1. U.S. Congress – The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, only as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative. Each state, regardless of size, has two senators. Currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants some unique powers. The Senate ratifies approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.U.S. Congress
2. POTUS – The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The President is considered to be one of the world's most powerful political figures, as the leader of the only global superpower. The office of President holds significant soft power both in the United States and abroad. Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is further empowered to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is enrolled. The president also directs the domestic policy of the United States. Since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the Federal Government as a whole. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third term. In all, 43 individuals have served 44 presidencies spanning 56 four-year terms. On January 2009, Barack Obama became the 44th and current president. On November 2012, he was re-elected. His second term ends at noon on January 2017.POTUS – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
3. United States Supreme Court – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. Once appointed, justices have tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment. In modern discourse, the justices are often categorized of judicial interpretation. The Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court is sometimes colloquially referred to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789. Its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. All the others were created by Congress. The Court first convened on February 1790, by which time five of its six initial positions had been filled. Nothing did. They had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, everyone went home." The sixth member was not confirmed until May 1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was also made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four judges in 1789.United States Supreme Court – Chief Justice Marshall
4. Federal government of the United States – The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, respectively. The full name of the republic is "United States of America". In casual conversation or writing, the term "National Government" is sometimes used. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D.C. "Washington" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution. The government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the world's first, if not the first, modern constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of republicanism, in which power is shared between the federal government and state governments. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the executive can veto any legislation—an act which, in turn, can be overridden by Congress. Those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as "unconstitutional" any law passed by the Congress. Other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of the Senate.Federal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
5. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. Government – A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this broad definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, arbitrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. Forms of state governance, refers to the set of political systems and institutions that make up the organisation of a specific government. This usage is analogous to what is called an "administration" in American English. Finally, government is also sometimes used as a synonym for governance. In grammar and theoretical linguistics, government or rection refers to the relationship between a word and its dependents.Government – presidential republics
7. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the end of the document. All four pages of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 1774 to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. Ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the central government's power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures.United States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
8. Legislature – The legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators. Each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; this is called a quorum. The members of a legislature usually represent political parties; the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs. The internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of political power they wield, compared to political players such as judiciaries, militaries, executives. Such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
9. Judiciary – The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. The Judiciary is often tasked with ensuring equal justice under law. In many jurisdictions the judicial branch has the power to change laws through the process of judicial review. Judges constitute a critical force of a constitution, thus de facto in common law countries creating the body of constitutional law. Budget of the judiciary in many developing countries is almost completely controlled by the executive. The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a financial dependence of the judiciary. The national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics. It is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the private. In France, the jurisprudence constante of the Court of Cassation or the Council of State is equivalent in practice with case law. In common law jurisdictions, courts interpret law; this includes constitutions, regulations. They also make law based upon prior law in areas where the legislature has not made law. For instance, the tort of negligence is not derived from law in most common law jurisdictions. The term common law refers to this kind of law. Jurisprudence plays a similar role to law.Judiciary – Justitia, symbol of the judiciary (statue at Shelby County Courthouse, Memphis, TN, United States)
10. Public policy of the United States – Public policy consists of a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, funding priorities by a government or its representatives. Public policy decisions are often decided by a group of individuals with different interests. The policies of the United States of America comprise all actions taken by its federal government. Over time agricultural policies evolved to support an industrialized, commodity-based agriculture. This evolution resulted in farmers leaving the land with agriculture moving to an industrial structure." Our addiction to foreign fossil fuels puts our economy, our national security and our environment at risk. Its general goal is to protect the environment for the welfare of future generations. It only promotes international order. Part of the announcements included temporary exceptions to 23B, allowing financial groups to more easily share funds within their group. The exceptions would expire on January 2009, unless extended by the Federal Reserve Board.Public policy of the United States – The United States Capitol.
11. Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791. All remaining powers are reserved for the people. The amendment was proposed during its first term following the Constitutional Convention and ratification of the Constitution. Perhaps words which may define this more precisely than the whole of the instrument now does, may be considered as superfluous. I am sure I do therefore propose it. The states thus declined to signal that there are unenumerated powers in addition to unenumerated rights. The amendment rendered unambiguous what had previously been at most a mere implication. The phrase "... or to the people." Was appended in handwriting as the Bill of Rights circulated between the two Houses of Congress. In United States v. Sprague the Supreme Court asserted that the amendment "added nothing to the originally ratified." The Supreme Court rarely declares laws unconstitutional for violating the Tenth Amendment. In the modern era, the Court has only done so where the federal government compels the states to enforce federal statutes. The case challenged a portion of 1985. The act provided three incentives for states to comply with statutory obligations to provide for the disposal of low-level waste. The first two incentives were monetary.Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
12. Washington, D.C. – Washington, D.C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as "Washington", "the District", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. Named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District. Washington had an estimated population of 672,228 as of July 2015. Commuters from Virginia suburbs raise the city's population during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of the sixth-largest statistical area in the country. The centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are including the Congress, Supreme Court. Washington is home to national museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, professional associations. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate.Washington, D.C. – Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
13. San Francisco – San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area. It is located on the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the smallest county in the state. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. As of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the independent homestead, near a anchorage around what is Portsmouth Square. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later.San Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
14. United States district court – The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both criminal cases are filed in the district court, a court of law, equity, admiralty. There is a United States court associated with each United States district court. Many districts have more than one. In contrast to the Supreme Court, established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress. There is no constitutional requirement that district courts exist at all. The first Congress created the district court system, still in place today. There is at least one judicial district for each state, Puerto Rico. District courts in three insular areas -- the United States Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands -- exercise the same jurisdiction as Article III U.S. district courts. Despite their name, these courts are technically not "District Courts of the United States". There are 89 districts in the 50 states, with a total of 94 districts including territories. The United States Court of International Trade addresses cases involving international trade and issues. The United States Tax Court has jurisdiction over contested pre-assessment determinations of taxes. A judge of a United States court is officially titled a "United States District Judge". The number of judges in each court is set by Congress in the United States Code.United States district court – Eastern District of New York
15. United States court of appeals – The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system. The United States courts of appeals are considered among the most powerful and influential courts in the United States. The Ninth Circuit in particular is very influential, covering 20% of the American population. There are currently 179 judges on the United States courts of appeals authorized by Congress and Article III of the U.S. Constitution. These judges are nominated by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate. They have lifetime tenure, earning an annual salary of $215,400. The eleven numbered circuits and the D.C. Circuit are geographically defined. Circuit. Only decisions that the courts designate for publication are included. The "unpublished" opinions are published separately in West's Federal Appendix, they are also available in on-line databases like LexisNexis or Westlaw. More recently, court decisions are also available electronically on the official court websites. However, there are also a few federal court decisions that are classified for national security reasons. The number of judges that the U.S. Congress has authorized for each circuit is set forth by law in 28 U.S.C. § 44, while the places where those judges must regularly sit to hear appeals are prescribed in 28 U.S.C. § 48.United States court of appeals – Map of the geographic boundaries of the various United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts
16. Seattle – Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States and the seat of King County, Washington. The city is situated on Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada -- United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of handling as of 2016. The Seattle area was previously inhabited before the first permanent European settlers. Growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle for aircraft manufacturing. The Seattle area developed as a technology center beginning with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. In 1994, Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle. The stream of new software, Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Seattle has a musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, to the Central District. The scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is also the birthplace of the alternative rock subgenre grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay. The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest.Seattle – Downtown Seattle from Queen Anne Hill
17. Portland, Oregon – Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers. The city covers 145 square miles and had an estimated population of 632,309 in 2015, making it the 26th most populous city in the United States. Approximately 2,389,228 people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, the 23rd most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 17th with a population of 3,022,178. Roughly 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after the city on the coast of Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. According to a 2009 Pew Research Center study, Portland ranks as the eighth most popular American city, based on where people want to live. The city government is notable for its land-use planning and investment in public transportation. Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. "Keep Portland Weird" is an unofficial slogan for the city. These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water.Portland, Oregon – Clockwise: View of Portland with Mount St. Helens in background; downtown cityscape; Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall; Pioneer Courthouse; Mt. Tabor Reservoir; Skyline Memorial Gardens
18. Pasadena, California – Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of 2013, the estimated population of Pasadena was 139,731, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming only the second city to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, after Los Angeles. It is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game and Tournament of Roses parade. The original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges. They lived on a diet of other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is also still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.Pasadena, California – Pasadena City Hall
19. Western United States – Because European settlement in the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time. Prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier generally moved westward and eventually lands west of the Mississippi River came to be referred to as the West. The West contains major biomes. The Western U.S. is the largest region of the country, covering more than half the area of the United States. Given this diverse geography it is no wonder the region is difficult to specifically define. The survey respondents as a whole showed just how little agreement there was on the boundaries of the West. Within a region diverse as the Western United States, smaller areas with more closely shared demographics and geography have developed as subregions. Meanwhile, the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington can be considered part of the Northwest or Pacific Northwest. Fort Worth has long laid claim to be "Where the West Begins." The West is still one of the most sparsely settled areas in the United States with inhabitants per square mile. Only Texas with 78.0 inhabitants/sq mi. Washington with 86.0 inhabitants/sq mi. and California with 213.4 inhabitants/sq mi. exceed the national average of 77.98 inhabitants/sq mi.. European Americans, however, continue to wield a stronger political influence because of the lower rates of citizenship and voting among Asians and Hispanics. The West also contains much of the American population in the U.S. particularly in the large reservations in the Mountain and Desert States. The Western United States has a higher ratio than any other region in the United States.Western United States – While the West is defined by many cultures, the American cowboy is occasionally seen as iconic of the region, here portrayed by C.M. Russell
20. United States Congress – The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, only as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative. Each state, regardless of size, has two senators. Currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants some unique powers. The Senate ratifies approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.United States Congress
21. Modern liberalism in the United States – Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. It combines ideas of civil equality with support for social justice and a mixed economy. The term "modern liberalism" in this article refers only to the United States. In a global context, this philosophy is usually referred to as social liberalism. The liberal philosophy strongly endorses public spending on programs such as education, health care, welfare. Today include addressing voting rights for minorities, reproductive and other women's rights, support for LGBT rights, immigration reform. American liberals oppose conservatives on most issues, but not all. Modern liberalism is historically related to social progressivism, though the current relationship between progressive viewpoints is debated. Economic theory has played an important role in the economic philosophy of American liberals. Modern American liberals generally believe that national prosperity requires management of the macroeconomy, in order to keep unemployment low, growth high. They also value institutions that defend against economic inequality. In The Conscience of a Liberal Paul Krugman writes: "I believe in a relatively equal society, supported by institutions that limit extremes of wealth and poverty. I believe in the rule of law. That makes me a liberal, I'm proud of it." Liberals often point to the widespread prosperity enjoyed under a mixed economy in the years since World War II.Modern liberalism in the United States – Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way
22. Library of Congress – The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest cultural institution in the United States. The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in languages other than English." The Library of Congress moved to Washington after sitting for eleven years in the temporary national capitals of New York and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the library bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his personal collection of 6,487 books. It also began to build then of works published throughout the English-speaking world. It included several stories built underground of steel and iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out materials. The Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol. As president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress.Library of Congress – Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.
23. Carol M. Highsmith – She photographs the American vista in all 50 US states as a record of the early 21st Century. Highsmith is donating her life's work of royalty-free, to the Library of Congress, which established a rare, one-person archive. According to C. CBS Correspondent Martha Teichner told in her report: "Highsmith is at work on a decades-long project photographing all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Thousands of them, are going to the Library of Congress and are being made available free for anyone to use." The CBS Sunday report continued, "Highsmith's images also capture a disappearing America. Two weeks after she photographed the mascot of the Texas State Fair, he burned down. Her photograph of the New York skyline, just before 9/11, is also in the Library of Congress." CBS included more than 30 of Carol's images in the online version of its report. In its December 2007 issue, the Library of Congress's Information Bulletin included a "Conversation with Carol Highsmith." Early in her career, Highsmith photographed interior and architecture. She photographed everyday sites as well as soaring architecture, natural landscapes, national parks and monuments, Civil War battlefields, engineering marvels. In early 2002, Crescent Books exclusively featuring Highsmith's photographs. She had taken aerial photographs of the Twin Towers two months before they fell. Highsmith and Landphair collaborated on Deep in the Heart, a book about Houston, Texas, financed by that city's International Protocol Alliance.Carol M. Highsmith – Carol M. Highsmith self portrait in front of a broken mirror at the Willard Hotel in 1980
24. United States Department of Agriculture – Approximately 80 % of USDA's $ billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's assistance. The current Secretary of Agriculture is former Iowa governor Tom Vilsack. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides each month. The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers on both the domestic and world markets. It plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, approved nonprofits. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants and animals into the United States. In 1837 a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State. He began distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes". Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture". In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior.United States Department of Agriculture – The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C., the USDA headquarters.
25. Food guide pyramid – The first pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974. The pyramid introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture in the year 1992 was called the "Food Guide Pyramid". It was then replaced by MyPlate in 2011. Chief of the "test kitchen" for Kooperativa Förbundet, held a lecture the next year on how to illustrate these food groups. Attendee Fjalar Clemes suggested a triangle displaying basic foods at the base. Agnsäter developed the idea into the first pyramid, introduced to the public in 1974 in KF's Vi magazine. The United States later developed its first pyramid in 1992. All percentages are percentages of calories, not of volume. To understand why, consider the determination of an amount of "10% free sugar" to include in a day's worth of calories. For the same amount of calories, free sugars take up less weight, being refined and extracted from the competing carbohydrates in their natural form. In a similar manner all the items are in competition for various categories of calories. The main sections can be represented. The USDA pyramid was created in 1992 and divided into six horizontal sections containing depictions of foods from each section's food group. It was renamed MyPyramid. MyPyramid was often displayed with the food images absent, creating a more abstract design.Food guide pyramid – The "Basic Seven" developed by the United States Department of Agriculture
26. MyPlate – It replaced the USDA's MyPyramid guide on June 2011, ending 19 years of USDA food pyramid diagrams. MyPlate will be used in nutrition education in the United States. MyPlate is the latest guide from the USDA. The USDA's first dietary guidelines were published by Dr. Wilbur Olin Atwater as a farmers' bulletin. Organizations have created nutrition guides. Some, like the United Kingdom's Eatwell Plate, the American Diabetes Association's Create Your Plate system, also use plate diagrams. The guidelines also recommend control while still enjoying food, as well as reductions in sodium and sugar intakes. ... But we do have time to take a look at our kids' plates. ... It's as simple as that." MyPlate was widely received as an improvement on the previous MyPyramid icon, criticized as too confusing. The 50-percent emphasis on vegetables, as well as the simplicity and understandability of the plate image, were particularly praised. The section was criticized by some as similarly dispensable. The Harvard School of Public Health released their own more detailed version of MyPlate, called the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate, in response.MyPlate – The MyPlate food guide icon
27. United States Department of Justice – The current Attorney General is Loretta Lynch. The U.S. Attorney General was initially a part-time job. This grew with the bureaucracy. On February 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice. Both the Senate and House passed the bill. President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill on June 22, 1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1870. Prior to the Civil War, in February of 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. The law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred from the Department of Interior. A facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the project. On Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over one million square feet of space. The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served for the entire building contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside.United States Department of Justice – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
28. United States v. Scheinberg et al. – Three years after the start of the poker boom in 2003, the U.S. Congress passed UIGEA to extend existing gambling laws into cyberspace. A former payment processor for the companies turned state's evidence after initially being charged with violating UIGEA himself. On September 20, the civil suit was amended claiming individual fraud by Messrs. Howard Lederer, Chris Ferguson and Rafael Furst. About 76 bank accounts in 14 countries were frozen, including an unknown amount of player funds. Antigua and Barbuda officials considered action in the World Trade Organization. The companies ceased their U.S.-facing ad campaigns, resulting in cancellations of poker-themed television shows. In June, Full Tilt's eGambling license was suspended, which halted all of its remaining online play. The Alderney Gambling Control Commission on the British Channel Islands later revoked its license on September 29. PokerStars and Full Tilt admitted no wrongdoing as part of the settlement, which ends all litigation between the government and the poker companies. The criminal indictments remain in place for the named individuals. In 2003, ESPN expanded its coverage of the World Series of Poker. Between 2003 and 2006 the number of contestants in the $10,000 No Limit Texas hold'em Main Event grew from 839 to 8773. After the UIGEA was passed the World Series of Poker main event decreased in size, to 6358 players in 2007. In 2015 6420 players participated.United States v. Scheinberg et al. – United States Department of Justice website seizure notice
29. United States Department of Defense – The Department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. It is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington, D.C. The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Military operations are managed by nine regional or functional Unified Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense also operates joint schools, including the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775. The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day. The Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. Both the Marine Corps are military services subordinate to the Department of the Navy. The first Congress was seated on 4 March 1789. This first Congress had a huge agenda, that of creating legislation to build a government for the ages. Legislation to create a military defense force stagnated. Two separate times, President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts.United States Department of Defense – The Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense
30. Military budget of the United States – The budget funds 4 branches of the U.S. military: the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force. In 2015, related spending totaled $ billion, about 54 % of the fiscal year 2015 U.S. discretionary budget. The USA delivered weapons to at least 94 recipients. The United States was also the world's eighth largest importer of major military equipment for the same period. By the end of 2008, the U.S. had spent approximately $900 billion in direct costs on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some experts estimate the indirect costs will eventually exceed the direct costs. As of June 2011, the total cost of the wars was approximately $1.3 trillion. The federally budgeted military expenditure of the United States Department of Defense for fiscal year 2013 are as follows. The Department of $ billion RDT&E budget requests included several programs with more than $1.5 billion. The following is historical spending on defense from 1996-2015, spending for 2014-15 is estimated. The Defense Budget is shown in billions of dollars and total budget in trillions of dollars. In FY 2010, six out of thirty-three DoD reporting entities received unqualified audit opinions. In December 2011, the GAO found that "neither the Navy nor the Marine Corps have implemented effective processes for reconciling their FBWT." According to the GAO, "An agency’s FBWT account is similar in concept to a corporate bank account. The difference is that instead of a balance, FBWT represents unexpended authority in appropriations."Military budget of the United States – USA 2010 Military Budget Spending
31. United States Environmental Protection Agency – The EPA began operation on December 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the president and approved by Congress. The current administrator is Gina McCarthy. The administrator is normally given rank. The EPA has 27 laboratories. The agency conducts education. It has the responsibility of enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, local governments. It delegates enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include other measures. The agency also works in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and conservation efforts. The agency has approximately 15,193 full-time employees and engages many more people on a contractual basis. More than half of EPA human resources are engineers, environmental protection specialists; other groups include legal, public affairs, information technologists. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. A legislative option to address this concern was the declaration of a environmental policy.United States Environmental Protection Agency – Stacks emitting smoke from burning discarded automobile batteries, photo taken in Houston in 1972 by Marc St. Gil (cs), official photographer of recently founded EPA
32. Greenhouse gases – A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C, rather than the present average of 15 °C. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause a greenhouse effect. This increase has occurred by natural "sinks" involved in the cycle. Anthropogenic dioxide emissions come from combustion of carbon-based fuels, principally coal, natural gas, along with deforestation, animal agriculture. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth. The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time is the "airborne fraction". More precisely, the annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the atmospheric increase in a given year to that year's total emissions. Over the last 50 years the airborne fraction for CO2 has been increasing at 0.25 ± 0.21%/year. Therefore, they do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and usually are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases. Some gases have indirect radiative effects. This happens in two main ways. One way is that when they break down in the atmosphere they produce another greenhouse gas.Greenhouse gases – The false colors in this image represent concentrations of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere, ranging from about 390 parts per billion (dark brown pixels), to 220 parts per billion (red pixels), to 50 parts per billion (blue pixels).
33. Clean Air Act (United States) – The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. As with U.S. environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with state, local, tribal governments. Its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R. Subchapter C, Parts 50-97. The first federal legislation to actually pertain to "controlling" air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a federal program within the U.S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution. The 1967 act also authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, control techniques. Major amendments to the law, requiring regulatory controls for air pollution, passed in 1970, 1977 and 1990. The 1970 amendments greatly expanded the federal mandate, requiring comprehensive federal and state regulations for both stationary pollution sources and mobile sources. It also significantly expanded federal enforcement. The 1990 amendments addressed acid rain, ozone depletion, toxic air pollution, established a national permits program for stationary sources, increased enforcement authority. The Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. Numerous state and local governments have enacted similar legislation, either implementing federal programs or filling in locally important gaps in federal programs.Clean Air Act (United States) – Counties in the United States where one or more National Ambient Air Quality Standards are not met, as of October 2015.
34. Guantanamo Bay detention camp – The camp was established by the Bush administration in 2002. His successor, President Barack Obama, promised its closure during his first campaign in 2008, but it remains open. However, during his term, the number of inmates was decreased from some 250 to 60. In practice, the site has long been used for indefinite detention without trial. The facility is operated by the Joint Task Force Guantanamo of the United States government in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. Detention areas consisted of Camp Delta including Camp Echo, Camp Iguana, Camp X-Ray, now closed. The Bush administration asserted that detainees were not entitled to any of the protections of the Geneva Conventions. Current and former detainees have reported abuse and torture, which the Bush administration denied. In a 2005 Amnesty International report, the facility was called the "Gulag of our times." In 2006, the United Nations called unsuccessfully for the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be closed. President Obama issued a Presidential memorandum dated 15 December 2009, ordering Thomson Correctional Center, Thomson, Illinois to be prepared to accept transferred Guantanamo prisoners. In February 2011, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that Guantanamo Bay was unlikely to be closed, due to opposition in the Congress. Congress particularly opposed moving prisoners to facilities in the United States for detention or trial. In April 2011, Wikileaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. The plan would propose one or more prisons from a working list that includes facilities in Kansas, Colorado and South Carolina.Guantanamo Bay detention camp – Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002
35. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. Once appointed, justices have tenure unless they resign, are removed after impeachment. In modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. The Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court is sometimes colloquially referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789. Its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the only court specifically established by the Constitution, all the others were created by Congress. The Court first convened on February 2, 1790, by which time five of its six initial positions had been filled. Nothing did. They had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, everyone went home." The sixth member was not confirmed until May 12, 1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was also made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four judges in 1789.Supreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
36. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law requires insurers to charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. In 2011, the Congressional Budget Office projected that the ACA would lower future deficits and Medicare spending. Its implementation faced challenges from some state governments, conservative advocacy groups, labor unions, small business organizations. The law has caused a significant reduction in the percentage of people without insurance. The CDC reported that the percentage of people without insurance fell to 8.9 % during the January -- June 2016 period. According to the Kaiser Foundation, cost increases in the employer market continued to moderate. As implementation began, first opponents and then most others adopted the term "Obamacare" to refer to the ACA. The ACA includes provisions to take effect between 2020, although most took effect on January 2014. The complexity of changes was unprecedented in the US health system. Not all provisions took full effect. Others were discarded before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions. States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. The law provides a 5 % "disregard", making the effective income limit for Medicaid 138 % of the poverty level.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – The President and White House Staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
37. Miller v. Alabama – The ruling extended beyond the Graham v. Florida case, which had ruled juvenile life without parole sentences unconstitutional for crimes excluding murder. The decision of the court was based on two consolidated cases, Jackson v. Hobbs, No. 10-9647, Miller v. Alabama, No. 10-9646. One of the youths pulled a gun and killed the store clerk. Jackson was given a life term with no parole. He too was given a term with no parole." Jackson entered shortly before Derrick Shields shot the store clerk. There is debate as to whether he told the clerk, "We ain't playin'" or whether he said to his accomplices, "I thought you all was playin'." Jackson was not the shooter. Evan Miller committed homicide in the act of robbing Cole Cannon. Colby Smith had indulged in alcohol and marijuana. Smith hit Cannon with a baseball bat. Miller proceeded to severely beat Cannon. Smith and Miller later returned to destroy the evidence of what they had done by setting fire to Cannon's trailer.Miller v. Alabama – Supreme Court of the United States
38. Arizona SB 1070 – It has received national and international attention and has spurred considerable controversy. The paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an "attrition through enforcement" doctrine. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns. There have been protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U.S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona. Polling has found the law to have majority support in Arizona and nationwide. Passage of the measure has prompted other states to consider adopting similar legislation. The Act was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23, 2010. It was scheduled to go into effect on July 29, 2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session. The day before the law was to take effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the law's most controversial provisions. If the person who brings suit prevails, that person may be entitled to reimbursement of court costs and reasonable attorney fees. Vehicles used in such manner are subject to mandatory immobilization or impoundment. Violation is a class 1 misdemeanor if fewer than ten unauthorized aliens are involved, a class 6 felony if ten or more are involved. The offender is subject to a fine of at least $1,000 for each unauthorized alien involved. The transportation provision includes exceptions for child protective services workers, ambulance attendants and emergency medical technicians. Arizona is the first state to enact such far-reaching legislation.Arizona SB 1070 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer meeting with President Barack Obama in June 2010 in the wake of SB 1070, to discuss immigration and border security issues.
39. Arizona v. United States – Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S. ___, was a United States Supreme Court case involving Arizona's S.B. 1070, a state law intended to punish unauthorized immigrants. At issue is whether the law usurps the federal government's authority to regulate enforcement. On April 2010, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed into law SB 1070, which supporters dubbed the "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act". The bill's passage immediately have accused it of encouraging racial profiling. Tens of thousands of people demonstrated on May 1, 2010. The city had become the national epicenter of protests against the Arizona law. Don't deport my mama." Arizona responded to the motion. The 1976 precedent of De Canas v. Bica was relied upon in Arizona's Motion. Several states jointly filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. The brief supported Arizona. Under the current situation, the States are left to guess at the reality of the law." Additionally, 81 members of the U.S. Congress filed a Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae. The brief supported Arizona.Arizona v. United States – Supreme Court of the United States
40. Rodney King – George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage shows four officers surrounding several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage raised public concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States. Four officers were charged with a deadly weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges. The jury failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level. The acquittals also led to the federal government's obtaining grand jury indictments for violations of King's civil rights. The trial of the four in a federal court ended on April 16, 1992, with two of the officers being found guilty and subsequently imprisoned. The other two were acquitted again. King was born in the son of Ronald King and Odessa King. His four siblings grew up in Altadena, California. King's father died at the age of 42. In November 1989, King robbed a store in California. He threatened to hit the Korean owner with an iron bar, then hit him with a pole.Rodney King – King in April 2012
41. 1992 Los Angeles riots – Thousands of people throughout the metropolitan area in Los Angeles rioted over six days following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, arson, killings occurred during the riots, estimates of property damage was over $1 billion. In total, 55 people were killed during the riots and over 2,000 people were injured. LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates, who had already announced his resignation by the time of the riots, took much of the institutional blame for them. The California Highway Patrol attempted to initiate a traffic stop. A high-speed pursuit ensued with speeds estimated at up to 115 mph first over freeways, then through residential neighborhoods. When King came to a stop, CHP Officer Timothy Singer and his wife, CHP Officer Melanie Singer, ordered the occupants under arrest. King was tasered, struck with side-handled batons, then tackled to the ground and cuffed. Sgt. A subsequent test for the presence of PCP in Rodney King's body at the time of the arrest turned up negative. The incident was captured on a camcorder by resident George Holliday from his apartment in the vicinity. The tape was roughly 12 minutes long. While the case was presented to the court, some clips of the incident were not released to the public. Eight stories appeared on ABC News, including a sixty-minute special on Primetime Live. LAPD chief Gates upon watching the tape of the beating later said: I stared at the screen in disbelief.1992 Los Angeles riots – 4,000 California Army National Guardsmen patrolled the city to enforce the law.
42. Voyager 1 – Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 launched 16 days after Voyager 2. Having operated for 39 years, 16 days, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. The probe's primary mission objectives included Saturn's large moon, Titan. Voyager was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. On August 2012, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause to become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space and study the interstellar medium. In the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was proposed which prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. Information gathered by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft helped Voyager's engineers design Voyager to cope more effectively with the intense environment around Jupiter. Initially, Voyager 1 was planned as "Mariner 11" of the Mariner program. Due to budget cuts, the mission was renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was later changed to Voyager, since the probe designs began to differ greatly from previous Mariner missions. Voyager 1 was constructed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Voyager has 16 hydrazine thrusters, referencing instruments to keep the probe's radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively, these instruments are Articulation Control Subsystem, along with redundant units of most instruments and 8 backup thrusters. The spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects such as planets as it travels through space.Voyager 1 – Voyager 1, artist's impression
43. Heliosphere – The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto. The solar wind flows outward until encountering the shock where motion slows abruptly. The limited data available and unexplored nature of these structures have resulted in many theories. Originating at the extremely hot surface of the corona, solar wind particles reach escape velocity, streaming outwards at 300 to 800 km/s. As it begins to interact with the interstellar medium, its velocity slows before finally stopping altogether. The shock was traversed by Voyager 2 in 2007. It may be a more gentle "bow wave". Voyager data led to a new theory that the heliosheath has a zone. The ` region' within the heliosheath, starting around 113 au, was detected in 2010. High-energy electrons from the galaxy increase 100-fold. Starting in May 2012 at 120 au, Voyager 1 detected a sudden increase in cosmic rays, an apparent signature of approach to the heliopause. In the summer of 2013 NASA announced that Voyager 1 had reached space as of August 2012. Cassini and IBEX data challenged the "heliotail" theory in 2009. In July 2013, IBEX results revealed a 4-lobed tail on the Solar System's heliosphere. The solar wind consists of particles and fields.Heliosphere
44. Solar system – The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than Mercury. The Solar System formed billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System also contains smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, of rock and metal. Within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds, freely travel between regions. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and small objects. A stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere.Solar system – The Sun and planets of the Solar System (distances not to scale)
45. Allen Stanford – He was the chairman of Companies. Stanford contributed millions of dollars amongst other countries. The Federal Bureau of Investigation raided Stanford's offices in Houston, Texas; Tennessee; and Tupelo, Mississippi. On February 2009, the SEC amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a "massive Ponzi scheme". Stanford "voluntarily surrendered" to authorities on June 2009. On March 2012, he was convicted on all charges except a single count of wire fraud. Stanford is serving his 110-year sentence at Coleman in Coleman, Florida. In September 2014, Stanford appealed his conviction; however, the appeals court rejected the appeal in October 2015. He grew up in Mexia, Texas. James Stanford, is former mayor of Mexia and a member of the Board of Directors of Stanford Financial Group. Sammie, is a nurse. After his parents divorced in 1959, his brother went to live with their mother. Both of his parents remarried. He graduated in Fort Worth, Texas. In 1974, he graduated from Baylor University in Waco, Texas, earning a BA degree in finance.Allen Stanford – Robert Allen Stanford mug shot, 2009
46. Stanford Financial Group – On February 17, 2009, U.S. Federal agents put the company under management of a receiver, because of charges of fraud. Ten days later, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a "massive Ponzi scheme". Allen Stanford traced his company to the insurance company founded in 1932 in Mexia, Texas, by his grandfather, Lodis B. Stanford. Allen Stanford's move into banking utilised funds he had made in real estate in Houston in the early 1980s. Completion was planned for July 2009 but did not occur due to the company's dissolution. The company was bound by a web of personal and family ties. Stanford's chief financial officer and second-in-command, James M. Davis, was his roommate at Baylor University. The chief investment officer, Laura Pendergest-Holt, grew up attending a church in Baldwyn, Mississippi where Davis was a Sunday school teacher. Many top officials were related to each other. Allen Stanford relocated its operations to Antigua. In June 2010, the High Court of Antigua resolved that Vantis should be removed from its responsibilities. The firm, which had recently received government approval to sell the property assets, appealed the decision. Stanford Trust Company, helped manage and protect wealth. Vantis was also appointed receivers of Stanford Trust Company.Stanford Financial Group – Galleria Tower II, the headquarters of Stanford Financial Group in Houston
47. Ponzi scheme – Ponzi schemes occasionally begin as legitimate businesses, until the business fails to achieve the returns expected. The business becomes a Ponzi scheme if it then continues under fraudulent terms. Whatever the initial situation, the perpetuation of the high returns requires an ever-increasing flow of money from new investors to sustain the scheme. The scheme is named after Charles Ponzi, who became notorious for using the technique in 1920. Ponzi schemes sometimes commence operations as legitimate investment vehicles, such as hedge funds. A wide variety of investment vehicles or strategies, typically legitimate, have become the basis of Ponzi schemes. For instance, Allen Stanford used bank certificates of deposit to defraud tens of thousands of people. Certificates of deposit are usually low-risk and insured instruments, but the Stanford CDs were fraudulent. Initially the promoter will pay out high returns to attract more investors, to lure current investors into putting in additional money. Other investors begin to participate, leading to a cascade effect. The "return" to the initial investors is paid out of the investments of new entrants, rather than solely from profits. This maintains the deception that the scheme is an investment with high returns. The promoter sees new cash flows as investors are told they cannot transfer money from the first plan to the second. Such liquidity crises often trigger panics, as more people start asking for their money, similar to a bank run. External market forces, such as a sharp decline in the economy, cause many investors to withdraw part or all of their funds.Ponzi scheme – 1920 photo of Charles Ponzi, the namesake of the scheme, while still working as a businessman in his office in Boston
48. Natasha Trethewey – Natasha Trethewey is an American poet, appointed United States Poet Laureate in 2012 and again in 2014. She won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry for her 2006 collection Native Guard, she is a former Poet Laureate of Mississippi. She is the Robert W. Woodruff Professor of English and Creative Writing at Emory University, where she also directs the Creative Writing Program. Her certificate noted the race of her father as "Canadian". Trethewey's mother, a social worker, was part of the inspiration for Native Guard, dedicated to her memory. I turned to poetry to make sense of what had happened". Natasha Trethewey's father was also a poet; he was a professor of English at Hollins University. In May 2010 Trethewey delivered the commencement speech at Hollins University and was awarded an honorary doctorate. She had previously received an honorary degree from Delta State University in her native Mississippi. Structurally, her work combines free verse with more structured, traditional forms like the sonnet and the villanelle. Thematically, her work examines "memory and the racial legacy of America". The American Civil War makes frequent appearances in her work. On June 2012, the Librarian of Congress, named her the 19th US Poet Laureate. Newspapers noted that unlike most poets laureate, Trethewey is in the middle of her career. She was also the first laureate to take up residence in Washington, D.C. when she did so in January 2013.Natasha Trethewey – Trethewey reading at the Library of Congress in 2013
49. The New York Times – The New York Times has won more than any other news organization. The New York Times is ranked 39th in the world by circulation. Following industry trends, its circulation has fallen to fewer than one million daily since 1990. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". The New York Times is owned by The New York Times Company. Jr. the Publisher and the Chairman of the Board, is a member of the Ochs-Sulzberger family that has controlled the paper since 1896. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the International New York Times. The paper's motto, "That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. The newspaper shortened its name in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the 1890s. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his presidential campaign. The New York Times was acquired in 1896. Under Ochs' guidance, expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, reputation.The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
50. Stuxnet – Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm believed to be a jointly built American-Israeli cyberweapon, although no organization or state has officially admitted responsibility. Exploiting four zero-day flaws, Stuxnet functions by targeting machines using networks, then seeking out Siemens Step7 software. Stuxnet reportedly compromised Iranian PLCs, causing the fast-spinning centrifuges to tear themselves apart. Stuxnet reportedly ruined almost one fifth of Iran's nuclear centrifuges. Stuxnet is typically introduced to the environment via an infected USB flash drive. The worm then propagates across the network, scanning on computers controlling a PLC.. In the absence of either criterion, Stuxnet becomes dormant inside the computer. Stuxnet, discovered by Sergey Ulasen, initially targeted Siemens industrial control systems. Stuxnet infects PLCs by subverting the Step-7 application, used to reprogram these devices. Kaspersky Lab concluded that the sophisticated attack could only have been conducted "with nation-state support". This was further supported by the F-Secure's chief researcher Mikko Hyppönen who commented in a Stuxnet FAQ, "That's what it would look like, yes". The virus targeted some other industries in Hormozgan province in recent months. According to expert Eugene Kaspersky, the worm also infected a nuclear powerplant in Russia. Kaspersky noted, however, that since the powerplant is not connected to the public Internet, the system should remain safe. The worm was at first identified by the security VirusBlokAda in mid-June 2010.Stuxnet – Siemens Simatic S7-300 PLC CPU with three I/O modules attached
51. Computer worm – A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Many worms that have been created do not attempt to change the systems they pass through. However, as Mydoom showed, even these "payload free" worms can cause major disruption by increasing network traffic and other unintended effects. The actual term "worm" was first used in The Shockwave Rider. "You have the biggest-ever worm loose in the net, it automatically sabotages any attempt to monitor it... There's never been a worm with that tough a head or that long a tail!" Morris himself became the first person convicted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Any code designed to do more than spread the worm is typically referred to as the "payload". Malicious payloads might delete files on a host system, encrypt files in a ransomware attack, or exfiltrate data such as confidential documents or passwords. Probably the most common payload for worms is to install a backdoor. This allows the computer to be remotely controlled by the author as a "zombie". Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems. If a vulnerability is disclosed before the patch released by the vendor, a zero-day attack is possible.Computer worm – Hex dump of the Blaster worm, showing a message left for Microsoft CEO Bill Gates by the worm programmer
52. Uranium enrichment – Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation. Natural uranium is 238U isotope, with 235U only constituting about 0.711 % of its weight. 235U is the only nuclide existing in nature, fissile with thermal neutrons. Enriched uranium is a critical component for military nuclear weapons. The term oralloy is still occasionally used to refer to enriched uranium. There are about 2,000 tonnes of highly enriched uranium in the world, produced mostly for nuclear weapons, smaller quantities for research reactors. At present, 95 percent of the world's stocks of depleted uranium remain in secure storage. Uranium as it is taken directly from the Earth, requires additional processes to make it usable. Uranium is mined either underground or in an open pit depending on the depth in which it is found. After the ore is mined, it must go through a milling process to extract the uranium from the ore. Naturally occurring uranium is made of a mixture of U-238. Most nuclear reactors require enriched uranium, uranium with higher concentrations of U-235 ranging between 3.5% and 4.5%. There are two commercial enrichment processes: gaseous diffusion and centrifugation. Both enrichment processes produce enriched uranium oxide. Reprocessed uranium is a product of nuclear fuel cycles involving nuclear reprocessing of spent fuel.Uranium enrichment – A drum of yellowcake (a mixture of uranium precipitates)
53. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both an Indian Ocean coastline. Its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is largest city, as well as its leading economic center. Iran is heir to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning in 3200 -- 2800 BC. The area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant political power in the region. The empire reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Rashidun Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Sunni Islam. Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, thinkers. Through the late 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the Majles. Following a d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West but grew increasingly autocratic.Iran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
54. 2011 military intervention in Libya – On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. French jets launched air strikes against Libyan Army vehicles. The effort was initially largely led with command shared with the United States. NATO took control of the arms embargo on 23 March, named Operation Unified Protector. An attempt to unify the military command of the campaign, first failed over objections by the French, German, Turkish governments. On 24 NATO agreed to take control of the no-fly zone, while command of targeting ground units remains with coalition forces. The handover occurred on 31 March 2011 at 06:00 UTC. NATO flew 26,500 sorties since it took charge of the Libya mission on 31 March 2011. NATO stated it would end operations over Libya on 31 October 2011. 23 February 2011: French President Nicolas Sarkozy pushed for the European Union to pass sanctions against Gaddafi and demand he stop attacks against civilians. February 2011: Sarkozy said Gaddafi "must go." 26 February 2011: United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was passed unanimously, referring the Libyan government to the International Criminal Court for gross human rights violations. It imposed an arms embargo on the family of Muammar Al-Qadhafi and certain Government officials. The US had naval forces positioned off the coast of Libya, well as forces already in the region, including the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. Canadian National Defence Minister Peter MacKay stated that "e are there for all inevitabilities.2011 military intervention in Libya – Libyan anti-government rebels, 1 March 2011
55. James Zadroga – Zadroga was the first NYPD officer whose death was attributed to exposure with toxic chemicals at the attack site. Zadroga had attained the rank of Detective. The causes of Zadroga's death are under dispute. Officials from the Chief Medical Examiner's office met with the Zadroga family to present his findings. Officer who dedicated himself — put his life in harm’s way hundreds of times during his career — and you can use your own definition." Pataki mentioned Zadroga at the bill-signing ceremony, held at the World Trade Center site. The Act covers other expenses for a specific list of diseases and conditions. These include interstitial lung diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease. At the federal level, the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act provides financial aid to 9/11 first responders. Zadroga was of Polish descent. He had been married. The borough has also dedicated two monuments as part of the ceremonies. The New York Times.James Zadroga – President Obama signing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 into law, January 2, 2011 at Plantation Estate in Hawaii.
56. September 11 attacks – The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, leading to a partial collapse of the building's western side. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U.S. military in May 2011. Many closings, evacuations, cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets.September 11 attacks – Top row: The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center burning
57. New START – , after ratification, entered into force on 5 February 2011. It is expected to last at least until 2021. New START replaced the Treaty of Moscow, due to expire in December 2012. Under terms of the treaty, the number of nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. A new inspection and regime will be established, replacing the SORT mechanism. It does not limit the number of operationally inactive nuclear warheads that remain in the high thousands in both the Russian and American inventories. Under the terms of the treaty, the number of nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. The number of deployed ICBMs, heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments is limited to 700. The treaty allows for remote monitoring, as well as 18 on-site inspections per year to verify limits. These obligations must be met from the date the treaty enters into force. The treaty will last ten years, with an option to renew it upon agreement of both parties. However, the United States began implementing the reductions even before the treaty was ratified. While four of 24 launchers on each of the 14 ballistic missile nuclear submarines would be removed, none would be retired. The treaty does not cover rail-mobile ICBM launchers because neither party currently possesses such systems. The New START treaty is the successor to the START I.New START – Presidents Obama and Medvedev after signing the Prague Treaty.
58. Golan v. Holder – In the United States, the Act restored copyright status to foreign works previously in the public domain. The remaining constitutional challenge to the 1994 Uruguay Round Agreements Act was dismissed the following year. It was appealed at the Tenth Circuit. And remanded the case to the district court. A related issue was then brought before the court as Golan v. Holder after conductors Lawrence Golan and Richard Kapp filed suit. In a holding published on April 3, 2009, Judge Babcock reversed his earlier finding that the First Amendment was not applicable to resurrecting foreign copyright claims. He wrote, In the United States, that body of law includes the bedrock principle that works in the public domain remain in the public domain. Removing works from the public domain violated Plaintiffs’ vested First Amendment interests. He also indicated a possible solution by suggesting that the protection of reliance parties be made not limited in time. However, further appeals by copyright owners were expected. Golan filed for certiorari in the Supreme Court of the United States asking for the Court to hear the case. On March 7, 2011, the Court granted the writ of certiorari. Oral argument was held October 5, 2011. Other parties that filed amicus curiae briefs include: On January 18, 2012, the Supreme Court affirmed the Tenth Circuit's decision 6-2. The majority opinion was written by Justice Ginsburg and joined by Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Sotomayor.Golan v. Holder – Supreme Court of the United States
59. Public domain – Works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works actively dedicated by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms, NIH's ImageJ, the CIA's World Factbook. As rights vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. The res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated. The res communes was defined as "things that could be commonly enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight and ocean." When the early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed in the eighteenth century. Instead of "public domain" they used terms such as propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a "little reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Because law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries". However, the usage of the term domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions. Such a definition regards work in copyright as limitation on ownership. The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." Edgar Huntly, Wieland and Sky-Walk by Charles Brockden Brown Camilla, Evelina and Cecilia by Frances Burney Jonathan Dickinson's Journal by Jonathan Dickinson.Public domain – Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition
60. Jared Lee Loughner – Representative Gabrielle Giffords, his target, killed six people, including Chief U.S. District Court Judge John Roll, as well as a nine-year-old bystander, Christina-Taylor Green. Loughner shot and injured 13 other people, one man was injured while subduing him. Acquaintances said that Loughner's personality had changed markedly in the years prior to the shooting, a period when he was also abusing alcohol and drugs. He had been suspended from Pima Community College in September 2010 because of his bizarre behavior and disruptions in classes and the library. After his arrest, two medical evaluations diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia and incompetent to stand trial. He was medicated while in jail as part of his treatment. He was again judged incompetent in May 2012. In August 2012, Loughner was judged competent to stand trial, at the hearing, he pleaded guilty to 19 counts. In November 2012, he was sentenced to life plus 140 years in federal prison. Jared Lee Loughner is the only child of Randy and Amy Loughner. They were described by a neighbor as a very private family. Amy Loughner worked for the City Parks Department. Randy Loughner was a retired gasoline truck driver, but journalists did not determine if he worked outside the house at the time. While Loughner had friends in high school, neighbors noted that in the years following, he kept more to himself and did not respond to others. Loughner attended Mountain View High School, dropped out in 2006.Jared Lee Loughner – Mug shot of Loughner taken by U.S. Marshals on January 22, 2011
61. 2011 Tucson shooting – On January 8, 2011, U.S. Six people died, including federal District Court Chief Judge John Roll; Gabe Zimmerman, one of Rep. Giffords' staffers; and a nine-year-old girl, Christina-Taylor Green. One additional person was injured in the immediate aftermath of the shooting. News reports identified the target of the attack as Giffords, a Democrat representing Arizona's 8th congressional district. She was shot through the head at point-blank range, her medical condition was initially described as "critical". Loughner, a 22-year-old Tucson man, fixated on Giffords, was arrested at the scene. Federal prosecutors filed five charges against him, including the attempted assassination of a member of Congress and the assassination of a federal judge. Loughner previously had been arrested once on a minor drug charge and had been suspended by his college for disruptive behavior. Court filings include notes handwritten by Loughner indicating he planned to assassinate Giffords. The motive for the shooting remains unclear; Loughner did not cooperate with authorities, invoking his right to remain silent. He was held without bail and indicted on 49 counts. Judged still incompetent to stand trial on May 25, finally on August 7, Loughner had a hearing at which he was judged competent. He pleaded guilty to 19 counts, in November 2012 was sentenced to life in prison. Following the shooting, American and international politicians expressed grief and condemnations. Gun control advocates pushed for increased restrictions on the sale of firearms and ammunition, specifically high-capacity ammunition magazines.2011 Tucson shooting – First responders at the crime scene outside the Casas Adobes Safeway Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, Arizona's 8th Congressional District, (D)
62. Gabrielle Giffords – Gabrielle Dee "Gabby" Giffords is an American politician from the U.S. state of Arizona. She is the third woman in Arizona's history to be elected to the U.S. Congress. She is a graduate of Cornell University. She is married to former astronaut and Space Shuttle Commander Mark E. Kelly. She was later brought to a facility in Houston, Texas, where she recovered some of her ability to walk, speak, write. Gabrielle Dee Giffords grew up Tucson, Arizona, to Spencer J. Giffords. Giffords was raised by Christian Science-practicing mother. Her grandfather, Akiba Hornstein, was a Jewish immigrant from Lithuania who changed his name to Giffords to avoid anti-Semitism. Through her father, Giffords is a second cousin of actress Gwyneth Paltrow. She has identified herself solely since 2001 belonging in Tucson. She was Arizona's first Jewish congresswoman. Giffords graduated from Tucson's University High School. She is a former Girl Scout. Giffords worked as an associate for regional economic development at Price Waterhouse in New York City. In 1996, Giffords became CEO of a local chain of auto service centers founded by her grandfather.Gabrielle Giffords – Gabrielle Giffords
63. Perry v. Schwarzenegger – Hollingsworth v. Perry refers to a series of United States federal court cases that legalized same-sex marriage in the State of California. This decision overturned ballot initiative Proposition 8, which had banned same-sex marriage. After the State of California refused to defend Proposition 8, the official sponsors of Proposition 8 intervened and appealed to the Supreme Court. The salient effect of the ruling was that same-sex marriage in California resumed under the district court trial decision from 2010. The case was docketed with the Supreme Court at 570 U.S. ___. The following month, same-sex couples were able to marry in California. In November 2008, California's electorate adopted Proposition 8, a constitutional amendment that restored the opposite-sex limitation on marriage. Following the adoption of Proposition 8, several lawsuits were filed that challenged the validity of the amendment under various state constitutional provisions. The couples' legal team was led by David Boies and former U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson, who had previously opposed each other in Bush v. Gore, the case that effectively decided the 2000 presidential election. They were listed on the 2010 Time 100 for "their nonpartisan and strong legal approach to challenging Proposition 8." Lambda Legal and the American Civil Liberties Union opposed the filing because they felt a federal challenge at this time might do more harm than good. Olson and AFER rebuffed this argument and defended the timing of the lawsuit. The plaintiffs opposed allowing the groups or the City to intervene. On August 19, Judge Walker denied the legal groups' motions to intervene but granted the City's, albeit in a limited capacity.Perry v. Schwarzenegger – A demonstration in front of the Supreme Court on the day of oral arguments
64. Equal Protection Clause – The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The clause, which took effect in 1868, provides that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction "the equal protection of the laws". The meaning of the Equal Protection Clause has been the subject of much debate, inspired the well-known phrase "Equal Justice Under Law". The Equal Protection Clause itself applies only to state and local governments. Before and during the Civil War, the Southern states violated the rights of free speech of pro-Union citizens, anti-slavery advocates, northerners in general. During the Civil War, the Southern states stripped many white citizens of their state citizenship and banished them from the states, effectively confiscating their property. Shortly after the Union victory in the American Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress and ratified by the states in 1865, abolishing slavery. Many ex-Confederate states then adopted Black Codes following the war. These laws severely restricted the rights of blacks to hold property, including real property and many forms of personal property, to form legally enforceable contracts. These codes also created harsher criminal penalties for blacks than for whites. Because of the inequality these Black Codes imposed, Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866. President Andrew Johnson Vetoed the Civil Rights bill of 1866 admid concerns that Congress did not have the constitutional authority to pass such a law. Such doubts were one factor that led Congress to begin to draft and debate what would become the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Moreover, Congress wanted to protect white Unionists who were under personal and legal attack in the former Confederacy. The effort was led by the Radical Republicans including Thaddeus Stevens.Equal Protection Clause – Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause.
65. Commonwealth of Virginia v. Sebelius – National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. ___, 183 L. Ed. 2d 450, 132 S.Ct. In March 2010, President Barack Obama signed Affordable Care Act into law. A number of parties sued, including the National Federation of Independent Business, claiming that the sweeping law was unconstitutional for various reasons. The state of Florida filed a lawsuit against the United States Department of Health and Human Services, challenging the constitutionality of the law. Vinson also struck down the entire Act. The Department of Health and Human Services appealed to the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals. A three-judge panel issued a 2 -- 1 ruling reversing in part. Two federal judges appointed by President Bill Clinton upheld the individual mandate in 2010. On the second day, the court heard arguments over whether the "individual mandate" component of the ACA fell under the constitutional powers of Congress. The states were represented by former Bush administration Solicitor General Paul Clement while the government was represented by current Solicitor General Donald Verrilli. On the afternoon of the third day, the Court considered whether the Medicaid expansion the Affordable Care Act instituted was coercive. Both Paul Clement and Donald Verilli again argued before the Court. Chief Justice Roberts extended the time limit by 15 minutes during the arguments. Solicitor General Verrilli's performance during the hearings was widely criticized by analysts. The Supreme Court was fragmented on many of the issues.Commonwealth of Virginia v. Sebelius – Supreme Court of the United States