1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
3. Renaissance – This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. The Renaissance first began in Florence, in the 14th century. Major centres were Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The word Renaissance, literally meaning "Rebirth" in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word also occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France. The word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected intellectual life in the modern period. Renaissance scholars searched in art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, to understand it rationally. Others see more general competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.Renaissance – David, by Michelangelo (Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence) is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art.
4. Modern era – Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after the Post-classical history. The contemporary history is the span of historic events that are immediately relevant to the present time. Some events, while not without precedent, show a new way of perceiving the world. The concept of modernity seeks explanations for major developments. The fundamental difficulty of studying modern history is the fact that a plethora of it has been documented up to the present day. It is imperative to consider the reliability of the information obtained from these records. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, though. Religious officials, who often held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person. It was only through these intermediaries that the general masses had access to the divine. The social order of ceremony and morals in a culture could be strictly enforced. The term "modern" was coined in the 16th century to indicate recent times. New information about the world was discovered versus the historic use of reason and innate knowledge. The term "Early Modern" was introduced in the English language in the 1930s. To distinguish the time between what we call time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note that these terms stem from European history.Modern era – Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
5. French Republic – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.French Republic – Charles de Gaulle 1890–1970 served 1959–1969
6. 1792 – As of the start of 1792, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 9 – The Treaty of Jassy ends the Russian Empire's war with the Ottoman Empire over Crimea. February 20 – The Postal Service Act, establishing the United States Post Office Department, is signed by President George Washington. March 1 -- Francis II, the last emperor, takes office. A few months later the capital is officially named Raleigh in honor of Sir Walter Raleigh. April 2 – The Coinage Act is passed, establishing the United States Mint. April 5 – United States President George Washington vetoes a bill designed to apportion representatives among U.S. states. This is the first time the presidential veto is used in the United States. April 20 – France declares war against Austria, beginning the French Revolutionary Wars. April 21 – Tiradentes, prime figure in the Inconfidência Mineira plot, is executed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Highwayman Nicolas Pelletier becomes the first person executed by guillotine in France. The French national anthem, is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle. May 11 -- Robert Gray's Columbia River expedition: Captain Robert Gray on the Columbia Rediviva becomes the white man to enter the Columbia River. May 17 – The Buttonwood Agreement is signed, beginning the New York Stock Exchange. May 18 – War in Defence of the Constitution: Russia invades Poland.1792 – April 24: Guillotine (1792 model, left).
7. Kingdom of France – The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe, the predecessor of the modern French Republic. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe, the Hundred Years' War. It was also an colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty founded the Capetian dynasty. The territory remained known as Francia and its ruler well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by their cadet lines -- the Valois and Bourbon -- until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and yet a part of France. Subsequently France was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. Religiously France became divided between a Protestant minority, the Huguenots. After a series of the Wars of Religion, tolerance was granted to the Huguenots in the Edict of Nantes. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France.Kingdom of France – The Kingdom of France in 1789. Ancien Régime provinces in 1789.
8. First French Empire – Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire. A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence into Poland. The plot included Bonaparte's Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, Talleyrand. On the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. The Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea, to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign. He was thought to prepare a new campaign in the East. The Peace of Amiens, which cost control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. Then Napoleon initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. He would have ruling elites from a fusion of the old aristocracy. On 12 the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif. A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life. Pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the "Recess of 1803", which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to France's side.First French Empire – The Battle of Austerlitz
9. French Restoration – The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830. The exiles returned. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they had to give up all the territorial gains made since 1789. The Restoration lasted from 6 April 1814 until the popular uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830. There was an interlude in spring 1815—the "Hundred Days"—when the return of Napoleon forced the Bourbons to flee France. When Napoleon was again defeated they returned in July. During the Restoration, the new regime was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the absolutist Ancien Régime, so it had some limits on its power. The period was characterized by consequent minor but consistent occurrences of civil unrest and disturbances. It also saw the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a major power in French politics. The eras of Napoleon brought a series of major changes to France which the Bourbon Restoration did not reverse. First of France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris. The political geography was completely made uniform. France was divided into 80+ departments, which have endured into the 21st century. Each department was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris.French Restoration – Louis XVIII makes a return at the Hôtel de Ville de Paris on August 29th, 1814
10. 1814 – As of the start of 1814, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 14 – Denmark cedes Norway into personal union with Sweden in exchange for west Pomerania, as part of the Treaty of Kiel. January 29 – Battle of Brienne: Emperor Napoleon I of France is victorious against von Blücher. January 31 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina. February – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, represents Britain at the Congress of Chatillon. February 1 – Lord Byron's semi-autobiographical tale in verse The Corsair is published by John Murray in London and sells 10,000 copies on this day. February 11 – Norway's independence is proclaimed, marking the ultimate end of the Kalmar Union. February 12 – A fire destroys the Custom House, London. February 14 – Battle of Vauchamps: Napoleon I of France is victorious against von Blücher. February 18 – Battle of Montereau: Napoleon is victorious against Austrian forces. February 21 – Great Stock Exchange Fraud in London. March 7 – Battle of Craonne: Napoleon is victorious against von Blücher. March 8 – Napoleonic Wars: A night attack by the British under Sir Thomas Graham on the French fortress of Bergen op Zoom ends in failure. March 10 – Battle of Laon: von Blücher defeats Napoleon. March 12 – Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême enters Bordeaux, marking the restoration of the House of Bourbon.1814 – March 9: The schooner Enterprise returns from the Caribbean.
11. 1815 – As of the start of 1815, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 2 – Lord Byron marries Anna Isabella Milbanke in Seaham, County Durham. January 3 – Austria, Britain, Bourbon-restored France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. Ironically, the Battle of New Orleans was fought after the Commissioners had signed the Treaty of Ghent which would be ratified in Feb of 1815. Thus, this battle had no impact on the outcome of the war. February – The Hartford Convention arrives in Washington, D.C. February 3 – The first commercial cheese factory is founded in Switzerland. February 4 -- the Groninger Studentencorps Vindicat atque Polit is founded in the Netherlands. The first rector of the senate is B. J. Winter. February 6 – New Jersey grants the first American railroad charter to John Stevens. February 17 – The Spanish reconquest of Latin America begins. February 18 – The War of 1812 between the United States the United Kingdom, officially ends, following ratification of the Treaty of Ghent in Washington, D.C.. February 26 – Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Elba. March 1 Napoleon returns from his banishment on Elba. March 16 – William I becomes King of the Netherlands.1815 – April 5 – April 12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate.
12. French Revolution of 1848 – The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events led to the creation of the French Second Republic. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. In the months that followed, this government steered a course that became more conservative. On 2 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Second Republic, largely on peasant support. Four years later he suspended the elected assembly, establishing the Second French Empire, which lasted until 1870. Louis Napoléon would go on to become the facto last French monarch. Its newly established government created "National Workshops" for the unemployed. These tensions between Radical Republicans and Socialists led to the June Days Uprising. Under the Charter of 1814, Louis XVIII ruled France as the head of a constitutional monarchy. In 1830, Charles X of France, presumably instigated by one of his chief advisors Prince de Polignac, issued the Four Ordinances of St. Cloud. These ordinances abolished freedom of the press, dissolved the lower house. This action provoked an immediate reaction from the citizenry, who revolted during the Three Glorious Days of 26 -- 29 July 1830. Charles was forced to flee Paris for the United Kingdom. Nicknamed the "Bourgeois Monarch", Louis Philippe sat at the head of a moderately liberal state controlled mainly by educated elites.French Revolution of 1848 – Lamartine in front of the Town Hall of Paris rejects the red flag on 25 February 1848 by Henri Felix Emmanuel Philippoteaux
13. Italian Wars – For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, since the condottieri armies of the Italian city-states were unable to resist them. Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Rome on December 31, 1494. The garrison sent the bodies back to the French lines. This was the famous "sack of Naples". The League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, the Holy Roman Empire. This coalition, effectively, cut Charles' army off from returning to France. After establishing a pro-French government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the small town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, though, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave and lost their provisions. To the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. In fact, the Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers and equipment. Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne until 1499 when Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy and seized Milan on September 17, 1499. Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc d'Orléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387.Italian Wars – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century).
14. Francis I of France – He I was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death. Francis was the son of Charles, Louise of Savoy. Francis succeeded Louis XII, who died without a male heir. Others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the promotion of a standardized French language, Francis became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres. Following the policy of his predecessors, he continued the Italian Wars. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, Francis sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. When this was unsuccessful, Francis formed a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. The town lies in the department of Charente. He was the only son of Charles, Louise of Savoy and a great-great-grandson of King Charles V of France. However, Charles VIII was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir. The Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through Anne of Brittany. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514.Francis I of France – Francis I
15. Republic of Venice – It existed from the late seventh century AD until 1797. Although it had a long history of conquest, the republic's modern reputation is chiefly based as an economic and trading power. He was the first historical Doge of Venice. Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Deusdedit, moved his seat to Malamocco in the 740s. He was the son of Ursus and represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were ultimately unsuccessful. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported mostly by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A pro-Lombard faction was interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom. The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence.Republic of Venice – Sack of Constantinople
16. Holy Roman Emperor – The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the Prince-electors. Until the Reformation the Emperor elect was required to be crowned before assuming the imperial title. The title was held with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany and the Kingdom of Italy. Various royal houses at different times, effectively became hereditary holders of the title, in particular in later times the Habsburgs. After the Reformation most of those in Germany were Protestant while the Emperor continued to be Catholic. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved during the Napoleonic wars. From the time of Constantine I the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as defenders of Christianity. In the west, the title of Emperor was revived in 800, which also renewed ideas of imperial–papal cooperation. As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, emperors came into conflict over church administration. The most bitter conflict was that known as the Investiture Controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. No pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in 962. Under his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. The German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germans, after which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. The term "sacrum" in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was first used under Frederick I Barbarossa.Holy Roman Emperor – Francis II
17. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charles voluntarily stepped down by a series of abdications between 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, southern Europe, the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: the Houses of Valois-Burgundy, Habsburg, Trastámara. He inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From the Habsburgs, Charles inherited other lands in central Europe. He was also elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charles's reign. Enormously expensive, they led in the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean. After seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule. Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec and Inca empires.Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charrles V by Titian, 1548. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
18. Henry VIII of England – Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding Henry VII. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Domestically, Henry is known to the English Constitution ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, thus initiating the English Reformation, he greatly expanded royal power. People such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. Besides ruling with considerable power, he was also an composer. This led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with the pope. His health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, harsh, insecure king. He was succeeded by Edward VI. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary – survived infancy. He was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, to the palace. At the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.Henry VIII of England – King Henry VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
19. Papal States – The Papal States were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the pope had no physical territory at all, even the Vatican. Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Vatican by signing the Lateran Treaty granting the Vatican City State sovereignty. The Papal States were also known as the Papal State. The territories were also referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Roman States. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was unrecognized, unable to transfer property. The Lateran Palace was the new donation to the Church, most probably a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed, primarily in mainland Italy but also in the provinces of the Roman Empire. But the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century.Papal States – The Quirinal Palace, papal residence and home to the civil offices of the Papal States from the Renaissance until their annexation
20. Pope Leo X – Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. The second son of ruler of the Florentine Republic, Leo was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule Leo failed sufficiently to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 Leo led a costly war which damaged the papal finances. Leo only narrowly escaped a plot by some cardinals to poison him. Leo is probably best remembered for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, which practice was challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses. Leo seems not to have taken seriously the array of demands for reform that would quickly grow into the Protestant Reformation. Exsurge Domine, simply condemned Luther on a number of areas and made ongoing engagement difficult. Leo did, however, grant establishment to the Oratory of Divine Love. Leo spent heavily. A significant patron of the arts, upon election Leo is alleged to have said, "Since God has given the papacy, let us enjoy it". Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of Saint Peter's artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. He also promoted the study of literature, poetry and antiquities. Leo is buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.Pope Leo X – Pope Leo X
21. Martin Luther – Martin Luther was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. His hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. Condemned by virtually every Lutheran denomination, these statements and their influence on antisemitism have contributed to his controversial status. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, Saxony, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was baptized as a Catholic the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours. He had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar, rhetoric, logic. Luther later compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 19, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he later described as a beerhouse and whorehouse. He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and often wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. He was drawn to philosophy, expressing Gabriel Biel.Martin Luther – Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder
22. Western Europe – Western Europe, also West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of the European continent. There may be differences between the purely geographic definitions of the term. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. In East Asia, Western Europe was historically known in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty. In his writings, Ricci referred as "Matteo of the Far West". The term was still in use in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the West, influenced by the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their economic systems.Western Europe – The Great Schism in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe at the time.
23. Navarre – The city is Pamplona. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolor" (i.e. in contrast to the green mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri. The linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, a pre-Roman tribe who populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, included the area which would ultimately become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped Roman settlement, except for coastal areas -- Oiasso. Not so the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards, olives, wheat crops. Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones included neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century. In AD 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. When Sancho III died in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided between his sons. It fully recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom throughout the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked.Navarre – Coins of Arsaos, Navarre, 150–100 BC, showing Rome 's stylistic influence
24. Low Countries – Most of the Low Countries are coastal regions bounded by the English Channel. The countries without access to the sea have economically to those with access to form one union of port and hinterland. In that period, they rivaled northern Italy for the most densely populated region of Europe. All of the regions mainly depended on trade, the encouragement of the free flow of goods and craftsmen. Germanic languages such as Dutch and Luxembourgish were the predominant languages, although Romanic languages also played an important role. Secondary languages included French, Romance-speaking Belgium, Namur. Governor Mary of Hungary used Pays d'Embas, which evolved to Pays-Bas or Low Countries. The term is typically fitted to modern political boundaries and used in the same way as the term Benelux, which also includes Luxembourg. Origin as the term "low countries" due to "nether" meaning "lower". In the Dutch language itself no plural is used for the name of the modern country. So Nederland is used for the modern nation and de Nederlanden for the 16th century domains of Charles V. For example, a "Derby der Lage Landen", is a sports event between Belgium and the Netherlands. "Belgium" was renamed only after splitting from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in order to distinguish it from its northern neighbour. Politically, before the Napoleonic wars, it was referred to as the "Southern", "Spanish" or later "Austrian" Netherlands. It is still referred to as part of the "low countries".Low Countries – The Low Countries as seen from space with modern day boundaries drawn in thin blue.
25. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria, Salento and Gargano. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan -- Emilian Apennines. It excludes the southern slopes of the Alps. All of the peninsula lies except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs. The Italian Peninsula's location between the centre of the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area: Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
26. Battle of Bicocca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands. Having been driven by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonna's lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen were halted at a sunken road backed by earthworks. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated. Meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonna's position proved equally ineffective. It was also one of the first engagements in which firearms played a decisive role on the battlefield. A large Papal force under Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched a attack on the city, overwhelming the Venetian troops defending one of the walls. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew with about 12,000 men. The French proceeded hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself of the city. Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them in Lombardy.Battle of Bicocca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
27. Lombardy – Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the late Middle Ages, the term was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/S üdtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region: mountains, hills and plains -- the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino, which joins the Po near Pavia. The other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Mincio. All of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, the largest in Italy. The Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains.Lombardy – Mount Adamello
28. Separate peace – This armistice was followed on 3 March 1918 by the formal signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The parties undertook to refrain from making peace with the Sultan without the consent of all three parties. Such was the case during the First World War and Second World War. The Japanese government acceded on October 19, 1915. On November 1915, the same four governments, now joined by the Italian government, issued a similar joint declaration regarding avoiding separate peace. The obligation to refrain from separate peace was also made during the Second World War in both camps. The Tripartite Pact between the German, Japanese governments committed the three to prosecute the war together. On the Allied camp, that obligation was contained in the United Nations Declaration of January 1942. The Egyptian government under Anwar Sadat acted to that rule when it decided to conclude a separate peace treaty in 1979.Separate peace
29. Charles III, Duke of Bourbon – He was also the Constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the Constable of Bourbon, he was the last of the feudal lords to oppose himself. He commanded the Imperial troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what became known as the Sack of Rome in 1527, where he was killed. Charles was born by Clara Gonzaga. Clara was a daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, by his wife Margaret of Bavaria. On 10 Charles married Suzanne, Duchess of Bourbon. Charles was the scion of the next-senior line, thus the "male" of the House of Bourbon, while Suzanne was the "heir general." With the marriage, Charles's position as Duke of Bourbon became undisputed. However, Francis soon refused to honor his debts. The death of his wife in 1521 provoked the final breach between Charles and Francis I. On behalf of his mother, Francis confiscated a portion of the Bourbon estates before the lawsuit had even been opened. Seeing no hope of prevailing, Charles made a secret agreement to betray his King and offer his services to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. King Henry VIII of England devised a grand plan to partition France. This however came to nothing because the plot was discovered; Charles was stripped of his offices and proclaimed a traitor. He fled into Italy in 1523.Charles III, Duke of Bourbon – An engraving of Charles, Duke of Bourbon
30. Provence – The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name. It was ruled until 1481 when it became a province of the Kings of France. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet between Monaco and Menton. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. At the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than today's sea level. The changes in the level led in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille. The entrance led above level. Since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the imported pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasseens, arrived in Provence. They were farmers and warriors, gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.Provence – The historical province of Provence (orange) within the modern region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeast France
31. Italian War of 1521-26 – The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war broke out across Western Europe late in 1521, when a French–Navarrese expedition attempted to reconquer Navarre while a French army invaded the Low Countries. A Spanish army drove the Navarrese forces back into the Pyrenees, other Imperial forces attacked northern France, where they were stopped in turn. At the Battle of Bicocca on 27 April 1522, Imperial and Papal forces defeated the French, driving them from Lombardy. Following the battle, fighting again spilled onto French soil, while Venice made a separate peace. The English invaded France in 1523, while Charles de Bourbon, alienated by Francis's attempts to seize his inheritance, betrayed Francis and allied himself with the Emperor. A French attempt to regain Lombardy in 1524 failed and provided Bourbon with an opportunity to invade Provence at the head of a Spanish army. Only a few weeks after his release, however, he repudiated the terms of the treaty, starting the War of the League of Cognac. Although the Italian Wars would continue for another three decades, they would end with France having failed to regain any substantial territories in Italy. By 1518, the peace that had prevailed in Europe after the Battle of Marignano was beginning to crumble. They were divided, however, on the question of the Imperial succession. Maximilian's death in 1519 brought the Imperial election to the forefront of European politics. Pope Leo X, threatened by the presence of Spanish troops a mere forty miles from the Vatican, supported the French candidacy. The prince-electors themselves, with the exception of Frederick of Saxony, who refused to countenance the campaigning, promised their support to both candidates at once. The final outcome, however, was not determined by the exorbitant bribes, which included Leo promising to make the Archbishop of Mainz his permanent legate.Italian War of 1521-26 – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century)
32. Martin van Meytens – His style has inspired many other painters to paint in a similar format. Martin van Meytens was baptised in Stockholm, Sweden. He began his artistic studies with his father, the painter Martin Meytens the Elder, who had moved to Sweden. He went early on a study trip. He visited London, Paris and Vienna, then he worked for a long time in Italy. He changed to oil painting only around 1730, having settled in Vienna. Here he became very popular as a painter in the circles of the court and the aristocracy. In 1732 he became painter, in 1759 the director of the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts. Franz Xaver Messerschmidt was his protégé. His personal virtues, varied interests, pleasant manners were highly appreciated by his contemporaries. The Supper depicts the wedding of Princess Isabella of Parma and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, 5 October 1760, at Hofburg Palace's Redoutensaele. The moment depicted is when the dessert is served, in the middle of the table is a garden made by crust. Among his pupils was Giovanni Gabriele Cantone. Ca. 1731; Kneeling Nun, Recto, 1741; Kaiser Franz I 1745–1750; Familie der Grafen Pálffy 1750; Archduke Maximilian, 1752–1753; Fam. Grill, 1750–1755; Maria Theresia als Herrscherin, 1754; Ksl.Martin van Meytens – Martin van Meytens, Self-Portrait, c. 1740s.
33. Archduchess – Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, later by all senior members of that dynasty. The territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918. In the Carolingian Empire, the Archduke was awarded not as rank of nobility, but as a unique honorary title to the Duke of Lotharingia. Lotharingia was eventually absorbed by East Francia, becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than a fully independent Kingdom. The later extended fragmentation of both territories created two "succeeding" Duchies in the Low Countries, Brabant and Geldre. Both were never officially recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. The only archducal title to re-emerge, was invented in the Privilegium Maius in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title, as did all the other ruling dynasties of the member countries of the Empire. But his descendants unilaterally assumed the title of Archduke. Emperor Frederick III himself simply used the title "Duke of Austria", never Archduke, in 1493. The title was first granted to Albert VI of Austria, who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick III also granted the title of Archduke to Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. The title appears first in documents issued under his son Philip in the Low Countries. Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory -- i.e. only by their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets.Archduchess – Archducal hat, the coronet of an archduke
34. Habsburg Empire – The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Habsburg Monarchy did not usually include all the territories ruled by the Habsburgs. The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, after 1279 came to rule in Austria. Names of the territory that finally became Austria-Hungary: Habsburg monarchy or Austrian monarchy: This was an unofficial, but very frequent name – even at that time. The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire: This was the official name. Austria-Hungary: This was the official name. An popular name was the Danubian Monarchy also often used was the Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands: This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, then of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on. The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy Stephen's Crown". The Bohemian Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown". Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars.Habsburg Empire – Growth of the Habsburg Monarchy
36. Queen of France – All monarchs of France were male, although some women have governed France as regents. 53 women were married to French monarchs: three empresses. Ingeborg of Brittany were each queen more than once. Thus, the wives of these three kings were queens consort of Navarre, well as France. Upon Henry's succession, Margaret of France, already queen consort of Navarre, also became queen consort of France. French consorts acted as regents for their husbands or children, during their minorities. Joan the Lame, who often governed for her husband Philip VI whilst he was fighting. Isabeau of Bavaria, during the insanity of her husband Charles VI, during which she vied for power with her husband's uncles and brothers. Owing to the inequality of social status, the King did not marry openly. No written proof of the marriage is extant, but that it took place is nevertheless certain. It is important to remember that Madame de Maintenon was never queen of France, simply a royal consort. Her right to enjoy that title is disputed. She was briefly recognized only in English-controlled territories of France. Kings of France family tree List of French monarchs Joy Law, Fleur de lys: The kings and queens of France. ISBN 978-0-07-036695-4 Rene de La Croix, duc de Castries, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of France.Queen of France – Eugénie de Montijo, the last Empress of France
37. List of Navarrese royal consorts – This is a list of those men and women who have been royal consorts of the Kingdom of Navarre. Because the laws of Navarre did not prohibit women from inheriting the crown, on a number of occasions, the Kingdom was inherited or transmitted via heiresses. Thus, the wives of these three Kings were Queen-consort of both France and Navarre. Her husband, Philip of Évreux, became King Philip III of Navarre with his wife due to this. Thereafter, Navarre on several occasions experienced an extinction of its ruling male line, consequent absorption or inclusion in the lands of other families. French and Navarrese queens consort again become the same. In Spain, the monarch uses the title King of Navarre as part of his more extended titulary. "Rulers of Navarre". Genealogy.EU. NAVARREList of Navarrese royal consorts – Margaret of Angoulême (1492–1549), Queen of Navarre and Duchess of Alençon.
38. Holy Roman Empire – Some historians refer as the origin of the empire while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, by Napoleon. Before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire. By the end of the 18th century, the term'Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation' had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, Germanic tribes assumed control. In 751, Martel's Pepin became King of the Franks, later gained the sanction of the Pope. The Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin's Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of France Germany, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. On Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, however, the Carolingian Empire was never restored. According to Regino of Prüm, each part elected a kinglet "from its own bowels". After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy.Holy Roman Empire – The Holy Roman Empire at its maximal extent, in the 13th century
39. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor – Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With Maria Theresa, Francis was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Until 1737 Francis was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine became managed under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. The House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. His wife Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans. Francis was connected through his grandmother Eleonor, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III. Francis was very close to sister Anne Charlotte. Emperor Charles VI favored the family, who, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction. Francis had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Leopold Clement. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. A real affection arose between them. He succeeded his father in 1729. Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" of Hungary in 1732. Maria Theresa wanted him closer to her.Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor – Francis I by Martin van Meytens
40. Maria Theresa – Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. Maria Theresa was the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Holy Roman Empress. Maria Theresa started her 40-year reign when Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI spent his entire reign securing it. Upon the death of her father, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Prussia subsequently conquered it. She would later unsuccessfully try to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Of the sixteen, ten survived to adulthood. Maria Theresa had five sons. Maria Theresa disapproved of many of Joseph's actions. She was able to simultaneously evoke both esteem and affection from her subjects. However, contemporary travelers thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious. Her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate-Neuburg, were her godmothers. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna; Charles never managed to overcome this feeling.Maria Theresa – Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759
41. Louis XVI of France – He was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of Louis' reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. The French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, successfully opposed their implementation. It resulted in bread prices. In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime which culminated at the Estates-General of 1789. In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution. The abolition of the establishment of a republic became an ever increasing possibility. Louis-Auguste de France, given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. His mother was Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. He enjoyed physical activities such as rough-playing with his younger brothers, Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois. From an early age, Louis-Auguste had been encouraged in another of his hobbies: locksmithing, seen as a'useful' pursuit for a child. Upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband, died on 13 March 1767, also from tuberculosis.Louis XVI of France – King Louis XVI by Antoine-François Callet
42. Dauphin of France – The word is French to the depiction of the animal on their coat of arms. Count of Vienne, was nicknamed le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine. The first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles the Wise, later to become Charles V of France. The official style of a Dauphin of France, prior to 1461, was par la grâce de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois. Because of this, the Dauphiné suffered in the 15th centuries since the Dauphins were frequently minors or concerned with other matters. For example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his father's wishes. Louis wished to reaffirm that alliance to stamp out robbers in the province. Louis was driven out of the Dauphiné by Charles VII's soldiers in 1456, leaving the region to fall back into disorder. After his succession as Louis XI of France in 1461, Louis united the Dauphiné with France, bringing it under royal control. The grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the king's grandchildren respectively. The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791, which made France a constitutional monarchy. Under the constitution the heir to the throne was restyled Prince Royal, taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791. The title was restored in potentia under the Bourbon Restoration of Louis XVIII, but there would not be another Dauphin until after his death. With the accession of Charles' son and Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême automatically became Dauphin.Dauphin of France – Charles, 1st Dauphin of France
43. Louis XV of France – He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. Louis also ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of Lorraine and Corsica into the kingdom of France. He was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI in 1774. Norman Davies characterized Louis XV's reign as religious feuds. A few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his highly negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. Jerome Blum described him as "a perpetual adolescent called to do a man's job." Louis XV was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710 during the reign of his great-grandfather Louis XIV. At birth, Louis XV received a customary title for younger sons of the French royal family: Duke of Anjou. In April 1711, Louis Le Grand Dauphin suddenly died, making the Duke of the new dauphin. At that time, Burgundy had his youngest son, the future Louis XV. Duchess of Burgundy, contracted smallpox and died on 12 February 1712. Her husband, said to be heartbroken by her death, died the same week, also having contracted smallpox. Within a week of his death, it was clear that the couple's two children had also been infected.Louis XV of France – Louis XV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1730)
44. Affair of the Diamond Necklace – The Affair of the Diamond Necklace was an incident in 1785 at the court of King Louis XVI of France involving his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. He requested that Bassenge create a diamond necklace which would surpass all others in grandeur. It would take a great deal of money to amass an appropriate set of diamonds. In the meantime, du Barry was banished from court by his grandson and successor. The necklace consisted of large diamonds arranged in an elaborate design of festoons, pendants and tassels. According to Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Campan, the Queen refused it with the statement that the money would be better spent equipping a man-of-war. According to others, Louis XVI himself changed his mind. The Queen again refused. In March 1785, Jeanne became the mistress of a former French ambassador to the court of Vienna. The Queen had also learned of a letter in which the Cardinal spoke of Maria Theresa in a way that the Queen found offensive. At this time, the Cardinal was trying to regain the Queen's favour to become one of the King's ministers. On hearing of this, Rohan resolved to use Jeanne to regain the Queen's goodwill. Jeanne assured the Cardinal that she was making efforts on his behalf. This began Jeanne de la Motte returning replies to Rohan's notes, which she affirmed came from the Queen. The Cardinal, convinced that Marie Antoinette was in love with him, became enamoured of her.Affair of the Diamond Necklace – The diamond necklace was commissioned by Louis XV for his mistress, Madame du Barry. At the death of the King, the necklace was unpaid for, almost bankrupting the jewellers and leading to various unsuccessful schemes to secure a sale to Queen Marie-Antoinette.
45. Deficit spending – The term may be applied to the budget of a government, individual. Government spending is a central point of controversy in economics, as discussed below. Government spending is a central point of controversy in economics, with prominent economists holding differing views. This gained acceptance during the period between the Great Depression in the 1930s and post-WWII in the 1950s. According during recessions, the government can stimulate the economy by intentionally running a deficit. The spending requested by John Meynard Keynes for overcoming crises is the monetary side of his economy theory. As investment equates to real saving, money assets that build up are equivalent to capacity. This fallacy seems to stem by individuals. Current reality is almost the exact opposite. This is in addition to whatever public investment takes place in infrastructure, education, the like. Even the analogy itself is faulty. Advocates of fiscal conservatism reject Keynesianism by arguing that deficit spending is always bad policy. Proponents of fiscal conservatism date back to founder of modern economics. Thus it is burdening future generations to run deficits today, for little or no gain. A similar argument is that deficit today will require increased taxation in the future, thus burdening future generations.Deficit spending – Public finance
46. Flight to Varennes – They escaped only far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould. The king's attempted flight provoked charges of treason that ultimately led to his execution in 1793. The failure of the escape plans was due to a series of misadventures, delays, poor judgments. Much was due to the King's indecision; he repeatedly postponed the schedule, allowing small problems to become big ones. Furthermore, he misjudged popular support for the traditional monarchy. He thought only radicals in Paris were promoting a revolution that the people as a whole rejected. He believed, mistakenly, that he was beloved by the common folk. The king's flight in the short term was traumatic for France, inciting a wave of emotions that ranged to violence and panic. Everyone realized that war was imminent. They felt betrayed. Republicanism became the dominant ideal of revolutionary leaders. Henceforth, the king seems to have become leaving most important decisions to the politically untrained queen. Fersen had urged the use of two light carriages that could have made the 200-mile journey to Montmédy quickly. His family were eventually arrested in the town of Varennes, 50 km from their ultimate destination, the heavily fortified royalist citadel of Montmédy. The intended goal of the unsuccessful flight was to provide the king with greater freedom of action and personal security than was possible in Paris.Flight to Varennes – Louis XVI and his family, dressed as bourgeois, arrested in Varennes.
48. Temple Prison – The Square du Temple is a garden in Paris, France in the 3rd arrondissement, established in 1857. It is one of 24 city squares created by Georges-Eugène Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand. The Square occupies the site of a medieval fortress in Paris, built by the Knights Templar. Parts of the fortress were later used during the French Revolution, then demolished by the mid 19th century. The Knights Templar began in the 12th century, constructing a fort first in Le Marais. In the 13th century, a new fortress was built as their European headquarters. The location of the towers is drawn on the floor in front of rue Eugene Spuller. The Temple is also known for having been the French family's jail at the time of the Revolution. In the Temple having become a place of pilgrimage for royalists, Napoleon ordered its demolition, which took two years. Remnants were demolished under orders from Napoleon III. Its location is a station of the Paris Metro, serving the carreau du temple and the Palais de Justice of the third arrondissement. The grid surrounding the square was designed by the architect Gabriel Davioud. In 2007, the square has been awarded the "green spaces" awarded by ECOCERT, the international organic certification. There are two statues. One represents the songwriter Pierre-Jean de Béranger, who lived on the nearby street, which later took his name.Temple Prison – A view of the Grosse Tour-circa 1795, Ecole Française 18th century.
49. Execution of Louis XVI – The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. It was a major event of the French Revolution. His execution made him the first victim of the Reign of Terror. His wife Marie Antoinette was guillotined on 16 October, the same year. Louis' hostility towards the National Assembly had aroused discontent with his rule. Public opinion began to sway against him after he was returned under guard to Paris. He received Communion. The Mass requisites were provided by special direction of the authorities. Upon Father Edgeworth's advice he avoided a last farewell scene with his family. At 7 o'clock he confided his last wishes to the priest. His Royal seal was to go to the Dauphin and his wedding ring to the Queen. After receiving the priest's blessing he went to meet Antoine Joseph Santerre, Commander of the Guard. A green carriage was waiting in the second court. He seated himself with two militiamen sitting opposite them. The carriage left the Temple at approximately 9 o'clock.Execution of Louis XVI – "Day of 21 January 1793 the death of Louis Capet on the Place de la Révolution " – French engraving.
50. Treason – In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign. Treason against the king was known as high treason against a lesser superior was petty treason. A person who commits treason is known as a traitor. Oran's Dictionary of the Law defines treason as"... citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, seriously injure the." The term "traitor" is often used by white supremacists, or directed at people in inter-racial relationships with regard to miscegenation. At times, the term "traitor" has been used as a political epithet, regardless of any verifiable action. In a civil insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors. In certain cases, as with the German Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a large group of people can be a political message. Treason is on many occasions a separate charge from ` Treasonable Felony' in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged, drawn and burnt at the stake, although beheading could be substituted by royal command. Those penalties were abolished in 1814, 1973 respectively. The penalty was used against people who could reasonably be called traitors, although most modern jurists would call it excessive. Many of them would just be considered dissidents. Political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God. Kings were considered chosen by God.Treason – A 17th century illustration of Guy Fawkes. Guy Fawkes tried to assassinate James I of England. He failed and was convicted of treason and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.
51. Guillotine – A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a upright frame in which a angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to fall swiftly and forcefully decapitating the victim with a single pass so that the head falls into a basket below. The name dates from this period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe over several centuries. The guillotine remained France's standard method of judicial execution until the abolition of punishment in 1981. The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, executed by the guillotine on 10 September 1977. The use of beheading machines in Europe long predates such use in the French revolution in 1792. An early example of the principle is found in the High History of the Holy Grail, dated to about 1210. Although the device is imaginary, its function is clear. The text says: Within these three openings are the hallows set for them. And behold what I would do to them if their three heads were therein... "Even thus will I cut off their heads when they shall set them into those three openings thinking to adore the hallows that are beyond." The Halifax Gibbet was a wooden structure of two wooden uprights, capped by a horizontal beam, of a total height of 4.5 metres. This device was mounted on a large square platform 1.25 metres high.Guillotine – Historic replicas (1:6 scale) of the two main types of French guillotines: Model 1792, left, and Model 1872 (state as of 1907), right
52. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution. She was the second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. To Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of her four children. The Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Maria Antonia was born in Vienna. She was her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. Shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her three-year older sister Maria Carolina, with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. As to her relationship with her mother, her daughter loved each other. Despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in any language commonly used at court, such as Italian. Conversations with her were stilted.Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
53. Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou – Louis Alphonse is a great-grandson of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and second cousin of King Philip VI of Spain. Through his mother, he is also a great-grandson of Spain's former dictator Francisco Franco. Alfonso was at that time the dauphin according to those who supported the claim of Duke of Segovia to the French throne. On 20 March 1975, the Infante Jaime died. Alfonso then asserted his claim to be both Head of the House of claimant to the throne of France. As such, on 19 September 1981 gave the title Duke of Touraine. Louis Alphonse's parents divorced in 1982. The religious marriage was annulled in 1986. From that date Louis Alphonse was recognised as the heir apparent to his father by the Legitimists. As such, he was given the additional title Duke of Bourbon on 27 September 1984 by his father. On 30 his father died near Vail, Colorado. He is considered the rightful pretender to the French throne by adherents of the Legitimist movement. Louis’ father was elected by the French Society of the Cincinnati to be the representative of Louis XVI. In accordance to the statutes of this Society, he represents the French king as the eldest male of the senior collateral line. In addition to his Spanish citizenship, Louis Alphonse acquired French nationality through his paternal grandmother, Emmanuelle de Dampierre, also a French citizen.Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou – Louis Alphonse
54. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. French has evolved from the spoken Latin in Gaul, more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl -- languages historically spoken in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. Nation may be referred to as "Francophone" in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which are members of the community of French-speaking countries. French is the fourth most widely spoken tongue in the European Union. 1/5 of non-Francophone Europeans speak French. Most second-language speakers reside in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 190 million secondary speakers. Approximately million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates million by 2050, 80 % of whom will be in Africa. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese.French language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
55. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
56. Madrid – Madrid is the capital city of Spain, the largest municipality in the Community of Madrid. The city has a population of almost million with a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. The municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. As the capital city of Spain, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic and cultural centre of Spain. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two world-famous football clubs, Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in its 2014 index. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, the Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city. The first documented reference of the city originates as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Nevertheless, it is also speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river.Madrid – From upper left: view of business districts of AZCA and CTBA, Gran Vía street and Metropolis Building, the Palace of Communication, view of Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral.
57. Royal House – Historians periodize the histories such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from adjectival references. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. Dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. However, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. It is also extended to unrelated people such as various rosters of a single sports team. The word "dynasty" derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". Following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a dynastic member of the House of Windsor. A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. But the marriage of Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support and parliamentary approval. Thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, left his children without dynastic rights. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. Yet he is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.Royal House – Charles I of England and his son, the future James II
58. Legitimists – They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848, whose king was a member of the junior Orléans line of the Bourbon dynasty. The other two right-wing factions are, according to historian René Rémond, the Orléanists and the Bonapartists. Legitimists hold that the king of France must be chosen according to the traditional rules of succession based in the Salic law. The main current legitimist pretender is Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. Called as such because they were "more royalist than the king", the Ultras were thus the dominant political faction under Louis XVIII and Charles X. By the same token, Ultras opposed all liberal, republican and democratic ideas. Their importance during the Restoration was in part due to electoral laws which largely favored them. Louis XVIII's first ministers, who included Talleyrand, the duc de Richelieu and Decazes, were replaced by the Chambre introuvable dominated by the Ultras. Louis XVIII finally decided to dissolve this chaotic assembly, but the new liberals who replaced them were no easier to govern. The death in 1824 of the moderate Louis XVIII emboldened the Ultra faction. In January 1825, Villèle's government passed the Anti-Sacrilege Act, which punished by death the theft of sacred vessels. This "anachronistic law" was in the end never applied and repealed in the first months of Louis Philippe I's reign. The Ultras also wanted to create courts to punish Radicals, passed laws restricting freedom of the press. They softened their views and made the restoration of the House of Bourbon their main aim. From 1830 on they became known as Legitimists.Legitimists – Louis XVI 1792–1793
59. Philip V of Spain – Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place as a grandson of King Louis XIV. Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history. He was a younger brother of Louis, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of a traditional title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by this name until he became the king of Spain. Philip was tutored by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai. The three were also educated by Paul de Beauvilliers. In 1700 the King Charles II of Spain died childless. His will named grandson of Charles' half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV, as his successor. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne as part of her marriage contract. This was countered by the French branch's claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. The ambassador, along with his son, made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV did. Philip later learned to speak Spanish.Philip V of Spain – Philip V
60. Prince Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France – A descendant of King Louis-Philippe, Henri is the current head of the Orléans line of the dynasty. Henri of Orléans is a military officer as well as an author and painter. Henri d'Orléans is protector of the Orléans obedience of the Order of Saint Lazarus. Henri had already been allowed to enter France by special favour of President Vincent Auriol in 1948. On 25 Henri's grandfather, Jean of Orléans, Duke of Guise, died. Henri became their dauphin. Henri then served in the military, notably during the Algerian War. For his military service, Henri was decorated with French distinctions. On 5 he married Duchess Marie Therese of Württemberg. Henri received the Count of Clermont. Five children were born from this union. Princess Blanche Elisabeth Rose Marie of Orléans. Her godparents were Monsieur Michel Coulages. The religious ceremony took place on 2 May 2009. Princess Thérèse Isabelle Marie Éléonore of Orléans Prince Pierre Jean Marie d'Orléans.Prince Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France – Henri d'Orléans Count of Paris
61. Louis XIV of France – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
62. Mazarin – Mazarin succeeded Cardinal Richelieu. His personal library was the origin of the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris. Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino was raised in Rome. Giulio was the older brother of Master of the Sacred Palace under Pope Urban VIII, later Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence and a cardinal. He had Laura Margherita Mazzarini. Mazarin studied in Rome though he declined to join their order. Later Mazarin frequented the University of Rome La Sapienza, acquiring a serious gambling habit at the same time. Mazarin followed Filippo I Colonna as captain of infantry in his regiment over the succession to Mantua. As nuncio extraordinary in France, Mazarin was perceived as an extension of Richelieu's policy. Under Habsburg pressure, Mazarin was sent back to Avignon, where he was dismissed by Urban VIII on 17 January 1636. He attributed his winnings in thanks, offered her fifty thousand écus. The Queen demurred, Mazarin pressed, she accepted. Several days later, Mazarin quietly received a great deal more than he had given. Thus he was affirmed in the court and above all of Anne of Austria, who would soon be regent. Service to the King of France seemed to him the easiest route to his constant ambition.Mazarin – Cardinal Mazarin by Pierre Mignard
63. War of Devolution – Upon the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, Louis XIV, who had nominally been king since 1643, began to rule France in his own right. Having been raised in a culture that expected young princes to seek "glory" on the battlefield, Louis was looking for an opportunity to go to war. In 1665, Louis believed that he had a pretext to allow him to claim the Spanish Netherlands. Furthermore, it was agreed that with this marriage, Maria Theresa explicitly renounced all rights to her father's inheritance. As compensation, a dowry of 500,000 gold écus was promised to the Bourbon Louis XIV; this was not paid, however. Accordingly, his wife's prior claims to her father's estate, properly "devolved" to her. The Queen could not renounce this natural right for her children well. At this, the French king began preparations against Spain. France was in growth in the seventeenth century. Spain, on the other hand, was a fragmented nation struggling to cope with economic problems. The international situation in 1667 was very advantageous for France. Spain would soon be forced to give up all future attempts to conquer and re-annex Portugal. The United Provinces had been an ally of France in the recent Restoration War between Portugal and Spain. Indeed, both countries had entered into a defence alliance in 1662. Louis XIV therefore entered into negotiations.War of Devolution – Louis XIV visiting a trench during the war. Painting by Charles Le Brun.
64. Franco-Dutch War – In the 1560s, the Dutch Republicans formed an alliance with France. The alliance lasted for a century. Louis XIV of France considered the Dutch to be trading rivals, Protestant heretics -- but military allies nevertheless. This was until the Dutch countered French expansion in the Spanish Netherlands. It was clear that Louis had to deal before making another move on the Spanish Netherlands. Louis prepared against the Republic. His primary objective was to gain the support of England. England felt threatened by the naval power; it had therefore fought the first and second of the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Sweden agreed to indirectly support the invasion of the Republic, by threatening Brandenburg-Prussia if that state should intervene. Louis' Secretary of War, allowed France to mobilise about 180,000 men. Of these about 120,000 would be used directly against the Republic. The bulk of the French army was divided into two bodies. The body led by field marshal Turenne was stationed in Charleroi, then France. The body led by Condé waited in Sedan. Both would march through the pro-France Prince-Bishopric of Liège, gain the Rhine.Franco-Dutch War – Painting of the capture of Coevorden by Dutch troops commanded by Carl von Rabenhaupt in December 1672
65. Artois – Artois is a region of northern France. Its territory has a population of about one million. Its principal cities are Arras, Saint-Omer, Lens and Béthune. Artois occupies the interior of the western part of which constitutes the former Boulonnais. Artois roughly corresponds to the eastern part of the arrondissement of Montreuil. It occupies the western end of the coalfield which stretches eastward across central Belgium. Originally a feudal county itself, Artois was annexed by the county of Flanders. Through inheritance, Artois came in 1384. At the death of Charles the Bold, Artois was inherited by the Habsburgs and passed to the dynasty's Spanish line. After the Union of Atrecht, Artois and Hainaut reached a separate agreement with Philip II. Artois remained with the Spanish Netherlands until it was conquered during the Thirty Years War. It became a French province. It was part of the Southern Netherlands until the French annexation. Artois experienced industrial development during the second half of the 19th century, fueled by its rich coal resources. During World War I, the front line between the opposing Entente and Allied armies in France ran through the province, resulting in physical damage.Artois – Blaeu: Artesia Comitatus, 1645
66. Flanders – Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history. It is one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. In historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD 1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region". These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders has figured prominently in European history. As a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy. Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, however, Flanders' economy modernised rapidly, today Flanders is significantly more wealthy than its southern counterpart. Geographically, Flanders is generally flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue.Flanders – The Sack of Antwerp in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died.
67. County of Burgundy – It should not be confused since 843. In 1002, Otto-William also claimed the Duchy of Burgundy upon the death of his stepfather Duke Henry I. Guy of Burgundy, brother of Renaud II, later became pope and negotiated the Concordat of Worms with Emperor Henry V. Burgundy was from then on called Franche-Comté, the "free county." Upon Emperor Frederick's death in 1190, his younger son Otto I, assumed the rare title of an archcount. The authority of the counts was re-established only with Adelaide, the sister and heiress. However, this did not prevent John of Chalon-Arlay, from taking control of the vassal states. Son of Hugh and Adelaide, was the last of the feudal counts of Burgundy. He married first the daughter of the Count of Bar, then Countess Mahaut of Artois. This marriage brought the county under French influence. Jeanne and Blanche, married respectively Philip V and Charles IV of France, sons of King Philip IV. Jeanne became Queen of France after having been one of the heroines in the Tour de Nesle Affair. In that same affair Blanche was imprisoned for the rest of her life. These events are retold in the historical novel series Les Rois maudits by Maurice Druon. In 1382 she bequeathed her estates to her son Count Louis II of Flanders.County of Burgundy – Duchy (left) and County (right) of Burgundy in the 14th century
68. Divine right of kings – The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch. In the world, kings were often seen as either ruling with the backing of even being divine beings themselves. In ancient Rome the title Divus meaning godlike, was given to Julius Caesar by the senate declaring him a god posthumously. He claimed relation from both Venus and Mars through Aeneas and Ancus Marcius respectively. His great-nephew Augustus adopted the term Divi Filius as well. Adomnan of Iona is one of the earliest Christian proponents of this concept of kings ruling with divine right. He wrote of the Irish King Diarmait mac Cerbaill's assassination and claimed that divine punishment fell on his assassin for the act of violating the monarch. The same angel then visited Columba on three successive nights, then finally Columba agreed and Aedan came to receive ordination. Adomnan's writings, most likely influenced other Irish writers, who in turn influenced continental ideas as well. Pepin the short's coronation may have also come from the same influence. The Carolingian dynasty and the Holy Roman Emperors also influenced all subsequent western ideas of kingship. The immediate author of the theory was Jean Bodin, who based it on the interpretation of Roman law.Divine right of kings – Louis XIV of France depicted as the Sun King.
69. Feudalism – Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. There is no commonly accepted modern definition of feudalism, at least among scholars. The feudalism has also been applied -- often pejoratively -- to non-Western societies where attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to prevail. The term "féodal" was translated into legal treatises such as "feodal government". In the 18th century, Adam Smith, seeking to describe economic systems, effectively coined the forms "feudal government" and "feudal system" in his book Wealth of Nations. In the 19th century the adjective "feudal" evolved into a noun: "feudalism". The term "feudal" or "feodal" is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum. The etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin and others suggesting an Arabic origin. Initially in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one-hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. The most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch. Bloch said it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which *fehu means "cattle" and -ôd means "goods", implying "a moveable object of value."Feudalism – Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste, c. 14th century(?)
70. Palace of Versailles – The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built as a hunting lodge of brick and stone, the edifice was enlarged into a royal palace by Louis XIV. The first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. It culminated in the addition of three new wings of west. After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was completed by his assistant, François d'Orbay. André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost -- how much his successors spent on Versailles. Owing to the nature of the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was referred to as the "king's house". To counter the costs of Versailles during the early years of Louis XIV's personal reign, Colbert decided that Versailles should be the "showcase" of France. Accordingly, all materials that went into the decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France.Palace of Versailles – Aerial view of the Palace from above the Gardens of Versailles
71. Fronde – The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the nobles. The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde des parlements, directly after the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years War, was significant. A. Lloyd Moote argues that Cardinal Mazarin came out well ahead at the end. They were humiliated. The long-term result was to weaken the economy. The Fronde facilitated the emergence of absolute monarchy. The French fronde means "sling"; Parisian crowds used slings to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin. The Fronde in the end provided an incentive since the disorders eventually discredited the feudal concept of liberty. The costs of the Thirty Years' War constrained Mazarin's government to raise funds by traditional means, the impôts, the occasional aides. The brunt fell upon the bourgeoisie. Most historians consider that Louis's later insistence on absolutist rule and depriving the nobility of actual power was a result of these events in his childhood. The military record of the first Fronde is almost blank. The noble faction demanded the calling of an assembly of the Estates General. The nobles believed that in the Estates-General they could continue to control the bourgeois element as they had in the past. The two warring parties signed the Peace of Rueil after little blood had been shed.Fronde – Cardinal Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart
72. Hundred Years' War – Each side drew many allies into the war. The war marked the development of national identities in both countries. After the Norman Conquest, the kings of England were vassals of the kings of France for their possessions in France. The French kings had endeavored, over the centuries, to reduce these possessions, to the effect that only Gascony was left to the English. In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, Isabella, unable to claim the French throne for herself, claimed it for her son. The French rejected the claim, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right that she did not possess. For about nine years, the English had accepted the Valois succession to the French throne. But the interference of the French king, Philip VI, in Edward III's war against Scotland permitted Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne. English victories in the war -- especially at Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt -- raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy precluded a complete conquest. Historians commonly divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian Era War; the Caroline War; and the Lancastrian War. Later historians invented the term "Hundred Years' War" as a periodization to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in history. The war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. Although primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism.Hundred Years' War – Clockwise, from top left: John of Bohemia at the Battle of Crécy, English and Franco-Castilian fleets at the Battle of La Rochelle, Henry V and the English army at the Battle of Agincourt, Joan of Arc rallies French forces at the Siege of Orléans
73. Edict of Nantes – In the edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity. It marked the end of the religious wars that had afflicted France during the second half of the 16th century. The later Edict of Fontainebleau, which revoked the Edict of Nantes in October 1685, was promulgated by Louis XIV, the grandson of Henry IV. It drove an exodus of Protestants and increased the hostility of Protestant nations bordering France. The Edict aimed primarily to end the French Wars of Religion. Henry IV also had personal reasons for supporting the Edict. "Toleration in France was a royal notion, the religious settlement was dependent upon the continued support of the crown." Re-establishing royal authority in France required internal peace, based on limited toleration enforced by the crown. Since royal troops could not be everywhere, Huguenots needed to be granted strictly circumscribed possibilities of self-defense. The Edict also included 56 "particular" articles dealing with Protestant rights and obligations. For example, the French state guaranteed protection of French Protestants travelling abroad from the Inquisition. "This crucifies me," protested Pope Clement VIII, upon hearing of the Edict. The final two parts consisted of brevets which contained the military clauses and pastoral clauses. These two brevets were withdrawn by Louis XIII, following a final civil war. While it granted certain privileges to Huguenots, the edict reaffirmed Catholicism as the established religion of France.Edict of Nantes – The Edict of Nantes, April 1598.
74. Thirty Years' War – The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history. It was the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties. In the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European than they are today. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor, Rudolf II. His policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic. They ousted the Habsburgs and elected Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as their monarch. Frederick took the offer without the support of the union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor. The Empire soon crushed this perceived rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, but the Protestant world condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony finally gave its support to the union and decided to fight back. Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories.Thirty Years' War – Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1632
75. Bourbon Claim to the Spanish Throne – In this will, Charles left Philip, Duke of Anjou, grandson of the French king, the possessions of the Spanish Crown. In this article, its origins are explained in detail. Southern France had strong connections going back hundreds of years. The Counts of Barcelona held the title of the "Count of Provence". The Íñiguez dynasty founded by Íñigo Arista, founded the Navarrese kingdom around 824 when they rebelled against nominal Carolingian authority. Therefore, her son Theobald, was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre. Through his Joan, Queen consort of France, Navarre passed into the control of the House of Capet, succeeded by several Capetian and non-Capetian dynasties. In accordance to the French law of succession, Henri III of Navarre, succeeded in 1589. Every succeeding monarch in France assumed the double title of King of France and Navarre. However, by the time Henry became King of Navarre, much of it had been overrun by Aragon. The monarchs of Navarre after 1512 only reigned over Lower Navarre, the part of Navarre north of the Pyrenees. The legitimate connection with Spain came with the marriage of Infanta Ana of Spain to Louis XIII. The Infanta was the daughter of Philip III of Spain. As Spanish succession laws did not prevent a female from ascending the throne, she was the heiress presumptive to the throne. Likewise, her offspring would have a legitimate, if not strong, claim to the Spanish throne.Bourbon Claim to the Spanish Throne – Charlemagne with his son Louis the Child
76. Nine Years' War – It was fought in North America. Louis XIV of France had emerged as the most powerful monarch in Europe. He was ruled as a great because of his feats in war; yet the "Sun King" remained unsatisfied. The main fighting took place around France's borders: in the Spanish Netherlands; the Rhineland; Duchy of Savoy; and Catalonia. By 1696 his country was in the grip of an economic crisis. When Savoy defected from the Alliance all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. Louis XIV, along with his chief advisor Vauban, developed France's defensive strategy. Vauban had advocated a system of impregnable fortresses along the frontier that would keep France's enemies out. To construct a proper system, however, the King needed to acquire more land from his neighbours to form a forward line. The King grabbed the necessary territory through what is known as the Réunions: a strategy that combined legalism, aggression. The earlier Treaty of Westphalia provided Louis XIV with the justification for the Reunions. Unsurprisingly, these courts usually found in Louis XIV's favour. Itself was subsequently blockaded with the intention of it becoming part of Louis XIV's defensible frontier. By forcibly taking the Imperial city the French now controlled two of the three bridgeheads over the Rhine. On the same day that Strasbourg fell French forces marched in northern Italy.Nine Years' War – Siege of Namur, June 1692 by Jean-Baptiste Martin
77. Seven Years' War – The Seven Years' War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France on the other. For the first time, aiming to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France formed a grand coalition of its own. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realizing that war was imminent, Prussia preemptively struck Saxony and quickly overran it. The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in a previous war, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause. The Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, fearing Prussia's expansionist tendencies, went to war in 1757 to protect its Baltic dominions, seeing its chance when virtually all of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762. Naples, Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British power. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France, Spain and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony, Austria and Prussia, in 1763.Seven Years' War – Clockwise from top left: The Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757); The Battle of Carillon (6–8 July 1758); The Battle of Zorndorf (25 August 1758); The Battle of Kunersdorf (12 August 1759).