1. U.S. Congress – The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can also refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith, Roberts, and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percentU.S. Congress
2. POTUS – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationPOTUS – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
3. United States Supreme Court – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteUnited States Supreme Court – Chief Justice Marshall
4. Federal government of the United States – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsFederal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. Government – A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this broad definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. Forms of government, or forms of governance, refers to the set of political systems. Governments control the economy, social freedoms, and political systems and this usage is analogous to what is called an administration in American English. Finally, government is sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance. In addition to the political meanings, in grammar and theoretical linguisticsGovernment – presidential republics
7. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various statesUnited States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
8. Legislature – A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a seat, as, for, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress, diet and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral. In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
9. Public policy of the United States – Public policy consists of a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities by a government or its representatives. Public policy decisions are decided by a group of individuals with different beliefs. The policies of the United States of America comprise all actions taken by its federal government, the executive branch is the primary entity through which policies are enacted, however the policies are derived from a collection of laws, executive decisions, and legal precedents. Agricultural policy of the United States is the policy for agriculture in the United States and is composed primarily of the periodically renewed federal U. S. farm bills. Over time agricultural policies evolved to support an industrialized, commodity-based agriculture and this evolution resulted in farmers leaving the land with agriculture moving to an industrial structure. S. Our addiction to oil and fossil fuels puts our economy, our national security. Its general goal is to protect the environment for the welfare of future generations and it only addresses the security of the American people and promotes international order. Part of the announcements included temporary exceptions to section 23A and 23B, the exceptions would expire on January 30,2009, unless extended by the Federal Reserve Board. The Securities and Exchange Commission announced termination of short-selling of 799 financial stocks, as well as action against naked short selling, as part of its reaction to the mortgage crisisPublic policy of the United States – The United States Capitol.
10. Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15,1791. All remaining powers are reserved for the states or the people, the amendment was proposed by Congress in 1789 during its first term following the Constitutional Convention and ratification of the Constitution. In drafting this amendment, its framers had two purposes in mind, first, as a rule of construction, and second. When a vote on this version of the amendment with expressly delegated was defeated, Connecticut Representative Roger Sherman drafted the Tenth Amendment in its ratified form, shermans language allowed for an expansive reading of the powers implied by the Necessary and Proper Clause. Perhaps words which may define this more precisely than the whole of the instrument now does, I admit they may be deemed unnecessary, but there can be no harm in making such a declaration, if gentlemen will allow that the fact is as stated. I am sure I understand it so, and do therefore propose it, the states decided to ratify the Tenth Amendment, and thus declined to signal that there are unenumerated powers in addition to unenumerated rights. The amendment rendered unambiguous what had previously been at most a mere suggestion or implication, was appended in handwriting by the clerk of the Senate as the Bill of Rights circulated between the two Houses of Congress. The Tenth Amendment, which makes explicit the idea that the government is limited to only the powers granted in the Constitution, has been declared to be a truism by the Supreme Court. In United States v. Sprague the Supreme Court asserted that the amendment added nothing to the as originally ratified. An often-repeated quote, from United States v. Darby Lumber,312 U. S.100,124, reads as follows, The amendment states, the Supreme Court rarely declares laws unconstitutional for violating the Tenth Amendment. In the modern era, the Court has only done so where the government compels the states to enforce federal statutes. In 1992, in New York v. United States,505 U. S.144, for only the time in 55 years. The case challenged a portion of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the act provided three incentives for states to comply with statutory obligations to provide for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The first two incentives were monetary, the Court, in a 6–3 decision, ruled that the imposition of that obligation on the states violated the Tenth Amendment. However, Congress cannot directly compel states to enforce federal regulations, in 1998, the Court again ruled that the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act violated the Tenth Amendment (Printz v. United States,521 U. S.898. The act required state and local law enforcement officials to conduct checks on people attempting to purchase handguns. Justice Antonin Scalia, writing for the majority, applied New York v. United States to show that the law violated the Tenth Amendment, since the act forced participation of the States executive in the actual administration of a federal program, it was unconstitutional. Hence, in the aggregate, if farmers were allowed to consume their own wheat, in Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, the Court changed the analytic framework to be applied in Tenth Amendment casesTenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
11. Washington, D.C. – Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standingWashington, D.C. – Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
12. Executive branch of the United States – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsExecutive branch of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
13. Aeronautics – Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of aeronautical Art, Science and Engineering and the profession of Aeronautics. A significant part of science is a branch of dynamics called aerodynamics, which deals with the motion of air. Attempts to fly without any real aeronautical understanding have been made from the earliest times, typically by constructing wings, wiser investigators sought to gain some rational understanding through the study of bird flight. An early example appears in ancient Egyptian texts, later medieval Islamic scientists also made such studies. The founders of modern aeronautics, Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance and Cayley in 1799, man-carrying kites are believed to have been used extensively in ancient China. In 1282 the European explorer Marco Polo described the Chinese techniques then current, the Chinese also constructed small hot air balloons, or lanterns, and rotary-wing toys. The lifting medium for his balloon would be an aether whose composition he did not know, although his designs were rational, they were not based on particularly good science. Many of his designs, such as a four-person screw-type helicopter, have severe flaws and he did at least understand that An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object. His analysis led to the realisation that manpower alone was not sufficient for sustained flight, da Vincis work was lost after his death and did not reappear until it had been overtaken by the work of George Cayley. The modern era of lighter-than-air flight began early in the 17th century with Galileos experiments in which he showed that air has weight and these would be lighter than the displaced air and able to lift an airship. His proposed methods of controlling height are still in use today, by carrying ballast which may be dropped overboard to gain height, in practice de Terzis spheres would have collapsed under air pressure, and further developments had to wait for more practicable lifting gases. From the mid-18th century the Montgolfier brothers in France began experimenting with balloons and their balloons were made of paper, and early experiments using steam as the lifting gas were short-lived due to its effect on the paper as it condensed. Meanwhile, the discovery of hydrogen led Joseph Black in c.1780 to propose its use as a lifting gas, on hearing of the Montgolfier Brothers invitation, the French Academy member Jacques Charles offered a similar demonstration of a hydrogen balloon. Charles and two craftsmen, the Robert brothers, developed a material of rubberised silk for the envelope. The hydrogen gas was to be generated by chemical reaction during the filling process, the Montgolfier designs had several shortcomings, not least the need for dry weather and a tendency for sparks from the fire to set light to the paper balloon. The manned design had a gallery around the base of the rather than the hanging basket of the first, unmanned design. On their free flight, De Rozier and dArlandes took buckets of water, on the other hand, the manned design of Charles was essentially modernAeronautics – Space Shuttle Atlantis on a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.
14. Aerospace – Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organisations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft and/or spacecraft, Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, which is the air space directly above a location on the ground. In most industrial countries, the industry is a cooperation of public. Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships, some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus Group, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman. These companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with George Cayley in 1799, Cayley proposed an aircraft with a fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail, defining characteristics of the modern airplane. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, the Wright brothers were interested in Lilienthals work and read several of his publications. They also found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines, war and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere. The launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, in April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in space started with Mir in 1986 and is continued by the International Space Station. Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent focuses in aerospace, Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts. Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work, for each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code. These codes help to each manufacturer, repair facilities. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics, others include the very large airline industry. The aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006, most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas also being important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are Boeing, United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and these manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers age and retire. In India, Bangalore is a center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace LaboratoriesAerospace – View of the Earth's atmosphere and the Moon beyond
15. Space exploration – Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, Space exploration has often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries such as the Cold War. The early era of exploration was driven by a Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States. With the substantial completion of the ISS following STS-133 in March 2011, constellation, a Bush Administration program for a return to the Moon by 2020 was judged inadequately funded and unrealistic by an expert review panel reporting in 2009. In the 2000s, the Peoples Republic of China initiated a successful manned spaceflight program, while the European Union, Japan, from the 1990s onwards, private interests began promoting space tourism and then public space exploration of the Moon. After the war, the U. S. used German scientists, the first scientific exploration from space was the cosmic radiation experiment launched by the U. S. on a V-2 rocket on 10 May 1946. The first images of Earth taken from space followed the year while the first animal experiment saw fruit flies lifted into space in 1947. Starting in 1947, the Soviets, also with the help of German teams, launched sub-orbital V-2 rockets and their own variant and these suborbital experiments only allowed a very short time in space which limited their usefulness. The first successful launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik 1 mission on 4 October 1957. The satellite weighed about 83 kg, and is believed to have orbited Earth at a height of about 250 km and it had two radio transmitters, which emitted beeps that could be heard by radios around the globe. Analysis of the signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere. The results indicated that the satellite was not punctured by a meteoroid, Sputnik 1 was launched by an R-7 rocket. It burned up upon re-entry on 3 January 1958, the second one was Sputnik 2. Launched by the USSR on November 3,1957, it carried the dog Laika and this success led to an escalation of the American space program, which unsuccessfully attempted to launch a Vanguard satellite into orbit two months later. On 31 January 1958, the U. S. successfully orbited Explorer 1 on a Juno rocket, the first successful human spaceflight was Vostok 1, carrying 27-year-old Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961. The spacecraft completed one orbit around the globe, lasting about 1 hour and 48 minutes, gagarins flight resonated around the world, it was a demonstration of the advanced Soviet space program and it opened an entirely new era in space exploration, human spaceflight. The U. S. first launched a person into space within a month of Vostok 1 with Alan Shepards suborbital flight in Mercury-Redstone 3, orbital flight was achieved by the United States when John Glenns Mercury-Atlas 6 orbited Earth on 20 February 1962. Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, orbited Earth 48 times aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963Space exploration – Saturn V rocket, used for the American manned lunar landing missions
16. Science – Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied scienceScience – Maize, known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.
17. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics – The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was a U. S. federal agency founded on March 3,1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1,1958, the agency was dissolved, and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics, NACA was pronounced as discrete letters, rather than as a whole word. NACA was also key in developing the area rule that is used on all modern supersonic aircraft and it was modeled on similar national agencies found in Europe. The most influential agency upon which the NACA was based was the British Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in December 1912, President William Howard Taft had appointed a National Aerodynamical Laboratory Commission chaired by Robert S. Woodward, president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Legislation was introduced in both houses of Congress early in January 1913 to approve the commission, but when it came to a vote, assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote that he heartily the principle on which the legislation was based. Walcott suggested the tactic of adding the resolution to the Naval Appropriations Bill, according to one source, The enabling legislation for the NACA slipped through almost unnoticed as a rider attached to the Naval Appropriation Bill, on 3 March 1915. The committee of 12 people, all unpaid, were allocated a budget of $5,000 per year. President Woodrow Wilson signed it into law the day, thus formally creating the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. On January 29,1920, President Wilson appointed pioneering flier, by the early 1920s, it had adopted a new and more ambitious mission, to promote military and civilian aviation through applied research that looked beyond current needs. NACA researchers pursued this mission through the impressive collection of in-house wind tunnels, engine test stands. Commercial and military clients were also permitted to use NACA facilities on a contract basis, facilities Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory Ames Aeronautical Laboratory Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory Muroc Flight Test Unit In 1922, NACA had 100 employees. In addition to assignments, staff were encouraged to pursue unauthorized bootleg research. The result was a string of fundamental breakthroughs, including thin airfoil theory, NACA engine cowl, the NACA airfoil series. The full-size 30-by-60-foot Langley wind tunnel operated at no more than 100 miles per hour and these were speeds Lockheed engineers considered useless for their purposes. Arnold took up the matter and overruled NACA objections to higher air speeds, NACA built a handful of new high-speed wind tunnels, and Mach 0.75 (570 mph was reached at Moffetts 16-foot wind tunnel late in 1942. In the years immediately preceding World War II, NACA was involved in the development of designs that served key roles in the war effort. This enabled the B-17 to be used as a key aircraft in the war effort, the designs and information gained from NACA research on the B-17 were used in nearly every major U. S. military powerplant of the Second World War. Nearly every aircraft used some form of forced induction that relied on information developed by NACA, because of this, U. S. -produced aircraft had a significant power advantage above 15,000 feet, which was never fully countered by Axis forcesNational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics – The official seal of NACA, depicting the Wright brothers ' first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
18. Apollo program – Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon, Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration, Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a lifeboat for these functions, Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds of rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moons composition. The program laid the foundation for NASAs subsequent human spaceflight capability, Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration in early 1960, while the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth orbital mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a station, circumlunar flights. The program was named after the Greek god of light, music, and the sun by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that I was naming the spacecraft like Id name my baby. Silverstein chose the name at home one evening, early in 1960, in July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. Preliminary specifications were laid out for a spacecraft with a mission module cabin separate from the module. On August 30, a feasibility study competition was announced, and on October 25, meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs. In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Beyond military power, Kennedy used aerospace technology as a symbol of prestige, pledging to make the US not first but, first and, first if. Despite Kennedys rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president and he knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing. On April 12,1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, Kennedy was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on Americas response to the SovietsApollo program – Buzz Aldrin (pictured) walked on the Moon with Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, July 20–21, 1969
19. Space Shuttle – The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as part of the Space Shuttle program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development, the first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. Five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, the Shuttle fleets total mission time was 1322 days,19 hours,21 minutes and 23 seconds. Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle, a pair of solid rocket boosters. The Shuttle was launched vertically, like a rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OVs three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, and the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, at the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to de-orbit and re-enter the atmosphere. The orbiter then glided as a spaceplane to a landing, usually at the Shuttle Landing Facility of KSC or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built in 1976, used in Approach, four fully operational orbiters were initially built, Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in accidents, Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed. A fifth operational orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger, the Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantiss final flight on July 21,2011. Nixons post-Apollo NASA budgeting withdrew support of all components except the Shuttle. The vehicle consisted of a spaceplane for orbit and re-entry, fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982, all launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The system was retired from service in 2011 after 135 missions, the program ended after Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21,2011. Major missions included launching numerous satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science experiments, the first orbiter vehicle, named Enterprise, was built for the initial Approach and Landing Tests phase and lacked engines, heat shielding, and other equipment necessary for orbital flight. A total of five operational orbiters were built, and of these and it was used for orbital space missions by NASA, the US Department of Defense, the European Space Agency, Japan, and Germany. The United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1, sL-J was partially funded by JapanSpace Shuttle – Discovery lifts off at the start of STS-120.
20. International Space Station – The International Space Station is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest man-made body in space, the ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, the ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft and it completes 15.54 orbits per day. The ISS is the space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz. The station has continuously occupied for 16 years and 156 days since the arrival of Expedition 1 on 2 November 2000. This is the longest continuous presence in low Earth orbit. It has been visited by astronauts, cosmonauts and space tourists from 17 different nations, Soyuz has very limited downmass capability. The ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies, NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, the ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment and the United States Orbital Segment, which is shared by many nations. As of January 2014, the American portion of ISS is being funded until 2024, Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ISS through 2024 but has proposed using elements of the Russian Orbital Segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. On 28 March 2015, Russian sources announced that Roscosmos and NASA had agreed to collaborate on the development of a replacement for the current ISS. NASA later issued a statement expressing thanks for Russias interest in future co-operation in space exploration. According to the original Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Rosaviakosmos, the International Space Station was intended to be a laboratory, observatory and factory in low Earth orbit. It was also planned to provide transportation, maintenance, and act as a base for possible future missions to the Moon, Mars. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given roles of serving commercial, diplomatic. The ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research, the ISS simplifies individual experiments by eliminating the need for separate rocket launches and research staffInternational Space Station – International Space Station
21. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle – The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is an American spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit. The Orion MPCV was announced by NASA on May 24,2011 and its design is based on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle from the cancelled Constellation program. The Orion command module is being built by Lockheed Martin at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, the Orion Service Module, provided by the European Space Agency, is being built by Airbus Defence and Space. However, a July 2016 Government Accountability Office report cast doubt on even the 2023 launch date, the report gave only a 40% confidence in the 2021 launch date, and suggested the aggressive goal may be counterproductive to the program. On January 14,2004, U. S. President George W. Bush announced the Crew Exploration Vehicle as part of the Vision for Space Exploration. The CEV effectively replaced the conceptual Orbital Space Plane, which was proposed after the cancellation of the Lockheed Martin X-33 program to produce a replacement for the space shuttle. Constellation proposed using the Orion CEV in both crew and cargo variants to support the International Space Station and as a vehicle for a return to the Moon. The Orion CEV weighs about 23 tonnes, less than the 30 tonne Apollo command/service module, the crew module would weigh about 8.9 tonnes, greater than the equivalent Apollo command module at 5.8 tonnes. With a diameter of 5 metres as opposed to 3.9 metres, the Orion CEV design consisted of two main parts, a conical crew module and a cylindrical service module holding the spacecrafts propulsion system and expendable supplies. Both were based substantially on the Apollo command and service modules flown between 1967 and 1975, on May 7,2009, the Obama administration enlisted the Augustine Commission to perform a full independent review of the ongoing NASA space exploration program. As a consequence, the commission recommended a significant re-allocation of goals, as one of the many outcomes based on these recommendations, on October 11,2010, the Constellation program was cancelled, ending development of the Altair, Ares I, and Ares V. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle survived the cancellation and was renamed the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Orion MPCV takes basic design elements from the Apollo Command Module that took astronauts to the moon, but its technology and capability are more advanced. It is designed to support long-duration deep space missions, with up to 21 days active crew time plus 6 months quiescent, during the quiescent period crew life support would be provided by another module such as a Deep Space Habitat. The spacecrafts life support, propulsion, thermal protection and avionics systems are designed to be upgradeable as new technologies become available, the MPCV spacecraft includes both crew and service modules, and a spacecraft adaptor. The MPCVs crew module is larger than Apollos and can support more crew members for short or long-duration missions, the service module fuels and propels the spacecraft as well as storing oxygen and water for astronauts. The service modules structure is also being designed to provide locations to mount scientific experiments, the crew module is the only part of the MPCV that returns to Earth after each mission and is a 57. 5° frustum shape, similar to that of the Apollo command module. As projected, the CM will be 5.02 meters in diameter and 3.3 meters in length, with a mass of about 8.5 metric tons and it was manufactured by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. It will have more than 50% more volume than the Apollo capsule, which had a volume of 5.9 m3Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle – Orion
22. Heliophysics – The term heliophysics means physics of the Sun, and appears to have been used only in that sense until quite recently. In the early times, heliophysics was concerned principally with the layers of the star. Usage was extended explicitly in 1981 to its meaning, denoting the physics of the entire Sun, from center to corona. As such it was a translation from the French héliophysique. It thus became a subdiscipline of heliology, heliophysics combines several other disciplines, including solar physics, and stellar physics in general, and also several branches of nuclear physics, plasma physics and space physics. The recent extension of heliophysics is closely tied to the study of weather and the phenomena that affect it. Heliophysics is now the name of one of four divisions within NASAs Science Mission Directorate, the title was used to simplify the name of the Sun--Solar-System Connections Division. NASAs restricted use of the term heliophysics has also adopted in naming the International Heliophysical Year in 2007-2008Heliophysics – Current and future Heliophysics System Observatory missions in their approximate regions of study.
23. Solar System – The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets, of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the mass is in the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System also contains smaller objects, the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptunes orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets, identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, the heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium, it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, the Solar System is located in the Orion Arm,26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way. For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System, the invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99. 86% of the known mass. The Suns four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the mass, with Jupiter. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0. 002% of the Solar Systems total mass, most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earths orbit, known as the eclipticSolar System – The Sun and planets of the Solar System (distances not to scale)
24. New Horizons – New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASAs New Frontiers program. Engineered by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Southwest Research Institute, on January 19,2006, New Horizons was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station directly into an Earth-and-solar escape trajectory with a speed of about 16.26 kilometers per second. After a brief encounter with asteroid 132524 APL, New Horizons proceeded to Jupiter, making its closest approach on February 28,2007, most of the post-Jupiter voyage was spent in hibernation mode to preserve on-board systems, except for brief annual checkouts. On December 6,2014, New Horizons was brought online for the Pluto encounter. On January 15,2015, the New Horizons spacecraft began its approach phase to Pluto, on July 14,2015, at 11,49 UTC, it flew 12,500 km above the surface of Pluto, making it the first spacecraft to explore the dwarf planet. On October 25,2016, at 21,48 UTC, the last of the recorded data from the Pluto flyby was received from New Horizons. Having completed its flyby of Pluto, New Horizons has maneuvered for a flyby of Kuiper belt object 2014 MU69, expected to place on January 1,2019. Appointed as the principal investigator, Stern was described by Krimigis as the personification of the Pluto mission. New Horizons was based largely on Sterns work since Pluto 350, the New Horizons proposal was one of five that were officially submitted to NASA. It was later selected as one of two finalists to be subject to a concept study, in June 2001. In November 2001, New Horizons was officially selected for funding as part of the New Frontiers program. However, the new NASA Administrator appointed by the Bush Administration, Sean OKeefe, was not supportive of New Horizons, after an intense campaign to gain support for New Horizons, the Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2003-2013 was published in the summer of 2002. New Horizons topped the list of projects considered the highest priority among the community in the medium-size category, ahead of missions to the Moon. Weiler stated that it was a result that administration was not going to fight, Alice Bowman became Mission Operations Manager. New Horizons is the first mission in NASAs New Frontiers mission category, larger and more expensive than the Discovery missions, the cost of the mission is approximately $700 million over 15 years. The spacecraft was built primarily by Southwest Research Institute and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, the missions principal investigator is Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute. After separation from the vehicle, overall control was taken by Mission Operations Center at the Applied Physics Laboratory in Howard County. The science instruments are operated at Clyde Tombaugh Science Operations Center in Boulder, New Horizons was originally planned as a voyage to the only unexplored planet in the Solar SystemNew Horizons – One of the many early concepts for a mission to Pluto was to send a Mariner Mark II spacecraft. The idea would later be ruled out in favour of a smaller, less expensive spacecraft similar to the Pluto 350 concept.
25. Astrophysics – Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space. Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition. In practice, modern astronomical research often involves an amount of work in the realms of theoretical and observational physics. Although astronomy is as ancient as recorded history itself, it was separated from the study of terrestrial physics. Their challenge was that the tools had not yet been invented with which to prove these assertions, for much of the nineteenth century, astronomical research was focused on the routine work of measuring the positions and computing the motions of astronomical objects. Kirchhoff deduced that the lines in the solar spectrum are caused by absorption by chemical elements in the Solar atmosphere. In this way it was proved that the elements found in the Sun. Among those who extended the study of solar and stellar spectra was Norman Lockyer and he thus claimed the line represented a new element, which was called helium, after the Greek Helios, the Sun personified. By 1890, a catalog of over 10,000 stars had been prepared that grouped them into thirteen spectral types, most significantly, she discovered that hydrogen and helium were the principal components of stars. This discovery was so unexpected that her dissertation readers convinced her to modify the conclusion before publication, however, later research confirmed her discovery. By the end of the 20th century, studies of astronomical spectra had expanded to cover wavelengths extending from radio waves through optical, x-ray and it is the practice of observing celestial objects by using telescopes and other astronomical apparatus. The majority of observations are made using the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio astronomy studies radiation with a greater than a few millimeters. The study of these waves requires very large radio telescopes, infrared astronomy studies radiation with a wavelength that is too long to be visible to the naked eye but is shorter than radio waves. Infrared observations are made with telescopes similar to the familiar optical telescopes. Objects colder than stars are studied at infrared frequencies. Optical astronomy is the oldest kind of astronomy, telescopes paired with a charge-coupled device or spectroscopes are the most common instruments used. The Earths atmosphere interferes somewhat with optical observations, so adaptive optics, in this wavelength range, stars are highly visible, and many chemical spectra can be observed to study the chemical composition of stars, galaxies and nebulaeAstrophysics – Early 20th-century comparison of elemental, solar, and stellar spectra
26. Big Bang – The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. If the known laws of physics are extrapolated to the highest density regime, detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place this moment at approximately 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe. After the initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, giant clouds of these primordial elements later coalesced through gravity in halos of dark matter, eventually forming the stars and galaxies visible today. Since Georges Lemaître first noted in 1927 that a universe could be traced back in time to an originating single point. More recently, measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, the known physical laws of nature can be used to calculate the characteristics of the universe in detail back in time to an initial state of extreme density and temperature. American astronomer Edwin Hubble observed that the distances to faraway galaxies were strongly correlated with their redshifts, assuming the Copernican principle, the only remaining interpretation is that all observable regions of the universe are receding from all others. Since we know that the distance between galaxies increases today, it must mean that in the past galaxies were closer together, the continuous expansion of the universe implies that the universe was denser and hotter in the past. Large particle accelerators can replicate the conditions that prevailed after the early moments of the universe, resulting in confirmation, however, these accelerators can only probe so far into high energy regimes. Consequently, the state of the universe in the earliest instants of the Big Bang expansion is still poorly understood, the first subatomic particles to be formed included protons, neutrons, and electrons. Though simple atomic nuclei formed within the first three minutes after the Big Bang, thousands of years passed before the first electrically neutral atoms formed, the majority of atoms produced by the Big Bang were hydrogen, along with helium and traces of lithium. Giant clouds of primordial elements later coalesced through gravity to form stars and galaxies. The framework for the Big Bang model relies on Albert Einsteins theory of relativity and on simplifying assumptions such as homogeneity. The governing equations were formulated by Alexander Friedmann, and similar solutions were worked on by Willem de Sitter, extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time using general relativity yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past. This singularity indicates that general relativity is not a description of the laws of physics in this regime. How closely models based on general relativity alone can be used to extrapolate toward the singularity is debated—certainly no closer than the end of the Planck epoch. This primordial singularity is itself called the Big Bang, but the term can also refer to a more generic early hot. The agreement of independent measurements of this age supports the model that describes in detail the characteristics of the universe. The earliest phases of the Big Bang are subject to much speculation, in the most common models the universe was filled homogeneously and isotropically with a very high energy density and huge temperatures and pressures and was very rapidly expanding and coolingBig Bang – Panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way. Galaxies are color-coded by redshift.
27. Great Observatories program – NASAs series of Great Observatories satellites are four large, powerful space-based astronomical telescopes. Each of the four missions was designed to examine a specific region of the electromagnetic spectrum using very different technologies. Dr. Charles Pellerin, NASAs Director, Astrophysics invented and developed the program, the four Great Observatories were launched between 1990 and 2003, and three remain operational as of 2017. The Hubble Space Telescope primarily observes visible light and near-ultraviolet and it was launched in 1990 aboard Discovery during STS-31. A servicing mission in 1997 added capability in the range and one last mission in 2009 was to fix. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory primarily observed gamma rays, though it extended into hard x-rays as well and it was launched in 1991 aboard Atlantis during STS-37 and was de-orbited in 2000 after failure of a gyroscope. The Chandra X-ray Observatory primarily observes soft x-rays and it was launched in 1999 aboard Columbia during STS-93 into an elliptical high-earth orbit, and was initially named the Advanced X-ray Astronomical Facility. The Spitzer Space Telescope observes the infrared spectrum and it was launched in 2003 aboard a Delta II rocket into an earth-trailing solar orbit, it was called the Space Infrared Telescope Facility before launch. Depletion of its liquid helium coolant in 2009 reduced its functionality significantly. Of these spacecraft, only the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is not operating as of 2017, one of its gyroscopes failed, parts that survived reentry splashed into the Pacific Ocean. Hubble was originally intended to be retrieved and returned to Earth by the Space Shuttle, on October 31,2006 NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin gave the go-ahead for a final refurbishment mission. Spitzer was the one of the Great Observatories not launched by the Space Shuttle. Titan and Atlas rockets were canceled for cost reasons, after redesign and lightening, it was launched by a Delta II rocket instead. The history of the Hubble Space Telescope can be traced back as far as 1946, Spitzer devoted much of his career to pushing for a space telescope to be developed. Congress eventually approved funding of US$36,000,000 for 1978, during the early 1980s, the telescope was named after Edwin Hubble. Gamma rays had been examined above the atmosphere by several early space missions, during its High Energy Astronomy Observatory Program in 1977, NASA announced plans to build a great observatory for gamma-ray astronomy. The Gamma Ray Observatory, renamed Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, was designed to take advantage of the advances in detector technology during the 1980s. Following 14 years of effort, the CGRO was launched on 5 April 1991, in 1976 the Chandra X-ray Observatory was proposed to NASA by Riccardo Giacconi and Harvey TananbaumGreat Observatories program – Four Great Observatories
28. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29,1958, disestablishing NASAs predecessor, the new agency became operational on October 1,1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data with various national and international such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. Since 2011, NASA has been criticized for low cost efficiency, from 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch a satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard, after the Soviet launch of the worlds first artificial satellite on October 4,1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 29,1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, a NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA, earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPAs early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history. Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter, the experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, however, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, to date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15 rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude,260,000 feet. The X-15 was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force, the design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systemsNASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
29. Library of Congress – The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacementLibrary of Congress – Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.
30. Carol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith is an American photographer, author, and publisher who has photographed in all the states of the United States, as well as the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. She photographs the entire American vista in all 50 US states as a record of the early 21st Century, Highsmith is donating her lifes work of more than 100,000 images, royalty-free, to the Library of Congress, which established a rare, one-person archive. In 2013, Peatross told the San Diego Union-Tribune newspaper, is not only taking photographs but creating a permanent record of the country and its people for the common good. On April 28,2013, the CBS television news magazine CBS This Morning featured Highsmiths work in a segment titled. CBS Correspondent Martha Teichner told in her report, Highsmith is at work on a project photographing all 50 states. Her pictures, thousands of them, are going to the Library of Congress and are being made free for anyone to use. The CBS Sunday Morning report continued, Highsmiths images also capture a disappearing America, Two weeks after she photographed Big Tex, the mascot of the Texas State Fair, he burned down. Her photograph of the New York skyline, just before 9/11, is also in the Library of Congress, CBS included more than 30 of Carols images in the online version of its report. In its December 2007 issue, the Library of Congresss Information Bulletin included a Conversation with Carol Highsmith, in the article, Jeremy Adamson, the director of Collections and Services at the library, said, Highsmiths color images are certainly of the highest technical and artistic quality. But more importantly, she has the ability to identify, focus on and capture for posterity the essential features of our social landscape and physical environment. A photograph by Carol Highsmith is a document of rare precision and beauty, revealing with exacting clarity the look and feel of people, Highsmith also photographed, and her publishing company, Chelsea Publishing, Inc. Early in her career, Highsmith photographed interior and exterior architecture and she photographed ordinary people and everyday sites as well as soaring architecture, natural landscapes, national parks and monuments, Civil War battlefields, and engineering marvels. In early 2002, Crescent Books published World Trade Center, Tribute and Remembrance, about the 2001 September 11 attacks in New York and she had taken aerial photographs of the Twin Towers two months before they fell. That same year, Highsmith and Landphair collaborated on Deep in the Heart and they also produced The Mount Washington, A Century of Grandeur, on the White Mountains resort. Highsmith collaborated with architectural writer Dixie Legler on Historic Bridges of Maryland, in 2007, Highsmith photographed, and author Ryan Coonerty described,52 monuments and other public sites in a National Geographic book Etched in Stone. Entitled California, it was published by Chelsea Publishing, Inc. and this archive, Carol M. Highsmiths America, Documenting the 21st Century, includes 1,000 images taken across the country. The collection emphasizes what Highsmith calls Disappearing America, including 200 shots taken along U. S. Route 66 in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. The more she travels across the country, the more convinced she is about the need to capture in photographs a rapidly changing America, the America I knew is disappearing at lightning speed, observedCarol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith self portrait in front of a broken mirror at the Willard Hotel in 1980
31. Food guide pyramid – A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a pyramid-shaped diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups. The first pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974, the 1992 pyramid introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture was called the Food Guide Pyramid. It was updated in 2005, and then it was replaced by MyPlate in 2011, anna-Britt Agnsäter, chief of the test kitchen for Kooperativa Förbundet, held a lecture the next year on how to illustrate these food groups. Attendee Fjalar Clemes suggested a triangle displaying basic foods at the base, Agnsäter developed the idea into the first food pyramid, which was introduced to the public in 1974 in KFs Vi magazine. While the Board distanced itself from the pyramid, KF continued to promote it, the United States later developed its first food pyramid in 1992. The reports quoted here explain that there is no stated lower limit in the table below. All percentages are percentages of calories, not of weight or volume, to understand why, consider the determination of an amount of 10% free sugar to include in a days worth of calories. For the same amount of calories, free sugars take up less volume and weight, in a similar manner all the items are in competition for various categories of calories. The representation as a pyramid is not precise, and involves variations due to the percentages of different elements. The USDA food pyramid was created in 1992 and divided into six sections containing depictions of foods from each sections food group. It was updated in 2005 with colorful vertical wedges replacing the horizontal sections, MyPyramid was often displayed with the food images absent, creating a more abstract design. In an effort to restructure food nutrition guidelines, the USDA rolled out its new MyPlate program in June 2011 and my Plate is divided into four slightly different sized quadrants, with fruits and vegetables taking up half the space, and grains and protein making up the other half. The vegetables and grains portions are the largest of the four, a vegetable is a part of a plant consumed by humans that is generally savory but is not sweet. A vegetable is not considered a grain, fruit, nut, spice, for example, the stem, root, flower, etc. may be eaten as vegetables. Vegetables contain many vitamins and minerals, however, different vegetables contain different spreads, for example, green vegetables typically contain vitamin A, dark orange and dark green vegetables contain vitamin C, and vegetables like broccoli and related plants contain iron and calcium. Vegetables are very low in fats and calories, but ingredients added in preparation can often add these and these foods provide complex carbohydrates, which are an important source of energy, especially for a low-fat meal plan. Examples include corn, wheat, and rice, in terms of food, fruits are the sweet-tasting seed-bearing parts of plants, or occasionally sweet parts of plants which do not bear seeds. These include apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, etc, fruits are low in calories and fat and are a source of natural sugars, fiber and vitaminsFood guide pyramid – The "Basic Seven" developed by the United States Department of Agriculture
32. United States Department of Justice – The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan members, the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department has responsibility to investigate instances of fraud, to represent the United States in legal matters such as in the Supreme Court. The department also has responsibilities to review actions of law enforcement conduct by the Violent Crime Control. The Department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President, the current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions. The U. S. Attorney General was initially a one-person and it was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, but this grew with the bureaucracy. At one time the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, until March 3,1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salary by engaging in private practice of law. Following unsuccessful efforts to put the Attorney Generals Office on a footing, in 1869. On February 19,1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice, President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill into law on June 22,1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1,1870, just prior to the Civil War, in February 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as Americas first Solicitor General, both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grants first term in there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. The result was a decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was better or stronger then Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Akermans successor, George H. Williams, in December 1871, the law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, new facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary, upon Medarys death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the projectUnited States Department of Justice – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
33. United States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States v. Scheinberg,10 Cr. A companion civil case, United States v. PokerStars, et al.11 Civ,2564, includes Full Tilt and Cereus as defendants and seeks the recovery of forfeiture equalling approximately $3 billion in assets belonging to the companies. Three years after the start of the boom in 2003. The law made processing payments for online gambling a crime, however. A former payment processor for the companies turned states evidence after initially being charged with violating UIGEA himself, on September 20, the civil suit was amended claiming individual fraud by Messrs. Howard Lederer, Chris Ferguson and Rafael Furst, about 76 bank accounts in 14 countries were frozen, including an unknown amount of player funds. The prosecutors are seeking jail sentences for the 11 criminal defendants including site founders and executives, U. S. Antigua, the companies ceased their U. S. -facing ad campaigns, resulting in cancellations of poker-themed television shows. In June, Full Tilts eGambling license was suspended, which halted all of its online play. The Alderney Gambling Control Commission on the British Channel Islands later revoked its license on September 29, PokerStars and Full Tilt admitted no wrongdoing as part of the settlement, which ends all litigation between the government and the poker companies. The criminal indictments remain in place for the named individuals, in 2003, ESPN expanded its coverage of the World Series of Poker. Between 2003 and 2006 the number of contestants in the $10,000 No Limit Texas holdem Main Event grew from 839 to 8773, after the UIGEA was passed the World Series of Poker main event decreased in size, to 6358 players in 2007. However, according to syndicated columnist Jacob Sullum, the law did not define or alter the definition of unlawful gambling, which under Federal law only applies to sports betting via the Wire Act. Nevertheless, Party Poker, at the time the largest provider for U. S. demand, also in 2006, several other online poker service providers withdrew from the market, including Sportingbets Paradise Poker,888 Holdings Pacific Poker, and the iPoker Networks CD Poker. Several other sites continued to facilitate the demand for online poker in the U. S. which had been growing about 20% per year. A2006 law passed in Washington State that made it a felony to play online poker was upheld as constitutional by the Washington Supreme Court in September 2010. PokerStars immediately withdrew from Washingtons market, and Full Tilt soon followed suit and this case was preceded by a 2009 seizure of $34 million worth of winnings in transit U. S. poker players. Since Federal law says nothing specifically about online poker, or any gambling other than sports betting, Preet Bharara, although none of the sites are actually run out of New York, he was able to obtain a felony indictment for UIGEA violations. In addition to the 2006 UIGEA, the defendants were charged with violating the Illegal Gambling Business Act of 1955, additionally, in April 2010, the former head of Intabill, a defunct payment processor in Australia, Daniel Tzvetkoff, was arrested in Las Vegas by the FBIUnited States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States Department of Justice website seizure notice
34. United States Department of Defense – The Department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 801,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services and it is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington, D. C. The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, Military operations are managed by nine regional or functional Unified Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense also operates several joint services schools, including the National Defense University, the history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775. The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775 and this coincides with the American holiday Flag Day. The Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, today, both the Navy and the Marine Corps are separate military services subordinate to the Department of the Navy. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to federal government, to defend its citizens and this first Congress had a huge agenda, that of creating legislation to build a government for the ages. Legislation to create a military defense force stagnated, two separate times, President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts, deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing heavily on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense, the National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment was renamed the Department of Defense on 10 August 1949, under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the authority of the Military Departments. Also provided in this legislation was a centralized authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Act moved decision-making authority from the Military Departments to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and it also strengthened the command channel of the military over U. S. forces from the President to the Secretary of Defense. Written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, it was signed into law 6 August 1958, because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the relationships within the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987, the Office of the Secretary of Defense is the Secretary and Deputy Secretarys civilian staff. S. Government departments and agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, OSD also performs oversight and management of the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities. OSD also supervises the following Defense Agencies, Several defense agencies are members of the United States Intelligence Community and these are national-level intelligence services that operate under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense but simultaneously fall under the authorities of the Director of National IntelligenceUnited States Department of Defense – The Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense
35. United States Environmental Protection Agency – The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2,1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House, the agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the president and approved by Congress. The current administrator is Scott Pruitt, the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the ten regions. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education and it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U. S. states, EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs. In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees, more than half of EPAs employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists, other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment, in the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on RCA, President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1,1970. The law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President, NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions significantly affecting the environment. The detailed statement would ultimately be referred to as an impact statement. On July 9,1970, Nixon proposed a reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal, the agency’s first administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4,1970. In May 2013, Congress renamed the EPA headquarters as the William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building, the EPA is led by an Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. As of 2017 Scott Pruitt is the 14th administrator, each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agencys programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to statesUnited States Environmental Protection Agency – Stacks emitting smoke from burning discarded automobile batteries, photo taken in Houston in 1972 by Marc St. Gil (cs), official photographer of recently founded EPA
36. Greenhouse gases – A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earths surface would be about −18 °C, rather than the present average of 15 °C. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a portion of the emissions by various natural sinks involved in the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fuels, principally coal, oil. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the range emitted by Earth. The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a time is the airborne fraction. The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the increase in a given year to that years total emissions. Over the last 50 years the annual airborne fraction for CO2 has been increasing at 0.25 ±0. 21%/year, therefore, they do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and usually are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases. Some gases have indirect radiative effects and this happens in two main ways. One way is that when they break down in the atmosphere they produce another greenhouse gas, for example, methane and carbon monoxide are oxidized to give carbon dioxide. Oxidation of CO to CO2 directly produces an increase in radiative forcing although the reason is subtle. The peak of the thermal IR emission from Earths surface is close to a strong vibrational absorption band of CO2. On the other hand, the single CO vibrational band only absorbs IR at much higher frequencies, where the ~300 K thermal emission of the surface is at least a factor of ten lower. Oxidation of methane to CO2, which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces a reduction, since CO2 is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane. As described below this is not the story, since the oxidations of CO. In any case, the calculation of the radiative effect needs to include both the direct and indirect forcingGreenhouse gases – The false colors in this image represent concentrations of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere, ranging from about 390 parts per billion (dark brown pixels), to 220 parts per billion (red pixels), to 50 parts per billion (blue pixels).
37. Clean Air Act (United States) – The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States first and most influential environmental laws. As with many other major U. S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with state, local and its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C. F. R. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act was the first U. S federal legislation that pertained to air pollution, the first federal legislation to actually pertain to controlling air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a program within the U. S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution, the 1967 act also authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, and control techniques. Major amendments to the law, requiring regulatory controls for air pollution, the 1970 amendments greatly expanded the federal mandate, requiring comprehensive federal and state regulations for both stationary pollution sources and mobile sources. It also significantly expanded federal enforcement, the 1990 amendments addressed acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, established a national permits program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. Bush, the Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. Numerous state and local governments have enacted legislation, either implementing federal programs or filling in locally important gaps in federal programs. This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nations air quality promotes public health, the law encourages prevention of regional air pollution and control programs. It also provides technical and financial assistance for air pollution prevention at both state and local governments, additional subchapters cover of cooperation, research, investigation, training and other activities. Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies, the act mandates air quality control regions, designated as attainment vs non-attainment. Non-attainment areas do not meet standards for primary or secondary ambient air quality. Attainment areas meet these standards, while unclassifiable areas cannot be classified on the basis of the information that is available, Air quality criteria, national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, state implementation plans and performance standards for new stationary sources are also covered in Part A. The list of air pollutants established by the act includes acetaldehyde, benzene, chloroform, phenols. The list also includes mineral fiber emissions from manufacturing or processing glass, the list periodically can be modified. The remaining subchapters cover smokestack heights, state plan adequacy, and estimating emissions of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, measures to prevent unemployment or other economic disruption include using local coal or coal derivatives to comply with implementation requirementsClean Air Act (United States) – Counties in the United States where one or more National Ambient Air Quality Standards are not met, as of October 2015.
38. Guantanamo Bay detention camp – The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which fronts on Guantánamo Bay in Cuba. Since the inmates have been detained indefinitely without trial and several inmates were severely tortured, the camp was established by the President George W. Bushs administration in 2002 during the War on Terror. During his term, his administration succeeded in reducing the number of inmates from about 245 to 41, in practice, the site has long been used for indefinite detention without trial. The facility is operated by the Joint Task Force Guantanamo of the United States government in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Detention areas consisted of Camp Delta including Camp Echo, Camp Iguana, and Camp X-Ray, which is now closed. The Bush administration asserted that detainees were not entitled to any of the protections of the Geneva Conventions. Following this, on 7 July 2006, the Department of Defense issued a memo stating that detainees would, in the future. Current and former detainees have reported abuse and torture, which the Bush administration denied, in a 2005 Amnesty International report, the facility was called the Gulag of our times. In 2006, the United Nations called unsuccessfully for the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be closed, on 22 January 2009, President Obama issued a request to suspend proceedings at Guantanamo military commission for 120 days and to shut down the detention facility that year. President Obama issued a Presidential memorandum dated 15 December 2009, ordering Thomson Correctional Center, Thomson, in February 2011, U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that Guantanamo Bay was unlikely to be closed, due to opposition in the Congress. Congress particularly opposed moving prisoners to facilities in the United States for detention or trial, in April 2011, Wikileaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. On 4 November 2015, President Barack Obama stated that he was preparing to unveil a plan to close the facility, the plan would propose one or more prisons from a working list that includes facilities in Kansas, Colorado and South Carolina. Two others that were on the list, in California and Washington state, do not appear to have made the preliminary cut, by January 19,2017, however, the detention center remained open, with 41 detainees remaining. Camp Delta is a 612-unit detention center finished in April 2002 and it includes detention camps 1 through to 6, as well as Camp Echo, where pre-commissions are held. Camp X-Ray was a detention facility, which was closed in April 2002. Its prisoners were transferred to Camp Delta, in 2008, the Associated Press reported Camp 7, a separate facility on the naval base that is considered the highest security jail on the base, and its location is classified. It is used to house high-security detainees formerly held by the CIA, in January 2010, Scott Horton published an article in Harpers Magazine describing Camp No, a black site about a mile outside the main camp perimeter, which included an interrogation center. His description was based on accounts by four guards who had served at Guantanamo and they said prisoners were taken one at a time to the camp, where they were believed to be interrogated. He believes that the three detainees that DoD announced as having committed suicide were questioned under torture the night of their deathsGuantanamo Bay detention camp – Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002
39. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteSupreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
40. Miller v. Alabama – The ruling extended beyond the Graham v. Florida case, which had ruled juvenile life without parole sentences unconstitutional for crimes excluding murder. The decision of the court was based on two consolidated cases, Jackson v. Hobbs, No, 10-9647, and Miller v. Alabama, No. The Los Angeles Times wrote, In one case that came before the court, Kuntrell Jackson was 14 when he and he stayed outside, and one of the youths pulled a gun and killed the store clerk. Jackson was charged as an adult and given a term with no parole. In the second case, Evan Miller, a 14-year-old from Alabama, was convicted of murder after he and he too was given a life term with no parole. Jackson waited outside the store for a time, but entered shortly before Derrick Shields shot the store clerk, there is debate as to whether he told the clerk, We aint playin or whether he said to his accomplices, I thought you all was playin. Evan Miller committed homicide in the act of robbing his neighbor, Cannon had fallen asleep after he, Miller, and Colby Smith had indulged in alcohol and marijuana. Cannon awoke as Miller was replacing his wallet, and Smith hit Cannon with a baseball bat, Miller took up the bat and proceeded to severely beat Cannon. Smith and Miller later returned to destroy the evidence of what they had done by setting fire to Cannons trailer, Cannon died of severe injuries and smoke inhalation. “It prevents taking into account the family and home environment that surrounds him — and he wrote, “Determining the appropriate sentence for a teenager convicted of murder presents grave and challenging questions of morality and social policy. Our role, however, is to apply the law, not to such questions. ”A separate dissent was filed by Justice Samuel Alito. “Nothing in the Constitution supports this arrogation of legislative authority. ”The holding of the court applies retroactively to all convicted of crimes committed under 18. It does not automatically free any prisoner, and it does not forbid sentences of life terms for young murderers. Instead judges in their review have to consider the defendant’s youth, mitigating factors, the case was remanded to the trial court for the convicted youths to be re-sentenced. In Montgomery v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court determined that Miller v. Alabama must be applied retroactively, the petitioner, Henry Montgomery, has been in prison since 1963 for a murder he committed at the age of 17. The Court said that states could undertake re-sentencing, or offer parole to inmates sentenced to life as minors, up to 2,300 cases nationwide may be affected by the ruling. Slip opinion from the U. S. Supreme CourtMiller v. Alabama – Supreme Court of the United States
41. Arizona SB 1070 – It has received national and international attention and has spurred considerable controversy. The law barred state or local officials or agencies from restricting enforcement of immigration laws. The paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an attrition through enforcement doctrine, critics of the legislation say it encourages racial profiling, while supporters say the law prohibits the use of race as the sole basis for investigating immigration status. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns, there have been protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U. S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona. Polling has found the law to have majority support in Arizona, passage of the measure has prompted other states to consider adopting similar legislation. The Act was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23,2010 and it was scheduled to go into effect on July 29,2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session. The day before the law was to effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the laws most controversial provisions. Any person arrested cannot be released without confirmation of the legal immigration status by the federal government pursuant to §1373 of Title 8 of the United States Code. A first offense carries a fine of up to $100, plus court costs, if the person who brings suit prevails, that person may be entitled to reimbursement of court costs and reasonable attorney fees. In addition, the Act makes it a crime for anyone, regardless of citizenship or immigration status, vehicles used in such manner are subject to mandatory immobilization or impoundment. Violation is a class 1 misdemeanor if fewer than ten unauthorized aliens are involved, the offender is subject to a fine of at least $1,000 for each unauthorized alien involved. The transportation provision includes exceptions for child protective services workers, and ambulance attendants, Arizona is the first state to enact such far-reaching legislation. Prior law in Arizona, like the law in most other states, does not mandate that law enforcement personnel ask about the status of those they encounter. Many police departments discourage such inquiries to avoid deterring immigrants from reporting crimes, Arizona had an estimated 460,000 undocumented aliens in April 2010, a figure that had increased fivefold since 1990. As the state with the most illegal crossings of the Mexico – United States border, its remote and dangerous deserts are the point for thousands of illegal alien Mexicans. By the late 1990s, Tucson Border Patrol Sector had become the location for the most number of arrests by the United States Border Patrol, Arizona has a history of passing restrictions on illegal immigration, including legislation in 2007 that imposed heavy sanctions on employers hiring illegal aliens. Measures similar to SB1070 had been passed by the legislature in 2006 and 2008 and she was subsequently appointed as Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama administration and was replaced by Republican Secretary of State of Arizona Jan Brewer. There is a history of referenda, such as the Arizona Proposition 200 that have sought to restrict illegal aliens use of social servicesArizona SB 1070 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer meeting with President Barack Obama in June 2010 in the wake of SB 1070, to discuss immigration and border security issues.
42. Arizona v. United States – Arizona v. United States,567 U. S. ___, was a United States Supreme Court case involving Arizonas S. B. 1070, a law intended to increase the powers of local law enforcement who wished to enforce federal immigration laws. At issue is whether the law usurps the federal authority to regulate immigration laws. On April 23,2010, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed into law SB1070, the bills passage immediately sparked constitutional concerns over potential civil rights violations and have accused it of encouraging racial profiling. Tens of thousands of people demonstrated against the law in over 70 U. S. cities on May 1,2010. A rally in Los Angeles, attended by Cardinal Mahony of the Roman Catholic Church, the city had become the national epicenter of protests against the Arizona law. Around 25,000 people were at a protest in Dallas and more than 5,000 were in Chicago and Milwaukee, while rallies in other cities generally attracted around a thousand people or so. There and in other locations, demonstrators expressed frustration with what they saw as the administrations lack of action on immigration reform. Additionally, the Justice Department in its July 6,2010 motion, the 1976 precedent of De Canas v. Bica was relied upon in Arizonas Motion. On Wednesday, July 28,2010, Judge Susan R, several states jointly filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. Under the current situation, the States have lost control over their borders and are left to guess at the reality of the law. The Latin American countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, additionally,81 members of the U. S. Congress filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. On July 28,2010, Judge Bolton issued an order denying in part, among the provisions that will go into effect are the following, A. R. S. § 11-1051, prohibiting Arizona officials, agencies, and political subdivisions from limiting enforcement of immigration laws. § 11-1051-, requiring that state officials work with federal officials with regard to undocumented immigrants, see 7/28/2010 Order An appeal of the US District Courts 7/28/2010 ruling was filed on July 29,2010. A motion to expedite the normal appeal schedule was also filed, Arizona gave the following reasons for the motion to expedite, Good cause exists to expedite this appeal under Ninth Circuit Rules 27-12 and 34-3 and 28 U. S. C. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard arguments in the case, the three-judge panel was composed of Judges Richard Paez, Carlos Bea, and John T. Noonan. On April 11,2011, the Ninth Circuit panel upheld the district courts ban on parts of the law taking effect, thus ruling in favor of the Obama administration and against ArizonaArizona v. United States – Supreme Court of the United States
43. Rodney King – Rodney Glen King was an African American taxi driver, who became internationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3,1991. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, the footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage were aired around the world, and raised concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States. Four officers were charged with assault with a weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges, the jury acquitted the fourth of assault with a deadly weapon but failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level, the acquittals also led to the federal governments obtaining grand jury indictments for violations of Kings civil rights. The trial of the four in a district court ended on April 16,1993. The other two were acquitted again, King was born in Sacramento, California, the son of Ronald King and Odessa King. He and his four siblings grew up in Altadena, California, King attended John Muir School and often talked about being inspired by his Social Science teacher Robert E. Jones, an openly gay man who was found dead with a fellow student Ronald McClendon. Kings father died in 1984 at the age of 42, July 27,1987, According to a complaint filed by his wife, King beat her while she was sleeping, then dragged her outside the house and beat her again. King was charged with battery and pleaded no contest and he was placed on probation and ordered to obtain counseling. On November 3,1989, King robbed a store in Monterey Park and he threatened to hit the Korean store owner with an iron bar, then hit him with a pole. King stole two hundred dollars in cash during the robbery and was caught, convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment and he was released after serving one year of the sentence, on December 27,1990. King had three daughters, one by Carmen Simpson, when he was a teenager, and one by each of his two wives, both of Kings marriages, to Danetta Lyles and Crystal Waters, ended in divorce. Prior to driving onto the Foothill Freeway, the three men had spent the night watching a game and drinking at a friends house in Los Angeles. Five hours after the incident, Kings blood-alcohol level was found to be slightly below the legal limit. This suggests that his blood alcohol level may have fallen from 0. 19% while he was driving, at 12,30 a. m. officers Tim and Melanie Singer, husband-and-wife members of the California Highway Patrol, noticed Kings car speeding on the freeway. The officers pursued King, and the pursuit reached high speeds, King would later admit he attempted to outrun the police at dangerously high speeds because a charge of driving under the influence would violate his parole for a previous robbery convictionRodney King – King in April 2012
44. 1992 Los Angeles riots – It then spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, arson, and killings occurred during the riots, in total,55 people were killed during the riots, more than 2,000 people were injured, and more than 11,000 were arrested. LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates, who had announced his resignation by the time of the riots. On the evening of March 3,1991, Rodney King, the California Highway Patrol attempted to initiate a traffic stop. A high-speed pursuit ensued with speeds estimated at up to 115 mph, first over freeways, when King finally came to a stop, CHP Officer Timothy Singer and his wife, CHP Officer Melanie Singer, ordered the occupants under arrest. King was tasered, struck with side-handled batons, then tackled to the ground, video footage of the arrest showed that he was attempting to get up each time he was struck, and that the police made no attempt to cuff him until he lay still. A subsequent test for the presence of PCP in Rodney Kings body at the time of the arrest turned up negative, the incident was captured on a camcorder by local resident George Holliday from his apartment in the vicinity. The tape was roughly 12 minutes long, while the tape was presented during trial, some clips of the incident were not released to the public. The footage of King being beaten by police while lying on the ground became an instant focus of media attention, eight stories appeared on ABC News, including a sixty-minute special on Primetime Live. Upon watching the tape of the beating, LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates said, I played the one-minute-50-second tape again. Then again and again, until I had viewed it 25 times, and still I could not believe what I was looking at. The Los Angeles County District Attorney subsequently charged four police officers, including one sergeant, with assault, due to the heavy media coverage of the arrest, the trial received a change of venue from Los Angeles County to Simi Valley in neighboring Ventura County. The jury was composed of nine whites, one male, one Latino. The prosecutor, Terry White, was black, on April 29,1992, the seventh day of jury deliberations, the jury acquitted all four officers of assault and acquitted three of the four of using excessive force. The jury could not agree on a verdict for the officer charged with using excessive force. The first two seconds of videotape, contrary to the claims made by the officers, show King attempting to flee past Laurence Powell. During the next one minute and 19 seconds, King is beaten continuously by the officers, the officers testified that they tried to physically restrain King prior to the starting point of the videotape, but King was able to physically throw them off himself. Outside the Simi Valley courthouse where the acquittals were delivered, county sheriffs deputies protected Stacey Koon from angry protesters on the way to his car1992 Los Angeles riots – 4,000 California Army National Guardsmen patrolled the city to enforce the law.
45. Voyager 1 – Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5,1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 launched 16 days after its twin, having operated for 39 years,6 months and 30 days, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. At a distance of 138 AU from the Sun as of March 2017, the probes primary mission objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturns large moon, Titan. It studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. After completing its mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 20,1980, Voyager 1 began an extended mission to explore the regions. On August 25,2012, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause to become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space, in the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was proposed which prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. Information gathered by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft helped Voyagers engineers design Voyager to cope effectively with the intense radiation environment around Jupiter. Initially, Voyager 1 was planned as Mariner 11 of the Mariner program, due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was changed to Voyager. Voyager 1 was constructed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and it has 16 hydrazine thrusters, three-axis stabilization gyroscopes, and referencing instruments to keep the probes radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively, these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem, the spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects such as planets as it travels through space. The radio communication system of Voyager 1 was designed to be used up to, the communication system includes a 3. 7-meter diameter parabolic dish high-gain antenna to send and receive radio waves via the three Deep Space Network stations on the Earth. The craft normally transmits data to Earth over Deep Space Network Channel 18, using a frequency of either 2.3 GHz or 8.4 GHz, while signals from Earth to Voyager are broadcast at 2.1 GHz. When Voyager 1 is unable to communicate directly with the Earth, signals from Voyager 1 take over 19 hours to reach Earth. Voyager 1 has three radioisotope thermoelectric generators mounted on a boom, each MHW-RTG contains 24 pressed plutonium-238 oxide spheres. The RTGs generated about 470 W of electric power at the time of launch, the power output of the RTGs declines over time, but the crafts RTGs will continue to support some of its operations until 2025. As of 2017-04-04, Voyager 1 has 73. 14% of the plutonium-238 that it had at launch, by 2050, it will have 56. 5% left. Since the 1990s, space probes usually have completely autonomous cameras, the computer command subsystem controls the camerasVoyager 1 – Voyager 1, artist's impression
46. Solar system – The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets, of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the mass is in the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System also contains smaller objects, the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptunes orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets, identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, the heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium, it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, the Solar System is located in the Orion Arm,26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way. For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System, the invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99. 86% of the known mass. The Suns four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the mass, with Jupiter. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0. 002% of the Solar Systems total mass, most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earths orbit, known as the eclipticSolar system – The Sun and planets of the Solar System (distances not to scale)
47. Allen Stanford – Stanford was the chairman of the now defunct Stanford Financial Group of Companies. A fifth-generation Texan who once resided in Saint Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, he holds dual citizenship, being a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda and he contributed millions of dollars to politicians in both Antigua and the United States amongst other countries. The Federal Bureau of Investigation raided Stanfords offices in Houston, Texas, Memphis, Tennessee, on February 27,2009, the SEC amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a massive Ponzi scheme. He voluntarily surrendered to authorities on June 18,2009, on March 6,2012, Stanford was convicted on all charges except a single count of wire fraud. He is serving his 110-year sentence at United States Penitentiary, Coleman in Coleman, in September 2014, Stanford appealed his conviction, however, the appeals court rejected the appeal in October 2015. Stanford grew up in Mexia, Texas and his father, James Stanford, is former mayor of Mexia and a member of the Board of Directors of Stanford Financial Group. His mother, Sammie, is a nurse, after his parents divorced in 1959, Stanford and his brother went to live with their mother. Stanford graduated from Eastern Hills High School in Fort Worth, Texas, in 1974, Stanford graduated from Baylor University in Waco, Texas, earning a BA degree in finance. Stanford started in business in Waco, Texas, opening a gym that failed. His first success in business came from speculating in real estate in Houston after the Texas oil bubble burst in the early 1980s, the men made a fortune in the 1980s, buying up depressed real estate and selling it years later as the market recovered. After his father retired in 1993, Stanford took control of the company, Stanford moved to the Caribbean in the 1980s, first to Montserrat, then to Antigua. Early in 2007, Stanford and Baldwin Spencer, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda and formerly an ally, began verbally feuding in public. Reports surfaced in early February 2009 that the SEC, the FBI, the Florida Office of Financial Regulation, and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, a former executive told SEC officials that Stanford presented hypothetical investment results as actual historical data in sales pitches to clients. Stanford claimed his certificates of deposit were as safe as, or safer than, the U. S. Ambassador to the Bahamas at the time was reported to have managed to stay out of any one-on-one photos with Stanford during a charity breakfast event. Federal agents raided the offices of Stanford Financial on February 17,2009, the SEC charged Stanford with massive ongoing fraud centered on an eight-billion-dollar investment scheme. Stanfords assets, along with those of his companies, were frozen and placed into receivership by a U. S. federal judge, CNBC reported that Stanford tried to flee the country on the same day as the raids on his headquarters. He contacted a private jet owner and attempted to pay for a flight to Antigua with a credit card, but was refused because the company would accept only a wire transfer. On February 19, acting at the request of the SEC, FBI agents located Stanford at his girlfriends house near Fredericksburg, Virginia, the SEC often files civil charges before criminal charges are filedAllen Stanford – Robert Allen Stanford mug shot, 2009
48. Stanford Financial Group – The Stanford Financial Group was a privately held international group of financial services companies controlled by Allen Stanford, until it was seized by United States authorities in early 2009. On February 17,2009, U. S. Federal agents put the company under management of a receiver, ten days later, the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a massive Ponzi scheme. Allen Stanford traced his company to the company founded in 1932 in Mexia, Texas, by his grandfather. Allen Stanfords move into banking utilised funds he had made in real estate in Houston in the early 1980s, in 2008, Stanford Financial Group announced it would open a new global management complex in St. Croix, U. S. Completion was planned for July 2009 but did not occur due to the companys dissolution, the company was bound by a web of personal and family ties. Stanfords chief financial officer and second-in-command, James M. Davis, was his roommate at Baylor University, the chief investment officer, Laura Pendergest-Holt, grew up attending a church in Baldwyn, Mississippi where Davis was a Sunday school teacher. Many top officials were related to each other, Allen Stanford relocated its operations to Antigua. On February 19,2009 Nigel Hamilton-Smith and Peter Wastell of the British accounting firm Vantis were appointed joint receivers of the bank, in June 2010, the High Court of Antigua resolved that Vantis should be removed from its responsibilities. The firm, which had received government approval to sell the property assets. Stanford Trust Company, helped manage and protect wealth, Vantis was also appointed receivers of Stanford Trust Company. Stanford Financial Group was the financier for the 2007 film The Ultimate Gift. According to the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy, the story of The Ultimate Gift promoted philanthropy in health care institutions. The group established a significant presence in golf, polo, tennis, cricket and sailing, Stanford also sponsored professional golfers Vijay Singh, Camilo Villegas and David Toms as well as Morgan Pressel on the LPGA Tour. In tennis, the company was a sponsor of the Sony Ericsson Open, Stanford also sponsored the Champions Series Tennis Tournaments featuring Jim Courier, John McEnroe and Pete Sampras. The Stanford Financial Tour Championship, previously known as the LPGA Playoffs at The ADT, beginning with the 2009 event, it was to be sponsored by Stanford Financial Group. As one of the partners, Stanford Financial Group was also involved in Tiger Woodss annual golf tournament. During the week of February 13,2009, Stanford issued a letter to clients saying, on February 17,2009, U. S. Federal agents entered the companys Houston and Memphis offices. Law enforcement officials placed signs on the office stating that the company was temporarily closed, The company is still in operationStanford Financial Group – Galleria Tower II, the headquarters of Stanford Financial Group in Houston
49. Natasha Trethewey – Natasha Trethewey is an American poet who was appointed United States Poet Laureate in 2012 and again in 2014. She won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry for her 2006 collection Native Guard and she is the Robert W. Woodruff Professor of English and Creative Writing at Emory University, where she also directs the Creative Writing Program. S. Supreme Court struck down anti-miscegenation laws with Loving v. Virginia and her birth certificate noted the race of her mother as colored, and the race of her father as “Canadian”. Tretheweys mother, a worker, was part of the inspiration for Native Guard. Tretheweys parents divorced when she was young and Turnbough was murdered in 1985 by her husband, whom she had recently divorced. Recalling her reaction to her mothers death, she said, that was the moment when I both felt that I would become a poet and then immediately afterward felt that I would not, I turned to poetry to make sense of what had happened. Natasha Tretheweys father was also a poet, he was a professor of English at Hollins University, in May 2010 Trethewey delivered the commencement speech at Hollins University and was awarded an honorary doctorate. She had previously received a degree from Delta State University in her native Mississippi. Structurally, her work combines free verse with more structured, traditional forms like the sonnet, thematically, her work examines memory and the racial legacy of America. The American Civil War makes frequent appearances in her work, on June 7,2012, James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, named her the 19th US Poet Laureate. Newspapers noted that unlike most poets laureate, Trethewey is in the middle of her career and she was also the first laureate to take up residence in Washington, D. C. when she did so in January 2013. On May 14,2014, Tretheway delivered her lecture to conclude her second term as US Poet Laureate. Beyond Katrina, A Meditation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast,1 Trethewey interview with Daniel Cross Turner for Waccamaw, A Journal of Contemporary Literature Joe Heim. Just Asking, Poet Laureate Natasha Trethewey, Natasha D. Trethewey at Library of Congress Authorities, with 5 catalog recordsNatasha Trethewey – Trethewey reading at the Library of Congress in 2013
50. The New York Times – The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B. Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
51. Stuxnet – Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first identified in 2010, that targets industrial computer systems and was responsible for causing substantial damage to Irans nuclear program. The software was designed to erase itself in 2012 thus limiting the scope of its effects, the worm is believed by many experts to be a jointly built American-Israeli cyberweapon, although no organization or state has officially admitted responsibility. Exploiting four zero-day flaws, Stuxnet functions by targeting machines using the Microsoft Windows operating system and networks, Stuxnet reportedly compromised Iranian PLCs, collecting information on industrial systems and causing the fast-spinning centrifuges to tear themselves apart. Stuxnet reportedly ruined almost one fifth of Irans nuclear centrifuges, Stuxnet is typically introduced to the target environment via an infected USB flash drive. The worm then propagates across the network, scanning for Siemens Step7 software on computers controlling a PLC, in the absence of either criterion, Stuxnet becomes dormant inside the computer. Stuxnet, discovered by Sergey Ulasen, initially spread via Microsoft Windows, Stuxnet infects PLCs by subverting the Step-7 software application that is used to reprogram these devices. Siemens stated that the worm has not caused any damage to its customers, but the Iran nuclear program, Kaspersky Lab concluded that the sophisticated attack could only have been conducted with nation-state support. This was further supported by the F-Secures chief researcher Mikko Hyppönen who commented in a Stuxnet FAQ, Thats what it would look like, yes. On 25 December 2012, an Iranian semi-official news agency announced there was a cyberattack by Stuxnet, the virus targeted a power plant and some other industries in Hormozgan province in recent months. According to expert Eugene Kaspersky, the worm infected a nuclear powerplant in Russia. Kaspersky noted, however, that since the powerplant is not connected to the public Internet, the worm was at first identified by the security company VirusBlokAda in mid-June 2010. Journalist Brian Krebss blog posting on 15 July 2010 was the first widely read report on the worm, the original name given by VirusBlokAda was Rootkit. Tmphider, Symantec however called it W32. Temphid, later changing to W32. Stuxnet. Its current name is derived from a combination of some keywords in the software, Kaspersky Lab experts at first estimated that Stuxnet started spreading around March or April 2010, but the first variant of the worm appeared in June 2009. On 15 July 2010, the day the worms existence became widely known and this attack, from an unknown source but likely related to Stuxnet, disabled one of the lists and thereby interrupted an important source of information for power plants and factories. The worm contains a component with a build time-stamp from 3 February 2010, such complexity is very unusual for malware. Stuxnet attacked Windows systems using an unprecedented four zero-day attacks and it is initially spread using infected removable drives such as USB flash drives, which contain Windows shortcut files to initiate executable code. The worm then uses other exploits and techniques such as peer-to-peer RPC to infect, the number of zero-day exploits used is unusual, as they are highly valued and malware creators do not typically make use of four different zero-day exploits in the same worm. Stuxnet is unusually large at half a megabyte in size, the Windows component of the malware is promiscuous in that it spreads relatively quickly and indiscriminatelyStuxnet – Siemens Simatic S7-300 PLC CPU with three I/O modules attached
52. Computer worm – A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a network to spread itself, relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, many worms that have been created are designed only to spread, and do not attempt to change the systems they pass through. However, as the Morris worm and Mydoom showed, even these payload free worms can cause major disruption by increasing network traffic, the actual term worm was first used in John Brunners 1975 novel, The Shockwave Rider. In that novel, Nichlas Haflinger designs and sets off a data-gathering worm in an act of revenge against the men who run a national electronic information web that induces mass conformity. You have the biggest-ever worm loose in the net, and it automatically sabotages any attempt to monitor it, theres never been a worm with that tough a head or that long a tail. S. Court of Appeals estimated the cost of removing the virus from each installation was in the range of $200–53,000, Morris himself became the first person tried and convicted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Any code designed to do more than spread the worm is typically referred to as the payload, typical malicious payloads might delete files on a host system, encrypt files in a ransomware attack, or exfiltrate data such as confidential documents or passwords. Probably the most common payload for worms is to install a backdoor and this allows the computer to be remotely controlled by the worm author as a zombie. Networks of such machines are referred to as botnets and are very commonly used for a range of malicious purposes. Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems, vendors with security problems supply regular security updates, and if these are installed to a machine then the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vulnerability is disclosed before the security patch released by the vendor, users need to be wary of opening unexpected email, and should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOU worm, and with the growth and efficiency of phishing attacks. Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days, the use of a firewall is also recommended. In the April–June,2008, issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, the researchers discovered how to contain the kind of worm that scans the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect. They found that the key is for software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network send out. When a machine starts sending out too many scans, it is a sign that it has been infected, allowing administrators to take it off line, in addition, machine learning techniques can be used to detect new worms, by analyzing the behavior of the suspected computer. Those worms allowed testing by John Shoch and Jon Hupp of the Ethernet principles on their network of Xerox Alto computers, the Nachi family of worms tried to download and install patches from Microsofts website to fix vulnerabilities in the host system—by exploiting those same vulnerabilitiesComputer worm – Hex dump of the Blaster worm, showing a message left for Microsoft CEO Bill Gates by the worm programmer
53. Uranium enrichment – Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation. Natural uranium is 99. 284% 238U isotope, with 235U only constituting about 0. 711% of its weight, 235U is the only nuclide existing in nature that is fissile with thermal neutrons. Enriched uranium is a component for both civil nuclear power generation and military nuclear weapons. During the Manhattan Project enriched uranium was given the codename oralloy, the term oralloy is still occasionally used to refer to enriched uranium. There are about 2,000 tonnes of enriched uranium in the world, produced mostly for nuclear weapons, naval propulsion. At present,95 percent of the stocks of depleted uranium remain in secure storage. Uranium as it is directly from the Earth is not suitable as fuel for most nuclear reactors. Uranium is mined underground or in an open pit depending on the depth in which it is found. After the uranium ore is mined, it must go through a process to extract the uranium from the ore. 1% uranium. Naturally-occurring uranium is made of a mixture of U-235 and U-238, the U-235 is fissile meaning it is easily split with neutrons while the remainder is U-238, but in nature, more than 99% of the extracted ore is U-238. Most nuclear reactors require enriched uranium, which is uranium with higher concentrations of U-235 ranging between 3. 5% and 4. 5%, there are two commercial enrichment processes, gaseous diffusion and gas centrifugation. Both enrichment processes involve the use of uranium hexafluoride and produce enriched uranium oxide, reprocessed uranium is a product of nuclear fuel cycles involving nuclear reprocessing of spent fuel. Low-enriched uranium has a lower than 20% concentration of 235U, for instance, in light water reactors. Fresh LEU used in research reactors is usually enriched 12% to 19. 75% U-235, highly enriched uranium has a 20% or higher concentration of 235U. 4% 235U being required. For criticality experiments, enrichment of uranium to over 97% has been accomplished, the very first uranium bomb, Little Boy dropped by the United States on Hiroshima in 1945, used 64 kilograms of 80% enriched uranium. Wrapping the weapons fissile core in a neutron reflector can dramatically reduce the critical mass, because the core was surrounded by a good neutron reflector, at explosion it comprised almost 2.5 critical masses. The presence of too much of the 238U isotope inhibits the nuclear chain reaction that is responsible for the weapons power. The critical mass for 85% highly enriched uranium is about 50 kilograms, for the secondary of a large nuclear weapon, the higher critical mass of less-enriched uranium can be an advantage as it allows the core at explosion time to contain a larger amount of fuelUranium enrichment – A drum of yellowcake (a mixture of uranium precipitates)
54. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeablyIran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
55. 2011 military intervention in Libya – On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The United Nations Intent and Voting was to have a ceasefire in Libya, including an end to the current attacks against civilians. Imposing a ban on all flights in the countrys airspace – a no-fly zone – and tightened sanctions on the Qadhafi regime, French jets launched air strikes against Libyan Army tanks and vehicles. The effort was largely led by France and the United Kingdom. NATO took control of the embargo on 23 March, named Operation Unified Protector. An attempt to unify the command of the air campaign, first failed over objections by the French, German. On 24 March, NATO agreed to control of the no-fly zone. The handover occurred on 31 March 2011 at 06,00 UTC, NATO flew 26,500 sorties since it took charge of the Libya mission on 31 March 2011. Fighting in Libya ended in late October following the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas new government requested that its mission be extended to the end of the year, but on 27 October, the Security Council voted to end NATOs mandate for military action on 31 October. 23 February 2011, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pushed for the European Union to pass sanctions against Gaddafi,25 February 2011, Sarkozy said Gaddafi must go. 26 February 2011, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was passed unanimously and it imposed an arms embargo on the country and a travel ban and assets freeze on the family of Muammar Al-Qadhafi and certain Government officials. 1 March 2011, The US Senate unanimously passed non-binding Senate resolution S. RES.85 urging the United Nations Security Council to impose a Libyan no-fly zone and encouraging Gaddafi to step down. The US had naval forces positioned off the coast of Libya, as well as already in the region. Canadian National Defence Minister Peter MacKay stated that e are there for all inevitabilities, and NATO is looking at this as well. This is taken as a precautionary and staged measure,7 March 2011, US Ambassador to NATO Ivo Daalder announced that NATO decided to step up surveillance missions of E-3 AWACS aircraft to twenty-four hours a day. The Gulf Cooperation Council also on that day called upon the UN Security Council to take all measures to protect civilians. Three days later, he stated that if pro-Gaddafi forces reached Benghazi and he stated, If there is no no-fly zone imposed on Gaddafis regime, and his ships are not checked, we will have a catastrophe in Libya. 10 March 2011, France recognized the Libyan NTC as the government of Libya soon after Sarkozy met with them in Paris2011 military intervention in Libya – Libyan anti-government rebels, 1 March 2011
56. James Zadroga – Zadroga was the first NYPD officer whose death was attributed to exposure to his contact with toxic chemicals at the attack site. Zadroga had joined the New York City Police Department in 1992 and he was a healthy non-smoker and had no known history of asthma or other respiratory conditions before spending 450 hours participating in the recovery efforts at the 9/11 attack site. The New York City Police Department Medical Board approved his application for permanent disability retirement that same year, the causes of Zadrogas death are under dispute. This attribution made Zadroga,34 years old at the time of his death, officials from the Chief Medical Examiners office met with the Zadroga family to present his findings. Y. P. D. Officer who dedicated himself — put his life in harm’s way hundreds of times during his career —, a third opinion obtained by Zadrogas family later that month from Dr. Pataki mentioned Zadroga at the bill-signing ceremony, held at the World Trade Center site. The Act covers medical and other expenses for a specific list of diseases and these include interstitial lung diseases, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Since its creation, additional conditions have been eligible, in September 2012,50 different types of cancers were added. At the federal level, the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act provides health monitoring, the borough has also dedicated two monuments to Zadroga as part of the ceremonies. September 11 Attacks Collapse of the World Trade Center Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks World Trade Center Health Program James Zadroga collected news and commentary. James Zadroga at Find a Grave A Cloud of Smoke, Jennifer Kahn, The New Yorker, September 15,2008 9/11 First Responder John Feal Calls on Senate to Pass Zadroga Bill, video report, Democracy NowJames Zadroga – President Obama signing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 into law, January 2, 2011 at Plantation Estate in Hawaii.
57. September 11 attacks – The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden. Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but later admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the PentagonSeptember 11 attacks – Top row: The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center burning
58. New START – New START is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Prague, and, after ratification and it is expected to last at least until 2021. New START replaced the Treaty of Moscow, which was due to expire in December 2012, under terms of the treaty, the number of strategic nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. A new inspection and verification regime will be established, replacing the SORT mechanism and it does not limit the number of operationally inactive stockpiled nuclear warheads that remain in the high thousands in both the Russian and American inventories. According to a Reuters report on February 9,2017, in US President Donald Trumps first 60-minute telephone call with Russian President Vladimir Putin, Putin inquired about extending New START. President Trump denounced the treaty, after asking his aides what it was, under the terms of the treaty, the number of strategic nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. The total number of deployed warheads, however, could exceed the 1,550 limit by a few hundred because per bomber only one warhead is counted regardless of how many it actually carries. The number of deployed ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments is limited to 700, the treaty allows for satellite and remote monitoring, as well as 18 on-site inspections per year to verify limits. These obligations must be met within seven years from the date the treaty enters into force, the treaty will last ten years, with an option to renew it for up to five years upon agreement of both parties. The treaty entered force on 5 February 2011, when the United States and Russia exchanged instruments of ratification, following approval by the U. S. Senate. However, the United States began implementing the reductions even before the treaty was ratified, documents made available to the U. S. While four of 24 launchers on each of the 14 ballistic missile nuclear submarines would be removed, none would be retired. The treaty places no limits on tactical systems, such as the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, the treaty does not cover rail-mobile ICBM launchers because neither party currently possesses such systems. The New START treaty is the successor to the START I, the START II was signed, but not ratified. The START III negotiating process was not successful, the drafting of the treaty commenced in April 2009 immediately after the meeting between the presidents of the two countries, Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev, in London. Preliminary talks were held in Rome on 27 April, although it was originally planned to have them held in the middle of May. Prolonged talks were conducted by U. S. and Russian delegations, the Russian delegation was headed by Anatoly Antonov, director of security and disarmament at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The document listed the intention of both parties to reduce the number of nuclear warheads to 1, 500–1,675 units, presidents Obama and Medvedev announced on 26 March 2010 that they had reached an agreement, and they signed the treaty on 8 April 2010 in PragueNew START – Presidents Obama and Medvedev after signing the Prague Treaty.
59. Golan v. Holder – In the United States, the Act restored copyright status to foreign works previously in the public domain. The remaining constitutional challenge to the 1994 Uruguay Round Agreements Act was dismissed the following year and it was appealed at the Tenth Circuit. And remanded the case to the district court, a related issue was then brought before the court as Golan v. Holder after conductors Lawrence Golan and Richard Kapp filed suit. In a holding published on April 3,2009, Judge Babcock reversed his earlier finding that the First Amendment was not applicable to resurrecting foreign copyright claims. e. Parties who had been using a work formerly in the domain before the URAA became effective, relying on the work being in the public domain. He wrote, In the United States, that body of law includes the principle that works in the public domain remain in the public domain. Removing works from the public domain violated Plaintiffs’ vested First Amendment interests and he also indicated a possible solution by suggesting that the protection of reliance parties be made not limited in time. However, further appeals by copyright owners were expected, Golan filed for certiorari in the Supreme Court of the United States asking for the Court to hear the case. On March 7,2011, the Court granted the writ of certiorari, oral argument was held October 5,2011. Other parties that filed amicus curiae briefs include, On January 18,2012, the majority opinion was written by Justice Ginsburg and joined by Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, and Sotomayor. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the dissent was written by Justice Breyer and joined by Alito. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 565 List of copyright case law Gordon, Wendy J. Dissemination Must Serve Authors, review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues. Is the Copyright Public Domain Irrevocable, an Introduction to Golan v. Holder. Archived from the original on 2011-11-04, copyrights Traditional Contours and Bedrock Principles, Golans Potential to Secure First Amendment Protection Over the Public Domain. Complaint in Golan v. Ashcroft at cyber. law. harvard. edu Jones, fair Use, Affirmative Defense or RightGolan v. Holder – Supreme Court of the United States
60. Public domain – The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published, news and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survivalPublic domain – Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition
61. Jared Lee Loughner – Representative Gabrielle Giffords, his target, and killed six people, including Chief U. S. District Court Judge John Roll, as well as a nine-year-old bystander, Christina-Taylor Green. Loughner shot and injured 13 other people, and one man was injured while subduing him, acquaintances said that Loughners personality had changed markedly in the years prior to the shooting, a period when he was also abusing alcohol and drugs. He had been suspended from Pima Community College in September 2010 because of his behavior and disruptions in classes. After his arrest, two medical evaluations diagnosed him with schizophrenia and incompetent to stand trial. He was medicated while in jail as part of his treatment and he was again judged incompetent in May 2012. In August 2012, Loughner was judged competent to stand trial, in November 2012, he was sentenced to life plus 140 years in federal prison. Jared Lee Loughner is the child of Randy and Amy Loughner. They were described by a neighbor as a private family. Amy Loughner worked for the City Parks Department, Randy Loughner was a retired gasoline truck driver, but journalists did not determine if he worked outside the house at the time. While Loughner had friends in school, neighbors noted that in the years following, he kept more to himself. Loughner attended Mountain View High School, and dropped out in 2006, around this time, when he was about eighteen years old, those who knew him noted a change in his personality. Kelsey Hawkes, who dated Loughner for several months in high school, ive always known him as the sweet, caring Jared, said Hawkes,21, then a student at the University of Arizona. At some point, Loughner was fired from his job at a Quiznos restaurant, after this, Loughner briefly volunteered at a local animal shelter, walking dogs, but he was asked not to return. The shelter manager later said, He was walking dogs in an area we didnt want dogs walked. he didnt understand or comprehend what the supervisor was trying to tell him and he was just resistant to that information. Tong Shan, a friend and classmate of Loughners, recalled observing significant changes in his attitude. Shan, who became friends with Loughner on the day of their high school graduation, said that they would spend time together after class in college. When they met again in mid-2010, Shan recalled that Loughner appeared, from the way he was talking to me. It was just questions and questions and random, weird questions that didnt go together and he wanted to know everything. he would just trip outJared Lee Loughner – Mug shot of Loughner taken by U.S. Marshals on January 22, 2011
62. 2011 Tucson shooting – Representative Gabrielle Giffords and eighteen others were shot during a constituent meeting held in a supermarket parking lot in Casas Adobes, Arizona, in the Tucson metropolitan area. Six people died, including federal District Court Chief Judge John Roll, Gabe Zimmerman, one of Rep. Giffords staffers, one additional person was injured in the immediate aftermath of the shooting. News reports identified the target of the attack as Giffords, a Democrat representing Arizonas 8th congressional district and she was shot through the head at point-blank range, and her medical condition was initially described as critical. Loughner, a 22-year-old Tucson man who was fixated on Giffords, was arrested at the scene, Federal prosecutors filed five charges against him, including the attempted assassination of a member of Congress and the assassination of a federal judge. Loughner previously had been arrested once on a drug charge and had been suspended by his college for disruptive behavior. Court filings include notes handwritten by Loughner indicating he planned to assassinate Giffords, the motive for the shooting remains unclear, Loughner did not cooperate with authorities, invoking his right to remain silent. He was held without bail and indicted on 49 counts, in January 2012, Loughner was found by a federal judge to be incompetent to stand trial based on two medical evaluations, which diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia. Judged still incompetent to stand trial on May 25, finally on August 7 and he pleaded guilty to 19 counts, and in November 2012 was sentenced to life in prison. Following the shooting, American and international politicians expressed grief and condemnations, gun control advocates pushed for increased restrictions on the sale of firearms and ammunition, specifically high-capacity ammunition magazines. Palin rejected claims that she bore responsibility for the shooting, President Barack Obama led a nationally televised memorial service on January 12, and other memorials took place. The shooting took place on January 8,2011, at 10,10 a. m, Giffords had set up a table outside the store and about 20 to 30 people were gathered around her when Jared Lee Loughner drew a pistol and shot Giffords in the head. The shooting was caught on video by a security camera but has not yet been released to the public. Loughner proceeded to fire apparently randomly at other members of the crowd and he reportedly used a 9×19mm Glock 19 semi-automatic pistol with a 33-round magazine. A nearby store employee said he heard 15 to 20 gunshots, Loughner stopped to reload, but dropped the loaded magazine from his pocket to the sidewalk, from where bystander Patricia Maisch grabbed it. Another bystander clubbed the back of the head with a folding chair, injuring his elbow in the process. Loughner was tackled to the ground by Bill Badger, a 74-year-old retired United States Army Colonel who had also shot himself. Loughner was further subdued by Maisch and bystanders Roger Sulzgeber and Joseph Zamudio, Zamudio, a concealed weapon permit holder, had a weapon on his person, but arrived after the shooting had stopped and did not draw his firearm. Thirty-one shell casings were found at the scene by investigators, the first call from the scene to emergency services was received at 10,11 a. m2011 Tucson shooting – First responders at the crime scene outside the Casas Adobes Safeway Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, Arizona's 8th Congressional District, (D)
63. Gabrielle Giffords – Gabrielle Dee Gabby Giffords is an American politician from the U. S. state of Arizona. She is the woman in Arizonas history to be elected to the U. S. Congress. Giffords is a native of Tucson, Arizona, and a graduate of Scripps College and she also worked as an associate for regional economic development for Price Waterhouse in New York City, and as CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local automotive chain owned by her grandfather. She is married to former astronaut and Space Shuttle Commander Mark E. Kelly, on January 8,2011, just a week into her third term, Giffords was a victim of an assassination attempt near Tucson, at a Safeway supermarket where she was meeting publicly with constituents. Giffords was later brought to a facility in Houston, Texas. On May 16,2011, Giffords traveled to Kennedy Space Center to watch the launch of STS-134, the flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour. On August 1,2011, Giffords returned to the House floor to vote and was greeted with a standing ovation. On January 22,2012, Giffords announced her resignation from her seat in order to concentrate on recovering from her wounds. Gabrielle Dee Giffords was born and grew up Tucson, Arizona, to Gloria Kay and she was raised in a mixed religious environment by her Jewish father and Christian Science-practicing mother. Her grandfather, Akiba Hornstein, was a Jewish immigrant from Lithuania who changed his name to Giffords to avoid anti-Semitism, through her father, Giffords is a second cousin of actress Gwyneth Paltrow. Giffords has identified herself solely with Judaism since 2001, belonging to Congregation Chaverim and she was Arizonas first Jewish congresswoman. Giffords graduated from Tucsons University High School and she is a former Girl Scout. Giffords worked as an associate for regional economic development at Price Waterhouse in New York City, in 1996, she became president and CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local chain of auto service centers founded by her grandfather. The business was sold to Goodyear Tire in 2000, at the time of the sale, she commented on the difficulties local businesses face when competing against large national firms. Giffords was elected to the Arizona House of Representatives and served from 2001 to 2003 and she was elected to the Arizona Senate in the fall of 2002, and at the time was the youngest woman elected to that body. She took office in January 2003 and was re-elected in 2004 and she resigned from the Arizona Senate on December 1,2005, in preparation for her congressional campaign. Sarn, repayments due under Ladewig v. Arizona, the No Child Left Behind mandate, low achievement, health care costs. She noted that Arizona was not alone in facing such challenges, expanding health care access was an issue of interest for Giffords when she served in the legislatureGabrielle Giffords – Gabrielle Giffords
64. Equal Protection Clause – The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The clause, which took effect in 1868, provides that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The meaning of the Equal Protection Clause has been the subject of much debate and this clause was the basis for Brown v. The Equal Protection Clause itself applies only to state and local governments, however, the Supreme Court held in Bolling v. Sharpe that equal protection requirements apply to the federal government through the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Before and during the Civil War, the Southern states violated the rights of speech of pro-Union citizens, anti-slavery advocates. During the Civil War, the Southern states stripped many white citizens of their citizenship and banished them from the states. Shortly after the Union victory in the American Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress and ratified by the states in 1865, many ex-Confederate states then adopted Black Codes following the war. These laws severely restricted the rights of blacks to hold property, including property and many forms of personal property. These codes also created harsher criminal penalties for blacks than for whites, because of the inequality these Black Codes imposed, Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866. This Act provided that all born in the United States were citizens. Full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, president Andrew Johnson Vetoed the Civil Rights bill of 1866 amid concerns that Congress did not have the constitutional authority to pass such a law. Such doubts were one factor that led Congress to begin to draft, moreover, Congress wanted to protect white Unionists who were under personal and legal attack in the former Confederacy. The effort was led by the Radical Republicans of both houses of Congress, including John Bingham, Charles Sumner, and Thaddeus Stevens, the most important among these, however, was Bingham, a Congressman from Ohio, who drafted the language of the Equal Protection Clause. The Southern states were opposed to the Civil Rights Act, but in 1865 Congress, exercising its power under Article I, section 5, clause 1 of the Constitution, to be the Judge of the. Qualifications of its own Members, had excluded Southerners from Congress, declaring that their states, having rebelled against the Union, could therefore not elect members to Congress. It was this fact that the Fourteenth Amendment was enacted by a rump Congress—that allowed the Equal Protection Clause to be passed by Congress. Its ratification by the former Confederate states was made a condition of their reacceptance into the Union, during the debate in Congress, more than one version of the clause was considered. Here is the first version, The Congress shall have power to all laws which shall be necessaryEqual Protection Clause – Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause.
65. Commonwealth of Virginia v. Sebelius – National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius,567 U. S. ___,183 L. Ed. 2d 450,132 S. Ct. The Acts represented a set of changes to the American health care system that had been the subject of highly contentious debate. In March 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection, a number of parties sued, including the National Federation of Independent Business, claiming that the sweeping reform law was unconstitutional for various reasons. The state of Florida filed a lawsuit against the United States Department of Health and Human Services, vinson also held that the mandate could not be severed from the rest of the Affordable Care Act and struck down the entire Act. The Department of Health and Human Services appealed to the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, a three-judge panel issued a 2–1 ruling affirming Judge Vinsons findings in part and reversing in part. The government decided to not seek en banc review from the full Circuit, other federal courts heard cases related to the Affordable Care Act that were not directly reviewed by the Supreme Court, but caused a divide regarding the constitutionality of the law. Two federal judges appointed by President Bill Clinton upheld the individual mandate in 2010, on the second day, the court heard arguments over whether the individual mandate component of the ACA fell under the constitutional powers of Congress. The states were represented during the hearings by former Bush administration Solicitor General Paul Clement while the government was represented by current Solicitor General Donald Verrilli. On the morning of the day, the Court considered the issue of severability—whether the Affordable Care Act could survive if the Court struck down the individual mandate. Paul Clement, Deputy Solicitor General Edwin Kneedler, and Court-appointed amicus curiae H. Bartow Farr, on the afternoon of the third day, the Court considered whether the Medicaid expansion the Affordable Care Act instituted was coercive. Both Paul Clement and Donald Verilli again argued before the Court, Chief Justice Roberts extended the time limit for both parties by 15 minutes during the arguments. Solicitor General Verrillis performance during the hearings was widely criticized by analysts, the Supreme Court was fragmented on many of the issues. Chief Justice Roberts wrote the opinion of the Court on the Anti-Injunction Act, by a vote of 5–4, the Court upheld the individual mandate component of the ACA as a valid exercise of Congresss power to lay and collect taxes. Because the Constitution permits such a tax, it is not our role to forbid it, the Court concluded, A tax on going without health insurance does not fall within any recognized category of direct tax. The shared responsibility payment is not a direct tax that must be apportioned among the several States. On the question of the expansion of Medicaid, no single opinion commanded the support of a majority of the Justices, however, a majority of the Court did find the expansion in some way unconstitutionally coercive and severed the coercive mechanism from the act. Justice Ginsburg, joined by Justice Sotomayor, would have upheld the Medicaid expansion in its entirety, Justices Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, and Alito would have struck down the Medicaid expansion completely. However, a majority of the Justices were of the opinion that the mandate did not fall under these powersCommonwealth of Virginia v. Sebelius – Supreme Court of the United States