1. Kanye West discography – West has sold over million digital downloads worldwide. As of May 2012, six of his songs have each exceeded three million digital downloads. Six of his seven studio albums have been certified at least platinum in the United States. In 2005, West released Late Registration, which debuted at number one with first week sales of 860,000 copies. Late Registration produced five singles; including "Touch the Sky", "Heard'Em Say" and "Gold Digger"; the latter single reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100. The critically acclaimed album has sold over three million copies and has attained five multi-platinum certifications; including a triple-platinum certification from the RIAA. Graduation held the number one spot on the Billboard 200 for over a month and also topped the UK Albums Chart. It supported by five singles; including the top ten single "Good Life". In West's fourth album 808s & Heartbreak became his third consecutive number one release on the Billboard 200. It featured "Heartless". A collaboration with Jay-Z, was released as West's sixth album in August 2011. It included three singles including "Fade". The album was met with positive reviews. Official website Kanye West at AllMusic Kanye West discography at Discogs Kanye West discography at MusicBrainzKanye West discography – West performing in December 2008
2. Kanye West – Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer, entrepreneur. Music. He went on to pursue a variety of different styles on subsequent albums Late Registration, Graduation, 808s & Heartbreak. West released his abrasive sixth album, Yeezus, to further critical praise in 2013. His seventh album, The Life of Pablo, was released in 2016. Outside of music have received significant attention. He has been a frequent source of controversy for his conduct in public settings. He is the head of the creative DONDA. His 2014 marriage to television personality Kim Kardashian has also been subject to widespread media coverage. Three of his albums have been included and ranked on Rolling Stone's 2012 update of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" list. He has also been included in a number of Forbes annual lists. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005 and 2015. West was born on June 8, 1977 in Atlanta, Georgia. His parents divorced when he was three years old. After the divorce, he and his mother moved to Chicago, Illinois.Kanye West – West performing at Lollapalooza in 2011
3. Rapping – Rapping is "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics". The components of rapping include "content", "delivery". Rapping is distinct from spoken-word poetry in that it is performed to a beat. It can also be found in alternative rock such as that of Cake, the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Rapping is also used in Kwaito music, a genre that originated in Johannesburg, South Africa, is composed of hip-hop elements. Another form of rap that predates hop was Muhammad Ali's rhythmic poetry used to taunt his opponents in the 1960s and 1970s. Rapping can be delivered without accompaniment. Stylistically, rap occupies a gray area between prose, poetry, singing. The word, as used to describe quick repartee, predates the musical form. The word had been used in British English since the 16th century. The terms "rap" and "rapping" are so closely associated with hip-hop music that many use the terms interchangeably. This definition may be from a shortening of repartee. A rapper refers to a performer who "raps". By the late 1960s, when Hubert G. Brown changed his name to H. Hayes' "husky-voiced sexy spoken'raps' became key components in his signature sound".Rapping – The Memphis Jug Band, an early blues group, whose lyrical content and rhythmic singing predated rapping.
4. Roc-A-Fella Records – Roc-A-Fella Records was an American record label founded by American recording artist Jay-Z, Damon Dash and Kareem "Biggs" Burke. It operated as a division of Def Jam/IDJMG, a subsidiary of Universal Music Group. The foundation of the label occurred in 1996, beginning as an independent outlet for rapper Jay-Z's first album. Jay's 1998 album, Vol. 2... 2... Hard Knock Life, saw him largely venture forth with producers Swizz Beatz, Jermaine Dupri. Though Da Ranjahz put in appearances on Memphis Bleek's first album, Coming of Age, in 1999, they soon parted ways with Roc-A-Fella Records. Jay-Z put out The Dynasty: Roc La Familia as a solo album. Each beatsmith would go on to become consistently involved in future Roc-A-Fella Records projects. The new millennium saw Roc-A-Fella Records begin to expand one figurehead artist. Beanie Sigel's The Truth had reached #5 on the Billboard charts in 2000, DJ Clue released The Professional 2 in 2000. During this time, Jay-Z and Beanie Sigel were embroiled in a feud with Ruff Ryders Entertainment artists Jadakiss and DMX. He attempted to sign Joe Budden. Dash, poised to take greater control in the company, began heavily promoting artists Cam ` ron, Twista. As President, Carter retained control of the Roc and his masters, ousting his two former partners. M.O.P. and Grafh also left Roc-A-Fella Records for Dame Dash Music Group, though both acts parted ways with Dash soon thereafter.Roc-A-Fella Records – Roc-A-Fella Records
5. Jay-Z – Shawn Corey Carter, known professionally as Jay Z, is an American rapper, businessman, investor. MTV ranked him the "greatest MC of all time" in 2006. Rolling Stone ranked three of his albums -- Reasonable Doubt, The Black Album -- among the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2014, Forbes estimated his net worth at nearly $520 million, making him one of the richest hip hop artists in the U.S. Jay Z co-owns the New York 40/40 Club sports bar, is the co-creator of the clothing line Rocawear. Jay is the former president of Def Jam Recordings, the founder of the entertainment company Roc Nation. Jay also is a certified NBA and MLB sports agent. As an artist, Jay holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200 with 13. Jay has also had four number ones Hot 100, one as lead artist. Jay was also ranked the 88th-greatest artist of all time by Rolling Stone. Jay Z married American R&B singer Beyoncé in 2008. Blue Ivy Carter, was born on January 7, 2012. Shawn Carter was raised in Marcy Houses, a housing project in Brooklyn's Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood. His three siblings were raised by their mother, Gloria Carter, after their father, Adness Reeves abandoned the family. Jay Z claims in his lyrics that at the age of 12, he shot his older brother in the shoulder for stealing his jewelry.Jay-Z – Jay Z at the Shawn Carter Foundation Carnival, 2011
6. The Blueprint – The Blueprint is the sixth studio album by American rapper Jay-Z, released on September 11, 2001, on Roc-A-Fella Records in the United States. Its release was set a week earlier than initially planned in order to combat bootlegging. Recording sessions for the album took place at Manhattan Center Studios and Baseline Studios in New York City. The album is also famous for both its producers Kanye West and Just Blaze's breakouts as major producers. Upon its release, The Blueprint received universal acclaim, with critics praising the production. It has also been labeled as one of the greatest hip-hop albums of all time. The Blueprint was reportedly cut with Jay-Z allegedly writing the lyrics in two days. At the time, he was awaiting two criminal trials for gun assault. He was also engaged in feuds in particular Nas and Mobb Deep member Prodigy. In late August, Jay-Z announced a September–October tour in small venues. Because of the September 11 attacks occurring on the same day the album was released, the first two performances were rescheduled. The Blueprint received rave reviews from critics. Most consider The Blueprint to be one of Jay-Z's best albums, holding it to that of his debut, Reasonable Doubt. The popularity and commercial success of The Blueprint established Kanye West and Just Blaze as two of hip-hop’s most celebrated producers. Kanye West would later incorporate some of sampling techniques he used on this album into his own solo albums.The Blueprint – The Blueprint
7. Alicia Keys – Alicia Augello Cook, known by her stage name Alicia Keys, is an American singer, songwriter, pianist, actress, record producer and philanthropist. Keys released her debut album with J Records, having had previous record deals first with Columbia and then Arista Records. Songs in A Minor, was a commercial success, selling over million copies worldwide. She became the best-selling new artist and best-selling R&B artist of 2001. The album earned five Grammy Awards in 2002, becoming the American singer to win five Grammys in one night. It produced her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single "Fallin'" which won Song of the Year. The song "My Boo" with Usher, scored a second number-one single in 2004. The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards in 2005. Keys released Unplugged, which debuted at number one in the United States. She became the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album to debut at number one and the highest since Nirvana in 1994. Keys has made guest appearances on several television series, beginning with The Cosby Show and most recently on season 2 of Empire. Keys made her debut in Smokin' Aces and also went on to appear in 2007. Her third album, As I Am, was sold five million copies worldwide, earning Keys an additional three Grammy Awards. It produced the Hot 100 number-one single "No One". Keys appeared in The Secret Life of Bees, which earned a nomination at the NAACP Image Awards.Alicia Keys – Keys at the 2013 ARIA Music Awards in Sydney Australia.
8. Ludacris – Christopher Brian "Chris" Bridges, better known by his stage name Ludacris, is an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Atlanta, Georgia. Alongside Chaka Zulu, he is the co-founder of Disturbing tha Peace, an imprint distributed by Def Jam Recordings. Throughout his career, he has won Screen Actors Guild, Critic's Choice, Grammy Awards. Born in Champaign, Illinois, he moved at age nine where he began rapping. In 2001, Ludacris released Word of Mouf, followed by The Red Light District in 2004. Ludacris took a more serious approach with his next two albums, Theater of the Mind. Battle of the Sexes, was released in 2010 and featured the tone of his previous albums. Ludaversal was released on March 2015. He was born as Christopher Brian Bridges in the only child of Roberta Shields and Wayne Brian Bridges. Ludacris then attended Centreville High School for one year. Ludacris attended Banneker High School in Atlanta, Georgia and graduated in 1995. From 1998 to 1999, Ludacris studied management at Georgia State University. He also has some English and Native American ancestry. Ludacris is a distant cousin of late comedian Richard Pryor. Bridges joined an amateur rap group three years later.Ludacris – Ludacris at Midtown 2012
9. Janet Jackson – Janet Damita Jo Jackson is an American singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. After signing a recording contract with A&M Records in 1982, she became a icon following the release of her third studio album Control. In 1991 she signed the first of two multimillion-dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest paid artists in the industry. Her album under the label, Janet, saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her work. She appeared in her first starring film role in Poetic Justice; since then she has continued to act in feature films. By the end of the 1990s, she was named the second most successful artist of the decade. The release of her seventh album All for You coincided with a celebration of her impact on popular music as the inaugural MTV Icon. After parting ways with Virgin she released her first and only album with Island Records. In 2015 she released her eleventh studio album Unbreakable the same year. Having sold over million records, she is ranked as one of the best-selling artists in the history of contemporary music. In December 2016, Billboard ranked Janet as the second most successful artist of all-time. One of the world's most awarded artists, her longevity, achievements reflect her influence in shaping and redefining the scope of popular music. She has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers. Janet Jackson was born to Katherine Esther and Joseph Walter Jackson. The Jacksons were devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would later refrain from organized religion.Janet Jackson – Jackson performing on her Unbreakable World Tour, 2015
10. Soul music – Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music, blues and jazz. Soul also became popular around the world, directly influencing the music of Africa. Catchy rhythms, stressed by extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are the chorus and an especially tense vocal sound. The style also occasionally uses improvisational additions, auxiliary sounds. It stressed the importance of an African-American culture. The African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U.S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul genre had begun to splinter. Some soul artists developed music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul. The United States saw the development of soul around 1994. There are also other subgenres and offshoots of soul music. The soul had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States.Soul music – James Brown
11. R&B – Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the quest for freedom and joy. Lyrics focus heavily in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, sex. Blues has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was frequently applied to blues records. This tangent of RnB is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, blues changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "Contemporary R&B". It combines elements of blues, soul, funk, pop, hip hop and dance. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Mariah Carey. It replaced the term "music", which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. Before the "Blues" name was instated, various record companies had already begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". In 2010 LaMont Robinson founded the Official Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame Museum. Producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans". He has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues.R&B – T-Bone Walker, American Folk Blues Festival 1972 (Heinrich Klaffs Collection 46)
12. Baroque pop – Baroque pop is a pop music subgenre that fuses classical music, orchestral pop, rock, Baroque music. It is identifiable for its use of dramatic or melancholic gestures. The genre emerged in the 1960s after pop musicians and record producers began placing the harpsichord in the foreground of their arrangements. Baroque pop instrumentation includes string sections, French horns, oboes. Baroque pop, stylistically, fuses elements of rock with classical music, often incorporating horns to achieve a majestic, orchestral sound. Its prominent characteristics are the use of contrapuntal melodies and functional harmony patterns. It was intended to be a more mature outgrowth of music. "English baroque" is used by journalist Bob Stanley to describe a subset that existed between 1968 and 1973. One of the first pop rock hits to use a harpsichord was the Jamies' "Summertime, Summertime". Slate's Forrest Wickman credits the Beatles' producer, George Martin, for the move into baroque pop. Along with Burt Bacharach, Spector had melded pop music with classical elements before they were melded with rock. Writer Andrew Jackson suggests that "the era of baroque pop" in which "rock melded with classical elements" was prefaced by the Rolling Stones and Brian Wilson. Author Joe Harrington noted that after its release, many "baroque-rock" works would soon appear. Producer Tommy LiPuma believed: "Once the Beatles featured that harpsichord sound on'In My Life,' pop producers began working it in." The genre is traced to the United States and the United Kingdom.Baroque pop – The Beatles (with help from George Martin) consciously chose their orchestral arrangements to reflect an English Baroque feel, as per their contemporaries.
13. Trip hop – Trip hop is a subgenre of electronic music that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom, especially Bristol. It also contains elements of R&B, house, as well as other electronic music. Trip hop can be highly experimental. DJs, MCs, graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Bristol's DJs, drawing heavily on Jamaican dub music, typically used a laid-back, slow and heavy drum beat. Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail often worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart. Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music sounded like a premature version of what later became trip hop. In the 1990s, Janet Jackson brought trip hop with the song "If". Several songs on her "Janet." and "The Velvet Rope" used this genre of music, Songs like Got'Til It's Gone and You. Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released to huge success in the UK. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. The term hop was coined that year, but not in reference to anything on the Massive Attack albums. In 1993, Icelandic musician Björk released Debut, produced by Wild Bunch member Nellee Hooper. She was romantically involved with trip hop musician Tricky.Trip hop – Massive Attack, a British trip hop group that helped bring the genre to mainstream success in the 1990s
14. Arena rock – Arena rock is a style of rock music that originated in the mid 1970s. In the mid-1970s, increased power of sound systems allowed the use of larger and larger venues. Smoke, sophisticated lighting shows became staples of arena rock performances. Key acts included Journey, REO Speedwagon, Foreigner, Styx, Kiss, Peter Frampton, Queen. Bands outside hard rock also achieved status after taking a more commercial direction. In the 1980s, rock became dominated by glam metal bands, following the lead of Aerosmith and including Mötley Crüe, Quiet Riot, W.A.S.P. and Ratt. Their popularity was challenged by the alternative rock bands who began to breakthrough from the early 1990s. Cock rock Glam metal Joyner, David Lee. American Popular Music. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 0-07-352657-6. Shepherd, John, ed.. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. 1. Continuum.Arena rock – A Queen concert in Drammen, Norway in 1982, showing the scale and lighting of an arena rock concert.
15. Folk music – Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term is often applied to music, older than that. Some types of music are also called world music. It has been contrasted with classical styles. Starting in the mid-20th century a new form of popular music evolved from traditional folk music. This period is called the folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. This type of music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, electric folk, others. Even individual songs may be a blend of the two. A consistent definition of traditional music is elusive. The terms folk music, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. Traditional music also includes most indigenous music. However, despite the assembly of an enormous body of work over some two centuries, there is still no certain definition of what music is. It can not clearly be differentiated in purely musical terms. The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character."Folk music – Béla Bartók recording Slovak peasant singers in 1908
16. Alternative rock – In this instance, the word "alternative" refers from mainstream rock music. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. Alternative rock is a broad term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, its regional roots. The term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts. Post-punk revival artists such as The Killers had commercial success in the early and mid 2000s. Before the term rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups he was writing about. In 1979 Dallas station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts". The national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980; it immediately succeeded in its aim to help these labels. At the time, the indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean group of subgenres, rather than simply distribution status. At first the term referred to intentionally non -- rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems". In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific.Alternative rock – One of the first popular alternative rock bands, R.E.M. relied on college-radio airplay, constant touring, and a grassroots fanbase to break into the musical mainstream.
17. Synth-pop – Synthpop is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s which features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument. In Japan, Yellow Magic Orchestra's success opened the way for synthpop bands such as P-Model, Plastics, Hikashu. The definition of MIDI and the use of dance beats, led to a more commercial and accessible sound for synthpop. Some bands like Depeche Mode, who helped popularise the genre, were criticised for gender bending. Synthpop was defined by its primary use of synthesizers, sometimes using them to replace all other instruments. Many synthpop musicians had limited musical skills, relying on the technology to reproduce the music. The result was often minimalist, with grooves that were "typically woven together from repeated riffs often with no harmonic ` progression' to speak of". Early synthpop has been described as "eerie, vaguely menacing", using droning electronics with little change in inflection. Lyrical themes of synthpop songs were isolation, urban anomie, feelings of being emotionally cold and hollow. Synthesizers were increasingly used to imitate the clichéd sound of orchestras and horns. Thin, treble-dominant, melodies simple drum programmes gave way to thick, compressed production, a more conventional drum sound. Lyrics were generally more optimistic, dealing with more traditional matter for pop music such as romance, escapism and aspiration. Because synthesizers removed the need for large groups of musicians, these singers were often part of a duo where their partner played all the instrumentation. Later synthpop saw a shift to a style more influenced by other genres, such as music. Instrumental rock was particularly significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust to circumvent the language barrier.Synth-pop – The Prophet-5, one of the first polyphonic synthesizers. It was widely used in 1980s synthpop, along with the Roland Jupiter and Yamaha DX7.
18. Classical music – Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical and secular music. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1900, known as the common-practice period. Western notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo, meter and rhythms for a piece of music. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836. This score typically determines details of pitch, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated. The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: J.S. The use of written notation also enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. That said, the score does not provide exact instructions on how to perform a historical work. Even if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, we do not know exactly how fast the piece should be played. J.S. Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations. During the Classical era, the composer-performer Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto. During the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. For more information, see Improvisation.Classical music
19. The College Dropout – The College Dropout is the debut studio album by American hip hop artist Kanye West, released February 10, 2004, by Roc-A-Fella Records. It was recorded beginning in 1999. Nonetheless intent on pursuing a solo career, it was several years before West finally received a record deal from Roc-A-Fella Records. It features vocal contributions from Jay-Z, Mos Def, Jamie Foxx, Ludacris among many other artists. Diverging from the then-dominant persona in hip hop, West's lyrics concern themes of family, self-consciousness, materialism, religion, racism, higher education. The album was promoted by singles including "Through the Wire" and "Jesus Walks", both of which received critical acclaim. "All Falls Down" and "Slow Jamz" both charted within the top 10 with the latter charting at number one. Upon its release, The College Dropout debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 441,000 copies during its first week. It is West's best-selling album in the United States, with worldwide sales of over 4 million copies. Although he had attained success as a producer, Kanye West had struggled to attain a record deal. Record companies ignored him because he did not portray the image prominent in mainstream hip hop at the time. After a series of meetings with Capitol Records, West was ultimately denied an deal. Desperate to keep West from defecting to another label, then-label head Damon Dash reluctantly signed West to Roc-A-Fella Records. The crash left him with a shattered jaw, which had to be wired shut in reconstructive surgery. West added that "the album was my medicine", as working on the record distracted him from the pain.The College Dropout – The College Dropout
20. Late Registration – The album features guest contributions among others. West's lyrics explore both political themes, including poverty, drug trafficking, racism, healthcare, the blood diamond trade. It appeared at the top of several publications year-end lists of top albums. Late Registration debuted on the Billboard 200 chart selling 860,000 copies in its first week. Music videos for all five singles were produced. West supported the live album Late Orchestration. Late Registration is the second of Kanye West's planned four education-themed studio albums. Following the major success of The College Dropout, the album reveals his progression in writing an incorporation of a wider range of musical styles. At the time, the focal point of West's style was the use of sped-up vocal samples from soul records. Early in his career, the live album had inspired him to incorporate string arrangements into his hip production. West collaborated with American film score composer Jon Brion, who served as the album's co-executive producer for several tracks. West had been exposed to Brion's work while watching the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, for which Brion had composed music. He was already barking up that tree. This is definitely just a hip-hop album. But it is also by no means overtly arty, or non-hip-hop.Late Registration – Late Registration
21. Graduation (album) – Graduation is the third studio album by American hip hop recording artist and record producer Kanye West. It was released by Roc-A-Fella Records. It features guest contributions from artists, including Mos Def, Dwele, T-Pain, Lil Wayne, Chris Martin of Coldplay. The album's artwork was designed by Japanese contemporary artist Takashi Murakami. Toward this end, West incorporated synthesizer dabbled with electronic music, while sampling from a wider spectrum of music genres. It continues the education theme of West's previous two studio albums, Late Registration. The album debuted on the US Billboard 200 selling 957,000 copies in its first week. It produced five singles, including the international hits "Can't Tell Nothing", "Stronger", "Good Life". The outcome of the competition marks a point in hip-hop culture, when the dominance of gangsta rap in mainstream hip-hop was brought to an end. Graduation earned West several accolades, including his third Grammy Award for Best Rap Album. The album has been certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. The album approach to production. While he rarely listened to house at home, he still felt it was an important part of his background. Along with music, Graduation contains samples and music elements of euro-disco, hard rock, electronica, lounge, progressive rock, synth-pop, electro, krautrock, dub, reggae, dancehall. West altered his vocabulary, he utilized less of the rhythmic consonants in favor of the more smoother, melodic vowel sounds.Graduation (album) – Graduation
22. 808s & Heartbreak – 808s & Heartbreak is the fourth studio album by American recording artist Kanye West. It was released on November 24, 2008, by Roc-A-Fella Records. 808s & Heartbreak debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, selling 450,145 copies in its first week. Despite varying responses from listeners, the album received positive reviews from most critics and was named one of 2008's best records in several year-end lists. Four singles were released to promote the record, including the hit singles "Love Lockdown" and "Heartless". By 2013, it had sold 1.7 million copies in the United States. Following the release of his third Graduation, the remainder of the following year featured events that profoundly affected Kanye West. On November 2007, West's mother Donda West died due to complications arising following cosmetic surgery involving a tummy tuck and procedure. Months later, fiancée Alexis Phifer ended their intermittent relationship, which had begun in 2002. The loss, loneliness and longing for companionship and a sense of normality served to inspire 808s & Heartbreak. West stated that "This album was therapeutic – it's lonely at the top." A photograph taken by Danny Clinch of West kissing his mother on the cheek was included in the album's booklet liner notes. West felt that his emotions could not be fully expressed simply through rapping, which he said had limitations. There were "melodies that were in me", he explained. "What was in me I couldn't stop."808s & Heartbreak – West (center) working on the album with his former mentor, producer No I.D. (left).
23. My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy – My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy is the fifth studio album by American hip hop rapper and producer Kanye West. Following a period of legal controversy, West retreated to a "self-imposed exile" in Hawaii in 2009. There, he worked in a communal recording environment that involved numerous contributing musicians and producers. The album features guest appearances from Bon Iver, Jay Z, Pusha T, Rick Ross, Kid Cudi, Nicki Minaj, more. The album explores such issues as consumer culture, race, the idealism of the American Dream. My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy was released by Roc-A-Fella Records. It was also promoted with a short film set to the record's music, Runaway. The album eventually sold 1,032,000 copies in the United States. It was a critical success, being named the best record of 2010 in numerous year-end critics' lists. The album was conceived following a period of legal and public image controversy amid an overworked mental state. It was formerly known as Good Ass Job and tentatively Dark Twisted Fantasy. GOOD Music artist Big Sean was the second to announce the title of the album as Good Ass Job. On July 2010, on Kanye West's blog, a banner appeared reading "My Dark Twisted Fantasy Trailer". My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, was announced on October 5, 2010. It was reported that West spent over $ million in expenses from his record label Def Jam on the recording.My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy – My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy
24. Watch The Throne – Before the album, Jay-Z and West had collaborated as a producer on Jay-Z's work. As longtime friends, the project eventually evolved into a full-length album. Recording sessions began in November 2010. Jay-Z and West's braggadocio lyrics exhibit themes of opulence, fame, materialism, power, as well as political and socioeconomic context. The album expresses other topics such as Jay-Z's thoughts on West's reflection on being deemed a social villain, their legacy as performers. Music writers interpreted the matter to concern the rappers' plight as African Americans struggling with financial success in America. Watch the Throne debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 436,000 copies its first week. While some critics found the album's lyrical uninspiring, its production and the rappers' performances were highly praised. Many publications placed the album in their year-end best-of lists. It also earned Jay-Z and West seven Grammy Award nominations. The album is certified platinum in the US. West's early work on Jay-Z's music helped raise his profile in the music industry. West continued to be one of Jay-Z's main producers on subsequent albums such as The Black Album and Kingdom Come. The two frequently collaborated. During the promotional stages of West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, a remix of the song "Power" surfaced featuring Jay-Z.Watch The Throne – Watch the Throne
25. Grammys – A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Academy Awards. The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 58th Grammy Awards were held on February 15, 2016, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked. By February 2009, 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded. The "General Field" are four awards which are not restricted by genre.Grammys – Grammy Awards
26. John Legend – John Roger Stephens, known professionally as John Legend, is an American singer, songwriter, musician and actor. Legend has won ten Grammy Awards, one Academy Award. In 2007, he received the Hal David Starlight Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Prior to the release of Legend's album, his career gained momentum through a series of successful collaborations with already established artists. He played piano on Lauryn Hill's "Everything Is Everything". For his work, Legend earned a Billboard Hot 100 number-one single with "All of Me" in 2013. Legend won the Academy Award for writing the song "Glory" from the film Selma. He was born in Springfield, Ohio. Legend is one of four children of Phyllis Elaine, a seamstress, Ronald Lamar Stephens, former National Guardsman. Throughout his childhood, he was homeschooled off by his mother. At the age of four, Legend performed with his choir. Legend began playing the piano at age seven. At the age of twelve, he attended North High School, from which he graduated four years later. According to Legend, Legend was offered admission to Georgetown University and Morehouse College. Legend attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied English on African-American literature.John Legend – John Legend at the Citi Presents Evenings with Legends show on 29 January 2014 in New York.
27. Common (entertainer) – Lonnie Rashid Lynn, Jr. better known by his stage name Common, is an American rapper, actor, film producer and poet from Chicago, Illinois. Common's major-label album, Like Water for Chocolate, received commercial success. His first Grammy Award was in 2003, winning Best R&B Song for "Love of My Life", with Erykah Badu. Its popularity was matched by May 2005's Be, nominated for Best Rap Album, at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Common was awarded his second Grammy for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group, for "Southside", from his July 2007 album Finding Forever. His best-of album, Thisisme Then: The Best of Common, was released on November 27, 2007. He also narrated the award-winning documentary Bouncing Cats, about one man's efforts to improve the lives of children in Uganda through hip-hop/b-boy culture. He starred as Elam Ferguson on the AMC western television series Hell on Wheels. Common was born on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois. He was raised in the Calumet Heights neighborhood. He is the son of educator Dr. Mahalia Ann Hines and former ABA basketball player turned youth counselor Lonnie Lynn. They divorced when he was six years old, resulting in his father's moving to Denver, Colorado. While a student at Luther High School South in Chicago, Lynn with his friends, record producer and Corey Crawley formed C.D.R. A rap trio that opened for acts that included N.W.A and Big Daddy Kane. Common attended Florida A&M University for two years under a scholarship and majored in business administration.Common (entertainer) – Common at a signing for his book, One Day It'll All Make Sense in Tribeca, Manhattan in 2011.
28. Kid Cudi – Scott Ramon Seguro Mescudi, better known by his stage name Kid Cudi, is an American recording artist and actor from Cleveland, Ohio. Cudi first gained major recognition following the release of his full-length project, a mixtape titled A Kid Named Cudi. The mixtape caught the attention of American rapper-producer Kanye West, who subsequently signed Cudi to his GOOD Music label imprint in late 2008. The now-dissolved Dream On and Wicked Awesome Records. Initially a rapper, he has since added singer, songwriter, record producer, film composer to his repertoire. As of 2015, Cudi has released five studio albums as a solo artist. In 2008, his debut single "Day'n' Nite", led him to prominence, reaching the top five of the Billboard charts. Cudi's Man on the Moon: The End of Day was later certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. In 2010, he released Man on the Moon II: The Legend of Mr. Rager, preceded by "Erase Me" and "Mr. Rager". The album debuted at number one on the Top Rock Albums chart. In April 2013, Cudi released Indicud, which became his highest-charting album on multiple charts. In February 2014, Cudi unexpectedly released his fourth album, Satellite Flight: The Journey to Mother Moon, exclusively to digital retailers with no promotion. In 2010, Cudi ventured into acting when he began starring in the HBO series How to Make It in America. He has since appeared including Need for Speed and Entourage. In addition, Cudi has made appearances on television shows such as Brooklyn Nine-Nine.Kid Cudi – Kid Cudi in September 2009
29. Monster (Kanye West song) – The track features rappers Jay-Z, singer Justin Vernon of indie folk group Bon Iver. All five credited performers have writing credits on the posse cut, with the production handled by West and Mike Dean. Lyrically the song expresses often disturbing, horror film influenced concepts, with some comparing the track's eerie aesthetic to the Michael Jackson song "Thriller". The song contains an atmospheric, drum-heavy composition, notable for featuring no samples. The song debuted and peaked on the Billboard Hot 100 at position 18. The track was promoted with a music video directed by Jake Nava. The video had several references to featured extensive horror imagery, with zombies, decapitated corpses and heavily atmospheric cinematography. The music video was widely controversial, being banned from MTV. The content of the video was described as disturbing in nature. To promote his fifth album, West launched a weekly free music giveaway. In the first West released onto his website a remix of the album's first single, "Monster" was released on the second week. The song was promptly replaced with "Monster" being uploaded as a digital single onto iTunes. West announced that "Monster" was actually intended for his collaborative album Watch the Throne with Jay-Z. The song was released as the album's third single. Following some media controversies, West chose to record his fifth studio My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy in a reclusive manner in Oahu, Hawaii.Monster (Kanye West song) – Rap artists Rick Ross (left) and Nicki Minaj (right) are both featured on the song. Ross was impressed with the song's concept and asked if he could deliver the intro. Minaj appeared on the song due in part to her admiration of Jay-Z. Ross expressed admiration for Minaj, and praised her lyricism.
30. Studio album – Vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st century album sales have mostly focused on compact MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used through to the 1990s alongside vinyl. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, in the field, or a mix of places. Recording may take a few hours to several years to complete, usually in several takes with different parts recorded separately, then brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live", even when done in a studio. The majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, voice adjustments, etc.. Sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos. Historically, the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early century. Later, collections of 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums. Or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. It was adopted as a standard format for the "album". Apart from the important later addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums. The term "album" had been carried forward from the early century when it had been used for collections of short pieces of music. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums.Studio album – Early record albums were packages of 78 RPM records in book form
31. Rick Ross (rapper) – William Leonard Roberts II, known professionally by his stage name Rick Ross, is an American rapper and entrepreneur. Ross was also the first artist signed to Diddy's management company Ciroc Entertainment. In early 2012, MTV named Ross as the Hottest MC in the Game. William Leonard Roberts II was born in Clarksdale, Mississippi, raised in Carol City, Florida. After graduating from Miami Carol City Senior High School, he attended the historically black college Albany State University on a football scholarship. Roberts worked as a correctional officer for 18 months from December 1995, until his resignation in June 1997. In his early years at Suave House Records, Roberts initially made his debut under the pseudonym Teflon Da Don. He made his recording debut on the song "Ain't Shhh to Discuss" on Erick Sermon's lone album for DreamWorks, Def Squad Presents Erick Onasis. In the mid-2000s, he changed his name to Rick Ross. He derived his stage name from the former drug kingpin "Freeway" Rick Ross, to whom he has no connection. While signed to Slip-n-Slide, Roberts toured with fellow rapper Trick Daddy and made guest performances on other Slip-n-Slide albums. Christian Hoard of Rolling Stone magazine predicted that it would be "the summer's biggest rap record". The single was "Push It", which samples "Scarface", the song from the film Scarface. The music video for "Push It" was modeled after the film. During that time, Ross made guest performances on two singles from DJ Khaled's debut Listennn... the Album: "Born-N-Raised" and "Holla at Me".Rick Ross (rapper) – Rick Ross performing for the Mastermind Tour in Toronto on June 15, 2014.
32. Justin Vernon – Justin DeYarmond Edison Vernon is an American multi-instrumentalist, singer, songwriter and producer. He is best known as the primary frontman of indie folk band Bon Iver. Vernon is also a member of the bands Volcano Choir, Gayngs. Vernon attended Memorial High School in Wisconsin, graduating in 1999. He then spent a semester in Ireland. Vernon minored in Women's Studies. In an interview with Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report, he said that he was not ready to study music. Justin Vernon founded the DeYarmond Edison while attending high school and college in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, where he still resides. DeYarmond Edison's core consisted of Joe Westerlund. The band saw varying line-up changes during its five years of existence. After nearly a year in Raleigh, Vernon left after a breakup with the band and a girlfriend. The remaining members of DeYarmond Edison went on to remain good friends with Vernon. Vernon came with For Emma, Forever Ago, his first album with Bon Iver. Vernon is a part including Volcano Choir, which consists of Vernon and the members of the band Collections of Colonies of Bees. In 2009 Unmap was released.Justin Vernon – Vernon performing with Bon Iver in Gothenburg, Sweden.
33. Bon Iver – Bon Iver is an American indie folk band founded in 2007 by singer-songwriter Justin Vernon. Vernon released Bon Iver's album, For Emma, Forever Ago independently in July 2007. The majority of that album was recorded while Vernon spent three months in northwestern Wisconsin. Bon Iver won the 2012 Grammy Awards for their album Bon Iver, Bon Iver. The name Bon Iver is derived from the French phrase hiver, meaning "good winter", taken from a greeting on Northern Exposure. Vernon did not intend to record any music during the time but rather to recuperate from the events of the previous year. Eventually a record began to evolve during this cathartic time of isolation. Each song was heavily edited with a large number of overdubs. In an interview, Vernon said: "Words like'decision' and'intention' aren't words that float in my head because I just went", Vernon explains. I had my brother drop off his old drums... some small things -- things I would make or find lying around." The record was was originally intended as a group of demos to be sent out to labels and potentially rerecorded. But after getting very encouraging reactions from a number of his friends, Vernon decided to release the songs himself in their present state. According to Kyle Frenette, an initial run of 500 CDs were pressed. The original CD show took place at the House of Rock in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Justin played an evening 21 + show to release the original pressing of the album in its card stock CD case.Bon Iver – Bon Iver performing in Stockholm, Sweden (2011)
34. Nicki Minaj – Onika Tanya Maraj, known professionally as Nicki Minaj, is a Trinidadian-born American rapper, singer, songwriter. She has been signed to Young Money Entertainment since 2009. In 2010, Minaj became the first female solo artist to have seven singles simultaneously charting on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100. In 2013, she was a judge on the twelfth season of American Idol. In 2016, Minaj was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. Her rapping is distinctive for its fast flow and the use of alter egos and accents, primarily British cockney. Early in her career, Minaj was known for her colorful costumes and wigs. She has further endorsed Adidas, MAC Cosmetics and Pepsi. She has sold 20 million singles as a lead artist, 60 million singles as a featured artist worldwide. Onika Tanya Maraj was born on December 8, 1982 in Saint James, Trinidad and Tobago. Part-time gospel singer, is of Indian and Afro-Trinidadian descent. Her mother, also a singer, is of distant Asian ancestry. Carol worked in payroll and accounting departments during Minaj's youth. Minaj's father was addicted to alcohol and other drugs, had a violent temper, burning down their house in December 1987. She has two siblings.Nicki Minaj – Minaj at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards in Los Angeles
35. Hawaii – Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U.S. state not located in the Americas. The state does not observe daylight time. The state encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. The 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U.S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality. The state's coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U.S. after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is, named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth. He is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled.Hawaii – Hawaii from space, January 26, 2014
36. New York Yankees – The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The Yankees compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division. The Yankees are one of two Major League clubs based in New York City; the other is the New York Mets. The Highlanders were officially renamed as the "Yankees" in 1913. The team is owned by Yankee Global Enterprises, an LLC controlled by the family of the late George Steinbrenner, who purchased the team in 1973. Former catcher Joe Girardi is the team's manager, Brian Cashman is the team's general manager. The team's home games were played at Yankee Stadium from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008. In 2009, they moved into a new ballpark of the same name after the previous venue closed. The team is perennially among the leaders in MLB attendance—in 2011, the Yankees had the second-highest attendance. In pursuit of winning championships, the franchise has used a large payroll to recruit talent, particularly during the Steinbrenner era. The Yankees have garnered a fanbase, well as widespread enmity from fans of other MLB teams. The team's rivalry with the Boston Red Sox is one of the most well-known rivalries in U.S. sports. At the end of 1900, Ban Johnson, president of the American League, a minor league, previously known as the Western League, reorganized the league. He added teams in three east coast cities, forming the American League as a major league in an attempt to challenge the National League for supremacy. Instead, a team was put in Baltimore, Maryland, a city which the NL abandoned when it contracted from 12 to 8 teams in 1900.New York Yankees – Hilltop Park, home of the Highlanders
37. Yankee Stadium – Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. The $ billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies, replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009. The overall tag makes the new Yankee Stadium the most expensive stadium ever built. New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for a new stadium in the early 1980s, just a few years after the remodeled Yankee Stadium opened. Steinbrenner at the time was reportedly considering a move to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in New Jersey. In a statewide referendum in 1987, New Jersey taxpayers rejected $185 million for a baseball stadium for the Yankees. Despite the rejection from New Jersey, Steinbrenner frequently used a threatened move there as leverage in negotiations with New York City. Steinbrenner then backed out of the deal. However, Cuomo lost his bid a few months later. By 1995, Steinbrenner had rejected 13 proposals to keep the Yankees in the Bronx. Steinbrenner rejected this well. Mayor Rudy Giuliani unveiled a plan to relocate the Yankees to the West Side Yard for a $1 billion stadium. However, with most of the funding coming from taxpayers, Giuliani tabled the proposal, fearing rejection in a citywide referendum. He estimated that both stadiums would cost $ billion, with city and state taxpayers contributing $1.2 billion. At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment.Yankee Stadium – 2011 photo
38. MTV Video Music Awards – An MTV Video Music Award is an award presented by the cable channel MTV to honor the best in the music video medium. By 2001, the VMA had become a coveted award. The statue given to winners is an astronaut on the moon, one of the earliest representations of MTV, colloquially called a "moonman". The statue is now made by New York firm, Society Awards. Since the 2006 ceremony, viewers are able to vote for their favorite videos in all general categories by visiting MTV's website. The first VMA ceremony was held in 1984 at New York City's Radio City Music Hall. The ceremonies are normally held in either New York City or Los Angeles. However, the ceremonies have also been hosted in Miami and Las Vegas. During the performance, she rolled around on the floor, revealing lacy stockings and a garter. Cyndi Lauper spoke in "Exorcist-esque gibberish" to explain the VMA rules right before winning the Best Female video for "Girls Just Want to Have Fun". The Beatles were rewarded in pioneering the video. 1988: At the 1988 Video Music Awards Michael Jackson appeared for the first time. A pre-recorded live performance of Bad was shown." He was also awarded the Video Vanguard Award. Paula Abdul was nominated for six awards, picking up four wins.MTV Video Music Awards – The 1983-1984 Video of the Year "Moonman" award.
39. Saturday Night Live – Saturday Night Live is an American late-night live television sketch comedy and variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol. The show premiered on NBC under the original title NBC's Saturday Night. The show's comedy sketches, which parody politics, are performed by a large and varying cast of repertory and newer cast members. Each episode features performances by a musical guest. In 1980, Michaels left the series to explore other opportunities. He was replaced by Jean Doumanian, replaced after a season of bad reviews. Ebersol ran the show until 1985, when Michaels returned; Michaels has remained since then. Others associated with the show, such as writers, have gone on to successful careers creating, starring in TV and film. In 2000, it was inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame. As of 2012, it has received 156 Emmy nominations, the most received by any show. At the suggestion of Paramount Pictures executive Barry Diller, Schlosser and Ebersol then approached Lorne Michaels. Over the next three weeks, Ebersol and Michaels developed the latter's idea for a variety show featuring high-concept comedy sketches, music performances. NBC officially adopted the new title on March 26, 1977. In 1976, they were the most desirable demographic for television advertisers. Chevy Chase was replaced a few months later by the then-unknown comic actor Bill Murray.Saturday Night Live – The original 1975 cast, from left to right: Laraine Newman, John Belushi, Jane Curtin, Gilda Radner, Dan Aykroyd, Garrett Morris, and Chevy Chase
40. Egypt – It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם. The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed more centralised society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.Egypt – The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
41. Louis Vuitton – Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, sunglasses and books. For six consecutive years, it was named the world's most valuable brand. Its 2012 valuation was US$ billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$ billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide. The Louis Vuitton label was founded on Rue Neuve des Capucines in Paris, France. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used, thus could not be stacked. Louis Vuitton was Vuitton's gray Trianon flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Other luggagemakers imitated LV's style and design. The company participated in Paris. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store on Oxford Street. In 1892, the company's management passed to his son. In 1896, the company made the worldwide patents on it.Louis Vuitton – This article is about the French fashion house. For the founder of the Louis Vuitton brand, see Louis Vuitton (designer).
42. Tate Modern – It is a modern art gallery located in London. Tate Modern is Britain's national gallery of the Tate group. Tate Modern is based in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to international modern and contemporary art. It is one in the world. Tate Modern is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral. The station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced that Bankside would be the home for the new Tate Modern. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995. The # million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000.Tate Modern – Tate Modern
43. Hip hop music – It developed as part of a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include beatboxing. While often used to refer to rapping, "hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables to extend the breaks. Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum-machines became widely affordable. Turntablist techniques developed along with the Jamaican toasting vocal style was used. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks along with an synthesized beat. The Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is widely regarded to be the first hip record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hop as the genre developed more complex styles. Prior to the 1980s, hip music was largely confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip period was an innovative period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city youths.Hip hop music – 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the Bronx, a venue used by Kool Herc that is often considered the birthplace of hip hop in 1973
44. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. The five boroughs -- Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island -- were consolidated into a single city in 1898. New York served as the capital of the United States until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, environmental sustainability. Several sources have ranked the most photographed city in the world. The names of many of the city's bridges, parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. On, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. He named it "Nouvelle Angoulême". He returned to Spain in August.New York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
45. Hollywood, California – Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. The neighborhood is notable for its place as the home of the U.S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a metonym for the motion picture industry of the United States. Hollywood is also a highly ethnically diverse, densely populated, economically diverse neighborhood and retail business district. Hollywood was a small community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood", meaning'hauling wood.' H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E.C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land.Hollywood, California – The Four Ladies installation at the Hollywood Boulevard – La Brea Avenue Gateway
46. Jon Brion – Jon Brion is an American rock and pop multi-instrumentalist, singer, songwriter, composer and record producer. He also released his debut solo album, Meaningless, in 2001. He was born in New Jersey. He came from a musical family; his father, Keith Brion, was a band director at Yale. His sister became a composer/arranger and a violinist, respectively. He at the age of 17 left education, opting instead to play music professionally. From 1980 -- 85 Jon was part of Jim Balga, Bobby Butcher & Spike Priggen. In the early 1980s, musician/producer Bill Murphy began a writing collaboration in New Haven, Connecticut. They eventually together formed The Bats. The Bats released a single, "Popgun" and one album How Pop Can You Get?, on Gustav records in 1982. The recordings had much critical acclaim, but little the trio eventually disbanded. Brion also played guitar on The Wallflowers' song "One Headlight." He played numerous instruments on Sam Phillips' 1996 Omnipop. After being recognized as an accomplished session player, its follow-up, I'm With Stupid. Brion's versions leaked onto the Internet, where the album gained a cult following long before its official release.Jon Brion – Brion at The Sunset Tavern in Seattle, September 2004 (Photo By Nadja Dee Witherbee)
47. Lupe Fiasco – Wasalu Muhammad Jaco, better known by his stage name Lupe Fiasco, is an American rapper, record producer, entrepreneur. He rose to fame following the success of his debut album, Lupe Fiasco's Food & Liquor. Fiasco also performs under his real name. As an entrepreneur, he is the executive officer of 1st & 15th Entertainment. Raised in Chicago, Jaco developed an interest after initially disliking the genre for its use of vulgarity and misogyny. After adopting recording songs in his father's basement, 19-year-old Fiasco joined a group called Da Pak. Fiasco soon met rapper Jay-Z who helped him sign a record deal with Atlantic Records. In September 2006, Fiasco released Lupe Fiasco's Food & Liquor on the label, which received three Grammy nominations. He released Lupe Fiasco's The Cool, in December 2007. The lead single "Superstar" became his top 40 hit on the Billboard Hot 100. Tetsuo & Youth, was released in January 2015. In addition to music, he has pursued other business ventures, including fashion. He runs two clothing lines, Trilly & Truly; he has designed sneakers for Reebok. He is also noted for his anti-establishment views, which he has expressed in his music. He was born Wasalu Muhammad Jaco on February 1982 in Chicago, Illinois.Lupe Fiasco – Lupe Fiasco in 2012
48. Jamie Foxx – Eric Morlon Bishop, known professionally as Jamie Foxx, is an American actor, singer, songwriter, comedian. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in the crime film Collateral. Eric Marlon Bishop was born on December 13, 1967. Foxx is the son of Darrell Bishop, who sometimes worked as Louise Annette Talley Dixon. Foxx has had little contact with his birth parents, who were not part of his upbringing. He was raised in the black quarter of Terrell, which at the time was a racially segregated community. Foxx has often acknowledged his grandmother's influence in his life as one of the greatest reasons for his success. He began playing the piano when he was five years old. As a teenager he was a part-time pianist and choir leader in Terrell's New Hope Baptist Church. He attended Terrell High School, where he played basketball and football. He was the first player in the school's history to pass for more than 1,000 yards. Foxx also sang in a band called Leather and Lace. After completing high school, he received a scholarship to United States International University, where he studied classical composition. He first told jokes at a comedy club's open mic night after accepting a girlfriend's dare. Foxx chose his surname to the black comedian Redd Foxx.Jamie Foxx – Foxx in Paris in January 2013, at the French premiere of Django Unchained
49. Nas – Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones, better known by his stage name Nas /ˈnɑːz/, is an American hip hop recording artist, record producer, actor and entrepreneur. The son of Nas has released eight consecutive platinum and multi-platinum albums and has sold over 25 million records worldwide. He is currently signed to Mass Appeal Records. His musical career began as featured artist on Main Source's "Live at the Barbeque". From 2001 to 2005, Nas was involved in a highly publicized feud with rapper Jay Z. Nas signed to Def Jam in 2006. In 2010, he released a collaboration album with reggae artist Damian Marley, donating all royalties to charities active in Africa. His eleventh album, Life Is Good was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards. Nas is often named as one of the greatest hip hop artists. MTV ranked him on their list of "The Greatest MCs of All Time". In 2012, The Source ranked number two on their list of the "Top 50 Lyricists of All Time". In 2013, Nas was ranked fourth on MTV's "Hottest MCs in the Game" list. Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones was born September 1973, in Brooklyn, New York. Olu Dara, is a jazz and blues musician, from Mississippi. Fannie Ann Jones, was a Postal Service worker from North Carolina. He has a brother named Jabari Fret, best known as "Jungle", a member of the hip hop group Bravehearts.Nas – Nas performing in Paris in 2014.
50. Brandy (entertainer) – Brandy Rayana Norwood, known professionally as Brandy, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer and actress. In 1993, Norwood signed with Atlantic Records. She released her self-titled debut album, certified quadruple Platinum in the US, selling six million copies worldwide. Norwood starred as the title character, which lasted six seasons and resulted in numerous other roles. Her second album, Say Never sold 16 million copies worldwide, featured two number one singles, earned Norwood her first Grammy Award. This launched her with films, endorsements, sold out concert tours, her own line of Barbie dolls. Throughout the 2000s, Norwood held a precarious position in the industry. In 2002, she starred in the reality Brandy: Special Delivery, documenting the birth of her daughter. Full Moon and Afrodisiac, were released to critical and commercial success. She served before being involved in a widely publicized car accident in 2006. After several lawsuits stemming from the accident, Norwood's fifth Human was released to commercial failure. In the 2010s, Norwood received a commercial resurgence. In 2012 she released her sixth album Two Eleven to critical praise. In April 2015, Norwood made her Broadway debut in the musical Chicago. Executive produced a new sitcom Zoe Ever After on the BET network in January 2016.Brandy (entertainer) – Brandy, photographed by Kat Morgan, in 2015
51. Adam Levine – Adam Noah Levine is an American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, actor. Levine is the lead vocalist for the pop band Maroon 5. The band split up after The Fourth World, which did not gain popularity. In 2002, the band released Songs About Jane, which went multi-platinum in the US. Since then, they have released four more albums, It Won't Be Soon Before Long, Hands All Over, V. Since 2011, he has served as a coach on NBC's talent show The Voice. Javier Colon, Tessanne Chin and Jordan Smith, were on his team. In 2012, Levine made his acting debut as a recurring character in the television show American Horror Story: Asylum for the series' second season. Levine also starred in the Begin Again. As an entrepreneur, he launched his own eponymous line in 2013. He collaborated with K-Mart and ShopYourWay.com to develop his menswear collection. Levine also owns 222 Records. In 2013, The Hollywood Reporter reported that "sources familiar with his many business dealings" estimated Levine would earn that year. Levine has television producer and writer Peter Noah. Levine is also the nephew of economist Jordan Levine.Adam Levine – Levine in 2011
52. Maroon 5 – Maroon 5 is an American pop rock band that originated in Los Angeles, California. The band, which self-released an album called We Like Digging?, then signed to Reprise Records and released the album The Fourth World in 1997. The members attended college. In 2001, the band changed its image by pursuing a new direction under the name Maroon 5. At this point, Carmichael switched to playing keyboards, which has since become his main instrument in the band. After these changes, Maroon 5 released their debut album, Songs About Jane, in June 2002. The album's lead single, "Harder to Breathe", received heavy airplay, which helped the album to debut at number six on the Billboard 200 chart. In 2004, the album has been dubbed "the sleeper hit of the millennium". The band won the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 2005. In 2006, Dusick officially was replaced by Matt Flynn. The band then recorded their second album, It Won't Be Soon Before Long and released it in May 2007. While the original version of the album received mixed reviews, "Moves like Jagger" reached the number one position on the Billboard Hot 100. The band released Overexposed, on June 26, 2012. Keyboardist PJ Morton became an official member of the band in 2012, after gaining little success as an R&B vocalist. The addition of PJ Morton meant that for the first time, Maroon 5 had six official members.Maroon 5 – Maroon 5 in 2011 (from left to right: Mickey Madden, Adam Levine, James Valentine, Jesse Carmichael, PJ Morton, and Matt Flynn).
53. Billboard 200 – The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart is based mostly on sales of albums in the United States. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of the following week. The chart's schedule is also tracked from Friday to Thursday. New product is released to the American market on Fridays. Digital downloads of albums are also included in Billboard 200 tabulation. Albums that are not licensed for retail sale in the United States are not eligible to chart. As of the issue dated December 2016, the number-one album on the Billboard 200 is 4 Your Eyez Only by J. Cole. Billboard began an chart in 1945. Only five positions long the album chart was not published on a weekly basis, sometimes three to seven weeks passing before it was updated. A biweekly, Best-Selling Popular Albums chart appeared in 1955. The count varied anywhere from 10 to 30 albums. The number-one album on the new weekly list was Belafonte by Harry Belafonte.Billboard 200 – Contents
54. Grammy Award for Best Rap Album – In 1995, the Academy announced the addition of the category Best Rap Album. The first award was presented by Nature at the 38th Grammy Awards the following year. Award recipients mixers associated to the recording artists. As of 2015, Eminem holds the record for the most wins in this category, with six. Lauryn Hill is currently the female artist to win in this category, when she won in 1997 with the Fugees. The duo known as Outkast received the award twice. Jay-Z holds the record for the most nominations, with nine, which resulted in one win. Canadian artist Drake became the non-American winner in this category when he won in 2013. The Roots have received the most nominations with five. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year. Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance Grammy Award for Best Rap Song Hip hop music Official site of the Grammy AwardsGrammy Award for Best Rap Album – 1998 winner Sean Combs (credited as Puff Daddy), performing in 2006
55. 48th Grammy Awards – The 48th Annual Grammy Awards took place on February 8, 2006, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. Irish band U2 were the main recipients with five awards including Album of the Year. Green Day were amongst the big winners, winning the Grammy Award for Record of the Year. U2 was the night's top winner, with five awards. Their win for Album of the Year was their second win for that particular award. They previously won it for The Joshua Tree. They are the only act to have more than one Album of the Year win. Top nominees won only three awards each. Kelly Clarkson won two awards, becoming the first American Idol to win a Grammy. Angel. Music. Baby. Angel. Music. U2's win for Album of the Year was their second win for that respective award.48th Grammy Awards – 48th Annual Grammy Awards
56. Rolling Stone – Rolling Stone is an American biweekly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason. It was first known by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone magazine was founded by Jann Wenner and Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim. The first issue was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival. The cover price was 35¢. Some authors have attributed the name solely to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone initially reported the hippie counterculture of the era. In the very first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the things and attitudes that music embraces". It was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst odyssey. In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater".Rolling Stone – Cee Lo Green, Adam Levine, Christina Aguilera, and Blake Shelton, on the cover of the February 1, 2012, issue of Rolling Stone
57. 2000s (decade) – The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000 and ended on December 31, 2009. The growth of the Internet contributed during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world. In the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted as for decades such as the'80s, the'90s, etc.. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the"' 00s". Some people read "2000s" as "two-thousands", thus simply refer to the decade as the "Two-Thousands", the "Twenty-ohs". Some read it as the "00s", while others referred as the "Zeros". On January 2000, the BBC listed the noughties, as a potential moniker for the new decade. This has become a common name for the decade in the UK and Australia, well as other Anglospheric countries. Others have advocated the term "the aughts", a term widely used for its first decade. The American Dialect Society holds a annual poll for word of the year and related subcategories. For 2009, the winner in the "least likely to succeed" category was "Any name of the decade 2000–2009, such as: Noughties, Aughties, Oughties, etc." The option "aught-seven", for whatever reason, has never caught on idiomatically. When the "20 -" is retained, two options are "twenty-oh-seven". During the 2000s decade, it was more common to hear the first pattern than the second. The War on War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001.2000s (decade) – The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.
58. Yeezus – Yeezus is the sixth solo album and seventh studio album by American rapper Kanye West. It was released on June 18, 2013 by Def Jam Recordings. Yeezus also features guest vocals from Justin Vernon, Chief Keef, Kid Cudi, Assassin, Frank Ocean. Yeezus has been characterized as West's most experimental and sonically abrasive work. Initial promotion of Yeezus included worldwide video projections of the album's music and live television performances. West released two singles from the album, the song "Black Skinhead" in July 2013 and "Bound 2" the following month. The album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, selling 327,000 copies in its first week of release. It topped the charts of 30 other countries, including the United Kingdom and Australia. Yeezus was nominated in two categories at the 2014 Grammy Awards, including Best Rap Album. As of 2016, the album has sold 750,000 copies in the United States. Following the release of his fifth album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, West collaborated with longtime friend Jay Z on Watch the Throne. The album features additional vocals by Justin Vernon, Frank Ocean, Kid Cudi, Chief Keef, King L, Charlie Wilson. West visited a exhibit in the Louvre five times. A single Le Corbusier lamp was his "greatest inspiration". West worked closely with the architect Oana Stanescu, took "field trips" to Le Corbusier homes.Yeezus – West first began work on Yeezus at his personal loft in Paris, and on numerous occasions visited the Louvre (pictured) for inspiration.
61. Watch the Throne – Before the album, Jay-Z and West had collaborated as a producer on Jay-Z's work. As longtime friends, the project eventually evolved into a full-length album. Recording sessions began in November 2010. Jay-Z and West's braggadocio lyrics exhibit themes of opulence, fame, materialism, power, as well as political and socioeconomic context. The album expresses other topics such as Jay-Z's thoughts on West's reflection on being deemed a social villain, their legacy as performers. Music writers interpreted the matter to concern the rappers' plight as African Americans struggling with financial success in America. Watch the Throne debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 436,000 copies its first week. While some critics found the album's lyrical uninspiring, its production and the rappers' performances were highly praised. Many publications placed the album in their year-end best-of lists. It also earned Jay-Z and West seven Grammy Award nominations. The album is certified platinum in the US. West's early work on Jay-Z's music helped raise his profile in the music industry. West continued to be one of Jay-Z's main producers on subsequent albums such as The Black Album and Kingdom Come. The two frequently collaborated. During the promotional stages of West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, a remix of the song "Power" surfaced featuring Jay-Z.Watch the Throne – Watch the Throne
62. Jay Z – Shawn Corey Carter, known professionally as Jay Z, is an American rapper, businessman, investor. MTV ranked him the "greatest MC of all time" in 2006. Rolling Stone ranked three of his albums -- Reasonable Doubt, The Black Album -- among the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2014, Forbes estimated his net worth at nearly $520 million, making him one of the richest hip hop artists in the U.S. Jay Z co-owns the New York 40/40 Club sports bar, is the co-creator of the clothing line Rocawear. Jay is the former president of Def Jam Recordings, the founder of the entertainment company Roc Nation. Jay also is a certified NBA and MLB sports agent. As an artist, Jay holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200 with 13. Jay has also had four number ones Hot 100, one as lead artist. Jay was also ranked the 88th-greatest artist of all time by Rolling Stone. Jay Z married American R&B singer Beyoncé in 2008. Blue Ivy Carter, was born on January 7, 2012. Shawn Carter was raised in Marcy Houses, a housing project in Brooklyn's Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood. His three siblings were raised by their mother, Gloria Carter, after their father, Adness Reeves abandoned the family. Jay Z claims in his lyrics that at the age of 12, he shot his older brother in the shoulder for stealing his jewelry.Jay Z – Jay Z at the Shawn Carter Foundation Carnival, 2011
63. The College Dropout Video Anthology – He contributed to the direction of three versions of "Jesus Walks". A third video was also made, although rarely seen before this DVD. It was accompanied by a bonus CD that featured seven otherwise unreleased songs by West. Three are reprises of songs from The College Dropout, two are alternate instrumental versions of Dropout tracks, two were previously unreleased originals. On June 2007, the DVD/CD set was declared certified Gold by the RIAA. Such an honor was declared once the album surpassed the 500,000 units sold mark. 1. "We Don't Care" Produced by Kanye West Contains samples from "I Just Wanna Stop" performed by The Jimmy Castor Bunch 2. "Jesus Walks" Produced by John Legend Contains a sample of "Walk With Me" performed by The Arc Choir 3. "It's Alright" Produced by Kanye West 4. "The New Workout Plan" Produced by Lil Jon 5. "Heavy Hitters" Produced by Kanye West 6.The College Dropout Video Anthology – The College Dropout Video Anthologie
64. Glow in the Dark Tour – The Glow in the Dark Tour is a critically acclaimed world concert tour by Kanye West featuring Rihanna, Lupe Fiasco, N.E.R.D, Santigold and Nas. It travelled to Latin America, Asia, Europe, New Zealand and Australia through to early December. The tour featured some special guest artists, including Gnarls Barkley and Jay-Z. Chris Brown also appeared at some shows to perform his remix of "Umbrella" with Rihanna, as a dancer for N.E.R.D. Vanness Wu performed as the opening act on the Asian leg of the tour and performed "Good Life" with West during the show. A same titled book authored by Nabil Elderkin was published by Rizzoli USA in October 2009. The tour grossed $ million from 49 shows. West quickly made an apology to fans on his official blog. This marked the first ever late show on the big "What Stage" in Bonnaroo's 7-year history. A message on the monitors stated that the show would start at 3:30. When that didn't happen, the crowd started chanting "Kanye Sucks". Once West came out at 4:25 am most people quieted down. The delay was reportedly due to complications in the set up of West's elaborate glow in the dark concept concert after the Pearl Jam set. Graffiti was found throughout the festival ranging from "Fuck Kanye" to "Jay-Z Would Have Been on Time". West later wrote an outraged post on his blog, expressing his anger at Superfly's mismanagement.Glow in the Dark Tour – Glow in the Dark Tour
65. Through the Wire – "Through the Wire" is the debut single by American rapper Kanye West. West recorded the song with his jaw wired shut after a car accident in October 2002. "Through the Wire" received positive reviews from music critics. The song lost to Jay-Z's "99 Problems". The video was financed by West, inspired by an Adidas advertisement. It won Video of the Year at the 2004 Source Hip Hop Awards. On October 2002, West was in a California recording studio producing music for Beanie Sigel, Peedi Crakk, The Black Eyed Peas. Two weeks after being admitted to hospital, he recorded the song with his jaw still wired shut. The song's title refers to the wires used to hold his broken jaw together. To nearly lose your life, to nearly lose your mouth, your whole face, as a rapper... and I had to be on TV! My face looks crazy to me now... But I have to just thank God for the situation that I am in... "Through The Wire" is the worst thing that could've possibly happen to me, now it's obviously the best thing. Look how it exploded! The track circulated on West's mixtape Get Well Soon... before being officially released in re-recorded form in late 2003.Through the Wire – "Through the Wire"
66. Slow Jamz – "Slow Jamz" is a single by American rapper Twista featuring Kanye West and Jamie Foxx. It was released in late 2003 as the lead single from Kanye West's debut album The College Dropout. The song peaked for a week on February 10, 2004 becoming Twista's, West's and Foxx's first number one single. The Kanye West version excludes the original outro by Twista. The song was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. Q magazine listed it as the nineteenth greatest hip-hop song of all time. The song is a tribute to slow jam songs. Kanye West supplies the first verse, Twista gives the second verse and the outro, actor/singer Jamie Foxx sings the chorus. But now I need you to do it faster baby, can you please, do it faster baby, do it faster! West: Damn, baby; I can't do it that fast...but I know somebody who can. Twista! It includes cameo appearances by Consequence, Aisha Tyler, John Legend, Common.Slow Jamz – "Slow Jamz"
67. All Falls Down – "All Falls Down" is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West. It was released as The College Dropout. The song features singer Syleena Johnson. The song was nominated for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 47th Grammy Awards. The song features an interpolation of Iniquity." Kanye originally attempted to acquire legal clearance to sample the recording but due to various complications, the permission was withheld. West then called to re-sing the relevant vocal portions of "Mystery of Iniquity" which ended up in the final track. The version of the song with the original sample can be heard on West's Freshman Adjustment mixtape. Lyrically, "All Falls Down" examines the self-consciousness and particularly the black community, how these characteristics pertain to economic materialism. The video for "All Falls Down" was directed by Chris Milk and shot at Ontario International Airport in Ontario, California. It follows Kanye as he accompanies his girlfriend, played by Stacey Dash, to the airport to catch her flight. The video is shot in first-person perspective, displaying the journey from their car to the airport terminal through West's eyes. The video also features cameos by Syleena Johnson, Common, Kel Mitchell, who act as a ticket counter, valet, respectively. In addition, rappers GLC and Consequence can also be seen as Kanye is running through the airport in slow motion.All Falls Down – "All Falls Down"
68. Jesus Walks – "Jesus Walks" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West. It was released as the fourth single from his debut album, The College Dropout. The song contains a sample of "Walk with Me" as performed by the ARC Choir. "Jesus Walks" was acclaimed by music critics, who boldness in its open embrace of faith. The single was accompanied by three separate music videos, each of which visually interpreted a portion of its multifaceted context in different ways. At the 47th Grammy Awards, "Jesus Walks" was awarded the Grammy for Best Rap Song. Rolling Stone named 19 on their list of 100 Best Songs of the 2000s. The song was named the 6th best song of 2004 on Village Voice's Pazz & Jop critics poll. In October 2011, NME placed it on its list "150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years". The song was listed on Pitchfork Media's 500 songs of the 2000s. It was placed on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". The song is essentially a spiritual exultation, wherein West discusses how Jesus "walks" with all manner of people, from the sinner to the saint. The first conceptual verse of the song is told through the eyes of a drug dealer contemplating his relationship with God. It reportedly took over six months for West to draw inspiration for the second verse. They reasoned that he therefore was not easily marketable.Jesus Walks – "Jesus Walks"
69. The New Workout Plan – "The New Workout Plan" is the final single from Kanye West's debut album, The College Dropout. Released in late 2004, the single peaked at number fifty-nine on the U.S. Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. John Legend, Anna Nicole Smith, Tracee Ellis Ross, Vida Guerra, Fonzworth Bentley made cameo appearances on the song's music video. The remix was later included on The College Dropout Video Anthology. Information taken from The College Dropout liner notes.The New Workout Plan – "The New Workout Plan"
70. Diamonds from Sierra Leone – "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" is a Grammy-winning song by American hip-hop artist Kanye West. It was released as the lead single of his second studio album, Late Registration. The song contains a sample of the song for the 1971 James Bond film, Diamonds Are Forever as performed by Shirley Bassey. Bassey was stated that she wished to work with him in the future. It won a Grammy Award for Best Rap Song at the 48th Grammy Awards. He initiates the remix by proclaiming, "Good Morning! This ain't Vietnam. Still, people lose hands, arms for real. "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" is one of West's most performed songs. The video for "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" was directed by Hype Williams and shot entirely in black and white. It was filmed in the city of Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic. West felt its sculptures, cathedrals, stone pavements emitted the timeless feel of "Diamonds". The images are juxtaposed with scenes of wealthy Europeans trying on jewelry. The video ends with text that reads, "Please purchase conflict-free diamonds". Information taken from Late Registration liner.Diamonds from Sierra Leone – "Diamonds from Sierra Leone"
71. Gold Digger (Kanye West song) – "Gold Digger" is a song recorded by American rapper Kanye West featuring guest vocals by Jamie Foxx. Co-produced with the song contains samples of Ray Charles' "I Got a Woman". It was 2005's running number one on the Billboard Hot 100 at ten weeks, behind "We Belong Together" by Mariah Carey. At the 2006 Grammy Awards, "Gold Digger" won the award for Best Rap Solo Performance. The song lists on the Billboard Hot 100 Songs of the Decade. "Gold Digger" was voted number 20 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop. As of January 2011, the song has sold over 3,000,000 copies in the United States. Upon its release, many surmised that West conceived "Gold Digger" after watching Jamie Foxx's Oscar-winning portrayal of Ray Charles in the biographical film Ray. However, he had actually constructed the beat of the song long before the movie was even developed. However, for reasons unknown, Shawnna passed on using the song. Not wanting to let it go to waste, West decided to add lyrics expressed from a male's point-of-view. The first verse was made later in the year while West was on Usher's Evolution Tour. After recording another version, Foxx decided to re-record it once more as he felt it contained too many explicit lyrics. Once the track was finally in place, it was layered with additional instruments individually selected by West. By the end of their very first session together, the pair had completed the basic tracks for the final version of "Gold Digger".Gold Digger (Kanye West song) – "Gold Digger"
72. Heard 'Em Say – "Heard'Em Say" is a song by American hip-hop artist Kanye West. It was released as the third single for his second studio album, Late Registration. The song features Maroon 5 lead singer Adam Levine, who sings the bridge. It contains a re-recorded piano sample from "Someone That I Used to Love" as performed by Natalie Cole. The song is often seen as one of West's best. Kanye West and Adam Levine had first collaborated when Maroon 5 commissioned West to remix "This Love." The two later developed a friendship while sitting together to Rome for the 2004 MTV Europe Music Awards. "I had just written a hook, so perfect for it. It was one of those natural collaborations where you're so excited because it's all very easy." "Heard'Em Say" is a mid-tempo hip hop and song. It is composed in the key of F major. Its chords are arranged in the progression of F9-Bbma7-Bb6 Aaug-F. West raps two verses within the song, both followed by a refrain which he delivers with Levine. The lyrics of "Heard'Em Say" are constructed in verse-chorus form after the second chorus. As the composition enters its coda, it acquires musical aspects, exhibiting xylophone flourishes, quivery synth riffs, twinkling foreign bells before reaching its conclusion.Heard 'Em Say – "Heard 'Em Say"
73. Touch the Sky (Kanye West song) – "Touch the Sky" is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West. It was released from his second album, Late Registration. Blaze uses a down horn sample from the Curtis Mayfield song "Move On Up." It is done in homage across the Snake River Canyon in 1974. The cost for the music video was approximately $1 million, the 25th most expensive music video of all time. In December 2006, Evel Knievel filed a lawsuit for trademark infringement. West's attorneys argued that the video amounted to satire and therefore was covered under the First Amendment. There is an official remix that features The LOX, J-Hood, Lupe Fiasco. Information taken from Late Registration liner notes.Touch the Sky (Kanye West song) – "Touch the Sky"
74. Drive Slow – "Drive Slow" is a song by American rap artist Kanye West. The song was released as the fifth and final single of West's second studio album, Late Registration. It contains a sample of the Hank Crawford version of "Wildflower," a song by the Canadian pop rock band Skylark. "Drive Slow" features Chicago rapper GLC, with back-up vocals provided by singer Tony "Penafire" Williams. The song utilizes culture as a metaphor to comment on people's lifestyles. Though it received approval for its lyricism and intricate sound, the single did not chart due to lack of airplay. The song was originally to feature M.I.A. who opted out of the appearance due to a busy schedule. Wall later included "Drive Slow" as the eleventh track on his international album The Peoples Champ. "Drive Slow" was featured on Season 3, Episode 11 "What About Bob?" of the HBO Series Entourage. The video for "Drive Slow" was directed by Hype Williams and filmed in both Reno, Nevada and Las Vegas, Nevada. The video thus features an appearance by T.I. alongside Paul Wall and GLC. Additionally, violin strings provided by Miri Ben-Ari were applied to the slightly altered song while certain notes were made more frequent. In the video's closing moment, the best song suddenly transforms into a chopped and screwed tempo. American singer Tony Williams is also credited on the video. The majority of automobiles featured in the video are produced by the Lincoln Motor Company.Drive Slow – "Drive Slow"
75. Can't Tell Me Nothing – "Can't Tell Me Nothing" is a song by American hip-hop recording artist Kanye West. It was released as the lead single of his third studio album, Graduation. The song was produced by Atlanta record producer DJ Toomp. It was listed amongst the best tracks of the year by several publications. Lost to another one of West's songs, "Good Life". The art of the single was designed by the Japanese artist Takashi Murakami. The song is featured on Now That's What I Call Music! 26. It was nominated at the 2007 BET Hip Hop Awards. It was also featured in The Hangover. "Can't Tell slow, moody synth-driven production, exemplifying the new sonic direction that would come to dominate much of Graduation. West also explained that, with the track, he wanted to create a theme song for the people. Act more stupidly." PopMatters described "Can't Tell Me Nothing" as a "powerful single." The Chicago Tribune chronicled West's performance as, "defiant, defensive, rueful, deadly passionate."Can't Tell Me Nothing – "Can't Tell Me Nothing"
76. Stronger (Kanye West song) – "Stronger" is a song by American rapper Kanye West, released as the second single from his third studio album, Graduation. The production was handled by West, with an extended outro co-produced with Mike Dean. The composition is electronic in nature, employing synthesizers as its prominent instrument. For the track, West utilizes a vocal sample of "Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger" by French duo Daft Punk. West also describes "Stronger" as an "emancipation", using the track to vent his frustration over mistakes he made in the past year. The song's process was arduous, with his team mixing the track reportedly over 75 times, including after its release as a single. West felt "Stronger" paled in comparison to the sampled original, but Daft Punk were delighted by the song, leading to future collaborations. The single's video was directed by Hype Williams, was shot largely in Tokyo, Japan. Kanye West's use of shutter shades in the music video became a signature of his in the late 2000s. Released as a single on July 31, 2007, "Stronger" would top the Billboard Hot 100 several weeks later, becoming West's third number-one single. It was a top ten single in ten countries, topping the charts including the United Kingdom. "Stronger" has since sold five million copies in the United States. Prior to release, a portion of "Stronger" was first released on West's Can't Tell Nothing mixtape. The single's front art was released on West's website on June 2007. It was designed by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami, whom Kanye West collaborated with to produce the artwork for Graduation.Stronger (Kanye West song) – "Stronger"
77. Good Life (Kanye West song) – "Good Life" is a song by American hip-hop artist Kanye West. It was released as the third single for his third studio album Graduation. The song contains a sample of the keyboard outro to "P.Y.T." as performed by Michael Jackson. "Good Life" also has additional production by Timbaland and Mike Dean, respectively. The track features T-Pain as well as background vocals provided by John Legend and Ne-Yo. The single has been certified double platinum. The song climbed to the seventh position, becoming West's second top ten Hot 100 single from Graduation as well as T-Pain's sixth top ten single. "Good Life" has peaked at number twenty-three. The single generated a strong reaction from the MuchMusic Countdown, where it reached number-one. "Good Life" was able to enter at thirty-three on the UK Singles Chart before it was officially released in the UK until November 5, 2007. Upon its release, the single was able to peak at the twenty-third position on the chart. The video for "Good Life" was directed by Jonas & François with animation by So-Me. The video premiered as MTV Jams' "Jam of the Week". It features West and T-Pain performing with animated backdrops and often mouthing the words of the song lyrics, which appear in large letters. The version of the song used in the video contains an additional second intro that the album version does not have.Good Life (Kanye West song) – "Good Life"
78. Homecoming (Kanye West song) – It was released as the final single from West's third album Graduation. It was due to be released as a physical single on February 4, 2008. However, the single was cancelled due to downloads starting to decline before the release. It was, however, released on vinyl single on 18 February. "Homecoming" reached Number 9 in the United Kingdom on download sales alone. "Homecoming" serves to West's hometown of Chicago, Illinois. The lyrics for "Homecoming" were originally recorded with GOOD Music recording artist John Legend singing a different chorus on a song called "Home." The original version possesses West's once trademark soulful vocal sample-based hip-hop style. "Homecoming" contains lyrics that are different than John Legend's because Chris Martin requested that Kanye West change the song's lyrical content. Screen shots of the video for "Homecoming" were posted by Kanye on his official blog on March 6, 2008. The official video for "Homecoming" was released on April 1, 2008 by Kanye West on his official Vimeo account. Kanye later posted the video on his official blog. The entire video is in white. The video features a montage of Kanye walking through different areas of his home city of Chicago. Kanye's label mate makes an appearance in the video.Homecoming (Kanye West song) – "Homecoming"
79. Love Lockdown – Despite being a drastic departure from his previous work, the song was frequently cited as a highlight of the album. Time critic Josh Tyrangiel named "Love Lockdown" the best song of 2008. Kanye West debuted "Love Lockdown" on September 2008, as the closing performance of the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards. On September 18, he released it as the single of 808s & Heartbreak. After announcing it as the album's first single, West posted free copies of the song on his blog for fans to download. These portions include an a cappella, distorted background vocals, 808, percussion, the outro synth-beat. In 2016, musician Saul Williams revealed that he worked on the track, but was uncredited. It is composed in moves at 119.5 beats per minute. West's vocal range spans nearly two octaves, to G # 4. The song is written in a verse-chorus form that expresses quiet-loud dynamics, featuring verses delivered before shifting into loud, chanting choruses. Going further against the typical sound of hip beat, along with the 808, the track instead makes use of tribal drums for its instrumentation. West stated his intention was to juxtapose the mechanical sounds of the 808s with the more traditional sounds of taiko drums and choir monks. The song is minimal in nature, retaining a repetitious bassline before building into more layered sounds within the chorus. The single also made a "Hot Shot Debut" on the Canadian Hot 100. In Europe, "Love Lockdown" peaked on the Irish Singles Chart.Love Lockdown – "Love Lockdown"
80. Heartless (Kanye West song) – Hot 100 Airplay chart. "Heartless" is one of the best singles of all time, selling 5.5 million digital copies in 2009. In the pop song "Heartless", Kanye West utilized the voice audio processor device known as Auto-Tune. West had previously experimented for the background vocals of "Jesus Walks" and "Never Let Me Down." The pipe-organ sound was sampled from The Alan Parsons Project song Ammonia Avenue. In early March it also reached number four on the Pop 100 chart. His second consecutive song to debut in the top five there. This makes 808s & Heartbreak the first West album to contain two Hot 100 top five hits. On Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, it peaked at four. It has managed to reach number-one in late January. In Canada, it also made a "Hot Shot Debut" on the Canadian Hot 100, also based on huge amount of downloads in the country. On 1 the song debuted at # 63 on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart. It reached #6 on the New Zealand RIANZ chart. On the UK Singles Chart, the song reached # 10 due to album download sales. The digital release date for the single was 12 January 2009.Heartless (Kanye West song)
81. Amazing (Kanye West song) – "Amazing" is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West, released as the third single for his fourth studio album, 808s & Heartbreak. Co-produced with the song features hip hop artist Young Jeezy and contains additional vocals provided by Mr Hudson and Tony Williams. This song is featured on the NBA 2K10 and NBA 2K13 soundtracks. UFC Fighter Frank Mir walks out to this song before his fights. The song was nominated at the 52nd Grammy Awards By a Duo or Group category. The song also marks Young Jeezy, the first being Young Jeezy's 2008 single "Put On". The song also marks the two rappers' second time to do a song to be nominated for a Grammy award. Co-writer Jeff Bhasker discussed the song's conception: "That was actually the first song I brought the music. I was like, ` That's hot.' So I brought that he brought his editorial to it and then wrote the melody, said we're gon na get Jeezy on it. That just came out. It's a very simple and dark sounding figure. "Amazing" was sent to Rhythmic/Urban radio only, while "Paranoid" was sent to Top 40 radio.This song was written about pro wrestler Volantes. Prior to becoming a single, "Amazing" debuted at eighty-nine on the Billboard Hot 100 following the release of 808s & Heartbreak. The CTV Television Network used the song to promote its Fall 2013 season.Amazing (Kanye West song) – "Amazing"
82. Paranoid (Kanye West song) – The song was co-produced with Jeff Bhasker and Plain Pat, while co-written by the three along with Consequence and Kid Cudi. "Amazing" was sent for adds at Rhythmic/Urban radio only, while "Paranoid" was sent to Mainstream Top 40 radio. Another remix, featuring Kid Cudi, was released shortly after the album. "Paranoid" debuted on the Billboard Pop 100 chart on March 21, 2009. It has since peaked at sixty-one on the now defunct chart. On the date of July 20, "Paranoid" debuted on the Australian Singles Chart at number ninety. The video for "Paranoid" was directed by Nabil Elderkin and along with "Amazing," filmed in Hawaii. During a brief interview at the Tribeca Film Festival, West revealed he had cast Rihanna as a lead in the video. West said the following about working with Rihanna: "Yep, she's my Paranoid girl in the video. She’s an amazing talent though. Collaborating with her is always a pleasure!" Island Def Jam chairman L.A. Reid presented a version of the video in New York City on May 20, 2009. The video leaked online on May 27, 2009. West clarified on his blog that the video was an unfinished version and posted screenshots of the final version. In an interview that took the following day, Elderkin stated that the leak was merely an early rough cut.Paranoid (Kanye West song) – "Paranoid"
83. Power (Kanye West song) – The song is co-produced by West and Symbolyc One. "It's Your Thing" by Cold Grits. After having recorded it in Hawaii, West reported that he spent 5000 hours composing "Power". In its lyrics, West comments about his critics. Its chorus features an abrasive vocal-riff. "POWER" was West's comeback single following his controversial incident with Taylor Swift at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards. Critics described it as a return praising its intricate production, lyrical merit, scope. It was nominated for Best Rap Solo Performance at the 53rd Grammy Awards. The song debuted at position 22 and thereafter declined. The track was promoted by a video, directed by Marco Brambilla. The video features a long take of the camera pulling away from West. The video received two nominations for MTV Video Music Awards. His Watch the Throne Tour. When performing the song, West often wore clothes made from red leather. A remix of the track featuring rapper Jay-Z was released as a part of West's weekly GOOD Fridays series.Power (Kanye West song) – Contemporary visual artist George Condo designed the two cover artworks for "Power", along with the cover of the album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy.
84. Runaway (Kanye West song) – It features Pusha T, signed to West's label GOOD Music. The production was handled by West, Emile, Mike Dean. The composition features repetitive piano riffs, a production style with several similarities to West's album 808s & Heartbreak. Described as a deeply personal song in nature, it expresses his acceptance of the media's perception of him. Lyrically the song serves as a "toast to the douchebags." West's performance was rewarded with the full song being released online on October 4, 2010. Critics praised the song for the openness of the song and the soulful, clean production. The song's nearly ten-minute video features ballet dancers performing elaborate choreography. The video received mostly positive reviews from music critics, who praised the scope of the video, the degree of creativity and the production design. Multiple cover artworks were designed by visual artist George Condo. The original art for "Runaway" is a photograph by contemporary visual artist George Condo of a ballerina. Condo also produced the cover artwork for My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy and several of its singles. On October 2010, West released a newer cover art for "Runaway", a painting also by Condo of a ballerina. On October 2010, the song was released onto the iTunes Store as the album's second single. The website uses the original photograph cover art.Runaway (Kanye West song) – West invited Pusha T down to Hawaii to record "Runaway". While recording the song, West made Pusha-T record his verse several times.
85. All of the Lights (Kanye West song) – "All of the Lights" is a song by American rapper Kanye West, as the fourth single from his fifth studio album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. "All of the Lights" was well received by music critics, who complimented its detailed production and dramatically-themed style. It won Grammy Awards for Best Rap Song and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 54th Grammy Awards. As of December 2011, the song has sold over 1,561,000 digital units in the US. By August 2013, it had been certified triple platinum by the RIAA. The song's accompanying music video, directed by Hype Williams, featured strobe-lit images of Rihanna and West, as well as Kid Cudi. It was given a discretionary warning by Epilepsy Action, stating that the video "potentially trigger seizures for people with photosensitive epilepsy". "All of the Lights" was written by Warren Trotter. Its production was helmed by West himself and co-produced by Bhasker. West and Rihanna previously collaborated with Jay-Z on "Run This Town". The song fully leaked on November 4, 2010, online. During the 2010 MTV Europe Music Awards, on November 10, 2010, Rihanna was interviewed by MTV News' staff. Rihanna's vocals were recorded by Marcos Tovar at the Westlake Recording Studios in West Hollywood, California. The song was released as fourth and final single from My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. It was sent to British urban radio stations on November 25, 2010, to Australian contemporary hit and alternative radio stations on December 13.All of the Lights (Kanye West song) – Fourteen artists lent their voices as background vocals on "All of the Lights" including Rihanna (pictured) who also sang the song's hook.
86. Bound 2 – "Bound 2" is a song by American rapper Kanye West, featured as the final track from his sixth studio album, Yeezus. It was produced with additional production being handled by Eric Danchick, Noah Goldstein, No ID and Mike Dean. The song serves as the album's second single. "Bound 2" the line "Uh-huh, honey" from Brenda Lee's "Sweet Nothin's". The controversial video features his wife Kim Kardashian West, topless, riding on a motorbike with West through various landscapes. The song peaked on the UK Singles Chart and 12 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. On June 2013, West revealed the cover of his sixth studio album Yeezus and premiered a 13-second preview of "Bound 2". It was only one of three songs that were previewed prior to the others being "New Slaves" and "Black Skinhead". "Bound 2" features substantial music samples, which critics noted as reminiscent of West's production style in his earlier work. Lee reacted on the track saying: As I've said, it's always nice to be recognized. It says a wonderful thing about Ronnie Self, who wrote the song. That 50 years after it was written, somebody in Kanye's camp said, ` Let's use it.' That's a compliment to Ronnie. On February 2014, Hudson Mohawke played an original version of "Bound 2" during a DJ set in Leeds. The earlier version a much more stripped down ending compared to the album version.Bound 2 – Soul singer Charlie Wilson appears uncredited on the song and performed it with West numerous times, upon its single release.
87. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014