educated in the ecclesiastical seminary of his native town. His school reports describe him as "docile, patient, painstaking, thorough". While the priests taught him Latin, his mother completed his education. Renan's mother was half Breton. Renan used to say that in his own nature the Gascon and the Breton were constantly at odds. During the summer of 1838, he won all the prizes at the college of Tréguier. His sister told the doctor of the school in Paris where she taught about her brother, he informed F.A.P. Dupanloup sent for Renan, only fifteen years old and had never been outside Brittany. "I learned with stupor that knowledge was not a privilege of the church...Ernest Renan – Ernest Renan by Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon, circa 1870s.
42. French government – The Government of the French Republic exercises executive power. It is composed of a prime minister, both junior and senior ministers. Senior ministers are titled as Ministers, whereas junior ministers are titled as Secretaries of State. All members of the French government are nominated on the advice of the Prime Minister. Members of the government are ranked in a precise order, established at the time of formation. In this hierarchy, the Prime Minister is the head of government. He is nominated by the President of the Republic. After being nominated to lead a government, the Prime Minister nominee must propose a list of ministers to the President. The President can either reject these proposed ministers. Ministers are ranked by importance: Ministers of State are members of the Council of Ministers. It is an honorary rank, granted as a sign of prestige. Ministers are members of the Council of Ministers. They lead government ministries. Secretaries of State are junior ministers. This is the lowest rank in the ministerial hierarchy.French government – Government of the French Republic
43. Subsidy – A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from government, the term subsidy can relate to any type of support – for example from NGOs or as implicit subsidies. Subsidies come in various forms including: direct and indirect. Furthermore, they can be broad or narrow, legal or illegal, ethical or unethical. The most common forms of subsidies are those to the producer or the consumer. Producer/production subsidies ensure producers are better off by either supplying market price support, direct support, or payments to factors of production. Consumer/consumption subsidies commonly reduce the price of goods and services to the consumer. For example, in the US at one time it was cheaper to buy gasoline than bottled water. Whether subsidies are positive or negative is typically a normative judgment. As a form of economic intervention, subsidies are inherently contrary to the market's demands. However, they can also be used as tools of political and corporate cronyism. A production subsidy encourages suppliers to increase the output of a particular product by partially offsetting the production costs or losses. This type of subsidy is predominantly found in developed markets. Other examples of production subsidies include the assistance in the creation of a new firm, industry and even the development of certain areas. A consumption subsidy is one that subsidises the behavior of consumers.Subsidy – Contents
44. Franchising – Franchising is the practice of the right to use a firm's business model and brand for a prescribed period of time. The word "franchise" is of Anglo-French derivation—from franc, meaning free—and is used both as a noun and as a verb. For the franchisor, the franchise is an alternative to building "chain stores" to distribute goods that avoids the investments and liability of a chain. The franchisor's success depends on the success of the franchisees. The franchisee is said to have a greater incentive than a direct employee because they have a direct stake in the business. Franchising is also used as a foreign mode. The boom in franchising did not take place until after World War II. The practice ended around 1562 but spread to other endeavors. In 17th century England franchisees were granted the right to operate ferries. There was little growth in franchising, though, until the mid-19th century, when it appeared in the United States for the first time. One of the first successful American franchising operations was started by an enterprising druggist named John S. Pemberton. In 1886, he concocted a beverage comprising sugar, cocaine. Pemberton licensed selected people to bottle and sell the drink, now known as Coca-Cola. His was one of the earliest—and most successful—franchising operations in the United States. The Singer Company implemented a franchising plan in the 1850s to distribute its sewing machines.Franchising – A McDonald's franchise.
45. Brand – A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business, advertising. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable prestige requires a commitment to a particular way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. Many companies are beginning to understand that there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation's sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a metonym referring to the company, strongly identified with a brand. Make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word ‘brand’ derives from the Old Norse ‘brandr’ meaning ‘to burn’ - recalling the practice of producers burning their mark onto their products. This product was developed at an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent.Brand – Ferrari is the world's most powerful brand according to Brand Finance.
46. Senegal – Senegal, officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal also shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's political capital is Dakar. The name "Senegal" comes from the Wolof "Sunuu Gaal," which means "Our Boat." Senegal has an estimated population of about 13 million. There is a rainy season. The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by ethnic groups since prehistory. Parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire. Senegal peacefully has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered mostly on natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, ship construction and repair. Owing to its relative stability, hospitality are also burgeoning sectors. Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although native languages are spoken and recognized.Senegal – Slave traders in Gorée, 18th century.
47. Poet – POET LLC is a U.S. biofuel company that specializes in the creation of bioethanol. The privately held corporation, originally called Broin Companies, is headquartered in South Dakota. In 2007, the Renewable Fuels Association named the largest U.S. ethanol producer creating 1.1 billion US gallons of fuel per year. Currently, POET produces billion gallons of ethanol per year. POET operates 27 ethanol plants spread across South Dakota. A grand opening was held for the facility on September 2014. It is expected to produce million gallons of ethanol per year from corncobs, leaves and husks provided by farmers in and around the area. POET has also collaborated including Deere & Co. and Vermeer Company, to develop manufacturing equipment for harvesting corn cobs used in ethanol production. Among its products in the process are distillers grains branded Dakota Gold, Inviz, Voila. The company traces its history to the farm in Wanamingo, Minnesota where the Broins began producing ethanol in 1983. In 2007, it was renamed POET. Then president Jeff Broin said the new name is not an acronym. POET has constructed an $8 million plant to produce cellulosic ethanol made from corn cobs and other crop residue. A commercial project, based on the pilot plant, was undertaken as a joint venture with Royal DSM under the name POET-DSM Advanced Biofuels, LLC. A federal guarantee was obtained in July, 2011 for a commercial-scale plant to be built in Emmetsburg, Iowa.Poet
49. Senegalese Democratic Bloc – One month after the split from SFIO Senghor associates himself with the Indépendants parliamentary fraction. In the 1951 legislative elections BDS got 182 votes. Two BDS members are elected MPs, Senghor and Abbas Gueye. The electoral campaign was marred by violence between BDS and SFIO. BDS relied heavily on tribal authorities to spread their influence. The combination of the capability to gather different ethnic group and Senghor's personal charisma ensured BDS predominance in Senegalese pre-Independence politics. In 1956 BDS won the municipal elections in Kaolack, Thiès, Louga, Diourbel and Ziguinchor. BDS lost in Dakar. On August 1956 BDS held its last plenary meeting. The result of the merger was the creation of the Senegalese Popular Bloc. Zuccarelli, François. La vie politique sénégalaise. Paris: CHEAM, 1988.Senegalese Democratic Bloc – Senegal
50. Joal – Joal-Fadiouth is a town and commune in the Thiès Region at the end of the Petite Côte of Senegal, south-east of Dakar. The village has no motorised transport evidenced on entering. It has large Muslim populations with cemeteries on another shell island. Another attraction is granaries on stilts in the water. The population of the commune in 2013 was some 46,000. Another theory claims that Joal and Fadiouth have been founded by the Guelowar when they were expelled from the kingdom of Kaabu. Both of these theories find their validation by observing the frequency of certain surnames, indicating ethnic group in the region. Until around 1635, a community of Portuguese Jewish traders lived in the village, trading with West Africa, Portugal and the Netherlands. Protected by the local chief, they were allowed to openly profess their religion, to the annoyance of the Portuguese government. During the colonial period, Joal became one of the largest trading posts in Western Senegal. In 1850, a mission was finally established in the village, the first priest was ordained there in 1885. It was during that time that the passage of El Hadj Umar Tall was commemorated by building a mosque for his appraisal. The architectural legacy recalling this memorable passing is in danger of deterioration. Joal-Fadiouth was later on a county seat. Joal-Fadiouth is a part of the M'bour Department, occupying the southernmost point of the Thiès Region.Joal – The church of Fadiout
51. Dakar – Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is the westernmost city in the Old World and on the African mainland. Dakar is a major administrative center, the Presidential Palace. The Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no later by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Sereer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor, Yoff and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the today. In 1444, the Portuguese were repulsed by the natives on the shores. The bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche". The Portuguese eventually founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, which by 1536 they began to use as a base for the export of slaves. Gorée was captured in 1588, which gave it its present name. Though under French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade. The infamous "House of Slaves" was built in 1776. In 1795 the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. In 1857 the French annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally. The Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized by the Senegalese State today.Dakar – Place de l'Indépendance
52. La Francophonie – The organization comprises governments, twenty observers. The modern organisation was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, égalité, fraternité. Finally in 2005, the adoption of a new Charter of the Francophonie gives the name to the Agency of international Organization of the Francophonie. The position of Secretary-General was created in 1997 at the seventh leaders' summit held in Hanoi. The former president of the Republic of Senegal, became Secretary General in January 2003. At the 2014 summit in Dakar, former Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean was chosen to lead the organization starting in January 2015. The Secretary General of the Francophonie is elected during the Summit. He/she is the keystone of the institutional device and of the Francophonie and leads the organization. He/she is the spokesperson and the official representative internationally of the political actions of the Francophonie. The Secretary General is responsible for proposing priority areas for multilateral Francophonie actions. His/her job is to ensure that activities of all operating agencies work in harmony. It is chaired by the Head of state and government of the host country, this person assumes that responsibility until the next Summit. Armenia is to play host to the next summit in 2018 and Tunisia is to host in 2020. This conference ensures that the decisions made during the previous Summits are carried out and to plan the next Summit.La Francophonie – Flags of the Francophonie members.
53. French phonology – French phonology is the sound system of French. This article discusses mainly the phonology of Standard French of the Parisian dialect. Meaning: "The window has been left open." / l / is usually sometimes laminal denti-alveolar. Before / ʒ /, it can be realised as retroflex. In current pronunciation, /ɲ/ is merging with /nj/. It occurs in loan words such as camping, bingo or kung-fu. Some speakers who have difficulty with this consonant replace it with / ɲ /. The approximants / j, w / correspond to the close vowels / i, y, u /. While there are a minimal pairs, there are many cases where there is free variation. In the modern standard variety, it has merged with / j /. See also diphthongs, below. The French rhotic has a wide range of realizations: the uvular trill, the alveolar trill, the alveolar tap. These are all recognized as the phoneme /r/, but all except and are considered dialectal. is the standard consonant. See guttural r and map at right.French phonology – not usual
54. Old French – Old French was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century. The areal of Old French in contemporary terms corresponded to the northern parts of the Kingdom of France, the duchy of Lorraine. As part of the emerging Gallo-Romance continuum, the langues d'oïl were contrasted with the langue d'oc. In these examples, we notice a clear consequence of bilingualism, that sometimes even changed the first syllable of the Latin words. Pope estimated that perhaps still 15% of the vocabulary of modern French derives from Germanic sources. The second-oldest document in Old French is the Eulalia sequence, important for linguistic reconstruction of Old French pronunciation due to its consistent spelling. Old French gives way to Middle French in the mid-14th century, paving the way of the 15th century. Very few texts before the 11th century have survived. The literary works written in Old French were saints' lives. The Canticle of Saint Eulalie, written in the second half of the 9th century, is generally accepted as the such text. The first of these is the area of the chansons de geste, epic poems typically composed in ten-syllable assonanced laisses. More than hundred chansons de geste have survived in around three hundred manuscripts. The oldest and most celebrated of the chansons de geste is The Song of Roland. A fourth grouping, not listed by Bertrand, is the cycle, dealing with the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath. Jean Bodel's other two categories—the "Matter of Rome" and the "Matter of Britain"—concern the French romance or roman.Old French – Map of France in 1180, at the height of the feudal system. The possessions of the French king are in light blue, vassals to the French king in green, Angevin possessions in red. Shown in white is the Holy Roman Empire to the east, the western fringes of which, including Upper Burgundy and Lorraine were also part of the Old French areal.
55. History of the French language – French is a Romance language that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in northern France. For the history of phonological changes, see: Phonological history of French. The Celtic population of Gaul had spoken Gaulish, well attested, with what appears to be wide dialectal variation including one distinctive variety, Lepontic. While the French language evolved from Vulgar Latin, it was nonetheless influenced by Gaulish. Chief among these are sandhi phenomena, the vowel system. Some sound changes are attested. The sound changes / ps / → / χs / and / pt / → / χt / appears in a inscription from la Graufesenque where the word paraxsidi is written for paropsides. These two changes sometimes had a cumulative effect in French: Latin capsa → *kaχsa → caisse or captīvus → *kaχtivus → Occ caitiu, OFr chaitif. In closely related languages, some 200 words of Gaulish origin have been retained, most of which pertain to folk life. From the 3rd century on, some of these groups settled in Gaul. Their language had a profound influence on the Latin altering both the pronunciation and the syntax. They also introduced a number of new words. Français, comes from Old French franceis/francesc from the Germanic frankisc "french, frankish" from Frank. The Franks referred as Franko which became Francia in Latin in the 3rd century. The Gaule was also taken from the Frankish * Walholant.History of the French language – The area of langues d'oïl
56. Belgian French – The French language spoken in Belgium differs very little from that of France or Switzerland. French is one of the three official languages of Belgium alongside Dutch and German. It is spoken natively in the southern region of Wallonia and the Brussels-Capital Region. This was a result of heavy cultural influence on the region over the past few centuries. Until the 20th century, most speakers were bilingual in both French and Walloon. While the French spoken in Wallonia was influenced by local languages, the variant spoken in Brussels was influenced by Dutch, specifically the local Brabantian dialect. The city, geographically located within the Flanders region, was originally just a Dutch-speaking city. However, a gradual Frenchification took place beginning in the 19th century and continuing throughout the next century. Many Dutch idioms or expressions have been translated into French and are used as such in the Brussels area. Regional accents however, can vary to city, but on the whole they may vary more according to one's social class and education. Within the French community of Belgium, French pronunciation is taught to students. The following differences vary depending on their level of education, age, the region they come from. Phonological differences include: Lack of the approximant / ɥ /: The combination / ɥi / is replaced by / wi /, in other situations / ɥ / becomes a full vowel / y /. Thus for most Belgian speakers, the words enfouir are homophones. The nasal vowels are pronounced in French of France.Belgian French – Linguistic map of Belgium. Officially Francophone areas in red.
57. Swiss French – Swiss French is the variety of French spoken in the French-speaking area of Switzerland known as Romandy. French is one of the four official languages of the others being German, Italian, Romansch. The French language spoken in Switzerland differs very little from that of France or Belgium, with mostly lexical differences. Many differences between Swiss French are due to the different administrative and political systems between Switzerland and France. In France, a post box is called a boite postale, whereas in Switzerland, it is called a case postale. Swiss German Swiss Italian Linguistic geography of SwitzerlandSwiss French – Map of the Arpitan language area, historical language spoken in Romandie, with place names in arpitan and historic political divisions.
58. Maghreb French – This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. French-based creoles are considered separate languages for the purpose of this article. French became an international language in the Middle Ages, when the power of the Kingdom of France made the second international language, alongside Latin. This status continued to grow into the 18th century, by which time French was the language of European courts and diplomacy. The following figures are from a 2014 report of the Francophonie. For African countries where French is the main language of education, the number of French speakers is derived from the average number of schooling years. It is estimated that million people worldwide speak French as a main or first language. Between 1946 Argentina received 239,503 French immigrants - out of which 105,537 permanently settled in the country. In 1976 116,032 were settled in Argentina. France was the third source of immigration before 1890 constituting over 10 % of immigrants, only surpassed by Italians and Spaniards. More than 6 million Argentines have some degree of French ancestry, many of them French-speakers. Both are official languages at the federal level. French is the sole language in the province of Quebec, being the mother tongue for some 7 million people, or almost 80.1 % of the province. About 95 % of the people of Quebec speak French as either a second language. French is also an official language of all of the territories.Maghreb French – Bilingual sign in Algiers
59. Acadian French – Acadian French is a dialect of Canadian French. In the United States, the dialect is spoken in the Saint John Valley of northern Aroostook County, Maine. Elsewhere in Maine, New England French is the predominant form of French spoken. The use of -ions instead of -ais as the singular first-person ending, in the imparfait tense: e.g. j'avions, j'aimions, j'étions... instead of j'avais, j'aimais, j'étais.... Many aspects of Acadian French are still common in rural areas in the West of France. Speakers of Metropolitan French and even of Canadian dialects sometimes have minor difficulties understanding Acadian French. /k/ and /tj/ is commonly replaced by before a front vowel. For example, quel, queue, cuillère, quelqu'un and cul are usually pronounced tchel, tcheue, tchuillère, tchelqu'un and tchu. Tiens is pronounced tchin. /ɡ/ and /dj/ often become before a front vowel. For example, bon gueule become bon djeu and djeule in Acadian French. Braguette becomes brajette. Metathesis is quite common. For example, grenouille is guernouille. Je is frequently pronounced euj.Acadian French – Acadian French
60. Louisiana French – Louisiana French refers to the group of French dialects spoken in the U.S. state of Louisiana and formerly elsewhere in colonial Lower Louisiana. It comprises distinct varieties. 7 % of the population of the state speaks French. The most widely spoken form of Louisiana French is Colonial French, also known as Louisiana French-Choctaw of the Louisiana Creole people. It developed during the Great Upheaval of the 18th century. Additionally, Louisiana Creole French is a related language. Speakers of Louisiana French are not only the French Creole people but also the French among others. As of 2011, there are an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people in Louisiana who speak French. In comparison, there were an estimated million native French-speakers in Louisiana in about 1968. The dialect is now at risk of extinction as children are longer taught it formally in schools. La revue University of Louisiana Lafayette. La revue la Louisiane, now defunct, was the journal launched by James R. Domengeaux. Students placed in the program continue until high school. The Council for the Development of French in Louisiana globally each year. Les Amis de l'Immersion, Inc. is the parent-teacher organization for students in French immersion in the state.Louisiana French – Paul Breaux Middle School, Lafayette, Louisiana
61. Louisiana Creole French – Louisiana Creole is a French-based creole language spoken by some of the Creole people of the state of Louisiana. The language largely consists of elements of Native American, African languages. Louisiana Creole French is a language that arose from interactions between speakers of French and various African languages in the 18th century. For this reason, prior to its establishment, the precursor to LCF was considered a language. In its historical backdrop, this pidgin was born to francophone land owners. Once the tongue was transmitted to the next generation, it could effectively be considered a creole language. The latter was frequently associated with plantation owners, plantation overseers, small landowners, bilingual, free people of color. In this way, that of "low" variety was given to LCF. As a result of Louisiana becoming one of America, matters only worsened for the social status of LCF. Additionally, the geographical position of Louisiana in unison with technological advances has made the entire region accessible to other areas. Moreover, efforts to revitalize francophone languages have placed emphasis on the prestigious varieties such as Cajun French. An example of this is linked to the structure of questions which may be wrongfully interpreted. Speakers of Louisiana Creole are mainly concentrated in south and southwest Louisiana, where the population of Creolophones is distributed across the region. There are also numbers of Creolophones in sizable communities of Louisiana Creole-speakers in adjacent Southeast Texas and the Chicago area. Louisiana Creole speakers in Northern California.Louisiana Creole French – Creole-speaking parishes in Louisiana
62. Antillean Creole – Antillean Creole is a French-based creole, primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its vocabulary include elements of Carib and African languages. Antillean Creole has a number of distinctive features; however, they are mutually intelligible. Its number of speakers is declining in Trinidad and Tobago and Grenada. In recent decades, Creole has gone from being seen as a sign of lower socio-economic status, banned to a mark of national pride. Edouard Glissant has written poetically about its significance and its history. Brazilian and Venezuelan speakers of Antillean Creole call the language patois. Antillean Creole is a means of communication for migrant populations traveling between neighbouring English - and French-speaking territories. Belain sailed in 1625 hoping to establish a French settlement on the island of St. Christopher. In 1626, he returned to France, where he won the support of Cardinal Richelieu to establish French colonies in the region. Richelieu became a shareholder in the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe, created to accomplish this with d'Esnambuc at its head. Richelieu had it reorganized as the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique. In 1635, d'Esnambuc sailed to Martinique with hundred French settlers to clear land for sugarcane plantations. Jacques Dyel du Parquet, inherited d'Esnambuc's authority over the French settlements in the Caribbean. Dyel du Parquet became governor of the island.Antillean Creole – Road sign in residential area in Guadeloupe. Slow down. Children are playing here.
63. Rodriguan CreoleRodriguan Creole – Public warning in the Rodriguan variety of Mauritian Creole in Port Mathurin (pas zet salte ici: don't throw any litter here)
64. Seychellois Creole – Seychellois Creole, also known as kreol or seselwa, is the French-based creole language of the Seychelles. It shares official status with English and French. In Creole, the definite article forms part of the word, so that'the future' is lavenir. The possessive is formed by adding the pronoun, so that'our future' is nou lavenir, literally,'we-the-future'. Similarly in the plural, les Îles Éloignées Seychelles in French becomes Zil Elwanyen Sesel in Creole. Note the z in Zil, as, in French, "les Îles" is pronounced /le"zil/. Nou papa ki dan lesyel, Fer ou ganny rekonnet konman Bondye. Ki ou renny i arive. Ki ou lavolonte i ganny realize Lo later parey i ete dan lesyel Donn nou sak zour nou dipen nou bezwen. Pardonn nou pour Ki noun fer anver ou, Parey nou pardonn sa ki n ofans nou. Pa les tantasyon nou, Me tir nou dan lemal. These remained unpublished until 1983.Seychellois Creole – Praslin & Curieuse
65. Jeux de la Francophonie – There were four sports at the inaugural event in 1989: athletics, basketball, judo. Handisport, handball, table wrestling were added to the competition programme in 1994. Boxing and tennis were introduced to the programme instead. Eight sports featured in 2001: the four inaugural sports, boxing and tennis were included. Furthermore, handisport and volleyball competitions were held as demonstration events. Neither of these demonstration sports were included with traditional style wrestling being demonstrated in addition to the six more established sports. The 2009 programme beach volleyball. Jeux de la Francophonie are open to artists of the 55 member nations, 3 associate member nations and 12 observer nations of the Francophonie. Canada is represented by three teams: Quebec, another team representing the rest of the country. The Belgian team is restricted from the French-speaking areas of the country. Participation has far varied between 1,700 and 3,000 athletes and artists. Commonwealth Games Lusophony Games Mediterranean Games Official site of the Comité international des jeux de la FrancophonieJeux de la Francophonie – Logo of the Games
67. TV5MONDE – TV5Monde is a global television network, broadcasting several channels of French language programming. It is an approved participant member of the European Broadcasting Union. The present Director-General is Marie-Christine Saragosse. In January 1992 TV5 underwent a major overhaul including re-branding as "TV5MONDE" to stress its focus as a global network. Also part of the changes are a new schedule and new program line-up. Since 1993, "TV5 Monde" is part of the channel's corporate name. Its Canadian operations are branded "TV5 Québec Canada", however, though the shorter version TV5 is also used. TV5MONDE claims to be one of the top three most available global television networks available around the world with CNN and MTV. The "5" from the name TV5 comes from these five public broadcasters. On 18 TV5 was amongst the first four channels carried by television in France, inaugurated in Cergy-Pontoise. Following its privatisation in 1987, TF1 retired from the TV5 consortium, although it continued to supply its programmes to the channel up until 1995. On 1 September 1988 TV5 Québec Canada was created, then TV5 Afrique in 1991. The following TV5 transmitted using digital compression towards the Caribbean. Its coverage was expanded in 1996 with the launch of its Asian-Pacific signal with TV5 Asie-Pacifique and its subscription channel TV5 États-Unis in the United States. Two years later, the Middle East feed was launched with TV5 Moyen-Orient in 1998.TV5MONDE – TV5 logo, 1995–present. Logo is still in use by TV5 Québec Canada.
68. Medieval French literature – For historical background, see History of France, France in the Middle Ages or Middle Ages. For other literary traditions, see Medieval literature. The Western peninsula of Brittany spoke a Celtic language. Germanic languages and Franco-Provençal were spoken in the East. The various dialects of Old French developed into what are recognised as regional languages today. Languages which developed from dialects of Old French include Walloon. From 1340 to the beginning of the seventeenth century, a French language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages. This is referred to as Middle French. The vast majority of literary production in Old French is in verse; the development of prose as a literary form was a late phenomenon. The French language does not have long and short syllables. This means that the metric line is not determined by the number of beats, but by the number of syllables. The most common metric lengths are the ten-syllable line, the twelve-syllable line. Verses could be combined in a variety of ways: blocks of assonanced lines are called "laisses"; another frequent form is the rhymed couplet. The choice of form was generally dictated by the genre. The Old French epics are generally written in assonanced "laisses", while the chivalric romance was usually written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets.Medieval French literature – Miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce 195), folio 1r, portrait of Guillaume de Lorris.
69. French literature of the 17th century – In reality, French literature encompasses far more than just the classicist masterpieces of Madame La Fayette. In Renaissance France, literature was largely the product of encyclopaedic humanism, included works produced by an educated class of writers from religious and legal backgrounds. A new conception of nobility, modelled on the Italian Renaissance courts and their concept of the perfect courtier, was beginning to evolve through French literature. In the mid-17th century, there were an estimated 2,200 authors in France, writing for a reading public of just a few tens of thousands. Under Cardinal Richelieu, patronage of the arts and literary academies increasingly came under the control of the monarchy. Henry IV's court was considered by contemporaries a rude one, lacking the Italianate sophistication of the court of the Valois kings. The court also lacked a queen, who traditionally served as a focus of a nation's authors and poets. Henry's literary tastes were largely limited to the chivalric novel Amadis of Gaul. The salon first appeared from the large reception hall of a mansion. Before 1664, literary gatherings were often called by the name of the room in which they occurred -- ruelle. For instance, the term ruelle derives from literary gatherings held in the bedroom, a practice popular even with Louis XIV. Nobles, lying on their beds, would offer seats on stools surrounding the bed. In the context of French scholastica, academies were scholarly societies which monitored, fostered, critiqued French culture. Academies were generally more formal and more focused on criticism and analysis than salons, which encouraged pleasurable discourse about society. However, certain salons were closer to the academic spirit.French literature of the 17th century – Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
70. French literature of the 18th century – In common with a similar movement in England at the same time, the writers of 18th century France were critical, innovative. Their lasting contributions were the ideas of liberty, toleration, humanitarianism, progress, which became the ideals of modern western democracy. The 18th century saw the gradual weakening of the absolute monarchy constructed by Louis XIV. France was forced to recognize the growing power of England and Prussia. The Monarchy finally ended with King Louis XVI, unable to control the forces of the French Revolution. The Rise of the Third Estate culminated in their political victory in the French Revolution. Faith in progress was the driving force behind the first French Encyclopedia of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Protestants achieved legal status in 1787. The exchange of ideas with other countries also increased. British ideas were particularly important, particularly such ideas as constitutional romanticism, which greatly influenced French writers, particularly in the following century. Their ideas were strongly influenced by those of John Locke in England. They introduced the values of equality which became the ideals of the French Republic founded at the end of the century. They challenged the role of religious institutions in society. For them, tolerance was a fundamental value of society. While the philosophes had widely different approaches, they all had as a common objective, both for individuals, the ideal of happiness.French literature of the 18th century – Voltaire
71. French literature of the 19th century – French literature enjoyed international prestige and success in the 19th century. The first part of the century was dominated by Romanticism, until around the mid-century Realism emerged, at least partly as a reaction. Among other styles, were often competing tendencies at the same time. Some writers did form into literary groups defined by a program or manifesto. Nevertheless, these labels can be useful in describing historical developments in the arts. Their influence was felt in theatre, poetry, fiction. Foreign influences played a big part in this, especially those of Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Byron, Friedrich Schiller. "Le mal du siècle": a sense of loss, aporia, typified by melancholy and lassitude. It found early expression also in the sentimental poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine. The major battles of romanticism in France was in the theater. The dramatic unities of time and place were abolished, metrical freedom was won. Marked by the plays of Friedrich Schiller, the romantics often doomed noble characters or misunderstood artists. Victor Hugo was the outstanding genius of its recognized leader. He was prolific alike in poetry, fiction. Musset won a belated success with his plays.French literature of the 19th century – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2011)
72. Albania – It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. The present territory of Albania was part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe following the Balkan Wars, Albania was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. A socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations from much of the international community. In 1991, the Republic of Albania was established. Albania is a parliamentary republic. Tirana, is its financial and industrial heartland, with a population of about 800,000. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and infrastructure. Albania provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is an upper-middle economy with the service sector dominating the country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, the Union for the Mediterranean. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.Albania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
73. Andorra – Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, French are also commonly spoken. Andorra's tourism services an estimated million visitors annually. The euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world according to The Lancet. The origin of the Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses have been formulated. Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The pearl". Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter for fighting against the Moors.Andorra – Sant Joan de Caselles church, dating from the 11th century.
74. Armenia – Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia. Armenia is a unitary, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. By the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. In the 1st BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion. In between the 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 14th centuries. During World War I, Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics.Armenia – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map c. 450 BC, with Armenia shown in the center
75. French Community of Belgium – In Belgium, the French Community refers to one of the three constituent constitutional linguistic communities. The name "French Community" refers to Francophone Belgians, not to French people residing in Belgium. As such, the French Community of Belgium is sometimes rendered for clarity. The Community has administration. Its official flag is identical to the Walloon Flag, also the official flag of the Walloons of Wallonia. Wallonia is home to 80% of all Francophone Belgians, with the remaining 20% residing in Brussels, the seat of parliament of the French Community. The French Community of Belgium includes million people, of whom: million live in the Walloon Region; 900,000 living in the Brussels-Capital Region. Their number is unknown, given the absence of sub-nationality status and the discouragement of linguistic criteria in census-taking. Estimates of the French-speaking population of Flanders vary from 120,000, around 200,000, to around 300,000. The independent/private media uses both the alternative and the original designation. In September 2011, the Community adopted a new logo that incorporates its new name. The French Community of Belgium is governed by the Parliament of the French Community, which selects the executive branch, the Government of the French Community. The Parliament of the French Community is the legislative assembly of the French Community of Belgium based in the Quartier Royal. These members are elected for a term of five years. The current President of the Parliament of the French Community is Philippe Courard.French Community of Belgium – French Community of Belgium Communauté française (French)
76. Benin – Benin, officially the Republic of Benin and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered to the north. The seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Its population in 2015 was estimated to be approximately 10.88 million. Benin is a sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with substantial employment and income arising from subsistence farming. The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba are commonly spoken. The largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed closely by Islam, Vodun and Protestantism. After slavery was abolished, France renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey had a tumultuous period with many different democratic governments, many military coups and military governments. A Marxist–Leninist state called the People's Republic of Benin existed between 1975 and 1990. In 1991, it was replaced by the multi-party Republic of Benin. During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. The country of Benin has no connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes. The form "Benin" is the result of a Portuguese corruption of the city of Ubinu.Benin – 1793 map of the Kingdom of Dahomey
77. Bulgaria – Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in southeastern Europe. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. Prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of Greeks and Romans. With the downfall of the Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align in both world wars. In 1946 it became a socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led into a democracy and a market-based economy. Bulgaria's population of million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. Most cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources. The country's political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, economic centralisation. Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic.Bulgaria – Objects from Varna necropolis, parts of the oldest golden treasure in the world.
78. Burkina Faso – Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa around 274,200 square kilometres in size. Its capital is Ouagadougou. In 2014, its population was estimated at just over 17.3 million. French is an official language of business. Formerly called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara. Residents of Burkina Faso are known as Burkinabé. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the country underwent many governmental changes. This resulted in a semi-presidential republic which lasted from October 2014 to September 2015. On September 2015 the provisional government was in turn toppled by an military coup d'état carried out by the Regiment of Presidential Security. Formerly called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara. The "bé" suffix added onto "Burkina" to form the demonym "Burkinabé" means "women". The part of today's Burkina Faso was populated by hunter-gatherers between 5000 BC. Their tools, including arrowheads, were discovered in 1973 through archeological excavations. Agricultural settlements were established between 3600 and 2600 BC. The Bura culture was an Iron-Age civilization centered in the part of contemporary Burkina Faso.Burkina Faso – The cavalry of the Mossi Kingdoms were experts at raiding deep into enemy territory, even against the formidable Mali Empire.
79. Burundi – It is also considered part of Central Africa. Burundi's capital is Bujumbura. The southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika. The Twa, Hutu and Tutsi peoples have lived in Burundi for at least 500 years. For more than 200 of those years, Burundi was an independent kingdom, until the beginning of the twentieth century, when Germany colonized the region. After Germany's defeat, it ceded the territory to Belgium. Both Germans and Belgians ruled Burundi and Rwanda as a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Despite common misconceptions, Burundi and Rwanda had never been until the time of European colonization. The European intervention contributed to political unrest in the region. Burundi's political system is that of a presidential democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of government. There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi. On 13 Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, which provided for a multi-party political process and reflected multi-party competition. Six years later, on June 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice presidents. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.Burundi – Independence Square and monument in Bujumbura.
80. Cambodia – Cambodia, officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Cambodia has a population of over 15 million. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, practiced by approximately 95 percent of the population. The country's minority groups include Vietnamese, 30 hill tribes. Largest city is the political, economic, cultural centre of Cambodia. The kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a monarch chosen as head of state. In 802 AD, Jayavarman II declared uniting the warring Khmer princes under the name "Kambuja". After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a weakened Cambodia was then ruled by its neighbours. In 1863 Cambodia became a protectorate of France which doubled the size of the country by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand. Cambodia gained independence in 1953. The Vietnam War extended until 1973. Following the Cambodian coup of 1970, the deposed king gave his support to his former enemies, the Khmer Rouge. Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords, Cambodia was governed briefly by a United Nations mission. The UN withdrew after holding elections in which around 90 percent of the registered voters cast ballots. The 1997 coup placed power solely in the hands of Prime Minister Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party, who remain in power as of 2016.Cambodia – Glazed stoneware dating back to the 12th century.
81. Cameroon – Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of the Atlantic Ocean. Cameroon is home to more than 1738 different linguistic groups. French and English are the official languages. The country is often referred to for its cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, savannas. The country is well known for its national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates. The Union des Populations du Cameroun political party was outlawed in the 1950s leading to the Cameroonian Independence War. It waged war on French and UPC militant forces until 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. The southern part of British Cameroons merged with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.Cameroon – Bamum script
82. Cape Verde – 570 kilometres off the coast of West Africa, the islands cover a combined area of slightly over 4,000 square kilometres. The Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants, privateers, pirates. Incorporated in 1951, the islands continued to agitate for independence, peacefully achieved in 1975. Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is mostly service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment. Its population of around 512,000 is mostly of mixed sub-Saharan African heritage, predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable community exists across the world, slightly outnumbering inhabitants on the islands. Historically, the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union. On October 2013 it was announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited. The islands of the Cape Verde archipelago were discovered around 1456. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes, Diogo Dias, the Italian Alvise Cadamosto.Cape Verde – Insulae Capitis Viridis (1598), showing Cape Verde.
83. Central African Republic – The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. The CAR had an estimated population of around 4.7 million as of 2014. Ange-Félix Patassé was later removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. According to the Human Development Index, the country had the second lowest level of human development, ranking 187th out of 188 countries. This Agricultural Revolution, combined with the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were often moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the region's inhabitants. The Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the very late Neolithic Era. Bananas added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet; they were also used in the production of alcoholic beverages. Textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region. During the 17th centuries slave traders began to raid the region as part of the expansion of the Saharan and Nile River slave routes. During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi River. In 1875 the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR. The European penetration of Central African territory began during the Scramble for Africa. Primarily the French, Germans, Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885. France created Ubangi-Shari territory in 1894.Central African Republic – Charles de Gaulle in Bangui, 1940.
84. Chad – Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is the fifth largest country in Africa in terms of area. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the second-largest in Africa. The N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are French. Chad is home to over 200 different linguistic groups. The religions of Chad are Islam, followed by Christianity. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved in great numbers. France incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown by his general Idriss Déby. A lack of agriculture let the country persist in poverty.Chad – Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem-Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
85. Comoros – Other countries near the Comoros are the Seychelles to the northeast. Its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore. The Union of the Comoros has three official languages – Comorian, Arabic and French. The religion of the majority of the population is Islam. Excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the third-smallest African nation by area. The population, excluding Mayotte, is estimated at 798,000. As a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilizations, the archipelago is noted for its diverse history. The archipelago was first inhabited by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, supplemented by Austronesian immigration. The country consists in the volcanic Comoros archipelago. The major islands are commonly known by their French names: northwestern-most Grande Comore; Mohéli; and Anjouan. France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island. In addition, Mayotte became a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly. It became part of the colonial empire in the 19th century before becoming independent in 1975. Since declaring independence, the country has experienced more than 20 coups attempted coups, with various heads of state assassinated. As of 2008 about half the population lived below the international line of US$1.25 a day.Comoros – A large dhow with lateen sail rigs.
86. Cyprus – Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel and Palestine, southeast of Greece. The earliest human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. Cyprus was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. The resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute. The Cyprus Republic has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus, well as its territorial sea and exclusive economic area, according to international law. Another nearly 4 % of the island's area is covered by the UN zone. The international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a major destination in the Mediterranean. On 1 the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script.Cyprus – A copper mine on Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
87. Democratic Republic of the Congo – The Democratic Republic of the Congo, also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1908 to 1960 it was called the Belgian Congo. It is the second-largest country in Africa by area, eleventh largest in the world. The Congolese Civil Wars, which began in 1996, devastated the country. These wars ultimately resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. Besides the capital, the other major cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi, are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting in 2012. According to the Human Development Index, DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 187 countries. The country's name was restored by former president Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997. Their propagation was accelerated to Iron Age techniques. The people living in southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper.Democratic Republic of the Congo – Village attacked by Arab-Swahili slavers near Nyangwe, end of 19th century
88. Republic of the Congo – The Republic of the Congo, also known as the Congo Republic, Congo-Brazzaville or simply Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. The region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo-Brazzaville was formerly part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa. Upon independence in 1960, the former colony of French Congo became the Republic of the Congo. The People's Republic of the Congo was a Marxist–Leninist one-party state from 1970 to 1991. Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions largely absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC. Several Bantu kingdoms -- notably those of the Teke -- built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. The Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo in 1484. Commercial relationships quickly grew between European merchants who traded various commodities, people captured from the hinterlands. This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo, then as Middle Congo in 1903. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa, comprising Middle Congo, Oubangui-Chari. The French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction. The methods were often brutal: construction of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives. During the Nazi occupation of France during World War II, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943.Republic of the Congo – Marien Ngouabi changed the country's name to the People's Republic of the Congo, declaring it to be Africa 's first Marxist–Leninist state and was assassinated in 1977.
89. Djibouti – Djibouti, officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed at the east. Djibouti occupies a total area of just 23,200 km2. In antiquity, the territory was part of the Land of Punt. Nearby Zeila was the seat of the medieval Adal and Ifat Sultanates. It was subsequently renamed in 1967. A decade later, the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This officially marked the establishment of Djibouti named after its capital city. Djibouti joined the United Nations on 20 September 1977. Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation with a population of over 846,687 inhabitants. Arabic and French constitute the country's two official languages. About 94 % of residents adhere to a religion, predominant in the region for more than 1,000 years. Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups. Both speak Afroasiatic languages, which serve as recognized national languages.Djibouti – Geometric design pottery found in Asa Koma.
90. Dominica – Dominica, officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is a sovereign island country. Roseau, is located on the leeward side of the island. It is part of the Caribbean Sea. The island lies south-southeast of Martinique. The highest point is Morne Diablotins, at 1,447 metres elevation. The population was 72,301 at the 2014 census. Great Britain gradually established English as the official language. The republic gained independence in 1978. Its name is pronounced with emphasis on the third syllable, related to its French name of Dominique. Dominica has been nicknamed the "Nature Isle of the Caribbean" for its natural beauty. It is the youngest island in the Lesser Antilles, still being formed by geothermal-volcanic activity, as evidenced by Boiling Lake. The island is the home of many rare plants, animals, bird species. Heavy rainfall occurs inland. The Sisserou parrot, found only on Dominica, is the island's national bird and featured on the national flag. Dominica's economy depends on agriculture.Dominica – A linen market in 1770s Dominica
91. Egypt – It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם. The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed more centralised society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.Egypt – The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
92. Equatorial Guinea – Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres. Formerly the colony of its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Equatorial Guinea is the only African state in which Spanish is an official language. As of 2015, the country has an estimated population of over million. Equatorial Guinea consists of two parts, a mainland region. The region consists of the islands of Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island south of the equator. Bioko Island is the site of the country's capital, Malabo. The nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and east. It is the location of Bata, Oyala, the country's planned future capital. Rio Muni also includes several offshore islands, such as Corisco, Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico. The country is a member of the African Union, the CPLP. Since the mid-1990s, Equatorial Guinea has become one of sub-Saharan Africa's largest oil producers. The country ranks 144th on the UN's 2014 Human Development Index. Reporters Without Borders ranks President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of press freedom.Equatorial Guinea – Corisco, 1910
93. French Guiana – French Guiana, officially called Guiana, is an overseas department and region of France, located on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas. It borders Suriname to the west. By area, it is the second largest region of France and the largest outermost region within the European Union. The area was originally inhabited by Native Americans. It was colonised by other Europeans, who introduced African slaves and later Asian labourers and Hmong refugees from Laos. The official language is French, while each ethnic community has its own language, of which Guianan Creole is the most widely spoken. Its official currency is the euro. The region is the most prosperous territory in South America with the highest GDP per capita. A large part of Guiana's economy derives from the presence of the Guiana Space Centre, now the European Space Agency's primary site near the equator. Guiana means "land of many waters". French Guiana was originally inhabited by indigenous people: Kalina, Arawak, Emerillon, Galibi, Palikur, Wayampi and Wayana. The French attempted to create a colony there with its settlement of some other Caribbean islands. In this penal colony, the convicts were sometimes used as butterfly catchers. During its existence, France transported approximately 56,000 prisoners to Devil's Island. Fewer than 10% survived their sentence.French Guiana – Forested landscape of Remire-Montjoly.
94. Guadeloupe – Guadeloupe is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department. It has a area of an estimated population of 400,132 as of January 2015. Guadeloupe's two main islands are Basse-Terre to the west and Grande-Terre to the east, which are separated by a narrow strait, crossed with bridges. They are often referred to as a single island. The department also includes the Dependencies of Guadeloupe which include the smaller islands of Marie-Galante and La Désirade, the Îles des Saintes. Guadeloupe, like the other overseas departments, is an integral part of France. It is thus part of the European Union and the Eurozone, its currency is the euro. As an overseas department, Guadeloupe is not part of the Schengen Area. The prefecture of Guadeloupe is the city of Basse-Terre, which lies on the island of the same name. The official language is French, virtually the entire population except recent arrivals from metropolitan France also speaks Antillean Creole. Christopher Columbus named Santa María de Guadalupe in 1493 after the Virgin Mary, venerated in Extremadura. The island was called "Karukera" by the Arawak people, who settled on there in 300 AD/CE. During the 8th century, the Caribs killed the existing population on the island. In November 1493, Christopher Columbus became the first European to land while seeking fresh water.Guadeloupe – The Battle of the Saintes fought near Guadeloupe between France and Britain, 1782.
95. Martinique – Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, southeast of Puerto Rico, northwest of Barbados, south of Dominica. As with the other overseas departments, Martinique is one of the eighteen regions of France and an integral part of the French Republic. As part of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, its currency is the euro. The official language is French, virtually the entire population also speak Antillean Creole. Martinique owes its name to Christopher Columbus, who sighted the island in 1493, finally landed on 15 June 1502. The island was then called "Jouanacaëra-Matinino", which came from a mythical island described by the Tainos of Hispaniola. According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called "Jouanacaëra" by the Caribs, which means "the island of iguanas". When Columbus returned to the island in 1502, he rechristened the island as Martinica. The name then evolved into Madinina, Madiana, Matinite. Finally, through the influence of the neighboring island of Dominica, it came to be known as Martinique. The island was occupied first by Arawaks, then by Caribs. The Carib people had migrated from the mainland to the islands about 1201 CE, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They were largely displaced, exterminated and assimilated by the Taino, who were resident on the island in the 1490s. Martinique was charted by Columbus in 1493, but Spain had little interest in the territory.Martinique – Saint-Pierre. Before the total destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902 by a volcanic eruption, it was the most important city of Martinique culturally and economically, being known as "the Paris of the Caribbean".
96. Saint Pierre and Miquelon – The islands are situated at the entrance of Fortune Bay, which extends into the southwestern coast of Newfoundland, near the Grand Banks. They are 3,819 kilometres from Brest, the nearest point in Metropolitan France, but only 25 kilometres from the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland. Saint-Pierre is French for Saint Peter, the patron saint of fishermen. The present name of Miquelon was first noted in the form of "Micquelle" in the Basque sailor Martin de Hoyarçabal's navigational pilot for Newfoundland. It has been claimed that the name "Miquelon" is a Basque form of Michael; Mikel and Mikels are usually named Mikelon in the Basque Country. Therefore, from Mikelon it may have been written in the French way with a "q" instead of a "k". It appears that this is a very common form in that language. The adjoined island's name of "Langlade" is said to be an adaptation of "l'île à l'Anglais". The first European encounter with Saint-Pierre and Miquelon was in 1520, by the Portuguese João Álvares Fagundes. They were made a French possession in 1536 by Jacques Cartier on behalf of the King of France. In 1670, during Jean Talon's tenure as Intendant of New France, a French officer annexed the islands when he found a dozen French fishermen camped there. British warships soon began to harass the French, pillaging their camps and ships. France also maintained fishing rights on the coasts of Newfoundland. In 1793, the British landed in Saint-Pierre and, the following year, expelled the French population, tried to install British settlers. The British colony was in turn sacked by French troops in 1796.Saint Pierre and Miquelon – Saint-Pierre aerial photo, 2013. Saint-Pierre Airport is at lower right. Original photo has extensive annotations.
97. Gabon – Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic, is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa. Its population is estimated at 1.5 million people. Largest city is Libreville. Since its independence from France in 1960, Gabon has had three presidents. Gabon was also a non-permanent member for the 2010 -- 2011 term. GDP grew from 2010 to 2012. However, because of inequality in distribution, a significant proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon's name originates from Portuguese for "cloak", roughly the shape of the estuary of the Komo River by Libreville. The earliest inhabitants of the area were Pygmy peoples. They were largely absorbed by Bantu tribes as they migrated. In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived. By the 18th century, a Myeni kingdom known as Orungu formed in Gabon. On February 1722, Bartholomew Roberts, a Welsh pirate known as Black Bart, died at sea off Cape Lopez. He raided ships from 1719 to 1722. French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza led his first mission in 1875.Gabon – A map of West Africa in 1670.
98. Ghana – Ghana, officially the unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. The word Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language. The territory of present-day Ghana has been inhabited with the first permanent state dating back to the 11th century. Numerous empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. In 1957, it became the first African nation to declare independence from European colonisation. Ghana has a population of approximately 27 million, spanning a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Five percent of the population practices 71.2 % adhere to Christianity and 17.6 % are Muslim. Ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles. Ghana is a democratic country led by a president, both head of the government. Ghana's economy is one of the strongest and most diversified following a quarter century of relative stability and good governance. Democratic political system has made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The name "Ghana" was a possible source of the name "Guinea" used to refer off Ghana. The minister responsible for shepherding through the legislation Charles Arden-Clarke Lord Listowel explained that the name was chosen "in accordance with local wishes".Ghana – 1925 map of pre–existing Ghana
99. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe. Greece's population is approximately million as of 2015. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, Africa. Greece consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands. The Aegean Sea lies to the south. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. The establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church in the first century transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is one of the most visited the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.Greece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
100. Guinea – Guinea /ˈɡɪni/, officially the Republic of Guinea, is a country on the West coast of Africa. Guinea has an area of 245,860 square kilometres. Guinea is a republic. The president is head of state and head of government. Its members are also directly elected by the people. The judicial branch is led in the country. The country is named after the Guinea region. Guinea is a traditional name for the region of Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea. It ends at the Sahel. Guinea is a predominantly Islamic country, with Muslims representing 85 percent of the population. Guinea's people belong to ethnic groups. Guinea's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and production. It has rich deposits of diamonds and gold. The country was at the core of the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Human rights in Guinea remain a controversial issue.Guinea – Samori Ture was the founder of the Wassoulou Empire, an Islamic state in present-day Guinea that resisted French colonial rule in West Africa from 1882 until Ture's capture in 1898.
101. Guinea-Bissau – Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, is a country in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres with an estimated population of 1,704,000. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term. Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place.Guinea-Bissau – PAIGC forces raise the flag of Guinea-Bissau in 1974.
102. Ivory Coast – Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially named the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located in West Africa. Its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea is located south of Ivory Coast. Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé. Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence. Ivory Coast was later formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, they were led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. It maintained close economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one d'état, in 1999, two religion-grounded civil wars. The first took the second during 2010-2011. Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong power invested in its President. Through the production of cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went in the 1980s contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.Ivory Coast – Prehistoric polished stone celt from Boundiali in northern Ivory Coast, photo taken at the IFAN Museum of African Arts in Dakar, Senegal
103. Laos – After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms -- Luang Phabang, Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos. It briefly returned to French rule until it was granted autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a civil war ended the monarchy, when the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975. Laos is a socialist republic. It is governed by a single party communist politburo dominated by military generals. The Vietnam People's Army continue to have significant influence in Laos. The city is Vientiane. Large cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, Pakse. The official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up approximately 60 percent of the population, mostly in the lowlands. Accounting for 40 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. It is a member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied in 1997; on 2 February 2013, it was granted full membership.Laos – Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
104. Lebanon – Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to Israel to the south while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized country on the Asian continent. The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, the Druze, established themselves as well generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing a unique political system – confessionalism – a Consociationalism type of power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities.Lebanon – The Fall of Tripoli to the Egyptian Mamluks and destruction of the Crusader state, the County of Tripoli, 1289
105. Republic of Macedonia – Macedonia, officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991. The country's geography is defined primarily by mountains, rivers. Skopje, is home to roughly a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25 percent, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, others. Macedonia's history dates back beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia, a Thracian polity. The Romans made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Macedonia was often raided and settled by Slavic peoples beginning in the sixth century CE. Following centuries of contention between the Byzantine empires, it gradually came under Ottoman dominion from the 14th century. Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic until its peaceful secession in 1991. Macedonia is of the Council of Europe. Since 2005 it has applied for NATO membership. Although one of the poorest countries in Europe, Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market based economy. The country's name derives from a kingdom named after the ancient Macedonians.Republic of Macedonia – Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC: ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"
106. Madagascar – The nation comprises numerous smaller peripheral islands. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90 % of its wildlife is found else on Earth. The island's diverse unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats. The archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar dates to 2000 BC. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD 550 from Borneo. These were joined by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is often divided into 18 or more sub-groups of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles. The monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has officially been governed at Antananarivo. However, presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed transparent by the international community.Madagascar – The terraced paddy fields of the central highlands of Madagascar (left) give way to tropical rainforest along the eastern coast (center) bordered by the shores of the Indian Ocean (right).
107. Mali – Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres. The population of Mali is million. Its capital is Bamako. The country's economy centers on fishing. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. About half the population lives below the international line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of astronomy, literature, art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire stretched to the west coast of Africa. During the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined in 1959 achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. Later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels.Mali – The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
108. Mauritania – Mauritania /mɔːrɪˈteɪniə/, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher. Largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won. About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. The Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, among the Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south. Many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni origins. A 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara to West Africa. In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire. Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the local population to dominate Mauritania. The Char Bouba war was the final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe.Mauritania – The Dutch trading post of Arguin in 1665
109. Mauritius – Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent. The country includes the island of Mauritius, the outer islands. The islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues form part of the Mascarene Islands, along with a French overseas department. The area of the country is 2,040 km2. Largest city is Port Louis. Mauritius was a colonial possession from 1810 to 1968, the year of its independence. The government uses English as the main language. The island of Mauritius was visited by the Arabs and then by the Portuguese, who named it Dina Arobi and Cirne, respectively. The island was uninhabited until the Dutch Republic established a colony in 1638, with the Dutch naming the island after Prince Maurice van Nassau. The Dutch colony was abandoned in 1710, five years later, the island was named Isle de France. Due to its strategic position, Mauritius was known as the "key" of the Indian Ocean. Under British rule, the island became the Empire's sugar-producing colony. In the 20th century, movements to introduce political reforms began to be organized, a process that accelerated after World War II. The country became an independent state on 12 March 1968, following the adoption of a new constitution. In 1992, Mauritius became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.Mauritius – The Battle of Grand Port between the French and British navies, 1810.
110. Moldova – The city is Chișinău. Moldova declared independence on 27 August 1991, as part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The current Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. Its economy remains one of Europe's poorest. Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as a prime minister as head of government. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. The dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use Moldova. Officially, the Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. In 2010, Oldowan flint tools were discovered at Bayraki that are 800,000 -- million years old. This demonstrates that early humans were present in Moldova during the Paleolithic era. The inhabitants of this civilization, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practiced agriculture, made intricately designed pottery. In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, then Byzantine Empires. Its territory comprised the present-day territory of the Republic of Moldova, the Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak region of Ukraine.Moldova – Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia between 1457 and 1504.
111. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco has a land border of 4.4 km, a coastline of 4.1 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by twenty percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, similar to Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. Monégasque, Italian, English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two military units. Economic development was spurred in the 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris.Monaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
112. Morocco – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by large portions of desert. It has Mediterranean coastlines. Morocco has an area of 446,550 km2. The largest city is Casablanca. Major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, Nador. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Morocco remained the only North-African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was regained its independence in 1956. Culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.Morocco – Berber Roman King Ptolemy of Mauretania.
113. Niger – Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. The country's Islamic population of 17,138,707 is mostly clustered in the far south and west of the country. The city is Niamey, located in the far-southwest corner of Niger. Much of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic desertification. The economy is concentrated around some export agriculture clustered in the more fertile south, the export of raw materials, especially uranium ore. Historically, what is now Niger has been on the fringes of large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under three periods of military rule. Following a military coup in 2010, Niger has become a multi-party state. A majority have little access to advanced education. Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by archaeological remains. In 2005 -- 06, a graveyard in the Tenere desert was discovered from the University of Chicago. His team discovered 5,000-year-old remains of two children in the Tenere Desert. The evidence along with remains of animals that do not typically live in desert are among the strongest evidence of the'green' Sahara in Niger. It is believed that progressive desertification around 5000 BCE pushed sedentary populations to the south-east. This trade has made a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade.Niger – Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger.
114. Qatar – Its sole border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate until gaining independence in 1971. Qatar has been ruled since the early 19th century. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar. Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Whether it should be regarded as an absolute monarchy is a matter of opinion. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved with almost 98 % in favour. In 2013, Qatar's total population was million: 278,000 Qatari citizens and 1.5 million expatriates. Qatar is a developed country, backed by the world's third largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. The country has the highest per income in the world. Qatar is the most advanced Arab state for human development. For its size, Qatar has been identified as a middle power. Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the Arab country to do so. A century later, Ptolemy produced the known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The map also referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula.Qatar – Dot carvings at Jebel Jassassiyeh, dating to c. 4000 BC.
115. Romania – Romania is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders Moldova. It has an area of a temperate-continental climate. With million inhabitants, the country is the seventh most populous member state of the European Union. Bucharest, is the sixth largest city in the EU. The Carpathian Mountains, with their tallest peak Moldoveanu at 2,544 m, cross Romania from the north to the southwest. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war. Following the war, Romania became a socialist member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a capitalist market economy. It has been part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. With a cultural history, Romania has been the home of influential artists, musicians, inventors and sportspeople, features a variety of tourist attractions. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome".Romania – Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.
116. Rwanda – Rwanda, officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a sovereign state in central and east Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two dry seasons each year. The population is predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans are drawn from the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu, Tutsi and Twa. The Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people descended from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants. Christianity is the largest religion in the country; the principal language is Kinyarwanda, spoken by most Rwandans, with English and French serving as official languages. Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, who took office in 2000. Today has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, although human rights organisations report suppression of opposition groups, intimidation and restrictions on freedom of speech. The country has been governed by an administrative hierarchy since pre-colonial times; there are five provinces delineated by borders drawn in 2006. Rwanda is one of only two countries with a female majority in the national parliament. Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the iron ages, followed later by Bantu peoples. The population coalesced first into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power, later enacting anti-Hutu policies.Rwanda – A reconstruction of the King of Rwanda 's palace at Nyanza
117. Saint Lucia – Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of south of Martinique. It reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. Its capital is Castries. The French were the island's European settlers. They signed a treaty in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667. In ensuing years, rule of the island changed frequently. In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island. Because it switched often between British and French control, Saint Lucia was also known as the "Helen of the West Indies". Representative government came about in 1840. From 1958 to 1962, the island was a member of the Federation of the West Indies. On 22 Saint Lucia became an independent state of the Commonwealth of Nations associated with the United Kingdom. Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction, meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both English common law. The Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866, as supplemented by English law-style legislation.Saint Lucia – A view of Soufrière.
118. Seychelles – Seychelles, officially the Republic of Seychelles, is an archipelago and country in the Indian Ocean. The 115-island country, whose capital is Victoria, lies 1,500 kilometres east of mainland East Africa. Nearby island countries and territories include Comoros, Mayotte, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius to the south. Seychelles is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the United Nations. Since 1976, per capita output has increased nearly sevenfold. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade these sectors. Seychelles boasts the highest nominal per capita GDP in Africa. It is one of only a handful of countries in Africa with high Human Development Index. The Seychelles were uninhabited throughout most of recorded history. Some scholars assume that later Maldivian and Arab traders were the first to visit the uninhabited Seychelles. The islands were named after Louis XV's Minister of Finance. The British controlled the islands between 1810. French administrator of Seychelles during the years of war with the United Kingdom, declined to resist when armed enemy warships arrived. Instead, he successfully negotiated the status of capitulation to Britain which gave a privileged position of neutrality. Britain eventually assumed full control in 1810, formalised in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris.Seychelles – Victoria, the capital of Seychelles.
119. Togo – It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its Lomé is located. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres, making one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of approximately 7.5 million. From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. In 1884, Germany declared a protectorate. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence in 1960. In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a military coup d'état after which he became president. At the time of his death in 2005, Gnassingbé was the longest-serving leader in African history, after having been president for 38 years. In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. Togo is a sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons. The official language is French, with other languages spoken in Togo, particularly those of the Gbe family. There are significant Christian and Muslim minorities. Archaeological finds indicate that ancient tribes were able to produce pottery and iron. That name Togo is translated as "land where lagoons lie". Not much is known of the period in 1490.Togo – Togoland (R. Hellgrewe, 1908)
120. Tunisia – Tunisia, officially the Tunisian Republic is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered to the west and southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is derived from Tunis, located on Tunisia's coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human index. In addition, Tunisia is also a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe -- with Italy -- have been forged through economic cooperation, industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Immigration began in the 12th BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated in 146 BC.Tunisia – Ancient ruins of a Roman villa at Carthage
121. Vanuatu – Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu, is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. Vanuatu was first inhabited by Melanesian people. The first Europeans to visit the islands were a Spanish expedition led by Portuguese Fernandes de Queirós, who arrived in 1606. An independence movement arose in the 1970s, the Republic of Vanuatu was founded in 1980. Vanuatu's name is derived from the word vanua, which occurs in several Austronesian languages, the word tu. Together the two words indicated the independent status of the new country. The prehistory of Vanuatu is obscure; archaeological evidence supports the theory that people speaking Austronesian languages first came to the islands about 3,300 years ago. Pottery fragments have been found dating to 1300–1100 BC. The Spanish established a short-lived settlement on the side of the island. The name Espiritu Santo remains to this day. Europeans did not return until 1768, when Louis Antoine de Bougainville rediscovered the islands. In 1774, Captain Cook named a name that would last until independence in 1980. During the 1860s, planters in need of labourers, encouraged a indentured labour trade called "blackbirding". At the height of the trade, the adult male population of several of the islands worked abroad. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the current population of Vanuatu is greatly reduced compared to pre-contact times.Vanuatu – James Cook landing at Tanna island, c. 1774
122. Vietnam – Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated million inhabitants as of 2014, it is the eighth-most-populous Asian country. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Malaysia across the South China Sea to the southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975. Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, from 111 BC to AD 939. An Vietnamese state was formed following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, eventually expelling the French in 1954. Thereafter, Vietnam was divided politically into South Vietnam. Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. Vietnam remained politically isolated. In 1986, the government initiated a series of political reforms which began Vietnam's path into the world economy. By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with all nations. Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. It is also a historical member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.Vietnam – A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c.800 BC.
123. Austria – Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. The territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; its highest point is 3,798 m. Local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. From the time of the Reformation, many German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia emerged for rule of a greater Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919. In the 1938 Anschluss, Austria was annexed to Nazi Germany. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by Austria's former democratic constitution was restored. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. Largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724.Austria – First appearance of the word "ostarrichi", circled in red. Modern Austria honours this document, dated 996, as the founding of the nation.
124. Bosnia and Herzegovina – Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Moreover, the country was simply called "Bosnia" until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 federal units – cantons. The name is believed to have been derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast".Bosnia and Herzegovina – Mogorjelo, ancient Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century, near Čapljina
125. Croatia – Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, the Mediterranean. Its city is Zagreb, which forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with its twenty counties. Croatia has diverse, mostly continental and Mediterranean climates. Croatia's Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The country's population is million, most of whom are Croats, with the most common religious denomination being Roman Catholicism. The Croats arrived during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state by the 9th century. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatia entered a personal union in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. The fascist Croatian state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a constitutionally socialist state. On June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration.Croatia – Branimir Inscription
126. Czech Republic – The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes its historical territories of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and a multiparty parliamentary republic was formed. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic also ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union.Czech Republic – Přemysl Ottokar II, King of Bohemia (1253–1278) and Duke of Austria (1251–1278)
127. Dominican Republic – The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended to unite with the country of Gran Colombia. However, no longer under Spanish rule, the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country fell again under Spanish colonial rule. The crown was ousted permanently during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916. The country's last, was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966 -- 1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. The Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51 % of the electoral vote over his ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. GDP growth in 2015 reached the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by tourism.Dominican Republic – The Pomier Caves are a series of 55 caves located north of San Cristobal in the Dominican Republic. They contain the largest collection of 2,000-year-old rock art in the Caribbean.
128. Georgia (country) – Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2015 population is about 3.75 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia. The kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. Thereafter the area was dominated by large empires including the Mongols, successive dynasties of Iran. In the 18th century, the area was annexed in 1801. The latter's rule over Georgia was confirmed in 1813 through the Treaty of Gulistan with Qajar Iran. Since the establishment of the modern Georgian republic in April 1991, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil and economic crisis for most of the 1990s. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War. Georgia is a member of the Council of Europe and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. It contains two facto Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a major part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgia's sovereign territory under Russian military occupation. "Georgia" probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians -- gurğān, in the 12th centuries adapted via gurz-ān / Arabic ĵurĵan / ĵurzan.Georgia (country) – It is said that Georgians were so named because they revered Saint George.
129. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, the most widely spoken uralic language in the world. Largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha - global city. Urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended in 1000 converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic. As a substantial actor in several technological sectors, it is both the world's 36th largest exporter and importer of goods. Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a tuition-free university education. Hungary joined part of the Schengen Area since 2007. Hungary is a member of NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group.Hungary – Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
130. Latvia – Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states. Latvia has a territory of 64,589 km2. The country has a seasonal climate. Latvia is a parliamentary republic established in 1918. The city is Riga, the European Capital of Culture 2014. Latvian is the official language. 9 are cities. Livs are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian is an Indo-European language; it and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via musical traditions. Latvia and Estonia share a common history. As a consequence of the Soviet occupation, both countries are home to a large number of ethnic Russians, some of whom are non-citizens. Until World War II, Latvia also had significant minorities of Jews. Latvia is predominantly Protestant Lutheran, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. The Russian population has also brought a significant portion of Eastern Orthodox Christians.Latvia – Turaida Castle near Sigulda, built in 1214 under Albert of Riga.
131. Lithuania – Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in Northern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians are a Baltic people. Lithuanian, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by Baltic tribes. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed the Polish -- Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772–95, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied then by Nazi Germany. As the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, NATO. It is also part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries. The United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very human development" country.Lithuania – Trakai Island Castle
132. Montenegro – Montenegro is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. Largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, his grandson Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. Large portions fell from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Austria-Hungary, its successors. Until 1851 the prince-bishops of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled the country from 1697 to 1918. On the basis of an referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year, thus regaining its statehood. Montenegro is also a candidate negotiating to join the European Union and NATO. On 2 Montenegro received an official invitation to join NATO, whereby it would be the 29th member country. This invitation was meant to start final accession talks. The country's name in most European languages reflects an adaptation of the Venetian Montenegro, roughly "Mount Black" or "black mountain". Particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain".Montenegro – Royal family at the proclamation of the Kingdom of Montenegro, King Nicholas I of Montenegro in the middle
133. Mozambique – It is separated from Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital and largest city is Maputo. Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from farther north and west. Swahili commercial ports existed along the coasts until the arrival of Europeans. The area was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1498 and colonized by Portugal from 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter. After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. In 1994, Mozambique held its first multiparty elections and has remained a relatively stable presidential republic. However, since 2013, following more than 20 years of peace, a renewed insurgency by RENAMO has been occurring. Mozambique is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world. Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources. Industry is growing, mainly aluminium and petroleum production. The country's tourism sector is also growing. South Africa is Mozambique's main source of direct investment. Belgium, Brazil, Portugal, Spain are also among the country's most important economic partners.Mozambique – Depiction of Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river
134. Poland – The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin—the country's largest urban agglomeration is the Silesian Metropolis. This union formed the Polish -- Europe. The Commonwealth ceased to exist in the years 1772 -- 95, when its territory was partitioned among Prussia, Austria. Poland regained its independence in 1918. In September 1939, World War II started by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. More than million Polish citizens died in the war. The borders of Poland were shifted westwards according to the Potsdam Conference in the aftermath of World War II. Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy. Despite the large number of casualties and destruction the country experienced during World War II, the country managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth. There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on many objects of cultural heritage in Poland. Poland is a democratic country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. Moreover, the country is visited by every year which makes it one of the most visited countries in the world. Poland is the eighth largest economy among the fastest growing European economies.Poland – Reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, c. 700 BC
135. Serbia – Relative to its small territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, geographic, other boundaries. Serbia numbers around its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the largest cities in Southeast Europe. Following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition in 1217; it reached its peak in 1346 as a relatively short-lived Serbian Empire. In the 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. As a result, Serbia formed a union in 1992, which broke apart in 2006, when Serbia again became an independent country. In 2008 Serbia's southern province with an Albanian ethnic majority, declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of CEFTA. An EU candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014, following the European Council and Commission endorsements in 2013. The country is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an upper-middle economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, longitudes 18° and 23° E. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km. All of Kosovo's border with Albania, Macedonia and Montenegro are under control of the Kosovo police.Serbia – Clay figure from Vinča culture, 4000–4500 BC, British Museum
136. Slovakia – Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Hungary to the south. Slovakia's territory is mostly mountainous. The population comprises mostly ethnic Slovaks. Largest city is Bratislava. The official language is a member of the Slavic language family. The Slavs arrived in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra. In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which itself became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovaks and Czechs established Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak Republic existed as a client state of Nazi Germany. In 1945, Czechoslovakia was reestablished as a Soviet satellite. In 1989 the Velvet Revolution ended Communist rule in Czechoslovakia. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The country maintains a combination of economy with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system.Slovakia – A Venus from Moravany nad Váhom, which dates back to 22,800 BC.
137. Slovenia – Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It has a population of 2.06 million. It is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, NATO. Largest city is Ljubljana. Additionally, the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Hungarian languages meet here. Although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia has been strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The economic field is services, followed by industry and construction. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.Slovenia – A pierced cave bear bone, possibly flute, from Divje Babe
138. Thailand – Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around million people. Largest city is Bangkok. Most populous city is Bangkok. Its maritime boundaries include Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the world's 20th largest by nominal GDP and the 27th largest by GDP at PPP. It became a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, tourism are leading sectors of the economy. It is considered a middle power around the world. The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma. A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.Thailand – The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya.
139. Ukraine – Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. Two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near another during World War II. Following independence, Ukraine declared a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited military partnership with NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych was against Ukraine joining NATO. These events formed the background by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. Both are still ongoing as of December 2016. On 1 Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union. It remains one of the world's largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, judicial branches.Ukraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC
140. United Arab Emirates – In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. The country is a federation of seven emirates, was established on December 2nd, 1971. The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by an absolute monarch; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates. The UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world, while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Nevertheless, the country remains principally reliant on its export of petroleum and natural gas. The UAE is criticised for its human rights record, including the specific interpretations of Shari'a used in its legal system. The UAE's rising international profile has led some analysts to identify it as a regional and middle power. It appears the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BCE. In ancient times, Al Hasa was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar was an important port, used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire.United Arab Emirates – Dubai in 1950; the area in this photo shows Bur Dubai in the foreground (centered on Al-Fahidi Fort); Deira in middle-right on the other side of the creek; and Al Shindagha (left) and Al Ras (right) in the background across the creek again from Deira
141. Uruguay – Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. Uruguay is home to an estimated million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in only larger in size than Suriname. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain, Portugal, Argentina and Brazil. Modern Uruguay is a constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peace-keeping missions than any other country. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth, infrastructure. It is regarded by the UN. Uruguay is also the third-best ranked in the world in e-Participation. Uruguay is an global exporter of combed wool, rice, soybeans, frozen beef, malt and milk. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, consumption of cannabis. The name of the river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river".Uruguay – A 5 peso coin celebrating the 150th anniversary of Uruguay's independence
142. Macedonia naming dispute – Pertinent to its background is an early century armed conflict that formed part of the background to the Balkan Wars. Since then, it has been an ongoing issue in bilateral and international relations. The dispute has escalated to the highest level of international mediation, involving numerous attempts to achieve a resolution. In 1995, the two countries formalised bilateral relations and committed to start negotiations on the naming issue, under the auspices of the United Nations. UN members, the UN as a whole, have agreed to accept any final agreement on a new name resulting from negotiations between the two countries. The parties are represented by Ambassadors Vasko Naumovski and Adamantios Vassilakis, under the mediation of Matthew Nimetz. In antiquity, the territory of present-day Republic of Macedonia equated approximately to the kingdom of Paeonia, which lay immediately north of ancient Macedonia. Thus Macedonia Salutaris encompassed most of the present-day Republic of Macedonia. This situation lasted, with some modifications, until the Ottoman Empire absorbed the remnants of the eastern Roman Empire in the 15th century. Ottoman Macedonia then became part of Rumelia, controlled by the Ottoman Empire up to 1913. In 1893 a revolutionary movement against Ottoman rule began, resulting in the Ilinden Uprising on 2 August 1903. The failure of the Ilinden Uprising caused a change in the strategy of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization from revolutionary to institutional. In 1912 rivalries resulted in the First Balkan War of 1912-1913, the Ottomans lost most of their European lands. Albania, in conflict with Serbia, Montenegro and Greece, declared its independence in 1912, striving for recognition. The Treaty of London assigned the region of the future Republic of Macedonia to the Serbia.Macedonia naming dispute – Macedonian visa cancelled by Greek immigration authorities in 1993 to highlight the dispute over the name.
143. Boutros Boutros-Ghali – Boutros Boutros-Ghali was an Egyptian politician and diplomat, the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. He was then the first Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie from 16 November 1997 to 31 December 2002. Boutros Boutros-Ghali was born in Cairo on 14 November 1922 into a Coptic Christian family. His father Yusuf Butros Ghali was the son of Boutros Ghali, Prime Minister of Egypt from 1908 until he was assassinated in 1910. Safela Mikhail Sharubim was daughter of historian. Boutros-Ghali graduated from Cairo University in 1946. He received a PhD in international law from the University of Paris and diploma in international relations from the Sciences Po in 1949. During 1949–1979, he was appointed Professor of International Law and International Relations at Cairo University. He became President of the Centre of Political and Strategic Studies in 1975 and President of the African Society of Political Studies in 1980. In 1986 he received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Law at Uppsala University, Sweden. He was also the Honorary Rector of the Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, a branch of Kyunghee University Seoul. Boutros Boutros-Ghali's political career developed during the presidency of Anwar El Sadat. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union from 1974 to 1977. He served as Egypt's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs from 1977 until early 1991. He then became Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs for several months before moving to the UN.Boutros Boutros-Ghali – Boutros-Ghali in March 2002
144. Abdou Diouf – Abdou Diouf is a Senegalese politician who served as the second President of Senegal from 1981 to 2000. He is notable both for leaving willingly after losing the 2000 presidential election to Abdoulaye Wade. Diouf was the second Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale la Francophonie from January 2003 to December 2014. He was born in Louga, Senegal, a Serere father. Diouf studied law at Dakar University and then at the Sorbonne, Paris. He graduated in 1959. After graduation, he returned to Senegal, where in September 1960 he was appointed Director of International Technical Cooperation. In June 1961 he became Secretary-General of the Ministry of Defense. In 1961 Diouf joined the Senegalese Progressive Union, which later became the Socialist Party of Senegal. In May 1963 Diouf was moved to the position of Director of the Cabinet of President Léopold Senghor, where he remained until December 1965. In January 1964 Diouf became Secretary-General of the Presidency, serving until March 1968, when he became Minister of Planning and Industry. Diouf remained until February 1970 when he was named Prime Minister. In 1970 Senghor reinstated the post of prime minister, giving it to his protégé. Senghor trusted Diouf, who had administrative experience but no independent base of his own. This was important, for Senghor's prime minister Mamadou Dia was accused of using the position to launch a coup d'état.Abdou Diouf – Abdou Diouf
145. Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie – The Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie is a literary prize created in 2001 by the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. 2001: Yasmine Khlat for Le désespoir est un péché, éditions du Seuil. Special award: Ahmed Abdodemane for La ceinture, éditions Gallimard. 2003: Marc Durin-Valois for Chamelle, éditions Jean-Claude Lattès. Special award: Fawzia Zouari for La Retournée, éditions Ramsay. 2004: Mathias Énard for La Perfection du tir, éditions Actes Sud. Special award: Seyhmus Dagtekin for À la source, la nuit, éditions Robert Laffont. 2005: Alain Mabanckou for Verre Cassé, éditions du Seuil. 2006: Ananda Devi for Eve de ses décombres, éditions Gallimard. Special award: Pierre Yergeau for La Cité des vents, éditions 400 coups. 2007: Wilfried N'Sondé for Le Cœur des enfants léopards, éditions Actes Sud. 2008: Hubert Haddad for Palestine, éditions Zulma. 2009: Kossi Efoui for Solo d'un revenant, éditions du Seuil. 2010: Liliana Lazar for Terre des affranchis, éditions Gaïa. 2011: Jocelyne Saucier for Il pleuvait des oiseaux, éditions XYZ. Special award: Patrice Nganang for Mont Plaisant, éditions Philippe Rey.Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie – Members
146. Senghor UniversitySenghor University – Senghor University building
147. TV5Monde – TV5Monde is a global television network, broadcasting several channels of French language programming. It is an approved participant member of the European Broadcasting Union. The present Director-General is Marie-Christine Saragosse. In January 1992 TV5 underwent a major overhaul including re-branding as "TV5MONDE" to stress its focus as a global network. Also part of the changes are a new schedule and new program line-up. Since 1993, "TV5 Monde" is part of the channel's corporate name. Its Canadian operations are branded "TV5 Québec Canada", however, though the shorter version TV5 is also used. TV5MONDE claims to be one of the top three most available global television networks available around the world with CNN and MTV. The "5" from the name TV5 comes from these five public broadcasters. On 18 TV5 was amongst the first four channels carried by television in France, inaugurated in Cergy-Pontoise. Following its privatisation in 1987, TF1 retired from the TV5 consortium, although it continued to supply its programmes to the channel up until 1995. On 1 September 1988 TV5 Québec Canada was created, then TV5 Afrique in 1991. The following TV5 transmitted using digital compression towards the Caribbean. Its coverage was expanded in 1996 with the launch of its Asian-Pacific signal with TV5 Asie-Pacifique and its subscription channel TV5 États-Unis in the United States. Two years later, the Middle East feed was launched with TV5 Moyen-Orient in 1998.TV5Monde – TV5 logo, 1995–present. Logo is still in use by TV5 Québec Canada.
148. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014