1. U.S. Congress – The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can also refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith, Roberts, and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percentU.S. Congress
2. POTUS – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationPOTUS – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
3. United States Supreme Court – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteUnited States Supreme Court – Chief Justice Marshall
4. Federal government of the United States – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsFederal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. Government – A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this broad definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. Forms of government, or forms of governance, refers to the set of political systems. Governments control the economy, social freedoms, and political systems and this usage is analogous to what is called an administration in American English. Finally, government is sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance. In addition to the political meanings, in grammar and theoretical linguisticsGovernment – presidential republics
7. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various statesUnited States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
8. Legislature – A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a seat, as, for, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress, diet and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral. In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
9. Judiciary – The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes, in some nations, under doctrines of separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make law or enforce law, but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. In other nations, the judiciary can make law, known as Common Law, by setting precedent for other judges to follow, the Judiciary is often tasked with ensuring equal justice under law. In many jurisdictions the judicial branch has the power to change laws through the process of judicial review, Judges constitute a critical force for interpretation and implementation of a constitution, thus de facto in common law countries creating the body of constitutional law. Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is almost completely controlled by the executive, the latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics and it is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary, the state, and the private. For instance, in France, the jurisprudence constante of the Court of Cassation or the Council of State is equivalent in practice with case law, in common law jurisdictions, courts interpret law, this includes constitutions, statutes, and regulations. They also make law based upon prior case law in areas where the legislature has not made law, for instance, the tort of negligence is not derived from statute law in most common law jurisdictions. The term common law refers to this kind of law, in civil law jurisdictions, courts interpret the law, but are prohibited from creating law, and thus do not issue rulings more general than the actual case to be judged. Jurisprudence plays a role to case law. State courts, which try 98% of litigation, may have different names and organization, trial courts may be called courts of common plea, appellate courts superior courts or commonwealth courts. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, is appealed to an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort. In France, the authority on the interpretation of the law is the Council of State for administrative cases. In the Peoples Republic of China, the authority on the interpretation of the law is the National Peoples Congress. Other countries such as Argentina have mixed systems that include lower courts, appeals courts, a cassation court, in this system the Supreme Court is always the final authority, but criminal cases have four stages, one more than civil law does. On the court sits a total of nine justices and this number has been changed several times. Japans process for selecting judges is longer and more stringent than the process in the United States, assistant judges are appointed from those who have completed their training at the Legal Training and Research Institute located in Wako. Once appointed, assistant judges still may not qualify to sit alone until they have served for five years, Judges require ten years of experience in practical affairs, as a public prosecutor or practicing attorneyJudiciary – Justitia, symbol of the judiciary (statue at Shelby County Courthouse, Memphis, TN, United States)
10. Public policy of the United States – Public policy consists of a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities by a government or its representatives. Public policy decisions are decided by a group of individuals with different beliefs. The policies of the United States of America comprise all actions taken by its federal government, the executive branch is the primary entity through which policies are enacted, however the policies are derived from a collection of laws, executive decisions, and legal precedents. Agricultural policy of the United States is the policy for agriculture in the United States and is composed primarily of the periodically renewed federal U. S. farm bills. Over time agricultural policies evolved to support an industrialized, commodity-based agriculture and this evolution resulted in farmers leaving the land with agriculture moving to an industrial structure. S. Our addiction to oil and fossil fuels puts our economy, our national security. Its general goal is to protect the environment for the welfare of future generations and it only addresses the security of the American people and promotes international order. Part of the announcements included temporary exceptions to section 23A and 23B, the exceptions would expire on January 30,2009, unless extended by the Federal Reserve Board. The Securities and Exchange Commission announced termination of short-selling of 799 financial stocks, as well as action against naked short selling, as part of its reaction to the mortgage crisisPublic policy of the United States – The United States Capitol.
11. Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15,1791. All remaining powers are reserved for the states or the people, the amendment was proposed by Congress in 1789 during its first term following the Constitutional Convention and ratification of the Constitution. In drafting this amendment, its framers had two purposes in mind, first, as a rule of construction, and second. When a vote on this version of the amendment with expressly delegated was defeated, Connecticut Representative Roger Sherman drafted the Tenth Amendment in its ratified form, shermans language allowed for an expansive reading of the powers implied by the Necessary and Proper Clause. Perhaps words which may define this more precisely than the whole of the instrument now does, I admit they may be deemed unnecessary, but there can be no harm in making such a declaration, if gentlemen will allow that the fact is as stated. I am sure I understand it so, and do therefore propose it, the states decided to ratify the Tenth Amendment, and thus declined to signal that there are unenumerated powers in addition to unenumerated rights. The amendment rendered unambiguous what had previously been at most a mere suggestion or implication, was appended in handwriting by the clerk of the Senate as the Bill of Rights circulated between the two Houses of Congress. The Tenth Amendment, which makes explicit the idea that the government is limited to only the powers granted in the Constitution, has been declared to be a truism by the Supreme Court. In United States v. Sprague the Supreme Court asserted that the amendment added nothing to the as originally ratified. An often-repeated quote, from United States v. Darby Lumber,312 U. S.100,124, reads as follows, The amendment states, the Supreme Court rarely declares laws unconstitutional for violating the Tenth Amendment. In the modern era, the Court has only done so where the government compels the states to enforce federal statutes. In 1992, in New York v. United States,505 U. S.144, for only the time in 55 years. The case challenged a portion of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the act provided three incentives for states to comply with statutory obligations to provide for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The first two incentives were monetary, the Court, in a 6–3 decision, ruled that the imposition of that obligation on the states violated the Tenth Amendment. However, Congress cannot directly compel states to enforce federal regulations, in 1998, the Court again ruled that the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act violated the Tenth Amendment (Printz v. United States,521 U. S.898. The act required state and local law enforcement officials to conduct checks on people attempting to purchase handguns. Justice Antonin Scalia, writing for the majority, applied New York v. United States to show that the law violated the Tenth Amendment, since the act forced participation of the States executive in the actual administration of a federal program, it was unconstitutional. Hence, in the aggregate, if farmers were allowed to consume their own wheat, in Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, the Court changed the analytic framework to be applied in Tenth Amendment casesTenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
12. Washington, D.C. – Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standingWashington, D.C. – Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
13. Research library – A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a building or room, or a virtual space. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items, in Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e. g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period. A library is organized for use and maintained by a body, an institution. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information, Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide facilities for access to their electronic resources. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats, the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt, the earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit, besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC, philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians, the Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II, an early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, Turkey was built in honor of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus by Celsus’ son, the library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BCResearch library – Library at Melk Abbey in Austria
14. United States Congress – The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can also refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith, Roberts, and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percentUnited States Congress
15. National library – A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. Unlike public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow books, often, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. A National Library is that library which has the duty of collecting and preserving the literature of the nation within, thus, National Libraries are those libraries whose community is the nation at large. Examples include The British Library, and The Bibliothèque Nationale In Paris, there are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis to the repository character. National libraries are usually notable for their size, compared to that of other libraries in the same country. Some states which are not independent, but who wish to preserve their culture, have established a national library with all the attributes of such institutions. National libraries of Europe participate in The European Library and this is a service of The Conference of European National Librarians. The first national libraries had their origins in the collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state. In England, Sir Richard Bentleys Proposal for Building a Royal Library published in 1694 stimulated renewed interest in the subject. Sir Robert Cotton, 1st Baronet, of Connington, an antiquarian, amassed the richest private collection of manuscripts in the world at the time. Sir Roberts genius was in finding, purchasing and preserving these ancient documents, after his death his grandson donated the library to the nation as its first national library. This transfer established the formation of the British Library, the first true national library was founded in 1753 as part of the British Museum. This new institution was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection included some 40,000 printed books and 7,000 manuscripts, as well as prints and drawings. The British Museum Act 1753 also incorporated the Cotton library and the Harleian library and these were joined in 1757 by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs. Anthony Panizzi became the Principal Librarian at the British Museum in 1856, during his tenure, the Librarys holdings increased from 235,000 to 540,000 volumes, making it the largest library in the world at the time. Its famous circular Reading Room was opened in 1857, Panizzi undertook the creation of a new catalogue, based on the Ninety-One Cataloguing Rules which he devised with his assistants. These rules served as the basis for all subsequent catalogue rules of the 19th and 20th centuries, in France, the first national library was the Bibliothèque Mazarine, which evolved from its origin as a royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. At the death of Charles VI, this first collection was bought by the English regent of France, the Duke of BedfordNational library – National Library of Spain in Madrid, founded 1712
16. United States federal government – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsUnited States federal government – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
17. Library – A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a building or room, or a virtual space. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items, in Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e. g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period. A library is organized for use and maintained by a body, an institution. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information, Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide facilities for access to their electronic resources. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats, the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt, the earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit, besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC, philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians, the Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II, an early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, Turkey was built in honor of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus by Celsus’ son, the library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BCLibrary – Library at Melk Abbey in Austria
18. Librarian of Congress – The Librarian of Congress is the head of the Library of Congress, appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, for a term of ten years. The Librarian of Congress appoints the U. S, poet Laureate and awards the Gershwin Prize for Popular Song. The Librarian of Congress has broad responsibilities around copyright, extending to electronic resources, the Librarian determines whether particular works are subject to DMCA prohibitions regarding technological access protection. On July 13,2016, the US Senate confirmed Carla Hayden as the librarian by a vote of 74-18, on April 24,1800, the 6th United States Congress passed an appropriations bill signed by President John Adams which created the Library of Congress. This law was to serve a further provision for the removal, the fifth section of the act specifically created the Library of Congress and designated some of its early capabilities. Shortly thereafter, Jefferson appointed his campaign manager John J. Beckley to serve as the first Librarian of Congress. It was not until 1897 that Congress was given the power to confirm the President’s nominee and this same law gave the Librarian the sole power for making the institution’s rules and appointing the Library’s staff. For the majority of its history, the position was not subject to term limits, most Librarians of Congress have served until death or retirement. As a result, from 1802 to 2015, the United States only had 13 appointed Librarians, there are no laws or regulations delineating qualifications for the office holder. The position of Librarian of Congress has been held by candidates of different backgrounds, interests, politicians, businessmen, authors, poets, lawyers, and one professional librarian have served as the Librarian of Congress. However, at times there have been proposals for requirements for the position. Vitz felt it necessary to recommend potential librarians, in 1989, Congressman Major R. Owens introduced a bill to set stricter requirements for who may be appointed. He argued appointed Librarians need to have specialized training, the bill did not become law, james H. Billington David S. Mao, Acting 14. Inouye, Who Should Be the Next Librarian of Congress, roll Call Jessamyn West, The Next Librarian of Congress, The Message – via Medium Andrew Albanese, Could the Nomination of the Next Librarian of Congress Spark a Political Battle. Publishers Weekly Jessamyn West, ed. Librarian of ProgressLibrarian of Congress – Incumbent David S. Mao Acting
19. James H. Billington – He served as the 13th Librarian of Congress after being nominated as 13th by President Ronald Reagan in 1987, and his appointment was approved unanimously by the U. S. Senate. He retired as Librarian on September 30,2015, born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, Billington was educated in Philadelphia-area public schools. He was class valedictorian at both Lower Merion High School and Princeton University, where he graduated with highest honors in 1950, Three years later, he earned his doctorate from Balliol College, Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar and student of the philosopher, Isaiah Berlin. From 1973 to 1987, Billington was director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, as director, he founded the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies at the Center and seven other new programs as well as the Wilson Quarterly. Billington is married to the former Marjorie Anne Brennan and they have four children, Dr. Susan Billington Harper, Anne Billington Fischer, the Rev. James Hadley Billington Jr, and Thomas Keator Billington, as well as 12 grandchildren. Dr. Billington and his daughter Susan are the first father and daughter both to be awarded Rhodes Scholarships and to use them to earn Doctorates of Philosophy at Oxford University, Billington was sworn in as the Librarian of Congress on September 14,1987. He is the 13th person to hold the position since the Library of Congress was established in 1800 and he was nominated by President Ronald Reagan and his appointment was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. During his tenure at the Library of Congress, Billington doubled the size of the Librarys traditional analog collections and he led the acquisition of Lafayettes previously inaccessible papers in 1996 from a castle at La Grange, France. Billington has since been the only non-Frenchman on the Board of the governing the castle. He also acquired the only copy of the 1507 Waldseemüller world map in 2003 for permanent display in the Librarys Thomas Jefferson Building. Billington pioneered the reconstruction, using privately raised funds, of Thomas Jeffersons original library, every three years, the Librarian reviews the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. It was probably Billingtons unassailable reputation for integrity and probity that won the LOC this power under the DMCA, besides these unique American Memory materials, the Library Internet services include the congressional database, THOMAS, the on-line card catalog, exhibitions, information from the U. S. Copyright Office, and a web site for children and families called Americas Library, in fiscal year 2013 the Librarys website recorded 84 million visits and 519 million page views. Kluge, the Kluge Center increases engagement of scholars with the U. S.1 million additional support from Congress. Winners have included Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder, Paul McCartney, Burt Bacharach and Hal David, Carole King, Billy Joel, Open World began as a Library of Congress project, and later became an independent agency in the legislative branch. Billington is founder and was Chairman of the Board of Trustees, the Fiction Prize created in 2008 to recognize distinguished lifetime achievement in the writing of fiction. During Billingtons tenure at the Library of Congress, he raised more than half a billion dollars of private support to supplement Congressional appropriations and these private funds were used to increase Library collections, programs, and digital outreach. Billington also asked the GAO to conduct the first Library-wide audit in 1987 and this precedent led to regular annual financial audits, which produced unmodified opinions from 1995 onwardsJames H. Billington – James Billington
20. United States Capitol – The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building or Capitol Hill, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the end of the National Mall in Washington. Though not at the center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the Districts street-numbering system. The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors. In 2014, scaffolding was erected around the dome for a project scheduled to be completed by early 2017. All exterior scaffolding was removed by the end of summer 2016, prior to establishing the nations capital in Washington, D. C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, and a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21,1783, and met in Annapolis, Maryland, the United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4,1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a capital for ten years, until the nations capital in Washington. Pierre Charles LEnfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city, in reviewing LEnfants plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the Capitol rather than Congress House. The word Capitol comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, however, crystal clear. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the Presidents House. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City, the most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect. However, Hallets designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, a late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31,1793, to much praise for its Grandeur, Simplicity, and Beauty by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the portion of the designUnited States Capitol – The west front of the United States Capitol in 2013, before dome restoration scaffolding was erected
21. War of 1812 – Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second, land and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, Third, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814. This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was also a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. also acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was also vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S. citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805War of 1812 – Clockwise from top: damage to the US Capitol after the Burning of Washington; the mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights; USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere; The death of Tecumseh in 1813 ends the Indian armed struggle in the American Midwest; Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans.
22. Thomas Jefferson – Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law and he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nations first Secretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System, as President, Jefferson pursued the nations shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He also organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the countrys territory, as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. Jeffersons second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory. Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and he was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jeffersons keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society and he shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages and he founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves. Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jeffersons private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, however, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13,1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject and his father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen, his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children, the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757, his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph. Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and he assumed full authority over his property at age 21Thomas Jefferson – Thomas Jefferson
23. American Civil War – The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864American Civil War – New Orleans the largest cotton exporting port for New England and Great Britain textile mills, shipping Mississippi River Valley goods from North, South and Border states.
24. Congressional Research Service – The Congressional Research Service, known as Congresss think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress. As a legislative branch agency within the Library of Congress, CRS works primarily and directly for Members of Congress, their Committees and staff on a confidential and its staff of approximately 600 employees includes lawyers, economists, reference librarians, and social, natural, and physical scientists. In fiscal year 2016, CRS was appropriated a budget of roughly $106.9 million by Congress, CRS is joined by two major congressional support agencies. The Congressional Budget Office provides Congress with budget-related information, reports on fiscal, budgetary, and programmatic issues, and analyses of budget policy options, costs, and effects. The Government Accountability Office assists Congress in reviewing and monitoring the activities of government by conducting independent audits, investigations, collectively, the three agencies employ more than 4,000 people. CRS reports are widely regarded as in depth, accurate, objective, and timely, there have been numerous attempts to pass legislation requiring all reports to be made available online, most recently in 2012, but none have been enacted. In 1914, Senator Robert La Follette Sr. and Representative John M, the move also reflected the expanding role of the librarian and the professionalization of the profession. The new department was charged with responding to requests for information. They were promoted by Archibald MacLeish, the Librarian of Congress, about 100 Public Affairs Bulletins were generated before congressional appropriators ended their production in 1951. When the Congressional Research Service Review was launched in 1980, it continued for a more than a decade before congressional appropriators, once again. As inquiries increased from 400,000 questions per year in 1980 to 598,000 in 2000, CRS sought to prepare itself for future challenges, CRS offers Congress research and analysis on all current and emerging issues of national policy. CRS offers timely and confidential assistance to all Members and committees that request it, limited only by CRS’s resources, in all its work, CRS analysts are governed by requirements for confidentiality, timeliness, accuracy, objectivity, balance, and nonpartisanship. CRS services are not limited to those that directly to enacting new laws. For example, CRS attempts to assess emerging issues and developing problems so that it will be prepared to assist the Congress if, although it rarely conducts field research, CRS assists committees in other aspects of their study and oversight responsibilities. In addition, it offers courses, including legal research seminars and institutes on the legislative process, the budget processes. At the beginning of each Congress, CRS also provides a seminar for new Members. CRS is now divided into six research divisions, each of which is further divided into subject specialist sections. The six divisions are, American Law, Domestic Social Policy, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade, Government and Finance, Knowledge Services, CRS supports the Members, committees, and leaders of the House and Senate at all stages of the legislative process, Ideas for legislationCongressional Research Service – Congressional Research Service
25. Library of Congress – The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacementLibrary of Congress – Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.
26. Carol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith is an American photographer, author, and publisher who has photographed in all the states of the United States, as well as the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. She photographs the entire American vista in all 50 US states as a record of the early 21st Century, Highsmith is donating her lifes work of more than 100,000 images, royalty-free, to the Library of Congress, which established a rare, one-person archive. In 2013, Peatross told the San Diego Union-Tribune newspaper, is not only taking photographs but creating a permanent record of the country and its people for the common good. On April 28,2013, the CBS television news magazine CBS This Morning featured Highsmiths work in a segment titled. CBS Correspondent Martha Teichner told in her report, Highsmith is at work on a project photographing all 50 states. Her pictures, thousands of them, are going to the Library of Congress and are being made free for anyone to use. The CBS Sunday Morning report continued, Highsmiths images also capture a disappearing America, Two weeks after she photographed Big Tex, the mascot of the Texas State Fair, he burned down. Her photograph of the New York skyline, just before 9/11, is also in the Library of Congress, CBS included more than 30 of Carols images in the online version of its report. In its December 2007 issue, the Library of Congresss Information Bulletin included a Conversation with Carol Highsmith, in the article, Jeremy Adamson, the director of Collections and Services at the library, said, Highsmiths color images are certainly of the highest technical and artistic quality. But more importantly, she has the ability to identify, focus on and capture for posterity the essential features of our social landscape and physical environment. A photograph by Carol Highsmith is a document of rare precision and beauty, revealing with exacting clarity the look and feel of people, Highsmith also photographed, and her publishing company, Chelsea Publishing, Inc. Early in her career, Highsmith photographed interior and exterior architecture and she photographed ordinary people and everyday sites as well as soaring architecture, natural landscapes, national parks and monuments, Civil War battlefields, and engineering marvels. In early 2002, Crescent Books published World Trade Center, Tribute and Remembrance, about the 2001 September 11 attacks in New York and she had taken aerial photographs of the Twin Towers two months before they fell. That same year, Highsmith and Landphair collaborated on Deep in the Heart and they also produced The Mount Washington, A Century of Grandeur, on the White Mountains resort. Highsmith collaborated with architectural writer Dixie Legler on Historic Bridges of Maryland, in 2007, Highsmith photographed, and author Ryan Coonerty described,52 monuments and other public sites in a National Geographic book Etched in Stone. Entitled California, it was published by Chelsea Publishing, Inc. and this archive, Carol M. Highsmiths America, Documenting the 21st Century, includes 1,000 images taken across the country. The collection emphasizes what Highsmith calls Disappearing America, including 200 shots taken along U. S. Route 66 in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. The more she travels across the country, the more convinced she is about the need to capture in photographs a rapidly changing America, the America I knew is disappearing at lightning speed, observedCarol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith self portrait in front of a broken mirror at the Willard Hotel in 1980
27. United States Department of Agriculture – Approximately 80% of USDAs $140 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, after the resignation of Thomas Vilsack on January 13,2017 and the departure of President Barack Obama from office on January 20,2017, the acting Secretary of Agriculture is Michael Young. Activities in this include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income. The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, also known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation, early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian. Officials in the government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents and he began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for the collection of agricultural statistics, Ellsworth was called the Father of the Department of Agriculture. In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior, in the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. Lincoln called it the peoples department, in the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank, finally, on February 9,1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 then funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, with these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agricultures Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners. The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion, the Washington Post reports that he said There are days when I have literally nothing to do, he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quitUnited States Department of Agriculture – The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C., the USDA headquarters.
28. Food guide pyramid – A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a pyramid-shaped diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups. The first pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974, the 1992 pyramid introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture was called the Food Guide Pyramid. It was updated in 2005, and then it was replaced by MyPlate in 2011, anna-Britt Agnsäter, chief of the test kitchen for Kooperativa Förbundet, held a lecture the next year on how to illustrate these food groups. Attendee Fjalar Clemes suggested a triangle displaying basic foods at the base, Agnsäter developed the idea into the first food pyramid, which was introduced to the public in 1974 in KFs Vi magazine. While the Board distanced itself from the pyramid, KF continued to promote it, the United States later developed its first food pyramid in 1992. The reports quoted here explain that there is no stated lower limit in the table below. All percentages are percentages of calories, not of weight or volume, to understand why, consider the determination of an amount of 10% free sugar to include in a days worth of calories. For the same amount of calories, free sugars take up less volume and weight, in a similar manner all the items are in competition for various categories of calories. The representation as a pyramid is not precise, and involves variations due to the percentages of different elements. The USDA food pyramid was created in 1992 and divided into six sections containing depictions of foods from each sections food group. It was updated in 2005 with colorful vertical wedges replacing the horizontal sections, MyPyramid was often displayed with the food images absent, creating a more abstract design. In an effort to restructure food nutrition guidelines, the USDA rolled out its new MyPlate program in June 2011 and my Plate is divided into four slightly different sized quadrants, with fruits and vegetables taking up half the space, and grains and protein making up the other half. The vegetables and grains portions are the largest of the four, a vegetable is a part of a plant consumed by humans that is generally savory but is not sweet. A vegetable is not considered a grain, fruit, nut, spice, for example, the stem, root, flower, etc. may be eaten as vegetables. Vegetables contain many vitamins and minerals, however, different vegetables contain different spreads, for example, green vegetables typically contain vitamin A, dark orange and dark green vegetables contain vitamin C, and vegetables like broccoli and related plants contain iron and calcium. Vegetables are very low in fats and calories, but ingredients added in preparation can often add these and these foods provide complex carbohydrates, which are an important source of energy, especially for a low-fat meal plan. Examples include corn, wheat, and rice, in terms of food, fruits are the sweet-tasting seed-bearing parts of plants, or occasionally sweet parts of plants which do not bear seeds. These include apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, etc, fruits are low in calories and fat and are a source of natural sugars, fiber and vitaminsFood guide pyramid – The "Basic Seven" developed by the United States Department of Agriculture
29. MyPlate – MyPlate is the current nutrition guide published by the United States Department of Agriculture, a food circle depicting a place setting with a plate and glass divided into five food groups. It replaced the USDAs MyPyramid guide on June 2,2011, MyPlate will be displayed on food packaging and used in nutrition education in the United States. MyPlate is the latest nutrition guide from the USDA, the USDAs first dietary guidelines were published in 1894 by Dr. Wilbur Olin Atwater as a farmers bulletin. Since then, the USDA has provided a variety of nutrition guides for the public, including the Basic 7, the Basic Four, the Food Guide Pyramid, many other governments and organizations have created nutrition guides. Some, like the United Kingdoms Eatwell Plate, the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, the guidelines also recommend portion control while still enjoying food, as well as reductions in sodium and sugar intakes. In unveiling MyPlate, First Lady Michelle Obama said, Parents dont have the time to measure out exactly three ounces of chicken or to look up how much rice or broccoli is in a serving, but we do have time to take a look at our kids plates. And as long as theyre eating proper portions, as long as half of their meal is fruits and vegetables alongside their lean proteins, whole grains and low-fat dairy, then were good. The USDA has created partnerships with a number of organizations to promote the messages of MyPlate and spread the reach as far. These partners consist of national in scope and reach that have agreed to promote nutrition content in the context of the entirety of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. MyPlate was widely received as an improvement on the previous MyPyramid icon, the 50-percent emphasis on fruits and vegetables, as well as the simplicity and understandability of the plate image, were particularly praised. The dairy section was criticized by some as similarly dispensable, the Harvard School of Public Health released their own adjusted and more detailed version of MyPlate, called the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate, in response. The Harvard plate also contains a recommendation for physical activityMyPlate – The MyPlate food guide icon
30. United States Department of Justice – The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan members, the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department has responsibility to investigate instances of fraud, to represent the United States in legal matters such as in the Supreme Court. The department also has responsibilities to review actions of law enforcement conduct by the Violent Crime Control. The Department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President, the current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions. The U. S. Attorney General was initially a one-person and it was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, but this grew with the bureaucracy. At one time the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, until March 3,1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salary by engaging in private practice of law. Following unsuccessful efforts to put the Attorney Generals Office on a footing, in 1869. On February 19,1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice, President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill into law on June 22,1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1,1870, just prior to the Civil War, in February 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as Americas first Solicitor General, both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grants first term in there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. The result was a decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was better or stronger then Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Akermans successor, George H. Williams, in December 1871, the law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, new facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary, upon Medarys death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the projectUnited States Department of Justice – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
31. United States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States v. Scheinberg,10 Cr. A companion civil case, United States v. PokerStars, et al.11 Civ,2564, includes Full Tilt and Cereus as defendants and seeks the recovery of forfeiture equalling approximately $3 billion in assets belonging to the companies. Three years after the start of the boom in 2003. The law made processing payments for online gambling a crime, however. A former payment processor for the companies turned states evidence after initially being charged with violating UIGEA himself, on September 20, the civil suit was amended claiming individual fraud by Messrs. Howard Lederer, Chris Ferguson and Rafael Furst, about 76 bank accounts in 14 countries were frozen, including an unknown amount of player funds. The prosecutors are seeking jail sentences for the 11 criminal defendants including site founders and executives, U. S. Antigua, the companies ceased their U. S. -facing ad campaigns, resulting in cancellations of poker-themed television shows. In June, Full Tilts eGambling license was suspended, which halted all of its online play. The Alderney Gambling Control Commission on the British Channel Islands later revoked its license on September 29, PokerStars and Full Tilt admitted no wrongdoing as part of the settlement, which ends all litigation between the government and the poker companies. The criminal indictments remain in place for the named individuals, in 2003, ESPN expanded its coverage of the World Series of Poker. Between 2003 and 2006 the number of contestants in the $10,000 No Limit Texas holdem Main Event grew from 839 to 8773, after the UIGEA was passed the World Series of Poker main event decreased in size, to 6358 players in 2007. However, according to syndicated columnist Jacob Sullum, the law did not define or alter the definition of unlawful gambling, which under Federal law only applies to sports betting via the Wire Act. Nevertheless, Party Poker, at the time the largest provider for U. S. demand, also in 2006, several other online poker service providers withdrew from the market, including Sportingbets Paradise Poker,888 Holdings Pacific Poker, and the iPoker Networks CD Poker. Several other sites continued to facilitate the demand for online poker in the U. S. which had been growing about 20% per year. A2006 law passed in Washington State that made it a felony to play online poker was upheld as constitutional by the Washington Supreme Court in September 2010. PokerStars immediately withdrew from Washingtons market, and Full Tilt soon followed suit and this case was preceded by a 2009 seizure of $34 million worth of winnings in transit U. S. poker players. Since Federal law says nothing specifically about online poker, or any gambling other than sports betting, Preet Bharara, although none of the sites are actually run out of New York, he was able to obtain a felony indictment for UIGEA violations. In addition to the 2006 UIGEA, the defendants were charged with violating the Illegal Gambling Business Act of 1955, additionally, in April 2010, the former head of Intabill, a defunct payment processor in Australia, Daniel Tzvetkoff, was arrested in Las Vegas by the FBIUnited States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States Department of Justice website seizure notice
32. United States Department of Defense – The Department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 801,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services and it is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington, D. C. The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, Military operations are managed by nine regional or functional Unified Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense also operates several joint services schools, including the National Defense University, the history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775. The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775 and this coincides with the American holiday Flag Day. The Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, today, both the Navy and the Marine Corps are separate military services subordinate to the Department of the Navy. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to federal government, to defend its citizens and this first Congress had a huge agenda, that of creating legislation to build a government for the ages. Legislation to create a military defense force stagnated, two separate times, President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts, deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing heavily on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense, the National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment was renamed the Department of Defense on 10 August 1949, under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the authority of the Military Departments. Also provided in this legislation was a centralized authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Act moved decision-making authority from the Military Departments to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and it also strengthened the command channel of the military over U. S. forces from the President to the Secretary of Defense. Written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, it was signed into law 6 August 1958, because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the relationships within the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987, the Office of the Secretary of Defense is the Secretary and Deputy Secretarys civilian staff. S. Government departments and agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, OSD also performs oversight and management of the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities. OSD also supervises the following Defense Agencies, Several defense agencies are members of the United States Intelligence Community and these are national-level intelligence services that operate under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense but simultaneously fall under the authorities of the Director of National IntelligenceUnited States Department of Defense – The Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense
33. Military budget of the United States – The military budget pays the salaries, training, and health care of uniformed and civilian personnel, maintains arms, equipment and facilities, funds operations, and develops and buys new equipment. The budget funds 4 branches of the U. S. military, the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, in FY2015, Pentagon and related spending totaled $598 billion, about 54% of the fiscal year 2015 U. S. discretionary budget. For FY2017, President Obama proposed the budget of $523.9 billion. For the period 2010-14, SIPRI found that the United States was the worlds biggest exporter of arms, accounting for 31 percent of global shares. The USA delivered weapons to at least 94 recipients, the United States was also the worlds eighth largest importer of major military equipment for the same period. The following is historical spending on defense from 1996-2015, spending for 2014-15 is estimated, the Defense Budget is shown in billions of dollars and total budget in trillions of dollars. The percentage of the total U. S. budget spent on defense is indicated in the third row, for the 2011 fiscal year, the presidents base budget for the Department of Defense and spending on overseas contingency operations combine to bring the sum to US$664.84 billion. When the budget was signed into law on 28 October 2009, the recent invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan were largely funded through supplementary spending bills outside the federal budget, which are not included in the military budget figures listed below. However, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were categorized as overseas operations in the starting of the fiscal year 2010. By the end of 2008, the U. S. had spent approximately $900 billion in costs on the wars in Iraq. The government also incurred costs, which include interests on additional debt and incremental costs, financed by the Veterans Administration. Some experts estimate the costs will eventually exceed the direct costs. As of June 2011, the total cost of the wars was approximately $1.3 trillion, the federally budgeted military expenditure of the United States Department of Defense for fiscal year 2013 are as follows. While data is provided from the 2015 budget, data for 2014 and 2015 is estimated, the Department of Defenses FY2011 $137.5 billion procurement and $77.2 billion RDT&E budget requests included several programs with more than $1.5 billion. In December 2011, the GAO found that neither the Navy nor the Marine Corps have implemented effective processes for reconciling their FBWT, according to the GAO, An agency’s FBWT account is similar in concept to a corporate bank account. The difference is instead of a cash balance, FBWT represents unexpended spending authority in appropriations. In addition, As of April 2011, there were more than $22 billion unmatched disbursements, the GAO cited as the principal obstacle to its provision of an audit opinion serious financial management problems at the Department of Defense that made its financial statements unauditable. In FY2010, six out of thirty-three DoD reporting entities received unqualified audit opinions and that affect the safeguarding of assets, proper use of funds, and impair the prevention and identification of fraud, waste, and abuseMilitary budget of the United States – USA 2010 Military Budget Spending
34. United States Environmental Protection Agency – The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2,1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House, the agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the president and approved by Congress. The current administrator is Scott Pruitt, the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the ten regions. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education and it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U. S. states, EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs. In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees, more than half of EPAs employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists, other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment, in the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on RCA, President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1,1970. The law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President, NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions significantly affecting the environment. The detailed statement would ultimately be referred to as an impact statement. On July 9,1970, Nixon proposed a reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal, the agency’s first administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4,1970. In May 2013, Congress renamed the EPA headquarters as the William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building, the EPA is led by an Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. As of 2017 Scott Pruitt is the 14th administrator, each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agencys programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to statesUnited States Environmental Protection Agency – Stacks emitting smoke from burning discarded automobile batteries, photo taken in Houston in 1972 by Marc St. Gil (cs), official photographer of recently founded EPA
35. Greenhouse gases – A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earths surface would be about −18 °C, rather than the present average of 15 °C. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a portion of the emissions by various natural sinks involved in the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fuels, principally coal, oil. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the range emitted by Earth. The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a time is the airborne fraction. The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the increase in a given year to that years total emissions. Over the last 50 years the annual airborne fraction for CO2 has been increasing at 0.25 ±0. 21%/year, therefore, they do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and usually are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases. Some gases have indirect radiative effects and this happens in two main ways. One way is that when they break down in the atmosphere they produce another greenhouse gas, for example, methane and carbon monoxide are oxidized to give carbon dioxide. Oxidation of CO to CO2 directly produces an increase in radiative forcing although the reason is subtle. The peak of the thermal IR emission from Earths surface is close to a strong vibrational absorption band of CO2. On the other hand, the single CO vibrational band only absorbs IR at much higher frequencies, where the ~300 K thermal emission of the surface is at least a factor of ten lower. Oxidation of methane to CO2, which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces a reduction, since CO2 is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane. As described below this is not the story, since the oxidations of CO. In any case, the calculation of the radiative effect needs to include both the direct and indirect forcingGreenhouse gases – The false colors in this image represent concentrations of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere, ranging from about 390 parts per billion (dark brown pixels), to 220 parts per billion (red pixels), to 50 parts per billion (blue pixels).
36. Clean Air Act (United States) – The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States first and most influential environmental laws. As with many other major U. S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with state, local and its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C. F. R. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act was the first U. S federal legislation that pertained to air pollution, the first federal legislation to actually pertain to controlling air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a program within the U. S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution, the 1967 act also authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, and control techniques. Major amendments to the law, requiring regulatory controls for air pollution, the 1970 amendments greatly expanded the federal mandate, requiring comprehensive federal and state regulations for both stationary pollution sources and mobile sources. It also significantly expanded federal enforcement, the 1990 amendments addressed acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, established a national permits program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. Bush, the Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. Numerous state and local governments have enacted legislation, either implementing federal programs or filling in locally important gaps in federal programs. This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nations air quality promotes public health, the law encourages prevention of regional air pollution and control programs. It also provides technical and financial assistance for air pollution prevention at both state and local governments, additional subchapters cover of cooperation, research, investigation, training and other activities. Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies, the act mandates air quality control regions, designated as attainment vs non-attainment. Non-attainment areas do not meet standards for primary or secondary ambient air quality. Attainment areas meet these standards, while unclassifiable areas cannot be classified on the basis of the information that is available, Air quality criteria, national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, state implementation plans and performance standards for new stationary sources are also covered in Part A. The list of air pollutants established by the act includes acetaldehyde, benzene, chloroform, phenols. The list also includes mineral fiber emissions from manufacturing or processing glass, the list periodically can be modified. The remaining subchapters cover smokestack heights, state plan adequacy, and estimating emissions of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, measures to prevent unemployment or other economic disruption include using local coal or coal derivatives to comply with implementation requirementsClean Air Act (United States) – Counties in the United States where one or more National Ambient Air Quality Standards are not met, as of October 2015.
37. Guantanamo Bay detention camp – The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which fronts on Guantánamo Bay in Cuba. Since the inmates have been detained indefinitely without trial and several inmates were severely tortured, the camp was established by the President George W. Bushs administration in 2002 during the War on Terror. During his term, his administration succeeded in reducing the number of inmates from about 245 to 41, in practice, the site has long been used for indefinite detention without trial. The facility is operated by the Joint Task Force Guantanamo of the United States government in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Detention areas consisted of Camp Delta including Camp Echo, Camp Iguana, and Camp X-Ray, which is now closed. The Bush administration asserted that detainees were not entitled to any of the protections of the Geneva Conventions. Following this, on 7 July 2006, the Department of Defense issued a memo stating that detainees would, in the future. Current and former detainees have reported abuse and torture, which the Bush administration denied, in a 2005 Amnesty International report, the facility was called the Gulag of our times. In 2006, the United Nations called unsuccessfully for the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be closed, on 22 January 2009, President Obama issued a request to suspend proceedings at Guantanamo military commission for 120 days and to shut down the detention facility that year. President Obama issued a Presidential memorandum dated 15 December 2009, ordering Thomson Correctional Center, Thomson, in February 2011, U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that Guantanamo Bay was unlikely to be closed, due to opposition in the Congress. Congress particularly opposed moving prisoners to facilities in the United States for detention or trial, in April 2011, Wikileaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. On 4 November 2015, President Barack Obama stated that he was preparing to unveil a plan to close the facility, the plan would propose one or more prisons from a working list that includes facilities in Kansas, Colorado and South Carolina. Two others that were on the list, in California and Washington state, do not appear to have made the preliminary cut, by January 19,2017, however, the detention center remained open, with 41 detainees remaining. Camp Delta is a 612-unit detention center finished in April 2002 and it includes detention camps 1 through to 6, as well as Camp Echo, where pre-commissions are held. Camp X-Ray was a detention facility, which was closed in April 2002. Its prisoners were transferred to Camp Delta, in 2008, the Associated Press reported Camp 7, a separate facility on the naval base that is considered the highest security jail on the base, and its location is classified. It is used to house high-security detainees formerly held by the CIA, in January 2010, Scott Horton published an article in Harpers Magazine describing Camp No, a black site about a mile outside the main camp perimeter, which included an interrogation center. His description was based on accounts by four guards who had served at Guantanamo and they said prisoners were taken one at a time to the camp, where they were believed to be interrogated. He believes that the three detainees that DoD announced as having committed suicide were questioned under torture the night of their deathsGuantanamo Bay detention camp – Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002
38. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteSupreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
39. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The Affordable Care Act was designed to increase health insurance quality and affordability, lower the uninsured rate by expanding insurance coverage and reduce the costs of healthcare. It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges, the law requires insurers to accept all applicants, cover a specific list of conditions and charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. The ACA has caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, increases in overall healthcare spending have slowed since the law was implemented, including premiums for employer-based insurance plans. The Congressional Budget Office reported in studies that the ACA would reduce the budget deficit. As implementation began, first opponents, then others, and finally the president himself adopted the term Obamacare to refer to the ACA. The law and its implementation faced challenges in Congress and federal courts, and from state governments, conservative advocacy groups, labor unions. The ACA includes provisions to take effect between 2010 and 2020, although most took effect on January 1,2014, few areas of the US health care system were left untouched, making it the most sweeping health care reform since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. However, some areas were more affected than others, most of the coverage gains were made through the expansion of Medicaid, and the biggest cost savings were made in Medicare. Some regulations applied to the market, and the law also made delivery system changes that affected most of the health care system. Not all provisions took full effect, some were made discretionary, some were deferred, and others were repealed before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions, States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. The law provides a 5% income disregard, making the income eligibility limit for Medicaid 138% of the poverty level. The State Childrens Health Insurance Program enrollment process was simplified, among the groups who remained uninsured were, Illegal immigrants, estimated at around 8 million—or roughly a third of the 23 million projection—are ineligible for insurance subsidies and Medicaid. They remain eligible for emergency services, eligible citizens not enrolled in Medicaid. Citizens who pay the penalty instead of purchasing insurance, mostly younger. Citizens whose insurance coverage would cost more than 8% of household income and are exempt from the penalty, citizens who live in states that opt out of the Medicaid expansion and who qualify for neither existing Medicaid coverage nor subsidized coverage through the states new insurance exchanges. Households with incomes between 100% and 400% of the poverty level were eligible to receive federal subsidies for policies purchased via an exchange. Subsidies are provided as an advanceable, refundable tax credits, additionally, small businesses are eligible for a tax credit provided that they enroll in the SHOP MarketplacePatient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The President and White House Staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
40. Miller v. Alabama – The ruling extended beyond the Graham v. Florida case, which had ruled juvenile life without parole sentences unconstitutional for crimes excluding murder. The decision of the court was based on two consolidated cases, Jackson v. Hobbs, No, 10-9647, and Miller v. Alabama, No. The Los Angeles Times wrote, In one case that came before the court, Kuntrell Jackson was 14 when he and he stayed outside, and one of the youths pulled a gun and killed the store clerk. Jackson was charged as an adult and given a term with no parole. In the second case, Evan Miller, a 14-year-old from Alabama, was convicted of murder after he and he too was given a life term with no parole. Jackson waited outside the store for a time, but entered shortly before Derrick Shields shot the store clerk, there is debate as to whether he told the clerk, We aint playin or whether he said to his accomplices, I thought you all was playin. Evan Miller committed homicide in the act of robbing his neighbor, Cannon had fallen asleep after he, Miller, and Colby Smith had indulged in alcohol and marijuana. Cannon awoke as Miller was replacing his wallet, and Smith hit Cannon with a baseball bat, Miller took up the bat and proceeded to severely beat Cannon. Smith and Miller later returned to destroy the evidence of what they had done by setting fire to Cannons trailer, Cannon died of severe injuries and smoke inhalation. “It prevents taking into account the family and home environment that surrounds him — and he wrote, “Determining the appropriate sentence for a teenager convicted of murder presents grave and challenging questions of morality and social policy. Our role, however, is to apply the law, not to such questions. ”A separate dissent was filed by Justice Samuel Alito. “Nothing in the Constitution supports this arrogation of legislative authority. ”The holding of the court applies retroactively to all convicted of crimes committed under 18. It does not automatically free any prisoner, and it does not forbid sentences of life terms for young murderers. Instead judges in their review have to consider the defendant’s youth, mitigating factors, the case was remanded to the trial court for the convicted youths to be re-sentenced. In Montgomery v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court determined that Miller v. Alabama must be applied retroactively, the petitioner, Henry Montgomery, has been in prison since 1963 for a murder he committed at the age of 17. The Court said that states could undertake re-sentencing, or offer parole to inmates sentenced to life as minors, up to 2,300 cases nationwide may be affected by the ruling. Slip opinion from the U. S. Supreme CourtMiller v. Alabama – Supreme Court of the United States
41. Arizona SB 1070 – It has received national and international attention and has spurred considerable controversy. The law barred state or local officials or agencies from restricting enforcement of immigration laws. The paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an attrition through enforcement doctrine, critics of the legislation say it encourages racial profiling, while supporters say the law prohibits the use of race as the sole basis for investigating immigration status. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns, there have been protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U. S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona. Polling has found the law to have majority support in Arizona, passage of the measure has prompted other states to consider adopting similar legislation. The Act was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23,2010 and it was scheduled to go into effect on July 29,2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session. The day before the law was to effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the laws most controversial provisions. Any person arrested cannot be released without confirmation of the legal immigration status by the federal government pursuant to §1373 of Title 8 of the United States Code. A first offense carries a fine of up to $100, plus court costs, if the person who brings suit prevails, that person may be entitled to reimbursement of court costs and reasonable attorney fees. In addition, the Act makes it a crime for anyone, regardless of citizenship or immigration status, vehicles used in such manner are subject to mandatory immobilization or impoundment. Violation is a class 1 misdemeanor if fewer than ten unauthorized aliens are involved, the offender is subject to a fine of at least $1,000 for each unauthorized alien involved. The transportation provision includes exceptions for child protective services workers, and ambulance attendants, Arizona is the first state to enact such far-reaching legislation. Prior law in Arizona, like the law in most other states, does not mandate that law enforcement personnel ask about the status of those they encounter. Many police departments discourage such inquiries to avoid deterring immigrants from reporting crimes, Arizona had an estimated 460,000 undocumented aliens in April 2010, a figure that had increased fivefold since 1990. As the state with the most illegal crossings of the Mexico – United States border, its remote and dangerous deserts are the point for thousands of illegal alien Mexicans. By the late 1990s, Tucson Border Patrol Sector had become the location for the most number of arrests by the United States Border Patrol, Arizona has a history of passing restrictions on illegal immigration, including legislation in 2007 that imposed heavy sanctions on employers hiring illegal aliens. Measures similar to SB1070 had been passed by the legislature in 2006 and 2008 and she was subsequently appointed as Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama administration and was replaced by Republican Secretary of State of Arizona Jan Brewer. There is a history of referenda, such as the Arizona Proposition 200 that have sought to restrict illegal aliens use of social servicesArizona SB 1070 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer meeting with President Barack Obama in June 2010 in the wake of SB 1070, to discuss immigration and border security issues.
42. Arizona v. United States – Arizona v. United States,567 U. S. ___, was a United States Supreme Court case involving Arizonas S. B. 1070, a law intended to increase the powers of local law enforcement who wished to enforce federal immigration laws. At issue is whether the law usurps the federal authority to regulate immigration laws. On April 23,2010, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed into law SB1070, the bills passage immediately sparked constitutional concerns over potential civil rights violations and have accused it of encouraging racial profiling. Tens of thousands of people demonstrated against the law in over 70 U. S. cities on May 1,2010. A rally in Los Angeles, attended by Cardinal Mahony of the Roman Catholic Church, the city had become the national epicenter of protests against the Arizona law. Around 25,000 people were at a protest in Dallas and more than 5,000 were in Chicago and Milwaukee, while rallies in other cities generally attracted around a thousand people or so. There and in other locations, demonstrators expressed frustration with what they saw as the administrations lack of action on immigration reform. Additionally, the Justice Department in its July 6,2010 motion, the 1976 precedent of De Canas v. Bica was relied upon in Arizonas Motion. On Wednesday, July 28,2010, Judge Susan R, several states jointly filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. Under the current situation, the States have lost control over their borders and are left to guess at the reality of the law. The Latin American countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, additionally,81 members of the U. S. Congress filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. On July 28,2010, Judge Bolton issued an order denying in part, among the provisions that will go into effect are the following, A. R. S. § 11-1051, prohibiting Arizona officials, agencies, and political subdivisions from limiting enforcement of immigration laws. § 11-1051-, requiring that state officials work with federal officials with regard to undocumented immigrants, see 7/28/2010 Order An appeal of the US District Courts 7/28/2010 ruling was filed on July 29,2010. A motion to expedite the normal appeal schedule was also filed, Arizona gave the following reasons for the motion to expedite, Good cause exists to expedite this appeal under Ninth Circuit Rules 27-12 and 34-3 and 28 U. S. C. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard arguments in the case, the three-judge panel was composed of Judges Richard Paez, Carlos Bea, and John T. Noonan. On April 11,2011, the Ninth Circuit panel upheld the district courts ban on parts of the law taking effect, thus ruling in favor of the Obama administration and against ArizonaArizona v. United States – Supreme Court of the United States
43. Rodney King – Rodney Glen King was an African American taxi driver, who became internationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3,1991. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, the footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage were aired around the world, and raised concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States. Four officers were charged with assault with a weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges, the jury acquitted the fourth of assault with a deadly weapon but failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level, the acquittals also led to the federal governments obtaining grand jury indictments for violations of Kings civil rights. The trial of the four in a district court ended on April 16,1993. The other two were acquitted again, King was born in Sacramento, California, the son of Ronald King and Odessa King. He and his four siblings grew up in Altadena, California, King attended John Muir School and often talked about being inspired by his Social Science teacher Robert E. Jones, an openly gay man who was found dead with a fellow student Ronald McClendon. Kings father died in 1984 at the age of 42, July 27,1987, According to a complaint filed by his wife, King beat her while she was sleeping, then dragged her outside the house and beat her again. King was charged with battery and pleaded no contest and he was placed on probation and ordered to obtain counseling. On November 3,1989, King robbed a store in Monterey Park and he threatened to hit the Korean store owner with an iron bar, then hit him with a pole. King stole two hundred dollars in cash during the robbery and was caught, convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment and he was released after serving one year of the sentence, on December 27,1990. King had three daughters, one by Carmen Simpson, when he was a teenager, and one by each of his two wives, both of Kings marriages, to Danetta Lyles and Crystal Waters, ended in divorce. Prior to driving onto the Foothill Freeway, the three men had spent the night watching a game and drinking at a friends house in Los Angeles. Five hours after the incident, Kings blood-alcohol level was found to be slightly below the legal limit. This suggests that his blood alcohol level may have fallen from 0. 19% while he was driving, at 12,30 a. m. officers Tim and Melanie Singer, husband-and-wife members of the California Highway Patrol, noticed Kings car speeding on the freeway. The officers pursued King, and the pursuit reached high speeds, King would later admit he attempted to outrun the police at dangerously high speeds because a charge of driving under the influence would violate his parole for a previous robbery convictionRodney King – King in April 2012
44. 1992 Los Angeles riots – It then spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, arson, and killings occurred during the riots, in total,55 people were killed during the riots, more than 2,000 people were injured, and more than 11,000 were arrested. LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates, who had announced his resignation by the time of the riots. On the evening of March 3,1991, Rodney King, the California Highway Patrol attempted to initiate a traffic stop. A high-speed pursuit ensued with speeds estimated at up to 115 mph, first over freeways, when King finally came to a stop, CHP Officer Timothy Singer and his wife, CHP Officer Melanie Singer, ordered the occupants under arrest. King was tasered, struck with side-handled batons, then tackled to the ground, video footage of the arrest showed that he was attempting to get up each time he was struck, and that the police made no attempt to cuff him until he lay still. A subsequent test for the presence of PCP in Rodney Kings body at the time of the arrest turned up negative, the incident was captured on a camcorder by local resident George Holliday from his apartment in the vicinity. The tape was roughly 12 minutes long, while the tape was presented during trial, some clips of the incident were not released to the public. The footage of King being beaten by police while lying on the ground became an instant focus of media attention, eight stories appeared on ABC News, including a sixty-minute special on Primetime Live. Upon watching the tape of the beating, LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates said, I played the one-minute-50-second tape again. Then again and again, until I had viewed it 25 times, and still I could not believe what I was looking at. The Los Angeles County District Attorney subsequently charged four police officers, including one sergeant, with assault, due to the heavy media coverage of the arrest, the trial received a change of venue from Los Angeles County to Simi Valley in neighboring Ventura County. The jury was composed of nine whites, one male, one Latino. The prosecutor, Terry White, was black, on April 29,1992, the seventh day of jury deliberations, the jury acquitted all four officers of assault and acquitted three of the four of using excessive force. The jury could not agree on a verdict for the officer charged with using excessive force. The first two seconds of videotape, contrary to the claims made by the officers, show King attempting to flee past Laurence Powell. During the next one minute and 19 seconds, King is beaten continuously by the officers, the officers testified that they tried to physically restrain King prior to the starting point of the videotape, but King was able to physically throw them off himself. Outside the Simi Valley courthouse where the acquittals were delivered, county sheriffs deputies protected Stacey Koon from angry protesters on the way to his car1992 Los Angeles riots – 4,000 California Army National Guardsmen patrolled the city to enforce the law.
45. Voyager 1 – Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5,1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 launched 16 days after its twin, having operated for 39 years,6 months and 30 days, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. At a distance of 138 AU from the Sun as of March 2017, the probes primary mission objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturns large moon, Titan. It studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. After completing its mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 20,1980, Voyager 1 began an extended mission to explore the regions. On August 25,2012, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause to become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space, in the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was proposed which prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. Information gathered by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft helped Voyagers engineers design Voyager to cope effectively with the intense radiation environment around Jupiter. Initially, Voyager 1 was planned as Mariner 11 of the Mariner program, due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was changed to Voyager. Voyager 1 was constructed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and it has 16 hydrazine thrusters, three-axis stabilization gyroscopes, and referencing instruments to keep the probes radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively, these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem, the spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects such as planets as it travels through space. The radio communication system of Voyager 1 was designed to be used up to, the communication system includes a 3. 7-meter diameter parabolic dish high-gain antenna to send and receive radio waves via the three Deep Space Network stations on the Earth. The craft normally transmits data to Earth over Deep Space Network Channel 18, using a frequency of either 2.3 GHz or 8.4 GHz, while signals from Earth to Voyager are broadcast at 2.1 GHz. When Voyager 1 is unable to communicate directly with the Earth, signals from Voyager 1 take over 19 hours to reach Earth. Voyager 1 has three radioisotope thermoelectric generators mounted on a boom, each MHW-RTG contains 24 pressed plutonium-238 oxide spheres. The RTGs generated about 470 W of electric power at the time of launch, the power output of the RTGs declines over time, but the crafts RTGs will continue to support some of its operations until 2025. As of 2017-04-04, Voyager 1 has 73. 14% of the plutonium-238 that it had at launch, by 2050, it will have 56. 5% left. Since the 1990s, space probes usually have completely autonomous cameras, the computer command subsystem controls the camerasVoyager 1 – Voyager 1, artist's impression
46. Heliosphere – The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto. The solar wind flows outward from the Sun until encountering the termination shock, the overall shape of the heliosphere is controlled by the interstellar medium through which it is traveling, as well as the Sun, and is not perfectly spherical. The limited data available and unexplored nature of structures have resulted in many theories. On September 12,2013, NASA announced that Voyager 1 had exited the heliosphere on August 25,2012, originating at the extremely hot surface of the corona, solar wind particles reach escape velocity, streaming outwards at 300 to 800 km/s. As it begins to interact with the medium, its velocity slows before finally stopping altogether. The termination shock was traversed by Voyager 1 in 2004, and it may be a more gentle bow wave. Voyager data led to a new theory that the heliosheath has magnetic bubbles, the stagnation region within the heliosheath, starting around 113 au, was detected by Voyager 1 in 2010. There the solar wind velocity drops to zero, the field intensity doubles. Starting in May 2012 at 120 au, Voyager 1 detected an increase in cosmic rays. In the summer of 2013 NASA announced that Voyager 1 had reached interstellar space as of August 25,2012, cassini and IBEX data challenged the heliotail theory in 2009. In July 2013, IBEX results revealed a 4-lobed tail on the Solar Systems heliosphere, the solar wind consists of particles and fields. Because the Sun rotates once approximately every 25 days, the magnetic field transported by the wind gets wrapped into a spiral. Variations in the Suns magnetic field are carried outward by the solar wind, the heliospheric current sheet is a ripple in the heliosphere created by the rotating magnetic field of the Sun. Extending throughout the heliosphere, it is considered the largest structure in the Solar System and is said to resemble a ballerinas skirt, the outer structure of the heliosphere is determined by the interactions between the solar wind and the winds of interstellar space. The solar wind away from the Sun in all directions at speeds of several hundred km/s in the Earths vicinity. At some distance from the Sun, well beyond the orbit of Neptune and this takes place in several stages, The solar wind is traveling at supersonic speeds within the Solar System. At the termination shock, a shock wave, the solar wind falls below the speed of sound. However, observations in 2009 showed that model is incorrectHeliosphere
47. Solar system – The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets, of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the mass is in the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System also contains smaller objects, the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptunes orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets, identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, the heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium, it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, the Solar System is located in the Orion Arm,26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way. For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System, the invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99. 86% of the known mass. The Suns four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the mass, with Jupiter. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0. 002% of the Solar Systems total mass, most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earths orbit, known as the eclipticSolar system – The Sun and planets of the Solar System (distances not to scale)
48. Allen Stanford – Stanford was the chairman of the now defunct Stanford Financial Group of Companies. A fifth-generation Texan who once resided in Saint Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, he holds dual citizenship, being a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda and he contributed millions of dollars to politicians in both Antigua and the United States amongst other countries. The Federal Bureau of Investigation raided Stanfords offices in Houston, Texas, Memphis, Tennessee, on February 27,2009, the SEC amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a massive Ponzi scheme. He voluntarily surrendered to authorities on June 18,2009, on March 6,2012, Stanford was convicted on all charges except a single count of wire fraud. He is serving his 110-year sentence at United States Penitentiary, Coleman in Coleman, in September 2014, Stanford appealed his conviction, however, the appeals court rejected the appeal in October 2015. Stanford grew up in Mexia, Texas and his father, James Stanford, is former mayor of Mexia and a member of the Board of Directors of Stanford Financial Group. His mother, Sammie, is a nurse, after his parents divorced in 1959, Stanford and his brother went to live with their mother. Stanford graduated from Eastern Hills High School in Fort Worth, Texas, in 1974, Stanford graduated from Baylor University in Waco, Texas, earning a BA degree in finance. Stanford started in business in Waco, Texas, opening a gym that failed. His first success in business came from speculating in real estate in Houston after the Texas oil bubble burst in the early 1980s, the men made a fortune in the 1980s, buying up depressed real estate and selling it years later as the market recovered. After his father retired in 1993, Stanford took control of the company, Stanford moved to the Caribbean in the 1980s, first to Montserrat, then to Antigua. Early in 2007, Stanford and Baldwin Spencer, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda and formerly an ally, began verbally feuding in public. Reports surfaced in early February 2009 that the SEC, the FBI, the Florida Office of Financial Regulation, and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, a former executive told SEC officials that Stanford presented hypothetical investment results as actual historical data in sales pitches to clients. Stanford claimed his certificates of deposit were as safe as, or safer than, the U. S. Ambassador to the Bahamas at the time was reported to have managed to stay out of any one-on-one photos with Stanford during a charity breakfast event. Federal agents raided the offices of Stanford Financial on February 17,2009, the SEC charged Stanford with massive ongoing fraud centered on an eight-billion-dollar investment scheme. Stanfords assets, along with those of his companies, were frozen and placed into receivership by a U. S. federal judge, CNBC reported that Stanford tried to flee the country on the same day as the raids on his headquarters. He contacted a private jet owner and attempted to pay for a flight to Antigua with a credit card, but was refused because the company would accept only a wire transfer. On February 19, acting at the request of the SEC, FBI agents located Stanford at his girlfriends house near Fredericksburg, Virginia, the SEC often files civil charges before criminal charges are filedAllen Stanford – Robert Allen Stanford mug shot, 2009
49. Stanford Financial Group – The Stanford Financial Group was a privately held international group of financial services companies controlled by Allen Stanford, until it was seized by United States authorities in early 2009. On February 17,2009, U. S. Federal agents put the company under management of a receiver, ten days later, the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a massive Ponzi scheme. Allen Stanford traced his company to the company founded in 1932 in Mexia, Texas, by his grandfather. Allen Stanfords move into banking utilised funds he had made in real estate in Houston in the early 1980s, in 2008, Stanford Financial Group announced it would open a new global management complex in St. Croix, U. S. Completion was planned for July 2009 but did not occur due to the companys dissolution, the company was bound by a web of personal and family ties. Stanfords chief financial officer and second-in-command, James M. Davis, was his roommate at Baylor University, the chief investment officer, Laura Pendergest-Holt, grew up attending a church in Baldwyn, Mississippi where Davis was a Sunday school teacher. Many top officials were related to each other, Allen Stanford relocated its operations to Antigua. On February 19,2009 Nigel Hamilton-Smith and Peter Wastell of the British accounting firm Vantis were appointed joint receivers of the bank, in June 2010, the High Court of Antigua resolved that Vantis should be removed from its responsibilities. The firm, which had received government approval to sell the property assets. Stanford Trust Company, helped manage and protect wealth, Vantis was also appointed receivers of Stanford Trust Company. Stanford Financial Group was the financier for the 2007 film The Ultimate Gift. According to the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy, the story of The Ultimate Gift promoted philanthropy in health care institutions. The group established a significant presence in golf, polo, tennis, cricket and sailing, Stanford also sponsored professional golfers Vijay Singh, Camilo Villegas and David Toms as well as Morgan Pressel on the LPGA Tour. In tennis, the company was a sponsor of the Sony Ericsson Open, Stanford also sponsored the Champions Series Tennis Tournaments featuring Jim Courier, John McEnroe and Pete Sampras. The Stanford Financial Tour Championship, previously known as the LPGA Playoffs at The ADT, beginning with the 2009 event, it was to be sponsored by Stanford Financial Group. As one of the partners, Stanford Financial Group was also involved in Tiger Woodss annual golf tournament. During the week of February 13,2009, Stanford issued a letter to clients saying, on February 17,2009, U. S. Federal agents entered the companys Houston and Memphis offices. Law enforcement officials placed signs on the office stating that the company was temporarily closed, The company is still in operationStanford Financial Group – Galleria Tower II, the headquarters of Stanford Financial Group in Houston
50. Ponzi scheme – Operators of Ponzi schemes usually entice new investors by offering higher returns than other investments, in the form of short-term returns that are either abnormally high or unusually consistent. Ponzi schemes occasionally begin as legitimate businesses, until the business fails to achieve the returns expected, the business becomes a Ponzi scheme if it then continues under fraudulent terms. Whatever the initial situation, the perpetuation of the high returns requires a flow of money from new investors to sustain the scheme. The scheme is named after Charles Ponzi, who became notorious for using the technique in 1920. The idea, present in novels, was performed in real life by Ponzi who with his operation took in so much money that it was the first to become known throughout the United States. Ponzis original scheme was based on the arbitrage of international reply coupons for postage stamps, however, he soon diverted investors money to make payments to earlier investors, Ponzi schemes sometimes commence operations as legitimate investment vehicles, such as hedge funds. A wide variety of investment vehicles or strategies, typically legitimate, have become the basis of Ponzi schemes, for instance, Allen Stanford used bank certificates of deposit to defraud tens of thousands of people. Certificates of deposit are usually low-risk and insured instruments, but the Stanford CDs were fraudulent, initially the promoter will pay out high returns to attract more investors, and to lure current investors into putting in additional money. Other investors begin to participate, leading to a cascade effect, the return to the initial investors is paid out of the investments of new entrants, rather than solely from profits. This maintains the deception that the scheme is an investment with high returns, promoters also try to minimize withdrawals by offering new plans to investors, often where money is frozen for a longer period of time, in exchange for higher returns. The promoter sees new cash flows as investors are told they cannot transfer money from the first plan to the second. When a Ponzi scheme is not stopped by the authorities, it sooner or later falls apart for one of the reasons, The promoter vanishes. Such liquidity crises often trigger panics, as people start asking for their money. External market forces, such as a decline in the economy. However, several characteristics distinguish these schemes from Ponzi schemes, In a Ponzi scheme, in a pyramid scheme, those who recruit additional participants benefit directly. A pyramid scheme typically collapses much faster because it requires exponential increases in participants to sustain it, by contrast, Ponzi schemes can survive simply by persuading most existing participants to reinvest their money, with a relatively small number of new participants. An economic bubble, A bubble is similar to a Ponzi scheme in that one participant gets paid by contributions from a subsequent participant, a bubble involves ever-rising prices in an open market where prices rise because buyers bid more and buyers bid more because prices are rising. Bubbles are often said to be based on the greater fool theory, as with the Ponzi scheme, the price exceeds the intrinsic value of the item, but unlike the Ponzi scheme, there is no single person misrepresenting the intrinsic valuePonzi scheme – 1920 photo of Charles Ponzi, the namesake of the scheme, while still working as a businessman in his office in Boston
51. Natasha Trethewey – Natasha Trethewey is an American poet who was appointed United States Poet Laureate in 2012 and again in 2014. She won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry for her 2006 collection Native Guard and she is the Robert W. Woodruff Professor of English and Creative Writing at Emory University, where she also directs the Creative Writing Program. S. Supreme Court struck down anti-miscegenation laws with Loving v. Virginia and her birth certificate noted the race of her mother as colored, and the race of her father as “Canadian”. Tretheweys mother, a worker, was part of the inspiration for Native Guard. Tretheweys parents divorced when she was young and Turnbough was murdered in 1985 by her husband, whom she had recently divorced. Recalling her reaction to her mothers death, she said, that was the moment when I both felt that I would become a poet and then immediately afterward felt that I would not, I turned to poetry to make sense of what had happened. Natasha Tretheweys father was also a poet, he was a professor of English at Hollins University, in May 2010 Trethewey delivered the commencement speech at Hollins University and was awarded an honorary doctorate. She had previously received a degree from Delta State University in her native Mississippi. Structurally, her work combines free verse with more structured, traditional forms like the sonnet, thematically, her work examines memory and the racial legacy of America. The American Civil War makes frequent appearances in her work, on June 7,2012, James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, named her the 19th US Poet Laureate. Newspapers noted that unlike most poets laureate, Trethewey is in the middle of her career and she was also the first laureate to take up residence in Washington, D. C. when she did so in January 2013. On May 14,2014, Tretheway delivered her lecture to conclude her second term as US Poet Laureate. Beyond Katrina, A Meditation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast,1 Trethewey interview with Daniel Cross Turner for Waccamaw, A Journal of Contemporary Literature Joe Heim. Just Asking, Poet Laureate Natasha Trethewey, Natasha D. Trethewey at Library of Congress Authorities, with 5 catalog recordsNatasha Trethewey – Trethewey reading at the Library of Congress in 2013
52. The New York Times – The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B. Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
53. Stuxnet – Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first identified in 2010, that targets industrial computer systems and was responsible for causing substantial damage to Irans nuclear program. The software was designed to erase itself in 2012 thus limiting the scope of its effects, the worm is believed by many experts to be a jointly built American-Israeli cyberweapon, although no organization or state has officially admitted responsibility. Exploiting four zero-day flaws, Stuxnet functions by targeting machines using the Microsoft Windows operating system and networks, Stuxnet reportedly compromised Iranian PLCs, collecting information on industrial systems and causing the fast-spinning centrifuges to tear themselves apart. Stuxnet reportedly ruined almost one fifth of Irans nuclear centrifuges, Stuxnet is typically introduced to the target environment via an infected USB flash drive. The worm then propagates across the network, scanning for Siemens Step7 software on computers controlling a PLC, in the absence of either criterion, Stuxnet becomes dormant inside the computer. Stuxnet, discovered by Sergey Ulasen, initially spread via Microsoft Windows, Stuxnet infects PLCs by subverting the Step-7 software application that is used to reprogram these devices. Siemens stated that the worm has not caused any damage to its customers, but the Iran nuclear program, Kaspersky Lab concluded that the sophisticated attack could only have been conducted with nation-state support. This was further supported by the F-Secures chief researcher Mikko Hyppönen who commented in a Stuxnet FAQ, Thats what it would look like, yes. On 25 December 2012, an Iranian semi-official news agency announced there was a cyberattack by Stuxnet, the virus targeted a power plant and some other industries in Hormozgan province in recent months. According to expert Eugene Kaspersky, the worm infected a nuclear powerplant in Russia. Kaspersky noted, however, that since the powerplant is not connected to the public Internet, the worm was at first identified by the security company VirusBlokAda in mid-June 2010. Journalist Brian Krebss blog posting on 15 July 2010 was the first widely read report on the worm, the original name given by VirusBlokAda was Rootkit. Tmphider, Symantec however called it W32. Temphid, later changing to W32. Stuxnet. Its current name is derived from a combination of some keywords in the software, Kaspersky Lab experts at first estimated that Stuxnet started spreading around March or April 2010, but the first variant of the worm appeared in June 2009. On 15 July 2010, the day the worms existence became widely known and this attack, from an unknown source but likely related to Stuxnet, disabled one of the lists and thereby interrupted an important source of information for power plants and factories. The worm contains a component with a build time-stamp from 3 February 2010, such complexity is very unusual for malware. Stuxnet attacked Windows systems using an unprecedented four zero-day attacks and it is initially spread using infected removable drives such as USB flash drives, which contain Windows shortcut files to initiate executable code. The worm then uses other exploits and techniques such as peer-to-peer RPC to infect, the number of zero-day exploits used is unusual, as they are highly valued and malware creators do not typically make use of four different zero-day exploits in the same worm. Stuxnet is unusually large at half a megabyte in size, the Windows component of the malware is promiscuous in that it spreads relatively quickly and indiscriminatelyStuxnet – Siemens Simatic S7-300 PLC CPU with three I/O modules attached
54. Computer worm – A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a network to spread itself, relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, many worms that have been created are designed only to spread, and do not attempt to change the systems they pass through. However, as the Morris worm and Mydoom showed, even these payload free worms can cause major disruption by increasing network traffic, the actual term worm was first used in John Brunners 1975 novel, The Shockwave Rider. In that novel, Nichlas Haflinger designs and sets off a data-gathering worm in an act of revenge against the men who run a national electronic information web that induces mass conformity. You have the biggest-ever worm loose in the net, and it automatically sabotages any attempt to monitor it, theres never been a worm with that tough a head or that long a tail. S. Court of Appeals estimated the cost of removing the virus from each installation was in the range of $200–53,000, Morris himself became the first person tried and convicted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Any code designed to do more than spread the worm is typically referred to as the payload, typical malicious payloads might delete files on a host system, encrypt files in a ransomware attack, or exfiltrate data such as confidential documents or passwords. Probably the most common payload for worms is to install a backdoor and this allows the computer to be remotely controlled by the worm author as a zombie. Networks of such machines are referred to as botnets and are very commonly used for a range of malicious purposes. Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems, vendors with security problems supply regular security updates, and if these are installed to a machine then the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vulnerability is disclosed before the security patch released by the vendor, users need to be wary of opening unexpected email, and should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOU worm, and with the growth and efficiency of phishing attacks. Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days, the use of a firewall is also recommended. In the April–June,2008, issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, the researchers discovered how to contain the kind of worm that scans the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect. They found that the key is for software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network send out. When a machine starts sending out too many scans, it is a sign that it has been infected, allowing administrators to take it off line, in addition, machine learning techniques can be used to detect new worms, by analyzing the behavior of the suspected computer. Those worms allowed testing by John Shoch and Jon Hupp of the Ethernet principles on their network of Xerox Alto computers, the Nachi family of worms tried to download and install patches from Microsofts website to fix vulnerabilities in the host system—by exploiting those same vulnerabilitiesComputer worm – Hex dump of the Blaster worm, showing a message left for Microsoft CEO Bill Gates by the worm programmer
55. Uranium enrichment – Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation. Natural uranium is 99. 284% 238U isotope, with 235U only constituting about 0. 711% of its weight, 235U is the only nuclide existing in nature that is fissile with thermal neutrons. Enriched uranium is a component for both civil nuclear power generation and military nuclear weapons. During the Manhattan Project enriched uranium was given the codename oralloy, the term oralloy is still occasionally used to refer to enriched uranium. There are about 2,000 tonnes of enriched uranium in the world, produced mostly for nuclear weapons, naval propulsion. At present,95 percent of the stocks of depleted uranium remain in secure storage. Uranium as it is directly from the Earth is not suitable as fuel for most nuclear reactors. Uranium is mined underground or in an open pit depending on the depth in which it is found. After the uranium ore is mined, it must go through a process to extract the uranium from the ore. 1% uranium. Naturally-occurring uranium is made of a mixture of U-235 and U-238, the U-235 is fissile meaning it is easily split with neutrons while the remainder is U-238, but in nature, more than 99% of the extracted ore is U-238. Most nuclear reactors require enriched uranium, which is uranium with higher concentrations of U-235 ranging between 3. 5% and 4. 5%, there are two commercial enrichment processes, gaseous diffusion and gas centrifugation. Both enrichment processes involve the use of uranium hexafluoride and produce enriched uranium oxide, reprocessed uranium is a product of nuclear fuel cycles involving nuclear reprocessing of spent fuel. Low-enriched uranium has a lower than 20% concentration of 235U, for instance, in light water reactors. Fresh LEU used in research reactors is usually enriched 12% to 19. 75% U-235, highly enriched uranium has a 20% or higher concentration of 235U. 4% 235U being required. For criticality experiments, enrichment of uranium to over 97% has been accomplished, the very first uranium bomb, Little Boy dropped by the United States on Hiroshima in 1945, used 64 kilograms of 80% enriched uranium. Wrapping the weapons fissile core in a neutron reflector can dramatically reduce the critical mass, because the core was surrounded by a good neutron reflector, at explosion it comprised almost 2.5 critical masses. The presence of too much of the 238U isotope inhibits the nuclear chain reaction that is responsible for the weapons power. The critical mass for 85% highly enriched uranium is about 50 kilograms, for the secondary of a large nuclear weapon, the higher critical mass of less-enriched uranium can be an advantage as it allows the core at explosion time to contain a larger amount of fuelUranium enrichment – A drum of yellowcake (a mixture of uranium precipitates)
56. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeablyIran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
57. 2011 military intervention in Libya – On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The United Nations Intent and Voting was to have a ceasefire in Libya, including an end to the current attacks against civilians. Imposing a ban on all flights in the countrys airspace – a no-fly zone – and tightened sanctions on the Qadhafi regime, French jets launched air strikes against Libyan Army tanks and vehicles. The effort was largely led by France and the United Kingdom. NATO took control of the embargo on 23 March, named Operation Unified Protector. An attempt to unify the command of the air campaign, first failed over objections by the French, German. On 24 March, NATO agreed to control of the no-fly zone. The handover occurred on 31 March 2011 at 06,00 UTC, NATO flew 26,500 sorties since it took charge of the Libya mission on 31 March 2011. Fighting in Libya ended in late October following the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas new government requested that its mission be extended to the end of the year, but on 27 October, the Security Council voted to end NATOs mandate for military action on 31 October. 23 February 2011, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pushed for the European Union to pass sanctions against Gaddafi,25 February 2011, Sarkozy said Gaddafi must go. 26 February 2011, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was passed unanimously and it imposed an arms embargo on the country and a travel ban and assets freeze on the family of Muammar Al-Qadhafi and certain Government officials. 1 March 2011, The US Senate unanimously passed non-binding Senate resolution S. RES.85 urging the United Nations Security Council to impose a Libyan no-fly zone and encouraging Gaddafi to step down. The US had naval forces positioned off the coast of Libya, as well as already in the region. Canadian National Defence Minister Peter MacKay stated that e are there for all inevitabilities, and NATO is looking at this as well. This is taken as a precautionary and staged measure,7 March 2011, US Ambassador to NATO Ivo Daalder announced that NATO decided to step up surveillance missions of E-3 AWACS aircraft to twenty-four hours a day. The Gulf Cooperation Council also on that day called upon the UN Security Council to take all measures to protect civilians. Three days later, he stated that if pro-Gaddafi forces reached Benghazi and he stated, If there is no no-fly zone imposed on Gaddafis regime, and his ships are not checked, we will have a catastrophe in Libya. 10 March 2011, France recognized the Libyan NTC as the government of Libya soon after Sarkozy met with them in Paris2011 military intervention in Libya – Libyan anti-government rebels, 1 March 2011
58. James Zadroga – Zadroga was the first NYPD officer whose death was attributed to exposure to his contact with toxic chemicals at the attack site. Zadroga had joined the New York City Police Department in 1992 and he was a healthy non-smoker and had no known history of asthma or other respiratory conditions before spending 450 hours participating in the recovery efforts at the 9/11 attack site. The New York City Police Department Medical Board approved his application for permanent disability retirement that same year, the causes of Zadrogas death are under dispute. This attribution made Zadroga,34 years old at the time of his death, officials from the Chief Medical Examiners office met with the Zadroga family to present his findings. Y. P. D. Officer who dedicated himself — put his life in harm’s way hundreds of times during his career —, a third opinion obtained by Zadrogas family later that month from Dr. Pataki mentioned Zadroga at the bill-signing ceremony, held at the World Trade Center site. The Act covers medical and other expenses for a specific list of diseases and these include interstitial lung diseases, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Since its creation, additional conditions have been eligible, in September 2012,50 different types of cancers were added. At the federal level, the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act provides health monitoring, the borough has also dedicated two monuments to Zadroga as part of the ceremonies. September 11 Attacks Collapse of the World Trade Center Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks World Trade Center Health Program James Zadroga collected news and commentary. James Zadroga at Find a Grave A Cloud of Smoke, Jennifer Kahn, The New Yorker, September 15,2008 9/11 First Responder John Feal Calls on Senate to Pass Zadroga Bill, video report, Democracy NowJames Zadroga – President Obama signing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 into law, January 2, 2011 at Plantation Estate in Hawaii.
59. September 11 attacks – The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden. Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but later admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the PentagonSeptember 11 attacks – Top row: The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center burning
60. New START – New START is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Prague, and, after ratification and it is expected to last at least until 2021. New START replaced the Treaty of Moscow, which was due to expire in December 2012, under terms of the treaty, the number of strategic nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. A new inspection and verification regime will be established, replacing the SORT mechanism and it does not limit the number of operationally inactive stockpiled nuclear warheads that remain in the high thousands in both the Russian and American inventories. According to a Reuters report on February 9,2017, in US President Donald Trumps first 60-minute telephone call with Russian President Vladimir Putin, Putin inquired about extending New START. President Trump denounced the treaty, after asking his aides what it was, under the terms of the treaty, the number of strategic nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. The total number of deployed warheads, however, could exceed the 1,550 limit by a few hundred because per bomber only one warhead is counted regardless of how many it actually carries. The number of deployed ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments is limited to 700, the treaty allows for satellite and remote monitoring, as well as 18 on-site inspections per year to verify limits. These obligations must be met within seven years from the date the treaty enters into force, the treaty will last ten years, with an option to renew it for up to five years upon agreement of both parties. The treaty entered force on 5 February 2011, when the United States and Russia exchanged instruments of ratification, following approval by the U. S. Senate. However, the United States began implementing the reductions even before the treaty was ratified, documents made available to the U. S. While four of 24 launchers on each of the 14 ballistic missile nuclear submarines would be removed, none would be retired. The treaty places no limits on tactical systems, such as the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, the treaty does not cover rail-mobile ICBM launchers because neither party currently possesses such systems. The New START treaty is the successor to the START I, the START II was signed, but not ratified. The START III negotiating process was not successful, the drafting of the treaty commenced in April 2009 immediately after the meeting between the presidents of the two countries, Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev, in London. Preliminary talks were held in Rome on 27 April, although it was originally planned to have them held in the middle of May. Prolonged talks were conducted by U. S. and Russian delegations, the Russian delegation was headed by Anatoly Antonov, director of security and disarmament at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The document listed the intention of both parties to reduce the number of nuclear warheads to 1, 500–1,675 units, presidents Obama and Medvedev announced on 26 March 2010 that they had reached an agreement, and they signed the treaty on 8 April 2010 in PragueNew START – Presidents Obama and Medvedev after signing the Prague Treaty.
61. Golan v. Holder – In the United States, the Act restored copyright status to foreign works previously in the public domain. The remaining constitutional challenge to the 1994 Uruguay Round Agreements Act was dismissed the following year and it was appealed at the Tenth Circuit. And remanded the case to the district court, a related issue was then brought before the court as Golan v. Holder after conductors Lawrence Golan and Richard Kapp filed suit. In a holding published on April 3,2009, Judge Babcock reversed his earlier finding that the First Amendment was not applicable to resurrecting foreign copyright claims. e. Parties who had been using a work formerly in the domain before the URAA became effective, relying on the work being in the public domain. He wrote, In the United States, that body of law includes the principle that works in the public domain remain in the public domain. Removing works from the public domain violated Plaintiffs’ vested First Amendment interests and he also indicated a possible solution by suggesting that the protection of reliance parties be made not limited in time. However, further appeals by copyright owners were expected, Golan filed for certiorari in the Supreme Court of the United States asking for the Court to hear the case. On March 7,2011, the Court granted the writ of certiorari, oral argument was held October 5,2011. Other parties that filed amicus curiae briefs include, On January 18,2012, the majority opinion was written by Justice Ginsburg and joined by Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, and Sotomayor. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the dissent was written by Justice Breyer and joined by Alito. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 565 List of copyright case law Gordon, Wendy J. Dissemination Must Serve Authors, review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues. Is the Copyright Public Domain Irrevocable, an Introduction to Golan v. Holder. Archived from the original on 2011-11-04, copyrights Traditional Contours and Bedrock Principles, Golans Potential to Secure First Amendment Protection Over the Public Domain. Complaint in Golan v. Ashcroft at cyber. law. harvard. edu Jones, fair Use, Affirmative Defense or RightGolan v. Holder – Supreme Court of the United States
62. Public domain – The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published, news and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survivalPublic domain – Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition
63. Jared Lee Loughner – Representative Gabrielle Giffords, his target, and killed six people, including Chief U. S. District Court Judge John Roll, as well as a nine-year-old bystander, Christina-Taylor Green. Loughner shot and injured 13 other people, and one man was injured while subduing him, acquaintances said that Loughners personality had changed markedly in the years prior to the shooting, a period when he was also abusing alcohol and drugs. He had been suspended from Pima Community College in September 2010 because of his behavior and disruptions in classes. After his arrest, two medical evaluations diagnosed him with schizophrenia and incompetent to stand trial. He was medicated while in jail as part of his treatment and he was again judged incompetent in May 2012. In August 2012, Loughner was judged competent to stand trial, in November 2012, he was sentenced to life plus 140 years in federal prison. Jared Lee Loughner is the child of Randy and Amy Loughner. They were described by a neighbor as a private family. Amy Loughner worked for the City Parks Department, Randy Loughner was a retired gasoline truck driver, but journalists did not determine if he worked outside the house at the time. While Loughner had friends in school, neighbors noted that in the years following, he kept more to himself. Loughner attended Mountain View High School, and dropped out in 2006, around this time, when he was about eighteen years old, those who knew him noted a change in his personality. Kelsey Hawkes, who dated Loughner for several months in high school, ive always known him as the sweet, caring Jared, said Hawkes,21, then a student at the University of Arizona. At some point, Loughner was fired from his job at a Quiznos restaurant, after this, Loughner briefly volunteered at a local animal shelter, walking dogs, but he was asked not to return. The shelter manager later said, He was walking dogs in an area we didnt want dogs walked. he didnt understand or comprehend what the supervisor was trying to tell him and he was just resistant to that information. Tong Shan, a friend and classmate of Loughners, recalled observing significant changes in his attitude. Shan, who became friends with Loughner on the day of their high school graduation, said that they would spend time together after class in college. When they met again in mid-2010, Shan recalled that Loughner appeared, from the way he was talking to me. It was just questions and questions and random, weird questions that didnt go together and he wanted to know everything. he would just trip outJared Lee Loughner – Mug shot of Loughner taken by U.S. Marshals on January 22, 2011
64. 2011 Tucson shooting – Representative Gabrielle Giffords and eighteen others were shot during a constituent meeting held in a supermarket parking lot in Casas Adobes, Arizona, in the Tucson metropolitan area. Six people died, including federal District Court Chief Judge John Roll, Gabe Zimmerman, one of Rep. Giffords staffers, one additional person was injured in the immediate aftermath of the shooting. News reports identified the target of the attack as Giffords, a Democrat representing Arizonas 8th congressional district and she was shot through the head at point-blank range, and her medical condition was initially described as critical. Loughner, a 22-year-old Tucson man who was fixated on Giffords, was arrested at the scene, Federal prosecutors filed five charges against him, including the attempted assassination of a member of Congress and the assassination of a federal judge. Loughner previously had been arrested once on a drug charge and had been suspended by his college for disruptive behavior. Court filings include notes handwritten by Loughner indicating he planned to assassinate Giffords, the motive for the shooting remains unclear, Loughner did not cooperate with authorities, invoking his right to remain silent. He was held without bail and indicted on 49 counts, in January 2012, Loughner was found by a federal judge to be incompetent to stand trial based on two medical evaluations, which diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia. Judged still incompetent to stand trial on May 25, finally on August 7 and he pleaded guilty to 19 counts, and in November 2012 was sentenced to life in prison. Following the shooting, American and international politicians expressed grief and condemnations, gun control advocates pushed for increased restrictions on the sale of firearms and ammunition, specifically high-capacity ammunition magazines. Palin rejected claims that she bore responsibility for the shooting, President Barack Obama led a nationally televised memorial service on January 12, and other memorials took place. The shooting took place on January 8,2011, at 10,10 a. m, Giffords had set up a table outside the store and about 20 to 30 people were gathered around her when Jared Lee Loughner drew a pistol and shot Giffords in the head. The shooting was caught on video by a security camera but has not yet been released to the public. Loughner proceeded to fire apparently randomly at other members of the crowd and he reportedly used a 9×19mm Glock 19 semi-automatic pistol with a 33-round magazine. A nearby store employee said he heard 15 to 20 gunshots, Loughner stopped to reload, but dropped the loaded magazine from his pocket to the sidewalk, from where bystander Patricia Maisch grabbed it. Another bystander clubbed the back of the head with a folding chair, injuring his elbow in the process. Loughner was tackled to the ground by Bill Badger, a 74-year-old retired United States Army Colonel who had also shot himself. Loughner was further subdued by Maisch and bystanders Roger Sulzgeber and Joseph Zamudio, Zamudio, a concealed weapon permit holder, had a weapon on his person, but arrived after the shooting had stopped and did not draw his firearm. Thirty-one shell casings were found at the scene by investigators, the first call from the scene to emergency services was received at 10,11 a. m2011 Tucson shooting – First responders at the crime scene outside the Casas Adobes Safeway Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, Arizona's 8th Congressional District, (D)
65. Gabrielle Giffords – Gabrielle Dee Gabby Giffords is an American politician from the U. S. state of Arizona. She is the woman in Arizonas history to be elected to the U. S. Congress. Giffords is a native of Tucson, Arizona, and a graduate of Scripps College and she also worked as an associate for regional economic development for Price Waterhouse in New York City, and as CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local automotive chain owned by her grandfather. She is married to former astronaut and Space Shuttle Commander Mark E. Kelly, on January 8,2011, just a week into her third term, Giffords was a victim of an assassination attempt near Tucson, at a Safeway supermarket where she was meeting publicly with constituents. Giffords was later brought to a facility in Houston, Texas. On May 16,2011, Giffords traveled to Kennedy Space Center to watch the launch of STS-134, the flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour. On August 1,2011, Giffords returned to the House floor to vote and was greeted with a standing ovation. On January 22,2012, Giffords announced her resignation from her seat in order to concentrate on recovering from her wounds. Gabrielle Dee Giffords was born and grew up Tucson, Arizona, to Gloria Kay and she was raised in a mixed religious environment by her Jewish father and Christian Science-practicing mother. Her grandfather, Akiba Hornstein, was a Jewish immigrant from Lithuania who changed his name to Giffords to avoid anti-Semitism, through her father, Giffords is a second cousin of actress Gwyneth Paltrow. Giffords has identified herself solely with Judaism since 2001, belonging to Congregation Chaverim and she was Arizonas first Jewish congresswoman. Giffords graduated from Tucsons University High School and she is a former Girl Scout. Giffords worked as an associate for regional economic development at Price Waterhouse in New York City, in 1996, she became president and CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local chain of auto service centers founded by her grandfather. The business was sold to Goodyear Tire in 2000, at the time of the sale, she commented on the difficulties local businesses face when competing against large national firms. Giffords was elected to the Arizona House of Representatives and served from 2001 to 2003 and she was elected to the Arizona Senate in the fall of 2002, and at the time was the youngest woman elected to that body. She took office in January 2003 and was re-elected in 2004 and she resigned from the Arizona Senate on December 1,2005, in preparation for her congressional campaign. Sarn, repayments due under Ladewig v. Arizona, the No Child Left Behind mandate, low achievement, health care costs. She noted that Arizona was not alone in facing such challenges, expanding health care access was an issue of interest for Giffords when she served in the legislatureGabrielle Giffords – Gabrielle Giffords
66. Perry v. Schwarzenegger – Hollingsworth v. Perry refers to a series of United States federal court cases that legalized same-sex marriage in the State of California. The case began in 2009 in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California and this decision overturned ballot initiative Proposition 8, which had banned same-sex marriage. After the State of California refused to defend Proposition 8, the sponsors of Proposition 8 intervened and appealed to the Supreme Court. The case was litigated during the governorships of both Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jerry Brown, and was known as Perry v. Schwarzenegger and Perry v. Brown. It eventually reached the United States Supreme Court as Hollingsworth v, the salient effect of the ruling was that same-sex marriage in California resumed under the district court trial decision from 2010. The case was docketed with the Supreme Court at 570 U. S. ___, in May 2008, the California Supreme Court held in the case In re Marriage Cases that state statutes limiting marriage to opposite-sex applicants violated the California Constitution. The following month, same-sex couples were able to marry in California, in November 2008, Californias electorate adopted Proposition 8, a constitutional amendment that restored the opposite-sex limitation on marriage. Following the adoption of Proposition 8, several lawsuits were filed that challenged the validity of the amendment under various state constitutional provisions. On May 26,2009, the California Supreme Court held, in Strauss v. Horton, that Proposition 8 was a lawful enactment, the couples legal team was led by David Boies and former U. S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson, who had opposed each other in Bush v. Gore. They were listed on the 2010 Time 100 for their nonpartisan, Lambda Legal and the American Civil Liberties Union opposed the filing because they felt a federal challenge at this time might do more harm than good. Olson and AFER rebuffed this argument and defended the timing of the lawsuit, following a pre-trial hearing on July 2,2009, the three legal groups moved to intervene in the lawsuit, as did the City of San Francisco in a separate filing. The plaintiffs opposed allowing the groups or the City to intervene, on August 19, Judge Walker denied the legal groups motions to intervene but granted the Citys, albeit in a limited capacity. In May 2009, the Alameda County Clerk-Registrar, Patrick OConnell, denied Kristin Perry, for the same reason, Dean Logan, the Los Angeles County Clerk, denied Paul Katami and Jeffrey Zarrillo a marriage license. The couples sued the two county clerks and several officials, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, Attorney General Jerry Brown. Several groups sought to intervene as plaintiffs, including the groups who had prosecuted the In re Marriage Cases, San Francisco also filed a motion to intervene in the case. City Attorney Dennis Herrera said that his office is singularly well-prepared to help put anti-gay discrimination on trial based on the facts, Walker permitted only San Francisco to intervene, as it could speak to the impact of Proposition 8 on local governments. He also ordered the general to assist San Francisco in analyzing Proposition 8s impactPerry v. Schwarzenegger – A demonstration in front of the Supreme Court on the day of oral arguments
67. Equal Protection Clause – The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The clause, which took effect in 1868, provides that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The meaning of the Equal Protection Clause has been the subject of much debate and this clause was the basis for Brown v. The Equal Protection Clause itself applies only to state and local governments, however, the Supreme Court held in Bolling v. Sharpe that equal protection requirements apply to the federal government through the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Before and during the Civil War, the Southern states violated the rights of speech of pro-Union citizens, anti-slavery advocates. During the Civil War, the Southern states stripped many white citizens of their citizenship and banished them from the states. Shortly after the Union victory in the American Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress and ratified by the states in 1865, many ex-Confederate states then adopted Black Codes following the war. These laws severely restricted the rights of blacks to hold property, including property and many forms of personal property. These codes also created harsher criminal penalties for blacks than for whites, because of the inequality these Black Codes imposed, Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866. This Act provided that all born in the United States were citizens. Full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, president Andrew Johnson Vetoed the Civil Rights bill of 1866 amid concerns that Congress did not have the constitutional authority to pass such a law. Such doubts were one factor that led Congress to begin to draft, moreover, Congress wanted to protect white Unionists who were under personal and legal attack in the former Confederacy. The effort was led by the Radical Republicans of both houses of Congress, including John Bingham, Charles Sumner, and Thaddeus Stevens, the most important among these, however, was Bingham, a Congressman from Ohio, who drafted the language of the Equal Protection Clause. The Southern states were opposed to the Civil Rights Act, but in 1865 Congress, exercising its power under Article I, section 5, clause 1 of the Constitution, to be the Judge of the. Qualifications of its own Members, had excluded Southerners from Congress, declaring that their states, having rebelled against the Union, could therefore not elect members to Congress. It was this fact that the Fourteenth Amendment was enacted by a rump Congress—that allowed the Equal Protection Clause to be passed by Congress. Its ratification by the former Confederate states was made a condition of their reacceptance into the Union, during the debate in Congress, more than one version of the clause was considered. Here is the first version, The Congress shall have power to all laws which shall be necessaryEqual Protection Clause – Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause.
68. Commonwealth of Virginia v. Sebelius – National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius,567 U. S. ___,183 L. Ed. 2d 450,132 S. Ct. The Acts represented a set of changes to the American health care system that had been the subject of highly contentious debate. In March 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection, a number of parties sued, including the National Federation of Independent Business, claiming that the sweeping reform law was unconstitutional for various reasons. The state of Florida filed a lawsuit against the United States Department of Health and Human Services, vinson also held that the mandate could not be severed from the rest of the Affordable Care Act and struck down the entire Act. The Department of Health and Human Services appealed to the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, a three-judge panel issued a 2–1 ruling affirming Judge Vinsons findings in part and reversing in part. The government decided to not seek en banc review from the full Circuit, other federal courts heard cases related to the Affordable Care Act that were not directly reviewed by the Supreme Court, but caused a divide regarding the constitutionality of the law. Two federal judges appointed by President Bill Clinton upheld the individual mandate in 2010, on the second day, the court heard arguments over whether the individual mandate component of the ACA fell under the constitutional powers of Congress. The states were represented during the hearings by former Bush administration Solicitor General Paul Clement while the government was represented by current Solicitor General Donald Verrilli. On the morning of the day, the Court considered the issue of severability—whether the Affordable Care Act could survive if the Court struck down the individual mandate. Paul Clement, Deputy Solicitor General Edwin Kneedler, and Court-appointed amicus curiae H. Bartow Farr, on the afternoon of the third day, the Court considered whether the Medicaid expansion the Affordable Care Act instituted was coercive. Both Paul Clement and Donald Verilli again argued before the Court, Chief Justice Roberts extended the time limit for both parties by 15 minutes during the arguments. Solicitor General Verrillis performance during the hearings was widely criticized by analysts, the Supreme Court was fragmented on many of the issues. Chief Justice Roberts wrote the opinion of the Court on the Anti-Injunction Act, by a vote of 5–4, the Court upheld the individual mandate component of the ACA as a valid exercise of Congresss power to lay and collect taxes. Because the Constitution permits such a tax, it is not our role to forbid it, the Court concluded, A tax on going without health insurance does not fall within any recognized category of direct tax. The shared responsibility payment is not a direct tax that must be apportioned among the several States. On the question of the expansion of Medicaid, no single opinion commanded the support of a majority of the Justices, however, a majority of the Court did find the expansion in some way unconstitutionally coercive and severed the coercive mechanism from the act. Justice Ginsburg, joined by Justice Sotomayor, would have upheld the Medicaid expansion in its entirety, Justices Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, and Alito would have struck down the Medicaid expansion completely. However, a majority of the Justices were of the opinion that the mandate did not fall under these powersCommonwealth of Virginia v. Sebelius – Supreme Court of the United States