1. Kanye West discography – American rapper and music producer Kanye West has released seven studio albums, two live albums, three video albums, four mixtapes, one hundred and ten singles and ninety-three music videos. West has sold over 21 million albums and 66 million digital downloads worldwide, as of May 2012, six of his songs have each exceeded three million digital downloads. Six of his seven studio albums have been certified at least platinum in the United States, in 2003, West collaborated with rapper Twista and singer Jamie Foxx on the song Slow Jamz, which became Wests first single to top the US Billboard Hot 100. In 2005, West released his studio album Late Registration. Late Registration produced five singles, including Touch the Sky, Heard Em Say and Gold Digger, the critically acclaimed album has sold over three million copies and has attained five multi-platinum certifications, including a triple-platinum certification from the RIAA. In 2007, Wests third studio album Graduation debuted at one on the Billboard 200 and shipped over 957,000 units in its first week. Graduation held the one spot on the Billboard 200 for over a month. It supported by five singles, including the Billboard Hot 100 number one single Stronger, in 2008, Wests fourth album 808s & Heartbreak was released and became his third consecutive number one release on the Billboard 200. It featured two top three singles, Love Lockdown and Heartless, from 2008 to 2009, West collaborated with artists on multiple Hot 100 top ten singles, including American Boy by singer Estelle, Swagga Like Us by rappers Jay-Z, Lil Wayne and T. I. Knock You Down by singer Keri Hilson, Run This Town by Jay-Z and Rihanna, in 2010, West released his fifth studio album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, continuing a streak of number one albums for West. Four singles were released from the album, all of which reached the top 25 on the Billboard Hot 100, Power, Monster, Runaway and All of the Lights. In 2011, West collaborated with American singer Katy Perry on a remix of her song E. T. which hit one on the Billboard Hot 100. Watch the Throne, a collaboration with Jay-Z, was released as Wests sixth studio album in August 2011, peaking at number one on the Billboard 200, Watch the Throne produced seven singles, including the Billboard Hot 100 top 25 singles H•A•M, Otis and Niggas in Paris. Wests sixth studio album Yeezus was released in June 2013 and debuted at one in the United States. It included three singles including Fade, the album was met with positive reviews. Official website Kanye West at AllMusic Kanye West discography, forum, and marketplace at Discogs Kanye West discography at MusicBrainzKanye West discography – West performing in December 2008
2. Kanye West – Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer, and entrepreneur. Intent on pursuing a career as a rapper, West released his debut album The College Dropout in 2004 to widespread critical and commercial success. He went on to pursue a variety of different styles on subsequent albums Late Registration, Graduation, and 808s & Heartbreak. In 2010, he released his fifth album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy to rave reviews from critics, West released his abrasive sixth album, Yeezus, to further critical praise in 2013. His seventh album, The Life of Pablo, was released in 2016, Wests outspoken views and life outside of music have received significant mainstream attention. He has been a frequent source of controversy for his conduct at award shows, on social media and he is the founder and head of the creative content company DONDA. His 2014 marriage to television personality Kim Kardashian has also been subject to media coverage. He has won a total of 21 Grammy Awards, making him one of the most awarded artists of all time, three of his albums have been included and ranked on Rolling Stones 2012 update of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time list. He has also included in a number of Forbes annual lists. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005 and 2015, West was born on June 8,1977 in Atlanta, Georgia. His parents divorced when he was three years old, after the divorce, he and his mother moved to Chicago, Illinois. His father, Ray West, is a former Black Panther and was one of the first black photojournalists at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Ray West was later a Christian counselor, and in 2006, opened the Good Water Store and Café in Lexington Park, Maryland with startup capital from his son. West, was a professor of English at Clark Atlanta University, West was raised in a middle-class background, attending Polaris High School in suburban Oak Lawn, Illinois after living in Chicago. At the age of 10, West moved with his mother to Nanjing, China, according to his mother, West was the only foreigner in his class, but settled in well and quickly picked up the language, although he has since forgotten most of it. When asked about his grades in school, West replied, I got As. West demonstrated an affinity for the arts at an early age and his mother recalled that she first took notice of Wests passion for drawing and music when he was in the third grade. Growing up in Chicago, West became deeply involved in its hip hop scene and he started rapping in the third grade and began making musical compositions in the seventh grade, eventually selling them to other artistsKanye West – West performing at Lollapalooza in 2011
3. Rapping – The components of rapping include content, flow, and delivery. Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is performed in time to a beat. Rapping is often associated with and an ingredient of hip-hop music. Rapping is also used in Kwaito music, a genre originated in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another form of rap that predates hip hop was boxer Muhammad Alis rhythmic poetry used to taunt his opponents in the 1960s and 1970s, rapping can be delivered over a beat, typically provided by a DJ, turntablist or Beatboxer, or without accompaniment. Stylistically, rap occupies an area between speech, prose, poetry, and singing. The word, as used to describe quick speech or repartee, the word had been used in British English since the 16th century. It was part of the African American dialect of English in the 1960s meaning to converse, today, the terms rap and rapping are so closely associated with hip-hop music that many writers use the terms interchangeably. The English verb rap has various meanings, such as to strike, especially with a quick, smart, or light blow, as well to utter sharply or vigorously, to rap out a command. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary gives a date of 1541 for the first recorded use of the word with the meaning to utter sharply, vigorously and it is these meanings from which the musical form of rapping derives, and this definition may be from a shortening of repartee. A rapper refers to a performer who raps, by the late 1960s, when Hubert G. Brown changed his name to H. Rap was used to describe talking on records as early as 1971, on Isaac Hayes album Black Moses with track names such as Ikes Rap, Ikes Rap II, Ikes Rap III, Hayes husky-voiced sexy spoken raps became key components in his signature sound. Del the Funky Homosapien similarly states that rap was used to refer to talking in a manner in the early 1970s. Back then what rapping meant, basically, was you trying to convey something—youre trying to convince somebody, thats what rapping is, its in the way you talk. Rapping can be traced back to its African roots, centuries before hip-hop music existed, the griots of West Africa were delivering stories rhythmically, over drums and sparse instrumentation. Such connections have been acknowledged by modern artists, modern day griots, spoken word artists, mainstream news sources. Grammy-winning blues musician/historian Elijah Wald and others have argued that the blues were being rapped as early as the 1920s, Wald went so far as to call hip hop the living blues. A notable recorded example of rapping in blues music was the 1950 song Gotta Let You Go by Joe Hill Louis, not just jazz music and lyrics but also jazz poetryRapping – The Memphis Jug Band, an early blues group, whose lyrical content and rhythmic singing predated rapping.
4. Roc-A-Fella Records – Roc-A-Fella Records was an American record label founded by American recording artist Jay-Z, Damon Dash and Kareem Biggs Burke. It operated as a division of The Island Def Jam Music Group, the foundation of the label occurred in 1996, beginning as an independent outlet for rapper Jay-Zs first album. M. O. P. and DJ Clue, as well as producer Irv Gotti, hard Knock Life, saw him largely depart from his previous entourage and venture forth with producers Swizz Beatz, Timbaland, The 45 King and Jermaine Dupri. Though Da Ranjahz put in appearances on Memphis Bleeks first album, Coming of Age, in 1999, they soon parted ways with Roc-A-Fella Records. Jay-Zs 1999 album Vol.3. Life and Times of S. Carter continued Jays new affiliations with then-popular producers, in 2000, Jay-Z put out The Dynasty, Roc La Familia as a solo album. Rather than return to Timbaland or Swizz Beatz for production, Jay selected beats from a new crop of producers, Jonathan Chandler, Kanye West, Bink, The Neptunes, each beatsmith would go on to become consistently involved in future Roc-A-Fella Records projects. The new millennium saw Roc-A-Fella Records begin to expand one figurehead artist, Beanie Sigels The Truth had reached #5 on the Billboard charts in 2000, and DJ Clue released The Professional 2 in 2000. During this time, Jay-Z and Beanie Sigel were embroiled in a feud with Ruff Ryders Entertainment artists Jadakiss, Camron put out his Roc-A-Fella Records debut Come Home with Me in 2002 to platinum sales, and shortly signed his group The Diplomats to Roc-A-Fella Records, as well. From 2002 to 2003, Dame Dash signed several artists in response to Jay-Zs talk of retirement after his 2002 album The Blueprint2, The Gift & The Curse. He signed M. O. P. and Ol Dirty Bastard, gave Grafh a joint-venture deal, Dash, poised to take greater control in the company, began heavily promoting artists Camron, The Diplomats, State Property, Kanye West and Twista. In 2004, Kanye Wests album, The College Dropout, became a commercial and critical success, selling multi-platinum. The infamous split occurred when it was revealed that Carter, Dash and Burke had sold their 50% interest in Roc-A-Fella Records to The Island Def Jam Music Group, as President, Carter retained control of the Roc and his masters, ousting his two former partners. M. O. P. and Grafh also left Roc-A-Fella Records for Dame Dash Music Group, though both acts parted ways with Dash soon thereafter. Due to the 2004 death of Ol Dirty Bastard, Dash also brought with him masters of the project and promises to release the album, A Son Unique. It was stated by Memphis Bleek that Cory Gunz had signed, by the end of the year, Dash had split his label from Def Jam Recordings and Jay-Zs role overseeing his project, after asking for more money and a bigger role in the company. Dame Dash Music Group left Def Jam Recordings and was subsequently dissolved, in 2006, releases were largely limited to those of Roc-La-Familia, a Latino-geared label under Roc-A-Fella Records that followed the trend of Reggaeton. Both put out albums, and the label was home to New York rapper Tru Life, Jay-Z made his return that year with Kingdom Come, to mixed reviews. Freeways project received critical acclaim but not major sales, and contained comments aimed at Kanye West and Just Blaze for not supplying production and he later amended his comments, stating he desired to work with Just Blaze but the producer hasnt reached outRoc-A-Fella Records – Roc-A-Fella Records
5. The Blueprint – The Blueprint is the sixth studio album by American rapper Jay Z, released on September 11,2001, by Roc-A-Fella Records in the United States. Its release was set an earlier than initially planned in order to combat bootlegging. Recording sessions for the album took place during 2001 at Manhattan Center Studios, the album is also famous for both its producers Kanye West and Just Blazes breakouts as major producers. Upon its release, The Blueprint received universal acclaim, with critics praising Jay-Zs lyricism and it is considered one of Jay-Zs best albums and has also been labeled as one of the greatest hip-hop albums of all time. The Blueprint was reportedly cut in two weeks, with Jay-Z allegedly writing the lyrics in two days, at the time, he was awaiting two criminal trials for gun possession and assault. He was also engaged in feuds with rappers, in particular Nas. In the song Takeover, Jay-Z attacks the two Queensbridge rappers, using a sample of the song Five to One by The Doors and an interpolation of David Bowies Fame. Exceptions include Jigga That Nigga, Hola Hovito, and Renegade, a track produced by and featuring the rapper Eminem, in late August, Jay-Z announced a September–October tour in small venues. Because of the September 11 attacks occurring on the day the album was released. Chicago, San Francisco, and Los Angeles were subsequently added, the Blueprint received rave reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 88. Most consider The Blueprint to be one of Jay-Zs best albums, holding it on a close to that of his debut. The popularity and commercial success of The Blueprint established Kanye West and Just Blaze as two of hip-hop’s most celebrated producers. The Blueprint, however, revived musical sampling as a practice in hip hop music. Kanye West would later incorporate some of the production and sampling techniques he used on this album into his own solo albums. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, best-of list, saying, One retirement and one un-retirement later, its still his finest hour. In 2003, The Blueprint was ranked number 464 on Rolling Stone magazines list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, in a revised list in 2012, it was ranked number 252. Pitchfork Media named The Blueprint the second best album of 2000–2004 and it is ranked at number 4 on Rolling Stone magazines list of the 100 Best Albums of the 2000sThe Blueprint – The Blueprint
6. Alicia Keys – Alicia Augello Cook, known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, pianist and actress. Keys released her album with J Records, having had previous record deals first with Columbia. Keys debut album, Songs in A Minor was released in 2001, producing her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single Fallin, the album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002. Her sophomore album, The Diary of Alicia Keys, was released in 2003, spawning successful singles You Dont Know My Name, If I Aint Got You and Diary, the duet song My Boo with Usher scored her a second number-one single in 2004. The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards in 2005, later that year, she released her first live album, Unplugged, becoming the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album debut at number one. As I Am was released in 2007, producing the Hot 100 number-one single No One, selling 5 million copies worldwide, the Element of Freedom was released in 2009, becoming her first chart-topping album in the UK, and selling 4 million copies worldwide. Keys additionally collaborated with Jay Z on Empire State of Mind as her fourth number-one single, Girl on Fire was released in 2012 as her fifth Billboard 200 topping album, spawning the successful title track. Her second live album, VH1 Storytellers was released in 2013, Here was released in 2016, becoming her seventh R&B/Hip-Hop chart topping album. Keys made her first television appearance on The Cosby Show in 1985 as a four year old child and she made her film debut in Smokin Aces and later in The Nanny Diaries in 2007. Keys then had a NAACP Image Award nominated appearance in The Secret Life of Bees in 2008, Keys also made an appearance on season 2 of Empire in 2015. She is currently a coach on The Voice as of 2016, Keys has won numerous awards such as 15 Grammy Awards and 17 NAACP Image Awards. She has sold over 35 million albums and 30 million singles worldwide, considered a pop icon, Billboard magazine named her the top R&B artist of the 2000s decade and placed her number 10 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years. Time named her in their 100 list of most influential people in 2005, Keys was born Alicia Augello Cook on January 25,1981, in the Hells Kitchen area of Manhattan, New York City. She is the child of Teresa, a paralegal and part-time actress, and Craig Cook. Keys father is African American and her mother is of Italian, Scottish, Keys has expressed that she was comfortable with her multiracial heritage because she felt she was able to relate to different cultures. Her parents separated when she was two and she was raised by her mother during her formative years in Hells Kitchen. Keys has 2 younger half brothers, Clay Cook and Cole Cook, in 1985, Keys made an appearance on The Cosby Show at the age of four, where she and a group of girls played the parts of Rudy Huxtables sleepover guests in the episode Slumber Party. Throughout her childhood, Keys was sent to music and dance classes by her mother and she graduated in four years as valedictorian at the age of 16Alicia Keys – Keys at the 2013 ARIA Music Awards in Sydney Australia.
7. Ludacris – Christopher Brian Chris Bridges, better known by his stage name Ludacris, is an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Atlanta, Georgia. Alongside his manager, Chaka Zulu, Ludacris is the co-founder of Disturbing tha Peace, throughout his career, Ludacris has won Screen Actors Guild, Critics Choice, MTV, and Grammy Awards. Along with fellow Atlanta-based rappers Big Boi and André3000 of OutKast, born in Champaign, Illinois, Ludacris moved to Atlanta at age nine, where he began rapping. In 2001, he released Word of Mouf, followed by Chicken-n-Beer in 2003 and he took a more serious approach with his next two albums, Release Therapy, and Theater of the Mind. His next record, Battle of the Sexes, was released in 2010, Ludaversal was released on March 31,2015. As an actor, he has appeared in films including Crash, Gamer, and New Years Eve, but is best known for playing Tej Parker in the The Fast and the Furious film series. Ludacris was born as Christopher Brian Bridges in Champaign, Illinois and he later moved to the Chicago area, where he attended Emerson Middle School in Oak Park, and Oak Park & River Forest High School for one year. He then moved to Centreville, Virginia and attended Centreville High School for one year and he attended Banneker High School in Atlanta, Georgia and graduated in 1995. From 1998 to 1999, he studied management at Georgia State University. His parents were both African-American, and he also has some English and Native American ancestry and he is a distant cousin of late comedian Richard Pryor. Bridges wrote his first rap song at age nine when moving to Atlanta, Bridges served as an intern and then a DJ at Atlantas Hot 97.5 under the name Chris Lova Lova. He was also known for DJing during Freaknik at one point, Ludacris collaborated with Timbaland on the track Phat Rabbit from his album Tims Bio, Life from da Bassment. This song was a hit in many countries, in Ludacris early music career he collaborated with Dallas Austin and Jermaine Dupri. In 1998, Ludacris began to record his debut album Incognegro and this album was the defining example of Ludacris fast, wild, and comedic flow, a unique style for southern rappers. Timbaland handled part of the production, despite its poor sales, it was never deleted and is still sold today. Ludacris also appeared on Timbalands 1998 debut on Phat Rabbit, a track that would later be used on his re-issue of Incognegro called Back For The First Time, in 2000, Ludacris released his major label debut, Back for the First Time. It was produced with the help of the underground producer Sessy Melia, the album reached as high as #4 on the U. S. Billboard 200, and was a major success. Ludacris made his mark on the industry with such as Southern Hospitality and Whats Your Fantasy, along with his first ever single the Phat RabbitLudacris – Ludacris at Midtown 2012
8. Soul music – Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and blues, Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown, Atlantic and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul also became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music, catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and a tense vocal sound. The style also occasionally uses improvisational additions, twirls and auxiliary sounds, Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture. The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black, Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, and many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. By 1968, the music genre had begun to splinter. Some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, by the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul. The United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994, there are also several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music. The term soul had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States, according to another source, Soul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the 60s. The phrase soul music itself, referring to music with secular lyrics, is first attested in 1961. The term soul in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American pride, gospel groups in the 1940s and 1950s occasionally used the term as part of their name. The jazz style that derived from gospel came to be called soul jazz, important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, and Etta James. Ray Charles is often cited as popularizing the genre with his string of hits starting with 1954s I Got a Woman. Singer Bobby Womack said, Ray was the genius and he turned the world onto soul music. Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style, little Richard and James Brown were equally influential. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are also acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the singer of gospel group The Soul StirrersSoul music – James Brown
9. R&B – Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy. Lyrics focus heavily on the themes of triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, the term rhythm and blues has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was applied to blues records. This tangent of RnB is now known as British rhythm and blues, by the 1970s, the term rhythm and blues changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a style of R&B developed, becoming known as Contemporary R&B. It combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, funk, pop, hip hop, popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston, and Mariah Carey. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term rhythm and blues as a term in the United States in 1948. It replaced the term race music, which came from within the black community. The term rhythm and blues was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, before the Rhythm and Blues name was instated, various record companies had already begun replacing the term race music with sepia series. In 2010 LaMont Robinson founded the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame Museum, writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans. He has used the term R&B as a synonym for jump blues, however, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of its stronger, gospel-esque backbeat. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that rhythm, according to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to music made by black musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow, lilting, while singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, relaxed, and in control. The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, an associated with the modern popular music that rhythm. Lyrics often seemed fatalistic, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords, there was also increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophoneR&B – T-Bone Walker, American Folk Blues Festival 1972 (Heinrich Klaffs Collection 46)
10. Baroque pop – Baroque pop is a pop music subgenre that fuses classical music, orchestral pop, rock, and Baroque music. It is identifiable for its use of melodies, functional harmony patterns. The genre emerged in the 1960s after pop musicians and record producers began placing the harpsichord in the foreground of their arrangements, other typical baroque pop instrumentation includes string sections, French horns, and oboes. Baroque pops mainstream popularity faded by the 1970s, partially because punk rock, disco and hard rock took over, nonetheless, music was still produced within the genres tradition. Philadelphia soul in the 1970s and chamber pop in the 1990s both incorporated the spirit of baroque pop while the latter contested much of the low fidelity musical aesthetic. Baroque pop, stylistically, fuses elements of rock with classical music, often incorporating layered harmonies, strings and its prominent characteristics are the use of contrapuntal melodies and functional harmony patterns. It was intended to be a serious and mature outgrowth of rock music. English baroque is used by journalist Bob Stanley to describe a subset that existed between 1968 and 1973, starting in the 1960s, pop musicians and record producers like Phil Spector and the Beach Boys Brian Wilson began placing the harpsichord in the foreground of their arrangements. Harpsichords were widely available in recording studios, and had used in popular music since as early as the 1940s. One of the first pop hits to use a harpsichord was the Jamies Summertime, Summertime. Later examples range from the Beach Boys I Get Around and When I Grow Up to the Righteous Brothers Youve Lost That Lovin Feelin and the Mamas & the Papas Monday, Monday. The Boston Globes Matthew Guerriri speculates that the harpsichord may have been desirable for its buzzing, stinging timbre, slates Forrest Wickman credits Wilson and the Beatles producer, George Martin, as some of the men most responsible for the move into baroque pop. Along with Burt Bacharach, Spector had melded pop music with classical elements before they were melded with rock, writer Andrew Jackson suggests that the era of baroque pop in which rock melded with classical elements was prefaced by the Rolling Stones and Brian Wilson. The Beatles benefited from the music skills of Martin, who played a baroque harpsichord solo on the song In My Life. Author Joe Harrington noted that after its release, many baroque-rock works would soon appear, producer Tommy LiPuma believed, Once the Beatles featured that harpsichord sound on In My Life, pop producers began working it in. The genre is traced to the United States and the United Kingdom, by early 1966, various groups began using baroque and classical instrumentation, described as a baroque rock movement by Gendron. The Zombies single Shes Not There marked a point for British baroque pop. Stanley explains that the song didnt feature any oboes but stuck out rather dramatically in 1964, Shes Not There would inspire New York musician Michael Brown to form the Left Banke, whose song Walk Away Renée is considered by Stanley to be the first recognizable baroque pop singleBaroque pop – The Beatles (with help from George Martin) consciously chose their orchestral arrangements to reflect an English Baroque feel, as per their contemporaries.
11. Trip hop – Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom, especially Bristol. Trip hop can be highly experimental and it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack, Tricky, and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, and has described as Europes alternative choice in the second half of the 90s. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems, Bristols soundsystem DJs, drawing heavily on Jamaican dub music, typically used a laid-back, slow and heavy drum beat. Bristols Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristols signature sound of trip hop. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, another influence came from Gary Clails Tackhead soundsystem. Clail often worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart, produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hiphop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what later became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released Angel, one of the first examples of the crossing over to pop. In the 1990s, Janet Jackson brought trip hop into the American charts with the song If, several songs on her Janet. and The Velvet Rope used this genre of music, Songs like Got Til Its Gone and You. Massive Attacks first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK, Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. The term trip hop was coined that year, but not in reference to anything on the Massive Attack albums, in 1993, Icelandic musician Björk released Debut, produced by Wild Bunch member Nellee Hooper. The album, although rooted in four-on-the-floor house music, contained elements of trip hop and is credited as one of the first albums to introduce electronic music into mainstream pop. She had been in contact with Londons underground electronic music scene and was involved with trip hop musician Tricky. Björk embraced trip hop even more with her 1995 album Post by collaborating with Tricky, homogenic, her 1997 album, has been described as a pinnacle of trip hop music. 1994 and 1995 saw trip hop near the peak of its popularity, with such as Howie B, Naked Funk. The period also marked the debut of two acts who, along with Massive Attack, would define the Bristol scene for years to come, in 1994 Portishead, a trio comprising singer Beth Gibbons, Geoff Barrow, and Adrian Utley, released their debut album Dummy. Their background differed from Massive Attack in many ways, one of Portisheads primary influences was 1960s and 1970s film soundtrack LPs, nevertheless, Portishead shared the scratchy, jazz-sample-based aesthetic of early Massive Attack, and the sullen, fragile vocals of Gibbons also brought them wide acclaim. In 1995, Dummy was awarded the Mercury Music Prize as the best British album of the year, Tricky also released his debut solo album Maxinquaye in 1995, to great critical acclaimTrip hop – Massive Attack, a British trip hop group that helped bring the genre to mainstream success in the 1990s
12. Folk music – Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is applied to music older than that. Some types of music are also called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways, as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers and it has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times and this type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, electric folk, and others. Even individual songs may be a blend of the two, a consistent definition of traditional folk music is elusive. The terms folk music, folk song, and folk dance are comparatively recent expressions and they are extensions of the term folklore, which was coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe the traditions, customs, and superstitions of the uncultured classes. Traditional folk music also includes most indigenous music, however, despite the assembly of an enormous body of work over some two centuries, there is still no certain definition of what folk music is. Some do not even agree that the term Folk Music should be used, Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot clearly be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning often given is that of old songs, with no known composers, the fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character. Such definitions depend upon processes rather than abstract musical types, one widely used definition is simply Folk music is what the people sing. For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, Folk music was already. seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear, particularly in a community uninfluenced by art music and by commercial and printed song. In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a schema comprising four types, primitive or tribal, elite or art, folk. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genreFolk music – Béla Bartók recording Slovak peasant singers in 1908
13. Alternative rock – Alternative rock is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s and 2000s. In this instance, the word refers to the genres distinction from mainstream rock music. The terms original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their debt to either the musical style or simply the independent. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music, Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü, with the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. By the end of the decade, alternative rocks mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade, emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts. Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early, before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups he was writing about, in 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled Rock and Roll Alternative. College rock was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the radio circuit. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture, according to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called Alternative Charts. The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980, at the time, the term indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, at first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave and high-energy dance anthems. The use of alternative gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder, in the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word, the name alternative rock essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mid-1980s. Alternative bands during the 1980s generally played in clubs, recorded for indie labels. Sounds range from the gloomy soundscapes of gothic rock to the guitars of indie pop to the dirty guitars of grunge to the 1960s/1970s revivalism of Britpop. This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the 1980s, by 1984, a majority of groups signed to independent record labels mined from a variety of rock and particularly 1960s rock influences. This represented a break from the futuristic, hyper-rational post-punk yearsAlternative rock – One of the first popular alternative rock bands, R.E.M. relied on college-radio airplay, constant touring, and a grassroots fanbase to break into the musical mainstream.
14. Synth-pop – Synth-pop is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s and features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument. It was prefigured in the 1960s and early 1970s by the use of synthesizers in progressive rock, electronic, art rock, disco, and particularly the Krautrock of bands like Kraftwerk. It arose as a genre in Japan and the United Kingdom in the post-punk era as part of the new wave movement of the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. In Japan, Yellow Magic Orchestras success opened the way for bands such as P-Model, Plastics. The development of polyphonic synthesizers, the definition of MIDI. This, its adoption by the acts from the New Romantic movement, together with the rise of MTV. Synth-pop is sometimes deployed interchangeably with electropop, but electropop may also denote a variant of synth-pop that places emphasis on a harder. In the late 1980s duos such as Erasure and Pet Shop Boys adopted a style that was successful on the US dance-charts. Some artists and bands were criticised for gender bending, Synth-pop was defined by its primary use of synthesizers, drum machines and sequencers, sometimes using them to replace all other instruments. Borthwick and Moy have described the genre as diverse but, many synth-pop musicians had limited musical skills, relying on the technology to produce or reproduce the music. The result was often minimalist, with grooves that were woven together from simple repeated riffs often with no harmonic progression to speak of. Early synth-pop has been described as eerie, sterile, and vaguely menacing, using droning electronics with little change in inflection, common lyrical themes of synth-pop songs were isolation, urban anomie, and feelings of being emotionally cold and hollow. Synthesizers were increasingly used to imitate the conventional and clichéd sound of orchestras, thin, treble-dominant, synthesized melodies and simple drum programmes gave way to thick, and compressed production, and a more conventional drum sound. Lyrics were generally optimistic, dealing with more traditional subject matter for pop music such as romance, escapism. According to music writer Simon Reynolds, the hallmark of 1980s synth-pop was its emotional, at times operatic singers such as Marc Almond, Alison Moyet and Annie Lennox. Because synthesizers removed the need for groups of musicians, these singers were often part of a duo where their partner played all the instrumentation. Later synth-pop saw a shift to a style influenced by other genres. Electronic musical synthesizers that could be used practically in a recording studio became available in the mid-1960s, the portable Minimoog, which allowed much easier use, particularly in live performance was widely adopted by progressive rock musicians such as Richard Wright of Pink Floyd and Rick Wakeman of YesSynth-pop – The Prophet-5, one of the first polyphonic synthesizers. It was widely used in 1980s synthpop, along with the Roland Jupiter and Yamaha DX7.
15. Classical music – Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical and secular music. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period, Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo, meter and rhythms for a piece of music. This can leave less room for such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation. The term classical music did not appear until the early 19th century, the earliest reference to classical music recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836. This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, the written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them, J. S. The use of written notation also preserves a record of the works, Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced. That said, the score does not provide complete and exact instructions on how to perform a historical work, even if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, we do not know exactly how fast the piece should be played. Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations, during the Classical era, the composer-performer Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto, during the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century and they consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments. The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for music and includes members of the string, woodwind, brass. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass and it generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. However, many bands use a double bass. Many of the used to perform medieval music still exist. Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ, fiddle, Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut, during the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line. Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the medieval era, becoming prevalent by the later 13thClassical music
16. The College Dropout – The College Dropout is the debut studio album by American hip hop artist Kanye West, released February 10,2004, by Roc-A-Fella Records. It was recorded over a period of four years, beginning in 1999, nonetheless intent on pursuing a solo career, it was several years before West finally received a record deal from Roc-A-Fella Records. It features vocal contributions from Jay-Z, Mos Def, Jamie Foxx, Syleena Johnson, diverging from the then-dominant gangster persona in hip hop, Wests lyrics concern themes of family, self-consciousness, materialism, religion, racism, and higher education. The album was promoted by singles including Through the Wire and Jesus Walks, All Falls Down and Slow Jamz both charted within the top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100, with the latter charting at number one. Upon its release, The College Dropout debuted at two on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 441,000 copies during its first week. It is Wests best-selling album in the United States, with sales of 3.4 million copies. It has been named by Time and Rolling Stone, among other publications, although he had attained success as a producer, Kanye West aspired to be a rapper, but had struggled to attain a record deal. Record companies ignored him because he did not portray the gangsta image prominent in hip hop at the time. After a series of meetings with Capitol Records, West was ultimately denied an artist deal, according to Capitol Records A&R, Joe Weinberger, he was approached by West and almost signed a deal with him, but another person in the company convinced Capitols president not to. Desperate to keep West from defecting to another label, then-label head Damon Dash reluctantly signed West to Roc-A-Fella Records, the crash left him with a shattered jaw, which had to be wired shut in reconstructive surgery. The accident inspired West, two weeks after being admitted to a hospital, he recorded a song at the Record Plant Studios with his jaw wired shut. West added that the album was my medicine, as working on the record distracted him from the pain, through The Wire was first available on Wests Get Well Soon. At the same time, West announced that he was working on an album called The College Dropout, Dont let society tell you, This is what you have to do. The College Dropout was recorded at The Record Plant in Los Angeles, California, according to John Monopoly, Wests friend, manager and business partner, the album. Hes been gathering beats for years and he was always producing with the intention of being a rapper. Theres beats on the album hes been saving for himself for years. At one point, West hovered between making a portion of the production in the studio and the majority within his own apartment in Newark, New Jersey. Because it was an apartment, West was able to set up a home studio in one of the roomsThe College Dropout – The College Dropout
17. Late Registration – Late Registration is the 2005 second studio album by American hip hop producer and rapper Kanye West. It was recorded over the course of a year in sessions held across studios in New York City and Hollywood, the album features guest contributions from Adam Levine, Lupe Fiasco, Jamie Foxx, Common, Jay-Z, Brandy, and Nas, among others. Its production was notably more lush and elaborate than Wests 2004 debut album The College Dropout, as he utilized intricate sampling methods, Wests lyrics explore both personal and political themes, including poverty, drug trafficking, racism, healthcare, and the blood diamond trade. Late Registration was released by Roc-A-Fella Records and Def Jam Recordings on August 30,2005 and it earned West the 2006 Grammy Award for Best Rap Album and an Album of the Year nomination, while appearing at the top of several publications year-end lists ranking the years top albums. Rolling Stone named it the best album of 2005, and later included it at number 118 on its 2012 list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, Late Registration debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart, selling 860,000 copies in its first week. The album has thus far sold over 3.1 million copies in the United States and has been certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. It produced five singles, including the international hits Touch the Sky, Heard Em Say and Gold Digger, Music videos for all five singles were produced, and West also supported the album with a promotional concert tour, and the live album Late Orchestration. Late Registration is the second of Kanye Wests planned four education-themed studio albums, following the major success of The College Dropout, the album reveals his progression in writing lyrics and an incorporation of a wider range of musical styles. At the time, the point of Wests production style was the use of sped-up vocal samples from soul records. A longtime fan of the English trip hop group Portishead, West had been influenced by Roseland NYC Live. Early in his career, the album had inspired him to incorporate string arrangements into his hip hop production. Though West had not been able to afford many live instruments around the time of his debut album, West juxtaposed the lush, intricate melodies of the string section with the hard, pounding drum rhythms of hip-hop, and used the sound for the foundation of his rapping. West collaborated with American film score composer Jon Brion, who served as the albums co-executive producer for several tracks, West had been exposed to Brions work while watching the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, for which Brion had composed music. Hes got this sense of pop record-making which is really solid and he was already barking up that tree. This is definitely not just a hip-hop album, but it is also by no means overtly arty, or non-hip-hop. I dont think its a record by any means. West took over a year and invested two million dollars towards the construction of Late Registration and he began working in the studio after he finished touring with Usher on the R&B singers The Truth Tour. By November 2004, West had completed nearly seventy-five percent of the album, however he felt unsatisfied with its outcome and in March of the following year, he brought in Jon Brion, which drastically altered the projects directionLate Registration – Late Registration
18. 808s & Heartbreak – 808s & Heartbreak is the fourth studio album by American recording artist Kanye West. It was released on November 24,2008, by Roc-A-Fella Records, West recorded the album during September and October 2008 at Glenwood Studios in Burbank, California and Avex Recording Studio in Honolulu, Hawaii, with the help of producers No I. D. 808s & Heartbreak debuted at one on the Billboard 200. Despite varying responses from listeners, the received positive reviews from most critics and was named one of 2008s best records in several year-end lists. Four singles were released to promote the record, including the hit singles Love Lockdown, by 2013, it had sold 1.7 million copies in the United States. Following the release of his studio album Graduation, the remainder of 2007. On November 10,2007, Wests mother Donda West died due to complications arising following cosmetic surgery involving a tummy tuck, months later, West and fiancée Alexis Phifer ended their engagement and their long-term intermittent relationship, which had begun in 2002. At the same time, West struggled to adapt to his pop star status he had once striven to achieve. The loss, loneliness and longing for companionship and a sense of normality served to inspire 808s & Heartbreak, West stated that This album was therapeutic – its lonely at the top. A photograph taken by Danny Clinch of West kissing his mother on the cheek was included in the booklet liner notes. West felt that his emotions could not be expressed simply through rapping. There were melodies that were in me, he explained, what was in me I couldnt stop. Either call it pop or pop art, either one Im good with, the album was recorded over a span of approximately three weeks from September to October 2008. Recording sessions took place at Glenwood Studios in Burbank, California and at Avex Recording Studio in Honolulu, as implied by its title, 808s & Heartbreak prominently features the Roland TR-808 drum machine. West utilized the sounds created by the 808 and manipulated its pitch to produce a distorted, electronic sound and he felt the characteristic of the sound was representative of his state of mind. According to West, the fact that Hawaiis area code was 808 was coincidental, the realization inspired him to pursue his direction with the album, however. In terms of direction, Wests intentions, according to Mike Dean, were to go against the typical sound of hip hop beat. Overall, West maintained a minimal but functional approach towards the studio production808s & Heartbreak – West (center) working on the album with his former mentor, producer No I.D. (left).
19. My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy – My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy is the fifth studio album by American hip hop rapper and producer Kanye West. Following a period of public and legal controversy, West retreated to an exile in Hawaii in 2009. There, he worked on the album in a communal recording environment that involved numerous contributing musicians, the album features guest appearances from Bon Iver, Jay Z, Pusha T, Rick Ross, Kid Cudi, Nicki Minaj, John Legend and more. Production is led by West himself, alongside a variety of record producers including Mike Dean. Jeff Bhasker, RZA, S1, Bink and DJ Frank E, the album deals with themes of excess and celebrity, and explores such issues as consumer culture, race, and the idealism of the American Dream. My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy was released on November 22,2010, to promote the album, West released free songs through his GOOD Fridays series and four singles, the Billboard hits Power, Monster, and Runaway, and the international hit All of the Lights. It was also promoted with a film set to the records music. The album debuted at one on the Billboard 200 and eventually sold 1,032,000 copies in the United States. A widespread critical success, it was named the best record of 2010 by many publications and has appeared on several lists ranking the greatest albums of all time. The album was conceived during Wests self-imposed exile in Oahu, Hawaii, following a period of legal and public image controversy amid an overworked mental state. West later said that his fatigue from overworking led to his controversial outburst at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, his disgust with its ensuing media response and it was formerly known as Good Ass Job and tentatively Dark Twisted Fantasy. GOOD Music artist Big Sean was the second to announce the title of the album as Good Ass Job, on July 24,2010, on Kanye Wests blog, a banner appeared reading My Dark Twisted Fantasy Trailer. On July 28,2010, West announced via his new official Twitter account that The album is no longer called Good Ass Job Im bouncing a couple of titles around now, the official title, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, was announced on October 5,2010. It was reported that West spent over $3 million in expenses from his record label Def Jam on the recording. Drake, Common, Jay-Z, Eminem, Lil Wayne, John Legend, Fergie, Rihanna, The-Dream, Ryan Leslie, Elton John, Justin Vernon, Seal, Beyoncé, Kid Cudi, Mos Def, Santigold, Alicia Keys, Elly Jackson, and Tony Williams. Record producers who participated in the sessions with West included Q-Tip, RZA, DJ Premier, Madlib, Madlib said he made five beats for the album, while DJ Premier said his beats were ultimately discarded. West, who had recorded at Avex for 808s & Heartbreak. According to Noah Callahan-Bever, who visited West during the recording sessions and he heads to another studio room to make progress on another songMy Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy – My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy
20. Watch The Throne – Watch the Throne is a collaborative studio album by American rappers Jay Z and Kanye West, released on August 8,2011, by Roc-A-Fella Records, Roc Nation, and Def Jam Recordings. Before the album, Jay Z and West had collaborated on their respective singles, as longtime friends, they originally sought out to record a five-song EP together, but the project eventually evolved into a full-length album. Recording sessions took place at locations and began in November 2010. Production on the album was led by West himself, alongside a variety of record producers including Mike Dean, Swizz Beatz, Sak Pase, Jeff Bhasker, The Neptunes. Jay-Z and Wests braggadocio lyrics exhibit themes of opulence, fame, materialism, power, the album expresses other topics such as Jay-Zs thoughts on fatherhood, Wests reflection on being deemed a social villain, and their legacy as performers. Music writers interpreted the subject matter to concern the rappers plight as African Americans struggling with financial success in America. The album produced seven singles, including H•A•M, Otis, Lift Off, No Church in the Wild, and the Billboard Hot 100 top five Niggas in Paris, which all received music videos. Jay-Z and West promoted the album with the Watch the Throne Tour that spanned October 2011 to June 2012, Watch the Throne debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 436,000 copies its first week. While some critics found the lyrical content uninspiring, its production. Many critics and publications placed the album in their year-end best-of lists and it also earned Jay-Z and West seven Grammy Award nominations. The album is certified platinum in the US, Wests early production work on Jay-Zs music helped raise his profile in the music industry. While originally only viewed as a producer, West eventually was seen as both a viable rapper and producer thanks to the success of his debut album The College Dropout, West continued to be one of Jay-Zs main producers on subsequent albums such as The Black Album and Kingdom Come. Jay-Z appeared on Kanyes first two albums as well, and the two frequently collaborated, during the promotional stages of Wests My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, a remix of the song Power surfaced featuring Jay-Z. Following this, West announced on Twitter his intention to drop a five-track EP with Jay-Z, also according to the rapper, the track Monster was intended for the EP, though that failed to surface. It was later revealed by West that the project had expanded into a full-length album in an October 2010 interview for MTV. He said in the interview that they planned to record in the south of France, production began in November 2010 in England and continued during available times in Jay-Zs and Wests schedules at locations in Australia, Paris, Abu Dhabi, New York City, and Los Angeles. He noted difficulties in the process, including arguments with West regarding their direction. Following the release of single, H•A•M in January 2011Watch The Throne – Watch the Throne
21. John Legend – John Roger Stephens, known professionally as John Legend, is an American singer, songwriter, musician and actor. He has won ten Grammy Awards, one Golden Globe Award, in 2007, Legend received the Hal David Starlight Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Prior to the release of Legends debut album, his career gained momentum through a series of collaborations with already established artists. At various points in his career, Legend has sung in Magnetic Mans Getting Nowhere, Kanye Wests All of the Lights, on Slum Villages Selfish, Legend played piano on Lauryn Hills Everything Is Everything. For his solo work, he earned a Billboard Hot 100 number-one single with All of Me in 2013 and he won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 2015 for writing the song Glory from the film Selma. Legend was born on December 28,1978, in Springfield and he is one of four children of Phyllis Elaine, a seamstress, and Ronald Lamar Stephens, a factory worker and former National Guardsman. Throughout his childhood, Legend was homeschooled on and off by his mother, at the age of four, he performed with his church choir. He began playing the piano at age seven, at the age of twelve, Legend attended North High School, from which he graduated salutatorian of his class four years later. According to Legend, he was offered admission to Harvard University and scholarships to Georgetown University and he attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied English with an emphasis on African-American literature. While in college, Legend served as president and musical director of a co-ed jazz and his lead vocals on the groups recording of Joan Osbornes One of Us received critical acclaim landing the song on the track list of the 1998 Best of Collegiate a Cappella compilation CD. Legend was also a member of the senior societies Sphinx Senior Society. While in college, Legend was introduced to Lauryn Hill by a friend, Hill hired him to play piano on Everything Is Everything, a song from her album The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill. During this period, he began to hold a number of shows around Philadelphia, eventually expanding his audience base to New York, Boston, Atlanta and he graduated college in 1999, and thereafter began producing, writing, and recording his own music. He released two albums independently, his self-titled demo and Live at Jimmys Uptown, which he sold at his shows, after graduating from the University of Pennsylvania, Legend began working as a management consultant for the Boston Consulting Group. He subsequently began working on his demo and began sending his work to record labels. In 2001, Devo Springsteen introduced Legend to then up-and-coming hip-hop artist Kanye West and this was after his rebranding, as the artist known as, Dorrough. After signing to Wests label, he chose his name from an idea that was given to him by poet J. Ivy. J. Ivy stated, I heard your music and it reminds me of that music from the old school and you sound like one of the legendsJohn Legend – John Legend at the Citi Presents Evenings with Legends show on 29 January 2014 in New York.
22. Common (entertainer) – Lonnie Rashid Lynn, Jr. better known by his stage name Common, is an American rapper, actor, film producer and poet from Chicago, Illinois. Common debuted in 1992 with the album Can I Borrow a Dollar, and maintained a significant underground following into the late 1990s, after which he gained notable mainstream success through his work with the Soulquarians. Commons first major-label album, Like Water for Chocolate, received critical acclaim. His first Grammy Award was in 2003, winning Best R&B Song for Love of My Life and its popularity was matched by May 2005s Be, which was nominated for Best Rap Album, at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Common was awarded his second Grammy for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group, for Southside and his best-of album, Thisisme Then, The Best of Common, was released on November 27,2007. He also narrated the award-winning documentary Bouncing Cats, about one mans efforts to improve the lives of children in Uganda through hip-hop/b-boy culture and he starred as Elam Ferguson on the AMC western television series Hell on Wheels. Common was born on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois and he was raised in the Calumet Heights neighborhood. He is the son of educator Dr. Mahalia Ann Hines and they divorced when he was six years old, resulting in his fathers moving to Denver, Colorado. This left Common to be raised by his mother, but his father remained active in his life, while a student at Luther High School South in Chicago, Lynn with his friends, record producer and Corey Crawley formed C. D. R. A rap trio that opened for acts that included N. W. A, Common attended Florida A&M University for two years under a scholarship and majored in business administration. After being featured in the Unsigned Hype column of The Source magazine, Lynn debuted in 1992 with the single Take It EZ, with the 1994 release of Resurrection, Common achieved a much larger degree of critical acclaim, which extended beyond Chicago natives. The album sold well and received a strong positive reaction among alternative. Resurrection was Commons last album produced almost entirely by his production partner. In 1996, Common appeared on the Red Hot Organizations compilation CD, America Is Dying Slowly, alongside Biz Markie, Wu-Tang Clan, the CD, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic among African American men, was heralded as a masterpiece by The Source magazine. He would later contribute to the Red Hot Organizations Fela Kuti tribute album. He collaborated with Djelimady Tounkara on a remake of Kutis track, Years of Tears, the song I Used to Love H. E. R. from Resurrection ignited a feud with West Coast rap group Westside Connection. The lyrics of the song criticized the hip hop music was taking and was interpreted by some as directing blame towards the popularity of West Coast Gangsta rap. Westside Connection first responded with the 1995 song Westside Slaughterhouse, with the lyrics Used to love H. E. R, Westside Connection recorded tracks venting their issues with rival East Coast rappersCommon (entertainer) – Common at a signing for his book, One Day It'll All Make Sense in Tribeca, Manhattan in 2011.
23. Heartless (Kanye West song) – Heartless is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West, released on November 4,2008 digitally as the second single for his fourth studio album, 808s & Heartbreak. It debuted at the number four spot on the Billboard Hot 100 where it peaked at number two and reached number-one on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks and U. S. Heartless is one of the best selling singles of all time, on his fourth studio album 808s & Heartbreak and in the pop song Heartless, Kanye West utilized the voice audio processor device known as Auto-Tune. West had previously experimented with the technology on his album, The College Dropout, for the background vocals of Jesus Walks. The voice altering device created a unique sound helping West express his feelings of his break up with fiancée Alexis Phifer months after the untimely passing of his mother. The pipe-organ sound was sampled from The Alan Parsons Project song Ammonia Avenue, the single fluctuated in and out of the top ten for two months before reaching number three in mid-January, and rose to its peak at number two on the chart issue dated February 21. In early March it also reached number four on the Pop 100 chart and it is Wests second consecutive top five hit on the Hot 100, and his second consecutive song to debut in the top five there. This makes 808s & Heartbreak the first West album to contain two Hot 100 top five hits, on Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, it peaked at four. It debuted at eleven on the Hot Rap Tracks and has managed to reach number-one in late January. As of September 2012, the song has sold over 4 million paid downloads in the United States, becoming Wests second song to reach that mark. In Canada, it made a Hot Shot Debut at #8 on the Canadian Hot 100. On 1 December 2008, the song debuted at #63 on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart and it reached #6 on the New Zealand RIANZ chart. On the UK Singles Chart, the song debuted at number #45, the official digital release date for the single was 12 January 2009. On the Irish Singles Chart the song has peaked at #10, directed by Hype Williams, the animated music video for Heartless pays tribute to Ralph Bakshis 1981 film American Pop. It features use of rotoscoped animation, in which people were filmed and had their every move drawn over. The video portrays West wandering through a city alone at night, the video also takes place in Wests actual apartment den, where the Jetsons portraits are located. West stands by the Astro portrait in five scenes of the video and it was the first animated video directed by Williams. The song was performed for the first time in Denver, Colorado, the song was also performed at a T. I. concert at Key Club in Los AngelesHeartless (Kanye West song)
24. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
25. Hip hop music – It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements, MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, while often used to refer solely to rapping, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. Hip hops early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. The Sugarhill Gangs 1979 song Rappers Delight is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles, prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to scenes in dozens of countries. New school hip hop was the wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. The Golden age hip hop period was a period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, and A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles, in the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s. I. G. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap, at the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being Neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a pop music genre in the mid-1990s. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences also increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop, the United States also saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics. Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, during the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. Creation of the hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was known as disco rap. Cowboy later worked the hip hop cadence into a part of his stage performance, the first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hopHip hop music – 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the Bronx, a venue used by Kool Herc that is often considered the birthplace of hip hop in 1973
26. Hot 100 – The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play and online streaming, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is available on a real-time basis. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays, as of the issue for the week ending on April 15,2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,061 different number one hits. The current number one song is Shape of You by Ed Sheeran, prior to 1955, Billboard did not have a unified, all-encompassing popularity chart, instead measuring songs by individual metrics. At the start of the era in 1955, three such charts existed, Best Sellers in Stores was the first Billboard chart, established in 1936. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country, Most Played by Jockeys was Billboards original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys, Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States. On the week ending November 12,1955, Billboard published The Top 100 for the first time, the Top 100 combined all aspects of a singles performance, based on a point system that typically gave sales more weight than radio airplay. The Best Sellers In Stores, Most Played by Jockeys and Most Played in Jukeboxes charts continued to be published concurrently with the new Top 100 chart. The week ending July 28,1958 was the publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top 100 charts. On August 4,1958, Billboard premiered one main all-genre singles chart, the Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and Billboard discontinued the Best Sellers In Stores chart on October 13,1958. The Billboard Hot 100 is still the standard by which a songs popularity is measured in the United States, the Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan and streaming activity provided by online music sources. There are several component charts that contribute to the calculation of the Hot 100. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. Hot Singles Sales, the top selling singles compiled from a sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled. The chart is released weekly and measures sales of commercial singles. With the decline in sales of singles in the USHot 100 – The Billboard logo
27. Denver – Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is in the South Platte River Valley on the edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, Denver is nicknamed the Mile-High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile above sea level, making it the highest major city in the United States. The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the reference for the Mountain Time Zone. Denver is ranked as a Beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. With a 2015 estimated population of 682,545, Denver ranks as the 19th-most populous U. S. city, and with a 2. 8% increase in 2015, the city is also the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 2,814,330 and ranked as the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 3,418,876, which ranks as the 16th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the USA by U. S. News & World Report and this was the first historical settlement in what was later to become the city of Denver. The site faded quickly, however, and by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria, Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him. The location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne, the site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons, livestock and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were often traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria, in May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pikes Peak Express in order to secure the regions first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for passengers, mail, freight, and gold, in 1863, Western Union furthered Denvers dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus. The Colorado Territory was created on February 28,1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1,1861, Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the territorial capital, with its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to DenverDenver – Top to Bottom, Left to Right: Denver Skyline, Colorado State Capitol, Red Rocks Amphitheatre, Sports Authority Field at Mile High, RTD Light Rail train Downtown.
28. The Fray – The Fray is an American rock band from Denver, Colorado. The Fray achieved national success with their first single, Over My Head, the release of their second single, How to Save a Life, brought the band worldwide fame. The song charted in the top three of the Billboard Hot 100 and was a top 5 single in Australia, Canada, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The groups self-titled, second album, released in 2009, debuted at number-one on the Billboard charts and was certified gold in the United States, Australia and it was also nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album in 2010. While both the albums were successful, critical reception was mixed. The Fray was ranked No.84 on Billboards Artists of the Decade list and their third album Scars & Stories, released in 2012, achieved moderate commercial success, debuting and peaking at number four on the Billboard 200. The album again received mixed reviews from critics, the bands fourth album, Helios, was released in February 2014. The bands fifth and latest album, Through the Years, The Best of the Fray, was released in November 2016. The Frays use of the piano as the instrument in their music has led critics to compare the band with English piano-driven bands such as Coldplay. However, the band lists its influences as the Wallflowers, Counting Crows, Better Than Ezra, the band members lives were largely formed in Denver churches where they helped lead worship, and in the Christian school three of them attended. Isaac Slade and guitarist Joe King were several years ahead of drummer Ben Wysocki at Faith Christian Academy, Wysocki and guitarist David Welsh played in the same worship band. In the spring of 2002, former schoolmates Isaac Slade and Joe King reconnected, Isaac and Joe later added Mike Ayars on guitar, Zach Johnson on drums, and Slades younger brother Caleb on bass, though Caleb was later asked to leave. Calebs departure from the band caused a rift in his relationship with Isaac and this later became the inspiration for the song Over My Head. Following this Johnson left the band as well to attend an art school in New York. Ben Wysocki, a bandmate of Isaac Slade, joined as drummer and later, Dave Welsh. The newly formed band was named the Fray, the band members decided on a name after asking people to put band names on a piece of paper from which they picked randomly. The band has had no permanent bassist since Caleb, instead employing touring bassists on a temporary basis, the current bassist is Jason Hardin, who has been touring with the band since 2014. The band released its first record, Movement EP in 2002, the next year, the band released Reason EP produced by How To Save A Life co-producer Aaron Johnson, which garnered the band local fame and acclaimThe Fray – The Fray in 2014
29. American Idol 8 – The eighth season of American Idol premiered on January 13,2009, and concluded on May 20,2009. Judges Simon Cowell, Paula Abdul, and Randy Jackson continued to judge the shows contestants, the season introduced Kara DioGuardi as the fourth judge on the Idol panel. It was also Abduls final season as a judge, Kris Allen, a native of Conway, Arkansas, was announced the winner of the competition on May 20,2009, defeating runner-up Adam Lambert after nearly 100 million votes. Kris Allen is the only married winner of the competition at the time of his victory and this was the second season where both of the final two contestants had been in the bottom three or two at least once before the finale, with the first being season three. The eighth season saw changes to the format of the show. There were 36 semi-finalists instead of 24, and thirteen finalists instead of twelve, nine contestants chosen by the public, another addition was the save, which was used on the top seven results show to veto Matt Girauds elimination. Seven contestants from this season were signed to record deals, the signed artists are Kris Allen, who was then signed to 19 Entertainment/Jive Records. In addition to Allen, Adam Lambert, Danny Gokey, Allison Iraheta, Lil Rounds, Anoop Desai, several changes were planned for season eight. Songwriter and record producer Kara DioGuardi was added as a judge on the panel. She had previously collaborated with Celine Dion, Hilary Duff, Britney Spears, Enrique Iglesias, Leona Lewis and Christina Aguilera, as a songwriter, she had already worked with several American Idol alumni and winners, including Kelly Clarkson, Carrie Underwood, David Archuleta and David Cook. Meanwhile, Ken Warwick became the new producer, as Nigel Lythgoe had left the show to focus on So You Think You Can Dance and his new show with Simon Fuller. Idol Gives Back was canceled for season 8, as the economic crisis and recession. The semifinals saw the biggest change as the wild card round returned for the first time since the third season and they were judged by the panel, instead of a vote by the viewers, with four advancing to the finals. The eighth season also marked the first time that auditions were conducted outside the United States, several people from Puerto Rico were eventually selected for the semi-final rounds of the show. Another change in the Idol format is judges save, an element previously used in Frances Nouvelle Star, the judges were given the power to exercise a veto on one eliminated contestant in the finals and spare them from elimination for that particular week. This can only be invoked up until the Final 5, the following week two contestants will be eliminated if the save is used because nobody is eliminated on the week that the save is used, except in season 11 where one only contestant was eliminated. The save can only be used once per season and it must be unanimous, the new format change was revealed on March 11,2009. The first recipient of the Judges Save is Matt Giraud, the twelfth season is the first season the judges save was not usedAmerican Idol 8 – American Idol
30. Kris Allen – Kristopher Neil Kris Allen is an American musician, singer and songwriter from Conway, Arkansas, and the winner of the eighth season of American Idol. Prior to Idol, he self-released a 2007 album entitled Brand New Shoes, Allens Idol coronation song, No Boundaries and his version of Heartless both charted within the Top 20 of the Billboard Hot 100. Allens post-Idol self-titled album was released on November 17,2009, the album debuted at number eleven on the U. S. Billboard 200. The albums lead single, Live Like Were Dying, was released on September 21,2009, Allens second major-label album Thank You Camellia was released on May 22,2012, and the lead single The Vision of Love was released March 26,2012. Allen released his studio album, Letting You In, on March 18,2016. Allen was born in Jacksonville, Arkansas, to Kimberly and Neil Allen and he is the elder of two sons, his younger brother, Daniel, is a college cheerleading coach. Allens interest in music very early. Additionally, he himself to play the guitar at age 13. His musical influences, as stated in his Idol confessionals, include the Beatles, Jamie Cullum, Jason Mraz, Pat Monahan, John Mayer, Allen played publicly for several years before trying out for Idol, even opening for earlier Idol contestant Sean Michel on multiple occasions. He has described his decision to audition for American Idol as a last hurrah before giving up his pursuit of a music career. After high school, Allen moved to Conway, Arkansas, to attend the University of Central Arkansas, where he was a business major and a member of Chi Alpha campus ministries. During college, he participated in Christian missionary work around the world, including in Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, South Africa, Spain and Thailand. Allen also served as a leader for New Life Church in Conway and Little Rock, AR. He dropped out of college in the middle of his year to pursue music professionally, performing in local bars. Allen planned to go back to college to finish his degree and get a real job, Kris stated that If I had not made it through in American Idol, I would have gone back to college and gotten my business degree. Allen realized during college that he wanted to play music professionally and he worked as a shoe salesman at a sporting goods store during the day to make ends meet and continued playing gigs in Little Rock and Fayetteville at night. In 2007, Allen wrote and self-produced an album entitled Brand New Shoes with college friends and bandmates Michael Holmes and Chase Erwin. The albums title makes reference to Allens days as a shoe salesman, Allen auditioned for the eighth season of American Idol in Louisville, Kentucky, with his brother Daniel, who did not make it to HollywoodKris Allen – Allen in New York City, June 2009
31. 2008 Democratic National Convention – The convention was held in Denver, Colorado, from August 25 to August 28,2008, at Pepsi Center. Senator Barack Obama from Illinois gave his speech on August 28 at Invesco Field in what the party called an Open Convention. Denver last hosted the Democratic National Convention in 1908, Obama became the partys first African-American nominee for President. Senator Joe Biden from Delaware was nominated for Vice President, Obama officially received the nomination for President on August 27, when his former opponent, U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton of New York, interrupted the official call to move that Obama be selected by acclamation. Senator Joe Biden of Delaware accepted the nomination for Vice President on the same night, Obama accepted his nomination the following night in a speech at INVESCO Field before a record-setting crowd of 84,000 people in attendance. Howard Dean presided over the party in his capacity as Chair of the Democratic National Convention. From the national committee, Leah D. Daughtry served as executive of the Democratic National Convention Committee. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi served as permanent Chair of the Convention, sharing in her responsibilities in the convention were three co-chairmen, Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius, Texas State Senator Leticia R. Van de Putte, and Atlanta Mayor Shirley Franklin. The decision was made, according to the party, to maximize momentum for our Democratic ticket in the months of the Presidential election. Customarily, the party of the incumbent President holds its convention after the party has held their meeting. The Democratic National Committee presented themes for each day of the convention, the August 25 theme was One Nation. The August 26 theme was Renewing Americas Promise while its August 27 theme was Securing Americas Future, the August 28 theme highlights Obamas campaign motto, Change We Can Believe In. Featured speakers crafted their messages to the theme of the day, with close delegate counts for Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, there was early speculation of the first brokered convention in decades. Democratic National Committee Chair Howard Dean sought to avoid such a circumstance, on February 2,2007, the Democratic Party published Call for the 2008 Democratic National Convention, the rules governing the convention. There were 3,409.5 pledged delegates, those committed to vote for a candidate, selected by primary voters. The superdelegates consisted of DNC members, Democratic Congress members and Governors, fixed numbers of delegates were allocated for American Samoa, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, and Democrats Abroad. The delegate population must reflect the ethnic distribution, and at least 50% of the delegates must be women2008 Democratic National Convention – Nominees Obama and Biden
32. Denver, Colorado – Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is in the South Platte River Valley on the edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, Denver is nicknamed the Mile-High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile above sea level, making it the highest major city in the United States. The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the reference for the Mountain Time Zone. Denver is ranked as a Beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. With a 2015 estimated population of 682,545, Denver ranks as the 19th-most populous U. S. city, and with a 2. 8% increase in 2015, the city is also the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 2,814,330 and ranked as the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 3,418,876, which ranks as the 16th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the USA by U. S. News & World Report and this was the first historical settlement in what was later to become the city of Denver. The site faded quickly, however, and by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria, Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him. The location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne, the site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons, livestock and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were often traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria, in May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pikes Peak Express in order to secure the regions first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for passengers, mail, freight, and gold, in 1863, Western Union furthered Denvers dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus. The Colorado Territory was created on February 28,1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1,1861, Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the territorial capital, with its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to DenverDenver, Colorado – Top to Bottom, Left to Right: Denver Skyline, Colorado State Capitol, Red Rocks Amphitheatre, Sports Authority Field at Mile High, RTD Light Rail train Downtown.
33. T.I. – Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. better known by his stage names T. I. and Tip, is an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Atlanta, Georgia. He signed his first major-label record deal in 1999, with Arista Records subsidiary, in 2001, T. I. formed the Southern hip hop group Pimp Squad Click, alongside his longtime friends and fellow Atlanta-based rappers. Upon being released from Arista, T. I. signed to Atlantic Records and subsequently became the executive officer of his own label imprint, Grand Hustle Records. T. I. is also perhaps best known as one of the artists who popularized the hip hop subgenre trap music, along with Young Jeezy and Gucci Mane. T. I. has released nine albums, with seven of them reaching the top five of the US Billboard 200 chart. Throughout his career, T. I. has also released several successful singles, including Bring Em Out, Whatever You Like, Live Your Life, Dead and Gone, Ball. He began to gain recognition in 2003, following his first high-profile feature, on fellow Atlanta-based rapper Bone Crushers hit single. He earned more prominence with the release of Trap Muzik, which includes the Top 40 hits, Rubber Band Man, the next year, T. I. appeared on Destinys Childs international hit, Soldier, alongside Lil Wayne. His subsequent albums, King and T. I. vs. T. I. P. generated high record sales and were supported by singles, such as What You Know and Big Shit Poppin. In 2013, T. I. was featured on Robin Thickes hit single Blurred Lines, alongside Pharrell Williams, in November 2013, T. I. announced that he had signed with Columbia Records, after his 10-year contract with Atlantic came to an end. He released his Columbia Records debut, Paperwork, in October 2014, in February 2016, T. I. announced he signed a distribution deal with Roc Nation, to release his tenth album. T. I. has won three Grammy Awards, namely Best Rap Solo Performance, Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. T. I. has served two terms in county jail, twice for probation violations and a federal prison bid for a U. S. federal weapons charge, while serving 11 months in prison, he released his seventh studio album, No Mercy. T. I. has also had an acting career, starring in the films ATL, Takers, Get Hard, Identity Thief. He is also an author, having written two novels Power & Beauty and Trouble & Triumph, both of which were released to moderate success. T. I. has also starred in the American reality television series T. I. s Road to Redemption, in 2009, Billboard ranked him as the 27th Artist of the 2000s decade. Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. was born on September 25,1980, in Atlanta, Georgia and he was raised by his grandparents in Atlantas Center Hill neighborhood just off Bankhead Highway. His father resided in New York City, and he would go there to visitT.I. – T.I. performing in September 2012.
35. Studio album – Album, is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD, record, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records, vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc and MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl, an album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. Recording may take a few hours to years to complete, usually in several takes with different parts recorded separately. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed live, the majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, sound effects, voice adjustments, etc. With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, and sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, historically, the term album was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, the LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. It was adopted by the industry as a standard format for the album. Apart from relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound capability, the term album had been carried forward from the early nineteenth century when it had been used for collections of short pieces of music. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, as part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some commenters have declared that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as mini-albums or EPs, Albums such as Tubular Bells, Amarok, Hergest Ridge by Mike Oldfield, and Yess Close to the Edge, include fewer than four tracks. There are no rules against artists such as Pinhead Gunpowder referring to their own releases under thirty minutes as albums. These are known as box sets, material is stored on an album in sections termed tracks, normally 11 or 12 tracks. A music track is a song or instrumental recording. The term is associated with popular music where separate tracks are known as album tracks. When vinyl records were the medium for audio recordings a track could be identified visually from the groovesStudio album – Early record albums were packages of 78 RPM records in book form
36. The RZA – Robert Fitzgerald Diggs, better known by his stage name RZA, is an American rapper, record producer, musician, actor, filmmaker and author. A prominent figure in hip hop, RZA is the de facto leader of the Wu-Tang Clan and he has produced almost all of Wu-Tang Clans albums as well as many Wu-Tang solo and affiliate projects. He is a cousin of the late group-mate Ol Dirty Bastard and he has also released solo albums under the alter-ego Bobby Digital, along with executive producing credits for side projects. In addition to the Wu-Tang Clan and his releases, RZA was also a founding member of the horrorcore group Gravediggaz where he used the name The RZArector. Furthermore, he has acted in movies, including Coffee and Cigarettes, American Gangster, Gospel Hill, Life Is Hot in Cracktown, Ghost Dog, Funny People, Derailed, Due Date. He also appeared in the Showtime TV series Californication and his directorial debut is for the film he co-wrote and in which he plays the title role, The Man with the Iron Fists, also starring Russell Crowe. The magazine The Source placed him on its list of the 20 greatest producers in the magazines twenty-year history and he also made the Elite 8 in the search for The Greatest Hip-Hop Producer of All Time by Vibe. NME placed him on their list of the 50 Greatest Producers Ever, RZA was born in Brownsville, Brooklyn. He lived in North Carolina with his uncle from age three to seven, who encouraged him to read and study, RZA was introduced to hip hop music at the age of nine, and by eleven, was competing in rap battles. He relocated to Steubenville, Ohio in 1990, to live with his mother and he spent weekends in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where his father ran a convenience store in the citys Hill District. RZA got involved with petty crime and drug-dealing, and was charged with attempted murder while in Steubenville and he was acquitted of the charge, giving him what he stated was a second chance. He is named after Robert Kennedy and John Fitzgerald Kennedy and his mother greatly admired the Kennedys, the RZA has called his given name an honorable name, given the legacy of both brothers Robert and John. Robert Diggs formed a rap group with his cousins Russell Jones and they enjoyed local success but never signed a record deal. Diggs later debuted on Tommy Boy Records in 1991 as a solo artist under the name Prince Rakeem, after a shoot-out in Ohio in 1992, he faced eight years in jail. When they said not guilty, my face stuck in a smile for three days, he recalled, I was just walking around town, thinking about my daughter and my wife. Right then I said goodbye to anything that would put me in that situation again, I was up on trial on an attempted murder charge. I was a fool, with all that knowledge in my head. Diggs formed a new group with his cousins and five other childhood friends and this group would be named Wu-Tang Clan, releasing their debut album Enter the Wu-Tang,36 Chambers in 1993The RZA – RZA in New York City to discuss The Tao of Wu, October 18, 2009
37. No I.D. – Ernest Dion Wilson, professionally known as No I. D. is an American hip hop and R&B music producer from Chicago, Illinois. Wilson is also a jockey, music arranger and rapper, having released an album in 1997, titled Accept Your Own and Be Yourself. He is perhaps best known for his work with Chicago-based rapper Common. Wilson, who has served as a mentor for several artists. Wilson was once president of Wests GOOD Music record company and although he would resign from that position, in June 2011, Wilson announced he formed the supergroup Cocaine 80s, alongside Common and several other artists. In August 2011, Wilson became the Executive Vice President of A&R for Def Jam Recordings and he subsequently launched his own record label imprint, ARTium Recordings. He is currently the Executive Vice President and Head of Creative at Def Jam Recordings, in 1996, Wilson released an album under the pseudonym No I. D. titled Accept Your Own and Be Yourself. The moniker No I. D. is a half-palindrome of his birth name and he also released a beat tape, titled Invisible Beats. In Wilsons early career he was working as a co-producer for Jermaine Dupri, Wilson also introduced Chicago-based rapper Kanye West to hip hop production, inviting him to his sessions with Common, when West was only beginning. West cites Wilson as his mentor on Last Call, the outro to his acclaimed debut album The College Dropout. West also referenced Wilsons mentorship on songs such as Big Brother, Wilsons second official release was with Dug Infinite, a two-album package titled The Sampler, vol. In 2007, he was the focus of perhaps the most attention of his career for producing two songs from Jay-Zs album American Gangster. At the time he worked with such as Jay-Z, Rhymefest, Plies, Big Sean, Killer Mike, Rick Ross, Drake, and Kanye West, Young Jeezy. Wilson produced D. O. A. the first single for Jay-Zs eleventh studio album The Blueprint 3, as well as the second single Run This Town, which features Kanye West and Rihanna. He once again teamed up with Common for the first time since 1997, after resigning as President of Kanye West GOOD Music record company, in August 2011, it was announced No I. D. was appointed Executive Vice President of A&R for Def Jam Recordings. In addition, Def Jam has signed a joint venture label deal for No I. D. s Artium Recordings. In 2013, Wilson served as the producer of GOOD Music recording artist Big Seans second album Hall of Fame. In an August 2013 interview with Complex, Wilson said he was working on Jhene AikoNo I.D. – No I.D. in March 2008.
38. Billboard 200 – The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists, often, a recording act will be remembered by its number ones, those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart is based mostly on sales of albums in the United States, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but since July 2015, tracking week begins on Friday and ends on Thursday. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of the following week, the charts streaming schedule is also tracked from Friday to Thursday. Example, Friday January 1 – sales tracking week begins Thursday January 7 – sales tracking week ends Tuesday January 12 – new chart published, New product is released to the American market on Fridays. Digital downloads of albums are included in Billboard 200 tabulation. Albums that are not licensed for sale in the United States are not eligible to chart. As of the issue dated April 15,2017, the album on the Billboard 200 is More Life by Drake. Billboard began an album chart in 1945, initially only five positions long, the album chart was not published on a weekly basis, sometimes three to seven weeks passing before it was updated. A biweekly, 15-position Best-Selling Popular Albums chart appeared in 1955, the position count varied anywhere from 10 to 30 albums. The first number-one album on the new weekly list was Belafonte by Harry Belafonte, the chart was renamed to Best-Selling Pop Albums later in 1956, and then to Best-Selling Pop LPs in 1957. Beginning on May 25,1959, Billboard split the ranking into two charts Best-Selling Stereophonic LPs for stereo albums and Best-Selling Monophonic LPs for mono albums and these were renamed to Stereo Action Charts and Mono Action Charts in 1960. In January 1961, they became Action Albums—Stereophonic and Action Albums—Monophonic, three months later, they became Top LPs—Stereo and Top LPs—Monaural. On August 17,1963 the stereo and mono charts were combined into a 150-position chart called Top LPs, on April 1,1967, the chart was expanded to 175 positions, then finally to 200 positions on May 13,1967. In 1960, Billboard began concurrently publishing album charts which ranked sales of older or mid-priced titles and these Essential Inventory charts were divided by stereo and mono albums, and featured titles that had already appeared on the main stereo and mono album charts. In January 1961, the Action Charts became Action Albums—Monophonic, Albums appeared on either chart for up to nine weeks, then were moved to an Essential Inventory list of approximately 200 titles, with no numerical ranking. This list continued to be published until the consolidated Top LPs chart debuted in 1963, in 1982, Billboard began publishing a Midline Albums chart which ranked older or mid-priced titles. The chart held 50 positions and was published on a bi-weekly basis, on May 25,1991, Billboard premiered the Top Pop Catalog Albums chartBillboard 200 – Contents
39. Power (Kanye West song) – Power is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West, released as the lead single from his fifth studio album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. The song features vocals by soul singer Dwele and is co-produced by West. It is built around samples of 21st Century Schizoid Man by King Crimson, Afromerica by Continent Number 6, after having recorded it in Hawaii, West reported that he spent 5000 hours composing Power. In its lyrics, West comments about the United States and his critics and its chorus features an abrasive vocal-riff. POWER was Wests comeback single following his 2008 album 808s & Heartbreak, the song received acclaim from music critics and it was listed as the best track of 2010 by several publications, including Time, Pitchfork Media, Spin, and Rolling Stone. Critics described it as a return to form for West, praising its production, lyrical merit. It was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance at the 53rd Grammy Awards, the song debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 at position 22 and thereafter declined. The track was promoted by a video, which was directed by Marco Brambilla. The video features a long take of the camera pulling away from West, the video received positive reviews from critics and received two nominations for MTV Video Music Awards. West performed the song on Saturday Night Live, at the 2010 BET Awards, at the 2011 Coachella Music Festival, when performing the song, West often wore clothes made from red leather. A remix of the track featuring rapper Jay-Z was released on August 20,2010, West explained that the motivation of some of his questionable decisions stemmed from over-work. While composing the album, West assembled a staff of established producers including Pete Rock. Despite having several well-known producers on his team, the majority of the production featured on Power was done by the lesser-known Symbolyc One. The song was produced by him and was initially intended to be given to rapper Rhymefest, until West listened to the song. According to Symbolyc One, West was an admirer of the composition, and asked him to fly down to Hawaii, where he discovered that West had already recorded some of his version of the song. A month later, the producer was asked to return to Hawaii and discovered that the beat had been modified by West. Symbolyc One expressed surprise that West was so interested in using the beat, but on this last album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, I wrote it. I really put myself in the zone that my life was dependent on the success of this album, with that being the case, I said, ‘You know whatPower (Kanye West song) – Contemporary visual artist George Condo designed the two cover artworks for "Power", along with the cover of the album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy.
40. Monster (Kanye West song) – Monster is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West, released as the third single from his fifth studio album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. The track features rappers Jay-Z, Rick Ross, Nicki Minaj, all five credited performers have writing credits on the posse cut, with the production handled by West and Mike Dean. Lyrically the song expresses often disturbing, horror film influenced concepts, the song contains an atmospheric, drum-heavy composition, notable for featuring no samples. The song was listed amongst the best tracks of 2010 by publications, the song debuted and peaked on the Billboard Hot 100 at position 18. The track was promoted with a video directed by Jake Nava. The music video had several references to films and featured extensive horror imagery, with zombies, decapitated corpses. The music video was controversial, being banned from MTV. The video has been criticized for its portrayal of women, to promote his upcoming fifth album, West launched GOOD Fridays, a weekly free music giveaway. In the first week West released onto his website a remix of the albums first single, Power, the song was promptly removed from his website and replaced with another track, with Monster being uploaded as a digital single onto iTunes. West announced that Monster was actually intended for his collaborative album Watch the Throne with Jay-Z, Wests announcement failed to surface however, and the song actually appeared on My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy and was released as the albums third single. Following some media controversies, West chose to record his fifth studio My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy in a manner in Oahu. Like the majority of the album, Monster was composed there, rapper Rick Ross was invited to Hawaii to work with West, because West was set to produce the song Live Fast, Die Young, which appeared on Teflon Don, an album by Ross. While Ross was there with West in his studio, he actually walked in on West while recording another song. Ross was not initially intended to be featured on Wests album, however Ross was so impressed with what he heard he decided to record a quick, Ross had the concept of the song explained to him by West, which according to Ross, blew him away in presentation. West was so impressed by Ross that he invited him back to his studio during the stages of the album. While Ross was there, both Jay-Z and Minaj were recording their verses, Ross expressed his admiration for Minaj, who impressed him during the recording. He stated that what he had observed had earned him respect for Minaj, Minaj expressed excitement when approached to collaborate on the song, and she had contributed 32 bars to the track. Her main inspiration behind working on the track was the possibility of meeting Jay-Z, according to her, she literally couldnt have a conversation without quoting a line by him, and it was a dream come true to collaborate with the artistMonster (Kanye West song) – Rap artists Rick Ross (left) and Nicki Minaj (right) are both featured on the song. Ross was impressed with the song's concept and asked if he could deliver the intro. Minaj appeared on the song due in part to her admiration of Jay-Z. Ross expressed admiration for Minaj, and praised her lyricism.
41. Runaway (Kanye West song) – Runaway is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West, released as the second single from his fifth studio album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. It features Pusha T, who is signed to Wests label GOOD Music, the production was handled by West, Emile, Jeff Bhasker, and Mike Dean. The composition features repetitive piano riffs, intricate samples and a style with several similarities to Wests album 808s & Heartbreak. Described as a personal song in nature, it expresses Wests thoughts on his failed relationships. Lyrically the song explores criticism aimed at West in the past, before the songs premiere at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards, it generated substantial public interest due to what had happened the year prior at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards. Wests performance was rewarded with positive reviews, with the song being released online on October 4,2010. Critics praised the song for its subject matter, the openness of the song. Upon release, the song one of the best reviewed singles released by West. The song debuted and peaked on the Billboard Hot 100 at position 12 and is the centerpiece of Runaway, the songs nearly ten-minute music video features ballet dancers performing elaborate choreography. The music video received positive reviews from music critics, who praised the scope of the video, the degree of creativity. Multiple cover artworks were designed by visual artist George Condo. Along with the MTV Video Music Awards, the song was performed on Saturday Night Live, his Watch the Throne Tour, the original cover art for Runaway is a photograph by contemporary visual artist George Condo of a ballerina. Condo produced two different promotional artworks, and also produced the artwork for My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. On October 1,2010, West released a cover art for Runaway which is a painting also by Condo of a ballerina. On October 4,2010, the song was released onto the iTunes Store as the second single. The website uses the original cover art. The controversy caused West to exile himself in Oahu, Hawaii and record his fifth studio album mostly in a reclusive nature, like the majority of My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, Runaway was produced there. Amongst the various artists invited down to Hawaii to record songs for the album was Pusha T, according to Pusha T, the song was recorded in either March or April 2010Runaway (Kanye West song) – West invited Pusha T down to Hawaii to record "Runaway". While recording the song, West made Pusha-T record his verse several times.
42. Yeezus – Yeezus is the sixth solo album and seventh studio album by American rapper Kanye West. It was released on June 18,2013 by Def Jam Recordings, West gathered a number of artists and close collaborators for production on the album, including Mike Dean, Daft Punk, Noah Goldstein, Hudson Mohawke, Arca, and Travis Scott. Yeezus also features guest vocals from Justin Vernon, Chief Keef, Kid Cudi, Assassin, King L, Charlie Wilson, fifteen days before its release date, West enlisted the help of producer Rick Rubin to strip down the records sound in favor of a more minimalist approach. Yeezus has been characterized as Wests most experimental and sonically abrasive work and it draws from an array of genres, including industrial, acid house, electro, dancehall, punk, and Chicago drill. It also continues Wests unconventional use of samples, as on Blood on the Leaves, the release features no album artwork, and the physical CD edition of the album was released in a clear jewel box with only a strip of red tape and sample credits. Initial promotion of Yeezus included worldwide video projections of the albums music, West released two singles from the album, the song Black Skinhead in July 2013 and Bound 2 the following month. Yeezus received widespread acclaim from critics, many of whom named it among Wests best work and commended its brash direction, the album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, selling 327,000 copies in its first week of release. It topped the charts of 30 other countries, including the United Kingdom, Yeezus was nominated in two categories at the 2014 Grammy Awards, including Best Rap Album. As of 2016, the album has sold 750,000 copies in the United States, following the release of his fifth album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, West collaborated with longtime friend Jay Z on Watch the Throne. In July 2012, producer No I. D, the album features additional vocals by Justin Vernon, Frank Ocean, Kid Cudi, Chief Keef, King L, Assassin and Charlie Wilson. West was influenced primarily by minimalist design and architecture during the production of Yeezus, a single Le Corbusier lamp was his greatest inspiration. West worked closely with the architect Oana Stanescu, and took trips to Le Corbusier homes. West also wanted a deep influence on the album. Alejandro Jodorowskys The Holy Mountain was also an inspiration for the album, in 2012, West began recording his seventh studio album with collaborators, including No I. D. and DJ Khaled. The first recordings were held in January 2013, in the room of his personal loft at a Paris hotel. West kept compositions simple in order to hear the more clearly. The beats emanating from the space, which sometimes lasted through the night. Reports emerged that he and his then-girlfriend Kim Kardashian had moved to the loft in order for West to begin work on the album, the atmosphere in the studio was described by contributor Evian Christ as very focused, and West once again brought in several close collaboratorsYeezus – West first began work on Yeezus at his personal loft in Paris, and on numerous occasions visited the Louvre (pictured) for inspiration.
43. Watch the Throne – Watch the Throne is a collaborative studio album by American rappers Jay Z and Kanye West, released on August 8,2011, by Roc-A-Fella Records, Roc Nation, and Def Jam Recordings. Before the album, Jay Z and West had collaborated on their respective singles, as longtime friends, they originally sought out to record a five-song EP together, but the project eventually evolved into a full-length album. Recording sessions took place at locations and began in November 2010. Production on the album was led by West himself, alongside a variety of record producers including Mike Dean, Swizz Beatz, Sak Pase, Jeff Bhasker, The Neptunes. Jay-Z and Wests braggadocio lyrics exhibit themes of opulence, fame, materialism, power, the album expresses other topics such as Jay-Zs thoughts on fatherhood, Wests reflection on being deemed a social villain, and their legacy as performers. Music writers interpreted the subject matter to concern the rappers plight as African Americans struggling with financial success in America. The album produced seven singles, including H•A•M, Otis, Lift Off, No Church in the Wild, and the Billboard Hot 100 top five Niggas in Paris, which all received music videos. Jay-Z and West promoted the album with the Watch the Throne Tour that spanned October 2011 to June 2012, Watch the Throne debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 436,000 copies its first week. While some critics found the lyrical content uninspiring, its production. Many critics and publications placed the album in their year-end best-of lists and it also earned Jay-Z and West seven Grammy Award nominations. The album is certified platinum in the US, Wests early production work on Jay-Zs music helped raise his profile in the music industry. While originally only viewed as a producer, West eventually was seen as both a viable rapper and producer thanks to the success of his debut album The College Dropout, West continued to be one of Jay-Zs main producers on subsequent albums such as The Black Album and Kingdom Come. Jay-Z appeared on Kanyes first two albums as well, and the two frequently collaborated, during the promotional stages of Wests My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, a remix of the song Power surfaced featuring Jay-Z. Following this, West announced on Twitter his intention to drop a five-track EP with Jay-Z, also according to the rapper, the track Monster was intended for the EP, though that failed to surface. It was later revealed by West that the project had expanded into a full-length album in an October 2010 interview for MTV. He said in the interview that they planned to record in the south of France, production began in November 2010 in England and continued during available times in Jay-Zs and Wests schedules at locations in Australia, Paris, Abu Dhabi, New York City, and Los Angeles. He noted difficulties in the process, including arguments with West regarding their direction. Following the release of single, H•A•M in January 2011Watch the Throne – Watch the Throne
44. Jay Z – Shawn Corey Carter, known professionally as Jay Z, is an American rapper, businessman, and investor. He is one of the musicians of all time, having sold more than 100 million records. MTV ranked him the Greatest MC of all time in 2006, Rolling Stone ranked three of his albums—Reasonable Doubt, The Blueprint, and The Black Album —among the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2014, Forbes estimated his net worth at nearly $520 million, Jay Z co-owns the New York 40/40 Club sports bar, and is the co-creator of the clothing line Rocawear. He is the president of Def Jam Recordings, co-founder of Roc-A-Fella Records. He also founded the sports agency Roc Nation Sports and is a certified NBA, as an artist, he holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200 with 13. He has also had four number ones on the Billboard Hot 100, in 2009, he was ranked the tenth-most successful artist of the 2000s by Billboard as well as the fifth top solo male artist and fourth top rapper behind Eminem, Nelly, and 50 Cent. He was also ranked the 88th-greatest artist of all time by Rolling Stone, Jay Z married Singer-Songwriter Beyoncé in 2008. Shawn Carter was born in Brooklyn, New York, and was raised in Marcy Houses and he and his three siblings were raised by their mother, Gloria Carter after their father, Adness Reeves abandoned the family. Reeves would later meet and reconcile with Jay Z before dying from liver failure in 2003, Jay Z claims in his lyrics that in 1982, at the age of 12, he shot his older brother in the shoulder for stealing his jewelry. Along with future rapper AZ, Carter attended Eli Whitney High School in Brooklyn until it was closed down, according to his interviews and lyrics, during this period he sold crack cocaine and was shot at three times. According to his mother, Carter used to wake up his siblings at night banging out drum patterns on the kitchen table and she bought him a boom box for his birthday, sparking his interest in music. He began freestyling and writing lyrics, known as Jazzy around the neighborhood, Carter later adopted the showbiz/stage name Jay-Z in homage to his mentor Jaz-O. He would drop the hyphen in 2013, Jay Z can be briefly heard on several of Jaz-Os early recordings in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including The Originators and Hawaiian Sophie. Jay Z became embroiled in several battles with rapper LL Cool J in the early 1990s and he first became known to a wide audience on the posse cut Show and Prove on the 1994 Big Daddy Kane album Daddys Home. When I would leave the stage to go change outfits, I would bring out Jay Z and Positive K and let them freestyle until I came back to the stage. The young Jay Z appeared on a song by Big L, Da Graveyard, and on Mic Geronimos Time to Build. His first official rap single was called In My Lifetime, for which he released a music video, an unreleased music video was also produced for the B-side I Cant Get with ThatJay Z – Jay Z at the Shawn Carter Foundation Carnival, 2011
45. The College Dropout Video Anthology – The College Dropout Video Anthology is a DVD released featuring the music videos to the singles from Kanye Wests first studio album, The College Dropout, released on March 22,2005. It featured the videos to the previously unreleased Two Words, Slow Jamz, Through the Wire, All Falls Down, West has said on many occasions that he feels the imagery of his music videos are very important to him and an integral part to his art. He contributed to the direction of the videos for All Falls Down, the initial music video for Jesus Walks was rejected by MTV and other networks for being inappropriate for airing, so West made an alternate version for MTV. A third video was made, although rarely seen before this DVD. It was accompanied by a bonus audio CD that featured seven otherwise unreleased songs by West, three are remixes or reprises of songs from The College Dropout, two are alternate instrumental versions of Dropout tracks, and two were previously unreleased originals. On June 13,2007, the DVD/CD set was declared certified Gold by the RIAA, such an honor was declared once the album surpassed the 500,000 units sold mark. We Dont Care Produced by Kanye West Contains samples from I Just Wanna Stop performed by The Jimmy Castor Bunch 2, Jesus Walks Produced by Kanye West Additional vocals by John Legend Contains a sample of Walk With Me performed by The Arc Choir 3. Its Alright Produced by Kanye West 4, the New Workout Plan Produced by Lil Jon 5The College Dropout Video Anthology – The College Dropout Video Anthologie
46. Glow in the Dark Tour – The Glow in the Dark Tour is a critically acclaimed world concert tour by Kanye West featuring Rihanna, Lupe Fiasco, N. E. R. D, Santigold and Nas. It began on April 16,2008 in Seattle, Washington and travelled to Latin America, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, the tour featured some surprise special guest artists, including Gnarls Barkley and Jay-Z. Chris Brown also appeared at shows to perform his remix of Umbrella with Rihanna. For the New Zealand and Australian leg of the special guests Nas and New Zealand rapper Scribe replaced Lupe Fiasco and N. E. R. D. Vanness Wu performed as the act on the Asian leg of the tour. A same titled book authored by Kanye West with photography by Nabil Elderkin was published by Rizzoli USA in October 2009, the tour grossed $30.8 million from 49 shows. A brief controversy emerged when during his performance in Sacramento, West accidentally referred to the city as Seattle, West quickly admitted his mistake and made an apology to fans on his official blog. Wests scheduled time at the Bonnaroo Music Festival was changed from 8,00 pm to 2,45 am to accommodate the show for the Glow in the Dark Tour. This marked the first ever night show on the big What Stage in Bonnaroos 7-year history. Pearl Jam ended up playing 50 mins over their allotted time, a message on the monitors stated that the show would start at 3,30. When that didnt happen, the crowd grew restless and started chanting Kanye Sucks, once West came out on stage at 4,25 am most people quieted down. The delay was due to complications in the set up of Wests elaborate glow in the dark concept concert after the Pearl Jam set. Graffiti was found throughout the festival ranging from Fuck Kanye to Jay-Z Would Have Been on Time, West later wrote an outraged post on his blog, expressing his anger at the crowds response and at Superflys mismanagement. Glow in the Dark LA Times review Entertainment Weekly review New York Times review Perez Hilton review The Observer reviewGlow in the Dark Tour – Glow in the Dark Tour
47. Through the Wire – Through the Wire is the debut single by American rapper Kanye West. West wrote and recorded the song with his jaw wired shut after a car accident in October 2002, the song samples Chaka Khans 1985 single Through the Fire and was released on the last day of September 2003 as the lead single from his debut album, The College Dropout. The song is featured on his 2003 mixtape Im Good. Through the Wire peaked at fifteen on the Billboard Hot 100. The song was nominated for a 2005 Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance, the music video was financed by West, who was inspired by an Adidas advertisement. It won Video of the Year at the 2004 Source Hip Hop Awards, on October 23,2002, West was in a California recording studio producing music for Beanie Sigel, Peedi Crakk, and The Black Eyed Peas. After leaving the studio at around 3 a. m. in his rented Lexus, he had an accident when fell asleep at the wheel. He was taken to the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, mentioned in the song as the hospital where Biggie Smalls died. Two weeks after being admitted to hospital, he recorded the song at the Record Plant Studios with his jaw wired shut. The songs title refers to the used to hold his broken jaw together. To nearly lose your life, to lose your mouth, your voice, your whole face. My face looks crazy to me now, but I have to just thank God for the situation that I am in. Through The Wire is the worst thing that couldve possibly happen to me, the track circulated on Wests mixtape Get Well Soon. Before being officially released in re-recorded form in late 2003, although he initially had trouble convincing Roc-A-Fella Records executives to let him make his own album as a rapper, he was able to change their minds after the songs release. Through the Wire was inspired by the 2002 car accident and West has provided an account of his difficult recovery. The chorus and instrumentals samples a pitched up version of Chaka Khans 1985 single Through the Fire, West did not receive writing credit for the song, which instead went to David Foster, Tom Keane, and Cynthia Weil, who wrote Through the Fire. Wests rapping is described as a Snoop-meets-Hova flow, twisting up his words with the patented izz inflection, popMatters called it as riveting and moving as everyone says it is and it may be the albums most startling personal horror story. Allmusics Andy Kellman said it was a way to introduce himself to the masses as an MC and it couldnt have forged his dual status as underdogThrough the Wire – "Through the Wire"
48. Slow Jamz – Slow Jamz is a single by American rapper Twista featuring Kanye West and Jamie Foxx. It was released in late 2003 as the single from his album Kamikaze. The Kanye West version includes an intro and two verses by Jamie Foxx, and excludes the original outro by Twista. The song is a tribute to classic smooth soul artists and slow jam songs, Kanye West is the songs producer and supplies the first verse, Twista gives the second verse and the outro, and actor/singer Jamie Foxx sings the chorus. But now I need you to do it faster baby, can you please, do it faster baby, West, Damn, baby, I cant do it that fast. but I know somebody who can. The video shows a party, at first we see Jamie Foxx buying records for the party then it goes to the party where Kanye West and it includes cameo appearances by Consequence, Aisha Tyler, John Legend, Mike Epps, and Common. The song peaked at one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for a week on February 10,2004 becoming Twistas, Wests. The song was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration, Q magazine listed it as the nineteenth greatest hip-hop song of all timeSlow Jamz – "Slow Jamz"
49. All Falls Down – All Falls Down is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West. It was released as the single from his debut album. The song was produced by West and features singer Syleena Johnson and it was released in February 2004 and entered the UK Singles Chart at number ten and peaked at number seven on the US Billboard Hot 100 on May 11,2004, his first Top 10 in the USA. The song was nominated for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 47th Grammy Awards, the song features an interpolation of Lauryn Hills Mystery of Iniquity. Kanye originally attempted to acquire legal clearance to sample the recording but due to various complications, West then called upon Syleena Johnson to re-sing the relevant vocal portions of Mystery of Iniquity which ended up in the final track. The version of the song with the sample can be heard on Wests Freshman Adjustment mixtape. Lyrically, All Falls Down examines the self-consciousness and insecurity within society, particularly the black community, the music video for All Falls Down was directed by Chris Milk and shot at Ontario International Airport in Ontario, California. It follows Kanye as he accompanies his girlfriend, played by Stacey Dash, the music video is shot in first-person perspective, displaying the journey from their car to the airport terminal through Wests eyes. The video also features cameos by Syleena Johnson, Common, and Kel Mitchell, who act as a counter, gate agent. In addition, rappers GLC and Consequence can also be seen as Kanye is running through the airport in slow motionAll Falls Down – "All Falls Down"
50. Jesus Walks – Jesus Walks is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West. It was released on May 25,2004 as the single from his debut album. The song contains a sample of Walk with Me as performed by the ARC Choir, Jesus Walks was acclaimed by music critics, who praised its compelling sonic atmosphere and boldness in its open embrace of faith. It was met by widespread commercial recognition, peaking at No.11 on the Billboard Hot 100, the single was accompanied by three separate music videos, each of which visually interpreted a portion of its multifaceted context in different ways. Jesus Walks continues to be a favorite and stands as one of the most-performed songs by West. At the 47th Grammy Awards, Jesus Walks was awarded the Grammy for Best Rap Song, Rolling Stone named the song No.19 on their list of 100 Best Songs of the 2000s. The song was named the 6th best song of 2004 on Village Voices Pazz & Jop critics poll, in October 2011, NME placed it at No.69 on its list 150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years. The song was listed at No.123 on Pitchfork Medias 500 songs of the 2000s and it was placed at No.273 on Rolling Stones list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The song is essentially a spiritual exultation, wherein West discusses how Jesus walks with all manner of people, towards this end, the first conceptual verse of the song is told through the eyes of a drug dealer contemplating his relationship with God. It reportedly took over six months for West to draw inspiration for the second verse. West also uses the song to express his views on how the media seem to shy away from songs that address matters of faith, while embracing songs discussing violence, sex. This is directly taken from Wests experiences when he was struggling to get signed onto a record label and they reasoned that he did not conform to the stereotypes associated with mainstream hip-hop and therefore was not easily marketable. Many of his friends in the industry also warned him that while the song was outstanding. Jesus Walks is a mid-tempo hip-hop song and it is set in common time with a moderate tempo of 87 beats per minute and composed in the key of E-flat minor. The song expresses a pulsating rhythm reminiscent to that of a marching band, the rhythm is accompanied by background vocal samples from the ARC Choirs arrangement of the traditional gospel song Walk With Me that emit a chant in cadence to the beat. Because of these elements, the composition has been described as evoking a militaristic atmosphere. The song begins with a medium followed by its backing vocals. After Wests brief opening dialog, a drumroll sounds and the titular hook is belted by the ARC choirJesus Walks – "Jesus Walks"
51. The New Workout Plan – The New Workout Plan is the final single from Kanye Wests debut album, The College Dropout. Released in late 2004, the peaked at number fifty-nine on the U. S. John Legend, Anna Nicole Smith, Tracee Ellis Ross, Vida Guerra, GLC, the lyrics of The New Workout Plan are voiced from the point of view of various girls reacting to a fictional workout video created by Kanye West. The single is a take on the absurdity of the gender binary in which women are valued only for their bodies. The song includes fictional testimonials from women who have undergone the workout plan and have been able to attain a lavish lifestyle thanks to being in shape. The official remix for the song was produced by Lil Jon and features a new verse by West and guest appearances from Twista, Luke, the remix was later included on The College Dropout Video Anthology. Information taken from The College Dropout liner notes, songwriter, Kanye West Record producer, Kanye West Recorder, Keith Slattery, Andrew Dawson, Eugene AThe New Workout Plan – "The New Workout Plan"
52. Gold Digger (Kanye West song) – Gold Digger is a song recorded by American rapper Kanye West featuring guest vocals by Jamie Foxx. Co-produced with Jon Brion, the song contains samples of Ray Charles I Got a Woman. The single broke a record for the most digital downloads in a week, selling over 80,000 and it was 2005s second-longest running number one on the Billboard Hot 100 at ten weeks, behind We Belong Together by Mariah Carey. At the 2006 Grammy Awards, Gold Digger was nominated for Record of the Year, the song lists at number 60 on Billboard magazines All Time Top 100 and at number 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 Songs of the Decade. Gold Digger was voted number 20 on VH1s 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop, as of January 2011, the song has sold over 3,000,000 copies in the United States. Upon its release, many surmised that West conceived Gold Digger after watching Jamie Foxxs Oscar-winning portrayal of Ray Charles in the biographical film Ray, however, he had actually constructed the beat of the song long before the movie was even developed. However, for unknown, Shawnna passed on using the song. Not wanting to let it go to waste, West decided to keep the beat for himself and add lyrics expressed from a males point-of-view. The second verse of Gold Digger was the first to be written, as West used to rap the verse in early 2004 while on tour promoting his debut album, the first verse was made later in the year while West was on Ushers Evolution Tour. Lastly, the third verse was taken from an unreleased song called Drop Dead Gorgeous. The idea of employing Jamie Foxx specifically to sing an interpolation of Ray Charles I Got a Woman in place of its initial sample did in fact arise from West seeing Ray with his friend John Mayer. Foxxs vocals were recorded over many takes, in one version he sang from start to finish, after recording another version, Foxx decided to re-record it once more as he felt it contained too many explicit lyrics. Once the track was finally in place, it was layered with additional instruments provided by American film score composer Jon Brion, by the end of their very first studio session together, the pair had completed the basic tracks for the final version of Gold Digger. Despite being a singer, Foxxs part only appears in the intro. Gold Digger contains samples of I Got a Woman by Ray Charles, towards the end, the song employs vintage 1970s synthesizers which emit a honking sound in cadence to Kanyes voice. West delivers a tongue-in-cheek lyrical narrative within Gold Digger in which he depicts the disastrous life of a man married to a woman who manipulates him for financial gain. However, another story arises within the verse, which illustrates a once destitute black male who earns a fortune and decides to leave a loyal. The songs music video was directed by Hype Williams, who also directed Wests previous video, the titles of the magazines on whose covers the women appear reflect the correlating verses in the songGold Digger (Kanye West song) – "Gold Digger"
53. Heard 'Em Say – Heard Em Say is a song by American hip-hop artist Kanye West. It was released on November 8,2005 as the single for his second studio album. The song features Maroon 5 lead singer Adam Levine, who sings the chorus, West co-produced the track with Jon Brion, and it contains excerpts from Someone That I Used to Love as performed by Natalie Cole. The song was met by acclaim from music critics and is often seen as one of Wests best. The refrain of Heard Em Say was later recycled for the Maroon 5 song Nothing Lasts Forever which appears on their 2007 album It Wont Be Soon Before Long. Kanye West and Adam Levine had first collaborated when Maroon 5 commissioned West to remix This Love, the two later developed a friendship while sitting together on a flight to Rome for the 2004 MTV Europe Music Awards. While playing songs from his sophomore effort Late Registration on his iPod for Levine, West came across the demo for Heard Em Say. As Levine recalled, He was rhyming over it, and I had just written a hook that was so perfect for it and it was one of those natural collaborations where youre so excited because its all very pure and very easy. Heard Em Say is a hip hop and R&B song. It is set in time with a moderate tempo of 95 beats per minute. West raps over cluttered delayed beats that are laced with warped bass and he raps two verses within the song, both followed by a refrain which he delivers in tandem with Levine, who sings in a falsetto voice. The lyrics of Heard Em Say are written in form with a brief bridge after the second chorus. As the composition enters its coda, it acquires new musical aspects and it exhibits xylophone flourishes, quivery synth lines, and twinkling foreign bells before reaching its conclusion. Lyrically, Heard Em Say is a mournfully contemplative song that talks about being honest with yourself in a world that is not, Heard Em Say received critical acclaim and is often cited by music critics and fans alike as one of Wests best songs. As Kanye preaches, Nothings ever promised tomorrow, today, virgin Media reviewed the single as an accomplished piece of production, commenting on its poignant sample. The cascading piano melody which runs throughout, alongside tumbling delayed beats, a bass synth. In the United States, the single entered the Billboard Hot 100 at one hundred, over the next four weeks, the song climbed the chart and eventually reached its peak at number twenty-six on December 17. The single remained in the position for two weeks before relapsing, Heard Em Say debuted on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs at number and reached its peak position in the seventeenth spot on the issue dated December 31Heard 'Em Say – "Heard 'Em Say"
54. Touch the Sky (Kanye West song) – Touch the Sky is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West. It was released in early 2006 as the single from his second album. The song features American rapper Lupe Fiasco on his debut and was produced by Just Blaze. Blaze uses a slowed down sample from the Curtis Mayfield song Move On Up. The music video for Touch the Sky was directed by Chris Milk and filmed as a 70s style short movie about daredevil Evel Kanyevel and it is done in homage to Evel Knievels unsuccessful jump across the Snake River Canyon in 1974. The video features Pamela Anderson, Nia Long, Tracee Ellis Ross, and the Booker T. Washington High School Marching Band of Houston, Texas, the production cost for the music video was approximately $1 million, which is the 25th most expensive music video of all time. In December 2006, Evel Knievel filed a lawsuit against Kanye West for trademark infringement, wests attorneys argued that the music video amounted to satire and therefore was covered under the First Amendment. Just days before his death in November 2007, Knievel amicably settled the suit after being paid a visit from West, saying, I thought he was a wonderful guy and quite a gentleman. There is a remix that was leaked on mixtapes and features The LOX, J-Hood. Information taken from Late Registration liner notesTouch the Sky (Kanye West song) – "Touch the Sky"
55. Drive Slow – Drive Slow is a song by American rap artist Kanye West. The song was released on June 6,2006 as the fifth and final single of Wests second studio album and it contains a sample of the Hank Crawford cover version of Wildflower, a song by the Canadian pop rock band Skylark. Drive Slow features Houston rapper Paul Wall and Chicago rapper GLC, the song utilizes car culture as a metaphor to comment on peoples lifestyles. Though it received approval by music critics for its lyricism and intricate sound, the song was originally to feature M. I. A. who opted out of the appearance due to a busy schedule. Wall later included Drive Slow as the track on his international debut album The Peoples Champ. A remix for the song was released onto mixtapes and featured a verse from T. I. who later released it on the limited edition bonus disc DVD of his album. A vocal sample taken from Drive Slow was use by record producer J. R. Rotem to produce LAX Files, Drive Slow was featured on Season 3, Episode 11 What About Bob. of the HBO Series Entourage. The music video for Drive Slow was directed by Hype Williams, the video uses the remix version of the song and thus features an appearance by T. I. alongside Paul Wall and GLC. Additionally, violin strings provided by Miri Ben-Ari were applied to the slightly altered song while certain notes were lengthened, in the videos closing moment, this the best song suddenly transforms into a chopped and screwed tempo. American singer Tony Williams is also credited on the music video, the majority of automobiles featured in the video are produced by the Lincoln Motor Company. A-side Drive Slow Drive Slow Drive Slow B-side We Major We Major We Major Information taken from Late Registration liner notes. com Lyrics of this song at MetroLyricsDrive Slow – "Drive Slow"
56. Can't Tell Me Nothing – Cant Tell Me Nothing is a song by American hip-hop recording artist Kanye West. It was released on May 15,2007 as the single of his third studio album. The song was produced by Kanye West and Atlanta record producer DJ Toomp and it received acclaim from music critics and was listed amongst the best tracks of the year by several publications. Cant Tell Me Nothing was nominated for Best Rap Song at the 50th Grammy Awards, the cover art of the single was designed by the Japanese artist Takashi Murakami. Though Cant Tell Me Nothing didnt impact pop radio as significantly as the subsequent singles. The song is featured as the track on Now Thats What I Call Music. It was nominated for Track of the Year at the 2007 BET Hip Hop Awards and it was also featured in the movie The Hangover. Cant Tell Me Nothing features slow, moody synth-driven production, exemplifying the new direction that would come to dominate much of Graduation. West stated that he drew inspiration from rock bands such as The Rolling Stones and Led Zeppelin. He also explained that, with the track, he wanted to make anthemic music, the song contains audio samples of ad-libs provided by Young Jeezy as well as background vocals provided by Connie Mitchell of the Australian electronic group Sneaky Sound System. Lyrically, Cant Tell Me Nothing serves as Wests reflection on his fame, West begins the song by expounding his conflicted feelings regarding wealth and desire, describing a compulsion to spend that overwhelms any and all other objectives in life. PopMatters described Cant Tell Me Nothing as a powerful single, the Chicago Tribune chronicled Wests performance as, defiant, defensive, rueful, sarcastic and deadly passionate. The song debuted at number eighty on the Billboard Hot 100 on June 7,2007, two separate music videos accompanied Cant Tell Me Nothing, with the first aired on television and the second made available solely online. The first music video was directed by Hype Williams and released on Wests official website on May 25,2007, to visually complement the thematically distanced, alienated feel of the track, the video was filmed in a desert. It carries an aesthetic, with scenes shot in a barren, wide-open desert landscape. For a limited time, the video was available as a free download on the U. S. iTunes Store. On July 25,2007, West premiered a music video for Cant Tell Me Nothing on his website. This version was directed by Michael Blieden and featured comedian Zach Galifianakis, West had been introduced to Galifianakis work through his personal trainer, and eventually asked him to perform in his second video after attending one of Galifianakis stand-up shows in Los AngelesCan't Tell Me Nothing – "Can't Tell Me Nothing"
57. Stronger (Kanye West song) – Stronger is a song by American rapper Kanye West, released as the second single from his third studio album, Graduation. The production was handled by West, with an extended outro co-produced with Mike Dean, the composition is electronic in nature, employing synthesizers as its prominent instrument. For the track, West utilizes a vocal sample of Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger by French house duo Daft Punk. West also describes Stronger as an emancipation, using the track to vent his frustration over mistakes he made in the past year, the songs production process was arduous, with West and his team mixing the track reportedly over 75 times, including after its release as a single. West felt Stronger paled in comparison to the original. The singles music video was directed by Hype Williams, features sci-fi imagery based on the 1988 anime film Akira, Kanye Wests use of shutter shades in the music video became a signature of his in the late 2000s. Released as a single on July 31,2007, Stronger would top the Billboard Hot 100 several weeks later and it was a top ten single in ten countries, topping the charts in four of them, including the United Kingdom. The song won a Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance at the 50th Grammy Awards, Stronger has since been certified 7× Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Prior to release, a portion of Stronger was first released in May 2007 on Wests Cant Tell Me Nothing mixtape, on June 27,2007, Stronger was put onto the BBC Radio 1 Up-Front playlist and was later upgraded to the A-List a month prior to its release. The singles front cover art was released on Wests website on June 28,2007 and it was designed by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami, whom Kanye West collaborated with to produce the artwork for Graduation. Stronger musically derives from a sample of Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger by French house duo Daft Punk. The use of the sample was requested through Pedro Winter. The sample was approved by the duo, who enjoyed the track. West later met Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo at Lollapalooza, the recording sessions for Stronger was a turning point in the production process for Wests third studio album Graduation, whereas prior West had been aimlessly making songs. The sci-fi imagery of the video inspired West to take his music in a more futuristic direction, on July 3,2007, Kanye West told Zane Lowe on BBC Radio 1 that although he believes Stronger is a great song, it does not compare to the sampled original. Daft Punk went on to say that they were delighted with how Wests single turned out to be. The two had first heard the new song on Power 106 while on a San Francisco flight, as Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo of the duo stated, Our song had a good sound, but when put Kanyes record on, the sound was really fat. De Homem-Christo also clarified, Its not a collaboration in the studio, Stronger was recorded in three different recording studios worldwide, including Ape Sounds in Tokyo, Sony Music Studios in New York City, and The Record Plant in Los AngelesStronger (Kanye West song) – "Stronger"
58. Good Life (Kanye West song) – Good Life is a song by American hip-hop artist Kanye West. It was released on October 2,2007 as the single for his third studio album Graduation. The song was produced by West and DJ Toomp and contains a sample of the outro to P. Y. T. as performed by Michael Jackson. Good Life also has additional drum programming and additional production by Timbaland and Mike Dean, the track features singer/rapper T-Pain as well as background vocals provided by John Legend and Ne-Yo. Good Life managed to enter charts prior to actually being released as a single, the single has since sold over two million copies in the United States and has been certified double platinum. For the chart week of September 29,2007, Good Life was the Hot Shot Debut of the week on the Billboard Hot 100, as it entered at number fourteen due to strong digital downloads. The song climbed to the position, becoming Wests second consecutive top ten Hot 100 single from Graduation as well as T-Pains sixth top ten single. Good Life debuted on the Canadian Hot 100 at number thirty-nine and has peaked at number twenty-three, the single generated a strong reaction from the MuchMusic Countdown, where it reached number-one. Good Life was able to enter at number thirty-three on the UK Singles Chart before it was released in the UK until November 5,2007. Upon its release, the single was able to rise and peak at the position on the chart. The music video for Good Life was directed by Jonas & François with animation by So-Me, the video premiered on September 11,2007 as MTV Jams Jam of the Week. It features West and T-Pain performing with animated backdrops and often mouthing the words of the song lyrics, the version of the song used in the video contains an additional twenty-three second intro that the album version does not have. The video also features rapper/model LoLa Monroe, the video has reached #4 so far on VH1s VSpot Top 20 Countdown. It ranked #40 on VH1s Top 40 Videos of 2007, the video was the recipient of several awards nominations, winning Best Hip-Hop Video at the BET Hip Hop Awards and Best Special Effects in a Video at the MTV Video Music Awards. The song was featured on the HBO television series Entourage during season 4, episode 11, titled No Cannes Do. In the final moments of the episode, Kanye West makes an appearance and lets Vincent Chase and his crew use his plane to fly to Cannes as the song Good Life faded into the credits. US CD single Good Life –3,30 Good Life –3,24 Cant Tell Me Nothing –4,09 Good Life –3,56 UK CD single Good Life –3,27 Cant Tell Me Nothing –4,07 Information taken from Graduation liner notesGood Life (Kanye West song) – "Good Life"
59. Homecoming (Kanye West song) – Homecoming is a song by American hip-hop recording artist and record producer Kanye West. It was included as the song on the track-listing of his third studio album Graduation. The track was produced by West with Warryn Campbell and features guest vocals from Chris Martin, West met Chris Martin by chance at the famed Abbey Road Studios in London, England on February 14,2006. Afterwards, the two held an impromptu jam session and recorded the track. Kanye West wrote Homecoming as a dedicated to his hometown of Chicago. His songs conceptual lyrics feature an extended metaphor where he uses a love interest to speak on his relationship with her, the composition is actually a re-recording of a track known as Home that originated from a demo tape dating back to the year 2001. The early recordings of Home exhibit Wests once trademark soulful vocal sample production style, in addition, the lyrics of the original chorus are different and were sung by singer John Legend, who was known at the time as John Stephens. It was released as the single from his third studio album Graduation. Homecoming was released in the United Kingdom as a download and was due to be released as a physical single on February 4,2008. However, the single was cancelled due to downloads starting to decline before the release. It was, however, released on single on 18 February. Homecoming reached Number 9 in the United Kingdom on January 20,2008, the single was met with moderate commercial success, reaching the top twenty on international charts. However, the song received mixed reviews from music critics. Many praised Wests introspective lyricism and storytelling abilities, but others panned Chris Martins appearance due to him not being from Chicago, an accompanying music video for Homecoming was directed by Hype Williams and filmed in the city of Chicago. Shot entirely in black-and-white, the video features a montage of Kanye West walking throughout the streets of Chicago and showcases its landmarks, monuments. Homecoming was written by American hip-hop recording artist and record producer Kanye West with Chris Martin, West co-produced the track with record producer Warryn Campbell. In an interview with Billboard, West first revealed that he had collaborated with the Coldplay frontman and this was for a song that was entitled Homecoming, and West also alluded that it just might be released as the lead single for his third studio album Graduation. The collaboration occurred just the year prior when Kanye West and Chris Martin met and teamed up for a jam session at the Abbey Road Studios in LondonHomecoming (Kanye West song) – "Homecoming"
60. Love Lockdown – Love Lockdown is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West, released September 18,2008 as the lead single of his studio album 808s & Heartbreak. Written and produced by West and musician Jeff Bhasker, it was premiered by West at the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards prior to its release as a single. Primarily a minimal pop and R&B song, Love Lockdown contains elements of synthpop and electronic music, despite being a drastic departure from his previous work, the song was well received by critics, and was frequently cited as a highlight of the album. Time magazine critic Josh Tyrangiel named Love Lockdown the best song of 2008, the single was also successful commercially, as it managed to debut at #3 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 and has since sold over three million copies in the United States. Kanye West debuted Love Lockdown on September 7,2008, as the performance of the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards. On September 18, he released it as the single of 808s & Heartbreak. After announcing it as the albums first single, West posted free copies of the song on his blog for fans to download. A week later, he posted six downloadable stems, each featuring isolated song portions of Love Lockdown, on his blog. These portions include an a cappella, distorted vocals,808, percussion, piano. The song is featured in the first episode edition of Grand Theft Auto IV, The Lost and Damned on the in-game contemporary hip-hop radio station, in 2016, poet and musician Saul Williams revealed that he worked on the track, but was uncredited. It is composed in the key of C# minor, set in the signature of common time. Wests vocal range spans two octaves, from G#2 to G#4. The song is written in a form that expresses quiet-loud dynamics, featuring verses delivered in a low, somber tone before shifting into loud. Going further against the sound of hip hop beat, along with the 808. West stated his intention was to juxtapose the mechanical sounds of the auto-tune and 808s with the traditional sounds of taiko drums. The song is minimal in nature, retaining a repetitious bassline before building into more layered sounds within the chorus. It is the highest debut of Wests career, and was the second highest debut on the Hot 100 of 2008, Love Lockdown is also only the tenth song of the decade to debut in the top three, and only the second by an artist unaffiliated with American Idol. The single also made a Hot Shot Debut at number five on the Canadian Hot 100, in Europe, Love Lockdown peaked at number eight the UK Singles Chart and at number four on the Irish Singles ChartLove Lockdown – "Love Lockdown"
61. Amazing (Kanye West song) – Amazing is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West, released as the third single for his fourth studio album, 808s & Heartbreak. Co-produced with Victor Alexander, the song features hip hop artist Young Jeezy and contains vocals provided by Mr Hudson. This song was used in the NBA during the 2009 Playoffs, UFC Fighter Frank Mir walks out to this song before his fights. The song was nominated at the 52nd Grammy Awards in the Best Rap Performance By a Duo or Group category, the song also marks the second collaboration with Kanye West and Young Jeezy, the first being Young Jeezys 2008 single Put On. The song also marks the two rappers second time to do a song to be nominated for a Grammy award, co-writer Jeff Bhasker discussed the songs conception, That was actually the first song I brought the beat and the music. I started the idea and was like, Thats hot, so I brought that music and he brought his editorial to it and then wrote the melody, and said were gonna get Jeezy on it. We were searching for sort of a drum sounds and that just came out. Its a very simple and dark sounding piano figure, Amazing was sent to Rhythmic/Urban radio only, while Paranoid was sent to Top 40 radio. Prior to becoming a single, Amazing debuted at eighty-nine on the Billboard Hot 100 following the release of 808s & Heartbreak. Amazing was used by the NBA during the 2009 playoffs as part of their advertisement campaign and was used in a commercial for the video game. The CTV Television Network used the song to promote its Fall 2013 season, along with See You in My Nightmares, Amazing charted without actually being released as a single following the debut of 808s & Heartbreak. In the United States, the song entered at number eighty-nine on the Billboard Hot 100, although the song relapsed the following weeks, it re-entered the Billboard Hot 100 to peak at number eighty-one on May 14,2009. After being released onto urban radio, Amazing entered the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs at number ninety-six for the date of March 28. The song moved up four spaces the week to reach number ninety-two. That same week, Amazing entered and peaked at number twenty-two on Hot Rap Tracks for the issue dated April 11, the following week, the song climbed again to reach the seventy-fourth position. Amazing peaked at number sixty-five on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart for the date of April 18. On June 12, Amazing debuted on the Swedish Singles Chart at number forty-two, the music video for Amazing was filmed in Kauai, Hawaii and directed by Hype Williams. On April 13,2009, West posted stills from the video on his blogAmazing (Kanye West song) – "Amazing"
62. Paranoid (Kanye West song) – Paranoid is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West, released March 24,2009 as the fourth and final single from his fourth studio album, 808s & Heartbreak. The song was co-produced with Jeff Bhasker and Plain Pat, while co-written by the three along with Consequence and Kid Cudi. The original version of the song, which appears on the album, features English singer-songwriter Mr Hudson, who had recently been signed to Wests GOOD Music record label. A remix featuring Rihanna was recorded in the Fall of 2008 and was supposed to be sent to US radio on January 20,2009 as the third single, however. Eventually, the version featuring Mr Hudson was sent to radio stations instead on March 24,2009 as the albums fourth single, shortly after the release of the albums third single. Amazing was sent for adds at Rhythmic/Urban radio only, while Paranoid was sent to Mainstream Top 40 radio, another remix, featuring Big Sean and Kid Cudi, was released shortly after the album. Paranoid debuted on the Billboard Pop 100 chart at number ninety-six on March 21,2009 and it has since peaked at number sixty-one on the now defunct chart. On the issue date of July 20, Paranoid debuted on the Australian Singles Chart at number ninety, the music video for Paranoid was directed by Nabil Elderkin and along with Amazing, filmed in Hawaii. During a brief interview at the Tribeca Film Festival, West revealed he had cast Rihanna as a lead in the video, West said the following about working with Rihanna, Yep, shes my Paranoid girl in the video. Collaborating with her is always a pleasure, Island Def Jam chairman L. A. Reid presented a version of the video during an Island Def Jam Event in New York City on May 20,2009. The music video leaked online on May 27,2009, the next day, West clarified on his blog that the video was an unfinished version and posted screenshots of the final version. In an interview took place the following day, Elderkin stated that the leak was merely an early rough cut. The videos premise is rooted in fantasy, as it centers around Rihannas paranoid state of mind causing her to experience a dream sequence. Meanwhile, West appears in scenes in his human form. On June 3, West released the version of the music video on his blog. Mr Hudson doesnt appear in the video, while showcasing artists signed onto his G. O. O. D. Music imprint, West performed the song live alongside Kid Cudi, West provided a solo performance of the song in Denmark on July 2 while headlining the Orange Stage at the Roskilde Festival. Kanye performed Paranoid in Hyde Park, London on July 5 serving as a headliner for the second, West and Hudson performed the song together again during a concert held at the iTunes Festival in the London Roundhouse on July 7Paranoid (Kanye West song) – "Paranoid"
63. All of the Lights (Kanye West song) – All of the Lights is a song by American rapper Kanye West, as the fourth single from his fifth studio album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. All of the Lights was well received by critics, who complimented its detailed production. It won Grammy Awards for Best Rap Song and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 54th Grammy Awards, as of December 2011, the song has sold over 1,561,000 digital units in the US. By August 2013, it had been certified platinum by the RIAA. The songs accompanying video, directed by Hype Williams, featured strobe-lit images of Rihanna and West. It was given a warning by Epilepsy Action, stating that the video potentially trigger seizures for people with photosensitive epilepsy. All of the Lights was written by Kanye West, Jeff Bhasker, Malik Jones and its production was helmed by West himself and co-produced by Bhasker. West and Rihanna previously collaborated with Jay-Z on Run This Town, even though not fully leaked, All of the Lights was featured for the first time on Runaway—a 35-minute film about Wests true labor of love which was released on October 19,2010. The song was featured in the film together with songs from Wests then-upcoming fifth studio album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, including Monster, Power. The song fully leaked on November 4,2010, online, during the 2010 MTV Europe Music Awards, on November 10,2010, Rihanna was interviewed by MTV News staff. In the interview she explained that, West already played his album to her three months ago and that All of the Lights was one of her favorite songs. About it, she commented, So when he asked me to come up to the studio at 2 oclock in the morning, I had to, because I loved it. Andrew Dawson, Anthony Kilhoffer, Mike Dean, HI and Noah Goldstein recorded Wests vocals at Avex Recording Studios in Honolulu, Hawaii, rihannas vocals were recorded by Marcos Tovar at the Westlake Recording Studios in West Hollywood, California. The song was released as fourth and final single from My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy and it was sent to British urban radio stations on November 25,2010, and to Australian contemporary hit and alternative radio stations on December 13. On January 18,2011, the song was sent to contemporary hit, on February 19,2011, All of the Lights was solicited to mainstream radio stations in the United Kingdom. All of the Lights is a hip hop song that runs for 4 minutes and 59 seconds, according to the sheet music published by Universal Music Publishing Group at Musicnotes. com, it was composed in the key of B flat minor using common time and a steady groove. Rihannas vocal range spans from the low note of Ab3 to the note of F5. Instrumentation is provided by a brass, drum and bass, piano, the piano is played by Elton John, who also together with thirteen other vocalists provides the background vocalsAll of the Lights (Kanye West song) – Fourteen artists lent their voices as background vocals on "All of the Lights" including Rihanna (pictured) who also sang the song's hook.
64. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014