1. Capital punishment – Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment,103 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes. Capital punishment is a matter of controversy in various countries and states. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment, also, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members. The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007,2008,2010,2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a moratorium on executions. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India. Execution of criminals and political opponents has been used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime, in most countries that practise capital punishment it is reserved for murder, terrorism, war crimes, espionage, treason, defection or as part of military justice. In many countries use the death penalty, drug trafficking is also a capital offence. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are punished by the death penalty, in militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. The use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history, most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment, usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice. The response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included a formal apology, a blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of a system based on state or organized religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour, acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished. However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context, compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individualsCapital punishment – Anarchist Auguste Vaillant guillotined in France in 1894
2. Civil union – A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage. These unions have been established in a number of countries since the late 1990s, in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, they have since been replaced, and in a number of other countries supplemented, by same-sex marriage. Civil unions are often seen by campaigners as a first step towards legalizing marriage for same-sex couples, while civil unions are predominantly established for both opposite-sex and same-sex couples, in a number of countries they are available to same-sex couples only. In Brazil, civil unions were first created for opposite-sex couples in 2002, same-sex marriages performed abroad are commonly recognised as civil unions in jurisdictions that only have the latter. The terms used to designate civil unions are not standardized, the exact level of rights, benefits, obligations, and responsibilities also varies, depending on the laws of a particular country. Some jurisdictions allow same-sex couples to adopt, while others forbid them to do so, Civil unions are not seen as a replacement for marriage by many in the LGBT community. Marriage in the United States is a union, but a civil union, as it has come to be called, is not marriage. It is a proposed hypothetical legal mechanism, since it doesnt exist in most places, to some of the protections. Theres no good reason to do that, the California Supreme Court, in the In Re Marriage Cases decision, noted nine differences in state law. Civil unions are commonly criticised as being separate but equal, critics say they segregate same-sex couples by forcing them to use a separate institution. A New Jersey commission which reviewed the civil union law reported that the law invites and encourages unequal treatment of same-sex couples. Some have suggested that creating civil unions which are open to opposite-sex couples would avoid the accusations of apartheid and these have still been criticised as being separate but equal by former New Zealand MP and feminist Marilyn Waring as same-sex couples remain excluded from the right to marry. Many supporters of same-sex marriage state that the word marriage matters, former US Solicitor General and attorney in the Perry v. Many also contend that the fact that civil unions are not understood can cause difficulty for same-sex couples in emergency situations. Countries, territories and cities which introduced civil unions for same-sex and/or opposite-sex couples, the City of Villa Carlos Paz allowed it from 2007. And since 2009 the city of Río Cuarto allows Civil Unions too, all levels of Australian Governments under nearly all Australian statutes do recognise same-sex couples as de facto couples as unregistered co-habitation or de facto status since 2009. From 1 July 2009 Centrelink recognised same-sex couples equally regarding social security – under the common-law marriage, Cohabitation grants 112 benefits as family entities in Brazil since 2002. It is known as união estável when both parts are legally authorized to marry, and as concubinato when at least one part is legally prohibited from doing soCivil union – The notion of civil unions is rejected by some, such as this protester at a large demonstration in New York City against California Proposition 8.
3. Public display of affection – Public displays of affection are acts of physical intimacy in the view of others. What is a display of affection varies with respect to culture. Displays of affection in a place, such as the street, are more likely to be objected to. Some organizations have rules limiting or prohibiting public displays of affection, Physical affection has been defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver and/or the recipient. Get a room is a phrase that is said when one feels a sense of disapproval after seeing what they consider to be an excessive public display of affection. Various studies have found physical affection to be associated with positive outcomes in romantic relationships, five of these behaviors, with the exception of caressing/stroking and holding hands, have been significantly positively associated with relationship and partner satisfaction. Expression of a person’s feelings towards someone else had previously limited to written letters, phone calls. In the modern world, social media such as Facebook and Twitter are growing, with 1.7 billion users on Facebook. However, many now feel uncomfortable or irritated seeing public displays of affection through social media. After two people meet and form an interest, one or both individuals will go onto the other person’s Facebook page and get information such as status, pictures. Once a relationship begins, some couples broadcast their relationship with posts, such as pictures, how people show their public displays of affection on social media sites can be indicative of relationship security and personality. A study found female characters on prime time televisions programs are less likely to demonstrate physical affection if they had a larger body type than thinner female characters. It is well recognized that relationships outside the family become increasingly important during adolescence, much more research has been done in the area of specific adolescent behaviors, which has shown that these behaviors are predicted well by relationship variables to include the display of affection. Affection or intimacy references a pattern of conduct within relationships that includes subjective assessments of attachment and this pattern of conduct is a part of a larger constellation of factors that contributes to an adolescent’s development of a non-parental relationship. A number of sociologists have explored the general terrain of gender relations, although several of the key studies focus on preadolescence. Their work is important in highlighting the degree to which features of early relations. Adolescents conceptions about and conduct within these relationships are heavily influenced by interaction and communication with other girls or other boys, specific rules emerge and gossip or other social sanctions serve as important sources of informal social control around these rules. Research moves into the adolescent period when youths are old enough to say they are going steady and is useful in actually characterizing the nature of these relationshipsPublic display of affection – Married couple's first kiss
4. The Well of Loneliness – The Well of Loneliness is a 1928 lesbian novel by the British author Radclyffe Hall. It follows the life of Stephen Gordon, an Englishwoman from a family whose sexual inversion is apparent from an early age. The novel portrays inversion as a natural, God-given state and makes an explicit plea, although its only sexual reference consists of the words and that night, they were not divided, a British court judged it obscene because it defended unnatural practices between women. In the United States the book survived legal challenges in New York state, publicity over The Wells legal battles increased the visibility of lesbians in British and American culture. For decades it was the lesbian novel in English. Some readers have valued it, while others have criticized it for Stephens expressions of self-hatred and its role in promoting images of lesbians as mannish or cross-dressed women has also been controversial. Although critics differ as to the value of The Well as a work of literature, its treatment of sexuality and gender continues to inspire study, in 1926, Radclyffe Hall was at the height of her career. Her novel Adams Breed, about the awakening of an Italian headwaiter, had become a bestseller, it would soon win the Prix Femina. She had long thought of writing a novel about sexual inversion, now, she believed, since she knew she was risking scandal and the shipwreck of her whole career, she sought and received the blessing of her partner, Una Troubridge, before she began work. In April 1928 she told her editor that her new book would require complete commitment from its publisher, I have put my pen at the service of some of the most persecuted and misunderstood people in the world. So far as I know nothing of the kind has ever attempted before in fiction. The books protagonist, Stephen Gordon, is born in the late Victorian era to upper-class parents in Worcestershire who are expecting a boy, even at birth she is physically unusual, a narrow-hipped, wide-shouldered little tadpole of a baby. She hates dresses, wants to cut her short. At seven, she develops a crush on a housemaid named Collins and her mother, Lady Anna, is distant, seeing Stephen as a blemished, unworthy, maimed reproduction of Sir Phillip. At eighteen, Stephen forms a friendship with a Canadian man, Martin Hallam. The following winter, Sir Phillip is crushed by a tree, at the last moment he tries to explain to Lady Anna that Stephen is an invert. Stephen begins to dress in clothes made by a tailor rather than a dressmaker. At twenty-one she falls in love with Angela Crossby, the American wife of a new neighbor, Angela uses Stephen as an anodyne against boredom, allowing her a few rather schoolgirlish kissesThe Well of Loneliness – Cover of the first edition
5. Radclyffe Hall – Marguerite Radclyffe Hall was an English poet and author. She is best known for the novel The Well of Loneliness, the novel has become a groundbreaking work in lesbian literature. Marguerite Radclyffe Hall was born in 1880 at Sunny Lawn, Durley Road, Bournemouth, Hampshire, to a philandering father. Her stepfather was the professor of singing Albert Visetti, whom she did not like, Hall was a lesbian and described herself as a congenital invert, a term taken from the writings of Havelock Ellis and other turn-of-the-century sexologists. Having reached adulthood without a vocation, she spent much of her twenties pursuing women she eventually lost to marriage, in 1907 at the Homburg spa in Germany, Hall met Mabel Batten, a well-known amateur singer of lieder. Batten was 51 to Halls 27, and was married with an adult daughter and they fell in love, and after Battens husband died they set up residence together. Batten gave Hall the nickname John, which she used the rest of her life, under Battens influence, Hall converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1915 Hall fell in love with Mabel Battens cousin Una Troubridge, a sculptor who was the wife of Vice-Admiral Ernest Troubridge, Batten died the following year, and in 1917 Radclyffe Hall and Una Troubridge began living together. The relationship would last until Halls death, in 1934 Hall fell in love with Russian émigré Evguenia Souline and embarked upon a long-term affair with her, which Troubridge painfully tolerated. She became involved in affairs with women throughout the years. Hall lived with Troubridge in London and, during the 1930s, in the town of Rye, East Sussex, noted for its many writers. Hall died at age 63 of colon cancer, and is interred at Highgate Cemetery in North London, in 1930, Hall received the Gold Medal of the Eichelbergher Humane Award. She was a member of the PEN club, the Council of the Society for Psychical Research, Radclyffe Hall was listed at number sixteen in the top 500 lesbian and gay heroes in The Pink Paper. Its length and grimness made it a book to sell, so she deliberately chose a lighter theme for her next novel. While she had used her name for her early poetry collections. The book was a modest success, making the bestseller list of John OLondons Weekly, the Unlit Lamp, which followed it into print, was the first of her books to give the authors name simply as Radclyffe Hall. The books mystical themes have been compared to Hermann Hesses Siddhartha and it sold well, was critically acclaimed, and won both the Prix Femina and the James Tait Black Prize, a feat previously achieved only by E. M. Forsters A Passage to India. Halls best-known work was The Well of Loneliness, the one of her eight novels to have overt lesbian themesRadclyffe Hall – Radclyffe Hall
6. English people – The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language. The English identity is of medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD, England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England along with the later Danes, Normans, in the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system and these and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire. The concept of an English nation is far older than that of the British nation, many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word English to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their national identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as English and it is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words English and British to be used interchangeably, especially overseas. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say English, I mean British. He notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners. Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of Englands dominant position with the UK and it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles. In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago and it meant indiscriminately England and Wales, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a Great Power and indeed continue to do so, bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as Prime Minister of England Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of England except for a geographic area brings protests and this version of history is now regarded by many historians as incorrect, on the basis of more recent genetic and archaeological research. The 2016 study authored by Stephan Schiffels et al, the remaining portion of English DNA is primarily French, introduced in a migration after the end of the Ice AgeEnglish people
7. World War I – World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and GermanyWorld War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
8. Elagabalus – Elagabalus /ˌɛləˈɡæbələs/, also known as Heliogabalus, was Roman emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan dynasty, he was Syrian, the son of Julia Soaemias. In his early youth he served as a priest of the god Elagabal in the hometown of his mothers family, as a private citizen, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus. Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus and he was called Elagabalus only after his death. In 217, the emperor Caracalla was assassinated and replaced by his Praetorian prefect, Caracallas maternal aunt, Julia Maesa, successfully instigated a revolt among the Legio III Gallica to have her eldest grandson, Elagabalus, declared emperor in his place. Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218 at the Battle of Antioch, Elagabalus, barely 14 years old, became emperor, initiating a reign remembered mainly for sex scandals and religious controversy. Later historians suggest Elagabalus showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and he replaced the traditional head of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter, with the deity of whom he was high priest, Elagabalus. He forced leading members of Romes government to participate in religious rites celebrating this deity and his behavior estranged the Praetorian Guard, the Senate, and the common people alike. Amidst growing opposition, Elagabalus, just 18 years old, was assassinated and replaced by his cousin Severus Alexander on 11 March 222, the plot was devised by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, and carried out by disaffected members of the Praetorian Guard. Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for extreme eccentricity, decadence and this tradition has persisted, and with writers of the early modern age he suffers one of the worst reputations among Roman emperors. Edward Gibbon, for example, wrote that Elagabalus abandoned himself to the grossest pleasures, according to Barthold Georg Niebuhr, The name Elagabalus is branded in history above all others because of his unspeakably disgusting life. Elagabalus was born around the year 203 to Sextus Varius Marcellus and his father was initially a member of the Equites class, but was later elevated to the rank of senator. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, was the widow of the consul Julius Avitus, the sister of Julia Domna, and he had at least one sibling, an unnamed elder brother. His mother, Julia Soaemias, was a cousin of the Roman emperor Caracalla and his other relatives included his aunt Julia Avita Mamaea and uncle Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus and among their children, their son Severus Alexander. Elagabaluss family held hereditary rights to the priesthood of the sun god Elagabal, the deity Elagabalus was initially venerated at Emesa. This form of the name is a Latinized version of the Syrian Ilāh hag-Gabal, which derives from Ilāh and gabal, resulting in the God of the Mountain. The cult of the deity spread to parts of the Roman Empire in the 2nd century. The god was later imported and assimilated with the Roman sun god known as Sol Indiges in republican times and as Sol Invictus during the second, in Greek the sun god is Helios, hence Heliogabalus, a hybrid conjunction of Helios and ElagabalusElagabalus – Bust of Elagabalus, from the Capitoline Museums
9. Roman Emperor – The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors also used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, Consul, the first emperors reigned alone, later emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, Tiberius, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic. Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were then referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power. Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, then Julius Caesar had been an emperor, however, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some later historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princepsRoman Emperor – Augustus
10. Stephen Fry – Stephen John Fry is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist. While at university, he involved with the Cambridge Footlights. As half of the double act Fry and Laurie, he co-wrote and co-starred in A Bit of Fry & Laurie and also took the role of Jeeves in Jeeves. He was also the long-time host of the BBC television quiz show QI and he has also filmed commercials, including an advertisement where he explains the essence of British culture to foreigners arriving at Londons Heathrow Airport. Fry was born in Hampstead, London, on 24 August 1957, the son of Marianne Eve Fry and Alan John Fry, a British physicist and inventor. The Fry family originates in Dorset, at Shillingstone and Blandford, in the early 1800s, Samuel Fry settled in Surrey, Frys mother is Jewish, but he was not brought up in a religious family. His maternal grandparents, Martin and Rosa Neumann, were Hungarian Jews, rosas parents, who originally lived in Vienna, Austria, were sent to a concentration camp in Riga, Latvia, where they were murdered. His mothers aunt and cousins were sent to Auschwitz and Stutthof, Frys father is English, and his paternal grandmother had roots in Kent and Cheshire. Fry grew up in the village of Booton near Reepham, Norfolk, having moved from Chesham, Buckinghamshire and he has an elder brother, Roger, and a younger sister, Joanna. He was expelled from Uppingham when he was 15 and subsequently from the Paston School, at 17, after leaving Norfolk College of Arts and Technology, Fry absconded with a credit card stolen from a family friend. He had taken a coat when leaving a pub, planning to spend the night sleeping rough and he was arrested in Swindon, and, as a result, spent three months in Pucklechurch Prison on remand. While Fry was in Pucklechurch, his mother had cut out the crossword from every copy of The Times since he had been away, Fry later stated that these crosswords were the only thing that got him through the ordeal. Following his release, he resumed his education at City College Norwich and he scored well enough to gain a scholarship to Queens College, Cambridge. At Cambridge, Fry joined the Cambridge Footlights, appeared on University Challenge, Fry also met his future comedy collaborator Hugh Laurie at Cambridge and starred alongside him in the Footlights Club. Frys career in television began with the 1982 broadcasting of The Cellar Tapes, a second series, retitled Alfresco, was broadcast in 1983, and a third in 1984, it established Fry and Lauries reputation as a comedy double act. In 1983, the BBC offered Fry, Laurie and Thompson their own show, which became The Crystal Cube, undeterred, Fry and Laurie appeared in an episode of The Young Ones in 1984, and Fry also appeared in Ben Eltons 1985 Happy Families series. In 1986 and 1987 Fry and Laurie performed sketches on the LWT/Channel 4 show Saturday Live, forgiving Fry and Laurie for The Crystal Cube, the BBC commissioned, in 1986, a sketch show that was to become A Bit of Fry & Laurie. The programme ran for 26 episodes spanning four series between 1986 and 1995, and was very successful, in a 1988 television special, Blackadders Christmas Carol, he played the roles of Lord Melchett and Lord FrondoStephen Fry – Fry in Happy Birthday to GNU (2008)
11. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
12. Actor – Anyone who meets the eligibility requirements may apply for aid, which could vary from medical assistance, paying rent, or finding employment. Heros benefits are not meant to be a permanent crutch for needy creators, any granted aid is kept confidential. The Hero Initiative has two boards of directors, the Executive Board and the Fund Disbursement Board, former board members include founders Pat McCallum, editor-in-chief of Wizard Magazine, and Mike Richardson, publisher and founder of Dark Horse Comics. They are George Pérez, Roy Thomas, Charlie Novinskie, Dennis ONeil, John Romita Sr. the charity is currently supported by Dark Horse Comics, Dynamic Forces, Image Comics, Marvel Entertainment, Top Cow Productions, and Wizard Entertainment. The Hero Initiative utilizes many methods of fundraising, foremost is their annual art auction, auctioning donated original comics art-work at fan conventions. Year-long, they sell donated art and special edition comics at conventions, artists, writers, and publishers are invited to donate work, and fans are invited to donate money directly to the fund. ACTOR also sells a green Excelsior, wrist-band similar in design to the Livestrong wristband. The Hero Initiative was formerly known as A Commitment to Our Roots, or ACTOR, while the original name of the organization reflected the charitys goal, the acronym that resulted, ACTOR, more often confused people unfamiliar with the organization. 2006, George Pérez, John Romita, Sr.2007, Joe Kubert 2008, Nick Cardy 2009, Neal Adams 2010, Walt Simonson 2011, Stan Lee 2012, John Romita, Jr. The award recognizes one person in each year who demonstrates particular generosity and integrity in support of the overall comic book community. It debuted at the 2010 Harvey Awards ceremony held at the Baltimore Comic-ConActor – The Hero Initiative
13. Writer – A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers texts are published across a range of media, skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term. Some writers work from an oral tradition, Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas, some writers may use images or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words, as well as producing their own written works, writers often write on how they write, why they write, and also comment on the work of other writers. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be either in advance. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work, Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium, for example, a writers work may be read privately or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, the writer of a letter may include elements of criticism, biography, or journalism. The genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted, novel to film, poem to play, Writers may begin their career in one genre and change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature, many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of detail in the work both tend to be debated. Some writers write both fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was also a playwright, essayist, translator, poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one. To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they also exploit the properties of words with a range of techniques such as alliteration. A common theme is love and its vicissitudes, Shakespeares famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versionsWriter – Sculpture of Anonymus in Budapest.
14. Comedian – A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh. This might be through jokes or amusing situations, or acting a fool, as in slapstick, a comedian who addresses an audience directly is called a stand-up comic. Since the 1980s, a new wave of comedy, called alternative comedy, has grown in popularity with its more offbeat and this normally involves more experiential, or observational reporting, e. g. Alexei Sayle, Daniel Tosh, Louis C. K. and Malcolm Hardee. Many comics achieve a cult following while touring famous comedy hubs such as the Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, the Edinburgh Fringe, often a comics career advances significantly when they win a notable comedy award, such as the Edinburgh Comedy Award. Comics sometimes foray into other areas of entertainment, such as film and television, however, a comics stand-up success does not guarantee a films critical or box office success. Comedians can be dated back to 425 BC, when Aristophanes and he wrote 40 comedies,11 of which survive and are still being performed. Aristophanes comedy style took the form of satyr plays, the English poet and playwright William Shakespeare wrote many comedies. A Shakespearean comedy is one that has an ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted than Shakespeares other plays. Charles Chaplin was the most popular comedian of the first half of the 20th century. He wrote comedic silent films such as Modern Times and The Kid and his films still have a major impact on comedy in films today. One of the most popular forms of comedy is stand-up comedy. Stand-up comedy is a monologue performed by one or more people standing on a stage. Bob Hope was the most popular comedian of the 20th century. Other noted stand-up comedians include George Carlin, Jerry Seinfeld, Lenny Bruce, Mort Sahl, Louis CK, another popular form of modern-day comedy is talk shows where comedians make fun of current news or popular topics. Such comedians include Jay Leno, Conan OBrien, Daniel Tosh, Chris Hardwick, Jimmy Fallon, David Letterman, a third form of modern-day comedy is television programs in which many comedians band together to make skits, such as Saturday Night Live. These shows often receive high ratings, likely because many comedians band together to create jokes, one of the most successful comedians is Ellen Degeneres, who has parlayed her comic career into film, television shows, and hosting major media events. In 1986, Ellen DeGeneres appeared for the first time on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson since she began gaining popularity as a comic in the 1980s. Johnny Carson, who launched many contemporary comics careers, would invite them to join him on the couch for one-on-one conversation after their setComedian – Charlie Chaplin in the film The Champion, 1915
15. Television presenter – A presenter is a person who introduces or hosts television programs. Some presenters may double as an actor, model, singer, others may be subject matter experts, such as scientists or politicians, serving as presenters for a programme about their field of expertise. Some are celebrities who have made their name in one area, another example would be American stand-up comedian Joe Rogan, who is a commentator and post-fight interviewer in UFC. The term is used in other countries including Ireland, Australia. In the US, such a person is called a hostTelevision presenter – Chris Tarrant is a British radio and television presenter.
16. Film director – A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. Generally, a film director controls a films artistic and dramatic aspects, the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film, the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions, there are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers, film editors or actors, other film directors have attended a film school. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors dialogue, while others control every aspect. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners, some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. Film directors create a vision through which a film eventually becomes realized/noticed. Realizing this vision includes overseeing the artistic and technical elements of production, as well as directing the shooting timetable. This entails organizing the crew in such a way as to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful. Moreover, it is necessary to have an eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus. Thus the director ensures that all involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as a jigsaw puzzle with egos. It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when, omnipresent are the boundaries of the films budget. Additionally, the director may also have to ensure an intended age rating, thus, the position of film director is widely considered to be a highly stressful and demanding one. It has been said that 20-hour days are not unusual, under European Union law, the film director is considered the author or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a directors film reflects the directors personal creative visionFilm director – American director Steven Spielberg with Sri Lankan film maker Chandran Rutnam in Sri Lanka
17. Hugh Laurie – James Hugh Calum Laurie OBE is an English actor, writer, director, musician, singer and comedian. From 2004 to 2012, he played Dr. Gregory House, Laurie was listed in the 2011 Guinness World Records as the most watched leading man on television and was one of the highest-paid actors in a television drama, earning £250,000 per episode in House. Laurie has portrayed Senator Tom James in HBO political satire Veep since 2015, in 2016 Laurie appeared in the BBC / AMC miniseries The Night Manager, and received the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, his third overall. The youngest of four children, he has a brother named Charles Alexander Lyon Mundell Laurie. He had a relationship with his mother, Patricia. He notes that his mother was Presbyterian by character, by mood and his father, William George Ranald Mundell Laurie, was a doctor who won an Olympic gold medal in the coxless pairs at the 1948 London Games. Lauries parents, who were of Scottish descent, attended St. Columbas Presbyterian Church of England in Oxford and he notes that belief in God didnt play a large role in my home, but a certain attitude to life and the living of it did. He followed this by stating, pleasure was something that was treated with great suspicion, I was going to say it had to be earned but even the earning of it didnt really work. It was something to this day, I mean, I carry that with me, I find pleasure a difficult thing, I dont know what you do with it, I dont know where to put it. He has stated, I dont believe in God, but I have this idea that if there were a God, or destiny of some kind looking down on us, that if he saw you taking anything for granted hed take it away. Laurie was brought up in Oxford and attended the Dragon School from ages seven to 13 and notes that he was, in truth, Not much given to things of a bookey nature, spent a large part of youth smoking Number Six and cheating in French vocabulary tests. Laurie went on to Eton College, which he describes as the most private of private schools and he attributes his attending Selwyn College, Cambridge, as a result of family tradition as his father went to Cambridge and I applied to the same college. Laurie notes his father had a bout as an oarsman at Cambridge. He studied for a degree in archaeology and anthropology, specialising in social anthropology, in 1980, Laurie and his rowing partner, J. S. Palmer, were runners-up in the Silver Goblets coxless pairs for Eton Vikings rowing club, later, Laurie also achieved a Blue while taking part in the 1980 Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Cambridge lost that year by five feet, during this time, Laurie was training for up to eight hours a day and was on course to become an Olympic-standard rower. Laurie is a member of Leander Club, one of the oldest rowing clubs in the world and he was also a member of the Hermes Club and the Hawks Club. Forced to abandon rowing during a bout of fever, Laurie joined the Cambridge FootlightsHugh Laurie – Laurie performing in May 2012
18. A Bit of Fry and Laurie – It ran for four series and totalled 26 episodes, including a 36-minute pilot episode in 1987. As in The Two Ronnies, elaborate wordplay and innuendo were staples of its material and it frequently broke the fourth wall, characters would revert into their real-life actors mid-sketch, or the camera would often pan off set into the studio. In addition, the show was punctuated with non-sequitur vox pops in a style to those of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, often making irrelevant statements. Laurie was also playing piano and a wide variety of other instruments. The 36-minute pilot was broadcast on BBC1 at 11. 55pm on Boxing Day 1987, the full version is intact on the Series 1 DVD. It was the first pilot Fry and Laurie had produced for the BBC since 1983, their previous attempt, the show began its full run at 9pm on Friday 13 January 1989. The first three series were screened on BBC2, the home for the BBCs sketch shows, while the fourth series switched to the mainstream BBC1. One reviewer said that, perhaps owing to this, Fry got more of the laughs, the show did not shy away from commenting on issues of the day. A sketch in the series, in which a Conservative government minister is strangled while Stephen Fry screams at him What are you doing to the television system. What are you doing to the country, is an attack on the Broadcasting Act of 1990 and the perceived motivations of those who supported it. The pair would later attack what they saw as the Acts malign aftereffects in the sketch Its a Soaraway Life, Noel Edmonds was also a frequent target. During a sketch where Fry had supposedly removed Lauries brain, Laurie came out and said that he had just finished watching Noel Edmonds and that he is fantastic. Originating from the childrens TV show Romper Room, each episode of Series 3 and 4 ends with Stephen Fry preparing a ridiculously named, Fry entreats Laurie to play the closing theme by saying, Please, Mr Music, will you play. He then shakes the cocktail while dancing eccentrically and serves it to Laurie or the guest performers, while Laurie plays the piano, I say, And now into the cocktail shaker of my mouth I throw these six words, You Please Music Mr Will Play. A running joke had one character adding if youll pardon the pun mid-conversation, the second character, puzzled, would say, What pun. and the first character would say, Oh, wasnt there one. Im sorry, and resume the conversation, mcolleague is a phrase that Fry and Laurie began using during the third series to refer to each other. Though the programme consisted of one-time situations and sketches, a few characters appeared over several episodes and series. Alan is hired as an agent by a mysterious organisation known only as The Department, before which he was a gun-runner, supply teacherA Bit of Fry and Laurie – Title screen from the first series of A Bit of Fry & Laurie
19. Jeeves and Wooster – Jeeves and Wooster is a British comedy-drama series adapted by Clive Exton from P. G. Wodehouses Jeeves stories. The series was a collaboration between Brian Eastman of Picture Partnership Productions and Granada Television and it aired on the ITV network from 22 April 1990 to 20 June 1993, with the last series nominated for a British Academy Television Award for Best Drama Series. Wooster is a bachelor, an aristocrat and member of the idle rich. He and his friends, who are members of The Drones Club, are extricated from all manner of societal misadventures by the indispensable valet Jeeves. The stories are set in the United Kingdom and the United States in a period between the late 1920s and the 1930s. When Fry and Laurie began the series they were already a double act due to regular appearances on Channel 4s Friday Night Live. The theme is a piece of music in the jazz/swing style written by composer Anne Dudley for the programme. Dudley uses variations of the theme as a basis for all of the scores and was nominated for a British Academy Television Award for her work on the third series. Many of the programmes supporting roles—including significant characters such as Aunt Agatha, Madeline Bassett, one prominent character, Aunt Dahlia, was played by a different actress in each of the four series. Conversely, Francesca Folan played two different characters, Madeline Bassett in series one and Lady Florence Craye in series four. Four series were produced, with 23 episodes in total, each series but the first consisted of six episodes, the five episodes of the first series were directed by Robert Young and first aired in April and May 1990. The second series, directed by Simon Langton, aired in April, the third series, directed by Ferdinand Fairfax, aired from March to May 1992. Fairfax also directed the six episodes of the fourth and final series, the third series of Jeeves and Wooster won a British Academy Television Award for Best Design for Eileen Diss. The final series won a British Academy Television Award for Best Graphics for Derek W. Granada Media released all four series on DVD in Region 2 between 2000 and 2002. On 1 September 2008, ITV Studios Home Entertainment released Jeeves and Wooster, The Complete Collection, in Region 1, A&E Home Video released the entire series on DVD in the US and Canada. In Region 4, Shock Entertainment has released the series on DVD in Australia. It was initially released in sets in 2007/2008, followed by a complete series collection on 4 August 2008. Interior shots of Skeldings Hall were filmed at Home House, a house in LondonJeeves and Wooster – The title card of Jeeves and Wooster
20. Blackadder – Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 period British sitcoms, along with several one-off installments. All television episodes starred Rowan Atkinson as the anti-hero Edmund Blackadder, the first series, The Black Adder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson, while subsequent episodes were written by Curtis and Ben Elton. The shows were produced by John Lloyd, in 2000, the fourth series, Blackadder Goes Forth, ranked at 16 in the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes, a list created by the British Film Institute. Also in the 2004 TV poll to find Britains Best Sitcom, Blackadder was voted the second-best British sitcom of all time, topped by Only Fools and it was also ranked as the 20th-best TV show of all time by Empire magazine. It is implied in each series that the Blackadder character is a descendant of the previous one, as the generations progress, each Blackadder becomes increasingly clever and perceptive, while the familys social status steadily erodes. However, each Blackadder remains a cynical, cowardly opportunist, maintaining and increasing his own status and fortunes, the life of each Blackadder is also entwined with his servant, each from the Baldrick family line. Each generation acts as the dogsbody to his respective Blackadder and they decrease in intelligence as their masters intellect increases. Each Blackadder and Baldrick is also saddled with tolerating the presence of a dim-witted aristocrat, each series was set in a different period of British history, beginning in 1485 and ending in 1917, and comprised six half-hour episodes. The first series, made in 1983, was called The Black Adder and was set in the reign of Richard IV. The second series, Blackadder II, was set during the reign of Elizabeth I, Blackadder the Third was set during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the reign of George III, and Blackadder Goes Forth was set in 1917 in the trenches of the Great War. The Black Adder, the first series of Blackadder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson and it originally aired on BBC1 from 15 June 1983 to 20 July 1983, and was a joint production with the Australian Seven Network. Along with the history, many historical events portrayed in the series were anachronistic. The filming of the series was highly ambitious, with a large cast, the series also featured Shakespearean dialogue, often adapted for comic effect, the end credits featured the words Additional Dialogue by William Shakespeare. Blackadder II is set in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the principal character is Edmund, Lord Blackadder, the great-grandson of the original Black Adder. During the series, he deals with the Queen, her obsequious Lord Chamberlain Lord Melchett —his rival—and the Queens demented former nanny Nursie. Following the BBCs request for improvements, several changes were made, the second series was the first to establish the familiar Blackadder character, cunning, shrewd, and witty, in sharp contrast to the first series bumbling Prince Edmund. To make the show more cost-effective, it was shot with virtually no outdoor scenes and several frequently used indoor sets, such as the Queens throne room. Blackadder the Third is set in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, in the series, Edmund Blackadder Esquire is the butler to the Prince Regent, the Prince of WalesBlackadder – Left to right: (back) Tim McInnerny, Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie, (front) Rowan Atkinson and Tony Robinson in Blackadder Goes Forth
21. QI – In traditional Chinese culture, qì or chi is an active principle forming part of any living thing. Qi literally translates as breath, air, or gas, and figuratively as material energy, life force, Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. Some elements of the concept of qi can be found in the energy when used in the context of various esoteric forms of spirituality. Notions in the West of energeia, élan vital, or vitalism are purported to be similar, despite widespread belief in the reality of qi, it is a non-scientific, unverifiable concept. The logograph 氣 is read with two Chinese pronunciations, the usual qì 氣 air, vital energy and the rare archaic xì 氣 to present food, pronunciations of 氣 in Sino-Xenic borrowings include, Japanese language ki, Korean language gi, and Vietnamese language khi. Reconstructions of the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 氣, standardized to IPA transcription, include, /kʰe̯iH/, /kʰĭəiH/, /kʰiəiH/, /kʰɨjH/, reconstructions of the Old Chinese pronunciation of 氣, standardized to IPA transcription, include, /*kʰɯds/, and /*C. qʰəp-s/. In addition, qì 炁 is an uncommon character especially used in writing Daoist talismans, historically, the word qì was generally written as 气 until the Han dynasty, when it was replaced by the 氣 graph clarified with mǐ 米 rice indicating steam. These oracle, bronze, and seal scripts graphs for qì 气 air, breath, etc. were anciently used as a loan character to write qǐ 乞 plead for, beg, ask. The regular script character qì 氣 is unusual because qì 气 is both the air radical and the phonetic, with mǐ 米 rice semantically indicating steam, vapor. This qì 气 air/gas radical, which was used in a few native Chinese characters like yīnyūn 氤氲 thick mist/smoke, was used to create new scientific characters for gaseous chemical elements. Some examples are based on pronunciations in European languages, fú 氟 fluorine and nǎi 氖 neon, others are based on semantics, qīng 氫 hydrogen and lǜ 氯 chlorine. Qi was an early Chinese loanword in English, romanized as, ki in Church Romanization in the century, chi in Wade–Giles in the mid-19th century. An early form of the idea comes from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius, historically, the Huangdi Neijing/The Yellow Emperors Classic of Medicine is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body. The ancient Chinese described it as life force and they believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive, by understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity. Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy. Qi and li were fundamental categories similar to matter and energy, yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime. The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed, the philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depthQI – Qi (Ch'i)
22. Patience and Sarah – Patience and Sarah is a 1969 historical fiction novel with strong lesbian themes by Alma Routsong, using the pen name Isabel Miller. It was originally self-published under the title A Place For Us and eventually found a publisher as Patience and Sarah in 1971. Routsongs novel is based on a painter named Mary Ann Willson who lived with her companion Miss Brundage as a farmerette in the early 19th century in Greene County. Routsong said she came upon Willsons work in an art museum in Cooperstown and was inspired to write the story after reading the description of Willson. It tells the story of two women in Connecticut in 1816 who fall in love and decide to leave their homes to buy a farm in another state or territory and live in a Boston marriage. The story addresses the limited opportunities and roles of women in early America, gender expression, Sarah Waters, author of Tipping the Velvet and other historical novels with lesbian themes, has said that this book was an influence on her writing. She received the book from a girlfriend in 1988 at age 22 and was struck by the lyricism and economy of it, by its gentle humour, the story is told in switching first-person narratives between Patience and Sarah. The first part is told by Patience White, a woman of considerable means compared to others in her town and her father died and left her enough money that she would not have to marry to be cared for. She lives with her brother and his wife and children, in a room she has to herself, Patience paints Biblical scenes as a pastime, and helps Martha with the children sometimes. They do not get along well, Patience has known of Sarah Dowling for a while since Sarah is a scandalous character to some, wearing pants and doing mens work. Sarah has a family of sisters and her father trained her to do work since he had no sons. Intrigued one day when Sarah delivers firewood to the White household, Sarah divulges that she plans to set out by herself and go west and buy her own farm. Not having the heart to tell her that she not have the opportunity to do it, Patience indulges Sarah. In the midst of planning the trip west, Sarah admits she feels for Patience, Sarah returns to her much poorer home, where she lives with her large family in a one-room cabin. Faced with having to admit their acts in front of witnesses, Patience denies she feels anything for Sarah and that it was all a game. The narrative switches to Sarahs perspective as she cuts off all her hair, renames herself Sam, takes an axe and walks west alone, healing from the beatings her father gave her. After a few experiences that demonstrate the risks of freedom, Sam takes up with a traveling Parson who goes town to town selling books in a horse-drawn rig he sleeps in. He teaches Sam to defend himself against boys in towns, to cook, teaches him about the Bible and other cultures, in time, Parson admits hes attracted to Sam and when he tries to seduce Sam, Sarah admits her true identityPatience and Sarah – Patience and Sarah
23. Stonewall Book Award – The three award categories are fiction and nonfiction in books for adults, distinguished in 1990, and books for children or young adults, from 2010. The awards are named for Barbara Gittings, Israel Fishman, and Mike Morgan, finalists have been designated from 1990, and termed Honor Books from 2001. Currently a panel of librarians selects five finalists in each award category, the winners are announced in January and each receives a plaque and $1000 cash prize during the ALA Annual Conference in June or July. Winners are expected to attend and to give acceptance speeches, the ALA solicits book suggestions each to be accompanied by a brief statement in favor of the book. Those are recommendations or applications to the Awards Committee from the public by email, which are not accepted from publishers, agents, authors, and others with vested interests. Eligible books should be original works published in the U. S. during the year, including substantially changed new editions. The Gay Book Award was inaugurated in 1971, recognizing Patience and Sarah, a novel by Alma Routsong as Isabel Miller. Originally it was an acknowledgment of GLBT publishing and there was only a handful of books to consider annually. By 1995 there were more than 800, in 2002 the awards, then two, were jointly named after the site of the 1969 Stonewall riots. From 1986 the Gay Book Award and its descendants have been part of the American Library Association awards program, now termed ALA Book, LGBT literature Libraries and the LGBT community Stonewall Book Awards List Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Round TableStonewall Book Award – Stonewall Book Award seal
24. 1972 Democratic National Convention – The 1972 Democratic National Convention was the presidential nominating convention of the Democratic Party for the 1972 presidential election. It was held at Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida, lawrence F. OBrien served as permanent chairman of the convention, while Yvonne Braithwaite Burke served as vice-chair, becoming the first African American to hold that position. It nominated Senator George McGovern of South Dakota for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri for Vice President, previously excluded political activists gained influence at the expense of elected officials and traditional core Democratic constituencies such as organized labor. A protracted vice presidential nominating process delayed McGoverns acceptance speech until 2,48 a. m. —after most television viewers had gone to bed, Hunter S. Thompson covered this convention in detail in several articles and in Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail 72. After McGovern resigned from his position as chair, he was replaced as chair by U. S, representative Donald Fraser, which gave the McGovern–Fraser Commission its name. The 28-member commission was established after the tumultuous 1968 convention, among the most significant of the changes were new quotas mandating that certain percentages of delegates be women or members of minority groups. As a result of the new rules, subjects that were deemed not fit for political debate, such as abortion and gay rights. The new rules for choosing and seating delegates created a number of rules. Many traditional Democratic groups such as organized labor and big-city political machines had small representation at the convention, many traditional Democratic leaders and politicians felt that McGoverns delegate count did not reflect the wishes of most Democratic voters. Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter helped to spearhead a Stop McGovern campaign, the stop-McGovern forces tried unsuccessfully to alter the delegate composition of the California delegation. The Illinois primary required voters to select individual delegates, not presidential candidates, most Illinois delegation members were uncommitted and were controlled or influenced by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, the leader of the Chicago political machine. The delegation was challenged by McGovern supporters arguing that the results of the primary did not create a diverse enough delegation in terms of women, singer, Jesse Jackson and pledged to George McGovern. The California primary was winner-take-all, which was contrary to the selection rules. So even though McGovern only won the California primary by a 5% electoral margin, as with the credential fight, McGovernites carried the day effectively handing the nomination to McGovern. McGovern recognized the results of the changes that he made to the Democratic nominating convention, saying. Formed after divisive platform battles, the 1972 Democratic National Conventions platform has been characterized as probably the most liberal one ever adopted by a party in the United States. It advocated immediate withdrawal from Vietnam, amnesty for war resisters, the abolition of the draft, a job for all Americans. The Feminist Movement was an influence on the Democratic platform of 19721972 Democratic National Convention
25. Norman Lear – Norman Milton Lear is an American television writer and producer who produced such 1970s sitcoms as All in the Family, Sanford and Son, One Day at a Time, The Jeffersons, Good Times, and Maude. As a political activist, he founded the advocacy organization People for the American Way in 1981 and has supported First Amendment rights, Lear was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Enie/Jeanette and Hyman Herman Lear, a traveling salesman. He had a sister, Claire Lear Brown. Lear grew up in a Jewish home and had a Bar Mitzvah ceremony and his mother was born in Elizabethgrad in Kherson Gubernia in Ukraine, while his father was born in Connecticut, to Russian-born parents. When Lear was 9 years old, his father went to prison for selling fake bonds. Lear thought of his father as a rascal and said that the character of Archie Bunker was in inspired by his father. Lear graduated from Weaver High School in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1940 and subsequently attended Emerson College in Boston and he flew 52 combat missions, for which he was awarded the Air Medal with four Oak Leaf Clusters. Lear was discharged from the Army in 1945, after World War II, Lear had a career in public relations. The career choice was inspired by his Uncle Jack, My dad had a brother, Jack and he was a press agent so I wanted to be a press agent. Thats the only role model I had, so all I wanted was to grow up to be a guy who could flip a quarter to a nephew. Lear decided to move to California to restart his career in publicity and his first night in Los Angeles, Lear stumbled upon a production of George Bernard Shaws Major Barbara at a 90-seat theater in the round Circle Theater off Sunset Boulevard. One of the actors in the play was Sydney Chaplin, who was the son of actors Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin and Alan Mowbray and Dame Gladys Cooper sat in front of him, and after the show was over, Chaplin performed. Lear had a first cousin in Los Angeles, Elaine, who was married to a man named Ed Simmons, Simmons and Lear teamed up to sell home furnishings door-to-door for a company called The Gans Brothers and then sold family photos door-to-door, again with Simmons. Throughout the 1950s Lear partnered with Simmons, and they turned out comedy sketches for television appearances of Martin and Lewis, Rowan and Martin, in 1954 Lear was enlisted as a writer hoping to salvage the new Celeste Holm CBS sitcom, Honestly, Celeste. But the program was canceled after eight episodes, during this time, he became the producer of NBCs The Martha Raye Show, after Nat Hiken left as the series director. In 1959 Lear created his first television series starring Henry Fonda, starting out as a comedy writer, then a film director, Lear tried to sell a concept for a sitcom about a blue-collar American family to ABC. They rejected the show after two pilots were taped, after a third pilot was taped, CBS picked up the show, known as All in the Family. It premiered January 12,1971, to disappointing ratings, but it took home several Emmy Awards that year, the show did very well in summer reruns, and it flourished in the 1971–72 season, becoming the top-rated show on TV for the next five yearsNorman Lear – Lear at the 2014 Texas Book Festival.
26. Soap opera – A soap opera, soap, or soapie, is a serial drama on television or radio that examines the lives of many characters, usually focusing on emotional relationships to the point of melodrama. The term soap opera originated from such dramas being typically sponsored by soap manufacturers in the past, the first serial considered to be a soap opera was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20,1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. The first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, and Em, a crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the features that makes a television program a soap opera. While Spanish language telenovelas are sometimes called soap operas, telenovelas have conflicts that get resolved, but with soap operas each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode. You spend more time even with the characters, the apparent villains grow less apparently villainous. Soap opera storylines run concurrently, intersect and lead into further developments, each episode may feature some of the shows current storylines, but not always all of them. Soap operas rarely bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time, when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development. Soap opera episodes typically end on some sort of cliffhanger, evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more likely to feature the entire cast in each episode, and to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger, the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, the storylines follow the day-to-day activities and personal relationships of these characters. These elements may be found across the gamut of soap operas, Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are completely English. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, and are frequently set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. This diverges from US soap operas where such comedy is rare, UK soap operas frequently make a claim to presenting reality or purport to have a realistic style. Romance, secret relationships, extramarital affairs, and genuine hate have been the basis for many soap opera storylines, in US daytime serials, the most popular soap opera characters, and the most popular storylines, often involved a romance of the sort presented in paperback romance novels. Crimes such as kidnapping, rape, and even murder may go unpunished if the perpetrator is to be retained in the ongoing story, Australian and UK soap operas also feature a significant proportion of romance storylines. In Russia, most popular serials explore the romantic quality of criminal and/or oligarch life, in soap opera storylines, previously unknown children, siblings and twins of established characters often emerge to upset and reinvigorate the set of relationships examined by the seriesSoap opera – Publicity photo of Rosemary Prinz as Penny Hughes from As the World Turns.
27. All That Glitters (TV series) – All That Glitters is an American sitcom by producer Norman Lear. It consisted of 65 episodes and aired between April 18 and July 15,1977 in broadcast syndication, the show, a spoof of the soap opera format, depicted the trials and tribulations of a group of executives at the Globatron corporation. Men were often treated as sex objects, the series features Eileen Brennan, Greg Evigan, Lois Nettleton, Gary Sandy, Tim Thomerson and Jessica Walter. Comic actor and cartoon voice artist Chuck McCann was also a regular, Linda Gray played transgender fashion model Linda Murkland, the first transgender series regular on American television. Before and after its premiere, All That Glitters was negatively received, All That Glitters was series creator Norman Lears attempt to duplicate his success with the syndicated soap opera spoof Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman. Lear described the premise simply, God created Eve first, took out her rib, Lear came up with the idea on a trip to Washington, D. C. I had visited the Institute of Policy Studies, and I just loved the whole thing. What would happen if the women had all the power and all the advantage, former Major League Baseball player Wes Parker almost literally walked into his role. He was doing play-by-play reporting for a Los Angeles television station owned by Lears partner, Lear casually asked if Id be interested in the part. I said yes, but knew it was out of the question, nobody walks in and gets on a Norman Lear show. I read for the part, got it and didnt sleep at all that night, Linda Gray was somewhat non-plussed upon being offered the role of transgender Linda Murkland. I remember meeting Norman and him saying, Youll be perfect for the role, I didnt know whether to take that as a compliment or what. To prepare for her role, Linda Gray asked Lear to arrange for her to meet with a transgender woman, Gray met with her for several hours prior to the beginning of filming and on a couple of occasions during production. Lois Nettleton reportedly based her characterization of Christina Stockwood on Clark Gable, production started in early March 1977 with director Herbert Kenwith. In test screenings prior to its premiere, reaction to the show was sharply divided, according to executive producer Stephanie Sills, the strongest negative reaction came from male executives. They didnt mind being portrayed by women and it was simply that they detest the way we depicted them. Lear marketed the program through his company, TAT Syndication, the series ran five nights a week. It was poorly received, with one reviewer going so far as to call the shows theme song blasphemous for suggesting that God was femaleAll That Glitters (TV series) – Screen shot from promotional ad for the series, from Chicago station WFLD
28. Linda Gray – The role also earned her two Golden Globe Award nominations. Gray began her career in the 1960s in television commercials, in the 1970s, she appeared in numerous TV series before landing the role of Sue Ellen Ewing in 1978. After leaving Dallas in 1989, she appeared opposite Sylvester Stallone in the 1991 film Oscar, from 1994-1995, she played a leading role on the Fox drama series Models Inc. She has also starred in several TV movies, including Moment of Truth, Why My Daughter. and Accidental Meeting and reprised her role of Sue Ellen in Dallas, returns and Dallas, War of the Ewings. On stage, she starred as Mrs. Robinson in The Graduate in the West End in 2001, in 2007, she starred as Aurora Greenaway in the world premiere production of Terms of Endearment at the Theatre Royal, York and also the UK national tour. From 2012 to 2014, Gray again reprised her role of Sue Ellen Ewing in the TNT series Dallas, after the series was cancelled, Gray returned to stage with the role as Fairy Godmother in the London production of Cinderella. Linda Gray was born in Santa Monica, California and she grew up in Culver City, California, where her father Leslie, who was a watchmaker, had a shop. In the 1967 film The Graduate, the featured on the movie along with promotional poster were not Anne Bancrofts but Linda Grays. Gray began her acting career in the 1970s with guest roles on many television series such as Marcus Welby, M. D. McCloud. She also appeared in the films The Big Rip-Off and Dogs, in 1977, she was cast as fashion model Linda Murkland, the first transgender series regular on American television, in the television series All That Glitters. The show, a spoof of the soap opera format, was cancelled after just 13 weeks, Gray was then cast as suspicious wife Carla Cord in the 1977 television movie Murder in Peyton Place. Gray achieved stardom for her role as Sue Ellen Ewing, J. R. s long-suffering alcoholic wife, initially a recurring guest role for the five-episode first series, Gray became a series regular later in 1978 and remained with the show until 1989. Her character was received by television critics. R. The Boulevard magazine said, It may be 2009 and seventeen years since the primetime drama Dallas went off the air, corruption and betrayal, lies, greed, affairs and scandal—all were just part of another day at the Southfork Ranch. At the center of it all was one of our favorite Ewings, the person we couldnt help but root for each week as she drank and slept her way through one ordeal after another. This, of course, was the tortured and villainous Sue Ellen Shepard Ewing, former Texas beauty queen and trophy wife of the womanizing rogue J. R. Ewing, played to perfection by actress Linda Gray. Gray was nominated for two Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama and Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series for her performance on Dallas. She also received international awards including Germany’s Bambi Award, Italy’s Il GatoLinda Gray – Gray at The Heart Truth show in 2011
29. Yves Saint Laurent (designer) – Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent, known as Yves Saint Laurent, was a French fashion designer, regarded as one of the greatest names in fashion history. He was able to adapt his style to accommodate the changes in fashion during that period and he approached fashion in a different perspective by wanting women to look comfortable yet elegant at the same time. He is also credited with having introduced the suit for women and was known for his use of non-European cultural references. Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent was born on 1 August 1936, in Oran, French Algeria, to Charles and he grew up in a villa by the Mediterranean with his two younger sisters, Michèle and Brigitte. Yves liked to create intricate paper dolls, and by his teen years he was designing dresses for his mother. At the age of 17, Saint Laurent moved to Paris and enrolled at the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture, Michel De Brunhoff, the editor of French Vogue, introduced Saint Laurent to designer Christian Dior, a giant in the fashion world. Dior fascinated me, Saint Laurent later recalled, I couldnt speak in front of him. He taught me the basis of my art, whatever was to happen next, I never forgot the years I spent at by his side. Under Diors tutelage, Saint Laurents style continued to mature and gain more notice. In 1953, Saint Laurent submitted three sketches to a contest for young fashion designers organised by the International Wool Secretariat, subsequently, he was invited to attend the awards ceremony held in Paris in December of that same year. During his stay in Paris, Saint Laurent met Michel de Brunhoff, De Brunhoff, known by some as a considerate person who encouraged new talent, was impressed by the sketches Saint Laurent brought with him and suggested he become a fashion designer. Saint Laurent would eventually consider a course of study at the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture, Saint Laurent followed his advice and, leaving Oran for Paris after graduation, began his studies there and eventually graduated as a star pupil. Later that same year, he entered the International Wool Secretariat competition again and won, beating out his friend Fernando Sánchez and young German student Karl Lagerfeld. Shortly after his win, he brought a number of sketches to de Brunhoff who recognized close similarities to sketches he had shown that morning by Christian Dior. Knowing that Dior had created the sketches that morning and that the man could not have seen them, de Brunhoff sent him to Dior. Although Dior recognised his talent immediately, Saint Laurent spent his first year at the House of Dior on mundane tasks, such as decorating the studio and designing accessories. Eventually, however, he was allowed to submit sketches for the collection, with every passing season. In August 1957, Dior met with Saint Laurents mother to tell her that he had chosen Saint Laurent to succeed him as designer and his mother later said that she had been confused by the remark, as Dior was only 52 years old at the timeYves Saint Laurent (designer) – Saint Laurent with Gilles Bernard the Proscénium Gallery
30. James Baldwin (writer) – James Arthur Baldwin was an American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic. His essays, as collected in Notes of a Native Son, explore palpable yet unspoken intricacies of racial, sexual, some Baldwin essays are book-length, for instance The Fire Next Time, No Name in the Street, and The Devil Finds Work. An unfinished manuscript, Remember This House, was expanded upon and adapted for cinema as the Academy Award nominated documentary film, such dynamics are prominent in Baldwins second novel, Giovannis Room, written in 1956, well before the gay liberation movement. Baldwin was born after his mother, Emma Berdis Jones, left his father because of his drug abuse and moved to Harlem. There, she married a preacher, David Baldwin, Baldwin spent much time caring for his several younger brothers and sisters. At the age of 10, he was teased and abused by two New York police officers, an instance of racist harassment by the NYPD that he would experience again as a teenager and document in his essays. His adoptive father, whom Baldwin in essays called simply his father and his stepfather died of tuberculosis in summer of 1943 just before Baldwin turned 19. The quest to answer or explain family and social rejection—and attain a sense of selfhood,24 on 128th Street between Fifth and Madison Avenues in Harlem, where he wrote the school song, which was used until the school closed down. He then went on to DeWitt Clinton High School, in the Bronxs Bedford Park section, there, along with Richard Avedon, Baldwin worked on the school magazine as literary editor but disliked school because of the constant racial slurs. The difficulties of his life, including his stepfathers abuse, led Baldwin to seek solace in religion, at the age of 14 he attended meetings of the Pentecostal Church and, during a euphoric prayer meeting, he converted and became a junior Minister. Before long, at the Fireside Pentecostal Assembly, he was drawing larger crowds than his stepfather had done in his day. At 17, however, Baldwin came to view Christianity as based on false premises, Baldwin once visited Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, who inquired about Baldwins religious beliefs. He answered, I left the church 20 years ago and havent joined anything since, Elijah asked, And what are you now. Still, his church experience significantly shaped his worldview and writing, Baldwin reflected that being in the pulpit was like working in the theatre, I was behind the scenes and knew how the illusion was worked. Baldwin accused Christianity of reinforcing the system of American slavery by palliating the pangs of oppression, Baldwin praised religion, however, for inspiring some American blacks to defy oppression. He once wrote, If the concept of God has any use, it is to make us larger, freer, If God cant do that, its time we got rid of him. Baldwin publicly described himself as not religious, a recording of him singing Precious Lord, Take My Hand a cappella was played at his funeral. When Baldwin was 15, his high-school running buddy, Emile Capouya, skipped school one day and, in Greenwich Village, met Beauford Delaney, Capouya gave Baldwin Delaneys address and suggested paying him a visitJames Baldwin (writer) – Baldwin in 1969
31. Walter Pater – Walter Horatio Pater was an English essayist, literary and art critic, and fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists. His works on Renaissance subjects were popular but controversial, reflecting his lost belief in Christianity. Born in Stepney in Londons East End, Walter Pater was the son of Richard Glode Pater. Dr Pater died while Walter was an infant and the moved to Enfield. Walter attended Enfield Grammar School and was tutored by the headmaster. In 1853, he was sent to The Kings School, Canterbury and he was fourteen when his mother, Maria Pater, died in 1854. As a schoolboy Pater read John Ruskins Modern Painters, which helped inspire his lifelong attraction to the study of art and he gained a school exhibition, with which he proceeded in 1858 to Queens College, Oxford. As an undergraduate, Pater was a man, with literary. Flaubert, Gautier, Baudelaire and Swinburne were among his early favourites, visiting his aunt and sisters in Germany during the vacations, he learned German and began to read Hegel and the German philosophers. The scholar Benjamin Jowett was struck by his potential and offered to give him private lessons, in Jowetts classes, however, Pater was a disappointment, he took a Second in literae humaniores in 1862. As a boy Pater had cherished the idea of entering the Anglican clergy, in spite of his inclination towards the ritual and aesthetic elements of the church, he had little interest in Christian doctrine and did not pursue ordination. After graduating, Pater remained in Oxford and taught Classics and Philosophy to private students and he became acutely interested in art and literature, and started to write articles and criticism. First to be printed was an essay on the metaphysics of Coleridge, in the following years the Fortnightly Review printed his essays on Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo. The last three, with similar pieces, were collected in his Studies in the History of the Renaissance, renamed in the second and later editions The Renaissance, Studies in Art. The Leonardo essay contains Paters celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa, an essay on The School of Giorgione, added to the third edition, contains Paters much-quoted maxim All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music. The final paragraphs of the 1868 William Morris essay were reworked as the books Conclusion and this brief Conclusion was to be Paters most influential – and controversial – publication. It asserts that our lives are made up of scientific processes and elemental forces in perpetual motion, renewed from moment to moment. Continual vanishing away, that strange, perpetual weaving and unweaving of ourselves, forming habits means failure on our part, for habit connotes the stereotypicalWalter Pater – Walter Pater, photograph Elliott & Fry, 1890s
32. Rudi van Dantzig – Rudi van Dantzig was a Dutch choreographer, company director, and writer. He was a figure in the rise to world renown of Dutch ballet in the latter half of the twentieth century. Van Dantzig was born in Amsterdam, where his father, Murk van Dantzig and his parents held strongly leftwing views, espousing Marxism, advocating pacifism, and promoting Esperanto. He was six years old when the German army defeated Dutch forces in the Battle of the Netherlands in May 1940, during the occupation of his homeland, young Rudi was sent to stay in a foster home in Friesland, where conditions were safer than in the city. During liberation of the Netherlands in May 1945, he met Walter Cook, a soldier in the First Canadian Army. Upon returning to school in Amsterdam, van Dantzig proved to be a poor scholar, when he wandered into a cinema showing The Red Shoes, the ballet film by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, his future path was decided. There was a shortage of talented male dancers in postwar Europe, so, although he was not highly skilled, Gaskell engaged him in 1954 as a member of her company, Ballet Recital. He was tall, good looking, highly intelligent, and hard working and that same year Martha Graham and her company paid their first visit to the Netherlands, and her technique and style had a profound effect on van Dantzig. Realizing new possibilities for drama and expressiveness in dance, he traveled to New York to continue his training at her school. Van Dantzig was among the dancers who founded the Netherlands Dance Theater in 1959, after this company and the Amsterdam Ballet merged to become Het Nationale Ballet, van Dantzig filled a number of important positions. He became resident choreographer in 1961, a member of the council in 1965, co-director in 1968. He remained in that post for two decades, until 1991 and he had a talent for administration and a keen eye for importing and commissioning ballets that expanded the companys repertory and developed its dancers. From the 1960s onward, van Dantzig choreographed more than fifty ballets, most of them on contemporary themes, combining both classical and modern dance techniques, his ballets are expressionistic and fraught with symbolism, usually displaying psychological conflicts within a principal character. Basic themes are acceptance of lifes imperfections and acceptance of death as the outcome of lifes struggles. The former is central to his work, Monument for a Dead Boy. The latter is demonstrated in Four Last Songs, a piece that is generally considered his best work. In it he transformed Strausss meditation on death into a love poem four couples are parted in duets by a sympathetic messenger of death. Van Dantzigs unusual combination of classical ballet and modern technique in his choreography attracted the interest of Rudolf NureyevRudi van Dantzig – Rudy van Dantzig (1979)
33. Sapphire (author) – Ramona Lofton, better known by her pen name Sapphire, is an American author and performance poet. Ramona Lofton was born in Fort Ord, California, one of four children of an Army couple who relocated within the United States, after a disagreement concerning where the family would settle, her parents separated, with Loftons mother kind of abandoning them. Lofton dropped out of school and moved to San Francisco. In the mid-1970s Lofton attended the City College of New York, Lofton held various jobs before starting her writing career, working as a performance artist as well as a teacher of reading and writing. Lofton moved to New York City in 1977 and became involved with poetry. She also became a member of a gay organization named United Lesbians of Color for Change Inc and she wrote, performed and eventually published her poetry during the height of the Slam Poetry movement in New York. Sapphire self-published the collection of poems Meditations on the Rainbow in 1987, as Cheryl Clarke notes, Sapphires 1994 book of poems, American Dreams is often erroneously referred to as her first book. One critic referred to it as one of the strongest debut collections of the 1990s and her first novel, Push, was unpublished before being discovered by literary agent Charlotte Sheedy, whose interest created demand and eventually led to a bidding war. Sapphire submitted the first 100 pages of Push to an auction in 1995. The book was published in 1996 by Vintage Publishing and has sold hundreds of thousands of copies. The novel brought Sapphire praise and much controversy for its account of a young woman growing up in a cycle of incest. A film based on her novel premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2009 and it was renamed Precious to avoid confusion with the 2009 action film Push. The cast included Gabourey Sidibe, MoNique, who won the Academy Award for her portrayal of Precious mother Mary, Mariah Carey, Sapphire herself appears briefly in the film as a daycare worker. In 2011, she released The Kid, a semi-sequel to Push, Sapphires writing was the subject of an academic symposium at Arizona State University in 2007. In 2009 she was the recipient of a Fellow Award in Literature from United States Artists, Sapphire lives in New York City. Like her character Precious, Sapphire herself was abused, at the age of eight, by her own father. Novels Push The Kid Poetry Meditations on the Rainbow, Poetry American Dreams Black Wings & Blind Angels, Poems An Interview with Sapphire at Rollins College Sapphire, The Interview onSapphire (author) – Sapphire at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2009
34. Jim McGreevey – James Edward Jim McGreevey is an American seminarian, politician and member of the Democratic Party, who served as the 52nd Governor of New Jersey from 2002 until his resignation in 2004. He served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 1990 to 1992, as the Mayor of Woodbridge Township from 1991 to 2002 and he was the Democratic nominee for Governor of New Jersey in 1997 but was narrowly defeated by Republican incumbent Christine Todd Whitman. He ran again in 2001 and was elected by a large margin and this made McGreevey the first openly gay governor in United States history. McGreevey attended the General Theological Seminary in New York City to obtain his Master of Divinity degree and he volunteered service through Exodus Transitional Community to former prisoners seeking rehabilitation at the Church of Living Hope in New York City. In July 2013, McGreevey was appointed head of Jersey Citys Employment & Training Program, there he attended St. Joseph Elementary School, and St. Joseph High School in Metuchen. He attended The Catholic University of America before graduating from Columbia University in 1978 and he earned a law degree from the Georgetown University Law Center in 1981 and a masters degree in education from Harvard University in 1982. He also attended a program in law at the London School of Economics. McGreevey has a daughter, Morag, from his first marriage to Canadian Karen Joan Schutz and he has another daughter, Jacqueline, from his second marriage to Portuguese-born Dina Matos McGreevey. Dina Matos and McGreevey separated after he revealed that he was homosexual, the two lived in Plainfield, New Jersey. On March 14,2007, the Associated Press reported that McGreevey was seeking custody of Jacqueline, the divorce trial started on May 6,2008. On August 8, the divorce was granted, McGreevey received joint custody and pays child support. They will also be using a parenting coordinator, in her memoirs, Matos wrote that she would never have married McGreevey if she had known he was homosexual, nor would she have chosen to have a homosexual man father her child. In October 2015 McGreevy moved from Plainfield to Jersey City, creating rumors that he may run for mayor, prior to entering politics, McGreevey was an assistant prosecutor and executive director of the state Parole Board. McGreevey has taught ethics, law and leadership at Kean University in Union, McGreevey was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly, representing the 19th Legislative District from 1990 to 1992, when he became Mayor of Woodbridge Township, New Jersey. He was re-elected mayor in 1995 and 1999 and he was elected to the New Jersey Senate in 1993, simultaneously serving as mayor during the four-year Senate term. McGreevey first ran for governor in 1997, but was defeated in a race by the incumbent Republican Christine Todd Whitman. Libertarian candidate Murray Sabrin received slightly over 5% of the vote, McGreevey ran for the governorship again in 2001 and won with 56% of the vote, making him the first majority-elected governor since James Florio. His Republican opponent in that race was Bret Schundler, other candidates in the race included William E. Schluter, Jerry Coleman, Mark Edgerton, Michael Koontz, Costantino Rozzo and Kari SachsJim McGreevey – McGreevey in 2009, volunteering for Exodus Transitional Community in Harlem, New York City
35. Carole Pope – She is the sister of Emmy Award-winning television producer and screenwriter Elaine Pope. Pope was raised in Scarborough, Toronto, the daughter of immigrant from England, Pope met her longtime musical partner, Kevan Staples at a band audition in Scarborough. In 1968, they began performing together as a duo in Yorkville, in 1970, they adopted the name O, changing it to The Bullwhip Brothers the following year. In 1975, Pope and Staples recruited several musicians and formed the band Rough Trade. Pope often performed in black pants and bondage attire. The bands first album, Rough Trade Live, was produced by Jack Richardson, in 1980, Pope sang backup vocals on Murray McLaughlins album Into a Mystery. She won the Juno Award for Most Promising Female Vocalist in 1981 and she and Staples co-wrote the 1983 single Transformation, recorded by Nona Hendryx. Pope also appeared as a guest vocalist on the Payola$ single Never Said I Loved You and she teamed up in 2000 with the Payola$ founder, Paul Hyde, to sing the duet My Brilliant Career on his album Living Off the Radar. During the 1980s Rough Trade won a Genie Award, and earned four gold, although the band did not record or perform extensively after its final Deep Six in 86 tour, they did not officially break up until 1988. Popes solo career has been lower-profile than her time with the band, Pope issued a debut solo single in 1988, but did not issue a follow-up release for several years afterward. In 1991, she moved to Los Angeles to pursue opportunities in soundtrack work, Pope issued an EP in 1995. In 1997, she provided the voice for the schoolteacher in the version of Pippi Longstocking. In 1999, playwright Bryden MacDonald staged Shaking the Foundations, a musical based on Popes music with Rough Trade. In 2000, Random House published Popes autobiography, Anti-Diva, the book included Popes first public acknowledgement that she had been in a relationship with British singer Dusty Springfield in the early 1980s. That year she and Staples contributed a track to the Dusty Springfield tribute album, soon afterward, Pope re-recorded the Rough Trade single High School Confidential for the Queer as Folk soundtrack. She also appeared in the Toronto production of The Vagina Monologues in 2001, in 2005,21 years after the release of her previous album, Pope returned to Los Angeles and released her debut full-length solo album, Transcend. In 2011, Pop released her second album, Landfall. That year she also was a guest vocalist on the album The Hills are Alive, Pope is an ambassador for the Harvey Milk School in New York City and the Board Director for the Songwriters Association of CanadaCarole Pope – Carole Pope 2014
36. Andy Warhol – Andy Warhol was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in galleries in the late 1950s. He promoted a collection of known as Warhol superstars, and is credited with coining the widely used expression 15 minutes of fame. In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the rock band The Velvet Underground. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism and he is also notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement. Warhol has been the subject of retrospective exhibitions, books. The Andy Warhol Museum in his city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable, the highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash, his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold. A2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the bellwether of the art market, Warhol was born on August 6,1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was the child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Mikó, located in todays northeastern Slovakia, Warhols father emigrated to the United States in 1914, and his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhols grandparents. Warhols father worked in a coal mine, the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and later at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was Byzantine Catholic and attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church, Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated, Ján was born in Pittsburgh. Pavols son, James Warhola, became a childrens book illustrator. He became a hypochondriac, developing a fear of hospitals and doctors, often bedridden as a child, he became an outcast at school and bonded with his mother. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio, Warhol later described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences. When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident, as a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945Andy Warhol – Warhol in 1975
37. Michael Urie – Michael Lorenzo Urie is an American actor, presenter, director, and producer. He is known for his portrayal of Marc St. James on the ABC dramedy television series Ugly Betty, Urie was born in Dallas, Texas, and raised in Plano. He is of Scottish and Italian descent and he graduated from Plano Senior High School in 1998. Urie then studied at Collin County Community College before being accepted at the Juilliard School in New York City, there he was a member of the Drama Divisions Group 32, which also included Jessica Chastain. Urie graduated from Juilliard in 2003, in addition to this, he appeared in student productions of Sylvia and Locked Away at Quad C Theatre. Urie played the character in the stage play WTC View as well as in the film adaptation. He is finishing a short film, Two Down that centers on high school speech and debate tournaments. He is on the board of Plum Productions and serves as its casting director, with the same company he has produced and appeared in Prachtoberfest and lowbrow. As a freelance producer, he has worked on Like The Mountains and he also directed the latter production. His first time directing The Fantasticks was as a school student at Plano Senior High. Starting in 2006, Urie began appearing in ABC dramedy Ugly Betty, appearing as Marc St. James and he and the cast were nominated for Screen Actors Guild awards for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series in 2007 and 2008. The role earned Urie a Ewwy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 2009 and he remained with Ugly Betty until the shows cancellation in 2010. Patti LuPone appeared with Urie to play Marcs mother in one episode, during the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike, Urie hosted TLCs reality-based series Miss America Reality Check. The program followed the contestants participating in the 2008 Miss America Pageant, Urie has returned often to his theater roots, including his recent direction of a one-night celebrity performed staging of Howard Ashmans unproduced musical Dreamstuff. The musical was re-imagined by Howards partners Marsha Malamet and Dennis Green, eden Espinosa starred in the show along with Fred Willard, Vicki Lewis, David Blue and Luke Macfarlane. He has also been on Live With Regis and Kelly and has starred in the 2008 Disney blockbuster production Beverly Hills Chihuahua as the voice of Sebastian. On October 29,2008, he appeared as a guest presenter on the British National Television Awards, Urie originated the role of Rudi Gernreich in the 2009 off-Broadway play The Temperamentals, about the foundation of the early LGBT rights organization the Mattachine Society. Urie received a Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Lead Actor, in January 2012, Urie made his Broadway debut, joining the cast of How to Succeed in Business Without Really Tryings second revivalMichael Urie – Urie in 2012
38. Michael Kors – Michael Kors is a New York City-based American sportswear fashion designer. Kors was the first women’s ready-to-wear designer for the French house Celine, Kors was born Karl Anderson, Jr. on Long Island, New York, the son of Joan Hamburg, a former model, and her first husband, Karl Anderson, Sr, a college student. His mother remarried Bill Kors when he was five, and his surname was changed to Kors, Kors mother is Jewish and his father was of Swedish descent. Kors married his partner, Lance Le Pere, on August 16,2011, in Southampton, Kors affinity for fashion started when he was very young. His mother thought his affinity might have caused in part by his exposure to the apparel industry through her modeling career. Michael, at the age of five, even redesigned his mothers wedding dress for her second marriage, as a teen, Kors began designing clothes and selling them out of his parents basement, which he renamed the Iron Butterfly. Kors also took acting lessons when he was young, but stopped when he was 14 when he decided to focus on becoming a fashion designer, in 1977, he enrolled at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City. However, he dropped out after nine months and took a job at a boutique across from Bergdorf Goodman on 57th Street in Midtown Manhattan. Shortly after, Dawn Mello, the director at Bergdorf. She asked if he would show his collection to Bergdorf Goodmans buyers, in 1981, Kors launched the Michael Kors womenswear line at Bloomingdales, Bergdorf Goodman, Lord & Taylor, Neiman Marcus, and Saks Fifth Avenue. In 1990, the company launched KORS Michael Kors, a bankruptcy in 1993 forced him to discontinue the KORS line for a time. He managed to get back on his feet by 1997 and launched a lower priced line, in his tenure at Celine, Kors turned the fashion house around with successful accessories and a critically acclaimed ready-to-wear line. Kors left Celine in October 2003 to concentrate on his own brand, Kors launched his menswear line in 2002. The MICHAEL Michael Kors and KORS Michael Kors lines were launched in 2004, the MICHAEL Michael Kors line includes womens handbags and shoes as well as womens ready-to-wear apparel. Currently, Kors has Collection boutiques in New York, Beverly Hills, Palm Beach, as of the end of the first fiscal quarter in 2016, Kors has over 770 Lifestyle stores around the world. The year 2011 marked the 30th anniversary of Kors business, michelle Obama wore a black sleeveless dress from the designer for her first term official portrait as First Lady and later sported Kors again at the 2015 State of the Union address. Joan Allen wore his gown when she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in the The Contender, jennifer Garner wore a custom creation as an Academy Award presenter in 2006. As creative director of Celine, Kors designed many outfits for actresses to wear on screen, including Gwyneth Paltrow in Possession, one of his gowns was worn by Alicia Keys for her performance at Barack Obamas inaugural ball on January 21,2013Michael Kors – Michael Kors
39. Andrew Sullivan – Andrew Michael Sullivan is an English-born American author, editor, and blogger. Sullivan is a political commentator, a former editor of The New Republic. He was a pioneer of the blog, starting his in 2000. He eventually moved his blog to various publishing platforms, including Time, The Atlantic, The Daily Beast and he announced his retirement from blogging in 2015. Born and raised in England, he has lived in the United States since 1984 and currently resides in Washington, D. C. and Provincetown and he is openly gay and a practising Roman Catholic. Sullivan was born in South Godstone, Surrey, into a Roman Catholic family of Irish descent and he was educated at Reigate Grammar School and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he was awarded a first-class Bachelor of Arts in modern history and modern languages. In his second year, he was elected President of the Oxford Union for Trinity term 1983 and his dissertation was titled Intimations Pursued, The Voice of Practice in the Conversation of Michael Oakeshott. In 2001, it came to light that Sullivan had posted anonymous online advertisements for unprotected anal sex and he was widely criticised in the media for this, with some critics noting that he had condemned President Bill Clintons incautious behavior, though others wrote in his defence. In 2003, Sullivan wrote a Salon article identifying himself as a member of the gay bear community, on 27 August 2007, he married Aaron Tone in Provincetown, Massachusetts. Sullivan was barred for many years from applying for United States citizenship because of his HIV-positive status, on The Chris Matthews Show on 16 April 2011, Sullivan confirmed that he had become a permanent resident, showing his green card. On 1 December 2016, Sullivan became a naturalized American citizen, in 1986, Sullivan began his career with The New Republic magazine, serving as its editor from 1991 to 1996. In that position, he expanded the magazine from its roots in political coverage to cultural issues. During this time, the magazine generated several high-profile controversies, author Thomas Schaeper notes that ronically, Sullivan had first gone to the United States on a Harkness Fellowship, one of many scholarships spawned in emulation of the Rhodes program. Almost the entire staff of the magazine threatened to resign if material that they considered racist was published. To appease them, Sullivan included lengthy rebuttals from 19 writers and contributors and he has continued to speak approvingly of the research and arguments presented in The Bell Curve, writing, The book. Still holds up as one of the most insightful and careful of the last decade, the fact of human inequality and the subtle and complex differences between various manifestations of being human—gay, straight, male, female, black, Asian—is a subject worth exploring, period. According to Sullivan, this incident was a point in his relationship with the magazines staff and management. He left the magazine in 1996, Sullivan began writing for The New York Times Magazine in 1998, but was fired by editor Adam Moss in 2002Andrew Sullivan – Sullivan in August 2006
40. Gladys Bentley – Gladys Alberta Bentley was an American blues singer, pianist and entertainer during the Harlem Renaissance. Her career skyrocketed when she appeared at Harry Hansberrys Clam House in New York in the 1920s, as a black, lesbian and she headlined in the early 1930s at Harlems Ubangi Club, where she was backed up by a chorus line of drag queens. She dressed in clothes, played piano, and sang her own raunchy lyrics to popular tunes of the day in a deep. She was frequently harassed for wearing mens clothing and she tried to continue her musical career but did not achieve as much success as she had had in the past. Bentley was openly lesbian early in her career, but during the McCarthy Era she started wearing dresses and married, Bentley was born in Philadelphia, the daughter of George L. Bentley, an American, and his wife, Mary Mote, a Trinidadian. In Bentley’s Ebony article, she wrote about trouble in the home as she was growing up and she wouldn’t even nurse me and my grandmother had to raise me for 6 months on a bottle before they could persuade my mother to take care of her own baby. Sociologists and psychiatrists at the time called her case extreme social maladjustment due to her home dynamic and she moved to New York City from Philadelphia at the age of 16. She impressed a Broadway agent right away, recorded eight tracks, later, she heard that Harry Hansberrys Clam House on 133rd Street, one of the citys most notorious gay speakeasies, needed a male pianist. This is when she began performing in men’s attire, and here she perfected her act and became popular and successful. Her salary started at $35 per week plus tips and went to $125 per week, and the club was soon renamed Barbara’s Exclusive Club, after her stage name at the time, Barbara Bobbie Minton. She then began performing at the Ubangi Club on Park Avenue, she got an accompanist on piano and was enough to own a $300/month apartment in Park Ave. with servants. Bentley had great talent as a player, singer and entertainer. Her performances were “comical, sweet and risqué” for the era and she often sang about “sissies” and “bulldaggers” and, through innuendo or more literally, about her female lovers, and she flirted with women in the audience. She sang loud, and her style was deep and booming, sometimes using a growling effect. She recorded for the OKeh, Victor, Excelsior, and Flame labels and her vocal range was wide, as can be heard in her recordings. She mostly sang in a deep, low range, but also reached high notes, Bentley’s performances appealed to black, white, gay, and straight audiences alike, and many celebrities attended her shows. She tried to continue her career but did not achieve as much success as she had had in the past. She was frequently harassed for wearing mens clothing and she claimed that she had married a white woman in Atlantic CityGladys Bentley – Gladys Bentley
41. Cara Delevingne – Cara Jocelyn Delevingne is an English fashion model and actress. She signed with Storm Model Management after leaving school in 2009, Delevingne won the Model of the Year award at the British Fashion Awards in 2012 and 2014 and has appeared in shows for houses including Burberry, Mulberry, Dolce & Gabbana, and Jason Wu. She started her career with a minor role in the 2012 film adaptation of Anna Karenina. Her first major roles were as Margo Roth Spiegelman in the mystery film Paper Towns, Kath Talent in London Fields. Delevingne was born in Hammersmith, London, the daughter of Pandora Anne Delevingne and she grew up in Belgravia, London, one of the wealthiest districts in the world. Delevingne has two sisters, Chloe and model Poppy Delevingne. Her godfather is Condé Nast executive Nicholas Coleridge and her godmother is actress Joan Collins and her paternal great-grandfather was the Canadian-born British politician Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount Greenwood, and her maternal grandmother Janie Sheffield was lady-in-waiting to Princess Margaret. She attended Francis Holland School for Girls in central London, until she was 16 and she has dyspraxia and consequently found school challenging. In June 2015, in an interview with Vogue, Delevingne opened up in regards to the peak of her battle with depression when she was 15 years old. She said, I was hit with a wave of depression and anxiety and self-hatred. At age 16, after completing her GCSE examinations she moved to Bedales School in Hampshire, to focus on drama, after one year she dropped out and followed the career path of her sister, Poppy, into modeling. Delevingne first began modelling at age ten in a shot by Bruce Weber for Vogue Italia alongside model Lady Eloise Anson. She signed with Storm Model Management in 2009 after being spotted by Sarah Doukas, the founder of Storm and she worked in the industry for a year before booking a paying job and went through two seasons of castings before landing her first runway show. Delevingne was propelled to fame after being scouted by Burberrys Christopher Bailey in 2012 while working part-time in the office of a fashion website, Bailey cast her in the companys spring/summer 2011 campaign. Delevingnes first catwalk appearance was at the February 2011 London Fashion Week, Jourdan Dunn opened and closed the show with Delevingne appearing sixth. Later that year, Delevingne then got her chance to open and close proceedings, Delevingne then commenced the early 2012 season by walking in the Chanel Haute-Couture spring show, at Grand Palais, Paris, on 24 January 2012. The stage was set up to resemble an aeroplane and the clothes the models wore vaguely referenced airline flight attendant uniforms, the week after, London Fashion Week took place. Delevingne exclusively took part in the Burberry Prorsum Womenswear autumn/winter 2012 show, in the front row were celebrities such as Samantha Cameron, Will. i. am, Will Young and her partner in the Burberry campaign, Eddie RedmayneCara Delevingne – Delevingne at a Burberry show in 2014
42. Domenico Dolce – Domenico Dolce is an Italian fashion designer and entrepreneur. Along with Stefano Gabbana, he is one half of the fashion house Dolce & Gabbana. Since founding D&G in 1985, Dolce has become one of the worlds most influential fashion designers, Dolce was born in Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, in 1958. His father was a tailor and his mother sold fabrics and apparel and he moved to Milan to attend the fashion design school Istituto Marangoni, but he dropped out before graduating, confident he knew enough to work in the industry. His dream was to work for Armani, in 1980, Dolce met Milan native Stefano Gabbana through Dolces employer, designer Giorgio Correggiari. In 1983, Gabbana and Dolce left Correggiari to work on their own, in October 1985, the Dolce & Gabbana brand made its fashion show debut at Milano Collezionis Nuovi Talenti. In March 1986, D&G released its first collection and held its own show, in 1987, the first D&G store opened in Milan, at 7 Via Santa Cecilia. In 1988, D&G established a partnership with Dolces father, Saverio, in November 1990, D&G opened its New York City showroom at 532 Broadway in SoHo, Manhattan. D&G released its first fragrance, Dolce & Gabbana Parfum, in October 1992, in 1993, the Italian designers received worldwide fame when Madonna chose D&G to design the costumes for her Girlie Show World Tour. They have since gone on to design for Monica Bellucci, Kylie Minogue, Angelina Jolie, later additions to the D&G line included ties, belts, handbags, sunglasses, watches and footwear. By 2003, the company sold products in Italy than Armani, Gucci, Prada. In 2009, nearly 25 years after D&G opened, the company had 113 stores and 21 factory outlets, a staff of 3,500 people, Dolce and Gabbana were an open couple for many years. Following their success, they lived in a 19th-century villa in Milan and they ended their long-time relationship in 2003 or 2005, but the pair still work together at D&G. As of October 2015, Dolce was the 27th richest person in Italy with a net worth of approximately US$1.74 billion, in 2013, both Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana were convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to a 20-month suspended sentence in prison. An Italian court found the pair guilty of failing to declare millions of euros of revenue earned through a D&G subsidiary company, Gado and they denied the charges and appealed the case, in October 2014, they were both cleared of wrongdoing by the appellate court. In March 2015, Dolces comments about in vitro fertilization sparked a media storm of criticism. In an interview with Panorama magazine, Dolce said, I am gay, I believe you cannot have everything in life. You are born from a father and a mother, or at least that is how it should beDomenico Dolce – Dolce & Gabbana store in Kobe, Japan
43. Gluck (painter) – Hannah Gluckstein, known as Gluck was a British painter. Gluck was born into a wealthy Jewish family, the child of Joseph Gluckstein, whose brothers Isidore and Montague had founded J. Lyons and Co. a British coffee house, Glucks American-born mother, Francesca Halle, was an opera singer. Her brother, Sir Louis Gluckstein, was a Conservative politician, Gluck attended St Johns Wood School of Art between 1913 and 1916 before moving to the west Cornwall valley of Lamorna and joining the artists colony there. In the 1920s and 30s Gluck became known for portraits and floral paintings, the latter were favoured by the interior decorator Syrie Maugham. Gluck insisted on being only as Gluck, no prefix, suffix, or quotes. Gluck identified with no school or movement and showed her work only in solo exhibitions. This Gluck-frame rose from the wall in three tiers, painted or papered to match the wall on which it hung, it made the paintings look like part of the architecture of the room. According to Glucks biographer Diana Souhami, They sat together in the third row, Gluck referred to it as the YouWe picture. It was later used as the cover of a Virago Press edition of The Well of Loneliness, Gluck also had a romantic relationship with the British floral designer Constance Spry, whose work informed the artists paintings. In 1944 Gluck moved to Chantry House in Steyning, Sussex, in the 1950s Gluck became dissatisfied with the artists paints available and began a paint war to increase their quality. Gluck and Heald had a home at Dolphin Cottage, in Lamorna. It was Glucks first exhibition since 1937, and her last, Glucks last major work was a painting of a decomposing fish head on the beach entitled Rage, Rage against the Dying of the Light. Reflecting on The Well of Loneliness, hannah Gluckstein in the glbtq encyclopedia project archivesGluck (painter) – Medallion (1937) depicts Gluck (right) with Nesta Obermer.
44. Herb Ritts – Herbert Herb Ritts Jr. was an American fashion photographer who concentrated on black-and-white photography and portraits, often in the style of classical Greek sculpture. Born in Los Angeles, to a Jewish family, Ritts began his working in the family furniture business. His father, Herb Ritts Sr. was a businessman, while his mother and he moved to the East Coast to attend Bard College in New York, where he majored in economics and art history. Later, while living in Los Angeles, he interested in photography when he and friend Richard Gere, then an aspiring actor. The picture gained Ritts some coverage and he began to be serious about photography. He photographed Brooke Shields for the cover of the Oct.12,1981 edition of Elle, five years later, he would replicate that cover pose with Madonna for her 1986 release True Blue. During the 1980s and 1990s, Ritts photographed celebrities and he also worked for Interview, Esquire, Mademoiselle, Glamour, GQ, Newsweek, Harpers Bazaar, Rolling Stone, Time, Vogue, Allure, Vanity Fair, Details, and Elle. The first video he directed was Madonna in Cherish in 1989, in 1991, he won two MTV Video Awards for his work on music videos by Janet Jackson and Chris Isaak. Ritts also directed the video for Michael Jacksons In the Closet. On December 26,2002, Ritts died of complications from pneumonia at the age of 50, according to Ritts publicist, Herb was HIV-positive, but this particular pneumonia was not PCP, a common opportunistic infection of AIDS. But at the end of the day, his system was compromised. State of the Arts Art vs. A, style, Getty Publications,2012 Herb Ritts, The Rock Portraits, Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, VA, June 24 – September 18,2016. November 25,2016 – January 29,2017, Herb Ritts, Super II, Hamiltons Gallery, London. January 30 – March 10,2017, official website Herb Ritts on artnet Monographs Herb Ritts at the Internet Movie Database Herb Ritts at Find a Grave Staley Wise Gallery, Herb Ritts collectionHerb Ritts – Herb Ritts
45. Maria Louise Pool – Maria Louise Pool was an American writer. She was born in Rockland, Massachusetts to Elias Pool and Lydia Lane and she attended the public school of the town, and later taught school for two years. She moved to Brooklyn, New York in 1870, where she first wrote for a Philadelphia paper and afterward for the New York Evening Post, later she resided in Wrentham, Massachusetts. It was not until 1887 that she became known through her A Vacation in a Buggy. Her work was reviewed extensively, as by the New York Times and she was an influence upon the young Canadian-American writer Mary MacLane, who became friends with Pools literary companion Caroline M. Branson. Branson and MacLane lived together from 1902 to 1908 in the house Branson, most of her literary work, which consists of sketches and social novels, appeared in the periodicals, and was later issued in book form. H. W. Wilson Company, NY1938, a Brief Sketch of the Life Of Maria Louise Pool. Wilson, James Grant, Fiske, John, eds and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Gilman, D. C. Thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds. article name needed, works by or about Maria Louise Pool at Internet ArchiveMaria Louise Pool – Maria Louise Pool
46. Miguel Vale de Almeida – Miguel Vale de Almeida is a Portuguese, anthropologist, LGBT activist, and professor at the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa in Lisbon. He is the current editor-in-chief of the journal Etnográfica and member of CEAS-ISCTE and he was Visiting Professor Dept of Anthropology and Latin American Studies’ Center, University of Chicago in the spring of 2006. As a LGBT activist, he is known in Portugal for participating in LGBT rights events, gender, Sexuality, Body Race, Ethnicity, Ethnopolitics Post-colonial studies, Creoleness Portugal, Brazil, Afro-Diaspora A Chave do Armário. Raça, Cultura e Política da Identidade, Oeiras, Celta, Race, Culture and the Politics of Identity in the Post-Colonial Portuguese-Speaking World, Oxford and New York, Berghahn Books. Senhores de Si, Uma Interpretação Antropológica da Masculinidade, Lisboa, Fim de Século, english version, The Hegemonic Male, Masculinity in a Portuguese Town, Oxford and Providence, Berghahn Books. Ensaios de Antropologia e Cidadania - Porto, Campo das Letras, Corpo Presente, Treze Reflexões Antropológicas sobre o Corpo - Oeiras, Celta. 1986, Master’s Degree in Anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton,1983, Licenciatura in Anthropology, FCSH - Universidade Nova de LisboaMiguel Vale de Almeida – Miguel Vale de Almeida
47. Marsha P. Johnson – Marsha P. Johnson was an American trans woman, drag queen, sex worker, and gay liberation activist. A veteran of the Stonewall riots, Johnson was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, later in life Johnson became an AIDS activist with ACT UP. One of the citys best known drag queens and street queens, in the 1980s Johnson continued her street activism as a respected organizer and marshall with ACT UP. Once, appearing in a court the judge asked Marsha, What does the P stand for, Johnson gave her customary response Pay it No Mind. In 1974 Marsha P. Johnson was photographed by famed artist Andy Warhol, as part of a ladies, Johnson was also a member of J. Camicias international, NYC-based, GLBT performance troupe, Hot Peaches. In July 1992, shortly after the 1992 Pride March, Johnsons body was found floating in the Hudson River off the West Village Piers, while police initially ruled the death a suicide, Johnsons friends and other members of the local community insisted Johnson was not suicidal. Several people came forward to say they had seen Johnson harassed by a group of thugs who had also robbed people. Despite a peoples postering campaign and vigils at the site where Johnsons body had been found, in November 2012, activist Mariah Lopez finally succeeded in getting the New York police department to reopen the case as a possible homicide. Also interviewed are many of Johnsons closest friends and she is honored as a queen, a veteran activist, and a survivor. New York City baroque pop band Antony and the Johnsons was named in Johnsons honor, and their eponymous 1998 album features a song called River of Sorrow, the song is featured in the Pay it No Mind documentary. In 1993 Anohni appeared in a play about Johnson and International Chrysis by the Hot Peaches, Anohni also wrote and directed a play about Johnson, The Ascension of Marsha P. Johnson at the Pyramid in 1994 and at PS122 in 1995. A character based on Johnson appears in the film, Stonewall and she is played by Otoja Abit. As was generally the case with drag queens, street queens, femme gay men and radical faeries in the subcultures of the era. But this was not due to any insistence by Johnson, most people in these subcultures were addressed by feminine pronouns in that in-group vernacular, Johnson did not insist on feminine pronouns or take affront at masculine pronouns. Johnsons concept of gender identity varied over time and in different situations, for the most part, Johnsons personality was not based on wardrobe or makeup choices, even during the times when Johnson would strongly assert a male identity. Although generous and warm-hearted, Marsha also experienced bouts of mental illness, Johnson struggled with homelessness, drug addiction, and the severe effects of untreated medical conditions including inadequate treatment for AIDSMarsha P. Johnson – Marsha P. Johnson
48. Ludwig II of Bavaria – Ludwig II was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886. He is sometimes called the Swan King or der Märchenkönig and he also held the titles of Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, and Duke in Swabia. He succeeded to the throne aged 18, two years later Bavaria and Austria fought a war against Prussia, which they lost. However, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 Bavaria sided with Prussia against France and he commissioned the construction of two lavish palaces and the Neuschwanstein Castle, and was a devoted patron of the composer Richard Wagner. Ludwig spent all his royal revenues on these projects, borrowed extensively and this extravagance was used against him to declare him insane, an accusation which has since come under scrutiny. Today, his architectural and artistic legacy includes many of Bavarias most important tourist attractions, born in Nymphenburg Palace, he was the elder son of Maximilian II of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach, and his wife Princess Marie of Prussia. His younger brother, born three years later, was named Otto, like many young heirs in an age when kings governed most of Europe, Ludwig was continually reminded of his royal status. King Maximilian wanted to both of his sons in the burdens of royal duty from an early age. Ludwig was both extremely indulged and severely controlled by his tutors and subjected to a regimen of study. There are some who point to these stresses of growing up in a family as the causes for much of his odd behavior as an adult. Ludwig was not close to either of his parents, King Maximilians advisers had suggested that on his daily walks he might like, at times, to be accompanied by his future successor. The King replied, But what am I to say to him, after all, my son takes no interest in what other people tell him. Later, Ludwig would refer to his mother as my predecessors consort and he was far closer to his grandfather, the deposed and notorious King Ludwig I, who came from a family of eccentrics. Ludwigs childhood years did have happy moments and he lived for much of the time at Castle Hohenschwangau, a fantasy castle his father had built near the Alpsee near Füssen. It was decorated in the Gothic Revival style with frescoes depicting heroic German sagas. The family also visited Lake Starnberg, as an adolescent, Ludwig became close friends with his aide de camp, Prince Paul, a member of Bavarias wealthy Thurn und Taxis family. The two young men together, read poetry aloud, and staged scenes from the Romantic operas of Richard Wagner. The friendship ended when Paul became engaged in 1866, during his youth Ludwig also initiated a lifelong friendship with his cousin, Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria, later Empress of AustriaLudwig II of Bavaria – Ludwig in c. 1874
49. Leonard Bernstein – Leonard Bernstein was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the US to receive worldwide acclaim, according to music critic Donal Henahan, he was one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history. Bernstein was the first conductor to give a series of lectures on classical music, starting in 1954. He was a skilled pianist, often conducting piano concertos from the keyboard, as a composer he wrote in many styles encompassing symphonic and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre music, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces for the piano. Many of his works are performed around the world, although none has matched the tremendous popular. He was born Louis Bernstein in Lawrence, Massachusetts, the son of Ukrainian-Jewish parents Jennie and Samuel Joseph Bernstein and he was not related to film composer Elmer Bernstein, but the two men were friends, and even shared a certain physical similarity. Within the world of music, they were distinguished from each other by the use of the nicknames Bernstein West. His family spent their summers at their home in Sharon. His grandmother insisted that his first name be Louis, but his parents called him Leonard. He officially changed his name to Leonard when he was fifteen, to his friends and many others he was simply known as Lenny. His father, Sam Bernstein, was a businessman and owner of a hair product store in downtown Lawrence, it is no longer standing on the corners of Amesbury, Sam initially opposed young Leonards interest in music. Despite this, the elder Bernstein took him to concerts in his teenage years. As a child, Bernstein attended the Garrison Grammar School and Boston Latin School, as a child he was very close to his younger sister Shirley, and would often play entire operas or Beethoven symphonies with her at the piano. He had a variety of teachers in his youth, including Helen Coates. After graduation from Boston Latin School in 1935, Bernstein attended Harvard University, one of his friends at Harvard was philosopher Donald Davidson, with whom he played piano four hands. Bernstein wrote and conducted the score for the production Davidson mounted of Aristophanes play The Birds in the original Greek. Bernstein reused some of this music in the ballet Fancy Free, during his time at Harvard he was briefly an accompanist for the Harvard Glee Club. Bernstein also mounted a student production of The Cradle Will Rock, Blitzstein, who heard about the production, subsequently became a friend and influence on BernsteinLeonard Bernstein – Leonard Bernstein
50. Tom Ford – Thomas Carlyle Tom Ford is an American fashion designer, film director, screenwriter and film producer. He gained fame as the director at Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent. In 2006, Ford launched his own Tom Ford label, Ford directed the films A Single Man and Nocturnal Animals, which were Oscar-nominated. Tom Ford was born on August 27,1961, in Austin, Texas and he spent his early life in the suburbs of Houston, Texas, and in San Marcos, outside Austin, his family moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, when he was 11. In Santa Fe, he entered St. Michaels High School and later moved to Santa Fe Preparatory School, at age 16, he enrolled at Bard College at Simons Rock, but quickly dropped out. He moved to New York City to study art history at New York University, Ford dropped out of NYU after a year, focusing on acting in television commercials. Ford began studying architecture at The New Schools art and design college. While in New York, he often visited Studio 54, where he realized he was gay, the clubs disco-era glamor would be a major influence on his later designs. Before his last year at New School, Ford spent a year and a half in Paris and he spent his final year at The New School studying fashion, but graduated with a degree in architecture. Despite his lack of experience in fashion, Ford called American designer Cathy Hardwick every day for a month in hopes of securing a job at her sportswear company, Hardwick eventually agreed to interview him. She later recalled the incident, I had every intention of giving him no hope, I asked him who his favorite European designers were. Months later I asked him why he said that, and he said, is it any wonder he got the job. Ford worked as an assistant for Hardwick for two years. In 1988, Ford moved to Perry Ellis, where he knew both Robert McDonald, the president, and Marc Jacobs, its designer, socially. He worked at the company for two years, but grew tired of working in American fashion, in a later interview with The New York Times, he commented, If I was ever going to become a good designer, I had to leave America. My own culture was inhibiting me, too much style in America is tacky. Its looked down upon to be too stylish, at the time, Italian fashion house Gucci was struggling financially and was seeking to strengthen its womens ready-to-wear presence as a part of a brand overhaul. The companys creative director, Dawn Mello said, no one would dream of wearing Gucci, in 1990, Mello hired Ford as the brands chief womens ready-to-wear designer and Ford moved to MilanTom Ford – Tom Ford, September 2009
51. Nancy Kulp – Nancy Jane Kulp was an American character actress best known as Miss Jane Hathaway on the popular CBS television series The Beverly Hillbillies. Kulp was born to Marjorie C. and Robert Tilden Kulp in Harrisburg, kulps father was a traveling salesman, and her mother was a school teacher and, later, a principal. The family moved from Mifflintown, Pennsylvania, to Miami-Dade County, Florida and she was a member of the Pi Beta Phi sorority. Early in the 1940s she worked as a writer for the Miami Beach Tropics newspaper, writing profiles of celebrities, including Clark Gable. Kulp left the University of Miami in 1944 to volunteer for service in the US Naval Reserve during World War II, Kulp received several decorations, including the American Campaign Medal. She left the service in 1946, in The Model and the Marriage Broker she made her film debut as a character actress. She then appeared in films, including Shane, Sabrina. After working in television on The Bob Cummings Show, Kulp returned to movies in Forever, Darling, The Three Faces of Eve, The Parent Trap, Whos Minding the Store. and The Aristocats. In 1966, she appeared as Wilhemina Peterson in the film The Night of the Grizzly, starring Clint Walker, in 1955, Kulp joined the cast of The Bob Cummings Show with Bob Cummings, portraying pith-helmeted neighborhood bird watcher Pamela Livingstone. In 1956, she appeared in the episode Johnny Bravo of the ABC/Warner Brothers series Cheyenne, Kulp appeared in 1955–1956 as Anastasia in three episodes of the NBC sitcom Its a Great Life. In 1958, she appeared in Orson Welles little known pilot episode The Fountain of Youth in the TV series Colgate Theatre. In 1960, she appeared as Emma St. John in the episode Kill with Kindness of the ABC/WB detective series, Bourbon Street Beat, Kulp appeared in the 1956 episode titled Lucy Meets the Queen, of I Love Lucy. In that episode, she portrayed an English maid, showing Lucy, Kulp also appeared in episodes of The Real McCoys, Perry Mason, The Jack Benny Program, 87th Precinct, Pete and Gladys, The Twilight Zone, and The Outlaws. She played a housekeeper in a pilot for The William Bendix Show, in 1962, Kulp landed her breakout role of Jane Hathaway, the love-starved, bird-watching, perennial spinster on CBSs The Beverly Hillbillies television series. She remained with the show until its cancellation in 1971, in 1967, she received an Emmy Award nomination for her role. On April 7,1989, she played a nun in the Quantum Leap season 1 episode The Right Hand of God, Kulp appeared on The Brian Keith Show and Sanford and Son. Others described her as tall and prim and praised her comedic skills, Kulp also performed in the Broadway production of Mornings at Seven in 1980 to 1981 as Aaronetta Gibbs as a replacement for Elizabeth Wilson in the Lyceum Theatre. As an opponent of Republican incumbent, Bud Shuster, in a Republican district, to her dismay, Hillbillies co-star Buddy Ebsen called the Shuster campaign and volunteered to make a radio campaign ad in which he called Kulp too liberalNancy Kulp – Nancy Kulp
52. Jean Lorrain – Jean Lorrain, born Paul Alexandre Martin Duval, was a French poet and novelist of the Symbolist school. Lorrain was openly gay and a disciple of dandyism. He contributed to the satirical weekly Le Courrier français, and wrote a number of collections of verse, including La forêt bleue and he also wrote the libretto to Pierre de Brévilles opera Éros vainqueur. During his life, Marcel Proust never openly admitted to his homosexuality, though his family, in 1897, he even fought a duel with Lorrain, who had publicly questioned the nature of Prousts relationship with Lucien DaudetJean Lorrain – Jean Lorrain
53. Meshell Ndegeocello – Meshell Ndegeocello is an American singer-songwriter, rapper, bassist, and vocalist. She has gone by the name Meshell Suhaila Bashir-Shakur which is used as a credit on some of her later work. Her music incorporates a variety of influences, including funk, soul, jazz, hip hop, reggae. She has received significant critical acclaim throughout her career, and has had ten career Grammy Award nominations and she has been credited for having sparked the neo-soul movement. Ndegeocello was born Michelle Lynn Johnson in Berlin, Germany, to army Sergeant Major and saxophonist father Jacques Johnson and she was raised in Washington, D. C. where she attended Duke Ellington School of the Arts and Oxon Hill High School. In early press releases from Maverick Records her birth year was listed as 1969. The 1968 birth date has been confirmed through a previous manager, named Michelle Lynn Johnson at birth, Ndegeocello adopted her surname at the age of 17, which she says means free like a bird in Swahili. Early pressings of Plantation Lullabies were affixed with stickers to help pronounce her name, the spelling has changed in the hands of record labels a few times during her career, however, the correct spelling of her stage name is now Meshell Ndegeocello. Ndegeocello honed her skills on the D. C, going solo, she was one of the first artists to sign with Maverick Records, where she released her debut album, Plantation Lullabies. This recording presented a distinctly androgynous persona and her biggest hit is a duet with John Mellencamp, a cover version of Van Morrisons Wild Night, which reached No.3 on the Billboard charts. Her only other Billboard Hot 100 hit besides Wild Night has been her self-penned If Thats Your Boyfriend, also in 1994, Ndegeocello collaborated with Herbie Hancock on Nocturnal Sunshine, a track for the Red Hot Organizations compilation album, Stolen Moments, Red Hot + Cool. The album, meant to raise awareness and funds in support of the AIDS epidemic in relation to the African American community, was heralded as Album of the Year by Time magazine. She had a No.1 Dance hit in 1996 with a Bill Withers cover song called Who Is He. as well as Dance Top 20 hits with Earth, Leviticus, Faggot, Stay and the aforementioned If Thats Your Boyfriend. Ndegeocello played bass on the song Id Rather be Your Lover for Madonna on her album Bedtime Stories, Ndegeocello was also tapped, at the last minute, to perform a rap on the same song. This came after Madonna and producers decided to remove Tupac Shakurs rap, Ndegeocello also performed a rap on Chaka Khans single Never Miss the Water, from the album Epiphany, The Best of Chaka Khan, Vol.1, released in 1996. The song reached #1 on Billboards Dance Club Play Chart and #36 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles Chart and she has appeared on recordings by Basement Jaxx, Indigo Girls, Scritti Politti, and The Blind Boys of Alabama. On The Rolling Stones 1997 album Bridges to Babylon she plays bass on the song Saint of Me, on Alanis Morissettes 2002 album Under Rug Swept, she plays bass on the songs So Unsexy and You Owe Me Nothing in Return. On Zap Mamas album ReCreation, she plays bass on the song African Diamond and she can also be seen in the documentary Standing in the Shadows of Motown, singing The Miracles Youve Really Got a Hold on Me and The Temptations Cloud NineMeshell Ndegeocello – Meshell Ndegeocello performing in Washington, D.C., 2007
54. Jeanette Winterson – Some of her other novels have explored gender polarities and sexual identity. Winterson is also a broadcaster and a professor of creative writing and she is a two-time winner of the Lambda Literary Award, which focuses on LGBT issues. Winterson was born in Manchester and adopted by Constance and John William Winterson on 21 January 1960 and she grew up in Accrington, Lancashire, and was raised in the Elim Pentecostal Church. Intending to become a Pentecostal Christian missionary, she began evangelising and writing sermons at age six, by the age of 16, Winterson came out as a lesbian and left home. She soon after attended Accrington and Rossendale College, and supported herself at a variety of odd jobs while reading English at St Catherines College, Oxford. After she moved to London, her first novel, Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit, won the 1985 Whitbread Prize for a First Novel and this in turn won the BAFTA Award for Best Drama. She won the 1987 John Llewellyn Rhys Prize for The Passion, Wintersons subsequent novels explore the boundaries of physicality and the imagination, gender polarities, and sexual identities, and have won several literary awards. Her stage adaptation of The PowerBook in 2002 opened at the Royal National Theatre and she also bought a derelict terraced house in Spitalfields, east London, which she refurbished into a flat as a pied-à-terre and a ground-floor shop, Verdes, to sell organic food. In 2009, she donated the short story Dog Days to Oxfams Ox-Tales project, Wintersons story was published in the Fire collection. She also supported the relaunch of the Bush Theatre in Londons Shepherds Bush and her 2012 novella, The Daylight Gate, based on the 1612 Pendle Witch Trials, was published on the 400th anniversary of the trials. The novellas main character, Alice Nutter, is based on the woman of the same name. The Guardians Sarah Hall describes the work, the voice is irrefutable. Its also like courtroom reportage, sworn witness testimony, the sentences are short, truthful – and dreadful. Absolutism is Wintersons forte, and its the perfect mode to verify supernatural events when they occur, youre not asked to believe in magic. A man is transmogrified into a hare, the story is stretched as tight as a rack, so the readers disbelief is ruptured rather than suspended. And if doubt remains, the texts sensuality persuades In 2012, Winterson was made an officer of Order of the British Empire at the 2006 New Year Honours For services to literature. She is a winner of the Lambda Literary Awards. Written on the Body won in the category of Lesbian Fiction in 1994, additionally, Wintersons book Sexing the Cherry won the 1989 E. M. Forster AwardJeanette Winterson – Winterson in Warsaw, Poland, 2005
55. Alex Blackwell (cricketer) – Alexandra Joy Blackwell is a professional cricketer who plays for New South Wales and Australia as a specialist batsman. Her identical twin sister Kate has also played for Australia, Blackwell made her senior debut for New South Wales in the 2001–02 Womens National Cricket League. Playing in the middle-order she had little to do as the opposition bowlers struggled to penetrate the New South Wales batting line-up, Blackwell made 33 runs at 33.00 in her debut season as New South Wales won the WNCL. The following season, she batted higher up the order and made 212 runs at 30.28 and she made her Test debut in a two-match series against England immediately afterwards, hitting a half-century in the latter fixture. Alex Blackwell is the 142nd woman to play Test cricket for Australia, over the next two years, Blackwell was inconsistent at international level and was in and out of the team due to poor performance. However, she was able to maintain her position for the 2005 World Cup in South Africa, playing in all, playing in the middle-order, she was not required to bat often as the opposition rarely broke through the Australian batting, making 67 runs at 33.50. Her 53 against New Zealand was her first half-century in ODIs, however, Blackwell made only 48 from four Test innings during the subsequent tour of England and was unable to cement her place in the Australian team. After missing the first half of the 2006–07 season due to injury, Blackwell had a stint for Otago in New Zealands State League, however, her international form remained poor and she was dropped mid-way through an ODI tournament in India after making 54 runs in four innings. She earned a recall mid-way through the subsequent Rose Bowl series against New Zealand, Blackwell established herself at international level in 2007–08. After making 291 runs at 41.57 in the WNCL and she made another fifty later in the series, followed by consecutive half-centuries against New Zealand, ending the international season with 389 runs at 43.22. She continued her form in the WNCL, scoring 372 runs at 62.00. Blackwell made consecutive fifties in the two matches and then scored 190 runs at 38.00 as Australia came fourth in the 2009 World Cup. Blackwell led Australia in the Rose Bowl series in early-2010 after regular captain Jodie Fields was sidelined due to injury and they won all eight ODIs but lost all five T20 internationals. Blackwell made 235 runs at 33.57 including two fifties, Blackwell was born in Wagga Wagga, but raised in Yenda, a small rural town outside of Griffith, New South Wales. She and her twin sister Kate attended Barker College in the leafy north shore of Sydney as boarders. In March 2000, Blackwell was called into the New South Wales team for the Under-17 interstate competition, in the first match, she took 3/7 and was not required to bat in a ten-wicket victory over Victoria Blue. Her top-score for the tournament came in the match against Western Australia. New South Wales won all of their eight matches to claim the competition and Blackwell ended with 149 runs at 37.25, during the 2001–02 season, Blackwell made her senior debut for New South WalesAlex Blackwell (cricketer) – Alex Blackwell
56. Ann Bannon – Ann Bannon is an American author who, from 1957 to 1962, wrote six lesbian pulp fiction novels known as The Beebo Brinker Chronicles. The books enduring popularity and impact on lesbian identity has earned her the title Queen of Lesbian Pulp Fiction, Bannon was a young housewife trying to address her own issues of sexuality when she was inspired to write her first novel. Her subsequent books featured four characters who reappeared throughout the series, including her eponymous heroine, Beebo Brinker, the majority of her characters mirrored people she knew, but their stories reflected a life she did not feel she was able to live. Despite her traditional upbringing and role in married life, her novels defied conventions for romance stories and her books shaped lesbian identity for lesbians and heterosexuals alike, but Bannon was mostly unaware of their impact. Later, she earned a doctorate in linguistics and became an academic and she endured a difficult marriage for 27 years and, as she separated from her husband in the 1980s, her books were republished, she was stunned to learn of their influence on society. They were released again between 2001 and 2003 and were adapted as an award-winning Off-Broadway production and they are taught in Womens and LGBT studies courses, and Bannon has received numerous awards for pioneering lesbian and gay literature. Ann Bannon was born Ann Weldy in Joliet, Illinois, in 1932 and she grew up in nearby Hinsdale with her mother and stepfather, and had the responsibility of taking care of four siblings due to the familys financial problems. She took comfort in a vibrant imaginary life during this time, growing up, she was surrounded by music, particularly jazz, as her family hosted small recitals for friends and neighbors. One became a character in her books, a bachelor named Jack who slung jokes. Bannon witnessed a younger sorority sisters unabashed infatuation with the older sister and she recalls it was an awkward situation, even though the older sorority sister was unfailingly gracious to the younger one. In recognizing the younger womans attractions, she began to suspect her own sexuality and she said, I saw a lot of it happening and I didnt know what to make of it. I dont even know how to put it—I was absolutely consumed with it, it was an extraordinary thing. Another sorority sister was physically remarkable, very tall—almost 6 feet, with a voice and boyish nickname. She recalled entering the communal restroom and seeing the sister, both of us in underwear, and experienc a sort of shock, and trying not to stare at her. In 1954, she graduated with a degree in French and soon married an engineer whose job made them relocate frequently, Bannon was 22 years old when she began writing her first pulp novel. Bannon said, Both books completely obsessed me for the part of two years. Although recently married and on her way to having two children, she found the books struck a chord in her life and recognized emotions in herself that compelled her to write about them. In the beginning of her marriage she was left quite a lot and saidAnn Bannon – Ann Bannon in 1983. Photo by Tee Corinne.
57. Natalie Clifford Barney – Natalie Clifford Barney was an American playwright, poet and novelist who lived as an expatriate in Paris. She was openly lesbian and began publishing love poems to women under her own name as early as 1900, in her writings she supported feminism and pacifism. Barney was born in 1876 in Dayton, Ohio, to Albert Clifford Barney and her father was the son of a wealthy manufacturer of railway cars and of English descent, and her mother was of French, Dutch and German ancestry. Her maternal grandfathers father was Jewish, when Barney was five years old her family spent the summer at New Yorks Long Beach Hotel where Oscar Wilde happened to be speaking on his American lecture tour. Wilde scooped her up as she ran past him fleeing a group of boys, held her out of their reach then sat her down on his knee. She later studied under Carolus-Duran and James McNeill Whistler, many of Alice Pike Barneys paintings are now in the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Like many girls of her time, Barney had a haphazard education and her interest in the French language began with a governess who read Jules Verne stories aloud to her so she would have to learn quickly to understand them. Later she and her younger sister Laura Clifford Barney attended Les Ruches, as an adult she spoke French fluently without an accent and made her home in Paris. Nearly all her works were written in French. When she was ten her family moved from Ohio to Washington, D. C. spending summers in Bar Harbor, as the rebellious and unconventional daughter of one of the wealthiest families in town, she was often mentioned in Washington newspapers. In her early twenties she made headlines by galloping through Bar Harbor while driving a horse on a lead ahead of her. Barney later said she knew by age 12 she was lesbian and was determined to live openly, without hiding anything. In 1899 after seeing the courtesan Liane de Pougy at a hall in Paris, Barney presented herself at de Pougys residence in a page costume. Although de Pougy was one of the most famous women in France, constantly sought after by wealthy and titled men and their brief affair became the subject of de Pougys tell-all roman à clef, Idylle Saphique. Published in 1901, this became the talk of Paris. Barney was soon known as the model for one of the characters. By this time, however, the two had broken up after quarreling repeatedly over Barneys desire to rescue de Pougy from her life as a courtesan. Barney herself contributed a chapter to Idylle Saphique in which she described reclining at de Pougys feet in a box at the theaterNatalie Clifford Barney – Natalie Clifford Barney, painted in 1896 by her mother Alice Pike Barney
58. Cleveland Street scandal – The Cleveland Street scandal occurred in 1889, when a homosexual male brothel in Cleveland Street, Fitzrovia, London, was discovered by police. The government was accused of covering up the scandal to protect the names of aristocratic, at the time, sexual acts between men were illegal in Britain, and the brothels clients faced possible prosecution and certain social ostracism if discovered. It was rumoured that Prince Albert Victor, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales and second-in-line to the British throne had visited, though this has never been substantiated. Unlike overseas newspapers, the English press never named the Prince, but the allegation influenced the handling of the case by the authorities, the police acquired testimonies that Lord Arthur Somerset, an equerry to the Prince of Wales, was a patron. Both he and the keeper, Charles Hammond, managed to flee abroad before a prosecution could be brought. The male prostitutes, who worked as telegraph messenger boys for the Post Office, were given light sentences. After Henry James FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, was named in the press as a client, the scandal fuelled the attitude that male homosexuality was an aristocratic vice that corrupted lower-class youths. Such perceptions were still prevalent in 1895 when the Marquess of Queensberry accused Oscar Wilde of being an active homosexual, in July 1889, Police Constable Luke Hanks was investigating a theft from the London Central Telegraph Office. During the investigation, a telegraph boy named Charles Thomas Swinscow was discovered to be in possession of fourteen shillings. At the time, messenger boys were not permitted to carry any personal cash in the course of their duties, suspecting the boys involvement in the theft, Constable Hanks brought him in for questioning. After hesitating, Swinscow admitted that he earned the money working as a prostitute for a man named Charles Hammond, according to Swinscow, he was introduced to Hammond by a General Post Office clerk, eighteen-year-old Henry Newlove. In addition, he named two seventeen-year-old telegraph boys who worked for Hammond, George Alma Wright and Charles Ernest Thickbroom. Constable Hanks obtained corroborating statements from Wright and Thickbroom and, armed with these, Constable Hanks reported the matter to his superiors and the case was given to Detective Inspector Frederick Abberline. Inspector Abberline went to the brothel on 6 July with a warrant to arrest Hammond, the Act made all homosexual acts between men, as well as procurement or attempted procurement of such acts, punishable by up to two years imprisonment with or without hard labour. He found the house locked and Hammond gone, but Abberline was able to apprehend Newlove at his mothers house in Camden Town. In the time between his statement to Hanks and his arrest, Newlove had gone to Cleveland Street and warned Hammond, who had consequently escaped to his brothers house in Gravesend. On the way to the station, Newlove named Lord Arthur Somerset and Henry FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, as well as an army colonel by the name of Jervois. Somerset was the head of the Prince of Waless stables, although Somerset was interviewed by police, no immediate action was taken against him, and the authorities were slow to act on the allegations of Somersets involvementCleveland Street scandal – Illustration of Inspector Frederick Abberline from a contemporary newspaper
59. Dog Day Afternoon – Dog Day Afternoon is a 1975 American crime drama film directed by Sidney Lumet, written by Frank Pierson and produced by Martin Bregman and Martin Elfand. The film stars Al Pacino, John Cazale, Charles Durning, Chris Sarandon, Penelope Allen, James Broderick, Lance Henriksen, the title refers to the sultry dog days of summer. The film was inspired by P. F. Kluges article The Boys in the Bank and this article was published in Life in 1972. The film received acclaim upon its September 1975 release by Warner Bros. some of which referred to its anti-establishment tone. Dog Day Afternoon was nominated for several Academy Awards and Golden Globe awards, in 2009, the film was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. On August 22,1972, first-time crook Sonny Wortzik, his friend Salvatore Sal Naturale, the plan immediately goes awry when Stevie loses his nerve shortly after Sal pulls out his gun, and Sonny is forced to let him flee the scene. In the vault, Sonny discovers that he and Sal have arrived after the daily cash pickup, to compensate, Sonny takes a number of travelers cheques. Within minutes, the building is surrounded by the police, unsure of what to do, the two robbers camp out in the bank, holding all the workers hostage. Police Detective Sergeant Eugene Moretti calls the bank to tell Sonny that the police have arrived, Sonny warns that he and Sal have hostages and will kill them if anyone tries coming into the bank. Sal tells Sonny that he is ready to kill the hostages if necessary, Detective Moretti acts as hostage negotiator, while FBI Agent Sheldon monitors his actions. Howard Calvin, the security guard, has an asthma attack, Moretti convinces Sonny to step outside the bank to see how aggressive the police forces are. Using head teller Sylvia The Mouth as a shield, Sonny exits the bank, Attica. and the civilian crowd starts cheering for Sonny. After realizing they cannot make a getaway, Sonny demands that a helicopter be landed on the roof to fly him. When they are informed that the roof of the bank will not support a helicopter, Sonny demands that a vehicle drive him. He also demands pizzas for the hostages and that his wife be brought to the bank, as night sets in, the lights in the bank all shut off. Sonny goes outside again and discovers that Agent Sheldon has taken command of the scene and he refuses to give Sonny any more favors, but when the bank manager, Mulvaney, goes into a diabetic shock, Agent Sheldon lets a doctor through. While the doctor is inside the bank, Sheldon convinces Leon to talk to Sonny on the phone, the two have a lengthy conversation that reveals Leon had attempted suicide to get away from Sonny. She had been hospitalized at the ward of Bellevue Hospital until the police brought her to the sceneDog Day Afternoon – Theatrical release poster
60. Fun Home – Fun Home, subtitled A Family Tragicomic, is a 2006 graphic memoir by the American cartoonist Alison Bechdel, author of the comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For. It chronicles the childhood and youth in rural Pennsylvania, United States. The book addresses themes of sexual orientation, gender roles, suicide, emotional abuse, dysfunctional family life, writing and illustrating Fun Home took seven years, in part because of Bechdels laborious artistic process, which includes photographing herself in poses for each human figure. Fun Home has been both a popular and critical success, and spent two weeks on the New York Times Best Seller list, in The New York Times Sunday Book Review, Sean Wilsey called it a pioneering work, pushing two genres in multiple new directions. Several publications named Fun Home as one of the best books of 2006 and it was nominated for several awards, including the National Book Critics Circle Award and three Eisner Awards. Bechdel later traced her maternal relationship in Are You My Mother, the production, directed by Sam Gold, was called the first mainstream musical about a young lesbian. The Broadway production opened in April 2015, and earned an even dozen nominations for the 69th Tony Awards, the narrative of Fun Home is non-linear and recursive. Incidents are told and re-told in the light of new information or themes, Bechdel describes the structure of Fun Home as a labyrinth, going over the same material, but starting from the outside and spiraling in to the center of the story. Miller notes that the narratives of the literary texts provide clues. The memoir focuses on Bechdels family, and is centered on her relationship with her father, Bruce Bechdel was a funeral director and high school English teacher in Beech Creek, where Alison and her siblings grew up. Bruce Bechdels two occupations are reflected in Fun Homes focus on death and literature, in the beginning of the book, the memoir exhibits Bruce Bechdels obsession with restoring the familys Victorian home. His obsessive need to restore the house is connected to his distance from his family. This emotional distance, in turn, is connected with his being a closeted homosexual, Bruce Bechdel had homosexual relationships in the military and with his high school students, some of those students were also family friends and babysitters. At the age of 44, two weeks after his wife requested a divorce, he stepped into the path of an oncoming Sunbeam Bread truck and was killed, although the evidence is equivocal, Alison Bechdel concludes that her father committed suicide. The story also deals with Alison Bechdels own struggle with her identity, reaching a catharsis in the realization that she is a lesbian. The memoir frankly examines her sexual development, including transcripts from her diary, anecdotes about masturbation. While I was trying to compensate for something unmanly in him and it was a war of cross-purposes, and so doomed to perpetual escalation. At several points in the book, Bechdel questions whether her decision to come out as a lesbian was one of the triggers for her fathers suicide, Fun Home has several themes recurring throughout the bookFun Home – Cover of the hardback edition
61. Emma Goldman – Emma Goldman was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America. Born in Kovno, Russian Empire to a Jewish family, Goldman emigrated to the United States in 1885, attracted to anarchism after the Haymarket affair, Goldman became a writer and a renowned lecturer on anarchist philosophy, womens rights, and social issues, attracting crowds of thousands. She and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist, Frick survived the attempt on his life in 1892 and Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison. Goldman was imprisoned several times in the years followed, for inciting to riot. In 1906, Goldman founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth, in 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to induce persons not to register for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia, in 1923, she published a book about her experiences, My Disillusionment in Russia. While living in England, Canada, and France, she wrote an autobiography called Living My Life, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she traveled to Spain to support the anarchist revolution there. She died in Toronto on May 14,1940, aged 70, during her life, Goldman was lionized as a free-thinking rebel woman by admirers, and denounced by detractors as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution. Her writing and lectures spanned a variety of issues, including prisons, atheism, freedom of speech, militarism, capitalism, marriage, free love. Although she distanced herself from first-wave feminism and its efforts toward womens suffrage, after decades of obscurity, Goldman gained iconic status by a revival of interest in her life in the 1970s, when feminist and anarchist scholars rekindled popular interest. Emma Goldmans Orthodox Jewish family lived in the Lithuanian city of Kaunas, Goldmans mother Taube Bienowitch had been married before, to a man with whom she had two daughters—Helena in 1860 and Lena in 1862. When her first husband died of tuberculosis, Taube was devastated, Goldman later wrote, Whatever love she had had died with the young man to whom she had been married at the age of fifteen. Taubes second marriage was arranged by her family and, as Goldman puts it and her second husband, Abraham Goldman, invested Taubes inheritance in a business that quickly failed. The ensuing hardship combined with the distance of husband and wife to make the household a tense place for the children. When Taube became pregnant, Abraham hoped desperately for a son and they eventually had three sons, but their first child was Emma. Emma Goldman was born on June 27,1869 and her father used violence to punish his children, beating them when they disobeyed him. He used a whip on Emma, the most rebellious of them and her mother provided scarce comfort, rarely calling on Abraham to tone down his beatingsEmma Goldman – Goldman, circa 1911
62. Latter Days – Latter Days is a 2003 American romantic comedy-drama film about a gay relationship between a closeted Mormon missionary and his openly gay neighbor. The film was written and directed by C, jay Cox and stars Steve Sandvoss as the missionary, Aaron, and Wes Ramsey as the neighbor, Christian. Joseph Gordon-Levitt appears as Elder Ryder, and Rebekah Johnson as Julie Taylor, mary Kay Place, Erik Palladino, Amber Benson, and Jacqueline Bisset have supporting roles. Latter Days premiered at the Philadelphia International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival on July 10,2003 and was released in various states of USA over the next 12 months, later the film was released in a few other countries and shown at several gay film festivals. It was the first film to portray openly the clash between the principles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and homosexuality, and its exhibition in some U. S. states was controversial. Various religious groups demanded that the film be withdrawn from theaters, the film was met with mixed reactions from film critics, but was popular with most film festival attendees. At the North American box office however, Latter Days only made $834,685, in 2004, freelance writer T. Fabris made Latter Days into a novel, which was published by Alyson Publications. Elder Aaron Davis, a young Mormon from Pocatello, Idaho, is sent to Los Angeles with three missionaries to spread the Mormon faith. They move into an apartment next to openly gay party boy Christian Markelli and his roommate Julie, Christian and Julie work as waiters at Lilas, a trendy restaurant owned by retired actress Lila Montagne. Christian makes a bet with his co-workers that he can seduce one of the Mormons, and soon realizes that Aaron, Aaron and Christian become acquainted after several encounters in the apartment complex. When Christian accidentally cuts himself on a metal hose reel and faints, Aaron helps him indoors, Christian attempts to seduce Aaron, but the hesitant Mormon becomes upset by Christians remark that sex doesnt have to mean anything. Aaron accuses him of being shallow and walks out, worried that Aaron is correct, Christian joins Project Angel Food, delivering meals to people with AIDS. Aarons fellow missionary, Paul Ryder, has a cycling accident, returning to his apartment, a distraught Aaron encounters Christian, who tries to comfort him with a hug. Both men are overwhelmed by their feelings and end up kissing, failing to notice the return of Aarons roommates, Aaron is sent home in disgrace, leading Christian to confront Ryder, who is angry that Christian corrupted Aaron for no reason. Christian admits that he initially just wanted to win a bet, recognizing Christians distress, Ryder tells him that Aarons flight has a five-hour layover in Salt Lake City. Christian finds Aaron standing in the snow outside the airport terminal, Christian confesses his love, and despite his misgivings, Aaron admits his own feelings of love. With all flights canceled due to a snowstorm, Christian and Aaron spend a night in a motel. When Christian awakes, he finds Aaron gone, Aarons pocket watch, a family heirloom, has been left behindLatter Days – Theatrical release poster
63. Harvey Milk – Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 amid a migration of gay men to the Castro District and he took advantage of the growing political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and three times ran unsuccessfully for political office. His theatrical campaigns earned him increasing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, his election made possible by, and a key component of, a shift in San Francisco politics. Milk served almost 11 months in office and was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city, despite his short career in politics, Milk became an icon in San Francisco and a martyr in the gay community. In 2002, Milk was called the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States, anne Kronenberg, his final campaign manager, wrote of him, What set Harvey apart from you or me was that he was a visionary. He imagined a world inside his head and then he set about to create it for real. Milk was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009, Milk was born in Woodmere, New York, to William Milk and Minerva Karns. He was the son of Lithuanian Jewish parents and the grandson of Morris Milk. As a child, Harvey was teased for his ears, big nose, and oversized feet. He played football in school, and developed a passion for opera, in his teens, he acknowledged his homosexuality to himself, under his name in the high school yearbook, it read, Glimpy Milk—and they say WOMEN are never at a loss for words. Milk graduated from Bay Shore High School in Bay Shore, New York, in 1947 and attended New York State College for Teachers in Albany from 1947 to 1951 and he also wrote for the college newspaper. One classmate remembered, He was never thought of as a possible queer—thats what you called them then—he was a mans man, after graduation, Milk joined the United States Navy during the Korean War. He served aboard the rescue ship USS Kittiwake as a diving officer. He later transferred to Naval Station, San Diego to serve as a diving instructor, in 1955, he was discharged from the Navy at the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. Milks early career was marked by frequent changes, in years he would take delight in talking about his metamorphosis from a middle-class Jewish boy. He began teaching at George W. Hewlett High School on Long Island, in 1956, he met Joe Campbell, at the Jacob Riis Park beach, a popular location for gay men in Queens. Campbell was seven years younger than Milk, and Milk pursued him passionately, Even after they moved in together, Milk wrote Campbell romantic notes and poems. Campbell and Milk separated after almost six years, it would be his longest relationship, Milk tried to keep his early romantic life separate from his family and workHarvey Milk – Milk in 1978
64. Stonewall riots – They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced a legal system. Early homophile groups in the U. S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society and these influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Very few establishments welcomed openly gay people in the 1950s and 1960s and those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia, Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. They attracted a crowd that was incited to riot, tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. After the Stonewall riots, gays and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians. Within a few years, gay organizations were founded across the U. S. On June 28,1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016, anarchists, communists, and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U. S. State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail, in 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Between 1947 and 1950,1,700 federal job applications were denied,4,380 people were discharged from the military, and 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and police departments kept lists of homosexuals, their favored establishments, and friends. Post Office kept track of addresses where material pertaining to homosexuality was mailed, State and local governments followed suit, bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, and their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed sweeps to rid neighborhoods, parks, bars, and they outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, and universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. Thousands of gay men and women were publicly humiliated, physically harassed, fired, jailed, many lived double lives, keeping their private lives secret from their professional ones. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic, a large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationshipsStonewall riots – The Stonewall Inn, taken September 1969. The sign in the window reads: "We homosexuals plead with our people to please help maintain peaceful and quiet conduct on the streets of the Village— Mattachine."
65. Gaylactic Spectrum Awards – The Gaylactic Spectrum Awards are given to works of science fiction, fantasy and horror that explore LGBT topics in a positive way. Established in 1998, the awards were presented by the Gaylactic Network. In 2002 the awards were given their own organization, the Gaylactic Spectrum Awards Foundation, the major award categories are for best novel, short fiction, and other works. The winners and short list of recommended nominees are decided by a jury, one of the most recognized authors, Nicola Griffith has received the most awards overall, with three wins. Griffith also jointly holds the record for most nominations with Melissa Scott, works of any format produced before the awards were first given were eligible to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, although no work has been inducted since 2003. The list of winners and Hall of Fame inductees has been called a whos who of science fiction by GLBTQ. com. This article lists the winners in each of the categories, since their inception, the awards were given in categories for novels and best other work. Other categories were added and removed in intervening years, including categories for short fiction. A short lived Peoples Choice award voted by convention attendees was also awarded to one work from any of the category nominee short lists, the award for best novel was the only one to have been handed out every year since the awards began. As of 2014 there were three categories, novels, short fiction and other works. The other works category included comic books, graphic novels, movies, television episodes, multimedia, anthologies, story collections, gaming products, artwork, and music. The categories are open to submission of English-language works released during the calendar year in North America that include significant positive GLBT content. The time-frame of eligibility is based on date for first printing for written works, cover date for magazines and comic books, release date for films. Works had to have been published or distributed to be eligible for consideration. The judges can choose to extend eligibility for a due to oversight, confusion regarding release dates. An open nomination/recommendation process is used to identify works to be considered by the judges, works of any format produced before the inception of the awards are eligible to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, these inductees were selected solely by the judges. The results are decided by a panel of judges from the list of submitted nominees, the judges are volunteers from science fiction fandom and GLBT community, with one volunteer as the Award Administrator. The judges review each recommended work and the long list of nominees is reduced via review and discussion to a short list of finalists, the results are generally announced and presented at Gaylaxicon, a convention dedicated to LGBT science fiction, although on occasion they are presented at WorldconGaylactic Spectrum Awards – Logo of the Gaylactic Spectrum Award Foundation
66. Transvestism – Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex. Though coined as late as the 1910s, the phenomenon is not new and it was referred to in the Hebrew Bible. The word has several changes of meaning since it was first coined and is still used in a variety of senses. Today, the term transvestite is commonly considered outdated and derogatory, Magnus Hirschfeld coined the word transvestite in 1910 to refer to the sexual interest in cross-dressing. He used it to persons who habitually and voluntarily wore clothes of the opposite sex. Hirschfelds group of transvestites consisted of males and females, with heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and asexual orientations. Hirschfeld himself was not happy with the term, He believed that clothing was only a symbol chosen on the basis of various internal psychological situations. In fact, Hirschfeld helped people to achieve the very first name changes, hirschfelds transvestites therefore were, in todays terms, not only transvestites, but a variety of people from the transgender spectrum. Hirschfeld also noticed that sexual arousal was often associated with transvestism, in more recent terminology, this is sometimes called transvestic fetishism. Hirschfeld also clearly distinguished between transvestism as an expression of a persons contra-sexual feelings and fetishistic behavior, even if the latter involved wearing clothes of the other sex. After all the changes took place during the 1970s, a large group was left without a word to describe themselves. This group was not particularly happy with the term transvestism, in some cultures, transvestism is practiced for religious, traditional or ceremonial reasons. For example, in India some male devotees of the Hindu god Krishna, especially in Mathura and Vrindavan, dress in attire to pose as his consort. In Italy, the Neapolitan femminielli wear wedding dresses, called the matrimonio dei femminielli, a procession takes place through the streets, cogender Drag I Am My Own Wife List of transgender-related topics Transgender Transsexualism Travesti Dual-role transvestism Ackroyd, Peter. Dressing up, transvestism and drag, the history of an obsession, a Brighter Shade of Pink, Magnus Hirschfeld. Transvestism, Transsexualism in the Psychoanalytic Dimension, cherry Single, A Transvestite Comes of Age Alchemist/Light Publishing,1997, ISBN 0-9600650-5-9 Thanem Torkild, Wallenberg Louise. Transvestism and the power of underdoing gender in everyday life and work, the dictionary definition of transvestite at Wiktionary Transvestism at Britannica Online EncyclopædiaTransvestism – A Sicilian boy cross-dressing as a Spanish woman, photographed by Wilhelm von Gloeden in the late 19th century.
67. Society – In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant and this is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology. The term society came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity, Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. Cultural relativism as an approach or ethic has largely replaced notions of primitive, better/worse. Societies may also be structured politically, in order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of power, depending on the cultural, geographical. Thus, an isolated society with the same level of technology. A society that is unable to offer a response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society. Sociologist Peter L. Berger defines society as. a human product, and nothing but a human product, according to him, society was created by humans but this creation turns back and creates or molds humans every day. This is similar to the earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. This system of classification contains four categories, Hunter-gatherer bands, tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments, in addition to this there are, Humanity, mankind, upon which rest all the elements of society, including societys beliefs. Virtual society, a society based on identity, which is evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of organization and this cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages, villages grew to become towns and cities. Cities turned into city-states and nation-states, many societies distribute largess at the behest of some individual or some larger group of people. This type of generosity can be seen in all cultures, typicallySociety – A half-section of the 12th-century South Tang Dynasty version of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu Hongzhong. The painting portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, and hosts all in a single social environment. It serves as an in-depth look into the Chinese social structure of the time.
68. Gay bashing – A bashing may be a specific incident, and one could also use the verb to bash. A verbal gay bashing might use sexual slurs, expletives, intimidation and it also might take place in a political forum and include one or more common anti-gay slogans. Similar terms such as bullying, queer bullying, and queer bashing may also be formed. Gay bashing has occurred worldwide for many decades and continues today, as historian David K. Johnson explains, The Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the Red Scare. In popular discourse, communists and homosexuals were often conflated, both groups were perceived as hidden subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed, and both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government, using rumors collected by Drew Pearson, one Nevada publisher wrote in 1952 that both McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, were homosexuals. Bradlee said, There was a lot of time spent investigating these allegations, No reputable McCarthy biographer has accepted it as probable. Egale Canada conducted a survey of more than 3700 high school students in Canada between December 2007 and June 2009, 58% or about 1400 of the 2400 heterosexual students participating in EGALEs survey found homophobic comments upsetting. Further, EGALE found that students not directly affected by homophobia, biphobia or transphobia were less aware of it, EGALE, along with previous research has found teachers and school administration may be complicit in queer bullying through their silence and/or inaction. Graffiti found on school grounds and property, and its relative permanence, is another form of queer bullying, some researchers suggest including youth questioning their sexuality in any research on queer bullying because they may be as susceptible to its effects as queer students. Building on the notion of masculinity defining itself by what it is not and these intertwining issues were examined in 2007, when American sociologist CJ Pascoe described what she calls the fag discourse at an American high school in her book, Dude, Youre a Fag. Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying, in one study, boys who were bullied with taunts of being gay suffered more bullying and more negative effects compared with boys who were bullied with other categories of taunting. Queer bullying may make some victims feel sad and unsafe in the world, Bullying will affect a students experience of school. Some victims might feel paralyzed and withdraw socially as a coping mechanism, other victims of queer bullying may begin to live the effects of learned helplessness. Queer or questioning students may try to pass as heterosexual in order to avoid queer bullying, passing isolates the student from other queer or questioning students, potential allies, and support. Adults who try to pass also may feel the effects emotionally and psychologically, queer and questioning youth who experience bullying have a higher incidence of substance abuse and STI and HIV infection, which may carry through to adulthood. Teens face harassment, threats, and violence, a 1998 study in the US by Mental Health America found that students heard anti-gay slurs such as homo, faggot and sissy about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutesGay bashing – LGBT history
69. Bisexual community – The bisexual community includes members of the LGBT community who identify as bisexual, pansexual, or sexually fluid. People who identify as bisexual or pansexual receive specifically directed hatred and distrust, stereotyping, people may say bisexuals are just unsure of their feelings or going through a phase and will or should decide or discover which sex they are attracted to. On the other hand, there is increasing support, inclusion. The social networks of some bisexuals, sometimes called gay- or lesbian-identified bisexuals, are concentrated inside the LGBT communities. But others, sometimes called straight-identified bisexuals, may participate in LGBT culture. Others choose to maintain their social contacts mainly with other bisexual/fluid/pansexual. These groups are queer-identified and closely allied with the gay, lesbian and transgender communities, there has also been a movement to combat biphobia and myths about bisexuals. There are bisexual groups in several cities, often, conferences have separate seminars on bisexual and transgender topics, and several LGBT pride parades now include special bisexual sections as well. Other communities also tend to be welcoming of wide range of different orientations, september 23 is known as Celebrate Bisexuality Day. The two have a relationship, and face disturbances from Holdens friend and business partner, Banky Edwards, played by Jason Lee. Eventually, Banky admits his love for Holden, who suggests a threesome, Banky also leaves shortly after the incident. Beginning in 2009 a web TV series Rose by Any Other Name. produced by FenceSitter Films. began showing on YouTube, Rose has to navigate the reaction of her friends and her family while Anthony too has to deal with his friends who are equally displeased. On December 30,2009, MTV premiered their 23rd season of the show The Real World, the series took place in Washington DC, and features two bisexual characters, Emily Schromm, and Mike Manning. The film Maurice, based on the book by E. M. Forster released in 1987 featured Alec, the National Equality March was a national political rally that occurred October 11,2009 in Washington, D. C. It called for protection for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in all matters governed by civil law in all states. The march was called for by LGBT activist Cleve Jones and organized by Equality Across America, kip Williams and Robin McGehee served as co-directors. This was the first national march in Washington, D. C. for LGBT rights since the 2000 Millennium March, there was a specific bisexual, pansexual and queer-identified contingent that was organized to be a part of the march. There were four out bisexual speakers at the National Equality March rally, Michael Huffington, Lady Gaga, Chloe Noble, burleson, ISBN 978-1-56023-478-4 Bisexuality in the United States, A Social Science Reader by Paula CBisexual community – Various bisexual community groups celebrating in LGBT pride events such as Bisexual Pride Day
70. Gay village – A gay village is a geographical area with generally recognized boundaries, inhabited or frequented by a large number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Gay villages often contain a number of gay-oriented establishments, such as gay bars and pubs, nightclubs, bathhouses, restaurants, such areas may represent a LGBTQ-friendly oasis in an otherwise hostile city, or may simply have a high concentration of gay residents and businesses. However, todays manifestations of queer ghettos bear little resemblance to those of the 1970s, the term ghetto originally referred to those places in European cities where Jews were required to live according to local law. These areas, however, have higher concentrations of LGBT residents, some cities like Austin, Texas did not develop a defined gay village despite the city of Austin being home to many LGBT people with developed LGBT-friendly businesses and a counterculture present. The neighbourhood of Schöneberg in Berlin, close to Nollendorfplatz, is the first gay village in the world, from the 1920s. In New York, for example, the congregation of gay men had not been illegal since 1965, however, the Stonewall Rebellion managed to change not only the profile of the gay community but the dynamic within the community itself. This transition from the bars to the streets, from nightlife to daytime, national Monument dedicated to the LGBTQ-rights movement. Gay villages can vary widely from city to city and country to country, furthermore, some large cities also develop satellite gay villages that are essentially overflow areas. The professors also noted that the presence of gay men in the real estate industry of San Francisco was a major factor facilitating the urban renaissance of the city in the 1970s. However, the gentrification of gay villages may serve to reinforce stereotypes of gays, by pushing out gay people who do not conform to the prevailing gay, white, affluent. Such people are forced out of the village due to rising rents or constant harassment at the hands of an increased policing presence. Especially in San Franciscos Polk Gulch neighborhood, gentrification seems to have had this result, Gay men and women have a reputation for driving the revitalization of previously run-down enclaves. Making these neighborhoods more desirable places to live, businesses and other classes of people move to the area and, accordingly, Richard Florida, an influential American academic, claims that their mere presence lures investors and jobs, particularly of the high-technology kind. They are, he says, the canaries of the creative economy, Cities that have gay villages and are more tolerant towards gays, generally tend to have stronger, more robust, and creative economies, as compared to cities that are less tolerant towards gays. Florida says that cities as such have a creative class. The gentrification of once rundown inner-city areas, coupled with the staging of pride parades in these areas, has resulted in the visibility of gay communities. The growing recognition of the value of the gay community is not only associated with their wealth but also with the role that lesbians. Provincetown, MA was ranked by the US Census Bureau as the gayest city in America, also Provincetown, or Ptown, was voted Best Resort Town in 2011 by Gaycities. comGay village – Gay village in Le Marais, Paris
71. Gay bar – Gay bars once served as the centre of gay culture and were one of the few places people with same-sex orientations and gender-variant identities could openly socialize. Other names used to describe these establishments include boy bar, girl bar, gay club, gay pub, queer bar, lesbian bar, drag bar, and dyke bar, depending on the niche communities that they served. With the advent of the Internet and an acceptance of LGBT people across the Western world. In areas without a gay bar, certain establishments may hold a gay night, gathering places favoured by homosexuals have operated for centuries. Reports from as early as the 17th century record the existence of bars and clubs that catered to, or at least tolerated, the White Swan, on Vere Street, in London, England, was raided in 1810 during the so-called Vere Street Coterie. The raid led to the executions of John Hepburn and Thomas White for sodomy, the site was the scene of alleged gay marriages carried out by the Reverend John Church. Its not clear which place is the first gay bar in the modern sense, in Cannes, France, such a bar had already opened in 1885, and there were many more in Berlin around 1900. In the United Kingdom and the Netherlands gay bars were established throughout the first quarter of the 20th century, the very first gay bar in Europe and probably in the world was the Zanzibar in Cannes on the French Riviera. The place was opened in 1885 and existed for 125 years, among its visitors were many artists, like actor Jean Marais and comedians Thierry Le Luron and Coluche. Although Amsterdam, Berlin, and London had more meeting places and organizations than Paris, Paris retained the LGBT capital image after the end of World War II, but the center of the meeting place shifted to Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Lesbians rarely visited gay bars and instead socialized in circles of friends, lesbians who did go to bars often originated from the working class. Chez Moune, opened in 1936, and New Moon were 20th century lesbian cabarets located in Place Pigalle, since the 1980s, the Le Marais district is the center of the gay scene in Paris. In Berlin, there was gay and lesbian night life already around 1900, the gay club Eldorado in the Motzstraße was internationally known for its transvestite shows. There was also a high number of places for lesbians. Within a few weeks after the Nazis took over government in 1933, after homosexuality was decriminalized in 1969, many gay bars opened in West Berlin, resulting in a lively gay scene. In the 18th Century, Molly Houses were clandestine clubs where gay men could meet, drink, one of the most famous was Mother Claps Molly House. The first gay bar in Britain in the sense was The Cave of the Golden Calf. It opened in a location at 9 Heddon Street, just off Regent Street, in 1912 and became a haunt for the wealthy, aristocraticGay bar – The Stonewall Inn in New York City was the site of the Stonewall riots of 1969, which have come to symbolize the beginning of the modern gay liberation movement in the United States. Shown here in 1969, it has since been remodeled.
72. Gay icons – A gay icon is a public figure who is embraced by many within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Some of the qualities of a gay icon often include glamour, flamboyance, strength through adversity. Such icons can be of any orientation or gender, if LGBT. Although most gay icons have given their support to LGBT social movements, some have expressed opposition, historically, icons were typically elevated to such status because their sexual orientation remains a topic of debate among historians. Modern gay icons are predominantly female entertainers who commonly garner a following within LGBT communities over the course of their careers. The majority of gay icons fall into one of two categories, they are tragic, sometimes martyred figures, or prominent pop culture idols. Journalist Richard A. Kaye wrote, Contemporary gay men have seen in Sebastian at once a stunning advertisement for homosexual desire, and a prototypical portrait of a tortured closet case. Due to Saint Sebastians status as a gay icon, Tennessee Williams chose to use the name for the martyred character Sebastian in his play, Suddenly. The name was used by Oscar Wilde—as Sebastian Melmoth—when in exile after his release from prison. Wilde, an Irish writer and poet, was about as out of the closet as was possible for the late 19th century, marie Antoinette was an early lesbian icon. Rumors about her relationships with women circulated in pornographic detail by anti-royalist pamphlets before the French Revolution, by the end of the 19th century, she was a cult icon of sapphism. Her execution, seen as tragic martyrdom, may have added to her appeal, sick to death of the subterfuge and pretenses. She had crossover appeal as a gay icon, as well, at least for French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist Jean Genet and he included a reenactment of her execution in his 1947 play The Maids. Modern gay icons in entertainment include both film stars and musicians, most of whom have strong, distinctive personalities, and many of whom died young or under tragic circumstances. Lesbian icons, sometimes called dykons are most often women who are, or are rumored to be. However, a few male entertainers have also had iconic status for lesbian people, james Dean was an early lesbian icon who, along with Marlon Brando, influenced the butch look and self-image in the 1950s and after. One critic has argued for Johnny Cash as a lesbian icon, attributing his appeal to lesbian identification with troubled. Science fiction author Forrest J Ackerman was dubbed an honorary lesbian for his help during the days of lesbian rights organisation Daughters of BilitisGay icons – Actress and singer Judy Garland is cited as one of the quintessential gay icons
73. Bisexual American history – This article addresses the history of bisexuality in the United States. It covers this history from 1892, when the first English-language use of the word bisexual, prior to this, bisexual was usually used to mean hermaphroditic, often in reference to plants. Under any label, openly bisexual people were rare in early American life, one notable exception was the openly bisexual poet Edna St. Vincent Millay, who received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver in 1923. The 19th century poet Walt Whitman is usually described by biographers as either bisexual or homosexual in his feelings, early film, being a cutting-edge medium, also provided opportunity for bisexuality to be expressed. In 1914 the first documented appearance of characters in an American motion picture occurred in A Florida Enchantment. However, due to the legally required by the Hays Code. Their research also found that 11, as a result of this research, the earlier meanings of the word bisexual were largely displaced by the meaning of being attracted to both women and men. LGBT political activism became more prominent in this decade, in 1966 bisexual activist Robert A. Martin founded the Student Homophile League at Columbia University and New York University. In 1967 Columbia University officially recognized this group, thus making them the first college in the United States to officially recognize a gay student group, activism on behalf of bisexuals in particular also began to grow, especially in San Francisco. One of the earliest organizations for bisexuals, the Sexual Freedom League in San Francisco, was facilitated by Margo Rila, two years later, during a staff meeting at a San Francisco mental health facility serving LGBT people, nurse Maggi Rubenstein came out as bisexual. Due to this, bisexuals began to be included in the programs for the first time. The Stonewall Rebellion, considered the beginning of the modern LGBT rights movement, bar patrons, including bisexuals, stood up to the police during a raid. In commemoration of this, the year the first LGBT pride march was held. Bisexual activist Brenda Howard is known as the Mother of Pride for her work in coordinating this march. Howard also originated the idea for a series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June. Additionally, Howard along with bisexual activist Robert A. Martin, as bisexual activist Tom Limoncelli put it, The next time someone asks you why LGBT Pride marches exist or why Pride Month is June tell them A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard thought it should be. Bisexuals became more prominent in the media in the 1970s, in 1972 bisexual activist Don Fass founded the National Bisexual Liberation group in New York City, which issued The Bisexual Expression, most likely the earliest bisexual newsletter. In 1973 bisexual activist Woody Glenn was interviewed by a show of the National Organization for Women on WICC in BridgeportBisexual American history – The Bisexual pride flag, created by bisexual activist Michael Page.
74. Gay men in American history – This article is about the history of gay men in the United States. For lesbians, please see History of lesbianism in the United States, two-spirit is a modern umbrella term used by some indigenous North Americans for Gender variant individuals in their communities. The presence of male two-spirits existed before European contact, and was an institution among most tribal peoples. According to Will Roscoe, male and female two-spirits have been documented in over 130 North America tribes, two-spirits might have relationships with people of either sex. According to Lang, female assigned at birth two-spirits usually have sexual relations or marriages with only females, partners of two-spirits have not historically viewed themselves as homosexual, and moreover drew a sharp conceptual line between themselves and two-spirits. There were few openly gay European men in America at this time, anal sex was specifically prohibited by a statute passed in 1563 during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, and the English colonies in America were subject to this law. S. States, this often included homosexual sex, other sexual practices that have historically been considered to be crimes against nature include anal sex, as well as fellatio, bestiality, incest, miscegenation and necrophilia. The term is also seen as a synonym for sodomy or buggery. Legal punishments for sodomy often included lengthy prison sentences, fines, the first recorded police raid in American history on a gay bathhouse took place in New York City on February 21,1903, when New York police raided the Ariston Hotel Baths. 26 men were arrested and 12 brought to trial on charges,7 men received sentences ranging from 4 to 20 years in prison. After all, police raids on gay hangouts and other examples of formal and/or informal harassment were common practice prior during the first half of the 20th century, nevertheless, there were some gay men who had an important impact on American history at this time, particularly literature. Walt Whitman, a prominent and influential American poet, is believed to have been gay or bisexual. Another important homoerotic book was published in 1870 by the American author Bayard Taylor, titled Joseph and His Friend and this book has been deemed the first gay novel in America. It has also noted for its enigmatic treatment of homosexuality. Imre, A Memorandum is the first American gay novel with a happy ending, the first recognized gay rights organization in America, the Society for Human Rights, was founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago in 1924. It only existed for a few months before disbanding due to the arrests of several of the Societys members, still, it was officially recognized due to having received a charter from the state of Illinois, and produced the first American publication for gays, Friendship and Freedom. The gay male community gained more visibility in 1948 with the publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, by Alfred Kinsey, in 1950, gay activist Harry Hay and several other men founded the Mattachine Society, the first enduring LGBT rights organization in the United States. The Mattachine Society was involved in two landmark gay rights cases in the 1950s and his trial drew national attention to the Mattachine Society, and membership increased dramatically after Jennings contested the charges, resulting in a hung juryGay men in American history – The Gay Pride flag. This six-color version of the Gay Pride flag is the most commonly used version. The original version from 1978, created by the openly gay American Gilbert Baker, had two additional stripes - hot pink and turquoise - which were removed due to manufacturing needs.
75. History of homosexuality – In a 1976 study, Gwen Broude and Sarah Greene compared attitudes towards and frequency of homosexuality in the ethnographic studies available in the Standard cross-cultural sample. Of 70 communities, homosexuality was reported to be absent or rare in frequency in 41 and it was frequent in ancient Greece. However, in later cultures influenced by Abrahamic religions, the law, a common thread of constructionist argument is that no one in antiquity or the Middle Ages experienced homosexuality as an exclusive, permanent, or defining mode of sexuality. John Boswell has countered this argument by citing ancient Greek writings by Plato, while each Indigenous culture has their own names for these individuals, a modern, pan-Indian term that has been adopted by consensus is Two-Spirit. Homosexual and transgender individuals were also common among other pre-conquest civilizations in Latin America, such as the Aztecs, Mayans, Quechuas, Moches, Zapotecs, in East Asia, same-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history. Homosexuality in China, known as the pleasures of the bitten peach and these euphemistic terms were used to describe behaviors, not identities. The relationships were marked by differences in age and social position, homosexuality in Japan, variously known as shudo or nanshoku, has been documented for over one thousand years and had some connections to the Buddhist monastic life and the samurai tradition. This same-sex love culture gave rise to traditions of painting. Similarly, in Thailand, kathoey, or ladyboys, have been a feature of Thai society for many centuries, while Kathoey may encompass simple effeminacy or transvestism, it most commonly is treated in Thai culture as a third gender. They are generally accepted by society, and Thailand has never had legal prohibitions against homosexuality or homosexual behavior, the earliest Western documents concerning same-sex relationships are derived from ancient Greece. In regard of male homosexuality such documents depict a world in which relationships with women, same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another. Plato praised its benefits in his writings but in his late works proposed its prohibition. Little is known of female homosexuality in antiquity, sappho, born on the island of Lesbos, was included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century, sapphos poetry centers on passion and love for various personages and both genders. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love for various females, there is no evidence that she ran an academy for girls. In Ancient Rome the young male body remained a focus of sexual attention. All the emperors with the exception of Claudius took male lovers, justinian, towards the end of his reign, expanded the proscription to the active partner as well, warning that such conduct can lead to the destruction of cities through the wrath of God. Notwithstanding these regulations, taxes on brothels of boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in 618History of homosexuality – Dance to the Berdache Sac and Fox Nation ceremonial dance to celebrate the two-spirit person. George Catlin (1796–1872); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
76. Gay Liberation – The gay liberation movement of the late 1960s through the mid-1980s urged lesbians and gay men to engage in radical direct action, and to counter societal shame with gay pride. In this period, annual political marches through cities, usually held in June were still known as Gay Liberation marches. It wasnt until later in the seventies and well into the eighties in smaller communities, the movement involved the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in North America, South America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. The New York Times refused to use the word gay, insisting on homosexual up until 1987, in order to achieve such liberation, consciousness raising and direct action were employed. Sometimes the term gay liberation movement is used synonymously or interchangeably with the term gay rights movement. Thus, when used in way, gay liberation refers to a universal. Although the Stonewall riots of 1969 in New York are popularly remembered as the spark produced a new movement. Certainly, militant resistance to police bar-raids was nothing new — as early as 1725, organized movements, particularly in Western Europe, have been active since the 19th century, producing publications, forming social groups and campaigning for social and legal reform. The movements of the immediately preceding gay lib, from the end of World War II to the late 1960s, are known collectively as the homophile movement. Early 1960s New York, under the Wagner administration, was beset with harassment against the gay community, homosexuals were seen as the subject of a drive to rid the city of undesirables. Subsequently, only the Mafia had the power and financial resources to run gay bars, kameny, founder of Mattachine Washington in 1961, had advocated militant action reminiscent of the black civil rights campaign, while also arguing for the morality of homosexuality. The New York State Liquor Authority did not allow homosexuals to be served in licensed bars in the state under penalty of revocation of the license to operate. This denial of public accommodation had been confirmed by a decision in the early 1940s. This came to be known as the Sip In and only succeeded at the attempt in the Julius Bar in Greenwich Village. The Sip In, though, did gain extensive media attention, however, the significance of the new John Lindsay administration and the use of the media by Mattachine New York should not be underestimated in ending police entrapment. Lindsay would later gain a reputation for placing much focus on quelling social troubles in the city and it was during this time that Los Angeles saw its first big gay movement. In 1967, the night of New Years, several police officers infiltrated the Black Cat Tavern. After arresting several patrons for kissing to celebrate the occasion, the officers began beating several patrons and this created a riot in the immediate area, ultimately bringing about a more civil demonstration of over 200 attendees several days later protesting the raidsGay Liberation – LGBT history
77. Homosexuality and religion – Present day doctrines of the worlds major religions vary vastly generally and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations. Religious fundamentalism has been found to correlate positively with anti-homosexual bias, many argue that it is homosexual actions which are sinful, rather than the state of being homosexual itself. To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation, several organizations exist that assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction. Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality, such mythologies, for example, Hinduism does not view homosexuality as a religious sin. In 2009, the Hindu Council UK released the statement Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality, the Sikh holy scriptures The Guru Granth Sahib, teaches tolerance, equality and acceptance of all people, regardless of race, religion, gender, or sexuality. Sikh wedding ceremonies are non-gender specific, and so same-sex marriage is possible within Sikhism, regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed, the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and teaching that such behavior is sinful. The Torah is the source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that, shall not lie with another man as with a woman, orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. Conservative Judaism has engaged in a study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa for communal consideration. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the basis as heterosexuality. Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful. Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God, as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovahs Witnesses and Mormons, Liberal Christians are supportive of homosexuals. Some Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad or evil, the United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions. The Episcopal Churchs recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England, in the United States and many other nations, the religious people are becoming more affirming of same-sex relationships. Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups, passages from the Mosaic Covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death. AIDS has also portrayed by some fundamentalist sects such as Fred Phelps. As such, it is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict Gods design are deemed sinful and are condemned by God, protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationshipsHomosexuality and religion – Conservative Christian protesters at a 2006 San Francisco Pride event
78. Societal attitudes towards homosexuality – Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexuality, some sanction same-sex love and sexuality, as with heterosexual behaviour, different sets of prescriptions and proscriptions may be given to individuals according to their gender, age, social status or social class. Many countries have seen rising support for LGBT rights in modern times. Since the 1970s, much of the world has become more accepting of same-sex sexuality between partners of legal age, the survey also finds acceptance of homosexuality is particularly widespread in countries where religion is less central in peoples lives. These are also among the richest countries in the world, in contrast, in poorer countries with high levels of religiosity, few believe homosexuality should be accepted by society. Age is also a factor in several countries, with younger respondents offering far more tolerant views than older ones, and while gender differences are not prevalent, in those countries where they are, women are consistently more accepting of homosexuality than men. In the case of Sambia boys in New Guinea who ingest the semen of males to aid in their maturation. Behaviors that today would be regarded as homosexual, at least in the West. From the 1970s, academics have researched attitudes held by individuals toward lesbians, gay men and bisexuals, numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of acceptance and disapproval of homosexuality, and have consistently found correlates with various demographic, psychological, and social variables. They are also likely to have positive attitudes towards other minority groups and are less likely to support traditional gender roles. Herek found that females tended to exhibit equally positive or negative attitudes toward gay men. The heterosexual males, however, tended to respond more negatively, or unfavorably, the extent to which such portrayals are stereotypes is disputed. Contemporary researchers have measured attitudes held by heterosexuals toward gay men, certain populations are also found to accept homosexuality more than others. In the United States, African-Americans are generally tolerant of homosexuality than European or Hispanic Americans. However, recent polls after President Barack Obamas public support of same-sex marriage shift attitudes to 59% support among African Americans, israelis were found to be the most accepting of homosexuality among Middle Eastern nations and Israeli laws and culture reflect that. According to a 2007 poll, a majority of Israeli Jews say they would accept a gay child. A2013 Haaretz poll found that most of the Arab and Haredi sector saw homosexuality negatively, while the majority of secular, much less research has been conducted into societal attitudes toward bisexuality. Research show that people with more permissive attitudes on sexual orientation issues tend to be younger, well-educated, tolerant attitudes toward homosexuality and bisexuality have been increasing with timeSocietal attitudes towards homosexuality – Protesters at a 2006 gay pride event. San Francisco, United States.
79. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014