1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
2. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria, Salento and Gargano. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan -- Emilian Apennines. It excludes the southern slopes of the Alps. All of the peninsula lies except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs. The Italian Peninsula's location between the centre of the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area: Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
3. Southern Europe – Some definitions of southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula, the Italian peninsula, Southern France, Greece and Malta. Different methods can be used to define southern Europe, including its political, cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features -- its geography, flora. Geographically, southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, with no clear limits. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees. Cooler climates can be found within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy. Additionally, the coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate. Southern Europe's flora is that of one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan. The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and Roman legions. It promoted trade, Greek culture. The Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire.Southern Europe – Geographic features of countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
4. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
5. Sicily – Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It constitutes an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently 3,329 m high, one of the most active in the world. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led during a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a unique culture, especially to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, architecture. It is also Selinunte. Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning the Trinacria. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2. The terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast.Sicily – Mount Etna rising over suburbs of Catania
6. Sardinia – Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, south of Corsica. Its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into a metropolitan city. The other minority languages spoken by the Sardinians enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian under regional law. The Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun * srd -, later romanised as sardus. It makes its first appearance on the Nora stone, where the Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. There has also been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with one of the Sea Peoples. Sardinia was called Ichnusa, Sandàlion, Sardinia and Sardó by the ancient Greeks. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres. It is situated between 38 ° 51' and 41 ° 18' latitude north and' 9 ° 50' east longitude. The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia, Provence. The Strait of Bonifacio separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. Unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date from the Palaeozoic Era.Sardinia – Cala Goloritzé, Baunei
7. Ancient Rome – Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. Societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, society. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would have lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. King Numitor was deposed by Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins.Ancient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
8. Western world – The Western world or the West is a term usually referring to different nations, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are accepted definitions about what they all have in common. The Western world is also known as the Occident. The concept of the Western part of the earth has the advent of Christianity. Before the Cold War era, the Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian countries and culture. Its political usage was temporarily changed during the Cold War in the mid-to-late 20th Century. The term originally had a geographic meaning. Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, Sumer, also Ancient Egypt. It originated in its vicinity; Greece and Rome are often cited as its originators. Over time, their associated empires grew first to the west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas, conquering and absorbing. Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, Southeastern Europe. This expansion was accompanied by Christian missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to whether Latin America is in a category of its own. The Russian culture is classified as a part of the Western culture. Specifically, Western culture may imply: a Biblical cultural influence in spiritual thinking, customs and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after.Western world – The Parthenon (Athens).
9. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
10. Italian unification – The process was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Italian nationalism was based among political activists, often operating from exile. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. This situation began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, then became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, France. Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the "ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead" in Italia Mia. 'Then what are you?' they asked. 'I am an Italian,' he explained." The institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Exiles dreamed of unification. Three ideals of unification appeared.Italian unification – Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
11. Tint – A tone is produced either by the mixture of a color with gray, or by both tinting and shading. Mixing a color with any neutral color reduces colorfulness, while the hue remains unchanged. When mixing colored light, the achromatic mixture of spectrally balanced red, blue is always white, not gray or black. This moves the mixed color toward a neutral color -- a near-black. However, this is not always the best way for representational painting, since an unfortunate result is for colors to also shift in their hues. Lightening a color by adding white can cause a shift towards blue when mixed with oranges. Ambient light Image gradientTint – "Tint" redirects here. For other uses, see Tint (disambiguation).
12. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy – The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland. Victor Emmanuel was born the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, Maria Theresa of Austria. His father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military, sports. In 1842, he married his cousin Adelaide of Austria. He was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne after a humiliating military defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara. Victor Emmanuel was immediately able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander Radetzky. After new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849 Victor Emmanuel also fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a "vile and infected race of canailles." In 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. This turned out to be a wise choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind and a major player in the Italian unification in his own right. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the "Risorgimento", the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and early 60s. He was especially popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms. Following Victor Emmanuel's advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia.Victor Emmanuel II of Italy – Portrait by Tranquillo Cremona
13. Renaissance – This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. The Renaissance first began in Florence, in the 14th century. Major centres were Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The word Renaissance, literally meaning "Rebirth" in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word also occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France. The word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected intellectual life in the modern period. Renaissance scholars searched in art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, to understand it rationally. Others see more general competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.Renaissance – David, by Michelangelo (Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence) is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art.
14. Palace – The word itself is derived for Palatine Hill, the hill which housed the Imperial residences in Rome. In many parts of Europe, the term is also applied to private mansions of the aristocracy. Historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. His descendants, especially Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over until it took up the hill top. The Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, writing c. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. In modern times, the term has been applied to large structures that housed combined ruler, court and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.Palace – Schwerin Palace in Germany, historical ducal residence of Mecklenburg since 1348.
15. Florence – Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Florence was finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, monuments. Due to Florence's architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. The language spoken during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII.Florence – A collage of Florence showing the Galleria degli Uffizi (top left), followed by the Palazzo Pitti, a sunset view of the city and the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria
16. Arno River – The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. The river initially takes a southward curve. The river turns to the west near Arezzo passing through Florence, Empoli and Pisa, flowing at Marina di Pisa. With a length of 241 kilometres, it is the largest river in the region. It has many tributaries: Sieve at 60 kilometres long, the Era, Elsa, Pesa, Pescia. The Val di Chiana, a plain drained in the 18th century, which until then had been a marshy area tributary of the Tiber. The upper Valdarno, a long valley bordered on the east by the Pratomagno massif and on the west by the hills around Siena. The Sieve's basin, which flows immediately before Florence. The middle Valdarno, with the plain including Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Prato, Pistoia. The river has a very variable discharge, ranging to more than 2,000 cubic metres per second. The mouth of the river is now several kilometres westwards. It crosses Florence, where it passes below the Santa Trìnita bridge. The rate of the Arno is irregular. It is sometimes described as having a torrentlike behaviour, because it can easily go from almost dry to near flood in a few days.Arno River – View of the Arno from the Ponte Vecchio
17. Ponte Vecchio – Butchers initially occupied the shops; the present tenants are jewelers, souvenir sellers. The Ponte Vecchio's two neighbouring bridges are the Ponte alle Grazie. The Roman piers were of the superstructure of wood. The bridge first appears in a document of 996. It was rebuilt in 1345. Modern historians present Neri di Fioravanti as a possible candidate. The Torre dei Mannelli was built at the corner of the bridge to defend it. The bridge consists of three segmental arches: the main arch has a span of 30 meters the two side arches each span 27 meters. The rise of the arches is the span-to-rise ratio 5:1. It has always hosted merchants who displayed their goods on tables before their premises, after authorization of the Bargello. The back shops that may be seen from upriver, were added in the seventeenth century. Not having a table anymore, the merchant was not able to sell anything. This was allegedly, according to many locals and tour guides, because of an express order by Hitler. In order to connect the Palazzo Vecchio with the Palazzo Pitti, in 1565 Cosimo I de' Medici had Giorgio Vasari build the Vasari Corridor above it. The corporative association of butchers had monopolised the shops on the bridge since 1442.Ponte Vecchio – View of the Ponte Vecchio from above
18. Palazzo – The word itself is derived for Palatine Hill, the hill which housed the Imperial residences in Rome. In many parts of Europe, the term is also applied to private mansions of the aristocracy. Historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. His descendants, especially Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over until it took up the hill top. The Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, writing c. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. In modern times, the term has been applied to large structures that housed combined ruler, court and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.Palazzo – Schwerin Palace in Germany, historical ducal residence of Mecklenburg since 1348.
19. Luca Pitti – Luca Pitti was a Florentine banker during the period of the republic presided over by Cosimo de' Medici. He was a loyal servant to the Medici and the republic. As the magistrate of Florence, known as "The Gonfalonier of Justice," he wielded great power and influence. Many other citizens were driven from power. The newly formed government was to last eight years with Cosimo as the reality being he was too frail to maintain power alone. Pitti's chief opponent at this time was Girolamo Machiavelli, banished. However, he travelled the neighbouring principalities whipping up opposition to the new Florentine government. He was consequently declared a rebel, returned to Florence where he mysteriously died in prison. He thus was able to maintain his influence, in reality he, not Cosimo, was the ruler of Florence. He also began work at Rusciano. This is certainly apocryphal as the architect Brunelleschi often credited with the design had been dead twelve years. Machiavelli also states that Pitti would give sanctuary to any criminal within his walls if they could be of use in their decoration. Machiavelli also hints that Pitti's wealth was further increased in return for favours. History and his actions do not support this theory. Pitti's prosperity declined following the death of Cosimo, his patron.Luca Pitti – Luca Pitti (1398–1472)
20. Bank – BANK was an artists' group active in London during the 1990s. Dino Demosthenous left in 1992. In 1993, Russell and Bedwell were joined by Milly Thompson, Andrew Williamson. Burrows left BANK in 1995, Russell in 2000. BANK's contribution to UK contemporary art was a series of curated group shows, often with sometimes offensive, titles. As a group they adopted an aggressive stance towards the mainstream contemporary scene of the time. The approximately twenty shows curated by BANK included the work of the BANK artists alongside the work of winners. Although the BANK exhibitions were mostly held on Curtain Road, then Underwood Street the name of the gallery changed. Initially it was BANKSPACE, then DOG, finally Gallerie Poo-Poo. BANK also published a satirical magazine delivering tabloid-style critiques of the world. Headlines included, "YOU'RE A BAD MAN," and, "GALLERIES ` ALL OWNED BY RICH PEOPLE' SHOCK." BANK SHOWS 1991 - 2003 2003 SIMON BEDWELL & MILLY THOMPSON Store, London ART IS HELL The Suburban, Chicago 2002 BANK Anthony Wilkinson Gallery, London CAPITULATER! POPULAR CULTURE IS FOR IDIOTS. WE BELIEVE IN ART! DOG, London GOD DOG, London 1996 DOG-U-MENTAL VIII!!!Bank
21. Medici – The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. In 1531, the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici, Tuscany was fiscally bankrupt. Their wealth and influence initially derived from the textile trade guided by the guild of the Arte della Lana. The Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and most respected institutions in Europe. There are some estimates that the Medici family were the wealthiest family in Europe for a time. From this base, they acquired political power initially in Florence and later in wider Italy and Europe. The Medici family were among the earliest businesses to use the system. The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region, north of Florence, being mentioned for the first time in a document of 1230. The origin of the name is uncertain. Medici is the plural of medico, also written "del medico" or "delmedigo", meaning, "medical doctor". The dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank. Until the late 14th century, prior to the Medici, the leading family of Florence was the House of Albizzi.Medici – Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank.
22. Grand Duke – The monarchic title of grand duke ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke. His successor Charles the Bold continued to use the same style and title. The grand duke has been used by the rulers of Lithuania, who after Jagiello also became Kings of Poland. The first monarchs officially titled grand duke were the Medici sovereigns of Tuscany, starting from the late 16th century. This official title was arguably illegally because the territory was under the vassalage of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus the 19th century saw a new group of monarchs titled Grand Duke in central Europe, especially in present-day Germany. A list of these is available in the article grand duchy. After the Russian conquests, the title continued to be used as rulers of both Lithuania and the autonomous Finland. The Holy Roman Empire under the House of Habsburg instituted a non-sovereign Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen in 1765. Grand princes were medieval monarchs who usually were feudal overlords of other princes. At the time, the title was usually translated as "king", sometimes also as "Minor King" or "Little King". Grand Princes reigned in Central and Eastern Europe, notably among Slavs and Lithuanians. The title "Grand Prince" translates to Velikiy Knjaz in Russian. The Lithuanian kunigas are cognates of the word King in its original meaning of "Ruler". Thus, the literal meaning of Didysis Kunigas was more like "Great Ruler" than "Grand Duke".Grand Duke – Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Fiodorovna by Heinrich von Angeli (1874) Saint Petersburg, Hermitage Museum
23. Tuscany – Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known on high culture. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Brunello di Montalcino. Having cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Additionally, the Chianti Versilia and Val d'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over million arrivals. The comune in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres. Crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, 5,770 square kilometres. Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks including the capital Florence, Empoli and Pisa.Tuscany – Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia
24. Victor Emmanuel III – Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. During his long reign, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two World Wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, fall of Italian Fascism. He then went in exile to Alexandria, Egypt, where he died and was buried the following year. He was also nicknamed Sciaboletta due to his height of 1.53 m. Victor Emmanuel was born in Naples, Italy. He was Princess Margherita of Savoy. Margherita was the daughter of the Duke of Genoa. He was just 1.53 m tall. From birth until his accession, Victor Emmanuel was known by the title of the Prince of Naples. On 24 October 1896, Prince Victor Emmanuel married Princess Elena of Montenegro. On 29 July 1900, at the age of 30, Victor Emmanuel acceded to the throne upon his father's assassination. His early years showed evidence that, by the standards of the Savoy monarchy, he was a man committed to constitutional government. Indeed, even though his father was killed by an anarchist, the new King showed a commitment to constitutional freedoms. Though parliamentary rule had been firmly established in Italy, constitution, granted residual powers.Victor Emmanuel III – Portrait in 1919
25. Art gallery – An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection. The term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art. However, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. Contemporary gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are often found clustered together in large urban centers. Contemporary art galleries are usually open to the general public without charge; however, some are semi-private. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales; from 25% to 50% is typical. There are also collective galleries. Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, though this is considered distasteful in some international art markets. Galleries often hang solo shows. Curators often create group shows that say group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly. A gallery's definition can also include the artist space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process.Art gallery – The Louvre in Paris, France, is one of the world's largest museums and the most visited art museum in the world.
26. Palazzo Pitti – The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated from the Ponte Vecchio. The core of the present palazzo was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. The palace became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions. Its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919. The palazzo is now the largest complex in Florence. The principal block, often in a building of this design known as the corps de logis, is 32,000 square metres. It is divided into principal galleries or museums detailed below. The early history of the Palazzo Pitti is a mixture of myth. Pitti is alleged to have instructed that the windows be larger than the entrance of the Palazzo Medici. Besides obvious differences from the elder architect's style, Brunelleschi died 12 years before construction of the palazzo began. Though impressive, the original palazzo would have been no rival to the Florentine Medici residences in terms of either content. Whoever the architect of the Palazzo Pitti was, he was moving against the contemporary flow of fashion. The rusticated stonework gives the palazzo a severe and powerful atmosphere, reinforced by the three-times-repeated series of seven arch-headed apertures, reminiscent of a Roman aqueduct.Palazzo Pitti – Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Victor Emmanuel II between 1865 and 1871, when Florence was the capital of Italy.
27. Paolo Andreani – Paolo Andreani was an Italian who made the first balloon flight over Italian soil. Andreani also made an exploration in North America. He was born in Milan on 27 May 1763. His father was his mother, Clementine Sormani. He was made a Count in 1748. They were left without a father in 1772, when they were placed in the care of a guardian. Andreani's wide range of interests started at an early age. At fifteen Andreani was a member of the "Arcadia Literary Academy". His scientific interests prevailed when he began his balloon experiments based on the news of the flight of the Montgolfier Brothers. He set out to repeat the feat in Italy at the Villa Sormani in a village, now located in the municipality of Brugherio. The Montgolfier brothers' flight took place on 21 November 1783. The small balloon had been built by the three Gerli brothers, who were skilled engineers. He offered to commission a larger balloon. Thanks to its a diameter of 23 metres, he made the first flight when he was only 20. The paper-lined balloon had a wickerwork passenger carrier.Paolo Andreani – commemorative medal
28. Brugherio – Brugherio is a comune in the Province of Monza and Brianza in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 14 kilometres northeast of Milan. Brugherio borders the following municipalities: Monza, Agrate Brianza, Carugate, Sesto San Giovanni, Cernusco sul Naviglio. Brugherio received the title of city with a presidential decree on January 1967. The name Brugherio is said to derive from Il Brugo, Italian for Common Heather. It features on the town's coat-of-arms. Noxiate corresponded to the current town center, then split, between Monza and Cologno Monzese. Baragia stretched north, including Sanctus Damianus, south, where there is the present center. It was located at mile No. 8 of the Roman road leading from Milan to Monza. A 853 document recorded the presence of "a hospital for pilgrims...". During the fourth century, the current Via dei Mille was a portion of this area belonged to Ambrose, Bishop of Milan. This land was occupied by a monastery of the Benedictine nuns in 1098. Ambrose donated the convent, there established, to his sister Marcellina, who had chosen to retire to contemplative life. Between the fourteenth centuries, the monastery and its territories went to other religious orders. Up to 1362 it was still nuns who kept the administration of land assets after the transfer in the monastery of Saint Bartolo in Rancate. The fourteenth century saw the political struggles between Torriani and Visconti for the cities under its government.Brugherio – St. Lucius church.
29. Pier Paolo Pasolini – Pier Paolo Pasolini was an Italian film director, poet, writer and intellectual. Pasolini also distinguished himself as journalist, philosopher, novelist, playwright, filmmaker, painter and political figure. His murder prompted an outcry with its circumstances continuing to be a matter of heated debate. Pasolini was born in traditionally one of the most leftist politically of Italian cities. He was the son of Carlo Alberto Pasolini, Susanna Colussi, an elementary school teacher. His parents married in 1921, Pasolini was named after his paternal uncle. His family moved in 1923 and, two years later, to Belluno where another son, Guidalberto, was born. In 1926, Pasolini's father was arrested for gambling debts. His mother moved with the children in the Friuli region. His father Carlo Alberto, first detained and then identified Anteo Zamboni as the would-be assassin of Benito Mussolini following his assassination attempt. At any rate, Carlo Alberto was persuaded of the virtues of fascism. Pasolini began writing poems at the age of seven, inspired by the natural beauty of Casarsa. One of his early influences was the work of Arthur Rimbaud. In the Reggio Emilia high school, he met Luciano Serra. The two met again in Bologna, where Pasolini spent seven years while completing high school: here he cultivated new passions, including football.Pier Paolo Pasolini – Pier Paolo Pasolini
30. King David – David was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning in c. 1010–970 BCE. He is described after God's own heart in 1 Samuel 13:14 and Acts 13:22. According to the New Testament, he was an ancestor of Jesus. God is angered when Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and later disobeys a divine instruction to utterly destroy the Amalekites. Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel to anoint the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead. God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul's courtiers recommend that he send on the lyre wise in speech, brave in battle. So David plays the lyre to soothe the king whenever the evil spirit is upon him. The giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling. Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father. Saul sets David over his army. His popularity causes Saul to fear him.King David – Statue of King David by Nicolas Cordier in the Borghese Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
31. Mel Gibson – Mel Colmcille Gerard Gibson AO is an American actor and filmmaker. He was moved with his parents to Sydney, Australia, when he was 12 years old. He studied acting at the Australian National Institute of Dramatic Art. During the 1980s, he founded a production company which independent film director Atom Egoyan has called, "an alternative to the studio system." The film also helped to earn the reputation of a serious, versatile actor. In 2004, he produced the financially successful and controversial, biblical drama film The Passion of the Christ. He received Apocalypto, set in Mesoamerica during the early 16th century. After a 10-year hiatus from directing, Gibson returned with the critically praised and financially successful Hacksaw Ridge. Gibson was born in Peekskill, New York, the second son of Hutton Gibson, a writer, Irish-born Anne Patricia. One of Donal, is also an actor. Because of his mother, Gibson retains dual American citizenship. Mel Gibson was 12 years old at the time. Gibson was educated by members of the Congregation of Christian Brothers during his high school years. Gibson gained very favorable notices from film critics when he first entered the cinematic scene, well as comparisons to several classic movie stars. In 1982, Vincent Canby wrote that "Mr. Gibson recalls the young Steve McQueen...Mel Gibson – Gibson at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival
32. The Passion of the Christ – It depicts the Passion of Jesus largely according to the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The dialogue is entirely in reconstructed Aramaic, vernacular Hebrew, Latin with subtitles. The film has received mixed reviews, with some critics claiming that the extreme violence was distracting and excessive. The film was a commercial hit, grossing $612 million during its theatrical release. It also received three Academy Award nominations in 2005. The film opens in Gethsemane during the night as Jesus Christ, at the height of his cause, prays while his disciples Peter, John sleep. Praying on, Jesus' sweat becomes like blood, drips to the ground while a snake emerges from Satan's guise. Jesus hears his disciples call out for him, he rebukes Satan by stomping on the snake's head, the latter vanishes. Jesus, in turn, heals the ear as he reprimands Peter for his actions. As the disciples flee, the guards beat him during the journey to the Sanhedrin. John informs Mary and Mary Magdalene of the arrest while Peter follows his captors at a distance. Caiaphas holds trial over the objection of some of the other priests, who are expelled from the court. When questioned by Caiaphas whether he is the Son of God, Jesus replies "I am." Jesus is condemned to death for blasphemy. He angrily denies this three times.The Passion of the Christ – Theatrical release poster
33. Matera – Matera is a city and a province in the region of Basilicata, in Southern Italy. It is the capital of the capital of Basilicata from 1663 to 1806. The town lies in a small canyon carved out by the Gravina. Known as "la Città Sotterranea", Matera is well known for being one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. Its historical center called "Sassi", along with the Park of the Rupestrian Churches, is considered a World Heritage Site since 1993. On October 2014, Matera was declared Italian host of European Capital of Culture for 2019. The area of what is now Matera has been settled since the Palaeolithic. The city was allegedly founded by the Romans with the name of Matheola after the consul Lucius Caecilius Metellus. In AD 664 Matera became part of the Duchy of Benevento. In the 8th centuries the nearby grottos were colonized by both Benedictine and Basilian monastic institutions. The 10th centuries were characterized by the struggle between the Byzantines and the German emperors, including Louis II, who partially destroyed the city. After the settlement of the Normans in Apulia, Matera was ruled by William Iron-Arm from 1043. In 1514, however, the population killed Count Giovanni Carlo Tramontano. In the 17th century Matera then became part of the Terre d'Otranto di Puglia. Later it was capital of a position it retained until 1806, when Joseph Bonaparte reassigned it to Potenza.Matera – Panorama of Matera
34. Eurovision Song Contest 1957 – The Eurovision Song Contest 1957 was the second edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It was held on Sunday 3 March 1957 in West Germany. It was won by the Netherlands with "Net toen", performed by Corry Brokken. There was a noticeable increase in the number of people with televisions. It was planned at the time that each participating country would take it in turns to host the event. However, as more countries wished to participate, this became impractical. The contest took place in Frankfurt am Main, one of the largest cities at the time West Germany. The venue was the Großer Sendesaal des Hessischen Rundfunks, a building, music hall and former television studio based in Frankfurt am Main. It is used as a music hall. With investments coming in from both national and financial institutions, 1957, the year of the contest, already saw the first of Frankfurt's high-rise business buildings. In this year's contest the Italian entry lasted for 5:09 minutes, whilst the UK's entry lasted for only 1:52 minutes. In a change of rules from the previous year's contest, duos were allowed to compete. Birthe Wilke and Gustav Winckler, were the first of such acts to participate under this rule change. At the end of their performance, the couple exchanged the longest kiss in the contest's history, although only people with televisions could actually see it. This was due to a member of the staff forgetting to give a pre-arranged sign that the kiss should end.Eurovision Song Contest 1957 – Großer Sendesaal des hessischen Rundfunks studio's, Frankfurt am Main. Host venue of the 1957 Eurovision Song Contest.
35. Poliphilo – The book was printed by Aldus Manutius in Venice in December 1499. Despite this, scholars have also attributed the book to Leon Battista Alberti, earlier, to Lorenzo de Medici. The latest contribution in this respect was this one a wealthy Roman Governor. The author of the illustrations is even less certain. The Hypnerotomachia also draws from a humanist tradition of arcane writings as a demonstration of classical thought. The text of the book is written in a bizarre Latinate full of words based without explanation. The author's style is elaborately descriptive and unsparing in its use of superlatives. The text makes frequent references to classical geography and mythology, mostly by way of comparison. The book has long been sought after as one of the most beautiful incunabula ever printed. The type was revived by the Monotype Corporation in 1923 as Poliphilus. Another revival, of the earlier version of Griffo's type, was completed under the direction of Stanley Morison in 1929 as Bembo. The type is thought to be one of the first examples of the italic typeface, unique to the Aldine Press in incunabula. The book is illustrated with 168 exquisite woodcuts showing some of the characters Poliphilo encounters in his dreams. These images are also interesting because they shed light on what people in the Renaissance fancied about the alleged æsthetic qualities of Greek and Roman antiquities. The psychologist Carl Jung admired the book, believing the dream images presaged his theory of archetypes.Poliphilo – Poliphilo from a page of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili
36. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili – The book was printed by Aldus Manutius in Venice in December 1499. Despite this, scholars have also attributed the book to Leon Battista Alberti, earlier, to Lorenzo de Medici. The latest contribution in this respect was this one a wealthy Roman Governor. The author of the illustrations is even less certain. The Hypnerotomachia also draws from a humanist tradition of arcane writings as a demonstration of classical thought. The text of the book is written in a bizarre Latinate full of words based without explanation. The author's style is elaborately descriptive and unsparing in its use of superlatives. The text makes frequent references to classical geography and mythology, mostly by way of comparison. The book has long been sought after as one of the most beautiful incunabula ever printed. The type was revived by the Monotype Corporation in 1923 as Poliphilus. Another revival, of the earlier version of Griffo's type, was completed under the direction of Stanley Morison in 1929 as Bembo. The type is thought to be one of the first examples of the italic typeface, unique to the Aldine Press in incunabula. The book is illustrated with 168 exquisite woodcuts showing some of the characters Poliphilo encounters in his dreams. These images are also interesting because they shed light on what people in the Renaissance fancied about the alleged æsthetic qualities of Greek and Roman antiquities. The psychologist Carl Jung admired the book, believing the dream images presaged his theory of archetypes.Hypnerotomachia Poliphili – Poliphilo from a page of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili
37. Automaker – It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry. The automotive industry began with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90 % of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's production. In 1980, the U.S. became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, cause of injury. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best framework for achieving automotive functional safety.Automaker – Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
38. Autobianchi – Autobianchi was an Italian automobile manufacturer, created jointly by Bianchi, Pirelli and Fiat in 1955. Autobianchi was integrated into the operations of Lancia. Bianchi, founded by Edoardo Bianchi in 1885 and now remembered primarily as a manufacturer, was also active in passenger car manufacturer from 1899. Bianchis were in high-end luxury cars, made with high attention to detail. The company's factory in Abruzzi was destroyed during World War II. The ownership of the firm passed to his son, Giuseppe. Bianchi bicycles are still manufactured. Soon it became apparent that resuming passenger production would not be feasible without a help of stronger partner. Therefore, Bianchi turned to industrial groups Fiat and Pirelli with a proposal to form a new company to produce automobiles. A new, purpose-built plant for the production of Autobianchi cars was erected on an area of 140,000 square metres in Desio. Each of the partners had a clearly defined interest in the venture. Fiat was to provide the technical base and components for the assembly of the cars. Pirelli, to supply tires for the cars, sought to expand their OEM share. Bianchi, was assigned the duties of assembling complete vehicles; a step towards their desired return to full passenger car production. The first car to be produced by the new company was the Bianchina, whose name was a tribute to Edoardo Bianchi's first car.Autobianchi – Autobianchi Bianchina Trasformabile Special
39. Bicycle – A bicycle, often called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. The basic configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. But many details have been improved, especially since the advent of computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling. The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. The word was first used in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle, possibly a carriage. The design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used for a time. Other words for bicycle include "bike", "pushbike", "cycle". In Unicode, the point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2. The #x 1F6B2; in HTML produces. It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner; Drais introduced it in 1818. The first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built in 1839 although the claim is often disputed. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.Bicycle – The most popular bicycle model—and most popular vehicle of any kind in the world—is the Chinese Flying Pigeon, with 500 million produced.
40. Bianchi (bicycle manufacturer) – F.I.V. In addition to bicycles it produced motorcycles from 1897 to 1967. In 1955 the joint-venture Autobianchi was created together for the manufacturing of cars -- Autobianchi was subsequently sold to Fiat in 1969. Throughout its modern era, it has been associated with the Italian Giro d'Italia and Tour de France winners, Fausto Coppi, Felice Gimondi. A 21-year-old medical instrument maker, started his bicycle-manufacturing business in a small shop at 7 Via Nirone, Milan in 1885. It pioneered the front-wheel brake. Since May 1997, the company has been part of Cycleurope Group, owned by the Swedish company of Grimaldi Industri AB. The Bianchi reputation began when the company sponsored the winner of the Grand Prix de Paris sprint competition in 1899. Fifteen years later Bianchi was making 45,000 bicycles, 1,000 cars a year. Its bicycle sales rose to 70,000 a year. Bianchi also had Nisi rims, Pirelli tyres. Bianchi was made only in 57 and 59 cm, smaller than the bike that Coppi used. A variation known as the Campione Del Mondo followed Coppi's win in the 1953 championship. Riders of different eras have been associated with Bianchi including Felice Gimondi, who continues his association with the company. Recent riders include Danilo Di Luca, Mario Cipollini, Gianni Bugno, Laurent Fignon, Marco Pantani, Jan Ullrich.Bianchi (bicycle manufacturer) – F.I.V. Edoardo Bianchi S.p.A.
41. Tire – A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheel's rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road while providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a body. The tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent tear. Early rubber tires were solid. Pneumatic tires are used on many types including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, buses, trucks, heavy equipment, aircraft. Historically, the spelling was tire and is of French origin, which comes from the tirer, "to pull". The reason for this naming is that originally tire referred to iron thick wires bound to carriage wheels. In blacksmithing, the French word for a drawn rod is a tirer, or "pull". The same word was often used for any metal rolling process. Volume 15 By James Boswell. Some other etymologists may share this view. The tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron.Tire – Stacked and standing car tires. The tire standing facing the camera does not contain the metal rim, onto which the tire is put so that it can be mounted on a car.
42. Pirelli – Pirelli & C. SpA is a multinational company based in Milan, Italy, formerly listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922. It was acquired by ChemChina. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company. Pirelli has published its Pirelli Calendar since 1964, which has featured the contribution of famous photographers over the years. The 2013 edition was commissioned to war photographer Steve McCurry. Founded in Milan by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company initially specialised in rubber and derivative processes and also made scuba diving rebreathers. Thereafter, Pirelli's activities were primarily focused on the production of cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its division to Goldman Sachs, which changed the new group's name to Prysmian. Both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within the slicks too stiff. Subsequently, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, headquartered for $190 million. In 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded watches and eyewear. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders has accepted a $ billion bid from ChemChina for the company. The company was delisted in November 2015.Pirelli – Pirelli headquarters
43. Fiat – Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A. part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat's main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on those two segments. Fiat's share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in the summer of 2004. At this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiat Chief Executive. By March 2009 their share had expanded back to 9.1 %. Fiat's built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 at the time it was Europe's largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, also in Turin. To prepare for production of all new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968. Fiat's 2014 range of car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols and three diesels. Fiat has invested for a long time in South America, mainly in Argentina. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim after having begun by building tractors there. Recently a brand new model developed in Brazil has been launched: the Fiat Uno. European models are currently imported to Brazil: Fiat 500, Freemont. Some others are still in production: Linea.Fiat – Fiat Punto
44. Tomb – A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or chamber, of varying sizes. Its central feature is a prominent pillar or column, often made of stone. Sepulchre – a cavernous rock-cut space for interment, generally in the Jewish or Christian faiths. Tumuli can be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, might also be originally a tumulus. A long barrow is a long tumulus, usually for numbers of burials. As indicated, tombs are generally located in cemeteries or churchyards. However, they may also be found in catacombs, in what is today open landscape. The tomb of Emperor Nintoku is the largest in the world by area. However, the Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt is the largest by volume.Tomb – Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah, Agra
45. Bergamo – Bergamo is a city in Lombardy, Italy, about 40 km northeast of Milan and 30 km from the lakes Como and Iseo. The foothills of the Bergamo Alps begin immediately north of the town. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo. With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. The metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people. As of 2015, Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan. Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing c. 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165. The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Colleoni and Suardi, respectively. Feuding between the two initially caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. From 1264, Bergamo was intermittently under the rule of Milan.Bergamo – Top: City skyline at sunrise. Second row. Left: Palazzo della Ragione and Bergamo Cathedral. Right: Cappella Colleoni. Third row. Left: asymptote architecture. Middle: Contarini Fountain in Piazza Vecchia. Right: Biblioteca Angelo Mai. Fourth row. Left: Bergamo–Albino light rail station. Right: Passeggiata in the central district.
46. Enrico Rastelli – Enrico Rastelli was an Italian juggler, acrobat and performer. Rastelli was born into a circus family. It did not take long before the young Rastelli decided to join the family business. He received rigorous training including acrobatics, balancing and aerial skills. His debut was at the age of 13 as part of his parents' aerial act, however his passion and talent lay with juggling. He by the age of 19 was performing a solo juggling routine. His earliest performances involved the manipulation of balls in a typical Japanese style; he even wore a Kimono as his costume. Many jugglers of Rastelli's day were of the gentleman style. Rastelli instead chose to restrict himself to objects more suited to catching, typically plates, sticks and balls. In doing so, he was able to achieve levels of technical skill far beyond that of his contemporaries. In 1917 Rastelli married a highwire artist. By the early 1920s he was becoming quite a star, commanding an ever increasing salary. In this period he chose to perform in a costume adding static balance tricks to his energetic performances. During the later part of the 1920s he made the move to the more lucrative vaudeville theatres. His style changed again, performing in full strip he would juggle up to five footballs.Enrico Rastelli – Biography 
47. Juggler – Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a juggler, involving the manipulation of objects for recreation, entertainment, art or sport. The most recognizable form of juggling is toss juggling. Juggling can be the manipulation of one object or many objects at the same time, using one or many hands. Jugglers often refer to the objects they juggle as props. The most common props are rings. Some jugglers use more dramatic objects such as chainsaws. The words juggler derive from the Middle English jogelen, which in turn is from the French jangler. There is also the Latin joculare of Latin joculari, meaning "to jest". David Levinson and Karen Christensen describe juggling as "the sport of tossing and catching or manipulating objects keeping them in constant motion". "Juggling, like music, combines abstract patterns and mind-body coordination in a pleasing way." Juggling has been recorded in many early cultures including Egyptian, Nabataean, Chinese, Indian, Greek, Roman, Norse, Aztec and Polynesian civilizations. Juggling in ancient China was an art performed by some warriors. In Europe, juggling was an acceptable diversion until the decline of the Roman Empire, after which the activity fell into disgrace. Jugglers in this era would only perform in marketplaces, drinking houses. They would pass a bag among the audience for tips.Juggler – Juggling five balls
48. Francesco Hayez – Francesco Hayez was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits. Hayez came from Venice. Giovanni, was of French origin while his mother, Chiara Torcella, was from Murano. Youngest of five sons, was brought up by his mother's sister, who had married Giovanni Binasco, a well-off shipowner and collector of art. From childhood he showed a predisposition for drawing, so his uncle apprenticed him to an restorer. Later he became a student of the painter Francesco Maggiotto with whom he continued his studies for three years. He was admitted to the course of the New Academy of Fine Arts in 1806, where he studied under Teodoro Matteini. In 1809 he won a competition from the Academy of Venice for one year of study in Rome. Francesco Hayez was prolific. His output spanned both historic paintings, including those that would have appealed to the patriotic sensibility of his patrons. Others reflect the desire to accompany a Neoclassic style from biblical or classical literature. He also painted scenes from theatrical presentations of his day. Conspicuously lacking from his output, however, are altarpieces intended for devotional display. Corrado Ricci describes him as then evolving to a style of emotional tumult. His portraits have the intensity seen with the Nazarene movement.Francesco Hayez – Self-Portrait at the age of 88
49. Count – The adjective form of the word is "comital". The Irish equivalent is an earl. In the Western Roman Empire, Count was not a specific rank. From about the seventh century, "count" was a specific rank indicating the commander of two centuries. Military counts in the Germanic successor kingdoms were often appointed by a dux and later by a king. The position of comes was not hereditary. By virtue of their large estates, many counts could pass the title to their heirs—but not always. In Piast Poland, the position of komes was not hereditary, resembling the early Merovingian institution. The office had been replaced by others. Only after the Partitions of Poland did the title of "count" resurface in the title hrabia, derived from the German Graf. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent "Earl" can also be used as a title for the eldest son of a duke or marquess. By contrast, all the sons of certain counts were counts. In Sweden there is a distinction between counts created after 1809. All children in comital families elevated before 1809 are called count/countess. The following lists are originally based on Heraldica.org by Alexander Krischnig.Count – Countly ephemera: a Count's coronet and crest on a doily.
50. Prime Minister of Italy – The office of Prime Minister is established through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called "President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy". The position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943. Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power. The position is similar to those in most parliamentary systems. The Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the "President of the Council of Ministers" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister generally commands the majority in the Parliament. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "coordinates the activity of the ministers". The office was first established in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia -- although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed most of them being right-wing politicians. After the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change. In fact the candidate for office presided over a very unstable political system. From 1861 to 1911 Historical Right and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country.Prime Minister of Italy – Incumbent Matteo Renzi since 22 February 2014
51. Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour – Cavour put forth several economic reforms in his native region of Piedmont in his earlier years, founded the political newspaper Il Risorgimento. After a large rail program, he became prime minister in 1852. English historian Denis Mack Smith says Cavour was the most successful parliamentarian in Italian history but he was not especially liberal. He interfered in parliamentary elections. Cavour also practiced undesirable policies which were carried over into post-Risorgimento Italy. Camillo Benso was born into a family that had gained a fair amount of land during the French occupation. His godparents were Prince Camille Borghese, after whom Camillo was named. His older Gustavo were initially educated at home. He was sent to the Turin Military Academy when he was only ten years old. In July 1824 he was named a page to Charles Albert, the king of Piedmont. Cavour frequently ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline. He was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned. He was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1827. Cavour administered the estate outside the capital serving as mayor there from 1832 to the revolutionary upheaval of 1848. Cavour then lived time in Switzerland, with his Protestant relatives in Geneva.Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour – Camillo Benso, count of Cavour
52. Turin – Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of million. Turin is well known for its renaissance, baroque, rococo, art nouveau architecture. The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, the Turin Polytechnic. Important museums, such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana are also found in the city. The tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. Turin is also home of the Italian automotive industry. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the centre of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with the Insubres. The Taurini chief town was captured after a three-day siege. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established under the name of Castra Taurinorum and afterwards Julia Augusta Taurinorum. In probably 28 BC, the Romans created a military camp, later dedicated to Augustus.Turin – From top to bottom, left to right: panorama of the Mole Antonelliana, Valentino Park with the medieval village, Piazza Castello with Palazzo Reale and Palazzo Madama, San Carlo Plaza with the Caval ëd Bronz, the Arco Olimpico and the Lingotto, the sarcophagus of Oki at the Egyptian Museum, a view of the hills, the Po, the Gran Madre, the Monte of Cappuccini and Palatine Towers.
53. 2006 – January 4 – Ariel Sharon, Prime Minister of Israel, suffers a severe stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Saudi Arabia, collapses, killing 76 pilgrims visiting to perform Hajj. Saudi Arabia, kills 362 pilgrims. January 15 – NASA's Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 16 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf assumes office as President of Liberia, the first female elected head of state in Africa. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a 9-year journey. January 25 – Pope Benedict XVI issues his first encycylical, Deus caritas est. January 27 – Celebrations are held in Salzburg and around the world, for the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Philippines, kills 74 people and leaves 600 injured. February 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126. February 19 – Pasta de Conchos mine disaster: Sixty-five miners die after becoming trapped underground, following an explosion in Nueva Rosita, Mexico. March 4 – The final contact attempt with Pioneer 10 receives no response. March 9 – NASA's Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturn's moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars.2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
54. 1956 Winter Olympics – The 1956 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. This celebration of the Games was held to 5 February 1956. Cortina, which had originally been awarded the 1944 Winter Olympics, beat out Montreal, Colorado Springs and Lake Placid for the right to host the 1956 Games. The Cortina Games were unique in that many of the venues were within walking distance of each other. Consequently, the organising committee was the first to rely heavily on corporate sponsorship for funding. Thirty-two nations -- the largest number of participating Winter Olympic countries to that point -- competed in twenty-four events. The Soviet Union won more medals than any nation. Austrian Toni Sailer became the first person to sweep all three alpine skiing events in a single Olympics. The figure skating competition was held outdoors for the last time at these Games. Logistically, the only problem encountered was a lack of snow at the alpine skiing events. To remedy this, the Italian army transported large amounts of snow to ensure the courses were adequately covered. The Cortina Olympics were the first Winter Olympics televised to a multi-national audience. Cortina d'Ampezzo is a ski village situated in the Dolomite Alps in the north-eastern corner of Italy. In 1956, it had a population of 6,500 people. He persuaded the council of Cortina to bid for the 1944 Games.1956 Winter Olympics – The emblem is a stylized snowflake with the Olympic rings and a star, the emblem of the Italian National Olympic Committee.
55. Cortina d'Ampezzo – Cortina d'Ampezzo, commonly referred to as Cortina, is a town and comune in the heart of the southern Alps in the Veneto region of Northern Italy. In the Middle Ages, Ampezzo fell of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, Cortina was conquered by the Republic of Venice. From the nineteenth century, Ampezzo became a regional centre for crafts. The local handmade products were appreciated by early German holidaymakers as tourism emerged late nineteenth century. Among the specializations of the town were crafting wood for furniture, the production of tiled stoves and iron, copper and glass items. The local economy thrives on tourism, particularly during the winter season, when the population of the town typically increases from about 7,000 to 40,000. The town also contains the Rinaldo Zardini Palaeontology Museum, established in 1975, the Regole of Ampezzo Ethnographic Museum. Several films have been shot in the town, notably The Pink Panther, For Your Eyes Only and Cliffhanger. Every year, to early August, Cortina hosts the Dino Ciani Festival and Academy, which attracts pianists from around the world. In the 6th century B.C. Etruscan writing was introduced in whose possession is remained until the early 15th century. From the 3rd B.C. the Romans assimilated the Veneti people, giving the area the name of Amplitium, today's Ampezzo. No historical information exists until the Lombard period. Cortina is assumed that during the Barbarian invasions, the inhabitants fled to the Fassa, Badia, Cordevole and Ampezzo valleys. In the Middle Ages, Ampezzo fell under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, of the Holy Roman Empire.Cortina d'Ampezzo – The town centre of Cortina d'Ampezzo
56. 1956 – January 1 – The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium ends in Sudan. January 3 By popular demand, Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin, is restaged live by Producers' Showcase on NBC-TV. Columbia Records first releases Glenn Gould's solo recording of Bach's Goldberg Variations. January 16 – Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser vows to reconquer Palestine. January 25–26 – Finnish troops reoccupy Porkkala after Soviet troops vacate its military base. Civilians can return February 4. January 26 – The 1956 Winter Olympics open in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. February 11 – British spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean resurface in the Soviet Union after being missing for 5 years. February 14–26 – 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. MacRae and Jones had previously starred in Oklahoma! Carousel, intended for showing in 55mm, ends up being shown only in 35mm. February 22 – Elvis Presley enters the United States music charts for the first time, with "Heartbreak Hotel". February 23 – Norma Jean Mortenson legally changes her name to Marilyn Monroe. February 25 – Nikita Khrushchev attacks the veneration of Josef Stalin in a speech "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences". March 1 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.1956 – A reel of 2-inch quadruplex videotape compared with a modern-day miniDV videocassette.
57. 1960 Summer Olympics – Tokyo and Mexico City would eventually host the following 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics. Toronto was initially interested in the bidding, but appears to have been dropped during the final bid process. This is the first of five attempts by Toronto from 1960 to 2001. Swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title. Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class. A former polio patient, won three gold medals on the track. She was acclaimed as "the fastest woman in the world". Jeff Farrell, US, won two gold medals in swimming. He underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials. Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon bare-footed to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay, US, later known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing's light-heavyweight gold medal. Ramon "Buddy" Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men's 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history. US, defeated friend C.K. Yang in Olympic history. The Constantine II, last King of Greece won a gold in sailing: class.1960 Summer Olympics – Opening Ceremony in 1960 Summer Olympics in Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy
58. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
59. 1960 – January – The state of emergency is lifted in Kenya, officially ending the Mau Mau Uprising. January 1 – Cameroon gains its independence from French-administered U.N. trusteeship. January 2 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination. January 6 – The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties. January 9 -- 11 -- Aswan High construction begins in Egypt. January 10 – British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan makes the Wind of Change speech for the first time. January 14 – The Reserve Bank and Commonwealth Bank are created in Australia. January 15 -- Three Tales, debuts on NHK. January 19 – The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan is signed in Washington, D.C. January 21 – A coal mine collapses at Coalbrook, South Africa, killing 435 miners. January 22 In France, President Charles de Gaulle fires the commander-in-chief of the French troops in Algeria. January 24 – A major insurrection occurs in Algiers against French colonial policy. January 28 – The National Football League announces expansion teams for Dallas to start in the 1960 NFL season, Minneapolis–St. Paul for the 1961 NFL season.1960 – A section of lunch counter from the Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth's where the Greensboro sit-ins began is now preserved in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History
60. XX Olympic Winter Games – This marked the second time Italy hosted the first being the VII Olympic Winter Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1956. Italy also hosted the Games of the XVII Olympiad in 1960. Turin was selected in June 1999. The Olympic mascots of the games were Neve, Gliz, a male ice cube. The official motto of the XX Olympic Winter Games was "Passion lives here". Turin was chosen as the host of the Olympics at the 109th IOC Session in Seoul, South Korea. The full IOC Session then voted on the cities chosen by the Selection College. The selection of Turin over Sion came as a surprise, since Sion was the overwhelming favorite in part because the IOC is based in Switzerland. Turin's selection came two years after Rome's unsuccessful 2004 Summer Olympics bid. Those games were ultimately awarded to Athens, Greece. The information below comes from the International Olympic Committee Vote History page. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD billion, average cost overrun is 142 %. The Games featured 84 medal events in 7 sports. Events that made their Olympic debut in Turin included mass start biathlon, team sprint cross country skiing, team pursuit speedskating. Most of the cross skiing events at these Games involved different distances from those in Salt Lake City.XX Olympic Winter Games – "Passion lives here", the Turin 2006 motto written by the Italian calligrapher Francesca Biasetton.
61. Italian language – Italian is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Istria. Italian is spoken by small minorities in places such as Crimea, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Tunisia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and regional languages. Including Italian speakers on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera. Its influence is also widespread in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. Its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Unlike most Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. However, some surrounding regions has a longer history. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.Italian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
62. Novel – A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story. The genre has also been described as possessing "a comprehensive history of about two thousand years". This view sees the novel's origins in Classical Greece and Rome, the tradition of the novella. An Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long narrative. Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or novel. European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives. Fictionality is most commonly cited from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Historians would also compose speeches for didactic purposes. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the novel. 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, secret anxieties, "conduct" and "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance.Novel – Madame de Pompadour spending her afternoon with a book, 1756.
63. Italo Calvino – Italo Calvino was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. Admired in Britain, the United States, he was the most-translated contemporary Italian writer at the time of his death. Italo Calvino was born in 1923. Mario, was a tropical agronomist and botanist who also taught agriculture and floriculture. In an autobiographical essay, Italo Calvino explained that his father "had been in his youth an anarchist, then a Socialist Reformist". In 1917, Mario left for Cuba to conduct scientific experiments, after living through the Mexican Revolution. Eva Mameli, was a botanist and university professor. A native of Sassari in 11 years younger than her husband, she married while still a junior lecturer at Pavia University. Born into a family, Eva was a pacifist educated in the "religion of civic duty and science". In 1925, the family returned to Italy and settled permanently in Sanremo on the Ligurian coast. Calvino's Floriano, who became a distinguished geologist, was born in 1927. The vast forests and luxuriant fauna omnipresent in Calvino's early fiction such as The Baron in the Trees derives from this "legacy". In an interview, Calvino stated that "San Remo continues to pop out in my books, in the most diverse pieces of writing." He and Floriano would climb the tree-rich perch for hours on the branches reading their favorite adventure stories. Fascinated by American cartoons, he was equally attracted to drawing, poetry, theatre.Italo Calvino – Italo Calvino
64. 1972 – . January 1 – Kurt Waldheim becomes Secretary-General of the United Nations. January 2 – Pierre Hotel Robbery: Six men rob the safe deposit boxes of The Pierre hotel in New York City for at least $4 million. January 3 – MGM's 1951 Show Boat is presented on television by NBC for the first time. This marks the complete network telecast of any version of Show Boat. The first scientific hand-held calculator is introduced. Rose Heilbron becomes the first judge at the Old Bailey in London. January 5 – U.S. President Richard Nixon orders the development of a Space Shuttle program. Iberia Airlines Flight 602 crashes into a 462-meter peak on the island of Ibiza; 104 are killed. Howard Hughes speaks to the press by telephone to denounce Clifford Irving's biography of him. January 9 – The RMS Queen Elizabeth is destroyed by fire in Hong Kong harbor. January 10 – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman returns to Bangladesh from Pakistan. January 13 – Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia is overthrown in a military coup. January 14 – Queen Margrethe II of Denmark succeeds her father, King Frederick IX, on the throne of Denmark. January 19 – The Libertarian enclave Minerva on a platform in the South Pacific, sponsored by the Phoenix Foundation, declares independence.1972 – The arcade version of Pong is released.
65. Marco Polo – He learned the mercantile trade from Niccolò and Maffeo, who met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. He was released in 1299, had three children. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice. Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired other travellers. There is a substantial literature based on Polo's writings; he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic. His exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that date is not endorsed by scholarship. Marco Polo's birthplace also varies between the island of Korčula. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is as historical sources considered them to be of Dalmatian origin. The first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo, mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were also mentioned in the service of the realm. Whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia.Marco Polo – Polo wearing a Tatar outfit, date of print unknown
66. Kublai Khan – Kublai Khan, born Kublai and also known by the temple name Shizu, was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294. Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui and a grandson of Genghis Khan. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire. In 1271, Kublai established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled over present-day Mongolia, China, Korea, some adjacent areas, assumed the role of Emperor of China. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first non-native emperor to conquer all of China. Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui, his second son with Sorghaghtani Beki. As his grandfather Genghis Khan advised, Sorghaghtani chose a Buddhist Tangut woman as her son's nurse, whom Kublai later honored highly. Kublai was nine years old and with his eldest brother killed a rabbit and an antelope. His grandfather smeared fat from killed animals onto Kublai's middle finger in accordance with a Mongol tradition. After the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, in 1236, Ögedei gave Hebei to the family of Tolui, who died in 1232. Kublai received an estate of his own, which included 10,000 households. Because he was inexperienced, Kublai allowed local officials free rein. Corruption amongst his officials and aggressive taxation caused large numbers of Chinese peasants to flee, which led to a decline in tax revenues. Kublai quickly came to his appanage in Hebei and ordered reforms.Kublai Khan – Portrait of Kublai Khan during the Yuan era.
67. Linguistics – Linguistics is the scientific study of language, specifically of language form, language meaning, language in context. Linguistics analyses human language as a system for relating sounds and meaning. Phonetics studies acoustic and articulatory properties of the production and perception of speech sounds and non-speech sounds. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how context influences meanings. Grammar is a system of rules which governs the form of the utterances in a given language. It encompasses both sound and meaning, includes phonology, morphology, syntax. In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. This is in regards to how children adapt to language, how they learn language, what influences their ability to learn language. Linguistics also includes non-formal approaches to the study of other aspects of human language, such as social, cultural, historical and political factors. Corpus linguistics takes naturally occurring texts and studies the variation of grammatical and other features based on such corpora. Stylistics involves the study of patterns of style: within written, signed, or spoken discourse. Language documentation combines anthropological inquiry with linguistic inquiry to describe languages and their grammars. Lexicography covers the study and construction of dictionaries. Policy makers work with governments to implement new plans in education and teaching which are based on linguistic research. Areas of study related to linguistics include semiotics, literary criticism, translation, speech-language pathology.Linguistics – Ancient Tamil inscription at Thanjavur
68. Invisible Cities – Invisible Cities is a novel by Italian writer Italo Calvino. It was published by Giulio Einaudi Editore. The book explores the imaginable through the descriptions of cities by an explorer, Marco Polo. The majority of the book consists of brief prose poems describing 55 cities, apparently narrated by Polo. Over the nine chapters, Marco describes a total of all women's names. The descriptions of the cities lie between these two sections. The matrix of fifty-five subchapters shows some interesting properties. Each column has rows only one, so there are fifty-five cities in all. The matrix of cities has a central element. The pattern of cities is symmetric with respect to inversion about that center. Equivalently, it is symmetric against 180 degree rotations about Baucis. Inner chapters have diagonal cascades of five cities. These five-city cascades are displaced to the right as one proceeds to the next chapter. The performance could be heard by about 200 audience members, who were allowed to move through the station at will. An audio recording of the opera was released in November 2014.Invisible Cities – First edition
69. Amedeo Modigliani – Amedeo Clemente Modigliani was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of the Renaissance, until he moved to Paris in 1906. There Modigliani came with prominent artists such as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși. Modigliani's œuvre includes drawings. From 1909 to 1914, however, Modigliani devoted himself mainly to sculpture. His main subject was full figures of humans, both in the images and in the sculptures. After his death he achieved greater popularity and his works of art achieved high prices. Modigliani died in Paris of tubercular meningitis. He was born into a Jewish family in Livorno, Italy. Livorno had long served as a refuge for those persecuted for their religion, was home to a large Jewish community. Solomon Garsin, had immigrated to Livorno in the 18th century as a refugee. Fluent in many languages, her ancestors had founded a school of Talmudic studies. Family legend traced the lineage to the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The business was a credit agency with branches in Livorno, Marseille, Tunis, London, though their fortunes ebbed and flowed. Flaminio, was a member of an Italian Jewish family of successful businessmen and entrepreneurs.Amedeo Modigliani – Amedeo Modigliani
70. Milan – Milan is the capital of the Lombardy region, the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. That of the Metropolitan City of Milan is 3,209,000. Milan is one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest among European non-capital cities. Milan lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in tourism. Its district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and companies. The city hosts academies and universities, with 11 % of the national total enrolled students. Milan's museums, landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually. Milan -- after Naples -- is the Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide. The city hosted the Universal Exposition in 2015. Milan is home to two of Europe's major football teams, FC Internazionale. The etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio and planus. However, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines.Milan – Milan Cathedral, La Scala opera house and Porta Nuova business district
71. Epic film – Epic film is a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, spectacle. The usage of the term has at other times simply synonymous with big budget filmmaking. Like epics in the literary sense it is often focused on a heroic character. An epic's ambitious nature helps to set it apart from other types of film such as the period piece or film. The most common subjects of epic films are important figures from various periods in world history. The term "epic" originally came from the poetic genre exemplified by such works as the Iliad, the Odyssey. In classical literature, epics are considered works focused upon which the fate of a large number of people depend. Similarly, films described as "epic" typically take a mythic heroic figure. Common subjects of epics are royalty, gladiators, leading personalities from various periods in world history. Such films usually have a historical setting, although fantasy or fiction settings have become common in recent decades. The central conflict of the film is usually seen as having far-reaching effects, often changing the course of history. The main characters' actions are often central to the resolution of the societal conflict. In its classification of films by genre, the American Film Institute limits the genre to historical films such as Ben-Hur. However, film scholars such as Constantine Santas are willing to extend the label to science-fiction films such as 2001: Star Wars. Epics are usually among the most expensive of films to produce.Epic film – Charlton Heston starred in Biblical epics such as The Ten Commandments and historical epics such as El Cid
72. Robert de Niro – Robert Anthony De Niro is an American actor and producer who has both Italian and American citizenship. He received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2003, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 2010, the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in 2016. Scorsese's crime film Mean Streets. He earned Academy Award nominations for the psychological thrillers Taxi Driver and Cape Fear, both directed by Scorsese. Notable performances include roles in Once Upon a Time in America, Brazil, The Untouchables, Heat, Casino, Cop Land, Machete. De Niro starred in films such as the spy film The Good Shepherd. Robert Anthony De Niro was born in the Greenwich Village area of the son of Robert De Niro Sr.. De Niro was raised by his mother in the Greenwich Village and Little Italy areas of Manhattan. His father lived within walking distance and De Niro spent much time with him as he grew up. His mother was raised Presbyterian but became an atheist as an adult, while his father was a lapsed Catholic since the age of 12. Against his parents' wishes, his grandparents had him secretly baptized into the Catholic Church while he was staying with them during his parents' divorce. He attended a elementary school in Manhattan, through the sixth grade. De Niro then went for the eighth grades. De Niro began high school at the private McBurney School and later attended the private Rhodes Preparatory School, although he never graduated from either.Robert de Niro – De Niro at the 2011 Tribeca Film Festival
73. Dominique Sanda – Dominique Marie-Françoise Renée Varaigne, professionally known as Dominique Sanda, is a French actress and former fashion model. Sanda was born to Lucienne and Gérard Varaigne. She also appeared in Steppenwolf. In Aubervilliers, France, she played Melitta in Madame Klein, directed by Brigitte Jaques-Wajeman. In 1995 in Italy, she played the Marquise de Merteuil based on Choderlos de Laclos's novel, directed by Mario Monicelli. From 1995–1996 in France and Belgium, she has been Lady Chiltern in An Ideal Husband by Oscar Wilde, directed by Adrian Brine. In the 1970s, she lived with whom she had a son, Yann Marquand. In 2000, she married Nicolae Cutzarida, University professor of Romanian origin. She won the award at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival for her role in the film The Inheritance. Official website Dominique Sanda at the Internet Movie Database Dominique Sanda at AllMovieDominique Sanda – Dominique Sanda at the Film Museum in Vienna in 2013
74. Donald Sutherland – Donald McNichol Sutherland, OC is a Canadian actor whose film career spans six decades. Since then, Sutherland established himself of Canada. Inductee of Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canadian Walk of Fame, he has also received a Canadian Academy Award for the drama Threshold. Several media outlets and movie critics describes him as one of the best actors who has never been nominated for an Oscar. Sutherland is father of actor Kiefer Sutherland. Sutherland is of Scottish, English ancestry. As a child, Sutherland battled rheumatic fever, poliomyelitis. His teenage years were spent in Nova Scotia. Sutherland obtained his first part-time job, as a news correspondent for local radio station CKBW. He graduated from Bridgewater High School. Sutherland had at one point been a member of the "UC Follies" troupe in Toronto. Sutherland left Canada for Britain in 1957, studying at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. After quitting the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, he spent a year and a half in Scotland. In the early to mid-1960s, he began to gain small roles in British films and TV. Sutherland featured in horror films such as Castle of the Living Dead and Dr. Terror's House of Horrors.Donald Sutherland – Sutherland at the Monte Carlo Television Festival in August 2013
75. Alida Valli – Valli was born in Pola, Istria, Italy. Rodolfo, was a close friend of Gabriele D'Annunzio. Valli was christened Baroness Alida Maria Laura Altenburger von Marckenstein-Frauenberg. During her lifetime she also gained the titles Dr.h.c. of the III. University of Rome, Chevalier of Arts of France and Cavaliere of the Italian Republic. At fifteen, she went to Rome, where she attended a school for film actors and directors. At that time, she lived with her uncle Ettore Tolomei. Valli started her movie career in Il cappello a tre punte during the so-called Telefoni Bianchi cinema era. Her big success came with the movie Mille lire al mese. During the Second World War, she starred in many movies including the diptych Noi Vivi / Addio Kira!. . The public easily realized that they were as much against Fascism as Communism. But her foreign experience was not a great success, owing to the financial problems of Selznick's company. She starred in many French and Italian films. In 1954, she had great success in the melodrama Senso, directed by Luchino Visconti.Alida Valli – Valli in 1947
76. Burt Lancaster – Burton Stephen "Burt" Lancaster was an American film actor. Lancaster also won a Golden Globe for The Birdman of Alcatraz and Atlantic City. The American Film Institute ranks Lancaster as #19 of the greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema. He was James Henry Lancaster, a mailman. Both of his parents were Protestants of working origin. All of Lancaster's grandparents were Ulster immigrants to the United States; his maternal grandparents were descendants of English immigrants to Ireland. The family believed themselves to be related to 1st Earl Roberts. Before he graduated from DeWitt Clinton, his mother died of a cerebral hemorrhage. He subsequently dropped out. At the age of 19, he met Nick Cravat, with whom he developed a lifelong partnership. Together they learned to act at Union Settlement, one of the city's oldest settlement houses. They soon joined the Kay Brothers circus. However, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret. Lancaster then found temporary work, as a singing waiter in various restaurants. Lancaster served in Italy from 1943 -- 45.Burt Lancaster – in Desert Fury (1947)
77. Bernardo Bertolucci – In recognition of his work, he was presented with the inaugural Honorary Palme d'Or Award at the opening ceremony of the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. Since 1979, he has been married to screenwriter Clare Peploe. Bertolucci was born in the region of Emilia-Romagna. He is the elder son of Ninetta, Attilio Bertolucci, a poet, a reputed art historian, anthologist and film critic. His mother was born to an Italian father and an Irish mother. Bertolucci had one brother, playwright Giuseppe. His cousin was the producer Giovanni Bertolucci, with whom he has worked on a number of films. Bertolucci initially wished to become a poet like his father. Shortly after, Bertolucci left the University without graduating. At the age of 22, he directed his first feature film, produced by Tonino Cervi with a screenplay by Pasolini, called La commare secca. The film is a mystery, following a prostitute's homicide. Bertolucci uses flashbacks to piece together the person who committed it. The film which shortly followed was his acclaimed Before the Revolution. Bertolucci caused controversy with the film Last Tango in Paris starring Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider, Jean-Pierre Léaud and Massimo Girotti. The depictions of Schneider, then 19 years old, were regarded as exploitative.Bernardo Bertolucci – Bertolucci in 2011
78. Emilia-Romagna – Emilia-Romagna is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna. It has about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. The Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via the Roman road connecting Rome to northern Italy, completed in 187 B.C. and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been then that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna -- arguably the oldest university in Europe -- and its bustling towns kept intellectual life alive. The municipalities are Talamello. On May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area. They caused churches and factories to collapse. Also 200 were injured. The 5.8 quake left 14,000 people homeless.Emilia-Romagna – Castle Estense in Ferrara
79. Socialist – Social ownership may refer to forms of collective, or cooperative ownership; to citizen ownership of equity; or to any combination of these. Economic systems can be divided into both non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. Exact methods of resource allocation and calculation for a socialist system are the subjects of the socialist calculation debate. Core dichotomies associated with these concerns include state socialism versus libertarian socialism. The term is frequently used to draw contrast to the political system of the Soviet Union, which operated in an authoritarian fashion. By the 1920s, communism became the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. Some socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism, feminism and liberalism. For Andrew Vincent, "The word ` socialism' finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to share. The related, more technical term in then medieval law was societas. This latter word could mean fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen." The term "socialism" was created by one of the founders of what would later be labelled "utopian socialism". They presented socialism as an alternative based on the shared ownership of resources although their proposals for socialism differed significantly. The term "communism" also fell out of use during this period, from the 1840s. An early distinction between "socialism" and "communism" was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both consumption.Socialist – Charles Fourier, influential early French socialist thinker
80. World War I – More than million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. It paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within weeks, the major powers were at the conflict soon spread around the world. On 28 the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia. As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. The Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. Economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. In Canada, Maclean's magazine in October 1914 wrote, "Some wars name themselves.World War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
81. Fascist – Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, influenced by national syndicalism. Fascism spread to other European countries. Fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left -- right spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes in the nature of war, society, technology. The advent of total war and total mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved during the war. Fascism rejects assertions that violence views political violence, war, imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through interventionist economic policies. The Italian fascismo is derived from fascio meaning a bundle of rods, ultimately from the Latin word fasces. In 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in Milan, which became the Partito Nazionale Fascista two years later. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. Similar symbols were developed by fascist movements; for example, the Falange symbol is five arrows joined together by a yoke. Historians, other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism. Each interpretation of fascism leaving many definitions too wide or narrow. According to many scholars, fascism -- especially once in power -- has historically attacked communism, parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the far right.Fascist – Georges Sorel
82. Fascism – Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, influenced by national syndicalism. Fascism originated in Italy during World War I and spread to other European countries. Fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the left -- spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes in the nature of technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. Fascism rejects assertions that violence views imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. The Italian term fascismo is derived from fascio meaning a bundle of rods, ultimately from the Latin word fasces. In 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in Milan, which became the Partito Nazionale Fascista two years later. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. Similar symbols were developed by different fascist movements; for example, the Falange symbol is five arrows joined together by a yoke. Historians, political scientists, other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism. Each interpretation of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions too wide or narrow. According to many scholars, fascism—especially once in power—has historically attacked communism, conservatism and parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the far right.Fascism – Georges Sorel
83. Communist – Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, the political ideologies grouped around both. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to this analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production. There are various historical groups, as well as theorists, whose beliefs have subsequently been described as communist. German philosopher Karl Marx saw primitive communism from which it arose. For Marx, only after humanity was capable of producing surplus, did private property develop. The idea of a egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece. Examples include the Spartacus revolt in Rome. However, Spartacus's revolt was not a communist movement, but rather a fight for human rights. Similar clashes took place without leading to an establishment of socialist or communist governments. The Civil War against slavery in America is a good example. The real communist movement took place in 490 -- 520 CE, in territories that comprise present-day Iran. It was organized by a religious activist named Mazdak, for whom the movement was named. At another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and other property. Communist thought has also been traced back to the work of the English writer Thomas More.Communist – Vladimir Lenin after his return to Petrograd
84. 1900 (film) – The film was not entered into the main competition. Other countries, such as the United States, released an edited version of the film. Born on the day of the death of renowned composer Giuseppe Verdi -- January 1901 -- Alfredo Berlinghieri and Olmo Dalcò come from opposite ends of the social spectrum. Alfredo is from a family of landowners led by his populist grandfather, while Olmo is an illegitimate peasant. Leo, is the foreman and peasants' strong man who verbally and spiritually carries out a duel of wits with the elder Alfredo. The two are friends throughout their childhood, despite the social differences of their families. Olmo returns from his friendship with Alfredo continues. However, Alfredo's father has hired Attila Mellanchini as his foreman. Several are killed by Attila himself. As the new padrone of the plantation, Alfredo does little to halt Attila's actions. During the late 1920s, the lack thereof in their respective relationships with others is highlighted in their love lives. Alfredo marries a demure woman while Olmo marries Anita, who like him shares in the enthusiasm of the cause of workers' rights. Ada, sinks into alcoholism when confronted with the reality of the emptiness of her relationship with Alfredo. A strong and independent spirit dies tragically in childbirth, bringing another member into the community. As Olmo takes among the poor farmers and their families, he clashes with Attila.1900 (film) – Theatrical release poster
85. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014