1. Capital punishment – Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment,103 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes. Capital punishment is a matter of controversy in various countries and states. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment, also, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members. The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007,2008,2010,2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a moratorium on executions. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India. Execution of criminals and political opponents has been used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime, in most countries that practise capital punishment it is reserved for murder, terrorism, war crimes, espionage, treason, defection or as part of military justice. In many countries use the death penalty, drug trafficking is also a capital offence. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are punished by the death penalty, in militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. The use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history, most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment, usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice. The response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included a formal apology, a blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of a system based on state or organized religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour, acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished. However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context, compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individualsCapital punishment – Anarchist Auguste Vaillant guillotined in France in 1894
2. Public display of affection – Public displays of affection are acts of physical intimacy in the view of others. What is a display of affection varies with respect to culture. Displays of affection in a place, such as the street, are more likely to be objected to. Some organizations have rules limiting or prohibiting public displays of affection, Physical affection has been defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver and/or the recipient. Get a room is a phrase that is said when one feels a sense of disapproval after seeing what they consider to be an excessive public display of affection. Various studies have found physical affection to be associated with positive outcomes in romantic relationships, five of these behaviors, with the exception of caressing/stroking and holding hands, have been significantly positively associated with relationship and partner satisfaction. Expression of a person’s feelings towards someone else had previously limited to written letters, phone calls. In the modern world, social media such as Facebook and Twitter are growing, with 1.7 billion users on Facebook. However, many now feel uncomfortable or irritated seeing public displays of affection through social media. After two people meet and form an interest, one or both individuals will go onto the other person’s Facebook page and get information such as status, pictures. Once a relationship begins, some couples broadcast their relationship with posts, such as pictures, how people show their public displays of affection on social media sites can be indicative of relationship security and personality. A study found female characters on prime time televisions programs are less likely to demonstrate physical affection if they had a larger body type than thinner female characters. It is well recognized that relationships outside the family become increasingly important during adolescence, much more research has been done in the area of specific adolescent behaviors, which has shown that these behaviors are predicted well by relationship variables to include the display of affection. Affection or intimacy references a pattern of conduct within relationships that includes subjective assessments of attachment and this pattern of conduct is a part of a larger constellation of factors that contributes to an adolescent’s development of a non-parental relationship. A number of sociologists have explored the general terrain of gender relations, although several of the key studies focus on preadolescence. Their work is important in highlighting the degree to which features of early relations. Adolescents conceptions about and conduct within these relationships are heavily influenced by interaction and communication with other girls or other boys, specific rules emerge and gossip or other social sanctions serve as important sources of informal social control around these rules. Research moves into the adolescent period when youths are old enough to say they are going steady and is useful in actually characterizing the nature of these relationshipsPublic display of affection – Married couple's first kiss
3. Ned Sublette – Ned Sublette is an American composer, musician, record producer, musicologist, and author. Sublette studied Spanish Classical Guitar with Hector Garcia at the University of New Mexico and he studied composition with Kenneth Gaburo at the University of California, San Diego. He grew up in Portales, New Mexico, moved to New York City in 1976, and has worked with John Cage, LaMonte Young, Glenn Branca and he is also a leading scholar of Cuban music. During the 1980s, he led the Ned Sublette Band, which played country with Cuban stylings and his Cowboy Rumba reached number one on World Music Charts Europe during December,1999. In 2006, Willie Nelson released Sublettes song Cowboys Are Frequently, Secretly Fond of Each Other in the wake of the success of Brokeback Mountain and he also performed an experimental radio mash-up in 1984 for the Art on the Beach series. His book on Cuban music, Cuba and Its Music, From the First Drums to the Mambo was published in 2004, the World That Made New Orleans, From Spanish Silver to Congo Square, was published in 2008 by Lawrence Hill Books. The Year Before the Flood, A Story of New Orleans published in 2009 by Lawrence Hill Books continues the history of New Orleans cultures, Sublette is a 2005 Guggenheim Fellow. In 2012 he was a Knight-Luce Fellow for Reporting on Global Religion at the University of Southern California and he did research in Angola, which resulted in a four-episode Hip Deep Angola radio series was produced for the public radio program Afropop Worldwide. WNYC interview with Ned Sublette on Cuban music, January 2009 Interview with Ned Sublette by Prof. Joseph Roach of Yale University,2005 Interview with Ned Sublette by Prof. comNed Sublette – Ned Sublette, 2011
4. Waltz – The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in triple time, performed primarily in closed position. There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, the French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner, the peasants of Bavaria, Tyrol, and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler, also known as the Schleifer, a dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia, Austria, and Bavaria. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, The people were dancing mad. The ladies of Vienna are particularly celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire, there is a waltz in the second act finale of the opera Una Cosa Rara written by Martin y Soler in 1786. Solers waltz was marked Andante con moto, or at a pace with motion, but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a known as Langaus, became a sliding step. In the 19th century, the word primarily indicated that the dance was a one, one would waltz in the polka to indicate rotating rather than going straight forward without turning. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each measure, making it sound as if the third is late. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss often played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, according to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the Kings German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill and it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador. Diarist Thomas Raikes later recounted that No event ever produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813, in the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Come, its time to be going home, the waltz, and especially its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including many folk and it incorporated hesitations and was danced to fast music. A hesitation is basically a halt on the foot during the full waltz measureWaltz
5. Stereotype – In social psychology, a stereotype is a thought that can be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things. These thoughts or beliefs may or may not accurately reflect reality, however, this is only a fundamental psychological definition of a stereotype. Within psychology and spanning across other disciplines, there are different conceptualizations, some of these definitions share commonalities, though each one may also harbor unique aspects that may contradict the others. The term stereotype derives from the Greek words στερεός, firm, solid and τύπος, impression, the term comes from the printing trade and was first adopted in 1798 by Firmin Didot to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography. The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original, outside of printing, the first reference to stereotype was in 1850, as a noun that meant image perpetuated without change. However, it was not until 1922 that stereotype was first used in the psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion. Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts, although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other. Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons, early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy. For instance, Katz and Braly argued in their classic 1933 study that ethnic stereotypes were uniformly negative, by contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are frequently ambivalent and vary along two dimensions, warmth and competence. Warmth and competence are respectively predicted by lack of competition and status, groups that do not compete with the in-group for the same resources are perceived as warm, whereas high-status groups are considered competent. The groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth, the model explains the phenomenon that some out-groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected. This model was tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content. Early studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid, repressed, stereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, and social functions on an intergroup level. For stereotyping to function on a level, an individual must see themselves as part of a group. Craig McGarty, Russell Spears, and Vincent Y, Yzerbyt argued that the cognitive functions of stereotyping are best understood in relation to its social functions, and vice versa. Stereotypes can help make sense of the world and they are a form of categorization that helps to simplify and systematize information. Thus, information is easily identified, recalled, predicted. Stereotypes are categories of objects or people, between stereotypes, objects or people are as different from each other as possibleStereotype – An 18th-century Dutch engraving of the peoples of the world, depicting the inhabitants of Asia, the Americas and Africa as savages. Shown below are an Englishman, a Dutchman, a German and a Frenchman.
6. Cowboy – A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the traditions of northern Mexico and became a figure of special significance. A subtype, called a wrangler, specifically tends the horses used to work cattle, in addition to ranch work, some cowboys work for or participate in rodeos. There are also cattle handlers in many parts of the world, particularly South America and Australia. The cowboy has deep historic roots tracing back to Spain and the earliest European settlers of the Americas, over the centuries, differences in terrain, climate and the influence of cattle-handling traditions from multiple cultures created several distinct styles of equipment, clothing and animal handling. As the ever-practical cowboy adapted to the world, the cowboys equipment and techniques also adapted to some degree. The English word cowboy has an origin from several earlier terms that referred to both age and to cattle or cattle-tending work, the word cowboy appeared in the English language by 1725. It appears to be a direct English translation of vaquero, a Spanish word for an individual who managed cattle while mounted on horseback and it was derived from vaca, meaning cow, which came from the Latin word vacca. Another English word for a cowboy, buckaroo, is an anglicization of vaquero, originally, the term may have been intended literally—a boy who tends cows. By 1849 it had developed its sense as an adult cattle handler of the American West. Variations on the word cowboy appeared later, cowhand appeared in 1852, and cowpoke in 1881, originally restricted to the individuals who prodded cattle with long poles to load them onto railroad cars for shipping. Names for a cowboy in American English include buckaroo, cowpoke, cowhand, the word cowboy also had English language roots beyond simply being a translation from Spanish. Originally, the English word cowherd was used to describe a cattle herder, and often referred to a preadolescent or early adolescent boy and this word is very old in the English language, originating prior to the year 1000. In antiquity, herding of sheep, cattle and goats was often the job of minors, on western ranches today, the working cowboy is usually an adult. Responsibility for herding cattle or other livestock is no longer considered a job suitable for children or early adolescents. However, both boys and girls growing up in a ranch environment often learn to ride horses and perform basic ranch skills as soon as they are physically able, such youths, by their late teens, are often given responsibilities for cowboy work on the ranch. The term cowboy was used during the American Revolution to describe American fighters who opposed the movement for independence, in the same period, a number of guerilla bands operated in Westchester County, which marked the dividing line between the British and American forces. These groups were made up of local farmhands who would ambush convoys, there were two separate groups, the skinners fought for the pro-independence side, the cowboys supported the BritishCowboy – A classic image of the American cowboy, as portrayed by C.M. Russell
7. Leather subculture – The leather subculture denotes practices and styles of dress organized around sexual activities that involve leather garments, such as leather jackets, vests, boots, chaps, harnesses, or other items. Wearing leather garments is one way that participants in this culture self-consciously distinguish themselves from mainstream sexual cultures. Leather culture is most visible in gay communities and most often associated with gay men, but it is reflected in various ways in the gay, lesbian, bisexual. Many people associate leather culture with BDSM practices and its many subcultures, Gay male leather culture has existed since the late 1940s, when it likely grew out of post-WWII biker culture. Early San Francisco clubs included the Warlocks and the California Motor Club, Leather Clubs for gay men started in Amsterdam and Berlin in the 1950s, and in Sydney from 1970. The first gay bar, the Gold Coast, opened in Chicago in 1958. In 1964 an article on Life magazine with a significant amount of prejudice, the Tool Box bar in San Francisco was the target of the prejudice, although not specified, it was heavily speculated. The fourteen-page article titled, Homosexuality in America also brought leather subculture to the attention of isolated and closeted gays, to that end, gay motorcycle culture also reflected some mens disaffection with the coexistent gay cultures more organized around high culture, popular culture, and/or camp style. Perhaps as a result, the community that emerged from the motorcycle clubs also became the practical and symbolic location for gay mens open exploration of kink. Throughout the history of the subculture, a variety of traditions have been observed. As time has progressed and BDSM has become mainstream, the traditions of leather has adapted. The first major evolution has become known as New Leather or New Guard, however, even this is the subject of some disagreement, as many noted authors and historians assert that there is little or no substantive differences. Today, the subculture is one of many facets to semi-organized alternative sexuality. Many individuals describe long periods of introspection leading to their choice to identify as leather, others do not necessarily associate their leather lifestyle with BDSM, and simply enjoy the sensory experience of leather. The more specifically homoerotic aesthetics of mens leather culture drew on sources as well, including military. This influence is evident in the graphical illustrations of leathermen found in the work of Tom of Finland. The pornographic films of one of his models Peter Berlin from Berlin, such as his 1973 film Nights in Black Leather, in the 1970s Berlin had a huge leather scene with several leather clubs in the gay area around Nollendorfplatz. In 1975 Europes biggest gay fetish event started, Easter in Berlin Leather Festival, aspects of leather culture beyond the sartorial can also be seen in the 1970 murder mystery novel Cruising by Jay GreenLeather subculture – Start of the Leather contingent at the 2004 San Francisco gay pride parade.
8. Mainstream country – Country music is a genre of United States popular music that originated in the southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from the genre of United States, such as folk music. Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Bristol, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. S. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music, based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum, historians have also noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage. The first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville, during the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall. Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genresMainstream country – Jimmie Rodgers
9. Alan Bennett – Alan Bennett is a British playwright, screenwriter, actor and author. He was born in Leeds and attended Oxford University where he studied history and he stayed to teach and research medieval history at the university for several years. His collaboration as writer and performer with Dudley Moore, Jonathan Miller and Peter Cook in the satirical revue Beyond the Fringe at the 1960 Edinburgh Festival brought him instant fame. He gave up academia, and turned to writing full-time, his first stage play Forty Years On being produced in 1968, Bennett was born in Armley in Leeds. The youngest son of a butcher, Walter, and his wife Lilian Mary, Bennett attended Christ Church, Upper Armley, Church of England School. He learned Russian at the Joint Services School for Linguists during his service before applying for a scholarship at Oxford University. He was accepted by Exeter College, Oxford, from which he graduated with a degree in history. While at Oxford he performed comedy with a number of successful actors in the Oxford Revue. He was to remain at the university for several years, where he researched and taught Medieval History, in August 1960 Bennett, along with Dudley Moore, Jonathan Miller and Peter Cook, achieved instant fame by appearing at the Edinburgh Festival in the satirical revue Beyond the Fringe. After the festival, the show continued in London and New York and he also appeared in My Father Knew Lloyd George. His highly regarded television comedy sketch series On the Margin was unfortunately erased, however, in 2014 it was announced that copies of the entire series had been found. Bennetts first stage play Forty Years On, directed by Patrick Garland, was produced in 1968, many television, stage and radio plays followed, with screenplays, short stories, novellas, a large body of non-fictional prose, and broadcasting and many appearances as an actor. Bennetts distinctive, expressive voice and the humour and evident humanity of his writing have made his readings of his work very popular. Bennetts readings of the Winnie the Pooh stories are widely enjoyed. Many of Bennetts characters are unfortunate and downtrodden, life has brought them to an impasse or else passed them by. In many cases they have met with disappointment in the realm of sex and intimate relationships, largely through tentativeness and a failure to connect with others. Despite a long history both the National Theatre and the BBC - Bennett never writes on commission, declaring I dont work on commission. If people dont want it then its too bad, Bennett is both unsparing and compassionate in laying bare his characters frailtiesAlan Bennett – Bennett in 1973, photographed by Allan Warren
10. Oscar Wilde – Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish playwright, novelist, essayist, and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he one of Londons most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. He is remembered for his epigrams, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, his plays, as well as the circumstances of his imprisonment, Wildes parents were successful Anglo-Irish, Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life, at university, Wilde read Greats, he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the philosophy of aestheticism. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles, known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress and glittering conversation, Wilde became one of the best-known personalities of his day. The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with social themes. He wrote Salome in French in Paris but it was refused a licence for England due to the prohibition of Biblical subjects on the English stage. Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, at the height of his fame and success, while The Importance of Being Earnest, was still being performed in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry prosecuted for criminal libel. The Marquess was the father of Wildes lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, the charge carried a penalty of up to two years in prison. The trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest, after two more trials he was convicted and imprisoned for two years hard labour. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain, there he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. He died destitute in Paris at the age of 46, Oscar Wilde was born at 21 Westland Row, Dublin, the second of three children born to Sir William Wilde and Jane Wilde, two years behind William. Wildes mother was of Italian descent, and under the pseudonym Speranza and she read the Young Irelanders poetry to Oscar and Willie, inculcating a love of these poets in her sons. Lady Wildes interest in the neo-classical revival showed in the paintings and busts of ancient Greece, William Wilde was Irelands leading oto-ophthalmologic surgeon and was knighted in 1864 for his services as medical adviser and assistant commissioner to the censuses of Ireland. He also wrote books about Irish archaeology and peasant folklore, a renowned philanthropist, his dispensary for the care of the citys poor at the rear of Trinity College, Dublin, was the forerunner of the Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital, now located at Adelaide Road. On his fathers side Wilde was descended from a Dutchman, Colonel de Wilde, on his mothers side Wildes ancestors included a bricklayer from County Durham who emigrated to Ireland sometime in the 1770s. Wilde was baptised as an infant in St, marks Church, Dublin, the local Church of Ireland churchOscar Wilde – Photograph taken in 1882 by Napoleon Sarony
11. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
12. Writer – A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers texts are published across a range of media, skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term. Some writers work from an oral tradition, Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas, some writers may use images or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words, as well as producing their own written works, writers often write on how they write, why they write, and also comment on the work of other writers. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be either in advance. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work, Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium, for example, a writers work may be read privately or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, the writer of a letter may include elements of criticism, biography, or journalism. The genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted, novel to film, poem to play, Writers may begin their career in one genre and change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature, many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of detail in the work both tend to be debated. Some writers write both fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was also a playwright, essayist, translator, poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one. To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they also exploit the properties of words with a range of techniques such as alliteration. A common theme is love and its vicissitudes, Shakespeares famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versionsWriter – Sculpture of Anonymus in Budapest.
13. Comedian – A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh. This might be through jokes or amusing situations, or acting a fool, as in slapstick, a comedian who addresses an audience directly is called a stand-up comic. Since the 1980s, a new wave of comedy, called alternative comedy, has grown in popularity with its more offbeat and this normally involves more experiential, or observational reporting, e. g. Alexei Sayle, Daniel Tosh, Louis C. K. and Malcolm Hardee. Many comics achieve a cult following while touring famous comedy hubs such as the Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, the Edinburgh Fringe, often a comics career advances significantly when they win a notable comedy award, such as the Edinburgh Comedy Award. Comics sometimes foray into other areas of entertainment, such as film and television, however, a comics stand-up success does not guarantee a films critical or box office success. Comedians can be dated back to 425 BC, when Aristophanes and he wrote 40 comedies,11 of which survive and are still being performed. Aristophanes comedy style took the form of satyr plays, the English poet and playwright William Shakespeare wrote many comedies. A Shakespearean comedy is one that has an ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted than Shakespeares other plays. Charles Chaplin was the most popular comedian of the first half of the 20th century. He wrote comedic silent films such as Modern Times and The Kid and his films still have a major impact on comedy in films today. One of the most popular forms of comedy is stand-up comedy. Stand-up comedy is a monologue performed by one or more people standing on a stage. Bob Hope was the most popular comedian of the 20th century. Other noted stand-up comedians include George Carlin, Jerry Seinfeld, Lenny Bruce, Mort Sahl, Louis CK, another popular form of modern-day comedy is talk shows where comedians make fun of current news or popular topics. Such comedians include Jay Leno, Conan OBrien, Daniel Tosh, Chris Hardwick, Jimmy Fallon, David Letterman, a third form of modern-day comedy is television programs in which many comedians band together to make skits, such as Saturday Night Live. These shows often receive high ratings, likely because many comedians band together to create jokes, one of the most successful comedians is Ellen Degeneres, who has parlayed her comic career into film, television shows, and hosting major media events. In 1986, Ellen DeGeneres appeared for the first time on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson since she began gaining popularity as a comic in the 1980s. Johnny Carson, who launched many contemporary comics careers, would invite them to join him on the couch for one-on-one conversation after their setComedian – Charlie Chaplin in the film The Champion, 1915
14. Jeeves and Wooster – Jeeves and Wooster is a British comedy-drama series adapted by Clive Exton from P. G. Wodehouses Jeeves stories. The series was a collaboration between Brian Eastman of Picture Partnership Productions and Granada Television and it aired on the ITV network from 22 April 1990 to 20 June 1993, with the last series nominated for a British Academy Television Award for Best Drama Series. Wooster is a bachelor, an aristocrat and member of the idle rich. He and his friends, who are members of The Drones Club, are extricated from all manner of societal misadventures by the indispensable valet Jeeves. The stories are set in the United Kingdom and the United States in a period between the late 1920s and the 1930s. When Fry and Laurie began the series they were already a double act due to regular appearances on Channel 4s Friday Night Live. The theme is a piece of music in the jazz/swing style written by composer Anne Dudley for the programme. Dudley uses variations of the theme as a basis for all of the scores and was nominated for a British Academy Television Award for her work on the third series. Many of the programmes supporting roles—including significant characters such as Aunt Agatha, Madeline Bassett, one prominent character, Aunt Dahlia, was played by a different actress in each of the four series. Conversely, Francesca Folan played two different characters, Madeline Bassett in series one and Lady Florence Craye in series four. Four series were produced, with 23 episodes in total, each series but the first consisted of six episodes, the five episodes of the first series were directed by Robert Young and first aired in April and May 1990. The second series, directed by Simon Langton, aired in April, the third series, directed by Ferdinand Fairfax, aired from March to May 1992. Fairfax also directed the six episodes of the fourth and final series, the third series of Jeeves and Wooster won a British Academy Television Award for Best Design for Eileen Diss. The final series won a British Academy Television Award for Best Graphics for Derek W. Granada Media released all four series on DVD in Region 2 between 2000 and 2002. On 1 September 2008, ITV Studios Home Entertainment released Jeeves and Wooster, The Complete Collection, in Region 1, A&E Home Video released the entire series on DVD in the US and Canada. In Region 4, Shock Entertainment has released the series on DVD in Australia. It was initially released in sets in 2007/2008, followed by a complete series collection on 4 August 2008. Interior shots of Skeldings Hall were filmed at Home House, a house in LondonJeeves and Wooster – The title card of Jeeves and Wooster
15. Wilde (film) – Wilde is a 1997 British biographical film directed by Brian Gilbert with Stephen Fry in the title role. The screenplay by Julian Mitchell is based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning 1987 biography of Oscar Wilde by Richard Ellmann, the film opens with Oscar Wildes 1882 visit to Leadville, Colorado during his lecture tour of the United States. Despite his flamboyant personality and urbane wit, he proves to be a success with the silver miners as he regales them with tales of Renaissance silversmith Benvenuto Cellini. Wilde returns to London and weds Constance Lloyd, and they have two sons in quick succession, while their second child is still an infant, the couple hosts a young Canadian named Robbie Ross, who seduces Wilde and helps him come to terms with his homosexuality. Hedonistic Douglas is not content to remain monogamous and frequently engages in sexual activity with rent boys while his older lover plays the role of voyeur. Douglas father, the Marquess of Queensberry, objects to his sons relationship with Wilde, when Wilde sues the Marquess for criminal libel against him, his homosexuality is publicly exposed, he is eventually tried for gross indecency and sentenced to two years hard labour. In prison, he is visited by his wife, who tells him she is not divorcing him but is taking their sons to Germany, Wilde is released from prison and goes straight into exile to continental Europe. In spite of the advice or objections of others, he meets with Douglas. Throughout the film, portions of the well-loved Wilde story The Selfish Giant are woven in, first by Wilde telling the story to his children, then as narrator, finishing the story as the film ends. In the DVD commentary, Fry, who is gay, admitted he was nervous about the scenes with his heterosexual co-stars. He says Jude Law, Michael Sheen and Ioan Gruffudd were quick to put him at ease, the film premiered at the 1997 Venice Film Festival and was the opening night selection at the 1998 San Francisco International Film Festival. Orlando Bloom made his first on screen appearance in film with a brief role as a rent boy. Though the film suffers a case of quip-lash thanks to its tireless Wildean witticisms, frys warmly sympathetic performance finds the gentleness beneath the wit. That he is also an actor is important, because the film requires him to show many conflicting aspects of Wildes life. Brings a depth and gentleness to the role, in the Los Angeles Times, Kevin Thomas stated the film has found a perfect Oscar in the formidably talented Stephen Fry. Coupled with Julian Mitchells superb script, and director Brian Gilberts total commitment to it and to his sterling cast, this deeply moving Wilde is likely to remain the definitive screen treatment of Oscar Wilde for years to come. Gilbert clearly gave Fry and Law the confidence to play roles that would require a baring of souls, and they are triumphant. Unfortunately, the film is marred by Debbie Wisemans trite, overly emotional score and it is especially undermining in its morose tone in the films final sequences, when the pace naturally slows down as Wildes life enters its final phaseWilde (film) – Theatrical release poster
16. Blackadder – Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 period British sitcoms, along with several one-off installments. All television episodes starred Rowan Atkinson as the anti-hero Edmund Blackadder, the first series, The Black Adder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson, while subsequent episodes were written by Curtis and Ben Elton. The shows were produced by John Lloyd, in 2000, the fourth series, Blackadder Goes Forth, ranked at 16 in the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes, a list created by the British Film Institute. Also in the 2004 TV poll to find Britains Best Sitcom, Blackadder was voted the second-best British sitcom of all time, topped by Only Fools and it was also ranked as the 20th-best TV show of all time by Empire magazine. It is implied in each series that the Blackadder character is a descendant of the previous one, as the generations progress, each Blackadder becomes increasingly clever and perceptive, while the familys social status steadily erodes. However, each Blackadder remains a cynical, cowardly opportunist, maintaining and increasing his own status and fortunes, the life of each Blackadder is also entwined with his servant, each from the Baldrick family line. Each generation acts as the dogsbody to his respective Blackadder and they decrease in intelligence as their masters intellect increases. Each Blackadder and Baldrick is also saddled with tolerating the presence of a dim-witted aristocrat, each series was set in a different period of British history, beginning in 1485 and ending in 1917, and comprised six half-hour episodes. The first series, made in 1983, was called The Black Adder and was set in the reign of Richard IV. The second series, Blackadder II, was set during the reign of Elizabeth I, Blackadder the Third was set during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the reign of George III, and Blackadder Goes Forth was set in 1917 in the trenches of the Great War. The Black Adder, the first series of Blackadder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson and it originally aired on BBC1 from 15 June 1983 to 20 July 1983, and was a joint production with the Australian Seven Network. Along with the history, many historical events portrayed in the series were anachronistic. The filming of the series was highly ambitious, with a large cast, the series also featured Shakespearean dialogue, often adapted for comic effect, the end credits featured the words Additional Dialogue by William Shakespeare. Blackadder II is set in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the principal character is Edmund, Lord Blackadder, the great-grandson of the original Black Adder. During the series, he deals with the Queen, her obsequious Lord Chamberlain Lord Melchett —his rival—and the Queens demented former nanny Nursie. Following the BBCs request for improvements, several changes were made, the second series was the first to establish the familiar Blackadder character, cunning, shrewd, and witty, in sharp contrast to the first series bumbling Prince Edmund. To make the show more cost-effective, it was shot with virtually no outdoor scenes and several frequently used indoor sets, such as the Queens throne room. Blackadder the Third is set in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, in the series, Edmund Blackadder Esquire is the butler to the Prince Regent, the Prince of WalesBlackadder – Left to right: (back) Tim McInnerny, Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie, (front) Rowan Atkinson and Tony Robinson in Blackadder Goes Forth
17. QI – In traditional Chinese culture, qì or chi is an active principle forming part of any living thing. Qi literally translates as breath, air, or gas, and figuratively as material energy, life force, Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. Some elements of the concept of qi can be found in the energy when used in the context of various esoteric forms of spirituality. Notions in the West of energeia, élan vital, or vitalism are purported to be similar, despite widespread belief in the reality of qi, it is a non-scientific, unverifiable concept. The logograph 氣 is read with two Chinese pronunciations, the usual qì 氣 air, vital energy and the rare archaic xì 氣 to present food, pronunciations of 氣 in Sino-Xenic borrowings include, Japanese language ki, Korean language gi, and Vietnamese language khi. Reconstructions of the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 氣, standardized to IPA transcription, include, /kʰe̯iH/, /kʰĭəiH/, /kʰiəiH/, /kʰɨjH/, reconstructions of the Old Chinese pronunciation of 氣, standardized to IPA transcription, include, /*kʰɯds/, and /*C. qʰəp-s/. In addition, qì 炁 is an uncommon character especially used in writing Daoist talismans, historically, the word qì was generally written as 气 until the Han dynasty, when it was replaced by the 氣 graph clarified with mǐ 米 rice indicating steam. These oracle, bronze, and seal scripts graphs for qì 气 air, breath, etc. were anciently used as a loan character to write qǐ 乞 plead for, beg, ask. The regular script character qì 氣 is unusual because qì 气 is both the air radical and the phonetic, with mǐ 米 rice semantically indicating steam, vapor. This qì 气 air/gas radical, which was used in a few native Chinese characters like yīnyūn 氤氲 thick mist/smoke, was used to create new scientific characters for gaseous chemical elements. Some examples are based on pronunciations in European languages, fú 氟 fluorine and nǎi 氖 neon, others are based on semantics, qīng 氫 hydrogen and lǜ 氯 chlorine. Qi was an early Chinese loanword in English, romanized as, ki in Church Romanization in the century, chi in Wade–Giles in the mid-19th century. An early form of the idea comes from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius, historically, the Huangdi Neijing/The Yellow Emperors Classic of Medicine is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body. The ancient Chinese described it as life force and they believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive, by understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity. Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy. Qi and li were fundamental categories similar to matter and energy, yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime. The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed, the philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depthQI – Qi (Ch'i)
18. Gay icon – A gay icon is a public figure who is embraced by many within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Some of the qualities of a gay icon often include glamour, flamboyance, strength through adversity. Such icons can be of any orientation or gender, if LGBT. Although most gay icons have given their support to LGBT social movements, some have expressed opposition, historically, icons were typically elevated to such status because their sexual orientation remains a topic of debate among historians. Modern gay icons are predominantly female entertainers who commonly garner a following within LGBT communities over the course of their careers. The majority of gay icons fall into one of two categories, they are tragic, sometimes martyred figures, or prominent pop culture idols. Journalist Richard A. Kaye wrote, Contemporary gay men have seen in Sebastian at once a stunning advertisement for homosexual desire, and a prototypical portrait of a tortured closet case. Due to Saint Sebastians status as a gay icon, Tennessee Williams chose to use the name for the martyred character Sebastian in his play, Suddenly. The name was used by Oscar Wilde—as Sebastian Melmoth—when in exile after his release from prison. Wilde, an Irish writer and poet, was about as out of the closet as was possible for the late 19th century, marie Antoinette was an early lesbian icon. Rumors about her relationships with women circulated in pornographic detail by anti-royalist pamphlets before the French Revolution, by the end of the 19th century, she was a cult icon of sapphism. Her execution, seen as tragic martyrdom, may have added to her appeal, sick to death of the subterfuge and pretenses. She had crossover appeal as a gay icon, as well, at least for French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist Jean Genet and he included a reenactment of her execution in his 1947 play The Maids. Modern gay icons in entertainment include both film stars and musicians, most of whom have strong, distinctive personalities, and many of whom died young or under tragic circumstances. Lesbian icons, sometimes called dykons are most often women who are, or are rumored to be. However, a few male entertainers have also had iconic status for lesbian people, james Dean was an early lesbian icon who, along with Marlon Brando, influenced the butch look and self-image in the 1950s and after. One critic has argued for Johnny Cash as a lesbian icon, attributing his appeal to lesbian identification with troubled. Science fiction author Forrest J Ackerman was dubbed an honorary lesbian for his help during the days of lesbian rights organisation Daughters of BilitisGay icon – Actress and singer Judy Garland is cited as one of the quintessential gay icons
19. American Broadcasting Company – The network is headquartered on Columbus Avenue and West 66th Street in Manhattan, New York City. There are additional offices and production facilities elsewhere in New York City, as well as in Los Angeles and Burbank. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC originally launched on October 12,1943, as a radio network, separated from and serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, which had been purchased by Edward J. Noble. It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS, in the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that formerly operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, who had been the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop, in 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABCs assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company. The television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States, most Canadians have access to at least one U. S. ABC News provides news and features content for radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies, the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System and the National Broadcasting Company. The last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, in 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940. The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC Red or NBC Blue, at that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Once Mutuals appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, Edward John Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, which was to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCCs approval, the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12,1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, both stations were then managed by Don Searle, the vice-president of the Blue Networks West Coast division. The ABC Radio Network created its audience slowly, the network also became known for such suspenseful dramas as Sherlock Holmes, Gang Busters and Counterspy, as well as several mid-afternoon youth-oriented programs. S. From Nazi Germany after its conquest, to pre-record its programming, while its radio network was undergoing reconstruction, ABC found it difficult to avoid falling behind on the new medium of television. To ensure a space, in 1947, ABC submitted five applications for television station licenses, the ABC television network made its debut on April 19,1948, with WFIL-TV in Philadelphia becoming its first primary affiliateAmerican Broadcasting Company – ABC's corporate headquarters are located at 77 West 66th Street, on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City.
20. Birmingham, Alabama – Birmingham is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Jefferson County. The citys population was 212,237 in the 2010 United States Census, the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of about 1,128,047 according to the 2010 Census, which is approximately one quarter of Alabamas population. Birmingham was founded in 1871, during the post-Civil War Reconstruction period and it was named for Birmingham, England, one of the UKs major industrial cities. The Alabama city annexed smaller neighbors and developed as an industrial and railroad center, based on mining, the new iron and steel industry. Most of the settlers who founded Birmingham were of English ancestry. From its founding through the end of the 1960s, Birmingham was an industrial center of the southern United States. Its growth from 1881 through 1920 earned its nicknames as The Magic City and its major industries were iron and steel production, plus a major component of the railroading industry. Rails and railroad cars were manufactured in Birmingham. The two primary hubs of railroading in the Deep South have been nearby Atlanta and Birmingham, since the 1860s, the economy has diversified since industrial restructuring in the latter half of the 20th century. Banking, telecommunications, transportation, electrical transmission, medical care, college education. Except for coal mining, the industry has declined in the Birmingham area, Birmingham ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States and as one of the largest banking centers in the nation. In higher education, Birmingham has been the location of the University of Alabama School of Medicine, since that time it has also gained the University of Alabama at Birmingham, one of three main campuses of the University of Alabama System. It is also home to three institutions, Samford University, Birmingham-Southern College, and Miles College. In total, the Birmingham area has major colleges of medicine, dentistry, optometry, physical therapy, pharmacy, law, engineering, the city has three of the states five law schools, Cumberland School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, and Miles Law School. Birmingham is also the headquarters of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, and Southeastern Conference, Birmingham was founded on June 1,1871, by the Elyton Land Company, whose investors included cotton planters, bankers and railroad entrepreneurs. It sold lots near the crossing of the Alabama & Chattanooga and South & North Alabama railroads. The first business at that crossroads was the trading post and country store operated by Marre, the site of the railroad crossing was notable for its proximity to nearby deposits of iron ore, coal, and limestone – the three main raw materials used in making steel. Birmingham is the only place worldwide where significant amounts of all three minerals can be found in close proximity, from the start the new city was planned as a center of industryBirmingham, Alabama – From top left: Downtown from Red Mountain; Torii in the Birmingham Botanical Gardens; Alabama Theatre; Birmingham Museum of Art; City Hall; Downtown Financial Center.
21. WBMA-LP – WBMA-LD, virtual channel 58, is an ABC-affiliated television station located in Birmingham, Alabama, United States. WBMA-LD maintains studio facilities located at the Riverchase office park on Concourse Parkway in Hoover, Nielsen Media Research treats WBMA and its subchannel-based simulcast feeds as one station in local ratings counts, using the identifier name WBMA+. For the sake of brevity, the station will be referred to hereafter in this article by that name, WBMA-LD used the callsign W58CK until 1997, at which time the callsign was officially changed to WBMA-LP. WSES used the callsign WCFT-TV from its 1965 inception until 2015, WSES operated as an independent station from 1965 to 1970, and as a CBS affiliate from 1970 to 1996. The Broadcasting and Cable Yearbook states that WCFT-TV signed on October 27, while the Television, WGWW used the callsign WHMA-TV from its 1969 inception until 1984, and callsign WJSU-TV from 1984 until 2015. It was a CBS affiliate from 1969 to 1996, with a secondary NBC affiliation from 1969 to 1970, WBMA-LD is simulcast on WABM-DT2, WDBB-DT2 and WGWW-DT2. On December 3,2010, the FCC granted WBMA-LP a construction permit to flash-cut its digital signal into operation on UHF channel 40 and shut down the analog signal. Three weeks later, New World agreed to buy NBC affiliate WVTM-TV, while this forced Fox to operate WBRC as an ABC affiliate for thirteen months after the sales closure, it gave the latter network enough time to find a new central Alabama affiliate. However, the owner of WTTO, Sinclair Broadcast Group, only expressed interest in carrying ABCs prime time and it also refused to launch a news department for WTTO, as the group did not factor local news production into its corporate budget at the time. Then in January 1996, after it terminated the WNAL deal, ABC had a very strong relationship with Allbritton, particularly as Allbrittons flagship station, WJLA-TV in Washington, D. C. had long been one of ABCs highest-rated affiliates. The three stations combined signal footprint covered the majority of Central Alabama and provided at least secondary coverage from the Alabama-Georgia state line westward to Columbus, Mississippi. Cable providers within the market picked up the signal of either WCFT or WJSU. At the time it joined the network, WCFT began serving as the default ABC affiliate for the Columbus–Tupelo market, W58CK, which had been informally been using the WBMA calls from the time it began operations, officially changed its call letters to WBMA-LP on September 23,1997. Negotiations between Disney and Allbritton broke down when the former dropped out of discussions to buy the stations the following month, between May 26,2008 and March 23,2009, Nielsen Media Research mistakenly undercounted viewership for WBMA+ in its diary ratings tallies. The error significantly reduced the total viewership and ratings share estimates recorded to less than half of station management expected. The confusion stemmed from the stations unique three-station simulcasting setup, at the time, no affiliation changes were expected. On May 29,2014, however, Sinclair informed the FCC that it had not found a buyer for WABM and proposed surrendering the licenses of WCFT, under the restructured plan, WABM would become the main ABC affiliate for central Alabama, with WBMA-LD becoming its repeater. WABMs existing programming would move to its digital channel on 58.2WBMA-LP – WBMA-LD
22. Ellen (TV series) – Ellen is an American television sitcom that aired on the ABC network from March 29,1994, to July 22,1998, consisting of 109 episodes. The title role is Ellen Morgan, played by stand-up comedian Ellen DeGeneres, the title of the series was These Friends of Mine for the first season, but it was subsequently changed to avoid confusion with the NBC series Friends, which premiered in September 1994. The series centered on Ellens dealing with her friends, her family. This event received a deal of media exposure, ignited controversy. The series theme song, So Called Friend, is by Scottish band Texas, a running gag during the third and fourth seasons was that each episode had a distinct/different opening credits sequence, resulting from Ellens ongoing search for the perfect opening credits. In 1997, Ellen made television history when the character came out as a lesbian in the famous Puppy Episode. To ensure a memorable moment, the coming out scene was made into a gag where, at an airport, Ellen turns, – only to realize that she had turned right into the public address microphone, announcing her sexuality to the entire terminal. Ellen DeGeneres mother Betty can briefly be seen as one of the people in the terminal with a reaction to the announcement. The episode was ranked #35 on TV Guides 100 Greatest Episodes of All-Time, the revelation ignited a storm of controversy, prompting ABC to place a parental advisory at the beginning of each episode. After the initial coming out frenzy, however, the ratings declined. The final episodes of Ellen were criticized for focusing too much on gay issues, eventually, even some members of the LGBT community, including Chaz Bono, began to criticize the shows serious new tone as well. ABC pulled the show from the air in May 1998 after five seasons, the episode Secrets & Ellen is part of a crossover with Grace Under Fire, Coach and The Drew Carey Show set in Las Vegas. It features Brett Butler as Grace Kelly and Drew Carey as Drew Carey, note – Between seasons one and two, there was not only a title change from These Friends of Mine to Ellen, but several characters disappeared without explanation. Ellen DeGeneres as Ellen Morgan, Ellen Inez Morgan is the character of the sitcom. In season one, Ellen works in a Los Angeles bookstore called Buy the Book, in the second season, she purchases the bookstore from her boss and becomes its owner. Throughout season four, hints were made to her sexuality and near the end of season 4 in The Puppy Episode, for the first one and a half seasons, Ellen lived in an apartment with roommate Adam. She lived alone after Adam moved out and then with her cousin Spence, towards the end of season four, she bought her own house. Ellens personality was likable and cheerful, but also clumsy and awkwardEllen (TV series) – Ellen The Complete Fourth Season DVD Cover Art
23. The Puppy Episode – The Puppy Episode is a two-part episode of the situation comedy television series Ellen. The episode details lead character Ellen Morgans realization that she is a lesbian and it was the 22nd and 23rd episode of the series 4th season. The episode was written by series star Ellen DeGeneres with Mark Driscoll, Tracy Newman, Dava Savel and Jonathan Stark and it originally aired on ABC on April 30,1997. The title was used as a name for Ellens coming out so as to keep the whole episode under wraps. DeGeneres began negotiating with ABC in 1996 to have Morgan come out, when word of the negotiations got out, DeGeneres found herself at the center of intense speculation about when she or her character, or both, would come out. With DeGeneres hinting at her and her characters coming out both off-screen and within the show, the rumors were confirmed when the episode went into production in March 1997. Despite threats from advertisers and religious groups, The Puppy Episode was a ratings success, won multiple awards. Ellen goes out to dinner with her old friend Richard, a reporter who is in town to cover a story and his producer, Susan, joins them for dessert and she and Ellen hit it off. Ellen goes back to Richards hotel room and he comes on to her and, uncomfortable, Ellen leaves. She runs into Susan in the hall and returns with her to her room and they continue to enjoy each others company until Susan tells Ellen that shes gay and that she thought Ellen might be too. Ellen denies it and suggests that Susan is trying to recruit her, Susan sarcastically says that shell have to call national headquarters and let them know Ellen got away. An agitated Ellen leaves Susans room and returns to Richards room, the next day, Ellen tells her friends at the bookstore that she and Richard had amazing sex. She tells her therapist the truth, that she could not have sex with Richard, Ellen laments that she just wants someone that she clicks with. Her therapist asks if she has ever clicked with anyone and Ellen replies, a message from Richard that he is leaving town ahead of schedule sends Ellen rushing to the airport to see Susan. Ellen tells Susan that she was right and struggles to say the word, finally, Ellen is able to say, Im gay, inadvertently broadcasting her announcement over the airports public address system. Ellen assumes that Susan will be leaving with Richard but in fact Susan will be staying in town for more days. Ellen has a dream in which she is grocery shopping and she discusses the dream with her therapist and realizes that shes been suppressing her sexuality for many years. Her therapist encourages her to out to her friends but Ellen is worried about not being acceptedThe Puppy Episode – "Susan...I'm gay." Ellen Morgan comes out.
24. Pullen Memorial Baptist Church – Pullen Memorial Baptist Church is a welcoming, inclusive, progressive-minded Baptist church located in Raleigh, North Carolina, US, right beside North Carolina State University. Led by the Dr. Reverend Nancy Petty, Pullen has been a sanctuary for everyone from the marginalized in society to community leaders. Pullen is not only a place to worship but a place to practice the meaning of one’s beliefs, in the last two decades, social issues have included Pullen Memorials stance on sexual issues. In 1992 the Southern Baptist Convention expelled the church for its blessing a same-sex union, Pullen has been marrying and blessing the unions of same-sex couples ever since. Pullens Sunday service was named The Best Sermon to Hear on a Sunday Morning by the Independent Weekly, the church began in 1884 as a mission of First Baptist Church and was organized on December 28,1884 as Fayetteville Street Baptist Church. It renamed itself in 1913 after the death of John T. Pullen, Ellis, who became the pastor in 1919, was the first of many Pullen preachers known for applying the Bible to justify controversial social issues. In 1921 the churchs Fayetteville Street building was destroyed by a fire, the church moved to its current location on Hillsborough Street in 1923. E. McNeill Poteat, Jr. succeeded Ellis as pastor in September 1929, beginning in 1933, Pullen began to accept Christians from non-Baptist denominations as “associate members, ” who were unable to vote or hold office in the church. Sheppard then served as pastor from 1937 to 1947, followed by Poteat once again until his death in 1956, william Wallace Finlator became pastor in 1956 and served until 1982. He was known for taking challenging stands on issues, helping cement the churchs reputation as liberal. Rev. Jack McKinney described Finlator as one of the most loved--and most despised--North Carolinians of his day, in 1958 under Finlators leadership, Pullen Memorial declared itself open to all people regardless of race. Finlator promoted integration of North Carolina schools, Finlator spoke strongly against segregation and, during the 1970s, against the Vietnam War. The 1958 church constitution affirmed the acceptance into full membership of Christians who transferred membership from other denominations, Baptist practice generally only accepts those who have accepted Christ and been baptized in the Baptist Church. In the early 1970s, some members of the State Baptist Convention attempted to oust Pullen Memorial, along with other churches, for that position. Finlator was succeeded as pastor in 1983 by M. Mahan Siler Jr. who would serve until 1998, during his tenure, the church staff expanded to include a minister to children, a minister to youth, a minister to the community, and a church administrator. During the 1980s under President Ronald Reagans build-up of the Defense Department, in 1986, Pullen Church began a sister-church relationship with Martin Street Baptist Church, a black congregation in Raleigh. Two years later, Pullen also became a sister-church with the First Baptist Church of Matanzas, Pullen members have since gone on several trips to Cuba, helping the First Baptist Church with building and community projects. In 1992, the congregation of Pullen Memorial endorsed unqualified acceptance of homosexual Christians and their participation in the lifePullen Memorial Baptist Church – Pullen Memorial Baptist Church in 2006
25. Southern United States – The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States, arizona and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European, African, and some Native American components. Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political, demographic, and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, indeed, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, morality, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, however, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization. The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are includedSouthern United States – Texas Hill Country
26. Clergy – Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals, some of the terms used for individual clergy are cleric, clergyman, clergywoman, clergyperson and churchman. In Islam, a leader is often known formally or informally as an imam, mufti. In Jewish tradition, a leader is often a rabbi or hazzan. Cleric comes from the ecclesiastical Latin clericus, for belonging to the priestly class. This is from the Ecclesiastical Greek clericus, meaning appertaining to an inheritance, Clergy is from two Old French words, clergié and clergie, which refer to those with learning and derive from Medieval Latin clericatus, from Late Latin clericus. Clerk, which used to mean one ordained to the ministry, in the Middle Ages, reading and writing were almost exclusively the domain of the priestly class, and this is the reason for the close relationship of these words. Now, the state is tied to reception of the diaconate. Minor Orders are still given in the Eastern Catholic Churches, and it is in this sense that the word entered the Arabic language, most commonly in Lebanon from the French, as kleriki meaning seminarian. This is all in keeping with Eastern Orthodox concepts of clergy, which include those who have not yet received, or do not plan to receive. A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who have religious authority or function. Buddhist clergy are often referred to as the Sangha. This diversity of monastic orders and styles was originally one community founded by Gautama Buddha during the 5th century BC living under a set of rules. The interaction between Buddhism and Tibetan Bon led to a uniquely Tibetan Buddhism, within which various sects, similarly, the interaction between Indian Buddhist monks and Chinese Confucian and Taoist monks from c200-c900AD produced the distinctive Chan Buddhism. In these ways, manual labour was introduced to a practice where monks originally survived on alms, layers of garments were added where originally a single thin robe sufficed and this adaptation of form and roles of Buddhist monastic practice continued after the transmission to Japan. For example, monks took on administrative functions for the Emperor in particular secular communities, again, in response to various historic attempts to suppress Buddhism, the practice of celibacy was relaxed and Japanese monks allowed to marry. This form was then transmitted to Korea, during later Japanese occupation, as these varied styles of Buddhist monasticism are transmitted to Western cultures, still more new forms are being created. This broad difference in approach led to a schism among Buddhist monastics in about the 4th century BCEClergy – (left to right) George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002), Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK), Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia, Jim Wallis, Sojourners, USA. 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
27. The Watermelon Woman – It was the first feature film directed by a black lesbian. Cheryl is a young, African American lesbian who works in a rental store in Philadelphia with her friend Tamara. They earn extra money by making home videos for people. Cheryl becomes interested in films from the 1930s and 40s which feature black actresses and she notices that these actresses are often not credited. She watches a film called Plantation Memories with an actress who is credited simply as The Watermelon Woman. Cheryl decides to make a documentary about the Watermelon Woman and find out more about her life, Tamara tries to set Cheryl up with her friend Yvette, but Cheryl is not interested. Cheryl meets a woman in the store called Diana who, to Tamaras annoyance. Cheryl starts interviewing members of the public, asking if they have heard of the Watermelon Woman. She interviews her mother who does not remember the name, and she tells Cheryl that she used to hear the Watermelon Woman singing in clubs in Philadelphia. Tamaras mother tells Cheryl to get in contact with Lee Edwards — a man who has done a lot of research into black films, Cheryl and Tamara go to see Lee, and he tells them about 1920s and 30s black culture in Philadelphia. He explains to them that in days, black women usually played domestic servants. Cheryl meets her mothers friend Shirley, who turns out to be a lesbian, Shirley tells her that the Watermelon Womans name was Fae Richards, that she was a lesbian too, and that she used to sing in clubs for all us stone butches. She says that Fae was always with Martha Page, the director of Plantation Memories. When Cheryl and Tamara get caught ordering video tapes under Dianas name, Diana takes the tapes, Cheryl goes to Dianas house, stays for dinner, and watches some of the tapes with her, telling her about her project. They have sex, and Cheryl decides that although Diana is not her type of woman. Cheryl meets cultural critic Camille Paglia who tells her about the Mammy archetype, Cheryl goes to the CLIT archive of lesbian material, and finds photographs of Fae Richards, including one given by Fae to a June Walker. With Dianas help, Cheryl manages to contact Martha Pages sister who denies that Martha was a lesbian, as Cheryl and Diana grow closer, Tamara makes it clear that she dislikes Diana and disapproves of their relationship. She accuses Cheryl of wanting to be white, and Diana of having a fetish for black people, Cheryl telephones June Walker, learning that she was Faes partner for 20 yearsThe Watermelon Woman – Original movie poster
28. Brandi Carlile – Brandi M. Carlile is an American alternative country and folk rock singer-songwriter. Born in Ravensdale, Washington, she dropped out of school to pursue a career in music, teaching herself piano. Her first commercial album, Brandi Carlile, was released to critical acclaim, Carlile garnered wider recognition for her 2007 single The Story, from the album of the same name, was a greater commercial success, and was used by General Motors for commercials. Carlile has released six albums including The Story, Give Up the Ghost and Live at Benaroya Hall with the Seattle Symphony and her 2015 album The Firewatchers Daughter garnered her further acclaim and her first Grammy Award nomination. Carliles music through the years has been categorized in genres, including pop, rock, alternative country. She said of her style, Ive gone through all sorts of vocal phases, from pop to blues to R&B, Carlile has been a part of several activism campaigns and advocates for causes ranging from spreading awareness for health issues to women empowerment. Carlile was born on June 1,1981, in Ravensdale, Washington, Growing up in the only house for miles, Carlile played in the woods, built forts and played music with her brother Jay and sister Tiffany. Brandi, whose mother is a singer, taught herself to sing when she was a little girl, at age eight, Carlile performed Johnny Cashs Tennessee Flat Top Box with her mother, Teresa Carlile and began playing the guitar and writing songs at age fifteen. At sixteen, Carlile became a singer for an Elvis impersonator. According to Carlile, she was diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a teen, after being introduced to the music of Elton John, Carlile taught herself to play piano, and at 17 learned to play the guitar. Carlile began her performing in Seattle music clubs with the twin brothers Tim. In the beginning, Columbia Records signed Carlile in 2004 on the strength of songs she had been recording periodically at home, released in 2005, Carlile showcased those early songs along with newly recorded tracks in the self-titled album Brandi Carlile. The 2006 re-release by Columbia Records included re-recordings of Throw It All Away, the album earned enthusiastic reviews she was featured on Rolling Stones 10 Artists to Watch in 2005 list, and other artist to watch lists by Interview and Paste. The album peaked at number 80 on Billboard 200 and reached number 1 on U. S. Shortly after the release of the album, she left her home in Seattle and set out with the Hanseroth brothers, as she had worked them on her earliest recordings. The tightly knit trio, which forms the core of her band today, by the end of 2006, Carlile had embarked on several headlining tours and supported a variety of artists including Ray LaMontagne, The Fray, Chris Isaak, Tori Amos, and Shawn Colvin. Her second album The Story was produced by T Bone Burnett and it includes a collaboration with the Indigo Girls on Cannonball. The album was recorded in a session with Carlile, the twinsBrandi Carlile – Carlile on stage in Seattle in 2010.
29. Wentworth Miller – Wentworth Earl Miller III is a British-American actor, model, and screenwriter. He rose to prominence following his role as Michael Scofield in the Fox series Prison Break and he made his screenwriting debut with the 2013 thriller film Stoker. He is playing a villain in The Flash as Leonard Snart/Captain Cold. Miller reprised his role as Michael Scofield for the series format as Prison Break. Miller was born in Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, the son of American parents, Roxann, a special teacher, and Wentworth E. Miller II. His father, a Rhodes Scholar, was studying at Oxford at the time of Millers birth, Miller said in 2003 that his father is black and his mother is white. His father is of African-American, Jamaican, German, and English ancestry, his mother is of Russian, French, Dutch, Syrian, Millers family moved to Park Slope, Brooklyn when he was a year old. He graduated from Princeton University in 1995 with a degree in English literature. While at Princeton, he performed with the a group the Princeton Tigertones, and was a member of the Quadrangle Club. In 1995, Miller relocated to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career. He has stated that his road to stardom was a long time in the coming and there were a lot of upsets and a lot of failures and roadblocks. I needed it like I needed air, it was just something I had to do, Millers first TV appearance was as student-turned-sea monster Gage Petronzi on Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Millers first starring role was in 2002 as the sensitive, introverted David Scott in ABCs mini-series Dinotopia. After appearing in a few television roles, he moved on to co-star in the 2003 film The Human Stain, playing the younger version of the Anthony Hopkins character. He identified strongly with the dilemma of the movie, about a black man who chooses to pass as white. Miller worked extensively on the role, not only in researching Anthony Hopkins, also in 2003, he had a minor role in the film Underworld, playing a doctor and friend of the character Michael Corvin. In 2005, Miller was cast as Michael Scofield in Fox Networks television drama Prison Break and he played the role of a caring brother who created an elaborate scheme to help his brother, Lincoln Burrows escape death row after being found guilty of a crime he did not commit. His character had an upper body tattooWentworth Miller – Miller photographed by Andrew Horovitz on September 25, 2011
30. Zachary Quinto – Zachary John Quinto is an American actor and film producer. He also appeared in roles on television series such as So NoTORIous, The Slap. Quinto was born in Pittsburgh, and grew up in Green Tree and he attended Saints Simon and Jude Catholic School. His mother, Margaret J. Margo, worked at an investment firm and his father, Joseph John Joe Quinto, a barber, died of cancer when Quinto was seven years old. Quinto and his brother, Joe, were raised by their mother. His father was of Italian descent, while his mother is of Irish ancestry. A, in 2006, Quinto played the role of Sasan, the haughty, gay Iranian-American best friend of Tori Spelling on her VH1 series So NoTORIous. Later that year, he joined the cast of Heroes as Gabriel Gray and he worked on the series until its cancellation in 2010 after four seasons. His casting as a young Spock in the J. J, abrams-directed reboot of the Star Trek film franchise was officially announced at the 2007 Comic-Con. Speaking alongside Leonard Nimoy at a conference to promote the new Star Trek film. For me Leonards involvement was only liberating, frankly, says Quinto, I knew that he had approval over the actor that would play young Spock, so when I got the role I knew from the beginning it was with his blessing. The revelation for me watching the movie, when I finally got to watch the whole thing after working on sequences, was that he is extraordinary and he was doing things I didnt even realize while we were shooting – these amazing things to track his story. After Star Trek, he appeared in the comedy short Boutonniere and it. was a movie written and directed by my former landlady and friend. She called up and said, Would you do me a favor, in 2008, Quinto joined with Corey Moosa and Neal Dodson to form Before the Door Pictures. The company has projects in film, television, new media, Quinto also starred in several comedy shorts. He played a strangely lovable kidnapper in Hostage, A Love Story, written by the comedy duo HoltandSteele, for Before the Door and FunnyorDie. He also played a prospective dog adopter in Dog Eat Dog, written and directed by Sian Heder, and premiered at the Los Angeles Film Festival in 2012. From October 2010 to February 2011, Quinto played the role of Louis Ironson in an Off-Broadway revival of Tony Kushners Angels in America at the Signature Theatre. For this role, Quinto received the Theatreworld Outstanding Debut Performance award, in 2013, Quinto played the role of Tom Wingfield in the American Repertory Theatres production of The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee WilliamsZachary Quinto – Quinto at the 2014 San Diego Comic-Con International
31. Marquis de Sade – Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade, was a French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality. He was a proponent of freedom, unrestrained by morality, religion. The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name, during the French Revolution, he was an elected delegate to the National Convention. Many of his works were written in prison and he was his parents only surviving child. He was educated by an uncle, the Abbé de Sade, in Sades youth, his father abandoned the family, his mother joined a convent. He was raised with servants who indulged his every whim, which led to him becoming known as a rebellious, later in his childhood, Sade was sent to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, a Jesuit college, for four years. While at the school, he was tutored by Abbé Jacques-François Amblet, later in life, the Abbé testified at one of Sades trials, saying that Sade had a passionate temperament which made him eager in the pursuit of pleasure but had a good heart. At the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, he was subjected to corporal punishment, including flagellation. At age 14, Sade began attending a military academy. At age 15, he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant on 14 December 1755 after 20 months of training, becoming a soldier. After 13 months as a sub-lieutenant, he was commissioned to the rank of cornet in the Brigade de S. André of the Comte de Provences Carbine Regiment and he eventually became Colonel of a Dragoon regiment and fought in the Seven Years War. In 1766, he had a theatre built in his castle. In January 1767, his father died, the men of the Sade family alternated between using the marquis and comte titles. His grandfather, Gaspard François de Sade, was the first to use marquis, occasionally, he was the Marquis de Sade, but is identified in documents as the Marquis de Mazan. The Sade family were noblesse dépée, claiming at the time the oldest, Frank-descended nobility, so, at Court, precedence was by seniority and royal favor, not title. There is father-and-son correspondence, wherein father addresses son as marquis, for many years, Sades descendants regarded his life and work as a scandal to be suppressed. At that time, the marquis of legend was so unmentionable in his own family that Xavier de Sade only learned of him in the late 1940s when approached by a journalist. He subsequently discovered a store of Sades papers in the family château at Condé-en-Brie and his youngest son, the Marquis Thibault de Sade, has continued the collaborationMarquis de Sade – Portrait of Donatien Alphonse François de Sade by Charles Amédée Philippe van Loo. The drawing dates to 1760, when the Sade was nearly 20 years old. It's the only known authentic portrait of the Marquis.
32. Anderson Cooper – Anderson Hays Cooper is an American journalist, television personality, and author. He is the anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360°. The program is normally broadcast live from a New York City studio, however, Cooper often broadcasts live from CNNs studios in Washington, in addition, he is a major correspondent for 60 Minutes. From September 2011 to May 2013, he served as host of his own eponymous syndicated daytime talk show. Cooper was born in New York City, the son of the writer Wyatt Emory Cooper and the artist, fashion designer, writer. He is also a descendant, through his mother, of Civil War brevet Major General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, through his Vanderbilt line, he is a second cousin, once removed, of screenwriter James Vanderbilt. As a baby, he was photographed by Diane Arbus for Harpers Bazaar, at the age of three, Cooper was a guest on The Tonight Show on September 17,1970, appearing with his mother. At the age of nine, he appeared on To Tell the Truth as an impostor, from age 10 to 13, Cooper modeled with Ford Models for Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein and Macys. Coopers father suffered a series of attacks while undergoing open-heart surgery. Cooper considers his fathers book Families to be sort of a guide on. how he would have wanted me to live my life, and so I feel very connected to him. Coopers older brother, Carter Vanderbilt Cooper, committed suicide on July 22,1988, at age 23, Anderson cites Carters suicide for sparking his interest in journalism. Loss is a theme that I think a lot about, I think when you experience any kind of loss, especially the kind I did, you have questions about survival, Why do some people thrive in situations that others can’t tolerate. Would I be able to survive and get on in the world on my own, Cooper was educated at the Dalton School, a private co-educational university preparatory day school in New York City. At age 17, after graduating from Dalton a semester early and he contracted malaria on the trip and was hospitalized in Kenya. Describing the experience, Cooper wrote Africa was a place to forget, Cooper went on to attend Yale University, where he resided in Trumbull College, and was inducted into the Manuscript Society, majoring in political science and graduating with a B. A. in 1989. During college, Cooper spent two summers as an intern at the Central Intelligence Agency, after Cooper graduated from Yale University, he tried to gain entry-level employment with ABC answering telephones, but was unsuccessful. Finding it hard to get his foot in the door of on-air reporting, Cooper then entered Myanmar on his own with his forged press pass and met with students fighting the Burmese government. He was ultimately able to sell his home-made news segments to Channel One, after reporting from Burma, Cooper lived in Vietnam for a year to study the Vietnamese language at the University of HanoiAnderson Cooper – Cooper at Tulane University in May 2010
33. Alla Nazimova – Alla Nazimova was a Russian actress who immigrated to the United States in 1905. On Broadway, she was noted for her work in the plays of Ibsen, Chekhov. Her efforts at silent film production were less successful, but a few sound-film performances survive as a record of her art, Nazimova openly conducted relationships with women, and her mansion on Hollywood’s Sunset Boulevard was believed to be the scene of outlandish parties. She is credited with having originated the phrase ‘sewing circle’ as a code for lesbian or bisexual actresses. She was born Marem-Ides Leventon in Yalta, Crimea, Russian Empire and her stage name Alla Nazimova was a combination of Alla and the surname of Nadezhda Nazimova, the heroine of the Russian novel Children of the Streets. She was widely known as just Nazimova, and also went under the name Alia Nasimoff and she was the youngest of three children of Jewish parents Yakov Abramovich Leventon, a pharmacist, and Sofia Lvovna Horowitz, who moved to Yalta in 1870 from Kishinev. She grew up in a family, her parents divorced when she was 8. After her parents separated, she was shuffled among boarding schools, as a teenager she began to pursue an interest in the theatre and took acting lessons at the Academy of Acting in Moscow. She joined Constantin Stanislavskis Moscow Art Theatre using the name of Alla Nazimova for the first time, Nazimovas theater career blossomed early, and by 1903 she was a major star in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. She toured Europe, including London and Berlin, with her boyfriend Pavel Orlenev, in 1905 they moved to New York City and founded a Russian-language theater on the Lower East Side. The venture was unsuccessful, and Orlenev returned to Russia while Nazimova stayed in New York and she was signed up by the American producer Henry Miller and made her Broadway debut in New York City in 1906 to critical and popular success. Her English-language premiere in November 1906 was in the role of Hedda Gabler. She quickly became popular and remained a major Broadway star for years, often acting in the plays of Henrik Ibsen. Dorothy Parker described her as the finest Hedda Gabler she had ever seen, due to her notoriety in a 35-minute 1915 play entitled War Brides, Nazimova made her silent film debut in 1916 in the filmed version of the play, which was produced by Lewis J. Selznick. A young actor with a bit part in the movie was Richard Barthelmess, Nazimova had encouraged him to try out for movies and he later became a star. In 1917, she negotiated a contract with Metro Pictures, a precursor to MGM and she moved from New York to Hollywood, where she made a number of highly successful films for Metro that earned her considerable money. In 1927, she became a citizen of the United States. Nazimova soon felt confident enough in her abilities to begin producing and writing films in which she also starred, in her film adaptations of works by such notable writers as Oscar Wilde and Ibsen, she developed her own filmmaking techniques, which were considered daring at the timeAlla Nazimova – Alla Nazimova
34. Suze Orman – Susan Lynn Suze Orman is an American author, financial advisor, motivational speaker, and television host. Orman was born in Chicago and pursued a degree in social work and she worked as a financial advisor for Merrill Lynch. In 1983 she became the vice-president of investments at Prudential Bache Securities, in 1987, she founded the Suze Orman Financial Group. Her program The Suze Orman Show began airing on CNBC in 2002, in 2006 she won a Gracie Award for Outstanding Program Host on The Suze Orman Show on CNBC. She has written books on the topic of personal finance. Orman was born on the South Side of Chicago in 1951 to Jewish parents of Russian and Romanian origin and her mother worked as a secretary for a local rabbi, while her immigrant father from Kiev worked in a chicken factory and managed his Morrys delicatessen in Hyde Park. She attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and received a B. A. in social work in 1976, in 2009, Orman received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. After finishing school, Orman moved to Berkeley, California, in 1980, she borrowed $52,000 from friends and wellwishers to open a restaurant. Still an investment novice, she invested that money through a representative at Merrill Lynch and it was explained to her that since he was the highest producing representative in the office, his actions went unchecked. She simultaneously and successfully sued Merrill Lynch while she was employed at the firm for a prior investment loss of $50,000. After completing her training with Merrill Lynch, she remained at the firm until 1983 when she left to become vice-president of investments at Prudential Bache Securities, in 1987, Orman resigned from Prudential and founded the Suze Orman Financial Group, in Emeryville, California. She was director of the firm until 1997, Orman published three books between 1997-99, The 9 Steps to Financial Freedom, You Earned it Dont Lose it, and The Courage to be Rich. Other books by Orman include, The Road to Wealth and The Laws of Money, the Suze Orman Show began airing on CNBC in 2002. In February 2008, Orman gave away copies of her book Women and Money for free following an appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show, Orman has been featured on the Food Networks Paulas Party. In January 2011, Orman appeared on Oprahs Allstars, in January 2012, Ormans six-episode TV series Americas Money Class with Suze Orman premiered on OWN, Oprah Winfrey Network. Orman writes an advice column for O. She is the author of Yahoo. s Money Matters and has written for the Costco Connection Magazine. She contributes to The Philadelphia Inquirer, Lowes MoneyWorks and Your Business at Home Magazine, Ormans understanding of comprehensive financial planning has been questioned by some people in the industrySuze Orman – Orman at the Time 100 Gala, May 4, 2010.
35. Troye Sivan – Troye Sivan Mellet, better known as Troye Sivan, is a South African-born Australian singer, songwriter, actor, and YouTube personality. As an actor, he played the version of the titular character in the 2009 X-Men film X-Men Origins, Wolverine. Sivan also used to regularly make YouTube videos and, as of 2 April 2016, has over 4 million subscribers, on 15 August 2014, Sivan released his first major-label EP, entitled TRXYE, which peaked at number 5 on the U. S. Billboard 200. The lead single from the EP, Happy Little Pill, reached number 10 on the Australian charts, on 4 September 2015, Sivan released his second major-label EP, Wild. His debut studio album, Blue Neighbourhood, was released 4 December and its first single, Youth, become Sivans first single to enter the top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 chart, peaking at twenty-three. His video, The Boyfriend Tag, with fellow vlogger Tyler Oakley earned them a Teen Choice Award in the Choice Web Collaboration category, in October 2014, Time named Sivan as one of the 25 Most Influential Teens of 2014. Sivan was born in Johannesburg, South Africa, the son of Laurelle and his family moved to Australia when he was two years old due to rising crime in South Africa. Sivan currently lives in Perth, Western Australia with his parents and his father is a real estate agent and his mother is a homemaker. He is Jewish, his father was born to a Jewish family, Sivan attended Carmel School until 2009 when he started distance education. Troyes middle name is Sivan and he embraced it as his stage name and he came out publicly via a YouTube video on 7 August 2013. He came out to his three years before his video was released. He lives with a form of Marfan syndrome. Sivans musical beginnings first started when he sang at the 2006,2007 and 2008 Channel Seven Perth Telethon and his 2006 performance included a duet with Australian Idol winner Guy Sebastian. Sivan made it to the finals of StarSearch 2007. His debut EP, Dare to Dream, was released in June 2007, in February 2010, Sivan opened We Are the World 25 for Haiti, the collaborative music charity video produced by Lisa Lavie to help raise money for the victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. His most recent hit is Youth, from his Blue Neighbourhood album that he released in 2015, on 5 June 2013, Sivan was signed to EMI Australia, a Universal Music Australia label, but kept it a secret until a year later. On 15 August 2014 he released a five-song EP entitled TRXYE, led by its first single Happy Little Pill, TRXYE debuted at No.1 on iTunes in over 55 countries. The album debuted at No.5 on the Billboard 200 the following week, Happy Little Pill peaked at number 10 on the ARIA Singles Chart and was certified gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association for shipments exceeding 35,000 copiesTroye Sivan – Sivan at the Australian premiere of Paper Towns, July 2015
36. Sandra Bernhard – Sandra Bernhard is an American actress, comedian, singer and author. She first gained attention in the late 1970s with her stand-up comedy in which she often bitterly critiques celebrity culture, Bernhard is number 97 on Comedy Centrals list of the 100 greatest standups of all time. Bernhard was born in Flint, Michigan, the daughter of Jeanette and her parents raised her as a Conservative Jew. Her family moved to Scottsdale, Arizona, when she was 10 and she has often addressed her childhood in interviews and within the context of her stand-up comedy. Of her family, Bernhard stated in her show Without You Im Nothing, My father was a proctologist, thats how I view the world. In the documentary program Girls Who Do, Comedy, she discusses being a funny teenager, after graduating from Saguaro High School in Scottsdale, Arizona, she went to live and volunteer on a kibbutz in Israel. She moved to Los Angeles at the age of 19, during that time she paid her bills by working as a manicurist in a high-end salon. Bernhard became a staple at The Comedy Store, as her popularity as a comedian grew she was cast as a supporting player on The Richard Pryor Show in 1977. Guest appearances on evening talk shows followed and she began performing her first one-woman show called Im Your Woman in 1985, and an album version was released. Bernhard appeared in a variety of film and television roles throughout the 1980s while crafting her stand-up routine into a more performance art oriented show. She launched an Off-Broadway one woman show called Without You Im Nothing, in 1990 it was turned into a film and a double album of the same title. The film was shot on location in 1989 in the coconut grove at the Ambassador Hotel. A frequent guest on David Lettermans NBC program, it was during the run of Without You Im Nothing, the two alluded to their romantic relationship and staged a sexy confrontation. They would continue to be friends for years, with Bernhard even making an appearance in Madonnas movie Truth or Dare. In 1991, Bernhard began playing the role of Nancy Bartlett on the hit sitcom Roseanne and she appeared in 33 episodes between 1991 and 1997, and was one of the first actresses to portray an openly lesbian recurring character on American television. The role is one of her best known, something she has lamented in her stand-up as being both a blessing and a curse, in September 1992, Bernhard did a nude pictorial for Playboy. She hosted the USA Networks Reel Wild Cinema for two seasons beginning in 1995, Bernhard continued acting in mostly independent films and TV guest roles and forays into mainstream films such as Hudson Hawk and Dallas Doll. In 1991 she released her first studio album, entitled Excuses for Bad Behavior, in 1995, she briefly appeared as a guest in the animated talk show Space Ghost Coast to Coast, in an episode titled JerkSandra Bernhard – At the Daryl Roth Theater (NYC), 2006
37. Violet Trefusis – Violet Trefusis was an English writer and socialite. She is chiefly remembered for her affair with the poet Vita Sackville-West. Trefusis wrote novels and non-fiction works, both in English and French, the affair was featured in novels by both parties, in Virginia Woolfs novel Orlando, A Biography, and in many letters and memoirs of the period, roughly 1912–1922. Many are preserved at Yale University Library, born Violet Keppel, she was the daughter of Alice Keppel, later a mistress of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, and her husband, The Hon. George Keppel, a son of the 7th Earl of Albemarle. But members of the Keppel family thought her father was William Beckett, subsequently 2nd Baron Grimthorpe. Violet lived her youth in London, where the Keppel family had a house in Portman Square. When she was four years old, her mother became the mistress of Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales. He paid visits to the Keppel household in the afternoon around tea-time on a basis until the end of his life in 1910. In 1900 Violets only sibling, Sonia, was born, Trefusis is best remembered today for her love affair with the wealthy Vita Sackville-West. Virginia Woolf described this by analogy in her novel Orlando, in this romanticized biography of Vita, Trefusis is represented by the Russian princess Sasha. The two women both wrote fictional accounts that referred to this love affair, such works explored other aspects of the affair. Trefusis was also featured as a fictional character in other novels, including as Lady Montdore in Nancy Mitfords Love in a Cold Climate. Each of the participants left extensive written accounts in surviving letters, apart from the two central players, Alice Keppel, Victoria Sackville-West, Harold Nicolson, Denys Trefusis and Pat Dansey also left documents that referred to the affair. Diana Souhamis Mrs Keppel and her Daughter provides an overview of the affair, when Violet was 10, she met Vita for the first time. After that, they attended the school for several years. When Violet was 14, she confessed her love to Vita, in 1910, after the death of Edward VII, Mrs Keppel made her family observe a discretion leave of about two years before re-establishing themselves in British society. When they returned to London, the Keppels moved to a house in Grosvenor Street, at that time, Violet learned that Vita was soon to be engaged to Harold Nicolson and was involved in an affair with Rosamund Grosvenor. Violet made it clear that she still loved Vita, but became engaged to make Vita jealous and this did not stop Vita from marrying Harold, nor did he curtail his own homosexual adventures after marriageViolet Trefusis – Trefusis in 1920
38. Marguerite Yourcenar – Marguerite Yourcenar was a Belgian-born French novelist and essayist. Winner of the Prix Femina and the Erasmus Prize, she was the first woman elected to the Académie française, in 1980, and she grew up in the home of her paternal grandmother. She adopted the surname Yourcenar – an almost anagram of Crayencour, having one fewer c – as a pen name, yourcenars first novel, Alexis, was published in 1929. She translated Virginia Woolfs The Waves over a 10-month period in 1937, in 1939, her intimate companion at the time, the literary scholar and Kansas City native Grace Frick, invited Yourcenar to the United States to escape the outbreak of World War II in Europe. She lectured in literature in New York City and Sarah Lawrence College. Yourcenar was lesbian, she and Frick became lovers in 1937, after ten years spent in Hartford, Connecticut, they bought a house in Northeast Harbor, Maine on Mount Desert Island, where they lived for decades. In 1951, she published, in France, the novel Memoirs of Hadrian, the novel was an immediate success and met with great critical acclaim. The Emperor meditates on his past, describing both his triumphs and his failures, his love for Antinous, and his philosophy, the novel has become a modern classic. In 1980, Yourcenar was the first female elected to the Académie française. An anecdote tells of how the bathroom labels were changed in this male-dominated institution. She published many novels, essays, and poems, as well as three volumes of memoirs, yourcenars house on Mount Desert Island, Petite Plaisance, is now a museum dedicated to her memory. She is buried across the sound in Somesville, Maine.59 Euro, Other works available in English translation A Blue Tale and Other Stories, ISBN 0-226-96530-9. Three stories written between 1927 and 1930, translated and published 1995, with Open Eyes, Conversations with Matthieu Galey Joan E. Howard, From Violence to Vision, Sacrifice in the Works of Marguerite Yourcenar Josyane Savigneau, Marguerite Yourcenar, Inventing a Life. George Rousseau, Marguerite Yourcenar, A Biography, les yeux ouverts, entretiens avec Mathieu Galey. Bérengère Deprez, Marguerite Yourcenar et les États-Unis, du nageur à la vague, Éditions Racine,2012,192 p. Bérengère Deprez, Marguerite Yourcenar and the United States. From Prophecy to Protest, Peter Lang, coll, « Yourcenar »,2009,180 p. Deprez, Marguerite Yourcenar. Écriture, maternité, démiurgie, essai, Bruxelles, Archives et musée de la littérature/PIE-Peter Lang, « Documents pour l’histoire des francophonies »,2003,330 p. Donata Spadaro, Marguerite Yourcenar et lécriture autobiographique, Le Labyrinthe du monde, bull. SIEY, no 17, décembre 1996, p.69 à83 Donata Spadaro, Marguerite Yourcenar e lautobiografia Marguerite Yourcenar, alchimie du paysage, Works by Marguerite Yourcenar at Open Library Petri LiukkonenMarguerite Yourcenar – Marguerite Yourcenar
39. Cole Porter – Cole Albert Porter was an American composer and songwriter. Born to a family in Indiana, he defied the wishes of his domineering grandfather. Classically trained, he was drawn towards musical theatre, after a slow start, he began to achieve success in the 1920s, and by the 1930s he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage. Unlike many successful Broadway composers, Porter wrote the lyrics, as well as the music, after a serious horseback riding accident in 1937, Porter was left disabled and in constant pain, but he continued to work. His shows of the early 1940s did not contain the hits of his best work of the 1920s and 30s. It won the first Tony Award for Best Musical, Porters other musicals include Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady, Anything Goes, Can-Can and Silk Stockings. His numerous hit songs include Night and Day, Begin the Beguine, I Get a Kick Out of You, Well, Ive Got You Under My Skin, My Heart Belongs to Daddy and Youre the Top. Porter was born in Peru, Indiana, the surviving child of a wealthy family. His father, Samuel Fenwick Porter, was a druggist by trade and his mother, Kate, was the indulged daughter of James Omar J. O. Cole, the richest man in Indiana, a coal and timber speculator who dominated the family. J. O. Cole built the couple a home on his Peru-area property, after high school, Porter returned to the property only for occasional visits. Porters strong-willed mother doted on him and began his training at an early age. He learned the violin at age six, the piano at eight and she falsified his recorded birth year, changing it from 1891 to 1893 to make him appear more precocious. His father, who was a shy and unassertive man, played a role in Porters upbringing, although as an amateur poet, he may have influenced his sons gifts for rhyme. Porters father also had talent as a vocalist and pianist. J. O. Cole wanted his grandson to become a lawyer, Porter brought an upright piano with him to school and found that music, and his ability to entertain, made it easy for him to make friends. Porter did well in school and rarely came home to visit and he became class valedictorian and was rewarded by his grandfather with a tour of France, Switzerland and Germany. Entering Yale University in 1909, Porter majored in English, minored in music and he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and contributed to campus humor magazine The Yale Record. Porter wrote 300 songs while at Yale, including student songs such as the fight songs BulldogCole Porter – Porter in the 1930s
40. Maurice Sendak – Maurice Bernard Sendak was an American illustrator and writer of childrens books. He became widely known for his book Where the Wild Things Are, born to Jewish-Polish parents, his childhood was affected by the death of many of his family members during the Holocaust. Sendak was born in New York City in the borough of Brooklyn to Polish Jewish immigrant parents named Sadie and Philip Sendak, a dressmaker. Sendak described his childhood as a terrible situation due to the death of members of his family during the Holocaust which exposed him at a young age to the concept of mortality. His love of books began when, as a child, he developed problems and was confined to his bed. He decided to become an illustrator after watching Walt Disneys film Fantasia at the age of twelve, one of his first professional commissions was to create window displays for the toy store FAO Schwarz. His illustrations were first published in 1947 in a textbook titled Atomics for the Millions by Maxwell Leigh Eidinoff and he spent much of the 1950s illustrating childrens books written by others before beginning to write his own stories. His older brother Jack Sendak also became an author of childrens books, Maurice was the youngest of three siblings. His sister, Natalie, was nine years older than he, Sendak gained international acclaim after writing and illustrating Where the Wild Things Are, edited by Ursula Nordstrom at Harper & Row. It features Max, a boy who rages against his mother for being sent to bed without any supper, the books depictions of fanged monsters concerned some parents when it was first published, as his characters were somewhat grotesque in appearance. Before Where the Wild Things Are, Sendak was best known for illustrating Else Holmelund Minariks Little Bear series of books, Sendak later recounted the reaction of a fan, A little boy sent me a charming card with a little drawing on it. I answer all my childrens letters – sometimes very hastily –, I sent him a card and I drew a picture of a Wild Thing on it. I wrote, Dear Jim, I loved your card, then I got a letter back from his mother and she said, Jim loved your card so much he ate it. That to me was one of the highest compliments Ive ever received and he didnt care that it was an original Maurice Sendak drawing or anything. He saw it, he loved it, he ate it, almost fifty years later, School Library Journal sponsored a survey of readers which identified Where the Wild Things Are as top picture book. Another called it perfectly crafted, perfectly illustrated, simply the epitome of a picture book and noted that Sendak rises above the rest in part because he is subversive. When Sendak saw a manuscript of Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories and it was first published in 1966 and received a Newbery Honor. Sendak was delighted and enthusiastic about the collaboration and he once wryly remarked that his parents were finally impressed by their youngest child when he collaborated with SingerMaurice Sendak – Sendak in 2009
41. Dustin Lance Black – Dustin Lance Black is an American screenwriter, director, film and television producer and LGBT rights activist. He has won a Writers Guild of America Award and an Academy Award for the 2008 film Milk and he was born in Sacramento, California as Dustin Lance Garrison. His father walked out on his mother, Roseanna. Following his mothers marriage to Merrill Durant Black in 1981, he and his brothers were adopted by their stepfather. They grew up in a Mormon household, at first in San Antonio, Texas, growing up surrounded by Mormon culture and military bases, Black worried about his sexuality. When he found himself attracted to a boy in his neighborhood at the age of six or seven, and if I ever admit it, Ill be hurt, and Ill be brought down. He says that his awareness of his sexuality made him dark, shy. He came out in his year of college. Black attended the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Theater, Film and he graduated with honors from UCLAs School of Theater, Film and Television in 1996. In 2000, Black wrote and directed The Journey of Jared Price, a gay film, and Something Close to Heaven. In 2001, he directed and was a subject in the documentary On the Bus about a Nevada road trip, raised as Mormon, he was hired as the only such writer on the HBO drama series Big Love about a polygamous family. He has written for all seasons, serving on one as a staff writer. Black had first visited San Francisco in the early 1990s, while AIDS was devastating the citys gay community, Black said that, Hearing about Harvey was about the only hopeful story there was at the time. He had first viewed Rob Epsteins documentary The Times of Harvey Milk when he was in college, the screenplay was written on spec, but Black showed the script to Jones, who passed it on to his friend Gus Van Sant, who signed on to direct the feature. Black is an old friend of Milk producer Dan Jinks, who signed on to the biopic after he called Black to congratulate him, Blacks film Pedro, profiling the life of AIDS activist and reality television personality Pedro Zamora, premiered at the 2008 Toronto International Film Festival. Coming up, Paris Barclay is slated to direct his screenplay A Life Like Mine, Black directed his own script Virginia, starring Jennifer Connelly. On February 22,2009, Black won the Oscar for Best Original Screenplay for Milk at the 81st Academy Awards and he wore a White Knot to the ceremony as a symbol of solidarity with the marriage equality movement. On October 11,2009, Black marched in the National Equality March, in 2010, Black narrated 8, The Mormon Proposition, a documentary about the involvement of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Californias Proposition 8Dustin Lance Black – Dustin Lance Black at the 81st Academy Awards
42. Djuna Barnes – Djuna Barnes was an American writer and artist best known for her novel Nightwood, a cult classic of lesbian fiction and an important work of modernist literature. In 1913, Barnes began her career as a freelance journalist, by early 1914, Barnes was a highly sought feature reporter, interviewer, and illustrator whose work appeared in the city’s leading newspapers and periodicals. In 1921, a commission with McCall’s magazine took Barnes to Paris. During the 1930s, Barnes spent time in England, Paris, New York and it was during this restless time that she wrote and published Nightwood. In October 1939, after two decades living mostly in Europe, Barnes returned to New York. She published her last major work, the verse play The Antiphon, in 1958, Barnes was born in a log cabin on Storm King Mountain, near Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. Her paternal grandmother Zadel Barnes was a writer, journalist, and her father, Wald Barnes, was an unsuccessful composer, musician, and painter. An advocate of polygamy, he married Barness mother Elizabeth in 1889, his mistress Fanny Clark moved in with them in 1897 and they had eight children, whom Wald made little effort to support financially. As the second oldest child, Barnes spent much of her childhood helping care for siblings and half-siblings and she received her early education at home, mostly from her father and grandmother, who taught her writing, art, and music but neglected subjects such as math and spelling. She claimed to have had no schooling at all, some evidence suggests that she was enrolled in public school for a time after age ten. At the age of 16 she was raped, apparently by a neighbor with the knowledge and consent of her father and she referred to the rape obliquely in her first novel Ryder and more directly in her furious final play The Antiphon. Shortly before her 18th birthday she reluctantly married Fanny Clarks brother Percy Faulkner in a ceremony without benefit of clergy. The match had been promoted by her father, grandmother, mother, and brother. In 1912 Barness family, facing financial ruin, split up, Elizabeth moved to New York City with Barnes and three of her brothers, then filed for divorce, freeing Wald to marry Fanny Clark. Upon arriving at the Daily Eagle, Barnes declared, “I can draw and write and she also published short fiction in the New York Morning Telegraphs Sunday supplement and in the pulp magazine All-Story Cavalier Weekly. Much of Barness journalism was subjective and experiential, writing about a conversation with James Joyce, she admitted to missing part of what he said because her attention had wandered, though she revered Joyces writing. For a 1914 New York World magazine article she submitted to force-feeding and she concluded, I had shared the greatest experience of the bravest of my sex. It was their mistreatment which motivated Barnes to experience for herself the torture of being force-fed, Barnes immersed herself in risky situations in order to access experiences that a previous generation of homebound women had been deniedDjuna Barnes – Djuna Barnes, c. 1921
43. Jim Nabors – James Thurston Jim Nabors is a retired American actor and singer. Born and raised in Sylacauga, Alabama, Nabors moved to southern California because of his asthma, while working at a Santa Monica nightclub, The Horn, he was discovered by Andy Griffith and later joined The Andy Griffith Show, playing Gomer Pyle. Nabors and Ron Howard are the last surviving regular male cast members from that series, the character proved popular, and Nabors was given his own spin-off show, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. Though known for his portrayal of Gomer Pyle, Nabors became a popular guest on variety shows in the 1960s and 1970s and he subsequently recorded numerous albums and singles, most of them containing romantic ballads. Nabors is also known for singing Back Home Again in Indiana, prior to the start of the Indianapolis 500, except for a few absences due to health or other conflicts, Nabors sang the unofficial Indiana anthem every year from 1972 until his final time in 2014. Nabors was born to Mavis and Fred Nabors in Sylacauga, Alabama, where he sang for his school and church. He attended the University of Alabama, where he began acting in skits, while at Alabama, he became a member of Delta Tau Delta International Fraternity. Because of his asthma, Nabors moved to Los Angeles and worked as a cutter for NBC. He also worked at a Santa Monica tavern, The Horn and his act featured him as a character similar to the Gomer Pyle character he later portrayed, he sang in a baritone and sometimes spoke in his higher-pitched comedic voice. At the club, comedian Bill Dana saw Nabors act and invited him to appear on The Steve Allen Show, Nabors signed on to the show, but it was soon canceled. It was at The Horn where Nabors was discovered by Andy Griffith and was hired to play a role of Gomer Pyle. The show, which placed Nabors bungling, naive character opposite Sergeant Vince Carter, was also popular, Nabors resigned from Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. After five seasons—prompting producers Aaron Ruben and Sheldon Leonard to ask CBS to cancel it—because he desired to move to something else, most of the songs were romantic ballads, though he sang pop, gospel, and country songs as well. The climactic vocal performance on Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. Came in an episode titled The Show Must Go On, aired November 3,1967, in which Pyle sang The Impossible Dream in Washington, D. C. at a U. S. Navy relief show, accompanied by the Marine Corps Band. He hosted a variety show, The Jim Nabors Hour, which featured his Gomer Pyle co-stars Ronnie Schell, despite a poor critical reception, the show was popular. After the cancellation of The Jim Nabors Hour, Nabors embarked on a nationwide roadshow, typecast from his role as Gomer Pyle, Nabors found his subsequent roles mostly comedic. In a 1973 episode of The Rookies, he played his first serious role, also in 1973, Nabors sang The Star-Spangled Banner before Game One of the Major League Baseball World SeriesJim Nabors – Nabors in April 2010
44. Boy George – George Alan ODowd, known professionally as Boy George, is an English singer, songwriter, DJ, fashion designer and photographer. He is the singer of the Grammy and Brit Award-winning pop band Culture Club. He was part of the English New Romantic movement which emerged in the late 1970s to the early 1980s and his music is often classified as blue-eyed soul, which is influenced by rhythm and blues and reggae. He was lead singer of Jesus Loves You during the period 1989–1992 and his 1990s and 2000s-era solo music has glam influences, such as David Bowie and Iggy Pop. More recently, he has released fewer music recordings, splitting his time between songwriting, DJing, writing books, designing clothes, and photography. Boy George was born George Alan ODowd in Eltham, London, on 14 June 1961, to Jeremiah and Dinah ODowd, George was a follower of the New Romantic movement which was popular in Britain in the early 1980s. He lived in various squats around Warren Street in Central London and he and his friend Marilyn were regulars at Blitz, a London nightclub run by Steve Strange and Rusty Egan. The pop artists that inspired him were Siouxsie and the Banshees, David Bowie, T. Rex, Roxy Music, Boy Georges androgynous style of dressing caught the attention of music entrepreneur Malcolm McLaren, who arranged for George to perform with the group Bow Wow Wow. Going by the stage name Lieutenant Lush, his tenure with Bow Wow Wow proved problematic with lead singer Annabella Lwin, George eventually left the group and started his own band with bassist Mikey Craig. They were joined by Jon Moss and then guitarist Roy Hay, the band recorded demos that were paid for by EMI Records but the label declined to sign them. Virgin Records expressed interest in signing the group in the UK for European releases, while Epic Records handled the US and they recorded their debut album Kissing to Be Clever and it was released in 1982. The single Do You Really Want to Hurt Me. became an hit, reaching No.1 in a dozen countries around the world. This was followed by the Top 5 hit Time in the US and UK and this gave Culture Club the distinction of being the first group since the Beatles to have three Top 10 hits in the US from a debut album. Their next album, Colour By Numbers was an success, topping the UK charts. The single Church of the Poison Mind became a Top 10 hit, and Karma Chameleon became an hit, peaking at No.1 in sixteen countries. It hit No.1 in the US where it stayed for three weeks and it was the best-selling single of the year in the United Kingdom, where it spent six weeks at No.1. Victims and Its a Miracle were further Top 5 UK hits, the bands third album Waking Up with the House on Fire was not as big a hit as its predecessors. Although the first single, The War Song, was a No.2 hit in the UK, George then provided a lead vocal role on the Band Aid international hit single Do They Know Its ChristmasBoy George – Boy George in 2013
45. Neil Patrick Harris – Neil Patrick Harris is an American actor, comedian, magician, singer, and composer, known primarily for his comedy roles on television and his dramatic and musical stage roles. On television, he is known for playing the character on Doogie Howser. Barney Stinson on How I Met Your Mother, and Count Olaf on A Series of Unfortunate Events. Harris is also known for his role as the character in Joss Whedons musical Dr. Horribles Sing-Along Blog. His other films include Starship Troopers, Beastly, The Smurfs, The Smurfs 2, A Million Ways to Die in the West, and Gone Girl. In 2014, he starred in the role in Hedwig. Harris has hosted the Tony Awards in 2009,2011,2012 and he also hosted the Primetime Emmy Awards in 2009 and 2013, and hosted the 87th Academy Awards in 2015, thus making him the first openly gay man to host the Academy Awards. Harris was named one of Time magazines 100 Most Influential People in 2010 and he is married to David Burtka with whom he has two children. Harris was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico and grew up Ruidoso, New Mexico, with his brother and their parents, Sheila Gail. His parents were lawyers and also ran a restaurant and he attended La Cueva High School in Albuquerque, graduating with high honors in 1991. Harris began his career as an actor and was discovered by playwright Mark Medoff at a drama camp in Las Cruces. Medoff later cast him in the 1988 drama film Claras Heart, Claras Heart earned Harris a Golden Globe nomination. The same year, he starred in Purple People Eater, a childrens fantasy, Harris first film role as an adult was 1995s Animal Room, although he portrayed a teenager. His subsequent film work has included supporting roles in The Next Best Thing, Undercover Brother, and Starship Troopers. In 2010, Harris provided voice acting for the role of the adult Dick Grayson in the animated film Batman, Under the Red Hood, the same year, he played the lead in the indie comedy The Best and the Brightest. On March 7,2010, he made an appearance at the 82nd Academy Awards. He starred in the films The Smurfs and The Smurfs 2, in 2014, Harris showed a more serious side in Gone Girl, directed by David Fincher. Harris co-starred in the film as Desi Collings, the wealthy and obsessed ex-boyfriend of Amy Dunne, Harris has said, I was pinching myself at the opportunity to work with Fincher, he received general praise from critics for his performance, as did the filmNeil Patrick Harris – Neil Patrick Harris
46. Bif Naked – Bif Naked is a Canadian singer-songwriter, actress, and motivational speaker. Bif Naked was born in New Delhi to teenaged parents attending private school and she was subsequently adopted by American missionaries. She spent part of her childhood in Lexington, Kentucky, where her father was a professor at the University of Kentucky and she went to Kelsey Elementary School in The Pas, Manitoba for a couple of years. After living for a time in Dauphin, Manitoba, her family settled in Winnipeg. She graduated from John Taylor Collegiate and studied theatre at the University of Winnipeg, the name Bif started as a nickname based on the mispronunciation of her real name, Beth. Solo albums include the album, Bif Naked, released in 1996, I Bificus in 1998 and Purge. A noted poet, she has released a spoken word album called Okenspay Ordway. In 2005, after narrowing it down from over 50 songs, she released Superbeautifulmonster, the Promise, which was recorded while Bif was undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer, was released in 2009 and was dedicated to her fans. The album featured tracks mixed by Juno Award winner Mike Fraser, the album is entitled BIF NAKED FOREVER, Acoustic Hits and Other Delights. Also due out, Bifs previously promised side project, Jakkarta, prior to her solo career, Torbert played with punk bands Gorilla Gorilla and Chrome Dog. Bifs music has featured in and on soundtracks for shows including Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Charmed, Moonlight, The Crow, Stairway to Heaven, Ready To Rumble. The song Dawn, taken from Purge, was featured in the movie American Psycho 2, starring Mila Kunis and she made a guest appearance in the song Fucker, on Strapping Young Lads album The New Black in 2006. Bif Naked has also made guest appearances with such as SNFU on the songs One Last Loveshove. She also appeared on the Dead Celebrity Status album Blood Music on the track titled In This Day And Age, in 2011, she recorded a duet with Vancouver yogi and Nettwerk recording artist Will Blunderfield for the international version of his album Hallelujah. Bif Naked has also appeared in videos for other artists including The Offsprings The Kids Arent Alright, Believe Me and Silver by Moist. In 2009, she appeared in the video for Simple Plans Save You near the end along with people who have survived or have been treated for cancer. Aside from her career, Bif has also pursued acting. In 1990, she appeared in the film Archangel, where she was credited as Bif Torbert, in 1997, she played a liquor store manager in The Boys ClubBif Naked – Naked performing live in 2006
47. Clodovil Hernandes – Clodovil Hernandes was a Brazilian fashion designer, television presenter, and politician. Hernandes made his fame as a fashion stylist during the 60s and 70s and his dedication and fame on television lasted for over 40 years and various television stations. In his political career, Hernandes was known for statements deemed inappropriate, among other controversies, he was accused of racism and antisemitism. Hernandes was the first openly gay congressman in Brazil, Hernandes was raised by a Spanish immigrant couple, and never apparently knew his biological parents. He had great affection for his mother, a Spanish immigrant from Andalusia. One of his projects in the Chamber of Deputies was to create the Dia da Mãe Adotiva that would be celebrated on the third Sunday of May, Hernandes was educated in a Catholic school, besides his native Portuguese, he could speak Spanish and French. Hernandes began his career as a stylist at age 16, in the 1960s he gained fame as a designer of haute couture. In the 1980s Hernandes became a TV personality with appearances on Rede Globos TV Mulher and his career as a TV presenter had its ups and downs throughout the 90s. Although he had a female following, his explicit right-wing position. After his breakthrough on TV Mulher, Clodovil was fired from the programme hosted by Marilia Gabriela and sexologist/current São Paulo Brazilian Secretary of Tourism. In 1982, when Walter Clark, Globos former director general, was invited to become a director on the Rede Bandeirantes network, Clodovil hosted his programme. Adolpho Bloch regained control of the network by legal determination and Clodovil left the channel in the first days of May due to past differences with his ex-boss, in 2006 in São Paulo, Clodovil was depicted in a musical. He defended the preservation of Mata Atlântica in the Ubatuba region and his future project was Casa Clô, a foundation attended by women not helped by official social assistance programmes. Clodovil trained as an actor and as a singer and he designed the evening gowns for Miss Brasil and Miss Universe Sandra Mara Ferreira and Sandra Guimarães de Oliveira. His controversial declarations on Rede TV, caused legal consequences for Clodovils artistic career. He was the presenter of Clodovil Por Excelência on the TVJB network and he was a candidate for the Christian Labour Party. His political phrase was, Brasília will never be the same, Clodovil Hernandes died on March 17,2009 after a stroke. TV Mulher Clô para os Íntimos Noite de Gala Clô Soft A Casa é Sua Clodovil Por Excelência Brasília will never be the same, I will report that comes directly to meClodovil Hernandes – Clodovil Hernandes
48. Steven Davies – Steven Michael Davies is an English cricketer, a left-handed batsman who currently plays for Somerset. He bats in the order in first-class cricket and opens in limited-overs. He started as a wicket-keeper, playing ODI and Twenty20 cricket in this role for England and has stated a desire to return to this position. In February and March 2004 he appeared for England Under-19s in the Under-19 World Cup in Bangladesh, in 2004 he made his senior Worcestershire debut, in a one-day game against Sri Lanka A. He also played for the England Under-19s in the series against Bangladesh. In 2004, too, Davies was awarded the NBC Denis Compton Award, Davies made his first-class debut against Loughborough UCCE in April 2005, making 6 and 37 as his county succumbed to an unimpressive eight-wicket defeat. Recalled to the Worcestershire first team, however, he grasped the opportunity with both hands, making 59,5,95,37 and 148 in successive Championship innings. Originally playing as a specialist opening batsman, he moved down the order and this excellent run of form resulted in his inclusion in the England ODI squad for the 2009 tour of West Indies. On 25 August 2009, it was announced that Davies would move from Worcestershire at the end of the season and he signed a three-year contract with Surrey. Three months later, wicket-keeper Jon Batty who had been a part of the club since 1997 left, early in the 2014 season, Davies gave up wicket-keeping to concentrate on batting. It was originally a temporary measure but he did not keep wicket for 2 years, in April 2016, Davies stated his desire to resume wicketkeeping in an effort to increase his chances of a recall to the England team. During the 2016 season, Davies kept in 3 matches when Surreys regular keeper and his time as a batsman proved successful, scoring over 1000 runs in both 2014 and 2016. On 14 September 2016, Surrey announced that Davies had turned down a new contract so would leave the club at the end of the season, Davies then signed a three-year deal with Somerset, with the aim of returning to both wicket-keeping and international cricket. On 19 September 2005 Davies was named in the 17-man ECB National Academy squad, in March 2006, he was called up to the England A squad to replace Chris Read, who had returned home after a burglary at his house. He was named in the England A squad touring Bangladesh in 2007, in October 2009, Davies was called up to Englands Test squad for the first time. Although part of the Test squad, Davies was not selected for the ODI squad on the tour. Davies made his ODI debut in the 2009 ICC Champions Trophy semi-final against Australia on 2 October, after regular wicket-keeper Matt Prior fell ill, Davies had to wait nearly a year for his next appearance. After both Prior and Craig Kieswetter were dropped, Davies was given the gloves for the Pakistan ODI series during September 2010, England won the ODI series 3-2, with Davies earning himself a man-of-the-match award in the first game after top-scoring with 87Steven Davies – Steven Davies (centre) keeping wicket for Worcestershire at Taunton against Somerset, alongside Graeme Hick (left) and Ben Smith (right) in the slips
49. Carl Van Vechten – Carl Van Vechten was an American writer and artistic photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. Born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he was the youngest child of Charles and he graduated from Washington High School in 1898, and later the University of Chicago in 1903. In 1906, he moved to New York City and he was hired as the assistant music critic at The New York Times. His interest in opera had him take a leave of absence from the paper in 1907, while in England he married his long-time friend from Cedar Rapids, Anna Snyder. He returned to his job at the New York Times in 1909, at that time, Isadora Duncan, Anna Pavlova, and Loie Fuller were performing in New York City. The marriage to Anna Snyder ended in divorce in 1912 and he wed actress Fania Marinoff in 1914 and their marriage lasted until the end of his life, even while his relationships with men were an open secret. They continued corresponding for the remainder of Steins life, and at her death she appointed Van Vechten her literary executor, several books of Van Vechtens essays on various subjects such as music and literature were published between 1915 and 1920. Van Vechtens controversial novel Nigger Heaven was published in 1926 and his essay Negro Blues Singers was published in Vanity Fair in 1926. Biographer Edward White suggests Van Vechten was convinced that Negro culture was the essence of America, by the start of the 1930s and at age 50, Van Vechten was finished with writing and took up photography, using his apartment at 150 West 55th Street as a studio. After the 1930s Van Vechten published little writing, though he continued writing letters to many correspondents, Van Vechten died in 1964, at the age of 84, in New York City. Most of Van Vechtens personal papers are held by the Beinecke Rare Book, the Beinecke Library also holds a collection titled Living Portraits, Carl Van Vechtens Color Photographs Of African Americans, 1939–1964, a collection of 1,884 color Kodachrome slides. The Library of Congress has a collection of approximately 1,400 photographs, there is also a collection of Van Vechtens photographs in the Prentiss Taylor collection in the Smithsonians Archives of American Art, and a Van Vechten collection at Fisk University. The Museum of the City of New Yorks collection includes 2,174 of Carl Van Vechtens photographs, brandeis Universitys department of Archives & Special Collections holds 1,689 Carl Van Vechten portraits. Van Vechten also donated materials to Fisk University to form the George Gershwin Memorial Collection of Music, the album ’O, Write My Name’, American Portraits, Harlem Heroes was completed in 1983. That year, the National Endowment for the Arts transferred the Eakins Press Foundation’s prototype albums to the permanent collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, dust Tracks on a Road, An Autobiography. Guide to the Carl Van Vechten papers, 1833–1965, manuscripts and Archives, New York Public Library. Carl Van Vechten collection of papers, 1911–1964, berg Collection of English and American Literature, New York Public LibraryCarl Van Vechten – Photographic self-portrait by Carl Van Vechten, taken in 1934
50. Allan Bell – Allan Robert Bell CBE MHK is a Manx politician who was the Chief Minister of the Isle of Man, having been elected to that position on 11 October 2011. He has been an Independent Member of the House of Keys for Ramsey since 1984 and he is currently the longest serving Member of the House of Keys. He resigned as Chief Minister on 4 October 2016, Bell was educated at Ramsey Grammar School. He was involved in banking and clothing retail prior to entering politics, Bell was first elected to the House of Keys as an Independent representing Ramsey in a 1984 by-election. He had first, unsuccessfully, contested Ramsey in 1976, as a candidate for Manx nationalist party Mec Vannin and he was formerly the Minister for Economic Development of the Isle of Man Government and is Member of the House of Keys for Ramsey. He became the first head of the economic development ministry and a year later on 11 October 2011, on 11 October 2011, Bell was elected Chief Minister of the Isle of Man, winning a clear majority over Liberal Vannin opponent Peter Karran. Bell was proposed by Eddie Teare and seconded by Laurence Skelly, after a legal review found the deal to be outside of government powers, Bell initially refused to accept the proffered resignation of the economic development minister, John Shimmin. Bell was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2016 Birthday Honours for public service to the Isle of Man, i’ve never made a secret of it, but no one has ever asked me. On 1 August 2016, Bell announced that he was retiring after 37 years within Manx politicsAllan Bell – The Honourable Allan Bell MHK
51. Meredith Baxter – Meredith Ann Baxter is an American actress and producer. She is known for her roles on the ABC drama series Family, a five-time Emmy Award nominee, one of her nominations was for playing the title role in the 1992 TV film A Woman Scorned, The Betty Broderick Story. Baxter was born in South Pasadena, California, the daughter of actress turned director/producer Whitney Blake and Tom Baxter, after her parents were divorced in 1953, Baxter and her two brothers, Richard and Brian, were raised by their mother in Pasadena. Her second stepfather was situation-comedy writer Allan Manings and she also shares the same birth date with her Family Ties co-star, Michael Gross. Baxter was educated at James Monroe High School before transferring to Hollywood High School, during her senior year, she attended Interlochen Center for the Arts as a voice major, but returned to Hollywood High, where she graduated in 1965. Baxter got her first big break on television in 1972 as one of the stars of Bridget Loves Bernie, the series was canceled after one season, but her co-star, David Birney became her second husband in 1974. Following their marriage and until their divorce in 1989, she was credited as Meredith Baxter-Birney and she played the role of Nancy Lawrence Maitland and received two Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Continuing Performance by a Supporting Actress in a Drama Series. In 1982, Baxter landed the role of Elyse Keaton, the flower child matriarch of the Keaton family on the NBC sitcom Family Ties. Following Family Ties, Baxter produced and starred in telefilms, for her work on the television film My Breast, she received a special award for public awareness from the National Breast Cancer Coalition. In 1997, Baxter once again played the mother of a character played by Michael J. Fox, in 2005, she began appearing in television commercials for Garden State Life Insurance Company. In 2006, she temporarily co-hosted — with Matt Lauer — Today, in 2007, she made a guest appearance on What About Brian, an ABC drama series. That same year, she made several appearances as the dying mother of Detective Lilly Rush on Cold Case. In recent years, Baxter created a line called Meredith Baxter Simple Works. Baxter was the guest speaker at the 2008 Southern Commencement for National University in La Jolla, California, on December 17,2009, Baxters memoir, titled Untied, was published in 2011. She is also a spokesperson for Consumer Cellular, a cell-phone company advertised as providing an alternative for senior citizens. She currently voices the character Elise Sr. in Dan Vs. which airs on The Hub, Baxter will start appearing on the program on September 8. She is also the mother to Stich Raybourne and Kelly Andrews, Baxter has been married four times and has five children. In 1966, she married Robert Lewis Bush and they had two children — Theodore Justin and Eva Whitney, the couple divorced in 1971, in 1974, she married David Birney and had three children — Kathleen Jeanne and twins Mollie Elizabeth and Peter David EdwinMeredith Baxter – Baxter at the Human Rights Campaign Gala, 2014
52. Stacy Sykora – Stacy Denise Sykora is a retired American volleyball player. She was a two-time All-American at Texas A&M University and she competed in both the 2000 and the 2004 Olympics as part of the U. S. womens national team and she made her third Olympic appearance at the 2008 Olympics, helping Team USA to a silver medal. She won the medal with her team at the 2001 and 2010 FIVB World Grand Prix. Stacy Sykora was born in Fort Worth, Texas, to Ed Sykora and she was raised in Burleson with her two older sisters, Kim and Keri. As a student at Burleson High School, Sykora dreamed of becoming an Olympic athlete, while attending Texas A&M University, Sykora competed in volleyball, basketball and track, winning a Big 12 Conference title in the heptathlon. As a true freshman Sykora played in all but one of the volleyball teams 30 matches, leading the team in kills in four matches, as a sophomore, Sykora set a school record with 24 digs in a three-game loss to Michigan State in the NCAA Tournament. Against nationally ranked Loyola Marymount, she posted a career-high 30 kills, after leading the Big 12 in digs with an average of 4.01 digs per game, Sykora was named that Texas A&M Volleyball defensive player of the year, and earned AVCA All-District 5 honors. In her junior year, Sykora led the team and ranked second in the Big 12 in digs, for her performance throughout the year she was named MVP of the Georgia Invitational, First-Team All Big 12, AVCA All-District 5, and AVCA Second-Team All-American. The following year, her last year of eligibility, Sykora ranked 9th in the country in digs per game. She also led the Aggies in kills, with 4.74 per game and she was also named to the American Volleyball Coaches Associations All-District 5 team and was an AVCA Second-Team All-American. In late 1998 international volleyball introduced a new position, known as the libero, Sykoras coach, Corbelli, encouraged her to try out for this new position on the US volleyball team. In January 1999 Sykora joined the USA womens volleyball team playing this new position, during her first year of international play, she recorded a team-high 456 digs, including 153 at the World Cup. She was named the Best Receiver at the BCV Volley Masters, while on the Japan Tour, she recorded a career-high 22 digs in the June 30 match, before becoming the teams primary passer and defensive player on the bronze-medal winning Pan American Games squad. In her second year of competition, Sykora again led the team in digs. She was named best Libero at the Nike Americas Volleyball Challenge, although the team placed fourth at the Olympics, Sykora was ranked second amongst all the players for her 123 digs, including a career-high 26 against Korea in the five-set quarterfinal win. In the bronze match against Brazil, Sykora posted her 1000th career dig. The following year, Sykora earned the Best Libero Award at the Montreux Volley Masters after leading both the serve-receive and digging categories. She was named the Best Digger at both the World Grand Prix and the World Grand Champions Cup, and earned the Best Receiver award at the NORCECA ChampionshipsStacy Sykora – Stacy Sykora
53. Larry Kramer – Larry Kramer is an American playwright, author, public health advocate, and LGBT rights activist. He began his career rewriting scripts while working for Columbia Pictures, there he wrote the screenplay for the 1969 film Women in Love and earned an Academy Award nomination for his work. Kramer witnessed the spread of the later known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome among his friends in 1980. He co-founded the Gay Mens Health Crisis, which has become the worlds largest private organization assisting people living with AIDS. Kramer grew frustrated with bureaucratic paralysis and the apathy of gay men to the AIDS crisis and he expressed his frustration by writing a play titled The Normal Heart, produced at The Public Theater in New York City in 1985. ACT UP has been credited with changing public health policy and the perception of people living with AIDS. Kramer has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for his play The Destiny of Me, the younger of two children, Kramer was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and considered an unwanted child by his Jewish parents, an attorney and a social worker. When the family moved to Maryland they found themselves in a lower socioeconomic bracket than that of Kramers high school peers. Kramer had become involved with a male friend in junior high school. His father wanted him to marry a woman with money and thus pressed him to become a member of Pi Tau Pi, Kramer enrolled at Yale University in 1953, where he had difficulty adjusting. He felt lonely, and earned lower grades than those to which he was accustomed and he attempted suicide by an overdose of aspirin because he felt like he was the only gay student on campus. The experience left him determined to explore his sexuality and set him on the path to fight for gay peoples worth, the next semester, he had an affair with his German professor – his first requited romantic relationship with a man. When the professor was scheduled to study in Europe, he invited Kramer to accompany him, Yale had been a family tradition, Kramers father, older brother Arthur, and two uncles were alumni. Kramer enjoyed the Varsity Glee Club during his time at Yale. According to Kramer, every drama he has written derives from a desire to understand loves nature, eventually, he won a position in the story department reworking scripts. His first writing credit was as a writer for Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush. He followed that with the 1969 Oscar-nominated screenplay Women in Love, Kramer has said that his well-negotiated fee for this work, skillfully invested by his brother, made him financially self-sufficient. Kramer then began to integrate homosexual themes into his work, and he wrote Sissies Scrapbook in 1973, a dramatic play about four friends, one of whom is gay, and their dysfunctional relationshipsLarry Kramer – Larry Kramer in April 2010
54. Alan Joyce (executive) – Alan Joseph Joyce, FRAeS is an Irish-born Australian businessman. He is the Chief Executive Officer of the Australian airline Qantas Airways Limited, Joyce was born and raised in Tallaght, now a suburb of Dublin, but a separate village at the time of his birth. His mother was a cleaner and his father worked in a tobacco factory, Joyce and his three siblings attended university. Joyce attended Dublin Institute of Technology and Trinity College, Dublin and he graduated with Honours, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Science and a Master of Science degree in Management Science. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society, in 1996, he left Aer Lingus to join the now-defunct Ansett Australia. Then in 2000 he joined Qantas, at both Ansett Australia and Qantas, Joyce headed the Network Planning, Schedules Planning and Network Strategy functions. Joyce was appointed CEO of Qantas subsidiary Jetstar Airways in October 2003, Joyce became CEO of Qantas on 28 November 2008. He is a former Director of Orangestar Investment Holdings Pte Limited, on 29 October 2011, as a result of continuing industrial unrest following the announcement of job losses and structural changes at Qantas, Joyce grounded the entire Qantas mainline fleet. The Australian named Joyce the most influential leader in 2011. Yet a poll following his controversial 2011 grounding of the Qantas fleet showed the action has increased negative public perception of the airline. In 2011, Joyces remuneration was increased 71 per cent from $2.92 million in 2009-10 to $5.01 million and his reported comments that his salary was conservative were criticised by the Australian and International Pilots Association. Joyce is an Ambassador of the Australian Indigenous Education Foundation, Joyce is openly gay and lives in the inner-Sydney suburb of The Rocks with his partner, a New Zealand man with whom Joyce has been in a relationship since 1999. In 2011, Joyce was successfully treated for prostate cancer,2011 industrial unrest and grounding of fleet 2011 Qantas trade union disputes Qantas profile - Alan JoyceAlan Joyce (executive) – Alan Joyce
55. Qantas Airways Limited – Qantas Airways is the flag carrier airline of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920, the Qantas name comes from QANTAS, an acronym for its original name, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services, and it is nicknamed The Flying Kangaroo. Qantas is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14. 9% of all passengers travelling in, various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Its subsidiary Jetconnect provides services between Australia and New Zealand, flying under the Qantas brand, Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited. The airlines first aircraft was an Avro 504K, in 1920 Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd had its headquarters in Winton before moving to Longreach, Queensland in 1921 and Brisbane in 1930. In 1934, QANTAS and Britains Imperial Airways formed a new company, the new airline commenced operations in December 1934, flying between Brisbane and Darwin. QEA flew internationally from May 1935, when the service from Darwin was extended to Singapore, after World War II began, enemy action and accidents destroyed half of the fleet of ten, when most of the fleet was taken over by the Australian government for war service. Flying boat services were resumed in 1943, with flights between Swan River, Perth and Koggala lake in Ceylon and this linked up with the British Overseas Airways Corporation service to London. Qantas kangaroo logo was first used on the Kangaroo Route, begun in 1944, from Sydney to Karachi, in 1947, QEA was nationalised by the Australian government led by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley. QANTAS Limited was then wound up, after nationalisation, Qantas remaining domestic network, in Queensland, was transferred to the also nationally owned Trans Australian Airlines, leaving Qantas with a purely international network. Shortly after nationalisation, QEA began its first services outside the British Empire – to Tokyo, Services to Hong Kong began around the same time. In 1957 a head office, Qantas House, opened in Sydney, in June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age when the first Boeing 707-138 was delivered. On 14 September 1992, Qantas merged with nationally owned domestic airline, the airline started to be rebranded to Qantas in the following year. Qantas was gradually privatised between 1993 and 1997, under the legislation passed to allow the privatisation, Qantas must be at least 51% owned by Australian shareholders. In 1998, Qantas co-founded the oneworld alliance with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, the main domestic competitor to Qantas, Ansett Australia, collapsed on 14 September 2001. Market share for Qantas immediately neared 90%, but with the entry of new budget airline Virgin Blue into the domestic market, in 2004, the Qantas group expanded into the Asian budget airline market with Jetstar Asia Airways, in which Qantas owns a minority stakeQantas Airways Limited – Qantas Empire Airways International seaplane flights arriving at Rose Bay (c.1939)
56. Ann Bannon – Ann Bannon is an American author who, from 1957 to 1962, wrote six lesbian pulp fiction novels known as The Beebo Brinker Chronicles. The books enduring popularity and impact on lesbian identity has earned her the title Queen of Lesbian Pulp Fiction, Bannon was a young housewife trying to address her own issues of sexuality when she was inspired to write her first novel. Her subsequent books featured four characters who reappeared throughout the series, including her eponymous heroine, Beebo Brinker, the majority of her characters mirrored people she knew, but their stories reflected a life she did not feel she was able to live. Despite her traditional upbringing and role in married life, her novels defied conventions for romance stories and her books shaped lesbian identity for lesbians and heterosexuals alike, but Bannon was mostly unaware of their impact. Later, she earned a doctorate in linguistics and became an academic and she endured a difficult marriage for 27 years and, as she separated from her husband in the 1980s, her books were republished, she was stunned to learn of their influence on society. They were released again between 2001 and 2003 and were adapted as an award-winning Off-Broadway production and they are taught in Womens and LGBT studies courses, and Bannon has received numerous awards for pioneering lesbian and gay literature. Ann Bannon was born Ann Weldy in Joliet, Illinois, in 1932 and she grew up in nearby Hinsdale with her mother and stepfather, and had the responsibility of taking care of four siblings due to the familys financial problems. She took comfort in a vibrant imaginary life during this time, growing up, she was surrounded by music, particularly jazz, as her family hosted small recitals for friends and neighbors. One became a character in her books, a bachelor named Jack who slung jokes. Bannon witnessed a younger sorority sisters unabashed infatuation with the older sister and she recalls it was an awkward situation, even though the older sorority sister was unfailingly gracious to the younger one. In recognizing the younger womans attractions, she began to suspect her own sexuality and she said, I saw a lot of it happening and I didnt know what to make of it. I dont even know how to put it—I was absolutely consumed with it, it was an extraordinary thing. Another sorority sister was physically remarkable, very tall—almost 6 feet, with a voice and boyish nickname. She recalled entering the communal restroom and seeing the sister, both of us in underwear, and experienc a sort of shock, and trying not to stare at her. In 1954, she graduated with a degree in French and soon married an engineer whose job made them relocate frequently, Bannon was 22 years old when she began writing her first pulp novel. Bannon said, Both books completely obsessed me for the part of two years. Although recently married and on her way to having two children, she found the books struck a chord in her life and recognized emotions in herself that compelled her to write about them. In the beginning of her marriage she was left quite a lot and saidAnn Bannon – Ann Bannon in 1983. Photo by Tee Corinne.
57. Emma Goldman – Emma Goldman was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America. Born in Kovno, Russian Empire to a Jewish family, Goldman emigrated to the United States in 1885, attracted to anarchism after the Haymarket affair, Goldman became a writer and a renowned lecturer on anarchist philosophy, womens rights, and social issues, attracting crowds of thousands. She and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist, Frick survived the attempt on his life in 1892 and Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison. Goldman was imprisoned several times in the years followed, for inciting to riot. In 1906, Goldman founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth, in 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to induce persons not to register for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia, in 1923, she published a book about her experiences, My Disillusionment in Russia. While living in England, Canada, and France, she wrote an autobiography called Living My Life, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she traveled to Spain to support the anarchist revolution there. She died in Toronto on May 14,1940, aged 70, during her life, Goldman was lionized as a free-thinking rebel woman by admirers, and denounced by detractors as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution. Her writing and lectures spanned a variety of issues, including prisons, atheism, freedom of speech, militarism, capitalism, marriage, free love. Although she distanced herself from first-wave feminism and its efforts toward womens suffrage, after decades of obscurity, Goldman gained iconic status by a revival of interest in her life in the 1970s, when feminist and anarchist scholars rekindled popular interest. Emma Goldmans Orthodox Jewish family lived in the Lithuanian city of Kaunas, Goldmans mother Taube Bienowitch had been married before, to a man with whom she had two daughters—Helena in 1860 and Lena in 1862. When her first husband died of tuberculosis, Taube was devastated, Goldman later wrote, Whatever love she had had died with the young man to whom she had been married at the age of fifteen. Taubes second marriage was arranged by her family and, as Goldman puts it and her second husband, Abraham Goldman, invested Taubes inheritance in a business that quickly failed. The ensuing hardship combined with the distance of husband and wife to make the household a tense place for the children. When Taube became pregnant, Abraham hoped desperately for a son and they eventually had three sons, but their first child was Emma. Emma Goldman was born on June 27,1869 and her father used violence to punish his children, beating them when they disobeyed him. He used a whip on Emma, the most rebellious of them and her mother provided scarce comfort, rarely calling on Abraham to tone down his beatingsEmma Goldman – Goldman, circa 1911
58. Homer's Phobia – Homers Phobia is the fifteenth episode in the eighth season of the American animated television series The Simpsons. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 16,1997, in the episode, Homer dissociates himself from new family friend John after discovering that John is gay. Homer fears that John will have an influence on his son Bart. It was the first episode written by Ron Hauge and was directed by Mike B. Anderson, George Meyer pitched Bart the homo as an initial idea for an episode while show runners Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein were planning an episode involving Lisa discovering the joys of campy things. Oakley and Weinstein combined the two ideas and they eventually became Homers Phobia, Fox censors originally found the episode unsuitable for broadcast because of its controversial subject matter, but this decision was reversed after a turnover in the Fox staff. Filmmaker John Waters guest-starred, providing the voice of the new character, Homers Phobia was the shows first episode to revolve entirely around gay themes and received a positive critical response both for its humor and anti-homophobia message. It won four awards, including an Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program, needing money to pay for a repair after Bart damages the gas line, the Simpson family visits Cockamamies, an offbeat collectibles shop, hoping that it will purchase one of the familys heirlooms. Homer meets John, the dealer, who explains that much of the merchandise is there because of its camp value. Bart and Lisa take an instant liking to John, and Homer invites him to the Simpsons house to see the items that the family owns. The next morning, Homer tells Marge that he likes John and suggests they invite him, Marge tries to hint repeatedly to an oblivious Homer that John is gay, and when she eventually cant she tells him face to face and Homer is horrified. Homers attitude towards John changes completely, and he turns against him, the rest of the family joins John and has a good time, but Homer is upset with the family upon their return. The rest of the Simpson family continue to enjoy Johns company, especially Bart and this makes Homer uneasy, and he begins to fear Bart is gay. A desperate Homer insists on taking Bart deer hunting with Moe, when they cannot find any deer, they decide instead to go to Santas Village and shoot the reindeer in the corral, despite a tearful Bart being reluctant to do so. This backfires when the reindeer attack them, John, with the help of Lisa and Marge, uses a Japanese Santa Claus robot to scare off the reindeer and save the hunting party. Homer accepts John, more or less, and tells Bart, who is unaware of his fathers concerns. After Lisa informs Bart that Homer thinks he is gay, Bart is stunned, the episode ends with everyone driving off in Johns car. Just before the end credits a dedication to the steelworkers of America is shown, the original concept for the episode came from a few lines of show ideas written by George Meyer. One of them read Bart the homo, and Ron Hauge was selected to write the episode, the idea of using filmmaker John Waters as a guest star had been around for a whileHomer's Phobia – John Waters instantly accepted the invitation to guest-star in the episode.
59. Latter Days – Latter Days is a 2003 American romantic comedy-drama film about a gay relationship between a closeted Mormon missionary and his openly gay neighbor. The film was written and directed by C, jay Cox and stars Steve Sandvoss as the missionary, Aaron, and Wes Ramsey as the neighbor, Christian. Joseph Gordon-Levitt appears as Elder Ryder, and Rebekah Johnson as Julie Taylor, mary Kay Place, Erik Palladino, Amber Benson, and Jacqueline Bisset have supporting roles. Latter Days premiered at the Philadelphia International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival on July 10,2003 and was released in various states of USA over the next 12 months, later the film was released in a few other countries and shown at several gay film festivals. It was the first film to portray openly the clash between the principles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and homosexuality, and its exhibition in some U. S. states was controversial. Various religious groups demanded that the film be withdrawn from theaters, the film was met with mixed reactions from film critics, but was popular with most film festival attendees. At the North American box office however, Latter Days only made $834,685, in 2004, freelance writer T. Fabris made Latter Days into a novel, which was published by Alyson Publications. Elder Aaron Davis, a young Mormon from Pocatello, Idaho, is sent to Los Angeles with three missionaries to spread the Mormon faith. They move into an apartment next to openly gay party boy Christian Markelli and his roommate Julie, Christian and Julie work as waiters at Lilas, a trendy restaurant owned by retired actress Lila Montagne. Christian makes a bet with his co-workers that he can seduce one of the Mormons, and soon realizes that Aaron, Aaron and Christian become acquainted after several encounters in the apartment complex. When Christian accidentally cuts himself on a metal hose reel and faints, Aaron helps him indoors, Christian attempts to seduce Aaron, but the hesitant Mormon becomes upset by Christians remark that sex doesnt have to mean anything. Aaron accuses him of being shallow and walks out, worried that Aaron is correct, Christian joins Project Angel Food, delivering meals to people with AIDS. Aarons fellow missionary, Paul Ryder, has a cycling accident, returning to his apartment, a distraught Aaron encounters Christian, who tries to comfort him with a hug. Both men are overwhelmed by their feelings and end up kissing, failing to notice the return of Aarons roommates, Aaron is sent home in disgrace, leading Christian to confront Ryder, who is angry that Christian corrupted Aaron for no reason. Christian admits that he initially just wanted to win a bet, recognizing Christians distress, Ryder tells him that Aarons flight has a five-hour layover in Salt Lake City. Christian finds Aaron standing in the snow outside the airport terminal, Christian confesses his love, and despite his misgivings, Aaron admits his own feelings of love. With all flights canceled due to a snowstorm, Christian and Aaron spend a night in a motel. When Christian awakes, he finds Aaron gone, Aarons pocket watch, a family heirloom, has been left behindLatter Days – Theatrical release poster
60. Harvey Milk – Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 amid a migration of gay men to the Castro District and he took advantage of the growing political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and three times ran unsuccessfully for political office. His theatrical campaigns earned him increasing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, his election made possible by, and a key component of, a shift in San Francisco politics. Milk served almost 11 months in office and was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city, despite his short career in politics, Milk became an icon in San Francisco and a martyr in the gay community. In 2002, Milk was called the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States, anne Kronenberg, his final campaign manager, wrote of him, What set Harvey apart from you or me was that he was a visionary. He imagined a world inside his head and then he set about to create it for real. Milk was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009, Milk was born in Woodmere, New York, to William Milk and Minerva Karns. He was the son of Lithuanian Jewish parents and the grandson of Morris Milk. As a child, Harvey was teased for his ears, big nose, and oversized feet. He played football in school, and developed a passion for opera, in his teens, he acknowledged his homosexuality to himself, under his name in the high school yearbook, it read, Glimpy Milk—and they say WOMEN are never at a loss for words. Milk graduated from Bay Shore High School in Bay Shore, New York, in 1947 and attended New York State College for Teachers in Albany from 1947 to 1951 and he also wrote for the college newspaper. One classmate remembered, He was never thought of as a possible queer—thats what you called them then—he was a mans man, after graduation, Milk joined the United States Navy during the Korean War. He served aboard the rescue ship USS Kittiwake as a diving officer. He later transferred to Naval Station, San Diego to serve as a diving instructor, in 1955, he was discharged from the Navy at the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. Milks early career was marked by frequent changes, in years he would take delight in talking about his metamorphosis from a middle-class Jewish boy. He began teaching at George W. Hewlett High School on Long Island, in 1956, he met Joe Campbell, at the Jacob Riis Park beach, a popular location for gay men in Queens. Campbell was seven years younger than Milk, and Milk pursued him passionately, Even after they moved in together, Milk wrote Campbell romantic notes and poems. Campbell and Milk separated after almost six years, it would be his longest relationship, Milk tried to keep his early romantic life separate from his family and workHarvey Milk – Milk in 1978
61. The Well of Loneliness – The Well of Loneliness is a 1928 lesbian novel by the British author Radclyffe Hall. It follows the life of Stephen Gordon, an Englishwoman from a family whose sexual inversion is apparent from an early age. The novel portrays inversion as a natural, God-given state and makes an explicit plea, although its only sexual reference consists of the words and that night, they were not divided, a British court judged it obscene because it defended unnatural practices between women. In the United States the book survived legal challenges in New York state, publicity over The Wells legal battles increased the visibility of lesbians in British and American culture. For decades it was the lesbian novel in English. Some readers have valued it, while others have criticized it for Stephens expressions of self-hatred and its role in promoting images of lesbians as mannish or cross-dressed women has also been controversial. Although critics differ as to the value of The Well as a work of literature, its treatment of sexuality and gender continues to inspire study, in 1926, Radclyffe Hall was at the height of her career. Her novel Adams Breed, about the awakening of an Italian headwaiter, had become a bestseller, it would soon win the Prix Femina. She had long thought of writing a novel about sexual inversion, now, she believed, since she knew she was risking scandal and the shipwreck of her whole career, she sought and received the blessing of her partner, Una Troubridge, before she began work. In April 1928 she told her editor that her new book would require complete commitment from its publisher, I have put my pen at the service of some of the most persecuted and misunderstood people in the world. So far as I know nothing of the kind has ever attempted before in fiction. The books protagonist, Stephen Gordon, is born in the late Victorian era to upper-class parents in Worcestershire who are expecting a boy, even at birth she is physically unusual, a narrow-hipped, wide-shouldered little tadpole of a baby. She hates dresses, wants to cut her short. At seven, she develops a crush on a housemaid named Collins and her mother, Lady Anna, is distant, seeing Stephen as a blemished, unworthy, maimed reproduction of Sir Phillip. At eighteen, Stephen forms a friendship with a Canadian man, Martin Hallam. The following winter, Sir Phillip is crushed by a tree, at the last moment he tries to explain to Lady Anna that Stephen is an invert. Stephen begins to dress in clothes made by a tailor rather than a dressmaker. At twenty-one she falls in love with Angela Crossby, the American wife of a new neighbor, Angela uses Stephen as an anodyne against boredom, allowing her a few rather schoolgirlish kissesThe Well of Loneliness – Cover of the first edition
62. Trembling Before G-d – Trembling Before G-d is an 2001 American documentary film about gay and lesbian Orthodox Jews trying to reconcile their sexuality with their faith. It was directed by Sandi Simcha DuBowski, an American who wanted to compare Orthodox Jewish attitudes to homosexuality with his own upbringing as a gay Conservative Jew, the film received ten award nominations, winning seven, including Best Documentary awards at the 2001 Berlin and Chicago film festivals. However, some criticized the film as showing a view of Orthodox Judaisms response to homosexuality. These include South African Chief Rabbi Warren Goldstein as well as Agudah spokesperson Avi Shafran, the film is mostly in English, but also has some subtitled Yiddish and Hebrew. The film follows the lives of gay and lesbian Orthodox Jews and includes interviews with rabbis. During the films production, DuBowski met hundreds of homosexual Jews. Many people who agreed to be interviewed are shown only in silhouette or with their faces pixelized, the majority of the participants are American Jews, with one British and one Israeli Jew also featured. The film was successful at the box office, grossing over $788,896 on eight screens by its close date, while a variety of views regarding homosexuality exist within the Orthodox Jewish community, Orthodox Judaism generally prohibits homosexual conduct. What you are is a Reform Rabbi, the film repeatedly returns to several characters, David is an observant Orthodox Jewish doctor from Los Angeles who has spent a decade trying to reconcile his homosexuality with Judaism. He has tried numerous forms of treatment, from eating figs and praying to wearing a band on his wrist to flick whenever he thinks of men. During the course of the film, David decides to visit the Chabad rabbi to whom he first came out. Michelle is another New Yorker, in her forties, who believed she was the only Hasidic lesbian in the world, however, she got divorced and was subsequently ostracized by her family and community when they discovered she was homosexual. The film shows her visiting her old neighborhood and an Orthodox fair, shlomo Ashkenazy is a gay psychotherapist who has run a confidential support group for Orthodox gay men for nearly 20 years. He is interviewed about the effects of Orthodox attitudes to homosexuality, mark is the English son of a Haredi rabbi. Coming out at 15, he was expelled from seven yeshivas for homosexual activity before becoming a drag queen and he visits several yeshivas and other religious sites throughout the film. He remains upbeat, at one point saying, Being a Jew is such a present to receive. Malka and Leah are two observant Orthodox lesbians who have together for ten years, which has destroyed Malkas relationship with her family. They speak frankly about their lives in the film and discuss their fears that they may not end up in heaven togetherTrembling Before G-d – DVD cover
63. Gaylactic Spectrum Awards – The Gaylactic Spectrum Awards are given to works of science fiction, fantasy and horror that explore LGBT topics in a positive way. Established in 1998, the awards were presented by the Gaylactic Network. In 2002 the awards were given their own organization, the Gaylactic Spectrum Awards Foundation, the major award categories are for best novel, short fiction, and other works. The winners and short list of recommended nominees are decided by a jury, one of the most recognized authors, Nicola Griffith has received the most awards overall, with three wins. Griffith also jointly holds the record for most nominations with Melissa Scott, works of any format produced before the awards were first given were eligible to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, although no work has been inducted since 2003. The list of winners and Hall of Fame inductees has been called a whos who of science fiction by GLBTQ. com. This article lists the winners in each of the categories, since their inception, the awards were given in categories for novels and best other work. Other categories were added and removed in intervening years, including categories for short fiction. A short lived Peoples Choice award voted by convention attendees was also awarded to one work from any of the category nominee short lists, the award for best novel was the only one to have been handed out every year since the awards began. As of 2014 there were three categories, novels, short fiction and other works. The other works category included comic books, graphic novels, movies, television episodes, multimedia, anthologies, story collections, gaming products, artwork, and music. The categories are open to submission of English-language works released during the calendar year in North America that include significant positive GLBT content. The time-frame of eligibility is based on date for first printing for written works, cover date for magazines and comic books, release date for films. Works had to have been published or distributed to be eligible for consideration. The judges can choose to extend eligibility for a due to oversight, confusion regarding release dates. An open nomination/recommendation process is used to identify works to be considered by the judges, works of any format produced before the inception of the awards are eligible to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, these inductees were selected solely by the judges. The results are decided by a panel of judges from the list of submitted nominees, the judges are volunteers from science fiction fandom and GLBT community, with one volunteer as the Award Administrator. The judges review each recommended work and the long list of nominees is reduced via review and discussion to a short list of finalists, the results are generally announced and presented at Gaylaxicon, a convention dedicated to LGBT science fiction, although on occasion they are presented at WorldconGaylactic Spectrum Awards – Logo of the Gaylactic Spectrum Award Foundation
64. Gay bashing – A bashing may be a specific incident, and one could also use the verb to bash. A verbal gay bashing might use sexual slurs, expletives, intimidation and it also might take place in a political forum and include one or more common anti-gay slogans. Similar terms such as bullying, queer bullying, and queer bashing may also be formed. Gay bashing has occurred worldwide for many decades and continues today, as historian David K. Johnson explains, The Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the Red Scare. In popular discourse, communists and homosexuals were often conflated, both groups were perceived as hidden subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed, and both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government, using rumors collected by Drew Pearson, one Nevada publisher wrote in 1952 that both McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, were homosexuals. Bradlee said, There was a lot of time spent investigating these allegations, No reputable McCarthy biographer has accepted it as probable. Egale Canada conducted a survey of more than 3700 high school students in Canada between December 2007 and June 2009, 58% or about 1400 of the 2400 heterosexual students participating in EGALEs survey found homophobic comments upsetting. Further, EGALE found that students not directly affected by homophobia, biphobia or transphobia were less aware of it, EGALE, along with previous research has found teachers and school administration may be complicit in queer bullying through their silence and/or inaction. Graffiti found on school grounds and property, and its relative permanence, is another form of queer bullying, some researchers suggest including youth questioning their sexuality in any research on queer bullying because they may be as susceptible to its effects as queer students. Building on the notion of masculinity defining itself by what it is not and these intertwining issues were examined in 2007, when American sociologist CJ Pascoe described what she calls the fag discourse at an American high school in her book, Dude, Youre a Fag. Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying, in one study, boys who were bullied with taunts of being gay suffered more bullying and more negative effects compared with boys who were bullied with other categories of taunting. Queer bullying may make some victims feel sad and unsafe in the world, Bullying will affect a students experience of school. Some victims might feel paralyzed and withdraw socially as a coping mechanism, other victims of queer bullying may begin to live the effects of learned helplessness. Queer or questioning students may try to pass as heterosexual in order to avoid queer bullying, passing isolates the student from other queer or questioning students, potential allies, and support. Adults who try to pass also may feel the effects emotionally and psychologically, queer and questioning youth who experience bullying have a higher incidence of substance abuse and STI and HIV infection, which may carry through to adulthood. Teens face harassment, threats, and violence, a 1998 study in the US by Mental Health America found that students heard anti-gay slurs such as homo, faggot and sissy about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutesGay bashing – LGBT history
65. Gay icons – A gay icon is a public figure who is embraced by many within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Some of the qualities of a gay icon often include glamour, flamboyance, strength through adversity. Such icons can be of any orientation or gender, if LGBT. Although most gay icons have given their support to LGBT social movements, some have expressed opposition, historically, icons were typically elevated to such status because their sexual orientation remains a topic of debate among historians. Modern gay icons are predominantly female entertainers who commonly garner a following within LGBT communities over the course of their careers. The majority of gay icons fall into one of two categories, they are tragic, sometimes martyred figures, or prominent pop culture idols. Journalist Richard A. Kaye wrote, Contemporary gay men have seen in Sebastian at once a stunning advertisement for homosexual desire, and a prototypical portrait of a tortured closet case. Due to Saint Sebastians status as a gay icon, Tennessee Williams chose to use the name for the martyred character Sebastian in his play, Suddenly. The name was used by Oscar Wilde—as Sebastian Melmoth—when in exile after his release from prison. Wilde, an Irish writer and poet, was about as out of the closet as was possible for the late 19th century, marie Antoinette was an early lesbian icon. Rumors about her relationships with women circulated in pornographic detail by anti-royalist pamphlets before the French Revolution, by the end of the 19th century, she was a cult icon of sapphism. Her execution, seen as tragic martyrdom, may have added to her appeal, sick to death of the subterfuge and pretenses. She had crossover appeal as a gay icon, as well, at least for French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist Jean Genet and he included a reenactment of her execution in his 1947 play The Maids. Modern gay icons in entertainment include both film stars and musicians, most of whom have strong, distinctive personalities, and many of whom died young or under tragic circumstances. Lesbian icons, sometimes called dykons are most often women who are, or are rumored to be. However, a few male entertainers have also had iconic status for lesbian people, james Dean was an early lesbian icon who, along with Marlon Brando, influenced the butch look and self-image in the 1950s and after. One critic has argued for Johnny Cash as a lesbian icon, attributing his appeal to lesbian identification with troubled. Science fiction author Forrest J Ackerman was dubbed an honorary lesbian for his help during the days of lesbian rights organisation Daughters of BilitisGay icons – Actress and singer Judy Garland is cited as one of the quintessential gay icons
66. Gay Liberation – The gay liberation movement of the late 1960s through the mid-1980s urged lesbians and gay men to engage in radical direct action, and to counter societal shame with gay pride. In this period, annual political marches through cities, usually held in June were still known as Gay Liberation marches. It wasnt until later in the seventies and well into the eighties in smaller communities, the movement involved the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in North America, South America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. The New York Times refused to use the word gay, insisting on homosexual up until 1987, in order to achieve such liberation, consciousness raising and direct action were employed. Sometimes the term gay liberation movement is used synonymously or interchangeably with the term gay rights movement. Thus, when used in way, gay liberation refers to a universal. Although the Stonewall riots of 1969 in New York are popularly remembered as the spark produced a new movement. Certainly, militant resistance to police bar-raids was nothing new — as early as 1725, organized movements, particularly in Western Europe, have been active since the 19th century, producing publications, forming social groups and campaigning for social and legal reform. The movements of the immediately preceding gay lib, from the end of World War II to the late 1960s, are known collectively as the homophile movement. Early 1960s New York, under the Wagner administration, was beset with harassment against the gay community, homosexuals were seen as the subject of a drive to rid the city of undesirables. Subsequently, only the Mafia had the power and financial resources to run gay bars, kameny, founder of Mattachine Washington in 1961, had advocated militant action reminiscent of the black civil rights campaign, while also arguing for the morality of homosexuality. The New York State Liquor Authority did not allow homosexuals to be served in licensed bars in the state under penalty of revocation of the license to operate. This denial of public accommodation had been confirmed by a decision in the early 1940s. This came to be known as the Sip In and only succeeded at the attempt in the Julius Bar in Greenwich Village. The Sip In, though, did gain extensive media attention, however, the significance of the new John Lindsay administration and the use of the media by Mattachine New York should not be underestimated in ending police entrapment. Lindsay would later gain a reputation for placing much focus on quelling social troubles in the city and it was during this time that Los Angeles saw its first big gay movement. In 1967, the night of New Years, several police officers infiltrated the Black Cat Tavern. After arresting several patrons for kissing to celebrate the occasion, the officers began beating several patrons and this created a riot in the immediate area, ultimately bringing about a more civil demonstration of over 200 attendees several days later protesting the raidsGay Liberation – LGBT history
67. Homosexuality and religion – Present day doctrines of the worlds major religions vary vastly generally and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations. Religious fundamentalism has been found to correlate positively with anti-homosexual bias, many argue that it is homosexual actions which are sinful, rather than the state of being homosexual itself. To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation, several organizations exist that assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction. Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality, such mythologies, for example, Hinduism does not view homosexuality as a religious sin. In 2009, the Hindu Council UK released the statement Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality, the Sikh holy scriptures The Guru Granth Sahib, teaches tolerance, equality and acceptance of all people, regardless of race, religion, gender, or sexuality. Sikh wedding ceremonies are non-gender specific, and so same-sex marriage is possible within Sikhism, regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed, the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and teaching that such behavior is sinful. The Torah is the source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that, shall not lie with another man as with a woman, orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. Conservative Judaism has engaged in a study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa for communal consideration. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the basis as heterosexuality. Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful. Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God, as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovahs Witnesses and Mormons, Liberal Christians are supportive of homosexuals. Some Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad or evil, the United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions. The Episcopal Churchs recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England, in the United States and many other nations, the religious people are becoming more affirming of same-sex relationships. Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups, passages from the Mosaic Covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death. AIDS has also portrayed by some fundamentalist sects such as Fred Phelps. As such, it is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict Gods design are deemed sinful and are condemned by God, protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationshipsHomosexuality and religion – Conservative Christian protesters at a 2006 San Francisco Pride event
68. Societal attitudes towards homosexuality – Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexuality, some sanction same-sex love and sexuality, as with heterosexual behaviour, different sets of prescriptions and proscriptions may be given to individuals according to their gender, age, social status or social class. Many countries have seen rising support for LGBT rights in modern times. Since the 1970s, much of the world has become more accepting of same-sex sexuality between partners of legal age, the survey also finds acceptance of homosexuality is particularly widespread in countries where religion is less central in peoples lives. These are also among the richest countries in the world, in contrast, in poorer countries with high levels of religiosity, few believe homosexuality should be accepted by society. Age is also a factor in several countries, with younger respondents offering far more tolerant views than older ones, and while gender differences are not prevalent, in those countries where they are, women are consistently more accepting of homosexuality than men. In the case of Sambia boys in New Guinea who ingest the semen of males to aid in their maturation. Behaviors that today would be regarded as homosexual, at least in the West. From the 1970s, academics have researched attitudes held by individuals toward lesbians, gay men and bisexuals, numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of acceptance and disapproval of homosexuality, and have consistently found correlates with various demographic, psychological, and social variables. They are also likely to have positive attitudes towards other minority groups and are less likely to support traditional gender roles. Herek found that females tended to exhibit equally positive or negative attitudes toward gay men. The heterosexual males, however, tended to respond more negatively, or unfavorably, the extent to which such portrayals are stereotypes is disputed. Contemporary researchers have measured attitudes held by heterosexuals toward gay men, certain populations are also found to accept homosexuality more than others. In the United States, African-Americans are generally tolerant of homosexuality than European or Hispanic Americans. However, recent polls after President Barack Obamas public support of same-sex marriage shift attitudes to 59% support among African Americans, israelis were found to be the most accepting of homosexuality among Middle Eastern nations and Israeli laws and culture reflect that. According to a 2007 poll, a majority of Israeli Jews say they would accept a gay child. A2013 Haaretz poll found that most of the Arab and Haredi sector saw homosexuality negatively, while the majority of secular, much less research has been conducted into societal attitudes toward bisexuality. Research show that people with more permissive attitudes on sexual orientation issues tend to be younger, well-educated, tolerant attitudes toward homosexuality and bisexuality have been increasing with timeSocietal attitudes towards homosexuality – Protesters at a 2006 gay pride event. San Francisco, United States.
69. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014