1. Literature – Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been attempts to define literature. Simon and Delyse Ryan begin their attempt to answer the question What is Literature, with the observation, The quest to discover a definition for literature is a road that is much travelled, though the point of arrival, if ever reached, is seldom satisfactory. Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, and they change over time. In fact, the thing that is certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well, definitions of literature have varied over time, it is a culturally relative definition. In Western Europe prior to the century, literature as a term indicated all books. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high quality or distinction and this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing. The formalist definition is that literature foregrounds poetic effects, it is the literariness or poetic of literature that distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of writing. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura learning, a writing, grammar, originally writing formed with letters, in spite of this, the term has also been applied to spoken or sung texts. Poetry is a form of art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of. Possibly as a result of Aristotles influence, poetry before the century was usually less a technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive or rhetorical art. As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral tradition, novel, a long fictional prose narrative. It was the close relation to real life that differentiated it from the chivalric romance, in most European languages the equivalent term is roman. In English, the term emerged from the Romance languages in the fifteenth century, with the meaning of news, it came to indicate something newLiterature – The Classic of Rites (Chinese: 禮 記; pinyin: Lǐjì), an ancient Chinese text. Certain definitions of literature have taken it to include all written work.
2. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Late Latin is the language from the 3rd century. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved, Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently and it is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms, some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same, volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance, the reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part and they are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissners Latin Phrasebook. The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed inkhorn terms, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of English, German and those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch, Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a wholeLatin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
3. Fiction – Fiction is the classification for any story or similar work derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact. Fiction does not refer to a mode or genre, unless used in its narrowest sense to mean a literary narrative. Instead, the context of fiction is generally open to interpretation, characters and events within a fictional work may even be openly set in their own context entirely separate from the known universe, a fictional universe. Science fiction, for example, predicts or supposes technologies that are not realities at the time of the works creation, for example, Jules Vernes novel From the Earth to the Moon was published in 1865 and only in 1969 did astronaut Neil Armstrong first land on the moon. Historical fiction places imaginary characters into real historical events, in the early historical novel Waverley, Sir Walter Scotts fictional character Edward Waverley meets a figure from history, Bonnie Prince Charlie, and takes part in the Battle of Prestonpans. Some works of fiction are slightly or greatly re-imagined based on some originally true story, often, even when the author claims the fictional story is basically true, there may be artificial additions and subtractions from the true story to make it more interesting. One such example would be Tim OBriens The Things They Carried, creators of fantasy sometimes introduce entire imaginary creatures or beings such as dragons and fairies. In terms of the separation between fiction and non-fiction, the lines are now commonly understood as blurred, showing more overlap than mutual exclusion. Even fiction usually has elements of, or grounding in, truth, also, infinite fictional possibilities themselves signal the impossibility of fully knowing reality, provocatively demonstrating that there is no criterion to measure constructs of reality. The Internet has had a impact on the creation and distribution of fiction. Also, digital libraries such as Project Gutenberg make public domain texts more readily available, the combination of inexpensive home computers, the Internet and the creativity of its users has also led to new forms of fiction, such as interactive computer games or computer-generated comics. Countless forums for fan fiction can be online, where loyal followers of specific fictional realms create and distribute derivative stories. Types of literary fiction in prose, Short story, A work of at least 2,000 words, the boundary between a long short story and a novella is vague. Novella, A work of at least 17,500 words, joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is an example of a novella. Novel, A work of 50,000 words or more, cartoonist Character Fiction writing Legend Mythology Non-fiction Pseudohistory Eco, Umberto 2009. On the ontology of fictional characters, A semiotic approachFiction – An illustration from Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, depicting the fictional protagonist, Alice, playing a fantastical game of croquet.
4. Poetry – Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor, simile and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. The oldest surviving poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logicPoetry – Aristotle
5. Novel – A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book. The genre has also described as possessing, a continuous. This view sees the novels origins in Classical Greece and Rome, medieval, early modern romance, the latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long prose narrative, Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel, a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, a novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word romance for extended narratives, fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion, historians would also invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the hand, depict the social, political and personal realities of a place and period with clarity. Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byrons Don Juan, Alexander Pushkins Yevgeniy Onegin, vikram Seths The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations, on the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, conduct and gallantry spread with novels, the novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella, short story, and flash fiction. However, in the 17th century critics saw the romance as of epic length, the length of a novel can still be important because most literary awards use length as a criterion in the ranking system. Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into consciously fictional novels by the Ming dynasty, parallel European developments did not occur for centuries, and awaited the time when the availability of paper allowed for similar opportunities. By contrast, Ibn Tufails Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus are works of didactic philosophy, in this sense, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan would be considered an early example of a philosophical novel, while Theologus Autodidactus would be considered an early theological novel. Epic poetry exhibits some similarities with the novel, and the Western tradition of the novel back into the field of verse epics. Then at the beginning of the 18th century, French prose translations brought Homers works to a wider public, longus is the author of the famous Greek novel, Daphnis and Chloe. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the circles of High Medieval. In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a tendency to emphasize themes of courtly loveNovel – Madame de Pompadour spending her afternoon with a book, 1756.
6. Genre – Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, prose, and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system. Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized, and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation, recombination, and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult. They also must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture bookGenre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
7. The General in His Labyrinth – The General in His Labyrinth is a novel by the Colombian writer and Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez. It is an account of the last days of Simón Bolívar, liberator. First published in 1989, the book traces Bolívars final journey from Bogotá to the Caribbean coastline of Colombia in his attempt to leave South America for exile in Europe. In this dictator novel about a hero, despair, sickness, and death inevitably win out over love, health. Breaking with the traditional portrayal of Bolívar El Libertador, García Márquez depicts a pathetic protagonist. The story explores the labyrinth of Bolívars life through the narrative of his memories and he borrowed the setting—Bolívars voyage down the Magdalena River in 1830—from Mutis. Its mixture of genres makes The General in His Labyrinth difficult to classify, García Márquezs insertion of interpretive and fictionalized elements—some dealing with Bolívars most intimate moments—caused outrage in parts of Latin America when the book was released. Many prominent Latin American figures believed that the novel damaged the reputation of one of the regions most important historic figures, others saw The General in His Labyrinth as a tonic for Latin American culture and a challenge to the region to deal with its problems. The initial idea to write a book about Simón Bolívar came to García Márquez through his friend and fellow Colombian writer Álvaro Mutis, Mutis had started writing a book called El Último Rostro about Bolívars final voyage along the Magdalena River, but never finished it. At the time, García Márquez was interested in writing about the Magdalena River because he knew the area intimately from his childhood, two years after reading El Último Rostro, García Márquez asked Mutis for his permission to write a book on Bolívars last voyage. García Márquez believed that most of the information available on Bolívar was one-dimensional, but historians dont say these things because they think they are not important. García Márquez researched a variety of historical documents, including Bolívars letters, 19th-century newspapers. García Márquez also worked closely with Antonio Bolívar Goyanes, a distant relative of Bolívar, the novel is set in 1830, at the tail end of the initial campaign to secure Latin Americas independence from Spain. Most of Spanish America had gained independence by this date, only Cuba, within a few decades of Christopher Columbuss landing on the coast of what is now Venezuela in 1498, South America had been effectively conquered by Spain and Portugal. The colonies were virtually cut off from Spain, and the American, as a result, Latin America was run by independent juntas and colonial self-governments. The early 19th century saw the first attempts at securing liberation from Spain and he and the independence movements won numerous battles in Venezuela, New Granada and present-day Ecuador and Peru. His dream of uniting the Spanish American nations under one central government was almost achieved, opposition to his presidency continued to increase, and in 1830, after 11 years of rule, he resigned as president of Gran Colombia. The novel is written in the third-person with flashbacks to events in the life of Simón BolívarThe General in His Labyrinth – First edition (Colombian)
8. Nobel Prize for Literature – Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here work refers to an authors work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year, the academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the worlds most prestigious literature prize, many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain widely studied and read. The prize has become seen as a political one - a peace prize in literary disguise, whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for Swedish professors, as of 2016,16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin. The Academy has often been alleged to be biased towards European, Nobels vague wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word translates as either idealistic or ideal. The Nobel Committees interpretation has varied over the years, in recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets,31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, the members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed, the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Nobel Foundation then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundations newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II, according to Nobels will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature and it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, and as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned and these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates, by May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee. The subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in LiteratureNobel Prize for Literature – Announcement of the Nobel Prize laureate in literature
9. Gran Colombia – Gran Colombia is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. It included the territories of present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, northern Peru, western Guyana, the first three were the successor states to Gran Colombia at its dissolution. Panama was separated from Colombia in 1903, since Gran Colombias territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it also claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast. Its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized. The two men had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward, the official name of the country at the time was the Republic of Colombia. The name Colombia comes from the Spanish version of the eighteenth-century New Latin word Columbia and it was the term preferred by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World, especially to all American territories and colonies under Spanish rule. He used an improvised, quasi-Greek adjectival version of the name, Colombeia, to papers and things relating to Colombia. Bolívar and other Spanish American revolutionaries also used the word Colombia in the continental sense, the establishment in 1819 of a nation with the name Colombia by the Congress of Angostura gave the term a specific geographic and political reference. The Republic of Colombia comprised more or less the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and it united the territories of the former Third Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the former Royal Audiencia of Panama and the Presidency of Quito. Before a new constitution could be written by the Congress of Cúcuta, under the Constitution of Cúcuta, the country was divided into twelve departments governed by an intendant. Departments were further divided into provinces headed by a governor. Military affairs at the department level were overseen by a commandant general, all three offices were appointed by the central government. The central government, which temporarily was to reside in Bogotá, consisted of a presidency, a bicameral congress, the president was the head of the executive branch of both the central and local governments. The president could be granted extraordinary powers in military fronts, such as the area that became Ecuador, the vice-president assumed the presidency in case of the absence, death, demotion, or illness of the president. Since President Bolívar was absent from Gran Colombia for the years of its existence, executive power was wielded by the vice-president. The vote was given to persons who owned 100 pesos in landed property or had an equivalent income from a profession, in that year, none of the provinces of Quito, nor many in Venezuela and New Granada, were free yet. The Constitution of Cúcuta was drafted in 1821 at the Congress of Cúcuta, Bolívar and Santander were elected as the nations president and vice-president. To break up regionalist tendencies and to set up efficient central control of local administration, the Gran Colombian army later consolidated the independence of Peru in 1824Gran Colombia – A mural of Santiago Martinez Delgado at the Colombian Congress representing the Congress of Cúcuta
10. Ezra Pound – Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity, precision and his best-known works include Ripostes, Hugh Selwyn Mauberley and the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos. This included arranging for the publication in 1915 of Eliots The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in England and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism. Deemed unfit to stand trial, he was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, while in custody in Italy, Pound had begun work on sections of The Cantos. These were published as The Pisan Cantos, for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, triggering enormous controversy. Largely due to a campaign by his writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958. Hemingway wrote, The best of Pounds writing—and it is in the Cantos—will last as long as there is any literature, Pound was born in a small, two-story house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound and Isabel Weston. His father had worked in Hailey since 1883 as registrar of the General Land Office, both parents ancestors had emigrated from England in the 17th century. On his mothers side, Pound was descended from William Wadsworth, the Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York. Harding Weston and Mary Parker were the parents of Isabel Weston, harding apparently spent most of his life without work, with his brother, Ezra Weston, and his brothers wife, Frances, looking after Mary and Isabels needs. On his fathers side, the immigrant ancestor was John Pound, a Quaker, Ezras grandfather, Thaddeus Coleman Pound, was a Republican Congressman from northwest Wisconsin who had made and lost a fortune in the lumber business. Thaddeuss son Homer, Pounds father, worked for Thaddeus in the lumber business, Homer and Isabel married the following year, and Homer built a home in Hailey. Isabel was unhappy in Hailey and took Ezra with her to New York in 1887, Homer followed them, and in 1889 he found a job as an assayer at the Philadelphia Mint. The family moved to Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, and in 1893 bought a house in Wyncote. Between 1897 and 1900 Pound attended Cheltenham Military Academy, sometimes as a boarder, the boys wore Civil War-style uniforms and besides Latin were taught English, history, arithmetic, marksmanship, military drilling and the importance of submitting to authority. After the academy he may have attended Cheltenham Township High School for one year and it was at Pennsylvania in 1901 that Pound met Hilda Doolittle, his first serious romance, according to Pound scholar Ira Nadel. In 1911 she followed Pound to London and became involved in developing the Imagism movement, Pound was seeing two other women at the same time—Viola Baxter and Mary Moore—later dedicating a book of poetry, Personae, to the latter. He asked Moore to marry him too, but she turned him down and his parents and Frances Weston took Pound on another three-month European tour in 1902, after which he transferred, in 1903, to Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, possibly because of poor gradesEzra Pound – Ezra Pound photographed in 1913 by Alvin Langdon Coburn
11. Expatriate – An expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than that of their citizenship. In common usage, the term refers to professionals or skilled workers sent abroad by their companies. However, it can refer to retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has referred to exiles. The word expatriate comes from the Latin terms ex and patria, dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include, Expatriate, A person who lives outside their native country, or living in a foreign land. The varying use of terms for different groups of foreigners can thus be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of stay, perceived motives for moving, nationality. An older usage of the word expatriate was to refer to an exile, as far back as antiquity, people have gone to live in foreign countries, whether as diplomats, merchants or missionaries. The numbers of such travellers grew markedly after the 15th century with the dawn of the European colonial period, in the 19th century, travel became easier by way of steamship or train. People could more readily choose to live for years in a foreign country. After World War II, decolonisation accelerated, however, lifestyles which had developed among European colonials continued to some degree in expatriate communities. Remnants of the old British Empire, for example, can still be seen in the form of gated communities staffed by domestic workers, social clubs which have survived include the Hash House Harriers and the Royal Selangor. Homesick palates are catered for by specialist food shops, and drinkers can still order a gin and tonic, although pith helmets are mostly confined to military ceremonies, civilians still wear white dinner jackets or even Red Sea rig on occasion. The use of curry powder has long since spread to the metropole, from the 1950s, scheduled flights on jet airliners further increased the speed of international travel. This enabled a hypermobility which led to the jet set, and eventually to global nomads, since the 1990s, the rise of the Internet has allowed some types of worker to become digital nomads. Websites aimed at expatriates began to appear about the same time, the number of expatriates in the world is difficult to determine. In 2013, the United Nations estimated that 232 million people, or 3.2 per cent of the world population, in 2007, only 20 per cent of Dubais population were citizens. Singapore, where 40 per cent of the inhabitants were foreign-born workers, many multinational corporations send employees to foreign countries to work in branch offices or subsidiaries. Expatriate employees allow a parent company to more closely control its foreign subsidiaries and they can also improve global coordinationExpatriate – Expatriate French voters queue in Lausanne, Switzerland for the first round of the presidential election of 2007
12. Imagism – Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery and clear, sharp language. Imagism has been described as the most influential movement in English poetry since the activity of the Pre-Raphaelites, as a poetic style it gave Modernism its start in the early 20th century, and is considered to be the first organized Modernist literary movement in the English language. Imagism is sometimes viewed as a succession of moments rather than any continuous or sustained period of development. Imagist publications appearing between 1914 and 1917 featured works by many of the most prominent modernist figures, both in poetry and in other fields, the Imagist group was centered in London, with members from Great Britain, Ireland and the United States. Somewhat unusually for the time, a number of writers were major Imagist figures. A characteristic feature of Imagism is its attempt to isolate a single image to reveal its essence and this feature mirrors contemporary developments in avant-garde art, especially Cubism. They continued to work in this vein into the years of the 20th century. As the new century opened, Austin was still the serving British Poet Laureate, future Nobel Prize winner William Butler Yeats was devoting much of his energy to the Abbey Theatre and writing for the stage, producing relatively little lyric poetry during this period. In 1907, the Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to Rudyard Kipling, the origins of Imagism are to be found in two poems, Autumn and A City Sunset by T. E. Hulme. These were published in January 1909 by the Poets Club in London in a booklet called For Christmas MDCCCCVIII, Hulme was a student of mathematics and philosophy, he had been involved in the setting up of the club in 1908 and was its first secretary. Around the end of 1908, he presented his paper A Lecture on Modern Poetry at one of the clubs meetings. Writing in A. R. Orages magazine The New Age, from the ensuing debate, Hulme and Flint became close friends. Direct literary models were available from a number of sources, including F. V, the American poet Ezra Pound was introduced to the group in April 1909 and found that their ideas were close to his own. These criteria of directness, clarity and lack of rhetoric were to be amongst the defining qualities of Imagist poetry, in 1915, Pound edited the poetry of another 1890s poet, Lionel Johnson for the publisher Elkin Mathews. In his introduction, he wrote In 1911, Pound introduced two other poets to the Eiffel Tower group, his former fiancée Hilda Doolittle and her future husband Richard Aldington. These two were interested in exploring Greek poetic models, especially Sappho, an interest that Pound shared. D. and Aldington that they were Imagistes, Imagiste to some poems they were discussing. When Harriet Monroe started her Poetry magazine in 1911, she had asked Pound to act as foreign editor. In October 1912, he submitted three poems each by H. D. and Aldington under the Imagiste rubric, with a note which described Aldington as one of the ImagistesImagism – H.D. (Hilda Doolittle)
13. Hugh Selwyn Mauberley – Hugh Selwyn Mauberley is a long poem by Ezra Pound. It has been regarded as a point in Pounds career. The name Selwyn might have been an homage to Rhymers Club member Selwyn Image, the name and personality of the titular subject is also reminiscent of T. S. Eliots main character in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. The poem comprises eighteen short poems which are grouped into two sections, the first is a capsule biography of Ezra Pound himself, as indicated by the title of the first poem, which reads E. P. Ode pour lélection de son sépulchre, the second section introduces us to the struggling poet Mauberleys character, career and fate. Readers have been misled by the fact that Pound assigns to every poem a title or, alternatively, ode pour lElection de Son Sépulchre, is followed by poems II-V, that are numbered, while poems VI to IX are again given individual titles. As a consequence, in some websites poems II-V are reprinted as if they were parts II-V of E. P and they are in fact individual poems in a sequence of which E. P. Hugh Selwyn Mauberley addresses Pounds alleged failure as a poet, F. R. Leavis considered it quintessential autobiography. For three years, out of key with his time/He strove to resuscitate the dead art/Of poetry resonates with Pounds efforts to write in traditional forms, Pound in his mock-epitaph is said to be wrong from the start, but this is quickly qualified, No, hardly-. The rest of the poem is essentially a defense of Pound, in the third stanza, Pound is said to have listened to the song of Homers Syrens, to have confronted dangers and ignored the warnings of the prudent. This has led inevitably to his being dismissed as an outsider and forgotten by the establishment, in the 31st year of his life, i. e. circa 1916. In Poems II and III, Pound turns the tables upon the modern age, denouncing its materialism, consumerism, bad taste. The exclamation Better mendacities/ Than the classics in paraphrase, seems to be a quip at the expense of those who continue to revere the idealistic lies and to dismiss works that draw on valuable traditional texts, such as Pounds own Homage to Sextus Propertius. Poem XII formally closes with a criticism of the current tastes and concerns of society, as Pierian roses refers to the place in Greece where the Muses were worshiped, the charge is that society has become absorbed in commodities and lost its taste for art. Part I terminates with Envoi, i. e. Farewell, Envoi ends on a positive note. Its last lines are, Till change hath broken down / All things save Beauty alone, the second part of the poem, Mauberley 1920, introduces the character Hugh Selwyn Mauberley, a minor poet who perfects refined but irrelevant artworks, or medallions. Ironically, his defeat is told in Poem I in short minimalist lines, Poem II tells us of Mauberleys love-troubles, suggesting that he observed beauty but could not act at the right moment. Poem III is a criticism of Mauberley as aestheteHugh Selwyn Mauberley – Family
14. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and then as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security. His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work also influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was presidentFranklin D. Roosevelt – Roosevelt in 1933
15. Washington Irving – Washington Irving was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Irving served as the U. S. ambassador to Spain from 1842 to 1846. He made his debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle. After moving to England for the business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. He continued to publish regularly—and almost always successfully—throughout his life, and just eight months before his death, Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. Washington Irvings parents were William Irving, Sr. originally of Quholm, Shapinsay, Orkney and they married in 1761 while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. They had eleven children, eight of whom survived to adulthood and their first two sons, each named William, died in infancy, as did their fourth child, John. Their surviving children were, William, Jr. Ann, Peter, Catherine, Ebenezer, John Treat, Sarah, and Washington. At age six, with the help of a nanny, Irving met his namesake, the president blessed young Irving, an encounter Irving later commemorated in a small watercolor painting, which still hangs in his home today. The Irvings lived at 131 William Street at the time of Washington Irvings birth, the family later moved across the street to 128 William St. An uninterested student, Irving preferred adventure stories and drama and and it was in Tarrytown that Irving became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, with its quaint Dutch customs and local ghost stories. Irving made several trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York, where he passed through the Catskill mountain region. F all the scenery of the Hudson, Irving wrote later, the 19-year-old Irving began writing letters to the New York Morning Chronicle in 1802, submitting commentaries on the citys social and theater scene under the name of Jonathan Oldstyle. The name, which evoked the writers Federalist leanings, was the first of many pseudonyms Irving would employ throughout his career. The letters brought Irving some early fame and moderate notoriety, concerned for his health, Irvings brothers financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806. Irving bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the development of an upwardly mobile young man, William wrote that, though he was pleased his brothers health was improving, he did not like the choice to gallop through Italy. Leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right, instead, Irving honed the social and conversational skills that would later make him one of the worlds most in-demand guests. I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness, Irving wrote, while visiting Rome in 1805, Irving struck up a friendship with the American painter Washington Allston, and nearly allowed himself to be persuaded into following Allston into a career as a painterWashington Irving – Daguerreotype of Washington Irving (modern copy by Mathew Brady, original by John Plumbe)
16. Rob Roy (novel) – Rob Roy is a historical novel by Walter Scott. It is narrated by Frank Osbaldistone, the son of an English merchant who travels first to the North of England, on the way he encounters the larger-than-life title character, Rob Roy MacGregor. Though Rob Roy is not the character, his personality. The story takes place just before the Jacobite rising of 1715, Frank Osbaldistone, the narrator, quarrels with his father and is sent to stay with an uncle, Sir Hildebrand Osbaldistone, in Northumberland. Frank falls in love with Diana Vernon, Sir Hildebrands niece, Franks cousin, Rashleigh, steals important documents vital to the honour and economic solvency of Franks father, William, and Frank pursues Rashleigh to Scotland. Several times his path crosses the mysterious and powerful figure Rob Roy MacGregor, known as Rob Roy, there is much confusion as the action shifts to the beautiful mountains and valleys around Loch Lomond. A British army detachment is ambushed and there is bloodshed, all of Sir Hildebrands sons but Rashleigh are killed in the Jacobite rising, and Rashleigh, too meets a bloody end. Following this, Frank inherits Sir Hildebrands property and marries Diana, the novel is a brutally realistic depiction of the social conditions in Highland and Lowland Scotland in the early 18th century. Some of the dialogue is in Scots, and the novel includes a glossary of Scottish words, robert Louis Stevenson loved this novel from childhood, regarding it as the best novel of the greatest of all novelists. Rob Roy was written from the spring of 1817 and published on Hogmanay of that year, like Scotts novel Waverley, it was published anonymously and came in three volumes. The demand for the novel was huge and a ship from Leith to London contained nothing. Furthermore, Rob Roy was written at a time when many Europeans started regretting colonialism and imperialism, as reports circulated back of horrendous atrocities towards indigenous cultures. It was also a time when debates raged about the trade, the British occupation of India, and, more relevant to the novel. The term guerrilla came about during this period, due to the influence of the Peninsular War and his tale begins with his return to his father Williams merchant house of Osbaldistone and Tresham in Crane Alley, London, from an apprenticeship in a French associates business. There, he meets with his fathers anger and disappointment, since he has been more preoccupied with writing poetry than learning the business. William was originally disinherited in favor of his younger brother Sir Hildebrand Osbaldistone, William, turned out of the house to make his own way, has built a successful business with his trading company in the City. Owen, the Head Clerk of Osbaldistone and Tresham and a long friend of the family, attempts to persuade Frank to follow his fathers wishes. In spite of this, Frank decides to follow his own way, instead, William decides to send him to stay with his uncle Hildebrand in Northumberland, near the border with ScotlandRob Roy (novel) – A Dalziel Brothers engraving. Rob Roy (left) gives a mysterious warning to Francis Osbaldistone (right) in the crypt of Glasgow Cathedral, promising to tell him more if he meets him later on. This leads to Francis being pulled in with the rebels. Frontispiece to an 1886 edition of the novel.
17. North of England – Northern England or the North of England, also known as the North Country or simply the North, is the northern part of England, when considered as a single cultural area. The area roughly spans from the River Trent and River Dee to the Scottish border in the north, Northern England roughly comprises three statistical regions, the North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber. These have a population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census. The region has been controlled by groups from the Brigantes. After the Norman conquest in 1066, the Harrying of the North brought destruction, a Council of the North was in place during the Late Middle Ages until the Commonwealth after the Civil War. The area experienced Anglo–Scottish border fighting until the unification of Britain under the Stuarts, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the economy of the North was dominated by heavy industry such as weaving, shipbuilding, steelmaking and mining. The deindustrialisation that followed in the half of the 20th century hit Northern England hard. For government and statistical purposes, Northern England is defined as the covered by the three statistical regions of North East England, North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber. This definition will be used in article, except when otherwise stated. Using historic county boundaries, the North is generally taken to comprise Cumberland, Northumberland, Westmorland, County Durham, Lancashire and Yorkshire, the Isle of Man is occasionally included in definitions of the North, although it is politically and culturally distinct from England. Additionally, some areas of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire have been associated with the North. The geographer Danny Dorling includes most of the West Midlands and part of the East Midlands in his definition of the North, conversely, more restrictive definitions also exist, typically based on the extent of the historical Northumbria, which exclude Cheshire and Lincolnshire. Personal definitions of the North vary greatly and are sometimes passionately debated, when asked to draw a dividing line between North and South, Southerners tend to draw this line further south than Northerners do. Various towns have been described as or promoted themselves as the gateway to the North, including Crewe, Stoke-on-Trent, through the North of England run the Pennines, an upland chain often referred to as the backbone of England. This stretches from the Cheviot Hills on the border with Scotland to the Peak District, the geography of the North has been heavily shaped by the ice sheets of the Pleistocene era, which often reached as far south as the Midlands. On the other side of the Pennines, a glacial lake forms the Humberhead Levels, a large area of fenland which drains into the Humber. This has left the North a region of contrasts, the Lake District includes Englands highest peak, Scafell Pike, which rises to 978 m, its largest lake, Windermere, and its deepest lake, Wastwater. However, dense areas have emerged along the coasts and riversNorth of England – St Bees Head, the most westerly point of Northern England
18. Scottish Highlands – The Highlands are a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, the term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands, the Scottish Gaelic name of A Ghàidhealtachd literally means the place of the Gaels and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands. The area is sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotlands as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia, Chad. The Highland Council is the body for much of the Highlands. However, the Highlands also includes parts of the areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Moray, North Ayrshire, Perth & Kinross, Stirling. The Scottish highlands is the area in the British Isles to have the Taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest. Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd, because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent, historically, the Highland line distinguished the two Scottish cultures. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided, there was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Tartan had largely abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland. The international craze for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle, individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, optimism, the economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping, fisheries, and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project. On the East Coast, farmlands were improved, and high prices for cattle brought money to the area, Service in the Army was also attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions. This prosperity ended after 1815, and long-term negative factors began to undermine the position of the poor tenant farmers, who typically rented a few acresScottish Highlands – Loch Long
19. Rob Roy MacGregor – Robert Rob Roy MacGregor was a Scottish outlaw, who later became a folk hero. Rob Roy was born at Glengyle, at the head of Loch Katrine, as recorded in the register of Buchanan. His parents were Donald Glas MacGregor and Margaret Campbell and he was also descended from the Macdonalds of Keppoch through his paternal grandmother. In January 1693, at Corrie Arklet farm near Inversnaid, he married Mary Helen MacGregor of Comar, the couple had four sons, James, Ranald, Coll and Robert. They also adopted a cousin named Duncan, although victorious in initial battles, Dundee was killed in 1689, deflating the rebellion. Robs father was taken to jail, where he was held on charges for two years. Robs mother Margarets health failed during Donalds time in prison, by the time Donald was finally released, his wife was dead. The Gregor chief never returned to his spirit or health. In 1716 Rob Roy moved to Glen Shira for a time and lived under the protection of John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll also known as Red John of the Battles. Argyll negotiated an amnesty and protection for Rob and granted him permission to build a house in the Glen for the surrendering up of weapons, traditionally the story goes that Argyll only received a large cache of rusty old weapons. A sporran and dirk handle which belonged to Rob Roy can still be seen at Inveraray Castle, Rob Roy only used this house occasionally for the next three or four years. Rob Roy was badly wounded at the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719, Rob Roy became a well-known and respected cattleman—this was a time when cattle rustling and selling protection against theft were commonplace means of earning a living. As a result, he was branded an outlaw, and his wife and family were evicted from their house at Inversnaid, which was then burned down. After his principal creditor, James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose seized his lands, Rob Roy waged a private blood feud against the Duke until 1722, later imprisoned, he was finally pardoned in 1727. He died in his house at Inverlochlarig Beg, Balquhidder, on 28 December 1734. aged 63, another version of this series of events states that Rob Roys estate of Craigrostan and Ardess were forfeited for his part in the rebellion of 1715. The Duke of Montrose acquired the property in 1720 by open purchase from the Commissioners of Enquiry, Macleay takes the view that Rob did this out of sorrow for his crimes. The Rob Roy Way, a long distance footpath from Drymen to Pitlochry, was created in 2002 and named in Rob Roys honour. Descendants of Rob Roy settled around McGregor, Iowa, United States, the Scots Gaelic clan seal was inscribed S Rioghal Mo DhreamRob Roy MacGregor – Portrait engraving of Rob Roy c. 1820s
20. Jacobite risings – The series of conflicts takes its name Jacobitism, from Jacobus, the Latin form of James. The major Jacobite risings were called the Jacobite rebellions by the ruling governments, the first Jacobite rebellion and second Jacobite rebellion were also known respectively as the Fifteen and the Forty-five, after the years in which they occurred. Although each Jacobite rising had unique features, they were part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of Scotland and England. James II was deposed in 1688 and the thrones were claimed by his daughter Mary II jointly with her husband, after the House of Hanover succeeded to the British throne in 1714, the risings continued and intensified. They continued until the last Jacobite rebellion, led by Charles Edward Stuart, was defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. This ended any hope of a Stuart restoration. During the 17th century, the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland suffered political, the Commonwealth ended with the Restoration of Charles II, re-establishment of the Church of England and the imposition of an Episcopalian church government. In 1685, Charles II was succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James saw Covenanters as troublemakers and initially tried to end their influence in Scotland. Jamess half-hearted attempts to woo the Presbyterians seemingly did not win him popularity among that section of society either. They remembered his earlier suppression of them and did not believe him to be sincere in his recognition of Presbyterianism. Although these actions were unpopular, at first the majority of his subjects tolerated these acts because James was in his 50s. It seemed that Jamess reign would be short and the throne would soon return to Protestant hands, in 1688, however, Jamess young second wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to a boy, Prince James, who was promptly baptized a Roman Catholic. Due to English and Scottish succession laws, Prince James immediately supplanted his older sisters as heir to the throne. Now the prospect of a Catholic dynasty on the English, Scottish and Irish thrones seemed all, the Immortal Seven invited Jamess daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to depose James and jointly rule in his place. On 4 November 1688, William arrived at Torbay, England, after he landed, James fled London, returned and finally left for France on 23 December. In February 1689, the Glorious Revolution formally changed Englands monarch, Scotland was slow to accept William, who summoned a Convention of the Estates which met on 14 March 1689 in Edinburgh. It reviewed a conciliatory letter from William and a haughty one from James, on Jamess side, a modest force of 50 horsemen gathered by John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee was in town. Graham attended the convention at the start but withdrew four days later when its support for William became evident, the convention set out its terms and William and Mary were proclaimed monarchs at Edinburgh on 11 April 1689Jacobite risings – Portrait of King James II by Sir Godfrey Kneller
21. Elizabeth Jordan – She was editor of Harpers Bazaar from 1900 to 1913. Jordan was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to William Frank Jordan and Margaretta Garver and she graduated from high school in 1884. After learning shorthand at business school, she began her career as womens page editor at Pecks Sun. She then worked as a secretary to the Milwaukee superintendent of schools while contributing to the St. Paul Globe, in 1890, Jordan moved to New York City and began working at Joseph Pulitzers newspaper, the New York World. Her first big break was an interview with the normally reticent First Lady Caroline Scott Harrison, at the World she became known for her regular Sunday human interest feature True Stories of the News. Major stories she covered included the trial of Carlyle Harris for the murder of his wife Helen Potts and she also wrote a series of articles about conditions in New York City tenements that was later published as the book The Submerged Tenth. In 1895, she published a collection of stories, many of them inspired by her work. In 1897 she was appointed assistant Sunday editor of the World, from 1901 to 1913, she was editor of the magazine Harpers Bazaar. During those years she published a number of novels and short story collections and these included a popular series of novels featuring the heroine May Iverson. Her play The Lady of Oklahoma premiered on Broadway at the 48th Street Theatre in April 1913, during this period, she is perhaps best remembered for organizing a collaborative novel called The Whole Family, about the middle class Talbert family from New England. Each of her co-authors, some of them novelists of some renown like Henry James and William Dean Howells, the novel was serialized in Harpers from 1907 to 1908. After the sale of Harpers to William Randolph Hearst, she remained at Harper, in that capacity, she edited the first novel by Sinclair Lewis, Our Mr. Wrenn. While his first novel required extensive revision with her assistance, his second, The Trail of the Hawk and she also helped publish novels by a number of female authors, including Zona Gale, Eleanor H. Porter, and Dorothy Canfield Fisher. The novel was serialized in Colliers Weekly and she also collaborated with minister and suffragette Anna Howard Shaw on Shaws autobiography, The Story of a Pioneer. In 1918, she was editorial director for Goldwyn Pictures. She spent the rest of her career writing, two of her novels were adapted for film, Daddy and I as Make Way for a Lady and The Girl in the Mirror as The Girl in Number 29. She published a memoir, Three Rousing Cheers, in 1938 and she died at her home in New York City and was buried in Florence, Massachusetts. X Daddy and I The Life of the Party The Trap Three Rousing Cheers First Port of Call Faraway Island Herself Mrs. Warrens Son The Real Ruth Arnold Howard, publishing the Family, Duke University Press, Durham and London,2001Elizabeth Jordan – Jordan in 1901
22. Kalau Tak Untung – Kalau Ta Oentoeng is a 1933 novel written by Sariamin Ismail under the pseudonym Selasih. It was the first Indonesian novel written by a woman, written in a flowing style heavily dependent on letters, the novel tells the story of two childhood friends who fall in love but cannot be together. It was reportedly based on the authors own experiences, although readings have generally focused on the novels depiction of an inexorable fate, feminist and postcolonial analyses have also been done. Rasmani and Masrul are childhood friends from Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, unknown to Masrul, Rasmani has fallen in love with him and, when he moves to Painan to work, she feels her heart torn asunder. Several days later Rasmani receives a letter from him, in which Masrul tells her he is betrothed to his cousin Aminah, Masrul has realised that he loves Rasmani, but he feels obliged to marry his cousin. While working Masrul meets a school principal, who asks Masrul to marry his daughter Muslina. When Masrul, after constant nagging, finally accepts, his family, although Masrul and Muslina move to Padang and have a child together, their marriage is not a happy one, and eventually Masrul begins to drink excessively and rarely comes home. Feeling unappreciated, he chooses to divorce Muslina and return to Bukittinggi. After meeting Rasmani again, Masrul tells her that he loves her, however, before marriage Masrul insists that he must save more money, and he goes to Medan to work over Rasmanis protests. While there he is out of contact for months, leading Rasmani to worry. After receiving a letter that Masrul has found a job and will be coming to meet her and her weak heart stops and she dies, just before Masrul can return to Bukittinggi. Kalau Tak Untung was written by Sariamin Ismail under the pseudonym Selasih, the work was reportedly inspired by her lover marrying another woman. The Indonesian literary critic Zuber Usman contrasts Kalau Tak Untung with the earlier novel Sitti Nurbaya by Marah Rusli and he suggests that, unlike in novels by male writers, the main character of Masrul is weak and indecisive. The writer Juliette Koning also suggests that the novel has an implication of male weakness, selfishness and she notes, however, that readings of Kalau Tak Untung have generally focused on the inexorable fate which humans face, that the course of human life is determined by fortune. He notes that the original cover likewise expounded the role of letters in the narrative. He suggests that letters are the reason the love of geographically separated protagonists can be told and he further notes that the story is representative of a new social map, in which traditional structures are subjugated to colonial ones of time and bureaucracy. A large portion of the consists of dialogue and letters between Masrul and Rasmani, which center around topics related to marriage and custom. What description is used in the text, according to Koning, is meant to be complementary to internal monologues and she considers the style graceful flowing until the end of the novel, when Masrul resorts to using tortured, fragmented phrases to apologise to the dead RasmaniKalau Tak Untung – Cover (1st edition)
23. On the Pulse of Morning – On the Pulse of Morning is a poem by writer and poet Maya Angelou that she read at the first inauguration of President Bill Clinton on January 20,1993. With her public recitation, Angelou became the poet in history to read a poem at a presidential inauguration. Angelous audio recording of the won the 1994 Grammy Award in the Best Spoken Word category, resulting in more fame and recognition for her previous works. The poems themes are change, inclusion, responsibility, and role of both the President and the citizenry in establishing economic security. Its symbols, references to issues, and personification of nature has inspired critics to compare On the Pulse of Morning with Frosts inaugural poem. It has been called Angelous autobiographical poem, and has received mixed reviews, the popular press praised Clintons choice of Angelou as inaugural poet, and her representiveness of the American people and its President. Poetry critics, despite praising Angelous recitation and performance, gave negative reviews of the poem. When Angelou wrote and recited On the Pulse of Morning, she was well known as a writer. She had written five of the seven of her series of autobiographies, including the first and most highly acclaimed, although she was best known for her autobiographies, she was primarily known as a poet rather than an autobiographer. Early in her career she began alternating the publication of an autobiography. Her first volume of poetry Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water Fore I Diiie, published in 1971 shortly after Caged Bird, as scholar Marcia Ann Gillespie writes, Angelou had fallen in love with poetry during her early childhood in Stamps, Arkansas. After her rape at the age of eight, which she depicted in Caged Bird, Angelou memorized and studied works of literature. According to Caged Bird, her friend Mrs. Flowers encouraged her to recite them, Angelou was the first poet to read an inaugural poem since Robert Frost read his poem The Gift Outright at President John F. Kennedys inauguration in 1961, and the first Black woman. After deciding upon the theme America, she wrote down everything she could think of about the country, Angelou recited the poem on January 20,1993. The symbols in Angelous poem paralleled many of the same symbols Clinton used in his speech, Clintons address and the poem, according to Hagen, both emphasized unity despite the diversity of American culture. On the Pulse of Morning attempted to convey many of the goals of Clintons new administration, Burr compared Angelous poem with Frosts, something she claimed the poetry critics who gave On the Pulse of Morning negative reviews did not do. Angelou rewrote Frosts poem, from the perspective of personified nature that appeared in both poems, Frost praised American colonization, but Angelou attacked it. The cost of the creation of America was abstract and ambiguous in Frosts poem, both Frost and Angelou called for a break with the past, but Frost wanted to relive it and Angelou wanted to confront its mistakesOn the Pulse of Morning – Angelou reciting her poem "On the Pulse of Morning" at President Bill Clinton's inauguration in 1993
24. John F. Kennedy – Kennedy was a member of the Democratic Party, and his New Frontier domestic program was largely enacted as a memorial to him after his death. Kennedy also established the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, Kennedys time in office was marked by high tensions with Communist states. He increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower, in Cuba, a failed attempt was made at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro in April 1961. He subsequently rejected plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false-flag attacks on American soil in order to gain approval for a war against Cuba. After military service in the United States Naval Reserve in World War II and he was elected subsequently to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated Vice President, and Republican presidential candidate, Richard Nixon in the 1960 U. S, at age 43, he became the youngest elected president and the second-youngest president. Kennedy was also the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president, to date, Kennedy has been the only Roman Catholic president and the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22,1963, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested that afternoon and determined to have fired the shots that hit the President from a sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository. Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby fatally shot Oswald two days later in a jail corridor, then-Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded Kennedy after he died in the hospital. The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, the majority of Americans alive at the time of the assassination, and continuing through 2013, believed that there was a conspiracy and that Oswald was not the only shooter. Since the 1960s, information concerning Kennedys private life has come to light, including his health problems, Kennedy continues to rank highly in historians polls of U. S. presidents and with the general public. His average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallups history of systematically measuring job approval and his grandfathers P. J. Kennedy and Boston Mayor John F. Fitzgerald were both Massachusetts politicians. All four of his grandparents were the children of Irish immigrants, Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Ted. Kennedy lived in Brookline for ten years and attended the Edward Devotion School, the Noble and Greenough Lower School, and the Dexter School through 4th grade. In 1927, the Kennedy family moved to a stately twenty-room, Georgian-style mansion at 5040 Independence Avenue in the Hudson Hill neighborhood of Riverdale, Bronx and he attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years later, the moved to 294 Pondfield Road in the New York City suburb of Bronxville, New York. The Kennedy family spent summers at their home in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, in September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. In late April 1931, he required an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury, in September 1931, Kennedy attended Choate, a boarding school in Wallingford, Connecticut, for 9th through 12th gradeJohn F. Kennedy – John F. Kennedy
25. Gambler's Lament – The Gamblers lament is one of the hymns of the Rigveda which do not have any direct cultic or religious context. It is found in the late Tenth Book, where most of such hymns on miscellaneous topics are found, moriz Winternitz considered the poem to be the most beautiful among the non–religious poems of the Rig Veda. The poem comprises a monologue of a repentant gambler who laments the ruin brought on him because of addiction to the dice, the poem is didactic in nature and shows early indications of the proverbial and sententious poetry in later Hindu texts. Arthur Llewellyn Basham believed that Gamblers Lament was originally constructed as a spell to ensure victory in a game of dice, the poem testifies to the popularity of gambling among all classes of Vedic people. The gambling dice were made from nuts of Terminalia bellirica, into a shape with four scoring sides— kŗta, tretā, dvāpar. The gambler who drew a multiple of four won the game, the hymn consists of 14 verses in the tristubh meter. }In the following verses the dice are described as deceptive, hot and burning and being similar to children in that they give and take again. In verse 13, the addresses the gambler in an attempt to reform him. Rigvedic dialogue hymns Gamblers conceit Problem gambling Basham, A. L. L, social And Cultural History Of Ancient India, Concept Publishing Company, ISBN 978-81-7022-598-0 Griswold, Hervey De Witt, The Religion of the Ṛigveda, Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3 RV10.34 at sacred-texts. comGambler's Lament – Fallen fruit of Terminalia bellirica (Vibhīdaka) which was used to make dice in ancient India.
26. Hindu – Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. It has historically used as a geographical, cultural, or religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia. The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time, by the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of India who were not Turks or Muslims. The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the Indian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear, competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars. A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati, Kabir and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma, the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term Hindu in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals, scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is a spelling variant, whose use today may be considered derogatory. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the third largest group after Christians. The vast majority of Hindus, approximately 966 million, live in India, according to Indias 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, United States, Malaysia, United Kingdom and Myanmar. These together accounted for 99% of the worlds Hindu population, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means a large body of water, covering river, ocean. It was used as the name of the Indus river and also referred to its tributaries, the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhava in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama. The term Hindu in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term, the Arabic equivalent Al-Hind likewise referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of Hindu with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang, Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose connotation overflows in the religious according to Arvind Sharma. The Hindu community occurs as the amorphous Other of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that Hindu retained its geographical reference initially, Indian, indigenous, local, virtually native. Slowly, the Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves, the poet Vidyapatis poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes The Hindus and the Turks live close together, Each makes fun of the others religionHindu – A Hindu wedding ritual in India.
27. Rig Veda – The Rigveda is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas. The text is a collection of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses, a good deal of the language is still obscure and many hymns as a consequence seem unintelligible. The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities, for each deity series the hymns progress from longer to shorter ones, and the number of hymns per book increases. In the eight books that were composed the earliest, the hymns predominantly discuss cosmology, Rigveda is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. 1700–1100 BC has also been given, some of its verses continue to be recited during Hindu rites of passage celebrations such as weddings and religious prayers, making it probably the worlds oldest religious text in continued use. This redaction also included some additions and orthoepic changes to the Vedic Sanskrit such as the regularization of sandhi, the Padapatha and the Pratisakhya anchor the texts fidelity and meaning, and the fixed text was preserved with unparalleled fidelity for more than a millennium by oral tradition alone. In order to achieve this the oral tradition prescribed very structured enunciation, involving breaking down the Sanskrit compounds into stems and inflections and this interplay with sounds gave rise to a scholarly tradition of morphology and phonetics. The Rigveda was probably not written down until the Gupta period, the oral tradition still continued into recent times. The text is organized in 10 books, known as Mandalas, of varying age, the family books, mandalas 2–7, are the oldest part of the Rigveda and the shortest books, they are arranged by length and account for 38% of the text. Within each book, the hymns are arranged in collections each dealing with a deity, Agni comes first, Indra comes second. They are attributed and dedicated to a rishi and his family of students, within each collection, the hymns are arranged in descending order of the number of stanzas per hymn. If two hymns in the collection have equal numbers of stanzas then they are arranged so that the number of syllables in the metre are in descending order. The second to seventh mandalas have a uniform format, the eighth and ninth mandalas, comprising hymns of mixed age, account for 15% and 9%, respectively. The first and the tenth mandalas are the youngest, they are also the longest books, of 191 suktas each, however, adds Witzel, some hymns in Mandala 8,1 and 10 may be as old as the earlier Mandalas. The first mandala has an arrangement not found in the other nine mandalas. The ninth mandala is arranged by both its structure and hymn length, while the first eighty four hymns of the tenth mandala have a structure different than the remaining hymns in it. Each mandala consists of hymns called sūkta intended for various rituals, the sūktas in turn consist of individual stanzas called ṛc, which are further analysed into units of verse called padaRig Veda – Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. After a scribal benediction ("śrīgaṇéśāyanamaḥ;; Aum(3);;"), the first line has the opening words of RV.1.1.1 (agniṃ; iḷe; puraḥ-hitaṃ; yajñasya; devaṃ; ṛtvijaṃ). The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.
28. Vedic Aryans – The Vedic period was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. During the early part of the Vedic period, the Indo-Aryans settled into northern India, scholars consider Vedic civilisation to have been a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures. The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of large, around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called Hindu synthesis. The commonly proposed period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to 2nd millennium BCE, after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which ended c.1900 BCE, groups of Indo-Aryan peoples migrated into north-western India and started to inhabit the northern Indus Valley. The knowledge about the Aryans comes mostly from the Rigveda-samhita, which was composed between c and they brought with them their distinctive religious traditions and practices. The Vedic beliefs and practices of the era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion. According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the zone between the Zeravshan River and Iran. It was a mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements. At least 383 non-Indo-European words were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra, Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug probably borrowed from the BMAC religion and his rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers. These migrations may have been accompanied with violent clashes with the people who inhabited this region. The Rig Veda contains accounts of conflicts between the Aryas and the Dasas and Dasyus, the Rig Veda describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices or obey the commandments of gods. Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft, uncouth, hostile, other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations. Internecine military conflicts between the tribes of Vedic Aryans are also described in the Rig Veda. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni. The battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas, led by their chief Sudas, against a confederation of ten tribes— Puru, Yadu, Turvasha, Anu, Druhyu, Alina, Bhalanas, Paktha, Siva, Vishanin. Bharatas lived around the regions of the river Saraswati, while Purus, their western neighbours. The other tribes dwelt north-west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab, division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the warVedic Aryans – Aryans settling in India
29. 1867 – As of the start of 1867, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Covington–Cincinnati Suspension Bridge opens between Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky in the United States, becoming the longest single-span bridge in the world and it will be renamed after its designer, John A. Roebling, in 1983. January 8 – African-American men are granted the right to vote in the District of Columbia, january 11 – Benito Juárez becomes Mexican president again. January 30 – Emperor Kōmei of Japan dies suddenly, age 36, january 31 – Maronite nationalist leader Youssef Bey Karam leaves Lebanon aboard a French ship for Algeria. February 3 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu abdicates, and the late Emperor Kōmeis son, Prince Mutsuhito becomes Emperor Meiji of Japan in a ceremony in Kyoto. February 7 – West Virginia University is established in Morgantown, West Virginia, February 13 – Covering of the Senne in Brussels begins. February 15 – First performance of Johann Strauss IIs waltz The Blue Danube at a concert of the Vienna Mens Choral Association, Strauss adapts it into its popular purely orchestral version for the International Exposition in Paris later this year. February 17 – The first ship passes through the Suez Canal, February 19 – Battle of Inlon River in Hubei, China. February 22 – Indiana Daily Student established February 28 – After almost 20 years, funding resumes along with relations in 1984. March – The University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign is established, March 1 – Nebraska is admitted as the 37th U. S. state. March 5 – Fenian Rising in Ireland, March 16 – An article by Joseph Lister, outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery, is first published in The Lancet. March 23 – William III of the Netherlands accepts an offer of 5,000,000 guilders from Napoleon III for the sale of Luxembourg, March 29 – The British North America Act receives royal assent, forming the Dominion of Canada in an event known as the Confederation. This unites the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia on July 1, ottawa becomes the capital, and John A. Macdonald becomes the Dominions first prime minister. March 30 – Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million from Alexander II of Russia, about 2 cent/acre, the news media call this Sewards Folly. April 1 – The Strait Settlement of Singapore, formerly ruled from Calcutta, sorosis, the first womens fraternity founded upon the mens fraternity model, with Pi Beta Phi as its motto, is founded at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. In 1888, the motto becomes the name of the organization, may 1 – First political May Day march in Chicago May 7 – Alfred Nobel patents dynamite in the United Kingdom. May 11 Treaty of London, the powers of Europe reaffirm the neutrality of Luxembourg. The Duchy of Limburg is formally re-incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands, First public performance of Cox and Box by Francis Burnand and Arthur Sullivan, at the Adelphi Theatre, London1867 – January 1: Roebling 's is the longest suspension bridge.
30. Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski – Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski was a Polish writer, explorer, university professor, and anti-Communist political activist. He is best known for his books about Lenin and the Russian Civil War in which he participated and he was born on 27 May 1876, on his familys manor near Ludza in the Vitebsk Governorate, of Lipka Tatar descent. He studied at the gymnasium in Kamieniec Podolski, but he moved with his father, a renowned doctor, to Saint Petersburg. Then he joined the faculty of the local university, where he studied chemistry. As an assistant to professor Aleksander Zalewski, he traveled to distant areas, including Siberia, the Caucasus. For his description of his trip to Crimea and Constantinople, he received his first royalty and his record of a trip to India gained the prestigious Petersburg Society of Literature prize. It is possible that he received a back in Russia. In 1901 he was allowed to return to Russia, where professor Zalewski invited him to the newly founded Institute of Technology of the Tomsk State University, there, he gave lectures on chemistry and physics. At the same time he gave lectures at the Agricultural Academy and published numerous scientific works on hydrology, geology, physical chemistry, geography. At the same time, he headed the branch of the Russian Geographic Society in Vladivostok. As such he made trips to Korea, Sakhalin, Ussuri. In Manchuria, he became one of the leaders of the considerable Polish diaspora and published his first novel in Polish. He also got involved in the Main Revolutionary Committee, a leftist organisation that tried to power in Manchuria during the Revolution of 1905. After the failure of the revolution, Ossendowski organised a strike against the brutal repressions in Congress Poland for which he was arrested, a military tribunal sentenced him to death for conspiracy against the tsar, but his sentence was later commuted to several years hard labour. In 1907, he was released from prison with a wolf ticket. At that time he devoted himself to writing and his novel V ludskoi pyli, in which he described his several years stay in Russian prisons, gained him much popularity in Russia and was even described by Leo Tolstoy as one of his favorites. His popularity allowed him to return to St Petersburg in 1908, there he continued to write books and at the same time headed the Society of the Gold and Platinum Industry and several newspapers and journals, both in Russian and in Polish. After the outbreak of the February Revolution of 1917, Ossendowski moved yet again, to Siberia, this time to Omsk, where he started giving lectures at the local universityFerdynand Antoni Ossendowski – Ossendowski in the late 1920s
31. Max Brod – Max Brod was a German-speaking Czech Jew, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist. Although he was a writer in his own right, he is most famous as the friend. As Kafkas literary executor, Brod refused to follow the instructions to burn his lifes work. Kafka would probably not be famous without Brods help, Max Brod was born in Prague, then part of the province of Bohemia in Austria-Hungary, now the capital of the Czech Republic. At the age of four, Brod was diagnosed with a spinal curvature and spent a year in corrective harness. From 1912, he was a pronounced Zionist and when Czechoslovakia became independent in 1918, from 1924, already an established writer, he worked as a critic for the Prager Tagblatt. In 1939, as the Nazis took over Prague, Brod and he settled in Tel Aviv, where he continued to write and worked as a dramaturg for Habimah, later the Israeli national theatre, for 30 years. For a period following the death of his wife in 1942 and he would later pass stewardship of the Kafka materials in his possession to Esther in his will. He was additionally supported by his close companion Felix Weltsch and their friendship lasted 75 years, from the elementary school of the Piarists in Prague to Weltschs death in 1964. Brod died on December 20,1968 in Tel Aviv, unlike Kafka, Brod rapidly became a prolific, successful published writer who eventually published 83 titles. His first novel and fourth overall, Schloss Nornepygge, published in 1908 when he was only 24, was celebrated in Berlin literary circles as a masterpiece of expressionism. This and other works made Brod a well-known personality in German-language literature, in 1913, together with Weltsch, he published the work Anschauung und Begriff which made him more famous in Berlin and also in Leipzig, where their publisher Kurt Wolff worked. He unselfishly promoted other writers and musicians, among his protégés was Franz Werfel, whom he would later fall out with as Werfel abandoned Judaism for Christianity. He would also write at various times both for and against Karl Kraus, a convert from Judaism to Roman Catholicism. His critical endorsement would be crucial to the popularity of Jaroslav Hašeks The Good Soldier Svejk, Brod first met Kafka on October 23,1902, when both were students at Charles University. Brod had given a lecture at the German students hall on Arthur Schopenhauer, Kafka, one year older, addressed him after the lecture and accompanied him home. He tended to participate in all the meetings, but up to then we had hardly considered each other, the quiet Kafka would have been. Even his elegant, usually dark-blue, suits were inconspicuous and reserved like him, at that time, however, something seems to have attracted him to me, he was more open than usual, filling the endless walk home by disagreeing strongly with my all too rough formulationsMax Brod – Plaque commemorating Max Brod, next to the grave of Franz Kafka
32. Dashiell Hammett – Samuel Dashiell Hammett was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, screenwriter, and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade, Nick and Nora Charles, in his obituary in The New York Times, he was described as the dean of the. Time magazine included Hammetts 1929 novel Red Harvest on its list of the 100 best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005 and his novels and stories also had a significant influence on films. Hammett was born on a farm in Saint Marys County, Maryland and his parents were Richard Thomas Hammett and Anne Bond Dashiell, his mother belonged to an old Maryland family, whose name in French was De Chiel. Known as Sam, Hammett was baptized a Catholic, and grew up in Philadelphia and he left school when he was 13 years old and held several jobs before working for the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. He served as an operative for Pinkerton from 1915 to February 1922, the agencys role in union strike-breaking eventually left him disillusioned. Hammett enlisted in the Army in 1918 and served in the Motor Ambulance Corps and he was afflicted during that time with the Spanish flu and later contracted tuberculosis. He spent most of his time in the Army as a patient at Cushman Hospital in Tacoma, Washington, where he met a nurse, Josephine Dolan, Hammett and Dolan had two daughters, Mary Jane and Josephine. Shortly after the birth of their child, Health Services nurses informed Dolan that due to Hammetts TB, she. Dolan rented a home in San Francisco, California, where Hammett would visit on weekends, the marriage soon fell apart, but he continued to financially support his wife and daughters with the income he made from his writing. Hammett was first published in 1922 in the magazine The Smart Set, known for the authenticity and realism of his writing, he drew on his experiences as a Pinkerton operative. Hammett wrote most of his fiction while he was living in San Francisco in the 1920s, streets. He said that All my characters were based on people Ive known personally, Raymond Chandler, often considered Hammetts successor, summarized his accomplishments in The Simple Art of Murder, Hammett was the ace performer. He is said to have lacked heart, yet the story he himself thought the most of and he was spare, frugal, hard-boiled, but he did over and over again what only the best writers can ever do at all. He wrote scenes that seemed never to have written before. In 1929 and 1930, he was involved with Nell Martin. He dedicated The Glass Key to her, and in turn, in 1931, Hammett embarked on a 30-year affair with the playwright Lillian Hellman. Though he sporadically continued to work on material, he wrote his novel in 1934Dashiell Hammett – Dashiell Hammett
33. 1900 – As of the start of 1900, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, january 2 – U. S. Secretary of State John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote American trade with China. Rowland of Johns Hopkins University announces a theory about the cause of the Earths magnetism, january 6 – Second Boer War, Boers attempt to end the Siege of Ladysmith, which leads to the Battle of Platrand. January 9 – S. S. Lazio, an Italian professional sports club, is founded in Rome, january 14 Puccinis opera Tosca premieres in Rome, Italy. The U. S. Senate accepts the British-German treaty of 1899, january 24 – The Second Boer War, At the Battle of Spion Kop, Boer troops defeat the British Army. January 27 – Boxer Rebellion, Foreign diplomats in Peking, Qing dynasty China, january 31 – Datu Muhammad Salleh, leader of the Mat Salleh Rebellion in North Borneo, is shot dead in Tambunan. February 5 – The United Kingdom and the United States sign a treaty for the building of a Central American shipping canal across Central America in Nicaragua, february 6 – The international arbitration court at The Hague is created when the Netherlands Senate ratifies an 1899 peace conference decree. February 8 – Second Boer War, British troops are defeated by the Boers at Ladysmith, february 14 – Second Boer War – Battle of Paardeberg,20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State. February 15 – Second Boer War, The Siege of Kimberley is lifted, february 17 – Second Boer War, Battle of Paardeberg, British troops defeat the Boers. February 27 FC Bayern, Germanys most successful club, is founded in Munich. Second Boer War, British military leaders accept the notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronjé. British Labour Party, officially established in London, England, United Kingdom, March 5 – Two U. S. Navy cruisers are sent to Central America to protect American interests in a dispute between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. March 6 – A coal mine explosion in West Virginia, U. S. A. kills 50 miners, March 14 – Botanist Hugo de Vries rediscovers Mendels Laws of Heredity. March 15 – The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing the United States currency on the gold standard, March 16 – The British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans purchases the land on Crete on which the ruins of the palace of Knossos stand. He begins to unearth some of the three days later. March 18 – AFC Ajax, a most successful club in Netherlands. March 27 – The arrival of a Russian naval fleet in Korea causes concern to the Imperial Japanese government, april 14 – The Paris World Exhibition opens. April 22 – Battle of Kousséri, French forces secure their domination of Chad, warlord Rabih az-Zubayr is defeated and killed1900 – Second Boer War: Boers at Spion Kop, 1900
34. 1912 – As of the start of 1912, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Republic of China is proclaimed, January 4 – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Commonwealth by Royal Charter. January 5 – Moscow Art Theatre production of Hamlet opens, January 6 – New Mexico becomes the 47th state of the United States. January 6 – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift, January 14 – Raymond Poincaré forms a coalition government in France, beginning his first term of office as Prime Minister on 21 January. January 17 – British polar explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott and a team of four become the second group to reach the South Pole. January 18 – Prague Party Conference, Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party break away from the rest of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. January 22 – The Overseas Railroad opens and the first train arrives in Key West, Florida at 10,43 AM, with Henry M. Flagler, January 23 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague. February 12 – The Manchu Qing dynasty of China comes to an end after 268 years with the abdication of Emperor Puyi in favour of the Republic of China. February 14 – Arizona becomes the 48th U. S. state, february 29 – Serbia and Bulgaria secretly sign a treaty of alliance for a term of eight years, with each pledging to come to the defense of the other during war. March 1 – Albert Berry is reported to have made the first parachute jump from a flying airplane. March 6 – Italian forces became the first to use airships in war, march 7 – Roald Amundsen in Hobart, Tasmania, announces his success in reaching the South Pole the previous December. March 12 – The Girl Scouts is founded by Juliette Gordon Low in Savannah, march 16 – Lawrence Oates, dying member of Scotts South Pole expedition, leaves the tent saying, I am just going outside and may be some time. March 22 – State of Bihar is formed out of the ertswhile State of Bengal in British India, march 27 – Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo gives 3,000 cherry trees to be planted in Washington, D. C. to symbolize the friendship between the two countries. March 29 – The remaining members of Robert Falcon Scotts South Pole expedition die, march 30 – The French Third Republic establishes the French protectorate in Morocco. April 10 – White Star liner RMS Titanic departs from Southampton with 2225 passengers, april 11 – RMS Titanic makes her last call, at Queenstown in Ireland. April 14–15 – Sinking of the RMS Titanic, RMS Titanic strikes an iceberg in the northern Atlantic Ocean, the wreck will not be discovered until 1985. April 16 – Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly across the English Channel, april 17 –500 striking gold miners in Siberia are killed or wounded by troops in the Lena massacre. April 18 – Cunard Line vessel RMS Carpathia arrives in New York with the 708 RMS Titanic survivors, april 20 – Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts, opens1912 – March 27: Cherry trees for Washington, D.C.
35. 1915 – As of the start of 1915, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Below, the events of World War I have the WWI prefix, january 1 WWI, The Royal Navy battleship HMS Formidable is sunk off Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, by an Imperial German Navy U-boat with the loss of 547 crew. The Battle of Broken Hill, an ambush near Broken Hill, New South Wales. Harry Houdini performs a straitjacket escape performance, january 5 – Joseph E. Carberry sets an altitude record of 11,690 feet, carrying Capt. Benjamin Delahauf Foulois as a passenger in a fixed-wing aircraft. January 12 The United States House of Representatives rejects a proposal to give women the right to vote, a Fool There Was premières in the United States starring Theda Bara as a femme fatale, she quickly becomes one of early cinemas most sensational stars. January 13 – The 6.7 Mw Avezzano earthquake shakes the Province of LAquila in Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI, various agencies estimate the number of people killed to be 29, 978–32,610. January 18 – Twenty-One Demands from Japan to China are made, january 19 Georges Claude patents the neon discharge tube for use in advertising. WWI, German Zeppelins bomb the towns of Great Yarmouth and Kings Lynn in England for the first time. January 21 – Kiwanis is founded in Detroit, as The Supreme Lodge Benevolent Order Brothers, january 24 – WW I, Battle of Dogger Bank, British Grand Fleet defeats the German High Seas Fleet, sinking the armoured cruiser SMS Blücher. Emory College is rechartered as Emory University, and plans to move its campus from Oxford. January 26 – The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the United States Congress, january 26 – WWI, Ottoman Army begins the Raid on the Suez Canal. January 27 – WWI, Military casualties begin arriving at the Hôpital Temporaire dArc-en-Barrois, january 28 – An act of the United States Congress designates the United States Coast Guard, began in 1790, as a military branch. February – While working as a cook at New Yorks Sloane Hospital for Women under a name, Typhoid Mary infects 25 people. February 4 – The Maritz Rebellion of disaffected Boere against the government of the Union of South Africa ends with the surrender of remaining rebels, february 8 – The controversial film, The Birth of a Nation, directed by D. W. Griffith, premieres in Los Angeles. It will be the film for around 25 years. February 18 – WWI, Germany regards waters around the British Isles to be a war zone from this date, february 20 – In San Francisco the Panama–Pacific International Exposition is opened. March – The 1915 Palestine locust infestation breaks out in Palestine, March 3 – The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the predecessor of NASA, is founded in the United States. March 11 – WWI, British armed merchantman HMS Bayano is sunk in the North Channel off the coast of Scotland by Imperial German Navy U-boat SM U-271915 – January 1: HMS Formidable, sunk by a German U-boat.
36. Herman Wouk – Herman Wouk is an American author, whose best-selling 1951 novel The Caine Mutiny won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. His books have been translated into 27 languages. The Washington Post called Wouk, who cherishes his privacy, “the reclusive dean of American historical novelists. ”Historians, novelists, publishers, NPR called it a lovely coda to the career of a man who made American literature a kinder, smarter, better place. Herman Wouk was born in The Bronx, the second of three born to Esther and Abraham Isaac Wouk, Jewish immigrants from what is today Belarus. His father toiled for years to raise the family out of poverty before opening a successful laundry service. When Wouk was 13, his grandfather, Mendel Leib Levine, came from Minsk to live with them. Eventually Wouk took this advice to heart, after a brief period as a young adult during which he lived a secular life, he returned to religious practice. Judaism would become integral to both his life and his career. He would later say that his grandfather and the United States Navy were the two most important influences on his life. After his childhood and adolescence in the Bronx and a school diploma from the original Townsend Harris High School in Manhattan. Wouk served as an officer aboard two destroyers minesweepers, the USS Zane and USS Southard, becoming executive officer of the latter and he participated in eight invasions and won a number of battle stars. Wouk sent a copy of the chapters to philosophy professor Irwin Edman, under whom he studied at Columbia. The result was a publishers contract sent to Wouks ship, then off the coast of Okinawa, the novel was published in 1947 and became a Book of the Month Club main selection. While writing his novel, Wouk read each chapter to his wife as it was completed. At one point she remarked that if they did not like this one, the novel, The Caine Mutiny, went on to win the Pulitzer Prize. Commander Philip Francis Queeg, captain of the fictional USS Caine and his first novel after The Caine Mutiny was Marjorie Morningstar, which earned him a Time magazine cover story. Three years later Warner Brothers made it into a movie starring Natalie Wood, Gene Kelly and his next novel, a paperback, was Slatterys Hurricane, which he had written in 1948 as the basis for the screenplay for the film of the same name. Wouks first work of non-fiction was 1959s This is My God, The Jewish Way of Life, youngblood Hawke was serialized in McCalls magazine from March to July 1962Herman Wouk – Herman Wouk in 2010 at the Los Angeles Times Festival of Books.
37. History of literature – Some recorded materials, such as compilations of data are not considered literature, and this article relates only to the evolution of the works defined above. Literature and writing, though connected, are not synonymous, scholars have often disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like literature than anything else, the definition is largely subjective. Moreover, given the significance of distance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical development of literature did not occur at an even pace across the world. Much has been written, for example, about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 1st century BC, the deliberate suppression of texts by organisations of either a spiritual or a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Certain primary texts, however, may be isolated which have a role as literatures first stirrings. Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in form are difficult or impossible to date. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid 2nd millennium BC, the Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th century BC at the earliest. Homers Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century BC and mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity and they also stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Bronze Age. The great Hindu epics were also transmitted orally, likely predating the Maurya period, the Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works by anonymous authors dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC. The Chu Ci anthology is a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by Qu Yuans verse writing. Qu Yuan is the first author of verse in China to have his name associated to his work and is regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Romanticism in Chinese classical literature. The first great author on military tactics and strategy was Sun Tzu, among the earliest Chinese works of narrative history, Zuo Zhuan is a gem of classical Chinese prose. This work and the Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian, were regarded as the models by many generations of prose stylists in ancient China. The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible developed over roughly a millennium, the oldest texts seem to come from the eleventh or tenth centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later. They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together, the Old Testament was compiled and edited by various men over a period of centuries, with many scholars concluding that the Hebrew canon was solidified by about the 3rd century BC. The works have been subject to various literary evaluations, friedrich Nietzsche wrote, “In the Jewish Old Testament, there are men, things and speeches in so grand a style that Greek and Indian literature have nothing to compare to it. One stands with awe and reverence before these tremendous remnants of what man once was, the taste for the Old Testament is a touchstone of greatness and smallness. ”Ancient Greek society placed considerable emphasis upon literature. Notable among later Greek poets was Sappho, who defined, in many ways, a playwright named Aeschylus changed Western literature forever when he introduced the ideas of dialogue and interacting characters to playwritingHistory of literature – A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh
38. History of the book – The history of the book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day. Its scope includes the history of ideas, history of religion, bibliography, the history of the book came into existence in the latter half of the 16th century. It was fostered by both Henri-Jean Martin and Lucien Febvres Lapparition du livre in 1958 as well as Marshall McLuhans Gutenberg GalaxyHistory of the book – A 15th-century Incunable. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.
39. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver, also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, acquisition, copy editing, production, printing, and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is also known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperbackPublishing – Printer working an early Gutenberg letter press from the 15th century. (engraving date unknown)
40. Fable – A fable differs from a parable in that the latter excludes animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors that assume speech or other powers of humankind. Usage has not always been so clearly distinguished, a person who writes fables is a fabulist. The fable is one of the most enduring forms of literature, spread abroad, modern researchers agree. Fables can be found in the literature of almost every country, epicharmus of Kos and Phormis are reported as having been among the first to invent comic fables. Many familiar fables of Aesop include The Crow and the Pitcher, The Tortoise and the Hare and The Lion and the Mouse. The need of instructors to teach, and students to learn, African oral culture has a rich story-telling tradition. As they have for thousands of years, people of all ages in Africa continue to interact with nature, including plants, animals and earthly structures such as rivers, grandparents enjoy enormous respect in African societies and fill the new role of story-telling during retirement years. Children and, to some extent, adults are mesmerized by good story-tellers when they become animated in their quest to tell a good fable, India has a rich tradition of fabulous novels, mostly explainable by the fact that the culture derives traditions and learns qualities from natural elements. Most of the gods are some form of animals with ideal qualities, also hundreds of fables were composed in ancient India during the first millennium BC, often as stories within frame stories. Indian fables have a mixed cast of humans and animals, the dialogues are often longer than in fables of Aesop and often witty as the animals try to outwit one another by trickery and deceit. In Indian fables, man is not superior to the animals, the Indian fable adhered to the universally known traditions of the fable. The best examples of the fable in India are the Panchatantra, ben E. Perry has argued controversially that some of the Buddhist Jataka tales and some of the fables in the Panchatantra may have been influenced by similar Greek and Near Eastern ones. Earlier Indian epics such as Vyasas Mahabharata and Valmikis Ramayana also contained fables within the main story, the most famous fables from the Middle East were the One Thousand and One Nights, also known as the Arabian Nights. Fables had a long tradition through the Middle Ages. During the 17th century, the French fabulist Jean de La Fontaine saw the soul of the fable in the moral — a rule of behavior. Starting with the Aesopian pattern, La Fontaine set out to satirize the court, the church, in modern times, while the fable has been trivialized in childrens books, it has also been fully adapted to modern adult literature. Felix Saltens Bambi is a Bildungsroman — a story of a protagonists coming-of-age — cast in the form of a fable, władysław Reymonts The Revolt, a metaphor for the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, described a revolt by animals that take over their farm in order to introduce equality. George Orwells Animal Farm similarly satirized Stalinist Communism in particular, and totalitarianism in general, in the guise of animal fableFable – Anthropomorphic cat guarding geese, Egypt, c. 1120 BC
41. Fantasy literature – Fantasy literature is the body of written works that employ the motifs, themes, and stylistic approaches expected in the fantasy genre. Historically, most works of fantasy were written pieces of literature, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games, music and painting. Stories involving paranormal magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature, homers Odyssey satisfies the definition of the fantasy genre with its magic, gods, heroes, adventures and monsters. Fantasy literature as a distinct type emerged in Victorian times, with the works of such as Mary Shelley, William Morris. J. R. R. Tolkien played a role in the popularization and accessibility of the fantasy genre with his highly successful publications The Hobbit. Rarely does one consider modern fantasy without conjuring the memory and image of Tolkien, Tolkien was largely influenced by an ancient body of Anglo-Saxon myths, particularly Beowulf, as well as modern works such as The Worm Ouroboros by E. R. Eddison. Tolkiens close friend C. S. Lewis, author of The Chronicles of Narnia, the tradition established by these predecessors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has continued to thrive and be adapted by new authors. Tolkiens fiction has—particularly over the genre of high fantasy—prompted backlash, at the turn of the millennium, the Harry Potter novels of J. K. Rowling achieved widespread popularity. R. Martin in 2005, and 2011, Neil Gaiman in 2005, authors often engage in worldbuilding, constructing a framework or entire world against which the narrative plays out. Symbolism often plays a significant role in literature, often through the use of archetypal figures inspired by earlier texts or folklore. Some argue that fantasy literature and its archetypes fulfill a function for individuals and society, le Guin, in her essay From Elfland to Poughkeepsie, presented the idea that language is the most crucial element of high fantasy, because it creates a sense of place. She analyzed the misuse of a formal, olden-day style, saying that it was a trap for fantasy writers because it was ridiculous when done wrong. Brian Peters writes that in various forms of fantasy, even the villains language might be inappropriate if vulgar. The fantastical details of the series fade away by the installment, revealing that the wizarding community of the Harry Potter books is just as bad, if not worse. Farah Mendlesohn argues the world of literature is broken up into four categories, the portal quest, the immersive, the intrusive. How the fantastic enters the world is what determines how a story fits into these categories. In a portal quest such as C. S. Lewis The Chronicles of Narnia, The Lion, The Witch, in the intrusion fantasies like Bram Stokers Dracula, the fantastic invades the fictional world. With liminal fantasy, for example Phillip Pullman’s His Dark Materials, The Subtle Knife, tolkiens The Hobbit for example, allows the reader no escape from the fantasticFantasy literature – Fantasy
42. Narrative nonfiction – Creative nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. For a text to be considered creative nonfiction, it must be factually accurate, ultimately, the primary goal of the creative nonfiction writer is to communicate information, just like a reporter, but to shape it in a way that reads like fiction. Forms within this genre include biography, autobiography, memoir, diary, travel writing, food writing, literary journalism, chronicle, personal essays and other hybridized essays. According to Vivian Gornick, A memoir is a taken from life—that is, from actual. By this, she means that the topics and events discussed in the text verifiably exist in the natural world, the third characteristic that Lounsberry claims is crucial in defining the genre is The scene. She stresses the importance of describing and revivifying the context of events in contrast to the journalistic style of objective reportage. The fourth and final feature she suggests is Fine writing, a prose style. Creative nonfiction may be structured like traditional fiction narratives, as is true of Fenton Johnsons story of love and loss, Geography of the Heart, when book-length works of creative nonfiction follow a story-like arc, they are sometimes called narrative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction writers have embraced new ways of forming their texts—including online technologies—because the genre leads itself to grand experimentation, dozens of new journals have sprung up—both in print and online—that feature creative nonfiction prominently in their offerings. Writers of creative or narrative non-fiction often discuss the level, and limits, of invention in their works. To my mind this literary tinkering does not alter the more profound truth of the story and this concept of fact vs. fiction is elaborated upon in Brenda Miller and Suzanne Paolas book entitled Tell it Slant. They argue that. memory itself can be called its own bit of creative nonfiction and we continually—often unconsciously—renovate our memories, shaping them into stories that bring coherence to chaos. Memory has been called the ultimate mythmaker. as even one’s firsthand accounts are unreliable, however, the essence of the stories related here is true, as they were told to us by those who experienced them at first hand. In recent years, there have been several well-publicized incidents of memoir writers who exaggerated or fabricated certain facts in their work. The James Frey controversy hit in 2006, when The Smoking Gun website revealed that Freys memoir, A Million Little Pieces, in 2008, the New York Times featured an article about the memoirist Margaret Seltzer, whose pen name is Margaret B. Jones. Although there have been instances of traditional and literary journalists falsifying their stories, the truth is meant to be upheld, just told in a literary fashion. Essayist John DAgata explores the issue in his 2012 book The Lifespan of a Fact and it examines the relationship between truth and accuracy, and whether it is appropriate for a writer to substitute one for the other. He and fact-checker Jim Fingal undergo an intense debate about the boundaries of creative nonfiction, critics to date, however, have tended to focus on only one or two of each writer’s works, to illustrate particular critical pointsNarrative nonfiction – Journalism
43. Literary nonsense – Literary nonsense is a broad categorization of literature that balances elements that make sense with some that do not, with the effect of subverting language conventions or logical reasoning. Even though the most well-known form of nonsense is nonsense verse. The effect of nonsense is often caused by an excess of meaning and its humor is derived from its nonsensical nature, rather than wit or the joke of a punchline. Literary nonsense, as recognized since the century, comes from a combination of two broad artistic sources. The first and older source is the folk tradition, including games, songs, dramas. The literary figure Mother Goose represents common incarnations of this style of writing, the second, newer source of literary nonsense is in the intellectual absurdities of court poets, scholars, and intellectuals of various kinds. Todays literary nonsense comes from a combination of both sources, Lewis Carroll continued this trend, making literary nonsense a worldwide phenomenon with Alices Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Carrolls poem Jabberwocky, which appears in the book, is often considered quintessential nonsense literature. In literary nonsense, certain elements of language and logic that facilitate meaning are balanced by elements that negate meaning. These formal elements include semantics, syntax, phonetics, context, representation, Nonsense tautology, reduplication, and absurd precision have also been used in the nonsense genre. For a text to be within the genre of literary nonsense, if the text employs only occasional nonsense devices, then it may not be classified as literary nonsense, though there may be a nonsensical effect to certain portions of the work. Laurence Sternes Tristram Shandy, for instance, employs the device of imprecision by including a blank page. In Flann OBriens The Third Policeman, on the hand, many of the devices of nonsense are present throughout. Gibberish, light verse, fantasy, and jokes and riddles are sometimes mistaken for literary nonsense, pure gibberish, as in the hey diddle diddle of nursery rhyme, is a device of nonsense, but it does not make a text, overall, literary nonsense. If there is not significant sense to balance out such devices, Nonsense is distinct from fantasy, though there are sometimes resemblances between them. The distinction lies in the coherent and unified nature of fantasy, the nature of magic within an imaginary world is an example of this distinction. Fantasy worlds employ the presence of magic to explain the impossible. In nonsense literature, magic is rare but when it does occur, riddles only appear to be nonsense until the answer is foundLiterary nonsense – John Tenniel 's depiction of the nonsense creatures in Carroll 's Jabberwocky.
44. Lyric poetry – Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature, the lyric, the term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry, lyrical, dramatic and epic. Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress, the most common meters are as follows, Iambic – two syllables, with the short or unstressed syllable followed by the long or stressed syllable. Trochaic – two syllables, with the long or stressed syllable followed by the short or unstressed syllable, in English, this metre is found almost entirely in lyric poetry. Pyrrhic – Two unstressed syllables Anapestic – three syllables, with the first two short or unstressed and the last long or stressed, dactylic – three syllables, with the first one long or stressed and the other two short or unstressed. Spondaic – two syllables, with two successive long or stressed syllables, some forms have a combination of meters, often using a different meter for the refrain. For the ancient Greeks, lyric poetry had a technical meaning, verse that was accompanied by a lyre, cithara. Because such works were sung, it was also known as melic poetry. The lyric or melic poet was distinguished from the writer of plays, the writer of trochaic and iambic verses, the writer of elegies, the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria created a canon of nine lyric poets deemed especially worthy of critical study. These archaic and classical musician-poets included Sappho, Alcaeus, Anacreon, archaic lyric was characterized by strophic composition and live musical performance. Some poets, like Pindar extended the metrical forms to a triad, including strophe, antistrophe, among the major extant Roman poets of the classical period, only Catullus and Horace wrote lyric poetry, which however was no longer meant to be sung but instead read or recited. What remained were the forms, the meters of the Greeks adapted to Latin. Catullus was influenced by both archaic and Hellenistic Greek verse and belonged to a group of Roman poets called the Neoteroi who spurned epic poetry following the lead of Callimachus, instead, they composed brief, highly polished poems in various thematic and metrical genres. The varying forms of the new Chu ci provided more rhythm, originating in 10th-century Persian, a ghazal is a poetic form consisting of couplets that share a rhyme and a refrain. Formally, it consists of a short lyric composed in a meter with a single rhyme throughout. Notable authors include Hafiz, Amir Khusro, Auhadi of Maragheh, Alisher Navoi, Obeid e zakani, Khaqani Shirvani, Anvari, Farid al-Din Attar, Omar Khayyam, and Rudaki. The ghazal was introduced to European poetry in the early 19th century by the Germans Schlegel, Von Hammer-Purgstall, and Goethe, lyric in European literature of the medieval or Renaissance period means a poem written so that it could be set to music—whether or not it actually was. A poems particular structure, function, or theme might all vary, the lyric poetry of Europe in this period was created by the pioneers of courtly poetry and courtly love largely without reference to the classical pastLyric poetry – Henry Oliver Walker 's 1896 Lyric Poetry in the Library of Congress 's Thomas Jefferson Building
45. Romance fiction – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship, there are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, and science fiction. Walter Scott defined the literary form of romance as a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, Heyers first romance novel, The Black Moth, was set in 1751. The British company Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s and their books were sold in North America by Harlequin Enterprises Ltd, which began direct marketing to readers and allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An early American example of a romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss The Flame. Nancy Coffey was the editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, the genre is also popular in Europe and Australia, and romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written by authors from English-speaking countries, despite the popularity and widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, and criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre, erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. According to the Romance Writers of America, the plot of a romance novel must revolve about the two people as they develop romantic love for each other and work to build a relationship. Furthermore, a novel must have an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Others, including Leslie Gelbman, a president of Berkley Books, define the genre more simply, stating only that a romance must make the romantic relationship between the hero and the heroine. Bestselling author Nora Roberts sums up the genre, saying, The books are about the celebration of falling in love and emotion and commitment, some romance novel authors and readers believe the genre has additional restrictions, from plot considerations, to avoiding themes. While the majority of romance novels meet the criteria, there are also many books widely considered to be romance novels that deviate from these rules. Therefore, the definition, as embraced by the RWA and publishers, includes only the focus on a developing romantic relationship. As long as a romance novel meets those criteria, it can be set in any time period. There are no restrictions on what can or cannot be included in a romance novelRomance fiction – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
46. Tragedy – Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. In the wake of Aristotles Poetics, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, in the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre. Drama, in the sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy, taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation. The word tragedy appears to have used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = goat song, scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was that around which a chorus danced prior to the animals ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis says that the form of the word was trygodia from trygos and ode. There is some dissent to the origins of tragedy, mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested, friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the genre developed. Scott Scullion writes, There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as song for the prize goat, and as prize was established the billy goat, the clearest is Eustathius 1769.45, They called those competing tragedians, clearly because of the song over the billy goat. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, Athenian tragedies were performed in late March/early April at an annual state religious festival in honor of Dionysus. The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days, each playwright offered a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a concluding comic piece called a satyr play. The four plays sometimes featured linked stories, only one complete trilogy of tragedies has survived, the Oresteia of Aeschylus. The Greek theatre was in the air, on the side of a hill. Performances were apparently open to all citizens, including women, the theatre of Dionysus at Athens probably held around 12,000 peopleTragedy – Aristotle's Tragic Plot Structure
47. Medieval literature – Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. Just as in literature, it is a complex and rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane. Works of literature are often grouped by place of origin, language, however, in Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church made Greek and Old Church Slavonic the dominant written languages. The common people continued to use their respective vernaculars, although the extant versions of these epics are generally considered the works of individual poets, there is no doubt that they are based on their peoples older oral traditions. Celtic traditions have survived in the lais of Marie de France, the Mabinogion, another host of vernacular literature has survived in the Old Norse literature and more specifically in the Saga literature of Iceland. A notable amount of literature is anonymous. This is not only due to the lack of documents from a period, medieval authors often deeply respected the classical writers and the Church Fathers and tended to re-tell and embellish stories they had heard or read rather than invent new stories. And even when they did, they claimed to be handing down something from an auctor instead. From this point of view, the names of the individual authors seemed much less important, the invention of biography can be attributed to this time period. It had such ancient forebears as Plutarchs Parallel Lives and Suetoniuss Lives of the Twelve Caesars, theological works were the dominant form of literature typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. Catholic clerics were the center of society in the Middle Ages. Countless hymns survive from time period. The liturgy itself was not in fixed form, and numerous competing missals set out individual conceptions of the order of the mass, hagiographies, or lives of the saints, were also frequently written, as an encouragement to the devout and a warning to others. The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine reached such popularity that, in its time, francis of Assisi was a prolific poet, and his Franciscan followers frequently wrote poetry themselves as an expression of their piety. Dies Irae and Stabat Mater are two of the most powerful Latin poems on religious subjects, goliardic poetry was an art form used by some clerics to express dissent. The text of these plays was often controlled by local guilds, during the Middle Ages, the Jewish population of Europe also produced a number of outstanding writers. Maimonides, born in Cordoba, Spain, and Rashi, born in Troyes, secular literature in this period was not produced in equal quantity as religious literature, but much has survived and we possess today a rich corpusMedieval literature – The first page of Beowulf
48. 12th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 12th century. The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase in the production of Latin texts and these two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters with a lasting influence on the development of literature in the following centuries. 1104, September 3 St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral,1170, Poet, politician and historian Lu You travels on the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. Before 1173, Copenhagen Psalter produced in northern England c, early 12th century Gesta Francorum Íslendingabók Liber Eliensis by monks of Ely Abbey By 1106 Lebor na hUidre by monks of Clonmacnoise 1108 Dei gesta per Francos by Guibert of Nogent c. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus c.1113 Primary Chronicle 1122–54 Peterborough Chronicle c, 1125–50 Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis by Albert of Aix c. 1135–39 Estoire des Engleis by Geoffrey Gaimar c.1140 Chronicon Roskildense 1145 Samguk Sagi by Kim Bu-sik, 1149–50 Visio Tnugdali transcribed by Brother Marcus c. 1150–55 Roman de Brut by Wace Concludes 1152 Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Book 1 by Otto of Freising 1154 – Henry of Huntingdon, 1178–1208 Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus c. 1181–82 Witherlogh by Sven Aggesen c.1183 De bello Troiano by Joseph of Exeter c, 1186–87 Historia brevis regum Dacie by Sven Aggesen 1188 Topographia Hibernica by Gerald of Wales 1190s Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja c. 1190–1215 Brut by Layamon 1192 Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi by Richard of Devizes c, 1152–64 Liber viarum Dei by Elisabeth of Schönau c.1160 Policraticus by John of Salisbury 1163. Makhzan al-Asrar by Nizami Ganjavi c, 1175–1200 Poema Morale c.1124 Vita Anselmi by Eadmer 1148 Alexiad by Anna Komnene c. 1150–1190 Le Roman de Tristan by Béroul c, 1155–1173 Tristan by Thomas of Britain c.1160 Roman dEnéas c.1165 Letter of Prester John c.1180 Chanson dAntioche c. 1155–60 Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure c.1170 Érec et Énide by Chrétien de Troyes c, Roman de toute chevalerie by Thomas de Kent c.1176 Cligès by Chrétien de Troyes 1177–80 Khosrow and Shirin by Nizami Ganjavi c. 1177–81 by Chrétien de Troyes Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette Yvain, 1180s Ipomedon by Hue de Rotelande Protheselaus by Hue de Rotelande Der arme Heinrich by Hartmann von Aue c. 1181–91 Perceval, le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes c.1190 Gregorius by Hartmann von Aue c, erec by Hartmann von Aue 1192 Layla and Majnun by Nizami Ganjavi c. 1184 Architrenius by John of Hauville Ludus de Antichristo Ordo Virtutum c.1119 Lyric poetry by William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, 1124–27 Waka anthology Kinyō Wakashū compiled by Minamoto no Shunrai 1140s–1150s Goliardic poetry by Hugh Primas of Orléans c. 1125–1175 First Grammatical Treatise by the First Grammarian 1191 Itinerarium Cambriae by Gerald of Wales 1194 Descriptio Cambriae by Gerald of Wales c,1110, Wace, Jèrriais poet Born c. 1126, Eadmer, English ecclesiastic and historian Born c,1130, Akka Mahadevi, female Indian Kannada language Vachana sahitya didactic poet Died 1131, December 4 Omar Khayyám, Persian philosopher, scientist and presumed poet Born c. 1141, Nizami Ganjavi, Seljuk Empire Persian romantic epic poet Born c,1146, Gerald of Wales, Cambro-Norman churchman and topographer Died c12th century in literature – Scribe of Eadwine Psalter (mid-12th century, English)
49. 2011 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2011. July – J. K. Rowling terminates her relationship with long-standing agent Christopher Little to join rival Neil Blair, september 24 – The first 100 Thousand Poets for Change Day takes place, the organisation having been founded by Michael Rothenberg and Terri Carrion in March. November 12 – Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Literature Museum Library opens in Istanbul, Governor Generals Awards, Multiple categories, see 2011 Governor Generals Awards. Corral, Shane McCrae, Kerri Webster List of literary awards List of poetry awards 2011 in comics 2011 in Australian literature2011 in literature – Tomas Tranströmer in 2008
50. 2010 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2010. February – The Wheeler Centre, Australias literary hub, is officially opened, april 3 – First release of the Apple iPad electronic book reading device. April 12 – Little-known author Paul Harding wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his debut novel Tinkers published by tiny Bellevue Literary Press. June 24 – Neil Gaiman becomes the first author to win both the Carnegie Medal in Literature and the Newbery Medal for the same book — The Graveyard Book, July 27 – Stieg Larssons Millennium Trilogy becomes an international sensation. As of May 2010, a total of 27 million copies have sold worldwide. On July 27 Amazon says Larsson is first author to more than 1 million Kindle e-books. August 13 – Time magazine puts Jonathan Franzen on its cover for his novel Freedom, october 7 – The 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded to Mario Vargas Llosa for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individuals resistance, revolt, and defeat. October 12 – Howard Jacobson wins the Man Booker Prize for The Finkler Question November 9 – Johanna Skibsrud wins the Scotiabank Giller Prize for her novel The Sentimentalists, November 16 – The 2010 Governor Generals Awards are announced. Winners include Dianne Warren for English fiction, Kim Thúy for French fiction, Richard Greene for poetry, November – Mark Twains Autobiography is published 100 years after the authors death, the delay instructed by Twain himself. Unofficial copies had been published several times during the 20th century, Book censorship in the Republic of Ireland by the state ceases as all prior bans expire. Kirby – The Clockwork Three Laura Leiner Szent Johanna gimi 1 – Kezdet Szent Johanna gimi 2 – Együtt Szent Johanna gimi 3 – Egyedül Robert Muchamore – Brigands M. C. D. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction, John Leigh Walters, A Very Capable Life Governor Generals Awards, Multiple categories, thompson List of literary awards List of poetry awards 2010 in Australian literature2010 in literature – Mario Vargas Llosa in 2010
51. 2008 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2008. January 1 – In the UKs 2008 New Year Honours List, Hanif Kureishi, Jenny Uglow, Peter Vansittart, may 7–11 – First Palestine Festival of Literature. July – Salman Rushdies Midnights Children is the winner of a poll to select the Best of the Booker2008 in literature – Margaret Truman
52. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014