1. Literature – Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung. Developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been various attempts to define "literature". Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, they inevitably change over time. In fact, the only thing, certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well. Definitions of literature have varied over time; it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the eighteenth century, literature as a term indicated all books and writing. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" literature. Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres tradition. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," originally "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this, the term has also been applied to spoken or sung texts.Literature – The Classic of Rites (Chinese: 禮 記; pinyin: Lǐjì), an ancient Chinese text. Certain definitions of literature have taken it to include all written work.
2. Ordinary language – "Such'philosophical' uses of language, on this view, create the very philosophical problems they are employed to solve." Ordinary philosophy is a branch of linguistic philosophy closely related to logical positivism. This approach typically involves eschewing philosophical "theories" to the details of the use of everyday "ordinary" language. This Oxford group also included H. L. A. Hart, Geoffrey Warnock, Peter Strawson. The close association between these later thinkers has led to it sometimes being referred to as "Oxford philosophy". More recent philosophers with at least some commitment to the method of ordinary philosophy include Stanley Cavell, John Searle and Oswald Hanfling. The later Wittgenstein held that this is why philosophers trip over words taken in abstraction. From this came the idea that philosophy had gotten into trouble by trying to understand words outside of the context of their use in ordinary language. The controversy really begins when ordinary language philosophers apply the same leveling tendency to questions such as What is Truth? or What is Consciousness? Philosophers in this school would insist that we cannot assume that'Truth"is' a'thing', which the word'truth' represents. Instead, we must look at the differing ways in which the words'truth' and'conscious' actually function in ordinary language. Therefore, ordinary language philosophers tend to be anti-essentialist. Of course, this is a very controversial viewpoint. Similar arguments sometimes involve ordinary philosophy with other anti-essentialist movements like post-structuralism. However, strictly speaking, this is not a position derived from Wittgenstein, as it still involves'misuse' of the term "truth" in reference to "alternate truths".Ordinary language – Wittgenstein (second from right), Summer 1920
3. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
4. Fiction – Fiction is the classification for any story, or element of a story, derived from imagination and not based strictly on history or fact. Fiction, for example, predicts or supposes technologies that are not realities at the time of the work's creation. For example, in 1969 astronaut Neil Armstrong landed on the moon. Historical fiction places imaginary characters into historical events. Some works of fiction are greatly re-imagined based on some originally true story, or a reconstructed biography. One such example would be Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, a series of historical fiction short stories about the Vietnam War. Creators of fantasy sometimes introduce imaginary beings such as dragons and fairies. In terms of the traditional separation between non-fiction, the lines are now commonly understood as blurred, showing more overlap than mutual exclusion. Even fiction usually has elements of, or in, truth. Also, fictional possibilities themselves signal the impossibility of fully knowing reality, provocatively demonstrating that there is no criterion to measure constructs of reality. Also, digital libraries such as Project Gutenberg make public domain texts more readily available. Countless forums for fiction can be found online, where loyal followers of specific fictional realms create and distribute derivative stories. Types of literary fiction in prose: Short story: A work of at least 2,000 words but under 7,500 words. The boundary between a novella is vague. Novella: A work of at least 17,500 words but under 50,000 words..Fiction – An illustration from Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, depicting the fictional protagonist, Alice, playing a fantastical game of croquet.
5. Poetry – Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused in rhetoric, drama, comedy. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry uses conventions to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images -- a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, in their patterns of rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics.Poetry – Aristotle
6. Novel – A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story. The genre has also been described as possessing "a comprehensive history of about two thousand years". This view sees the novel's origins in Classical Greece and Rome, the tradition of the novella. An Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long narrative. Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or novel. European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives. Fictionality is most commonly cited from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Historians would also compose speeches for didactic purposes. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the novel. 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, secret anxieties, "conduct" and "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance.Novel – Madame de Pompadour spending her afternoon with a book, 1756.
7. Aesthetics – Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgements of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, nature". The aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι. Aesthetics is for the artist as Ornithology is for the birds. Modern day aesthetics, especially among younger people, refers to the simplicity in beauty in art. Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Any aesthetic doctrines that guided the interpretation of prehistoric art are mostly unknown. Western aesthetics usually refers as the earliest source of formal aesthetic considerations. Plato believed in beauty as a form which causes them to be beautiful. He felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order, definiteness. From the late 17th to the 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism. British thinkers emphasized beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, saw art as necessarily aiming at absolute beauty.Aesthetics – Bronze sculpture, thought to be either Poseidon or Zeus, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
8. Genre – Genres form by conventions that the use of old ones is discontinued. Often, works fit by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Genre began for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. In later periods genres developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public sense out of unpredictable art. Genre suffers from the same ills of any system. Genre is to weigh works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective piece is in the variation, recombination, evolution of the codes. In art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is primarily architectural painting. The concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory, especially between the 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art. Genres may be determined by literary technique, tone, even length.Genre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
9. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written at a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on a particular individual of historical importance. One of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A.D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. In 44 B.C. Cornelius Nepos published a biographical work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius. In the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the early history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, priests used this historic period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to saints.Biography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
10. Romance novel – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. There are many subgenres of the novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, science fiction. Austen inspired the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction. The Black Moth, was set in 1751. Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s. Their books were allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An American example of a mass-market romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss' The Flame and the Flower, published by Avon Books. Nancy Coffey was the senior editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, comprising almost 55% of all paperback books sold in 2004. Romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written from English-speaking countries leading to an Anglo-Saxon perspective in the fiction. Despite widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre. Erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. Furthermore, a novel must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending."Romance novel – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
11. Mystery fiction – Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. In a closed circle of suspects, each suspect must have a reasonable opportunity for committing the crime. The central character must be a detective who eventually solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts fairly presented to the reader. Sometimes mystery books are nonfictional. "Mystery fiction" can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on its logical solution such as a whodunit. Mystery fiction can be contrasted with hardboiled detective stories, which focus on gritty realism. Even no crime involved. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names which contained hardboiled crime fiction. The genre of mystery novels is a young form of literature that has developed over the past 200 years. As people became more individualistic in their thinking, they developed a respect for the ability to solve problems. Perhaps a reason that mystery fiction was unheard of before the 1800s was due in part to the lack of true police forces. Before the Industrial Revolution, many of the towns would have a night watchman at best. Naturally, crimes were either solved quickly or left unsolved entirely. The need for detectives was realized -- thus the mystery novel arose. Wilkie Collins' epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone, is often thought to be his masterpiece.Mystery fiction – Mystery, 1934 mystery fiction magazine cover
12. Crime fiction – Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, their motives. The boundaries are indistinct. Fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction and legal thrillers. Mystery are key elements that are nearly ubiquitous to the genre. In Italy people commonly call a story about detectives or crimes giallo, because books of crime fiction have usually had a yellow cover since the 1930s. Better known are the earlier dark works of Edgar Allan Poe. The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone is often thought to be his masterpiece. French author Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Lecoq laid the groundwork for the scientifically minded detective. The evolution of locked room mysteries was one of the landmarks in the history of fiction. The Sherlock Holmes mysteries of Arthur Conan Doyle are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. A precursor was Paul Féval, whose series Les Habits Noirs features criminal conspiracies. The best-selling novel of the nineteenth century was Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab, set in Melbourne, Australia. Like the works of many other important fiction writers of his day—e.g. Wilkie Collins and Charles Dickens—Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in serial form in the monthly Strand magazine in the United Kingdom. Later a set of stereotypic formulae began to appear to cater to various tastes.Crime fiction – Sherlock Holmes, pipe-puffing hero of crime fiction, confers with his colleague Dr. Watson; together these characters popularized the genre.
13. Fantasy – Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. In popular culture, the genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works to many recent and popular works. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other language studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, medieval studies. The identifying traits of fantasy are the inclusion of fantastic elements in a self-coherent setting, where inspiration from folklore remains a consistent theme. Essentially, fantasy follows rules of its own making, allowing magic and fantastic devices to be used and still be internally cohesive. The distinguishing trait between fantasy and other genres of the speculative fiction type is that the primary focus and story feature of fantasy is magic. MacDonald was a major influence on C. S. Lewis. Lord Dunsany established the genre's popularity in the short story form. Popular mainstream authors also began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy for Girls and Boys, intended for children, though works for adults only verged on fantasy. Social trends can affect a society's reception towards fantasy. The magical creatures of these novels were viewed as superstitious and backward, products of a feudal society hindering the modernization of China.Fantasy – Fairy tales and legends, such as Dobrynya Nikitich 's rescue of Zabava Putyatichna from the dragon Gorynych, have been an important source for fantasy.
14. Nobel Prize – The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 gold, later from 18 green gold plated with a 24 carat gold coating. Between 2015, the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 573 times to 900 people and organisations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, 870 individuals—of whom 48 were women. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden. Laureate, receives a gold medal, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of medicine, physics, chemistry, economics. The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. He was inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite. This invention was a precursor to military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite.Nobel Prize – Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, which was titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper.
15. Guatemala – With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populous state in Central America. Largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved in 1841. From the mid to 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping economic reforms. A military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. Guatemala's abundance of biologically unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is also known for its rich and distinct culture, characterized by a fusion of Spanish and Indigenous influences. The name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees". This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC.Guatemala – Tikal Mayan ruins.
16. Latin American literature – American literature has a rich and complex tradition of literary production that dates back many centuries. Pre-Colombian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala. Natives also contributed to the body of colonial literature. The "libertadores" themselves were also often distinguished writers, such as Andrés Bello. Such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, usually mandatory elements of high curricula. Important works of 19th Century Latin American literature include José Hernández's epic poem Martín Fierro. In the 19th century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío's Azul. José Martí, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico and the USA and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. And in 1900 the Uruguayan José Enrique Rodó wrote what became read as a manifesto for Ariel. The Venezuelan Romulo Gallegos wrote in 1929 what came to be one of the most well known Latin American novels in Doña Barbara. Doña Barbara is a masterpiece of criollismo. The novel became an immediate hit, being translated into over forty languages. In Chile, others founded in 1938 the Mandrágora group, strongly influenced by Surrealism as well as by Vicente Huidobro's Creacionismo.Latin American literature – Gabriel García Márquez, the most famous of the Boom writers
17. Dictatorship – A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism, in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarianism societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government. Since World War II a broader range of dictatorships have been recognized including family-based dictatorships. In the Roman Empire, a Roman dictator was the incumbent of a political office of legislate of the Roman Republic. Roman dictators were allocated absolute power during times of emergency. Their power was originally neither unaccountable, requiring justification. After the collapse of colonial rule, various dictators came in liberated countries. Such dictators have been also referred to as "personalismo". The wave of military dictatorships in Latin America in the second half of the twentieth century left a particular mark on Latin American culture. In American literature, the novel challenging caudillismo, is a significant genre. There are also many films depicting Latin American military dictatorships. Leading examples of modern totalitarian dictatorship include:. These constitutions often failed to work without a strong middle class or work against the preexisting autocratic rule.Dictatorship – Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong meets with U.S. President Richard Nixon. Mao's dictatorial rule from 1949 to 1976 is believed to have caused the deaths of an estimated 40 to more than 70 million people.
18. Magic realism – It is also sometimes called fabulism, to the conventions of fables, myths, allegory. The terms are broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as "what happens when a highly realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe." Many writers are categorized as "magical realists," which confuses its wide definition. Magical realism is often associated with American literature, particularly authors including Gabriel García Márquez, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Angel Asturias, Isabel Allende. In English literature, its chief exponents include Alice Hoffman. Roh identified portrayal of the ` magical' nature of the rational world. It reflects the uncanniness of our modern technological environment. In 1926 he founded the magic realist magazine 900.Novecento, his writings influenced Belgian magic realist writers Johan Daisne and Hubert Lampo. Roh's magic realism also influenced writers in Hispanic America, where it was translated as mágico in 1927. Luis Leal attests that Pietri seemed to have been the first to adopt the term mágico in Hispanic America in 1948. Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier, who rejected Roh's magic realism as tiresome pretension, developed his related concept lo real maravilloso, or marvelous realism, in 1949. Borges is often seen with only Flores considering him a true magical realist. The extent to which the characteristics below apply to a given magic text varies. Every text employs a smattering of the qualities listed here.Magic realism – Alejo Carpentier
19. Dictator novel – The dictator novel is a genre of Latin American literature that challenges the role of the dictator in Latin American society. The theme of caudillismo -- the régime of a political strongman -- is addressed by examining the relationships between power, dictatorship, writing. Moreover, a novel often is an allegory for the role of the writer in a Latin American society. Although some dictator novels centre on one historical dictator, they do not analyze the economics, rule of the régime as might a history book. Miguel Ángel Asturias's El Señor Presidente is, in the opinion of "the first real dictator novel". The novel came back into fashion in the 1970s, towards the end of the Boom. In Jorge Zalamea's El Gran Burundún Burundá ha muerto the dictator bans all forms of language. He defines the novel as a novel which draws upon the historical record to create fictionalized versions of dictators. The novelists of the novel genre combined narrative strategies of both modern and postmodern writing. As novels such as El Señor Presidente became more well-known, they were read as political statements, denouncing the authority of dictators in Latin America. As political statements, novel authors challenged dictatorial power, creating a link between power and writing through the force wielded by their pen. Dr. Francia has also realized that he can not control particularly written language, that it has a life of its own that threatens him. Gender is an overarching theme within dictator novels. Masculinity is an enduring motif in the novel. According to Rebecca E. Biron, "where we find misogynistic fantasies of masculinity, we also violent social relations between actual men and women."Dictator novel – The dictator Juan Facundo Quiroga
20. Manuel Estrada Cabrera – Manuel José Estrada Cabrera was President of Guatemala from 1898 to 1920. Estrada Cabrera used increasingly brutal methods to assert his authority, including armed strike-breaking, the general elections were effectively controlled by him. He was also the Secretary of Interior for most of Reyna Barrios regime. When the Reyna Barrios cabinet members were announced in 1892, a newspaper article that accompanied the images said: "Manuel Estrada Cabrera, this gentleman?" By 1920, when Estrada Cabrera was finally deposed, the writer got his answer. At that time, Estrada Cabrera was 44 years old; he was stocky, of medium height, broad-shouldered. The mustache gave appearance. Dark eyes, was rather sullen and brooding. At the same time, he already showed his courage and character. As First Designated, you must hand me the Presidency". One could not foresee the features of his intentions. He is also a committed man of good will and full of faith. Has strong ideas to fight for and for the sake of which would be sacrificed if necessary. He is a man. '" His lips form a contrast with his eyes.Manuel Estrada Cabrera – Manuel José Estrada Cabrera
21. Nobel Prize in Literature – Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here "work" refers as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year. The academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain widely read. As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin. The Academy has often been alleged to be in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the idealisk translates as either "idealistic" or "ideal". The Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Nobel bequeathed 94 % of million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.Nobel Prize in Literature – Announcement of the Nobel Prize laureate in literature
22. Latin America – Latin America is the group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada. It has an area of almost 13 % of the Earth's land surface area. The term "Latin America" was first used in La revue des races Latines, a magazine "dedicated to the cause of Pan-Latinism". A further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. This term was also used by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America. This definition emphasizes a socioeconomic history of the region, characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase "the Caribbean" instead, as in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas. Cf. Languages of South America and Languages of North America. By the same logic, parts of the United States where Spanish and French are official languages would be considered Latin American. The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided based on geography, politics, demographics and culture. It may be subdivided into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America.Latin America – Presencia de América Latina (Presence of Latin America, 1964–65) is a 300 square meters (3,200 sq ft) mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of Concepción, Chile. It is also known as Latin America's Integration.
23. Maya Angelou – Maya Angelou was an American poet, memoirist, civil rights activist. Angelou received dozens of more than 50 honorary degrees. She is best known for her series of seven autobiographies, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, brought her international recognition and acclaim. Angelou was an actor, writer, producer of plays, movies, public television programs. In 1982, Angelou earned Reynolds Professorship of American Studies at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She was active in the Civil Rights movement and worked with Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Beginning in the 1990s, she made around 80 appearances a year on the lecture circuit, something she continued into her eighties. With the publication of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, she publicly discussed aspects of her personal life. Her works have been considered a defense of Black culture. Her works are widely used in schools and universities worldwide. Many critics have characterized them as autobiographies. Angelou made a deliberate attempt to challenge the common structure of the autobiography by critiquing, expanding the genre. Her books center on themes such as identity, family, travel. Bailey Jr. nicknamed Marguerite "Maya", derived from "My" or "Mya Sister".Maya Angelou – Angelou reciting her poem "On the Pulse of Morning", at President Bill Clinton's inauguration, January 1993
24. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings – I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is a 1969 autobiography about the early years of American writer and poet Maya Angelou. Angelou was challenged by her friend, her editor, Robert Loomis, to write an autobiography, also a piece of literature. Angelou uses her autobiography to explore subjects such as rape, racism, literacy. She also writes in a male-dominated society. The younger version of Angelou and the book's central character, has been called "a symbolic character for every black girl growing up in America". Angelou's description of being raped as an child overwhelms the book, although it is presented briefly in the text. Rape is used as a metaphor for the suffering of her race. Angelou's treatment of racism provides a thematic unity to the book. The power of words help young Maya cope with her bewildering world; books become her refuge as she works through her trauma. Caged Bird remained on The New York Times paperback bestseller list for two years. However, the book's graphic depiction of childhood rape, sexuality has caused it to be challenged or banned in some schools and libraries. In the late 1950s, she joined the Harlem Writers Guild, where she met a number of African-American authors, including her friend and mentor James Baldwin. After hearing Jr. speak for the first time in 1960, she was inspired to join the Civil Rights Movement. He named her Northern Coordinator of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. She worked as a journalist, actress, educator.I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings – Cover from the first edition of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969)
25. Alfred Tennyson – He excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears", "Crossing the Bar". He also wrote some blank verse including Idylls of the King, "Ulysses", "Tithonus". His plays enjoyed little success. Tennyson is the ninth most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. He was born in Lincolnshire, England. Tennyson was born into a middle-class line of Tennysons, but also had a royal ancestry. George Clayton Tennyson, was rector of Somersby, also rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, vicar of Grimsby. Tennyson's father training of his children". One of Charles Tennyson Turner, later married Louisa Sellwood, the younger sister of Alfred's future wife; the other was Frederick Tennyson. Edward Tennyson, was institutionalised at a private asylum. He then attended Scaitcliffe School, Englefield Green and King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth. Tennyson entered Cambridge, in 1827, where he joined a secret society called the Cambridge Apostles. A portrait of Tennyson by George Frederic Watts is in Trinity's collection. At Cambridge, he met Arthur Henry Hallam and William Henry Brookfield, who became his closest friends. His first publication was a collection of "those of his elder brother Charles" entitled Poems by Two Brothers, published in 1827.Alfred Tennyson – 1869 Carbon print by Julia Margaret Cameron
26. The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem) – He was the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom at the time he wrote the poem. Tennyson's poem published December 9, 1854 in The Examiner, praises the Brigade, "When can their glory fade? O the wild charge they made!", while mourning the appalling futility of the charge: "Not tho' the soldier knew / Some one had blunder'd." According to his grandson Sir Charles Tennyson, Tennyson wrote the poem in only a few minutes after reading an account of the battle in The Times. As laureate he often wrote verses about public events. It immediately became hugely popular, even reaching the troops in the Crimea, where it was distributed at the behest of Jane, Lady Franklin. There is a delicate balance between nobility and brutality throughout. The alliterative "Storm'd at with shell" echoes the whistling of ball as the cavalry charge through it. Tennyson recited this poem in 1890. Its purpose was to shame the British public into offering financial assistance. Later in the episode Elim Garak asks how that poem ends, to be told by O'Brien "You don't want to know." In the film Saving Private Ryan, Private Reiben asks why eight men are sent to save one. Corporal Upham replies from the poem "Theirs not to reason why, theirs but to do and die." Captain Miller responds that it is about their "duty as soldiers" to follow orders. The film later reveals that Captain Miller taught English composition before the war.The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem) – Alfred, Lord Tennyson
27. The Bride of Lammermoor – The Bride of Lammermoor is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, published in 1819. Scott indicated the plot was based on an actual incident. A Legend of Montrose were published together as the third of Scott's Tales of My Landlord series. As with all the Waverley Novels, The Bride of Lammermuir was published anonymously. The novel claims that the story was an oral tradition, collected by one "Peter Pattieson", subsequently published by "Jedediah Cleishbotham". The 1830 "edition" includes an introduction by Scott, discussing his actual sources. The story is the basis for Donizetti's 1835 opera Lucia di Lammermoor. The story recounts the tragic love of Lucy Ashton, Edgar, Master of Ravenswood. Edgar's father was stripped for supporting the deposed King James VII. Sir William Ashton, then bought the Ravenswood estate. Edgar on meeting Lucy, falls in love with her, renounces his plans for vengeance. Lady Ashton, is the villainess of the story. She is determined to force Lucy into a politically advantageous arranged marriage. Lady Ashton intercepts Edgar's letters to Lucy and persuades Lucy that Edgar has forgotten her. Edgar leaves Scotland for France, to continue his political activities.The Bride of Lammermoor – Ravenswood and Lucy at the Mermaiden's Well by Charles Robert Leslie
28. Sir Walter Scott – Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet, FRSE was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright and poet with many contemporary readers in Europe, Australia, North America. Many of his works remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, Waverley, The Bride of Lammermoor. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, during the following summer. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh. He was well able to walk and explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, history and travel books. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. While at the university Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of Professor Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons. Scott met Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macpherson's Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786 -- 87 the 15-year-old Scott saw Robert Burns of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting. After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh. As a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792. He had an unsuccessful suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet.Sir Walter Scott – Raeburn 's portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822.
29. Waverley Novels – The Waverley Novels is a long series of novels by Sir Walter Scott. For nearly a century, they were among the widely read novels in all of Europe. Because Scott did not publicly acknowledge authorship until 1827, the series takes its name from Waverley, the first novel of the series released in 1814. The later books bore the words "by the author of Waverley" on their title pages. Some of the early editions were lavishly illustrated by George Cattermole. Waverley School in Louisville, Kentucky, which later became the Waverly Hills Sanatorium, was named after the novels well. British railway locomotives were given names from the novels. Over two thousand streets in Britain have names from titles of individual novels, with 650 from Waverley alone. Tales of my Landlord Tales of the Crusaders Chronicles of the Canongate A typically enthusiastic essay on the Waverley Novels, published in 1912Waverley Novels – Scenes from the Illustrated London News of Arthur Sullivan 's operatic adaptation of Ivanhoe.
30. Lammermuir Hills – The Lammermuirs are a range of hills in southern Scotland, forming a natural boundary between Lothian and the Borders. The name literally means "lambs' moor". Early forms include Lombormore, Lambremore, Lambermora and Lambirmor. The main road linking Edinburgh to England avoids the hills by following a circuitous route around the coast. White Castle was an Iron Age hill fort, settled by the ancestors of the Votadini tribe. Two ranges of hills in New Zealand, the Lammermoors and Lammerlaws are named after the Scottish hills. Sir Walter Scott's novel The Bride of Lammermoor is set here. Scott lived at Abbotsford House, near Galashiels. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.Lammermuir Hills – For the New Zealand range of hills, see Lammermoor Range.
31. Book of Documents – The Book of Documents or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu, is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature. It is a collection of rhetorical prose served as the foundation of Chinese political philosophy for over 2,000 years. The Book of Documents was the subject of China's oldest literary controversies, between proponents of different versions of the text. The "New Text" version was preserved by scholar Fu Sheng. The Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. The Zhou section accounts for over half the text. The history of the various versions of the Documents has been the subject of a long-running literary and philosophical controversy. However, the early history of both texts is obscure. Beginning with Confucius, writers increasingly drew on the Documents to illustrate general principles, though it seems that different versions were in use. Six citations of unnamed Shū appear in the Analects. Increasing numbers of some with titles, appear in 4th century BC works such as the Mencius, Mozi and Commentary of Zuo. These authors favoured documents relating to Yao, the Xia dynasty, chapters now believed to have been written in the Warring States period. Fewer than half the passages quoted by these authors are present in the received text. Authors such as Mencius and Xunzi, while quoting the Documents, refused to accept all of it as genuine. Their attitude contrasts with the reverence that would be shown to the text in the Han dynasty, when its compilation was attributed to Confucius.Book of Documents – Fu Sheng expounding on the Classic, attributed to Wang Wei (8th century)
32. Confucian – In the Han dynasty, Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang-Lao, as the official ideology while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty of 618-907. In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the core philosophy of the class in the dynasty. The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The New Culture intellectuals of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy. While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of deity, it is primarily an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào or the Brahman. Confucianism focuses on the practical order, given by a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics. Some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, lǐ, zhì. Rén is the essence of the human being which manifests as compassion. It is the virtue-form of Heaven. Yì is the upholding of righteousness and the moral disposition to do good. Lǐ is a system of ritual norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act in everyday life according to the law of Heaven.Confucian – Temple of Confucius of Jiangyin, Wuxi, Jiangsu. This is a wénmiào (文庙), that is to say a temple where Confucius is worshipped as Wéndì (文帝), "God of Culture".
33. Ernest Hemingway – Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, short story writer, journalist. Understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, three non-fiction works, were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. In 1918, he was seriously returned home. His wartime experiences formed A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married the first of his four wives. He published his novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940; they separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present at the liberation of Paris. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. His mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.Ernest Hemingway – Ernest Hemingway working at his book For Whom the Bell Tolls at Sun Valley, Idaho in December 1939
34. For sale: baby shoes, never worn – Although it is often attributed to Ernest Hemingway, the link to him is similar stories predate him. Hemingway's purported authorship usually centers upon his doing so as the result of a wager between other writers. After the pot is assembled, Hemingway writes "For sale: baby shoes, never worn" on a napkin, collects his winnings. The May 1910, edition of The Spokane Press had an article titled "Tragedy of Baby's Death is Revealed in Sale of Clothes." At that time, Hemingway would only have been aged years away from beginning his writing career. In his version of the story, the shoes are being given away rather than sold. He suggests that this would provide some measure of solace for the seller, as it would mean that another baby would at least benefit directly. The earliest known connection to Hemingway was thirty years after the author's death. This attribution was by Peter Miller called Get Published! Get Produced!: A Literary Agent’s Tips on How to Sell Your Writing. He claimed he was told the story by a "well-established syndicator" in 1974. In 1992, John Robert Colombo printed a letter from Arthur C. Clarke that repeated the story, complete with Hemingway having won each from fellow writers. This connection to Hemingway was reinforced by a one-man play called Papa by John deGroot, which debuted in 1996. Set during a Life magazine session in 1959, deGroot has the character utter the phrase as a means of illustrating Hemingway's brevity. Whether or not these things actually happened is something we’ll never know truly.For sale: baby shoes, never worn – A 6-word "novel" regarding a pair of baby shoes is considered an extreme example of flash fiction.
35. Goodnight Mister Tom – Goodnight Mister Tom is a children's novel by the English author Michelle Magorian, published by Kestrel in 1981. Harper & Row published an American edition within the year. Set during World War II, it features a boy abused at home in London, evacuated at the outbreak of the war. In the care of an elderly recluse, he experiences a new life of loving and care. Mister Tom won the annual Guardian Children's Fiction Prize, a once-in-a-lifetime award judged by a panel of British children's writers. She was also a commended runner up for the Carnegie Medal from the British librarians, recognising the year's best English-language children's published in the UK. The novel has been twice adapted as a musical, once as a play and once as Goodnight Mister Tom. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 49 on the BBC's survey The Big Read. Goodnight Mister Tom won the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Entertainment. As such is avoided by the community. Willie lives with him as his Mother wants him to live with someone, either religious or lives next to a church. Though initially distant, he treats him with kindness and understanding, helping to educate him. Under his care, William begins forming a small circle of friends at school among his classmates including fellow-evacuee Zach. He also becomes proficient in drawing and dramatics. As William is changed by Tom, so is Tom transformed by William's presence in his home.Goodnight Mister Tom – First edition
36. Thomas Jordan (poet) – Thomas Jordan was an English poet, playwright and actor, born possibly in London or Eynsham in Oxfordshire about 1612 or 1614. He is known to have performed the part of the mother of Messalina, in Thomas Rawlins's Messalina some time between 1634 and 1636. In 1637, Jordan published his earliest known work, Variety of Fancies, which shows his theatrical background. It was dedicated to John Ford of a cousin of John Ford the dramatist. His activities in the late 1630s are not known. Lynn Hulse suggests as "an attractive possibility" that he may then have been attached in Dublin. By 1641 he was acting at their playhouse in Clerkenwell. "Youths Figaries", was written for the troupe that year and was "publikely Acted 19. Days together, with extraordinary Applause". In a raid on the playhouse in September 1655, several actors were arrested, including alias Thomas Jordan. Jordan probably also his family for some time by writing dedications, commendatory verses, panegyrics. For example, Wit in a Wildernesse was dedicated to at least five different individuals. Jordan frequently reissued both his other people's already-published works with new title-pages. Jordan was a prolific writer of poetry and sundries. The miscellany A Royal Arbor of Loyal Poesie, written in 1663, was reissued five times.Thomas Jordan (poet) – Cover of "The World turn'd upside down" (1646) by "T.J.", believed to stand for Thomas Jordan
37. Lung-gom-pa – UJetsun Milarepa is generally considered one of Tibet's most famous yogis and poets. He was a student of Marpa Lotsawa, a major figure in the history of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. Josay, indicates noble descent, eagle clan. When his father died, Milarepa's uncle and aunt took all of the family's wealth. At his mother's request, Milarepa left home and studied sorcery. Milarepa later lamented his evil ways in his older years in conversation with Rechungpa: "In my youth I committed black deeds. In maturity I practised innocence. Now, released from both evil, I shall have no reason for action in the future. To say more than this would only cause weeping and laughter. What good would it do to tell you? I am an old man. Leave me in peace." He ascribes his gift to the clever control of'internal air'." After witnessing such a monk David-Néel described how: He seemed to lift himself from the ground.. His steps had the regularity of a pendulum... the traveller seemed to be in a trance.Lung-gom-pa – famous statue of milarepa brought from Nyanang Phelgyeling Monastery,Tibet
38. 1566 – Year 1566 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. January 7 – Pope Pius V succeeds Pope Pius IV as the 225th pope. August 5 – The Siege of Szigetvár is begun by Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. August 10 – Beeldenstorm: Outbreak of destruction by Calvinists of religious art in the Low Countries. On August 25 it reaches Leiden. September 7 – Suleiman the Magnificent dies in his tent at the Siege of Szigetvár and Selim II succeeds him as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Worth 16 silver reales, is first minted during the reign of Philip II of Spain. Pope Pius V expels most prostitutes from Papal States. Between July 7, 1567 -- The first bridge crossing the Neretva river at Mostar is completed by the Ottoman Empire. The white bridge becomes known as ` Stari Most'.1566 – Selim II
39. 1719 – As of the start of 1719, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire. The Riksdag of the Estates recognizes Ulrika Eleonora's claim to the Swedish throne, after she has agreed to sign a Swedish constitution. Thus, she is recognized as regnant of Sweden. February 20 – The first Treaty of Stockholm is signed. April 19 -- In Bienville's brother Serigny arrives on a French man-of-war, bringing news that war was declared between France and Spain. April 25 – Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe. April – French army under James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick invades the Basque provinces of Spain. June 4 – Battle of Ösel Island: A Russian naval force defeats the Swedish fleet. June 10 – Battle of Glen Shiel: British forces defeat the Jacobites and their Spanish allies. June 20 – Austrians are defeated in the Battle of Francavilla. December 22 – Andrew Bradford publishes the American Weekly Mercury, Pennsylvania's first newspaper. Prussia conducts Europe's systematic census. Miners in Falun, Sweden find the apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused part of the mine. Bethnal Green, opens in Wapping.1719 – June 10: Battle of Glen Shiel.
40. Robinson Crusoe – Robinson Crusoe /ˌrɒbɪnsən ˈkruːsoʊ/ is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719. It is generally seen as a contender for the first English novel. This journey, too, ends in disaster, as the ship is taken over by Salé pirates and Crusoe is enslaved by a Moor. The ship is en route to Brazil. Crusoe sells Xury to the captain. With the captain's help, Crusoe procures a plantation. He observes the latitude as 9 degrees and 22 minutes north. He sees penguins and seals on his island. As for his arrival there, only two cats, survive the shipwreck. Overcoming his despair, he fetches other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks. He builds a fenced-in habitat near a cave which he excavates. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates a calendar. He also adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human society. Crusoe discovers native cannibals, who occasionally visit the island to eat prisoners.Robinson Crusoe – Title page from the first edition
41. Daniel Defoe – Daniel Defoe, born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, spy, most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe was also a pioneer of economic journalism. Daniel Foe was probably born in Fore Street in the parish of London. He later added the aristocratic-sounding "De" on occasion claimed descent from the family of De Beau Faux. Sources offer dates from 1659 -- 1662, with 1660 considered the most likely. His father James Foe was a member of the Worshipful Company of Butchers. His Annie had died by the time he was about ten. He was educated at the Rev. James Fisher's boarding school in Pixham Lane in Dorking, Surrey. During this period, the English government persecuted those who chose outside the Church of England. He entered the world of business as a general merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, wine. He was able to buy a country estate and a ship, though he was rarely out of debt. It lasted 50 years and produced eight children. In 1685, he gained a pardon, by which he escaped the Bloody Assizes of Judge George Jeffreys. Defoe became one of William's close allies and a secret agent. Some of the new policies led with France thus damaging prosperous trade relationships for Defoe, who had established himself as a merchant.Daniel Defoe – Daniel Defoe
42. 1800 – As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. World population approaches the billion milestone which it will attain in 1802. Dutch East India Company dissolves. February 7 – A public plebiscite in France confirms Napoleon as First Consul by a substantial majority. February 13 – The Banque de France is founded. February 28 – United Irishman Roddy McCorley is executed in Toomebridge for his part in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. March 14 – Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope. He is crowned on March 21 in Venice. March 20 – Alessandro Volta describes his new invention, the voltaic pile, the first chemical battery, in a letter to the Royal Society of London. March 26 – British Royal Navy officer Henry Waterhouse first charts the Antipodes Islands. April – Voting begins in the United States presidential election, 1800; it will last until October. The result is not announced until February 1801. April 2 Première of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 1 at the Burgtheater in Vienna. April 24 – The U.S. Library of Congress is founded in Washington, D.C.1800 – Napoleon crosses the Alps.
43. William Cowper – William Cowper was an English poet and hymnodist. In many ways, Cowper was one of the forerunners of Romantic poetry. Samuel Taylor Coleridge called him "the best modern poet", whilst William Wordsworth particularly admired his Yardley-Oak. Cowper was a nephew of the poet Judith Madan. After being institutionalised in the period 1763 -- 65, he found refuge in a fervent evangelical Christianity, the inspiration behind his much-loved hymns. Cowper continued to suffer doubt and, after a dream in 1773, believed that he was doomed to eternal damnation. Cowper wrote more religious hymns. His poem "Light Shining out of Darkness" gave English the phrase: "God moves in a mysterious way/His wonders to perform." Cowper also wrote other less well known poems on slavery in the 1780s, many of which attacked the idea that slavery was economically viable. William Cowper was born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England where his father John Cowper was rector of the Church of St Peter. His mother was Ann Cowper. His brother John were the only two of seven children to live past infancy. Ann died giving birth on 7 November 1737. Cowper grew close to her family in his early years. Cowper was particularly close with his wife Harriot.William Cowper – Cowper
44. 1911 – As of the start of 1911, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. Through mid-January -- First Industrial Airplane Show held in conjunction at Manhattan's Grand Central Palace in New York. A member of the U.S. Aeronautical Reserve, is the only African-American to invent and display an airplane for which he wins a medal. January 3 1911 Kebin earthquake: An earthquake of 7.7 moment magnitude strikes near Almaty in Russian Turkestan, killing 450 or more people. Siege of Sidney Street: Two Latvian anarchists die after a seven-hour siege against military force. Winston Churchill arrived to oversee events. January 5 – Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity is founded at Indiana University Bloomington. January 26 – The United States and Canada announce the successful negotiation of their first reciprocal trade agreement. January 30 – The Cypriot football club Anorthosis Famagusta FC was created. The Missouri State Capitol building in Jefferson City, Missouri is entirely destroyed by fire after a bolt of lightning strikes the dome. The revolution in Haiti is suppressed after General Montreuil Guillaume, is captured by government troops and shot. General Millionard is executed two days later. February 11 – The Lincoln Memorial Commission is established to find an ideal site for the proposed Lincoln Memorial. February 13 -- a Croatian football club is founded. February 17 – The first "quasi-official" airmail flight occurs when Fred Wiseman carries three letters between Petaluma and Santa Rosa, California.1911 – July 24: Machu Picchu is rediscovered.
45. Emilio SalgariEmilio Salgari – Emilio Salgari
46. 1914 – As of the start of 1914, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. Abram C. Pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger and over 3,000 people witness the first departure. January 5 – Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and a daily wage of $5. January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University in Washington, D.C. January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, becoming effusive after a very large earthquake on January 13. The lava flows cause the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula. February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début in the comedy short Making a Living. The star, is displayed above the title on movie marquees. February 12 – In Washington, D.C. the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place. February 17 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by father of Dag Hammarskjöld. February 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast. February 28 – Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus proclaimed by ethnic Greeks in Northern Epirus. March 1 – The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.1914 – This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.
47. Ross Lockridge, Jr. – Ross Franklin Lockridge, Jr. was an American novelist of the mid-20th century. Ross was raised in Bloomington, Indiana, the populist historian and lecturer Ross Lockridge Sr.. Through his father, he was a double cousin of the future novelist Mary Jane Ward. He was by all accounts a handsome, amiable, talented young man, known as "A-plus Lockridge" for his easy mastery of school assignments. It glowed and crackled." Elsewhere, he was described as a "slight, dark-haired boy with blue-gray eyes that shone in joy." Like high-performing youngsters, he seemed sensitive to criticism and troubled by the occasional setback, even when he lost a chess game. Following his graduation, he was sidelined for nearly a year by "scarlet fever... and possibly rheumatic fever." He returned as M.A. candidate writing his thesis on "Byron and Napoleon." Instead, he wrote 2,000 pages of a novel based on the Shockleys. He lived in an apartment, "pathetically bleak, books and clothing stored in piles of papers everywhere." In the summer of 1943, Lockridge began on the other side. Instead of treating several Shockleys, it would have a single hero, John Wickliff Shawnessy, who bore the same initials as his maternal grandfather. The rest of the sprawling story would be told in a concluding dream sequence. As before, it would be set in Indiana, in what any good Hoosier understood to be the heartland of the United States.Ross Lockridge, Jr. – Lockridge in 1947
48. 1939 – This year also marks the start of the deadliest conflict in human history. Below, events of World War II have the WWII prefix. January 5 – Amelia Earhart is officially declared dead after her disappearance. January 6 – Naturwissenschaften publishes evidence that nuclear fission has been achieved by Otto Hahn. January 13 -- Black Friday: 71 people die in one of Australia's worst ever bushfires. The "Dutch War Scare" leads to a major change in British policies towards Europe. January 24 – An earthquake kills 30,000 in Chile, razes about 50,000 sq mi. January 25 – Refik Saydam forms the new government of Turkey. January 26 Spanish Civil War: Spanish Nationalist troops, aided by Italy, take Barcelona. The Kriegsmarine is given the first priority on the allotment of economic resources. January 30 – Hitler gives a speech before the Reichstag calling for an "export battle" to increase German foreign exchange holdings. February 2 – Hungary joins the Anti-Comintern Pact. February 10 – Spanish Nationalists complete their offensive in Catalonia. February 15 – Stagecoach premieres in New York City and Los Angeles. February 18 – The Golden Gate International Exposition opens in San Francisco.1939 – The year 1939
49. 1998 – 1998 was designated as the International Year of the Ocean. January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. January 4 -- Wilaya in Algeria: Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. January 8 – Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to life in prison for planning the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993. January 11 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria. January 12 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. January 14 – Ralph Guarino is arrested for attempting to rob a Bank of America bank in the World Trade Center. January 20 – Nepalese police intercept a shipment of 272 human skulls in Kathmandu. January 22 – Suspected "Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski pleads guilty, accepts a sentence of life without the possibility of parole. January 28 Gunmen hold teachers hostage for several hours, at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines. Stade de France, as known well for venues of France, officially opened in Saint-Denis, suburb of Paris, before 1998 FIFA World Cup. February 4 – The 5.9 Mw Afghanistan earthquake shakes the Takhar Province with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. With 818 injured, damage is considered extreme. February 7–22 – The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan. February 16 – China Airlines Flight 676 crashes into a residential area near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport, killing 202 people.1998 – New rubles
50. Wright Morris – Wright Marion Morris was an American novelist, photographer, essayist. Wright Morris died April 1998 at the age of 88 years. Morris is buried in the Chapman Cemetery. Morris was born in Nebraska; his boyhood home is on the National Register of Historic Places. Grace Osborn Morris, died six days after he was born. William Henry Morris, worked for the Union Pacific Railroad. After Grace's death, Wright was returned with a young wife, Gertrude. In Will's Boy, he states, "Gertrude was closer to my age than to my father's". Gertrude got along famously with Wright, as they shared many of the same childish tastes. In 1919, the family moved to Omaha, where they resided until 1924. During that interlude, he spent two summers near Norfolk, Nebraska. Photographs of the farm, well as the real-life characters of Uncle Harry and Aunt Clara, appear in Morris's books. He moved in 1924. He accompanied his father on a road trip to the west coast that formed the basis for his first novel, My Uncle Dudley. Morris also lived briefly before enrolling in Pacific Union College in California.Wright Morris – Wright Morris
51. 2004 – January 3 – Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea off the coast of Egypt, killing all 148 aboard. February 1 – A hajj stampede in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills 251 pilgrims. February 4 – Facebook, a mainstream online social networking site, is founded by Mark Zuckerberg. February 7 – Several leaders of Abnaa el-Balad are arrested in Israel. February 24 – The 6.3 Mw Al Hoceima earthquake strikes northern Morocco with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. At least 628 people are killed. The United States lifts a 1981 travel ban upon Libya. Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The John Jay Report into Catholic abuse cases in the United States has its initial release. February 29 – 2004 Haitian coup d'état: Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti. Boniface Alexandre, is sworn in as interim president. March 2 NASA announces that the Mars MER-B has confirmed that its landing area was once drenched in water. The Iraq Ashura bombings injure at least 500 Iraqi Shi'a Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 10 – Five British men are released from detention at Camp Delta, Guantanamo Bay. After they land at RAF Brize Norton, 4 of them are immediately arrested for questioning.2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
52. History of literature – Not all writings constitute literature. This article relates only to the evolution of the works defined above. Writing, though connected, are not synonymous. Scholars have often disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more than anything else; the definition is largely subjective. The deliberate suppression of texts by organisations of either a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Primary texts, however, may be isolated which have a qualifying role as literature's first stirrings. Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in written form are impossible to date. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid millennium BC. The Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th BC at the earliest. Homer's Iliad and date to the 8th century BC and mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity. They also stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Age. The great Hindu epics were also transmitted orally, likely predating the Maurya period. The Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works by anonymous authors dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC. The Chu Ci anthology is a volume of poems considered to be inspired by Qu Yuan's verse writing. The great author on military tactics and strategy was Sun Tzu, whose The Art of War remains on the shelves of many modern military officers.History of literature – A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh
53. History of the book – The history of the book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day. Its scope includes the history of history of religion, bibliography, conservation and curation. The history of the book came in the latter half of the 20th century. It was fostered in 1958 as well as Marshall McLuhan's Gutenberg Galaxy. Another pioneer is Robert Darnton.History of the book – A 15th-century Incunable. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.
54. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. Also, the publisher can refer to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, marketing and distribution. This is also known as vanity publishing. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query proposal directly to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from previously unpublished authors. The acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent. This policy shifts the burden of developing writers onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of author earnings to pay for their services.Publishing – Printer working an early Gutenberg letter press from the 15th century. (engraving date unknown)
55. Comedy – The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. Northrop Frye depicted a "Society of the Old". Political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them. Similarly scatological humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love. The adjective "comic", which strictly means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage, generally confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning. The Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy worse than the average. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings. It is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, later with humour in general.Comedy – Thalia, muse of comedy, holding a comic mask - detail of “Muses Sarcophagus”, the nine Muses and their attributes; marble, early second century AD, Via Ostiense - Louvre
56. Epic poetry – Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form. These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic employs dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both. Epics also tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values, particularly as they pertain to heroism. Another type of epic poetry is epyllion, a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme. The term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century. The most famous example of classical epyllion is perhaps Catullus 64. The first epics were products of preliterate societies and oral poetic traditions. In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means. Early twentieth-century study of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status, interest and importance. This facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it. Parry and Lord also showed that the most likely source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance. An attempt to delineate ten main characteristics of an epic: Begins in medias res.Epic poetry – Tablet containing a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh
57. Fable – Usage has not always been clearly distinguished. A person who writes fables is a fabulist. The fable is one of the most enduring forms of literature, spread abroad, modern researchers agree, less by literary anthologies than by oral transmission. Fables can be found in the literature of almost every country. Epicharmus of Kos and Phormis are reported as having been among the first to invent comic fables. Familiar fables of Aesop include "The Crow and the Pitcher", "The Tortoise and the Hare" and "The Lion and the Mouse". Oral culture has a rich story-telling tradition. Grandparents fill the new role of story-telling during retirement years. , to some extent, adults are mesmerized by good story-tellers when they become animated in their quest to tell a good fable. India learns qualities from natural elements. Most of the gods are some form of animals with ideal qualities. Also hundreds of fables were composed in ancient India often as stories within frame stories. Indian fables have a mixed cast of animals. The dialogues are often witty as the animals try to outwit one another by trickery and deceit. In Indian fables, man is not superior to the animals.Fable – Anthropomorphic cat guarding geese, Egypt, c. 1120 BC
58. Fantasy literature – Fantasy literature is the body of written works that employ the motifs, themes, stylistic approaches expected in the fantasy genre. Historically, most works of fantasy were written pieces of literature. Since the 1960s, a growing segment of the genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games, music and painting. Stories involving paranormal terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature. Homer's Odyssey satisfies the definition of the genre with its magic, gods, heroes, adventures and monsters. Fantasy literature as a distinct type emerged with the works of writers such as Mary Shelley, William Morris and George MacDonald. Rarely does one consider modern fantasy without conjuring the memory and image of Tolkien and his creations. The tradition established by these predecessors of early twentieth centuries has continued to thrive and be adapted by new authors. The influence of J.R.R. Tolkien's fiction has—particularly over the genre of high fantasy—prompted backlash. At the turn of the millennium, the Harry Potter novels of J. K. Rowling achieved widespread popularity. Authors often engage against which the narrative plays out. Symbolism often plays a significant role in literature, often through the use of archetypal figures inspired by earlier texts or folklore. Some argue that the messages are continually updated for current societies. Ursula K.Fantasy literature – Fantasy
59. Horror novel – It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror is frequently supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. These were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, ghosts. Gothic horror drew on these sources by Horace Walpole. This marked the first incorporated elements of the supernatural instead of pure realism. In fact, the first edition was published disguised from Italy republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as contemporary, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or simply in poor taste — but it proved to be immediately popular. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the modern readers call literature in the 19th century. Each of these novellas created an enduring icon of horror screen. The proliferation of cheap periodicals, as as the turn of the century, led in horror writing. One writer who specialized for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction dealt with themes of cruelty. Later, specialist publications emerged to give an outlet, including Unknown Worlds. Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums. This imagery made these comics controversial, as a consequence they were frequently censored.Horror novel – An Illustration of Poe's " The Raven " by Gustave Doré
60. Narrative nonfiction – Creative nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. For a text to be considered creative nonfiction, it written to literary style and technique. Forms within this genre include biography, autobiography, memoir, diary, travel writing, food writing, literary journalism, other hybridized essays. By this, she means that the events discussed in the verifiably exist in the natural world. The third characteristic that Lounsberry claims is crucial in defining the genre is "The scene". She stresses the importance of revivifying the context of events in contrast to the journalistic style of objective reportage. The final feature she suggests is "Fine writing: a literary style". When book-length works of creative nonfiction follow a story-like arc, they are sometimes called narrative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction writers have embraced new ways of forming their texts—including online technologies—because the genre leads itself to grand experimentation. Dozens of new journals have sprung up—both in print and online—that feature creative nonfiction prominently in their offerings. To my mind this literary tinkering does not alter the more profound truth of the story." This concept of fact vs. fiction is elaborated in Suzanne Paola's book entitled "Tell it Slant." They argue that "...memory itself can be called its own bit of creative nonfiction. We continually—often unconsciously—renovate our memories, shaping them into stories that bring coherence to chaos. Memory has been called the ultimate'mythmaker'..." as even one’s firsthand accounts are unreliable.Narrative nonfiction – Journalism
61. Literary nonsense – Even though the most well-known form of literary nonsense is nonsense verse, the genre is present in many forms of literature. The effect of nonsense is often caused by an excess of meaning, rather than a lack of it. Its humor is derived from the "joke" of a punchline. Literary nonsense, as recognized since the nineteenth century, comes from a combination of two artistic sources. The first and older source is the oral folk tradition, such as the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle Diddle. The literary figure Mother Goose represents common incarnations of this style of writing. The second, newer source of literary nonsense is in the intellectual absurdities of court poets, intellectuals of various kinds. Today's literary nonsense comes from a combination of both sources. Lewis Carroll continued this trend, making literary nonsense a worldwide phenomenon with Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Carroll's Jabberwocky, which appears in the latter book, is often considered quintessential nonsense literature. In literary nonsense, formal elements of language and logic that facilitate meaning are balanced by elements that negate meaning. These formal elements include semantics, syntax, phonetics, context, formal diction. Nonsense tautology, absurd precision have also been used in the nonsense genre. For a text to be within the genre of literary nonsense, it must have an abundance of nonsense techniques woven into the fabric of the piece. It does not make a text, overall, literary nonsense.Literary nonsense – John Tenniel 's depiction of the nonsense creatures in Carroll 's Jabberwocky.
62. Lyric poetry – Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic and epic. Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress. The most common meters are as follows: Iambic – two syllables, with the short or unstressed syllable followed by the long or stressed syllable. Trochaic – two syllables, with the long or stressed syllable followed by the short or unstressed syllable. In English, this metre is found almost entirely in lyric poetry. Pyrrhic – Two unstressed syllables Anapestic – three syllables, with the first two short or unstressed and the last long or stressed. Dactylic – three syllables, with the first one long or stressed and the other two short or unstressed. Spondaic – two syllables, with two successive long or stressed syllables. Some forms have a combination of meters, often using a different meter for the refrain. For the ancient Greeks, poetry had a technical meaning: verse, accompanied by barbitos. Because such works were typically sung, it was also known as melic poetry. The scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria created a canon of nine lyric poets deemed especially worthy of critical study. These archaic and classical musician-poets included Sappho, Alcaeus, Anacreon and Pindar. Archaic lyric was characterized by strophic composition and live musical performance.Lyric poetry – Henry Oliver Walker 's 1896 Lyric Poetry in the Library of Congress 's Thomas Jefferson Building
63. Mythopoeia – Mythopoeia is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional or artificial mythology is created by the writer of prose or other fiction. This meaning of the mythopoeia follows its use by J. R. R. Tolkien in the 1930s. The authors in this genre integrate mythological themes and archetypes into fiction. Mythopoeia is also the act of making mythologies. Mythopoeic authors include Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, William Blake, H. P. Lovecraft, Lord Dunsany, Mervyn Peake and George MacDonald. While literary works carry mythic themes, only a few approach the dense self-referentiality and purpose of mythopoeia. Mythopoeia are almost invariably created entirely like the world of Middle-earth. The mythopoeia is from Greek μυθοποιία, "myth-making". In early uses, it referred in ancient times. It was adopted and used by Tolkien as a title of one of his poems, published in Tree and Leaf. The poem popularized the mythopoeia as a literary and artistic endeavor and genre. Campbell spoke of a Nietzschean world which has today outlived much of the mythology of the past. For example, the noted folklorist Alan Dundes argued that "any novel cannot meet the cultural criteria of myth. A work of artifice, can not be said to be the narrative of a culture's sacred tradition... at most, artificial myth." Perhaps the first attempt to construct mythology was the book of Syros written in Greek Southern Italy in the 6th century BCE.Mythopoeia – Because William Blake worked in multiple artistic mediums, printing and illustrating extensive art books, his own extensive mythological community is both written about and illustrated. Here, Los is tormented at his smithy by the characteristic part of human nature Spectre in an illustration Blake's poem Jerusalem. This image comes from Copy E. of that work, printed in 1821 and in the collection of the Yale Center for British Art
64. Romance fiction – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. There are many subgenres of the novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, science fiction. Austen inspired the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction. The Black Moth, was set in 1751. Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s. Their books were allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An American example of a mass-market romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss' The Flame and the Flower, published by Avon Books. Nancy Coffey was the senior editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, comprising almost 55% of all paperback books sold in 2004. Romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written from English-speaking countries leading to an Anglo-Saxon perspective in the fiction. Despite widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre. Erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. Furthermore, a novel must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending."Romance fiction – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
65. Science fiction – Science fiction often has been called a "literature of ideas." Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of themes. Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible." Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about futures. A spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots and other types of characters arising from a future human evolution. Futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, humanoid computers. Scientific principles that contradict accepted physical laws, for example time travel, wormholes, or faster-than-light travel or communication. New and different political or social systems, e.g. utopian, dystopian, post-scarcity, or post-apocalyptic. Paranormal abilities such as control, telepathy, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Kepler's work the first science story. It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story to the moon. More examples appeared throughout the 19th century.Science fiction – A futuristic setting is a common but not a necessary hallmark of science fiction. A common thread in science fiction is exploring the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations on people's lives.
66. Tragedy – Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. In the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against theatre. Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy. Taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation. The word "tragedy" appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = "goat song", which comes from tragos = "he-goat" and aeidein = "to sing". There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy, mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested. Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed. Scott Scullion writes: There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as "song for the prize goat". Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides.Tragedy – Aristotle's Tragic Plot Structure
67. Tragicomedy – Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. There is no complete formal definition of tragicomedy from the classical age. In this respect, a number of Greek and Roman plays, for instance Alcestis, may be called tragicomedies, though without any definite attributes outside of plot. The word itself originates with the comic playwright Plautus, who coined the term to his Amphitryon. Two figures helped to elevate tragicomedy to the status of a regular genre, by, meant one with its own set of rigid rules. Even more important was Giovanni Battista Guarini. Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, published in 1590, provoked a fierce critical debate in which Guarini's spirited defense of generic innovation eventually carried the day. Guarini's tragicomedy offered modulated action that never drifted far either to a pastoral setting. All three became staples of continental tragicomedy for a century and more. In England, where practice ran ahead of theory, the situation was quite different. For the law of writ and the liberty, these are the only men." By the early Stuart period, some English playwrights had absorbed the lessons of the Guarini controversy. John Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess, an adaptation of Guarini's play, was produced in 1608. Some of Fletcher's contemporaries, notably Philip Massinger and James Shirley, wrote successful and popular tragicomedies. Richard Brome also essayed the form, but with less success.Tragicomedy – Tragic Comic masks of Ancient Greek theatre represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic.
68. Medieval literature – Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of this time was composed of religious writings well as secular works. Just as in modern literature, it is a rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane, touching all points in-between. Works of literature are often grouped by place of origin, genre. However, in Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Orthodox Church made Greek and Old Church Slavonic the dominant written languages. The common people continued to use their respective vernaculars. Celtic traditions have survived in the lais of Marie de France, the Arthurian cycles. Another host of literature has survived in the Old Norse literature and more specifically in the Saga literature of Iceland. A notable amount of medieval literature is anonymous. And even when they did, they often claimed to be handing down something from an auctor instead. The invention of biography can be attributed to this period. Theological works were the dominant form of literature typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. It is their literature, produced in the greatest quantity. Countless hymns survive from this period. The liturgy itself was not in numerous competing missals set out individual conceptions of the order of the mass.Medieval literature – The first page of Beowulf
69. Renaissance literature – Renaissance literature refers to European literature, influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance. For the writers of the Renaissance Greco-Roman inspiration was shown both in the literary forms they used. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective. Platonic ideas were put to the service of Christianity. The search for a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period. New literary genres such as new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent; countries that were predominantly Protestant experienced the Renaissance differently. Areas where the Orthodox Church was culturally dominant, well as those areas of Europe under Islamic rule were more or less outside its influence. The period focused on one's ability to accept what is going on in one's life. The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in the 14th century; Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli and Ariosto are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance continued to spread around Europe through the 17th century. The Renaissance in Scotland date from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.Renaissance literature – Renaissance
70. 12th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 12th century. The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase from the multiplying cathedral schools. These two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters in the following centuries. 1104: September 3 St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral and the St. Cuthbert Gospel of St. John removed from his tomb. 1170: Poet, politician and historian Lu You travels on the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by'Gallus Anonymus' c. 1113 Primary Chronicle 1122–54 Peterborough Chronicle c. 1125–50 Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis by Albert of Aix c. 1149–50 Visio Tnugdali transcribed by Brother Marcus c. 1150–55 Roman de Brut by Wace Concludes 1152 Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Book 1 by Otto of Freising 1154 – Henry of Huntingdon: Historia Anglorum c. 1178–1208 Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus c. 1181–82 Witherlogh by Sven Aggesen c. 1183 De bello Troiano by Joseph of Exeter c. 1186–87 Historia brevis regum Dacie by Sven Aggesen 1188 Topographia Hibernica by Gerald of Wales 1190s Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja c. 1190–1215 Brut by Layamon 1192 Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi by Richard of Devizes c. 1152–64 Liber viarum Dei by Elisabeth of Schönau c. 1160 Policraticus by John of Salisbury 1163? Makhzan al-Asrar by Nizami Ganjavi c.12th century in literature – Scribe of Eadwine Psalter (mid-12th century, English)
71. 14th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 14th century. See also: 14th century in poetry, 13th century in literature, list of years in literature. 1323 – The name Pléiade is adopted by a group of fourteen poets in Toulouse. Arnaut Vidal de Castelnou d'Ari wins the d'or for a sirventes in praise of the Virgin Mary. At about this date, Raimon de Cornet writes Doctrinal de trobar in support of the aims of the Gay Saber. 21 September -- The deposed King Edward II of England perhaps writes the "Lament of Edward II". 6 April – Tuscan writer Petrarch sees a woman he names Laura in the church of Sainte-Claire d'Avignon, which awakes in him a lasting passion. 27 August – Death of Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester in England. C. 1330 – Production of the Macclesfield Psalter in East Anglia. 1331 – Production of the Nuremberg Mahzor. 1341: 8 April – Petrarch becomes poet laureate at a ceremony in Rome. 1357 – The Polychronicon concludes, Ranulf Higden having ceased work on it at least a dozen years earlier. 1362: September – Petrarch's library is donated to the Republic of Venice, although subsequently dispersed. 1368 The new Hongwu Emperor in China halts government taxation on books. The Bibliothèque nationale de France is founded as the Royal Library by Charles V of France.14th century in literature – Yoshida Kenkō
72. 15th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 15th century. See also: 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature, list of years in literature. 1403 – A guild of stationers is founded in the City of London. As the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, it continues to be a Livery Company in the 21st century. 1403–08 – The Yongle Encyclopedia is written in China. C. 1408–11 – An Leabhar Breac is probably compiled by Murchadh Ó Cuindlis at Duniry in Ireland. C. 1410 -- John, commissions the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, illustrated by the Limbourg brothers between c. 1412 and 1416. 1424 – The first French royal library is transferred by the English regent of France, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, to England. 1425 – At about this date the first Guildhall Library is established in the City of London under the will of Richard Whittington. 1434 – Japanese Noh actor and playwright Zeami Motokiyo is exiled to Sado Island by the Shogun. 1443 – King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul as the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is first described in the Hunminjeongeum published on 1444: 15 June -- Cosimo de' Medici founds the Laurentian Library in Florence. 1448 – Pope Nicholas V founds the Vatican Library in Rome. 1 August -- A manuscript of Dante's Divine Comedy is sold in London.15th century in literature – Page of the Gutenberg Bible
73. 2012 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2012. January 1 – Copyright restrictions on James Joyce's major works are lifted on the first day of the year. February – James Joyce's children's story The Cats of Copenhagen is published for the first time by Ithys Press in Dublin. December – The discovery is announced of "The Tallow Candle", a previously unknown story by Hans Christian Andersen. It was found in October. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: Hot Art Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2012 Governor General's Awards. Man Booker Prize: Bring Up the Bodies by Hilary Mantel Miles Franklin Award: Anna Funder, All That I Am.2012 in literature – Mo Yan in Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature
74. 2011 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2011. July – J. K. Rowling terminates her relationship with long-standing agent Christopher Little to join rival Neil Blair. September 24 – The first 100 Thousand Poets for Change Day takes place, the organisation having been founded by Michael Rothenberg and Terri Carrion in March. November 12 – Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Literature Museum Library opens in Istanbul, Turkey. Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2011 Governor General's Awards. Corral, Shane McCrae, Kerri Webster List of literary awards List of poetry awards 2011 in comics 2011 in Australian literature2011 in literature – Tomas Tranströmer in 2008
75. 2010 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2010. February – The Wheeler Centre, Australia's "literary hub", is officially opened. April 3 – First release of the Apple iPad electronic book reading device. April 12 – Little-known author Paul Harding wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his debut novel Tinkers published by tiny Bellevue Literary Press. July 27 – Stieg Larsson's Millennium Trilogy becomes an international sensation. As of May 2010, a total of million copies have been sold worldwide. On July 27 Amazon says Larsson is first author to sell more than million Kindle e-books. November 16 – The 2010 Governor General's Awards are announced. Winners include Dianne Warren for English fiction, Kim Thúy for French fiction, Robert Chafe for drama. November – Mark Twain's Autobiography is published 100 years after the author's death, the delay instructed by Twain himself. Unofficial copies had been published several times during the 20th century. Censorship in the Republic of Ireland by the state ceases as all prior bans expire. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: A Very Capable Life Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2010 Governor General's Awards.2010 in literature – Mario Vargas Llosa in 2010
76. 2009 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2009. April 21 – UNESCO launches the World Digital Library. August 10 -- Standard orthography for writing in the Silesian language is adopted at a meeting of the Standardization Committee of the Silesian Language. October 8 – Romanian-born German novelist Herta Müller wins the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature. November 10 – Linden MacIntyre wins the 2009 Scotiabank Giller Prize for his novel The Bishop's Man. Allen & Unwin announce the suspension of their annual Iremonger Award, on the grounds that no manuscript of sufficient merit has been submitted. Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm-Zentrum library opens at Humboldt University of Berlin. Hajime Asano and Seiji Kikuchi – Mayo Chiki! Reif Larsen – The Selected Works of T.S. Spivet Peter Lerangis – The Sword Thief Patrick Ness – The Ask and the Answer D.J. Machale – The Soldiers of Halla Joshua Mowll et al. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: Burning Down the House Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2009 Governor General's Awards.2009 in literature – Herta Müller
77. 2008 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2008. May 7–11 – First Palestine Festival of Literature. July – Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children is the winner of a poll to select the "Best of the Booker". First Twitter novels appear. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: Stardust Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2008 Governor General's Awards. Sweet Ladies!2008 in literature – Margaret Truman
78. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014