1. Literature – Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung. Developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been various attempts to define "literature". Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, they inevitably change over time. In fact, the only thing, certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well. Definitions of literature have varied over time; it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the eighteenth century, literature as a term indicated all books and writing. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" literature. Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres tradition. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," originally "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this, the term has also been applied to spoken or sung texts.Literature – The Classic of Rites (Chinese: 禮 記; pinyin: Lǐjì), an ancient Chinese text. Certain definitions of literature have taken it to include all written work.
2. Ordinary language – "Such'philosophical' uses of language, on this view, create the very philosophical problems they are employed to solve." Ordinary philosophy is a branch of linguistic philosophy closely related to logical positivism. This approach typically involves eschewing philosophical "theories" to the details of the use of everyday "ordinary" language. This Oxford group also included H. L. A. Hart, Geoffrey Warnock, Peter Strawson. The close association between these later thinkers has led to it sometimes being referred to as "Oxford philosophy". More recent philosophers with at least some commitment to the method of ordinary philosophy include Stanley Cavell, John Searle and Oswald Hanfling. The later Wittgenstein held that this is why philosophers trip over words taken in abstraction. From this came the idea that philosophy had gotten into trouble by trying to understand words outside of the context of their use in ordinary language. The controversy really begins when ordinary language philosophers apply the same leveling tendency to questions such as What is Truth? or What is Consciousness? Philosophers in this school would insist that we cannot assume that'Truth"is' a'thing', which the word'truth' represents. Instead, we must look at the differing ways in which the words'truth' and'conscious' actually function in ordinary language. Therefore, ordinary language philosophers tend to be anti-essentialist. Of course, this is a very controversial viewpoint. Similar arguments sometimes involve ordinary philosophy with other anti-essentialist movements like post-structuralism. However, strictly speaking, this is not a position derived from Wittgenstein, as it still involves'misuse' of the term "truth" in reference to "alternate truths".Ordinary language – Wittgenstein (second from right), Summer 1920
3. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
4. Fiction – Fiction is the classification for any story, or element of a story, derived from imagination and not based strictly on history or fact. Fiction, for example, predicts or supposes technologies that are not realities at the time of the work's creation. For example, in 1969 astronaut Neil Armstrong landed on the moon. Historical fiction places imaginary characters into historical events. Some works of fiction are greatly re-imagined based on some originally true story, or a reconstructed biography. One such example would be Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, a series of historical fiction short stories about the Vietnam War. Creators of fantasy sometimes introduce imaginary beings such as dragons and fairies. In terms of the traditional separation between non-fiction, the lines are now commonly understood as blurred, showing more overlap than mutual exclusion. Even fiction usually has elements of, or in, truth. Also, fictional possibilities themselves signal the impossibility of fully knowing reality, provocatively demonstrating that there is no criterion to measure constructs of reality. Also, digital libraries such as Project Gutenberg make public domain texts more readily available. Countless forums for fiction can be found online, where loyal followers of specific fictional realms create and distribute derivative stories. Types of literary fiction in prose: Short story: A work of at least 2,000 words but under 7,500 words. The boundary between a novella is vague. Novella: A work of at least 17,500 words but under 50,000 words..Fiction – An illustration from Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, depicting the fictional protagonist, Alice, playing a fantastical game of croquet.
5. Poetry – Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused in rhetoric, drama, comedy. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry uses conventions to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images -- a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, in their patterns of rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics.Poetry – Aristotle
6. Novel – A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story. The genre has also been described as possessing "a comprehensive history of about two thousand years". This view sees the novel's origins in Classical Greece and Rome, the tradition of the novella. An Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long narrative. Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or novel. European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives. Fictionality is most commonly cited from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Historians would also compose speeches for didactic purposes. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the novel. 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, secret anxieties, "conduct" and "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance.Novel – Madame de Pompadour spending her afternoon with a book, 1756.
7. Aesthetics – Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgements of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, nature". The aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι. Aesthetics is for the artist as Ornithology is for the birds. Modern day aesthetics, especially among younger people, refers to the simplicity in beauty in art. Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Any aesthetic doctrines that guided the interpretation of prehistoric art are mostly unknown. Western aesthetics usually refers as the earliest source of formal aesthetic considerations. Plato believed in beauty as a form which causes them to be beautiful. He felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order, definiteness. From the late 17th to the 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism. British thinkers emphasized beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, saw art as necessarily aiming at absolute beauty.Aesthetics – Bronze sculpture, thought to be either Poseidon or Zeus, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
8. Genre – Genres form by conventions that the use of old ones is discontinued. Often, works fit by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Genre began for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. In later periods genres developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public sense out of unpredictable art. Genre suffers from the same ills of any system. Genre is to weigh works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective piece is in the variation, recombination, evolution of the codes. In art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is primarily architectural painting. The concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory, especially between the 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art. Genres may be determined by literary technique, tone, even length.Genre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
9. Biography – A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written at a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on a particular individual of historical importance. One of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A.D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. In 44 B.C. Cornelius Nepos published a biographical work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae. Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius. In the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the early history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits, monks, priests used this historic period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to saints.Biography – Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans printed by Jacob Tonson.
10. Romance novel – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. There are many subgenres of the novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, science fiction. Austen inspired the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction. The Black Moth, was set in 1751. Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s. Their books were allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An American example of a mass-market romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss' The Flame and the Flower, published by Avon Books. Nancy Coffey was the senior editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, comprising almost 55% of all paperback books sold in 2004. Romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written from English-speaking countries leading to an Anglo-Saxon perspective in the fiction. Despite widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre. Erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. Furthermore, a novel must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending."Romance novel – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
11. Mystery fiction – Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. In a closed circle of suspects, each suspect must have a reasonable opportunity for committing the crime. The central character must be a detective who eventually solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts fairly presented to the reader. Sometimes mystery books are nonfictional. "Mystery fiction" can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on its logical solution such as a whodunit. Mystery fiction can be contrasted with hardboiled detective stories, which focus on gritty realism. Even no crime involved. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names which contained hardboiled crime fiction. The genre of mystery novels is a young form of literature that has developed over the past 200 years. As people became more individualistic in their thinking, they developed a respect for the ability to solve problems. Perhaps a reason that mystery fiction was unheard of before the 1800s was due in part to the lack of true police forces. Before the Industrial Revolution, many of the towns would have a night watchman at best. Naturally, crimes were either solved quickly or left unsolved entirely. The need for detectives was realized -- thus the mystery novel arose. Wilkie Collins' epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone, is often thought to be his masterpiece.Mystery fiction – Mystery, 1934 mystery fiction magazine cover
12. Crime fiction – Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, their motives. The boundaries are indistinct. Fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction and legal thrillers. Mystery are key elements that are nearly ubiquitous to the genre. In Italy people commonly call a story about detectives or crimes giallo, because books of crime fiction have usually had a yellow cover since the 1930s. Better known are the earlier dark works of Edgar Allan Poe. The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone is often thought to be his masterpiece. French author Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Lecoq laid the groundwork for the scientifically minded detective. The evolution of locked room mysteries was one of the landmarks in the history of fiction. The Sherlock Holmes mysteries of Arthur Conan Doyle are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. A precursor was Paul Féval, whose series Les Habits Noirs features criminal conspiracies. The best-selling novel of the nineteenth century was Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab, set in Melbourne, Australia. Like the works of many other important fiction writers of his day—e.g. Wilkie Collins and Charles Dickens—Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in serial form in the monthly Strand magazine in the United Kingdom. Later a set of stereotypic formulae began to appear to cater to various tastes.Crime fiction – Sherlock Holmes, pipe-puffing hero of crime fiction, confers with his colleague Dr. Watson; together these characters popularized the genre.
13. Fantasy – Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. In popular culture, the genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works to many recent and popular works. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other language studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, medieval studies. The identifying traits of fantasy are the inclusion of fantastic elements in a self-coherent setting, where inspiration from folklore remains a consistent theme. Essentially, fantasy follows rules of its own making, allowing magic and fantastic devices to be used and still be internally cohesive. The distinguishing trait between fantasy and other genres of the speculative fiction type is that the primary focus and story feature of fantasy is magic. MacDonald was a major influence on C. S. Lewis. Lord Dunsany established the genre's popularity in the short story form. Popular mainstream authors also began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy for Girls and Boys, intended for children, though works for adults only verged on fantasy. Social trends can affect a society's reception towards fantasy. The magical creatures of these novels were viewed as superstitious and backward, products of a feudal society hindering the modernization of China.Fantasy – Fairy tales and legends, such as Dobrynya Nikitich 's rescue of Zabava Putyatichna from the dragon Gorynych, have been an important source for fantasy.
14. The Author's Farce – Written to the Theatre Royal's rejection of his earlier plays, The Author's Farce was Fielding's first theatrical success. The Little Theatre allowed to alter the traditional comedy genre. Throughout its life, the play was coupled including The Cheats of Scapin and Fielding's Tom Thumb. After its rejection by one theatre, Luckless's play is staged at another. The third act becomes a play within a play, in which the characters in the play are portrayed by humans. The Author's Farce ends with a merging of the puppet show's realities. The press reported that seats were in great demand. The Author's Farce is now considered to be a highly skilled satire. The Author's Farce was written in three. The opening introduces the main character, his attempts to woo Harriot, the daughter of his landlady Mrs. Moneywood. Luckless lacks the income that would allow him to concentrate on his writing. The third act is dominated by a play within the play. It begins when the Goddess of Nonsense chooses a mate from a series of suitors along the River Styx. All dunces, the suitors include Dr. Orator, Sir Farcical Comic, Mrs. Novel, Bookseller, Poet, Monsieur Pantomime, Signior Opera. The goddess eventually chooses a foreign castrato singer as her favourite -- Signior Opera -- after he sings an aria about money.The Author's Farce – Colley Cibber as Lord Foppington
15. Henry Fielding – His younger sister, Sarah, also became a successful writer. Fielding was born at Sharpham, Somerset, educated at Eton College, where he established a lifelong friendship with William Pitt the Elder. In 1728, he travelled to Leiden to study classics and law at the university. However, lack of money obliged him to return to London and he began writing for the theatre. Some of his work was savagely critical of the government of Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The Theatrical Licensing Act of 1737 is alleged to be a direct response to his activities. The particular play that triggered the Licensing Act was the unproduced, anonymously authored, The Golden Rump, but Fielding's dramatic satires had set the tone. Once the act was passed, political satire on the stage became virtually impossible, playwrights whose works were staged were viewed as suspect. Allen went on to provide for the education and support of Fielding's children after the writer's death. Fielding never stopped writing political satire and satires of current arts and letters. The Tragedy of Tragedies was, for example, quite successful as a printed play. He also contributed a number of works to journals of the day. He wrote for Tory periodicals, usually under the name "Captain Hercules Vinegar". Fielding continued to air his anti-Jacobite views in the late 1730s and early 1740s. Almost by accident he took to writing novels in 1741, angered by Samuel Richardson's success with Pamela.Henry Fielding – Henry Fielding, about 1743, etching by Jonathan Wild
16. Haymarket Theatre – In 1766 he gained a royal patent to play legitimate drama in the summer months. The original building was a little further north in the same street. It has been since 1821 when it was redesigned by John Nash. It is a Grade I listed building, with a seating capacity of 888. The freehold of the theatre is owned by the Crown Estate. The Haymarket has been the site of a significant innovation in theatre. In 1873, it was the venue for the scheduled matinée performance, establishing a custom soon followed in theatres everywhere. Famous actors who débuted at the theatre included John Liston. It was the public theatre opened in the West End. The theatre cost # 1000 to build, with a further # expended on decorations, scenery and costumes. Potter's speculation was known as The New French Theatre. In 1730, its name changed to the'Little Theatre in the Haymarket'. Among the actors who appeared there before 1737 when the theatre was closed under the Licensing Act 1737 were Aaron Hill, Henry Fielding. In particular, special-effects dominated stages, it presented opposition satire. Henry Fielding so did Henry Carey.Haymarket Theatre – The Theatre Royal, Haymarket in 2008. The production is Edward Bond 's The Sea.
17. Theatre Royal, Drury Lane – The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, commonly known as Drury Lane, a West End theatre, is a Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, London. The building backs onto Drury Lane. According for its first two centuries, Drury Lane could "reasonably have claimed to be London's leading theatre". For most of that time, it was one of a handful of patent theatres, granted monopoly rights to the production of "legitimate" drama in London. Under Sheridan's management, the building was demolished to make way for a larger theatre which opened in 1794. This new Drury Lane survived before burning down in 1809. The building that stands today opened in 1812. It has been the residency of a number of well known actors including; Edmund Kean, comedian Dan Leno, performer Ivor Novello. The theatre is owned by the composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. Soon after, Charles issued Letters Patent to two parties licensing the formation of new acting companies. One of these went to Thomas Killigrew, whose company became who built a new theatre in Drury Lane. Architect unknown, opened on 7 May 1663 and was known from the placement of the entrance as the "Theatre Royal in Bridges Street." It went by other names including the "King's Playhouse." The building was a wooden structure, 112 feet long and 59 feet wide; it could hold an audience of 700. Set back from the broader streets, the theatre was accessed by narrow passages between surrounding buildings.Theatre Royal, Drury Lane – The interior of the third and largest theatre to stand at Drury Lane, c. 1808
18. Actor Rebellion of 1733 – Before the rebellion, the theatre was controlled by the managers Theophilus Cibber, John Highmore. The theatre was closed for several months. The fight spilled over to the contemporary newspapers, which generally sided with the managers. The Theatre Royal reopened on 24 September 1733 with a new company of actors, though they were less talented than the old crew. The majority of old actors moved to Haymarket, though a few remained loyal. By February 1734, he sold his shares to Charles Fleetwood who then made an agreement with the actors that secured their return. The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane was run by the holders of the two official licenses or letters patent, established by Charles II in 1660. It was operated until 1714. He was replaced by three actors, Colley Cibber, Thomas Doggett, Robert Wilks. After Doggett died, Barton Booth took over his share. After bureaucratic delays, the official patent was given only in 1732, to last for 21 years. On 13 Booth, in poor health, decided to sell half of his share to Highmore, a fellow actor and a socialite. On 27 September, his share was inherited by his widow, who then authorised Ellys, a painter, to serve in her place. In reaction to the changing partners, Colley Cibber rented his share to an actor. Theophilus Cibber was known to be both arrogant and volatile.Actor Rebellion of 1733 – Colley Cibber
19. Puppet theatre – The puppeteer often speaks in the voice of the character of the puppet, then synchronizes the movements of the puppet's mouth with this spoken part. The actions, gestures and spoken parts acted out by the puppeteer with the puppet are typically used in storytelling. Puppetry is a very ancient form of theatre which dates back to the 5th century BC in Ancient Greece. There are many different varieties of puppets, they are made of a wide range of materials, depending on their form and intended use. They range from very simple in their construction and operation to very complex. A hand puppet is controlled by one hand which occupies the interior of the puppet and moves the puppet around. A "live-hand puppet" requires two puppeteers for each puppet. A rod puppet is constructed around a central rod secured to the head. A puppet is a cut-out figure held between a source of a translucent screen. Bunraku puppets are a type of Japanese wood-carved puppet. Carnival puppets are large puppets, typically bigger than a human, designed to be part of a large spectacle or parade. Aristotle discusses puppets in his work On the Motion of Animals. In India, puppetry was practiced from ancient times and is known by different names in different parts of the country. Excavation of clay dolls from Indus valley sites serve as an indication. The art of puppetry called Bommalattam is mentioned in Tamil literature Silappadikaram, written around 2nd century B.C.Puppet theatre – Traditional hand puppets
20. Allegorical – As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor whose vehicle may be a character, place or event, representing real-world issues and occurrences. Ancient religions are the moon as seen from the Earth. Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. Also allegorical is Ezekiel 16 and 17, wherein the capture of that same vine by the mighty Eagle represents Israel's exile to Rome. Allegory has an ability to freeze the temporality of a story, while infusing it with a spiritual context. Mediaeval thinking accepted allegory as having a reality underlying any rhetorical or fictional uses. The allegory was as true as the facts of surface appearances. This text also demonstrates the frequent use following the example of the Bible. Since meaningful stories are nearly always applicable to larger issues, allegories may be read into many stories which the author may not have recognised. This is allegoresis, or the act of reading a story as an allegory. Yet, George MacDonald emphasised in 1893 that, "A fairy tale is not an allegory," in direct reference to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. J.R.R. I much prefer history – true or feigned– with its varied applicability to the thought and experience of readers. This further reinforces the idea of forced allegoresis, as allegory is often sometimes of original artistic intention.Allegorical – Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi (between 1475 and 1500): The "Allegory of Music" is a popular theme in painting. Lippi uses symbols popular during the High Renaissance, many of which refer to Greek mythology.
21. Literary genre – A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by even length. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are creative nonfiction. They can all be in the form of prose or poetry. Finally, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. Genre should not be confused with age categories, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's. They also must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. Just as in painting, there are different types: the landscape, the still life, the portrait; there are different types of literary works. These types tend to share specific characteristics. Genres describe those works which share specific conventions. Genres are often divided into subgenres. Literature, is divided into the classic three forms of prose. Poetry may then be subdivided into the genres of lyric, epic, dramatic. The lyric includes e.g. song, ode, sonnet.Literary genre – William Shakespeare's statue.
22. Francis Marrash – Most of his works revolve around science, religion, analysed under an epistemological light. Middle Eastern historian Matti Moosa considered Marrash to be writer of modern times. Marrash defended them in his own works, implicitly criticising Ottoman rule in the Middle East. Ways of expressing them, have had a lasting influence on contemporary Arab thought and on the Mahjari poets. Francis Marrash was born to an old Melkite family of merchants known for their literary interests. Other Melkite Catholics were exiled from Aleppo among them the priest Jibrail Marrash. Fathallah, tried to defuse the Sectarian conflict by writing a treatise in 1849, in which he rejected the Filioque. Aleppo was then a intellectual center of the Ottoman Empire, featuring many thinkers and writers concerned with the future of the Arabs. It was in the missionary schools that the Marrash family learnt Arabic with French and other foreign languages. But Francis at first studied its literature privately. At the age of four years, Marrash had ever since suffered from eye problems that had kept worsening over time. At the same time, he published several works. But his growing blindness forced him to interrupt his studies within a year after his arrival. He still managed to dictate his works. Around 1865, Marrash published an allegory about the conditions required to establish and maintain civilization and freedom.Francis Marrash – Francis Marrash
23. Syrian – Syrians are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry. The Syrian republic has a population of nearly million as of 2014, in addition to 4 million Syrian refugees. The Syrian diaspora consists of million people of Syrian ancestry, who immigrated to North America, European Union member states, South America, Australia, Africa. The name "Syrians" was employed by the Greeks and Romans to denote the inhabitants of Syria; however, they called Arameans and Assyrians. The ethnic designation "Syrian" appeared in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Some argue that the discovery of the Çineköy inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. Starting from the 2nd BC onwards, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria or King of the Syrians. However, the interchangeability between Assyrians and Syrians persisted during the Hellenistic period. In one instance, the Ptolemies of Egypt reserved the term "Syrian Village" in Fayoum. The term Syrian was imposed by the Romans. In his book The Great Roman-Jewish War, a Hebrew native to the Levant, mentioned the Syrians as the non-Hebrew, non-Greek indigenous inhabitants of Syria. The Arabs called the Levant Al-Sham. Besides religious identities, the Syrian people is split between three identities, namely the Arab, Syrian identities. Also mainly Syrian nationalists, describe themselves as only Syrians. Arabisation and Islamization of Syria began in the 7th century, while it took several centuries for Islam, language to spread.Syrian – Row 1: Philipp Stamma • Maryana Marrash • Francis Marrash • Mar'i Pasha al-Mallah • Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi • Qustaki al-Himsi
24. Nahda – It is often regarded as a period of intellectual reform. Its participants were mostly Egyptians, Cairo was the geographical center of the movement. But al-Nahda was also felt in Arab capitals, notably Beirut and Damascus. The shared language of Arabic-speaking nations ensured that the accomplishments of the movement could be quickly picked up in Arab countries. The Egyptian scholar Rifa'a el-Tahtawi is widely seen as the pioneering figure of the Nahda. He came to hold a very positive view of French society, although not without criticisms. He began translating important scientific and cultural works into Classical Arabic. It describes France and Europe from an Egyptian Muslim viewpoint. This brand of open-minded modernism came to be the defining creed of al-Nahda. Butrus al-Bustani was born to a Lebanese Maronite Christian family in the village of Dibbiye in January 1819. Al-Bustani was a tour de force in the nahda centered in mid-nineteenth century Beirut. After becoming involved with the American missionaries, he converted to Protestantism becoming a leader in the Protestant church. Inititally, he was a central figure in the missionaries' translation of the Bible into Arabic. Despite his close ties with the Americans, al-Bustani increasingly became independent eventually breaking away. After the increasing entrenchment of confessionalism, al-Bustani founded the National School or al-madrasa al-wataniyya in 1863 on secular principles.Nahda – Rifa'a el-Tahtawy, 1801–1873.
25. Epistemology – Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, justification, the rationality of belief. The term'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in 1854. However, according to Brett Warren, King James VI of Scotland had previously personified this philosophical concept as the character Epistemon in 1591. This philosophical approach signified a Philomath seeking to obtain greater knowledge through epistemology with the use of theology. The dialogue was used by King James to educate society on various concepts including the history and etymology of the subjects debated. The word epistemology is derived from the ancient Greek epistēmē meaning "knowledge" and the suffix -logy, meaning a logical "discourse" to". French philosophers then gave the term épistémologie a narrower meaning as'theory of knowledge.' E.g. Émile Meyerson opened his Identity and Reality, written in 1908, with the remark that the word'is becoming current' as equivalent to'the philosophy of the sciences.' Some philosophers think there is an important distinction between "knowing that," "knowing how," and "acquaintance-knowledge," with epistemology being primarily concerned with the first of these. While these distinctions are not explicit in English, they are defined explicitly in other languages. In French, Portuguese and Spanish, to know is translated using connaître, conhecer, conocer, respectively, whereas to know is translated using savoir or saber. Modern Greek has the verbs γνωρίζω and ξέρω. Italian has the verbs conoscere and sapere and the nouns for knowledge are conoscenza and sapienza. German has the verbs wissen and kennen.Epistemology – Plato – Kant – Nietzsche
26. Aleppo – Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. For centuries, Aleppo was the Syrian region's largest city and the Ottoman Empire's third-largest, after Constantinople and Cairo. Aleppo is an ancient metropolis, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world; it may have been inhabited since the 6th millennium BC. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. The city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. In the 1940s, it lost its main access to the sea, Antioch and Alexandretta, also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks. Since the Battle of Aleppo started in 2012, the city has suffered massive destruction, has been the worst-hit city in the Syrian Civil War. Modern-day English-speakers commonly refer to the city as Aleppo. It was known in antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea. During the Crusades, again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923-1946, the name Alep was used. Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this.Aleppo – Ancient City of Aleppo Aleppo Citadel • The entrance to al-Madina Souq Great Mosque of Aleppo • Baron Hotel Saint Elias Cathedral • Queiq River Panorama of Aleppo at night
27. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
28. Ottoman rule – After 1354, with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by Mehmed the Conqueror. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire continued to military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. The empire allied with Germany with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, joining in World War I. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman. Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti. The Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In the West, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920 -- 23, when the newly established Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. Osman's early followers not all converts to Islam.Ottoman rule – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
29. Romanticism – It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the scientific rationalization of nature. It had a major impact on historiography, education, the natural sciences. It also valued spontaneity, as in the musical impromptu. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered to Romanticism. The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the starting point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist. As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. This idea is often called "romantic originality." Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong interest in the importance of nature. However, this is particularly upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves".Romanticism – Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818
30. Arabic literature – Arabic literature is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language. The Arabic word used for literature is "Adab", which implies politeness, culture and enrichment. Arabic literature emerged with only fragments of the written language appearing before then. ` an had a significant influence on the Arab language. While modern Arabic is very similar, the classical has social prestige. It contains injunctions, narratives, homilies, parables, direct addresses on how it will be received and understood. It is paradoxically, admired for its layers of metaphor as well as its clarity, a feature it mentions itself in sura 16:103. In early times the text was transmitted orally. The first attempt at an written version was during the reign of the third ` Rightly Guided Caliph', Uthman. The text is seen by Muslims as being eternal or ` uncreated'. This leads to the doctrine of i ` inimitability of the Qur ` an which implies that nobody can copy the work's style. Say, call whomsoever you can, other than God, if you speak the truth! This doctrine of i ` jaz possibly had a limiting effect on Arabic literature; proscribing exactly what could be written. And as to the poets, those who go astray follow them Do you not see that they wander about bewildered in every valley? This may have exerted dominance over the pre-Islamic poets of the 6th century whose popularity may have vied with the Qur ` the people.Arabic literature – The Qur'an was one of the first major works of Arabic literature and definitely the most influential.
31. Shmuel Moreh – Professor Moreh writes in Arabic, Hebrew, English. Nazik al-mala ` ika and al-shi' al-hurr in modern Arabic literature. Jersusalem: Israel Oriental Society. 1968 Arabic works by 1863-1973. Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute, 1973 Bibliography of Arabic books and periodicals published in Israel 1948-1972. Jerusalem: Mount Scopus Center, 1974 Jewish poets and writers of modern Iraq. Jerusalem: University of Jerusalem, 1974 Modern Arabic poetry 1800-1970: the development of its forms and themes under the influence of Western literature. Leiden: Brill, 1976 Studies in modern Arabic prose and poetry. Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1988 Live theatre and dramatic literature in the medieval Arab world. New York: New York University Press, 1992 Jewish contributions to nineteenth century Arabic theatre: plays from Algeria and Syria: a study and texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996 Al Farhud: the 1941 program in Iraq. Jerusalem: Magnes Press. 2010 Marvelous Chronicles: Biographies and Events. 5 volumes.Shmuel Moreh – Shmuel Moreh
32. Sun Yat-sen – Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese physician and revolutionary, the first president and founding father of the Republic of China. Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the years leading up to the Xinhai Revolution. He was appointed to serve as Provisional President of the Republic of China when it was founded in 1912. He later co-founded the Nationalist Party of China, serving as its first leader. Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of frequent exile. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split after his death. Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: the people's livelihood. His genealogical name was Sun Deming. As a child, his nickname was Dixiang. His baptized name was Rixin. While at school in Hong Kong he got the name Yat-sen. The most popular of his Chinese names, came from Nakayama Shō, the Japanese name given to him by Tōten Miyazaki. Sun Yat-sen was born on 12 November 1866. His birthplace was the village of Xiangshan County, Guangdong Province.Sun Yat-sen – Sun Yat-Sen
33. Leonard Leslie Brooke – Leonard Leslie Brooke was a British artist and writer. Brooke was born on 24 September 1862, in Birkenhead, England. His witty illustrations in Andrew Lang's Nursery Rhyme Book established his reputation as a leading children's book illustrator of pen-and-ink line drawings and watercolors. Brooke married Sybil Diana Brooke. In Children's Reading, Lewis M. Terman and Margaret Lima recommended some of his picture books, commenting that Brooke "catches the spirit of childhood with rare skill". Brooke has two paintings in British National Collections.Leonard Leslie Brooke – Illustration by Leonard Leslie Brooke of the story " Three Little Pigs ".
34. The Three Little Pigs – The Three Little Pigs is a fable/fairy tale featuring anthropomorphic pigs who build three houses of different materials. The story itself is thought to be much older. The various morals drawn from it, have become embedded in Western culture. It is a type 124 folktale in the Aarne -- Thompson system. The Three Little Pigs was included by James Halliwell-Phillipps. The story in its arguably best-known form appeared by Joseph Jacobs, first published in 1890 and crediting Halliwell as his source. The story begins with the title characters being sent out by their mother to "seek out their fortune". A wolf blows it down and eats him. The little pig builds a house of furze sticks, which the wolf also blows down and eats him. Each exchange between pig features ringing proverbial phrases, namely: "Little, little Pig, let me come in." "no, not by the hair on my triple chin chin." "I'll puff, I'll blow your house in." The little pig builds a house of bricks. The wolf fails to blow down the house. He is outwitted each time.The Three Little Pigs – The wolf blows down the straw house in a 1904 adaptation of the story. Illustration by Leonard Leslie Brooke.
35. Fable – Usage has not always been clearly distinguished. A person who writes fables is a fabulist. The fable is one of the most enduring forms of literature, spread abroad, modern researchers agree, less by literary anthologies than by oral transmission. Fables can be found in the literature of almost every country. Epicharmus of Kos and Phormis are reported as having been among the first to invent comic fables. Familiar fables of Aesop include "The Crow and the Pitcher", "The Tortoise and the Hare" and "The Lion and the Mouse". Oral culture has a rich story-telling tradition. Grandparents fill the new role of story-telling during retirement years. , to some extent, adults are mesmerized by good story-tellers when they become animated in their quest to tell a good fable. India learns qualities from natural elements. Most of the gods are some form of animals with ideal qualities. Also hundreds of fables were composed in ancient India often as stories within frame stories. Indian fables have a mixed cast of animals. The dialogues are often witty as the animals try to outwit one another by trickery and deceit. In Indian fables, man is not superior to the animals.Fable – Anthropomorphic cat guarding geese, Egypt, c. 1120 BC
36. Anthropomorphism – Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions and natural forces like seasons and the weather. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters. People have also routinely attributed human emotions and behavioural traits to wild as well as domestic animals. Anthropomorphism derives from its verb form anthropomorphize, itself derived from the Greek ánthrōpos and morphē. It is first attested in 1753, originally in reference to the heresy of applying a human form to the Christian God. It is not possible to say what these prehistoric artworks represent. In either case there is an element of anthropomorphism. This anthropomorphic art has been linked by archaeologist Steven Mithen with the emergence of more systematic hunting practices in the Upper Palaeolithic. Ancient mythologies frequently represented the divine as deities with human forms and qualities. They resemble human beings not only in appearance and personality; they exhibited many human behaviors that were used to explain natural phenomena, creation, historical events. The deities fell in love, married, had children, fought battles, wielded weapons, rode horses and chariots. They feasted on special foods, sometimes required sacrifices of food, beverage, sacred objects to be made by human beings. Some anthropomorphic deities represented specific human concepts, such as love, war, fertility, beauty, or the seasons. Anthropomorphic deities exhibited human qualities such as beauty, wisdom, power, sometimes human weaknesses such as greed, hatred, jealousy, uncontrollable anger.Anthropomorphism – In this illustration by Milo Winter of Aesop 's fable, " The North Wind and the Sun ", an anthropomorphic North Wind tries to strip the cloak off of a traveler
37. Big bad wolf – The Big Bad Wolf is a fictional wolf appearing in several cautionary tales that includes some of Aesop's Fables and Grimms' Fairy Tales. Instead, the gods sent him. Ethologist Dr. Valerius Geist of the University of Calgary, Alberta wrote that the fable was likely based at the time. Wilderness were treated as enemies of humanity in that region and time. The Wolf's voice was provided by Billy Bletcher. As in the folktale, he was a threatening menace. The short also introduced the Wolf's theme song, "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?", written by Frank Churchill. The Wolf is shown as wearing a top hat, red pants, white gloves. He doesn't, however, wear shoes. Both the audience and the Practical Pig can easily see through the Wolf's disguises. When Olivier produced a version of Shakespeare's Richard III, he based some of his mannerisms on Harris, his physical appearance on the wolf. The short was so popular that Walt Disney produced several sequels, which also featured the Wolf as the villain. The first of them was named after him: The Big Bad Wolf, first released on April 14, 1934. In the next of Three Little Wolves, he was accompanied by three just-as-carnivorous sons. The fourth cartoon featuring the Wolf, The Practical Pig, was released in 1939.Big bad wolf – A depiction of the Big Bad Wolf with Little Red Riding Hood by Gustave Doré.
38. Pitcairn Island – Only Pitcairn, the second-largest island that measures about 3.6 kilometres from east to west, is inhabited. The islands are inhabited mostly by descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians who accompanied them, an event retold in numerous books and films. This history is still apparent in the surnames of many of the islanders. With only about 50 permanent inhabitants, originating from four main families, Pitcairn is the least populous national jurisdiction in the world. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes the Pitcairn Islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Although archaeologists believe that Polynesians were living on Pitcairn as late as the 15th century, the islands were uninhabited when they were rediscovered by Europeans. Ducie and Henderson Islands were discovered by Portuguese sailor Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, sailing for the Spanish Crown, who arrived on 26 January 1606. He named them La Encarnación and San Juan Bautista, respectively. Pitcairn Island was sighted on 3 July 1767 by the crew of the British sloop HMS Swallow, commanded by Captain Philip Carteret. The island was named after Midshipman Robert Pitcairn, a fifteen-year-old crew member, the first to sight the island. Robert Pitcairn was a son of British Marine Major John Pitcairn, who later was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill in the American Revolution. This made Pitcairn difficult to find, as highlighted by the failure of Captain James Cook to locate the island in July 1773. The wreck is still visible underwater in Bounty Bay, discovered in 1957 by National Geographic explorer Luis Marden. Although the settlers survived by farming and fishing, the initial period of settlement was marked by serious tensions among them. Alcoholism, murder, disease and other ills took the lives of most mutineers and Tahitian men.Pitcairn Island – The mutineers turning Bligh and part of the officers and crew adrift from the Bounty, 29 April 1789
39. Creole language – A creole language is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages. Creole languages therefore have a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar. About one hundred creole languages have arisen since 1500. These are predominantly based on European languages, due to the Atlantic trade that arose at that time. In addition to creoles that have European languages as their base, there are, for example, creoles based on Arabic, Chinese, Malay. The creole with the largest number of speakers is Haitian Creole, with about ten million native speakers. However, there are semantic shifts. On the other hand, the grammar that has evolved often has new or unique features that differ substantially from those of the parent languages. The pidgin-creole cycle was studied in the 1960s. Creoles share more grammatical similarities with each other than with the languages from which they are phylogenetically derived. However, there is no widely accepted theory that would account for those perceived similarities. Like most minority languages, creoles have generally been regarded as degenerate variants or dialects of their parent languages. Because of that prejudice, many of the creoles that arose in the European colonies, having been stigmatized, have become extinct. However, academic changes in recent decades have improved the status both as living languages and as object of linguistic study. Some creoles have even been granted the status of political territories.Creole language – Road sign in Guadeloupe Creole meaning Slow down. Children are playing here. The literal translation is "Lift your foot [from the accelerator]. There are small people playing here".
40. Light Quarterly – Light is an online journal which bills itself as "America's oldest and best-known journal of light verse." Light was founded by retired postal worker John Mella. Mella personally published the journal until 2008, when he founded the non-profit Foundation with a $500,000 gift from poet Joyce La Mers. The Foundation, headed by Mella, took over publication of the journal. After Mella's death in 2012, the magazine was relaunched as an semiannual publication, edited by his handpicked successor, poet Melissa Balmain. The all-volunteer staff includes poets Kevin Durkin, Julie Kane, Gail White. The verse in each issue begins with a feature on a writer of light verse. According to themes. A recurring column called "Historical and Hysterical" was introduced by A. M. Juster in Summer' 13. The magazine has included the verse of Wendy Cope, Tom Disch, X. J. Kennedy, Richard Wilbur, among many others. Notable contributors include the following: 2. Nicol, Alfred, "A New Morning for Light" A New Morning for Light. LightLight Quarterly – Light № 70–71, Winter 2010–2011
41. The Siege: The Attack on the Taj – The Siege: The Attack on the Taj is a non-fiction book by Cathy Scott-Clerk and Adrian Levy. It is an account of the 2008 attacks on The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel in Mumbai, India, during the night of 26 November 2008. It presents an view of the attacks based by the authors. The book was first published by Penguin Books in 2013. It includes unreleased documents from the trial of Ajmal Kasab in India, including telephone conversations between the militants. The book opens with a description of the day-to-day life of the rich and wealthy people of Mumbai. A highly regarded critic working for the Times of India is present. A wedding reception is underway. Less than an hour after start of the party, the attackers bypass security and make their way into the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel. They immediately start shooting, people hide under the dinner tables. The book is considerably more violent than other books in this category. The authors describe the militants as "landlocked boys from rural communities, who knew only about goats". The book includes descriptions of how people were ambushed as they tried to escape, of the days of violence that followed the initial attacks. Interviews with many victims of the attack are included in the book. The Siege has received mainly positive reviews from critics.The Siege: The Attack on the Taj – The cover picture of the book
42. 2008 Mumbai attacks – There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, in a taxi at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 all sites except for the Taj Hotel had been secured by security forces. Ajmal Kasab disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, among others. The Government of India said that the attackers came from Pakistan, their controllers were in Pakistan. On 7 January 2009, Pakistan confirmed the sole surviving perpetrator of the attacks was a Pakistani citizen. On 9 Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi, was granted bail against surety bonds of 200,000 in Pakistan. There have been non-state attacks since the 13 coordinated bomb explosions that killed 257 people and injured 700 on 12 March 1993. The 1993 attacks are believed to have been in retaliation for the Babri Mosque demolition. On 6 a blast in a BEST bus near Ghatkopar station injured 28. The bombing occurred on the 10th anniversary of the demolition of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya. On 28 a blast in a BEST bus in Ghatkopar injured 32. On 25 two bombs exploded at Zaveri Bazaar in Kalbadevi. At least 44 people were killed and 150 injured. According to the Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India. A group of men, sometimes stated at 26, received training in marine warfare at a remote camp in mountainous Muzaffarabad.2008 Mumbai attacks – One of the bomb-damaged coaches at the Mahim station in Mumbai during the 11 July 2006 train bombings
43. Anne Boleyn – Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII, Marquess of Pembroke in her own right. In February/March 1526, Henry VIII began his pursuit of Anne. She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress – which her sister Mary had been. It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry's desires to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine so he would be free to marry Anne. When it became clear that Pope Clement VII would not annul the marriage, the breaking of the power of the Catholic Church in England began. In 1532, Henry granted Anne the Marquessate of Pembroke. Henry and Anne married on 25 January 1533, after a secret marriage on 14 November 1532. Shortly afterwards, the Pope decreed sentences of excommunication against Henry and Cranmer. Anne was crowned Queen of England on 1 June 1533. On 7 September, she gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I. Henry was disappointed to have a daughter rather than a son but hoped a son would follow and professed to love Elizabeth. Anne subsequently had three miscarriages, by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour. Henry had Anne investigated for high treason in April 1536. She was beheaded four days later. Modern historians view the charges against her, which included plotting to kill the king, as unconvincing.Anne Boleyn – Copy of a portrait painted c. 1534
44. Hu Yepin – Hu Yepin was a Chinese writer, poet, playwright. Hu Yepin was born May 1903 in Fujian province. He had four younger brothers and a younger sister. At age 15 he began working as an apprentice of a goldsmith. In 1920 Hu moved to Shanghai, where he attended Pudong High School, changed his name to Hu Chongxuan. A year later he went to Tianjin to study at the Dagukou navy academy. However, the navy academy was shut down soon afterwards, he drifted to nearby Beijing. He changed his name again to Hu Yepin. In the summer of 1924, Hu Yepin met Ding Ling, who had recently arrived in Beijing from Shanghai. They fell in love and became unofficially married in 1925. At the end of 1928, their close friend, writer Shen Congwen, left Beijing for Shanghai. The trio founded Red and Black. The venture closed afterwards. To repay his debts, Hu Yepin accepted a job in 1929. In May 1930, the Kuomintang government ordered the arrest of Hu Yepin for his pro-Communist teaching.Hu Yepin – Hu Yepin 胡也频
45. Kuomintang – The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional president but he did not have military power and ceded the first presidency to the military leader Yuan Shikai. After Yuan's death, China was divided by warlords, while the KMT was able to control only part of the south. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of China in 1928. In Taiwan, the KMT continued as the single ruling party until the reforms in the late 1970s through the 1990s loosened its grip on power. Since 1987, the Republic of China is no longer a single-party state; however, the KMT remains one of the main political parties. The KMT is currently the main opposition party in the Legislative Yuan. The guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. Its party headquarters are located in Taipei. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. The previous president, Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, was the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan. The group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. Sun, the then-President of the ROC, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The party opposed constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan.Kuomintang – The KMT refer reverentially to founder Sun Yat-sen as the "Father of the Nation." Sun is pictured here in 1917.
46. 1830 – As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. It is known in European history in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and Italy. January 11 – LaGrange College began operation, becoming the first publicly chartered college in Alabama. March 26 – The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York. May 13 – Ecuador separates from Gran Colombia. June 26 – William IV succeeds his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom. July 5 – France invades Algeria. July 17 – Barthélemy Thimonnier is granted a patent for a sewing machine in France; it chains stitches at 200/minute. July 18 – Uruguay adopts its first constitution. July 20 – Greece grants citizenship to Jews. July 27 – France: The July Revolution begins. August 9 – France: Louis Philippe becomes King of the French. August 13 – France: Duc de Broglie becomes Prime Minister. August 25 – The Belgian Revolution begins. August 31 – Edwin Beard Budding is granted a patent for the invention of the lawn mower.1830 – Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution (July 27).
47. Robert Hamerling – Robert Hamerling was an Austrian poet. Hamerling was born at Kirchberg am Walde in Lower Austria. He displayed an early genius for poetry; his youthful attempts at drama excited the admiration of some influential persons. Owing to their assistance young Hamerling was able to attend afterwards the University of Vienna. After the collapse of the revolutionary movement he was obliged to hide for a couple of weeks to escape arrest. For the few years he pursued his studies in natural science and philosophy, in 1855 became master at the Gymnasium at Trieste. A popular edition of Hamerlings works in four volumes was published by M. M. Rabenlechner. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Hamerling, Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Robert Hamerling at Internet Archive Robert Hamerling in the German National Library catalogue Robert-Hamerling-Museum Thomas Meyer: Hamerling and Steiner antisemitic? Robert Hamerling In: Roman History Project. Datenbank. University of Innsbruck.Robert Hamerling – Robert Hamerling
48. 1855 – As of the start of 1855, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 1 – Ottawa, Ontario is incorporated as a city. January 5 – Ramón Castilla begins his third term as President of Peru. The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a predecessor of the modern-day Father Louis Hennepin Bridge. The 8.2–8.3 Mw Wairarapa earthquake claims between five and nine lives near the Cook Strait area of New Zealand. January 26 – The Point No Point Treaty is signed in the Washington Territory. January 27 – The Panama Railway becomes the first railroad to connect the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. January 29 – Lord Aberdeen resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom over the management of the Crimean War. February 5 – Lord Palmerston becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. February 11 – Kassa Hailu is crowned Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia. February 12 – Michigan State University is established. February 22 – Pennsylvania State University is founded as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania. March 2 – Alexander II ascends the Russian throne, upon the death of his father Nicholas I. March 3 – The United States Congress appropriates $30,000 to create the U.S. Camel Corps. March 16 – Bates College is founded by abolitionists in Lewiston, Maine.1855 – Marie-Anne de Bovet
49. Olive Schreiner – Olive Schreiner was a South African author, anti-war campaigner and intellectual. Although she showed interest amongst other things, her true views escape restrictive categorisations. Schoeman acknowledges that while The Story of an African Farm is by no means perfect, it is still gripping even to the modern reader. This edition corrects the proofreading errors that marred previous editions. It also provides another ending to the novel, besides the one her husband summarised. FROM MAN TO MAN OR PERHAPS ONLY was Schreiner's favourite among her novels. Gottlob Schreiner and Rebecca Lyndall, married in England in 1837. She was named after Oliver, Albert and Emile, who died before she was born. Olive received virtually all of her initial education from her mother, gifted. Frederic Samuel obtained a BA at London University and founded New College in Eastbourne in 1873/4. He continued to run the junior school until 1901. He was interred in the town. When Olive was six, Gottlob transferred in the Eastern Cape to run the Wesleyan training institute there. As with so many of his other projects, he was expelled in disgrace for trading against missionary regulations. He tried a business venture.Olive Schreiner – Olive Schreiner
50. 1882 – As of the start of 1882, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The Standard Oil Trust is secretly created in the United States to control multiple corporations set up by John D. Rockefeller and his associates. January 5 – Charles J. Guiteau is found guilty of the assassination of James A. Garfield, despite an insanity defense raised by his lawyer. He will be hanged on June 30. February 3 – American showman P. T. Barnum acquires the elephant Jumbo from London Zoo. March 2 – Roderick McLean fails in an attempt to assassinate Queen Victoria at Windsor. March 22 – Polygamy is made a felony by the Edmunds Act passed by the United States Congress. March 24 – Robert Koch announces the discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis. Republican Jules Ferry makes primary education in France free, non-clerical and obligatory. German medical products company Beiersdorf is founded. A Catholic fraternal service organization, is founded in New Haven, Connecticut. April 3 – Old West outlaw Jesse James is shot in the back of the head and killed by Robert Ford. April 29 – The "Elektromote", the world's first trolleybus started in Berlin. May 1 – Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, as known well for philharmonic orchestra group in Europe, which founded in Germany. May 2 – Charles Stewart Parnell is released.1882 – Photograph of the comet as seen from Cape Town by David Gill
51. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, was one of the five Fireside Poets. Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine, then a part of Massachusetts. He studied at Bowdoin College. After spending time in Europe he became a professor at Bowdoin and, later, at Harvard College. His major collections were Voices of the Night and Ballads and Other Poems. Mary Potter died after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861, after sustaining burns when her dress caught fire. After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on translating works from foreign languages. He died in 1882. He wrote many lyric poems often presenting stories of legend. He became the most popular American poet of his day and also had success overseas. He has been criticized, however, for imitating European styles and writing specifically for the masses. Peleg Wadsworth, was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress. He was named after his mother's brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli.Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron in 1868
52. 1905 – As of the start of 1905, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The U.S. expanded west, with the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces and the founding of Las Vegas. January 1 – The Trans-Siberian Railway officially opens after its completion on July 21, 1904. January 2 – Russo-Japanese War: The Russian Army surrenders at Port Arthur in Qing dynasty China. January 5 – The play The Scarlet Pimpernel opens at the New Theatre in London and begins a run of 122 performances and numerous revivals. January 26 Russian Revolution of 1905: The Imperial Russian Army opens fire on demonstrators in Riga, Governorate of Livonia, killing 73 and injuring 200 people. The Cullinan Diamond is found at the Premier Mine. February 12 -- In New Zealand, the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament is opened. February 17 – At Fremantle, the R.M.S. Orizaba is wrecked, but all 160 passengers and the mail are saved. February 20 – Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Mukden begins in Manchuria. February 23 – Rotary International is founded. March 1 – Australian Conservative leader Richard Butler takes office as Premier of South Australia. March 3 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to create an elected assembly. March 4 – Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in for a full term as President of the United States.1905 – The Bloody Sunday massacre of Russian demonstrators, at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg.
53. Jules Verne – Verne has been the most-translated author in the world since 1979, ranking between Agatha Christie and William Shakespeare. He has sometimes been called the "Father of Science Fiction", a title that has also been given to H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback. In 1829, the Verne family moved some hundred meters away to No. 2 Quai Jean-Bart, where Verne's brother Paul was born the same year. Anna, Mathilde, Marie, would follow. At the age of six, Verne was sent to boarding school at 5 Place du Bouffay in Nantes. Mme Sambin, was the widow of a naval captain who had disappeared some 30 years before. In 1836, Verne went on to a Catholic school suiting the pious religious tastes of his father. Verne quickly distinguished himself in mémoire, geography, Greek, singing. In 1836, Pierre Verne bought a vacation house at 29 Rue des Réformés in the village of Chantenay on the Loire River. In his brief memoir "Souvenirs d'enfance de jeunesse", Verne recalled a deep fascination with the river and with the many merchant vessels navigating it. In 1840, the Vernes moved again at No. 6 Rue Jean-Jacques-Rousseau, where the family's youngest child, Marie, was born in 1842. In the same year Verne entered the Petit Séminaire de Saint-Donatien, as a lay student. His unfinished novel prêtre en 1839, written in his teens and the earliest of his prose works to survive, describes the seminary in disparaging terms. From 1844 to 1846, his brother were enrolled in the Lycée Royal. After finishing classes in philosophy, he took the baccalauréat at Rennes and received the grade "Fairly good" on 29 July 1846.Jules Verne – Photograph by Nadar c. 1878
54. 1916 – As of the start of 1916, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. Below, the events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix. January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion using blood, stored and cooled. January 13 – WWI: Battle of Wadi: Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British during the Mesopotamian campaign in modern-day Iraq. Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co.: The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the national income tax. January 29 – WWI: Paris is bombed by German zeppelins for the first time. January 31 – WWI: An attack is planned on Verdun, France. February 3 – Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada are burned down. February 9 – 6.00 p.m. – Tristan Tzara "founds" the art movement Dadaism. Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control in the United States. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presents its first concert in the United States. The Romanian club Sportul Studențesc is founded in Bucharest. Other British Empire troops fail to take a German East African defensive position. February 21 – WWI: The Battle of Verdun begins in France. March 7 -- In Munich German company BMW is founded.1916 – Troops from New Zealand during WWI.
55. 1926 – January 1 Flooding of the Rhine River struck Cologne; 50,000 were forced to evacuate their homes. 2RN, began broadcasting. January 3 – Theodoros Pangalos declared himself dictator in Greece. January 6 – The airline Deutsche Luft Hansa was founded in Berlin. January 8 – Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud was crowned King of Hejaz. It was Correll's more popular later program, Amos'n' Andy. January 16 – A BBC comic radio play broadcast by Ronald Knox about a workers' revolution caused a panic in London. January 21 – The Belgian Parliament accepted the Locarno Treaties. January 29 – Eugene O'Neill's The Great God Brown opened at the Greenwich Theatre. January 31 – British and Belgian troops left Cologne. Wall Street in New York City was sold at a record $7 per sq inch. February 8 – Seán O'Casey's The Plough and the Stars opened at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. February 9 – Flooding hit London suburbs. February 12 – The Irish minister for Justice, Kevin O'Higgins, appointed the Committee on Evil Literature. February 20 – The Berlin International Green Week debuted in Berlin.1926 – March 16: Goddard with rocket in 1926.
56. Dario Fo – In his time he was "arguably the most widely performed contemporary playwright in world theatre". His work of the 1960s, 1980s is peppered with criticisms of assassinations, corruption, organised crime, racism, Roman Catholic theology and war. The title of the original English translation of Non Si Paga! Non Si Paga! has passed into the English language. "The play captures something universal in reactions of the working class." His receipt of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Literature marked the "international acknowledgment of Fo as a major figure in twentieth-century theatre". The Swedish Academy praised Fo as a writer "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in upholding the dignity of the downtrodden". He operated a theatre company. Fo was an atheist. An eldest child, Fo was born at Sangiano, in Lombardy's Province of Varese, near the eastern shore of Lago Maggiore. Fulvio would become a theatre administrator, their younger sister Bianca Fo Garambois, a writer. Pina Rota Fo, from a peasant background, wrote a book of reminiscences of the area between the wars, Il paese delle rane. A socialist, was also an actor, appearing for an amateur theatre company in works by Ibsen among others. Fo learned storytelling from his maternal grandfather and Lombard glassblowers. In 1940, Fo moved to Milan to study at the Brera Academy.Dario Fo – Dario Fo in Cesena
57. 1927 – January 1 – The Cristero War erupts in Mexico when Catholic rebels attack the government, which had placed heavy restrictions on the Catholic Church. January 7 – The first transatlantic telephone call is made via radio from New York City to London. January 7 – The Harlem Globetrotters play their first ever road game in Hinckley, Illinois. January 9 – A military rebellion is crushed in Lisbon, Portugal. January 15 – Teddy Wakelam gives the first sports commentary on BBC Radio. January 19 – Great Britain sends troops to China to protect foreign nationals from spreading anti-foreign riots in Central China. January 24 – U.S. marines invade Nicaragua by orders of President Calvin Coolidge, intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil War and remaining in the country until 1933. January 30 – Right-wing veterans and the Republikanischer Schutzbund clash in Schattendorf, Austria, with two fatalities resulting. February – Werner Heisenberg formulates his famous uncertainty principle while employed as a lecturer at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen. February 12 – The first British troops land in Shanghai. February 14 – An earthquake in Yugoslavia kills 100. A general strike in Shanghai protests the presence of British troops. In the United States, It starring Clara Bow is released, popularising the concept of the "It girl". February 23 – The U.S. Federal Radio Commission begins to regulate the use of radio frequencies. March 4 – A diamond rush in South Africa includes trained athletes that have been hired by major companies to stake claims.1927 – May 20: Solo flight New York to Paris
58. Martin Walser – Martin Walser is a German writer. He became famous for describing the conflicts his anti-heroes have in his stories. In 1998 he was awarded the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in Frankfurt. Walser was born on Lake Constance. They also kept an inn next to the train station in Wasserburg. He described the environment in which he grew up in his novel Ein Brunnen. From 1938 to 1943 he was served in an anti-aircraft unit. By the end of the Second World War, he was a soldier in the Wehrmacht. After the war he completed his Abitur in 1946. He then studied literature, philosophy at the University of Regensburg and the University of Tübingen. He received his doctorate for a thesis on Franz Kafka, written under the supervision of Friedrich Beißner. While studying, Walser wrote his first radio plays. In 1950, he married Katharina "Käthe" Neuner-Jehle. He has four daughters from this marriage: Franziska Walser is an actress; Theresia Walser are professional writers. Johanna has occasionally published with her father.Martin Walser – Walser at a book presentation in Aachen, Germany, in 2008
59. History of literature – Not all writings constitute literature. This article relates only to the evolution of the works defined above. Writing, though connected, are not synonymous. Scholars have often disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more than anything else; the definition is largely subjective. The deliberate suppression of texts by organisations of either a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Primary texts, however, may be isolated which have a qualifying role as literature's first stirrings. Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in written form are impossible to date. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid millennium BC. The Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th BC at the earliest. Homer's Iliad and date to the 8th century BC and mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity. They also stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Age. The great Hindu epics were also transmitted orally, likely predating the Maurya period. The Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works by anonymous authors dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC. The Chu Ci anthology is a volume of poems considered to be inspired by Qu Yuan's verse writing. The great author on military tactics and strategy was Sun Tzu, whose The Art of War remains on the shelves of many modern military officers.History of literature – A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh
60. History of the book – The history of the book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day. Its scope includes the history of history of religion, bibliography, conservation and curation. The history of the book came in the latter half of the 20th century. It was fostered in 1958 as well as Marshall McLuhan's Gutenberg Galaxy. Another pioneer is Robert Darnton.History of the book – A 15th-century Incunable. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.
61. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. Also, the publisher can refer to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, marketing and distribution. This is also known as vanity publishing. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query proposal directly to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from previously unpublished authors. The acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent. This policy shifts the burden of developing writers onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of author earnings to pay for their services.Publishing – Printer working an early Gutenberg letter press from the 15th century. (engraving date unknown)
62. Comedy – The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. Northrop Frye depicted a "Society of the Old". Political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them. Similarly scatological humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love. The adjective "comic", which strictly means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage, generally confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning. The Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy worse than the average. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings. It is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, later with humour in general.Comedy – Thalia, muse of comedy, holding a comic mask - detail of “Muses Sarcophagus”, the nine Muses and their attributes; marble, early second century AD, Via Ostiense - Louvre
63. Epic poetry – Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form. These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic employs dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both. Epics also tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values, particularly as they pertain to heroism. Another type of epic poetry is epyllion, a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme. The term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century. The most famous example of classical epyllion is perhaps Catullus 64. The first epics were products of preliterate societies and oral poetic traditions. In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means. Early twentieth-century study of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status, interest and importance. This facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it. Parry and Lord also showed that the most likely source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance. An attempt to delineate ten main characteristics of an epic: Begins in medias res.Epic poetry – Tablet containing a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh
64. Fantasy literature – Fantasy literature is the body of written works that employ the motifs, themes, stylistic approaches expected in the fantasy genre. Historically, most works of fantasy were written pieces of literature. Since the 1960s, a growing segment of the genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games, music and painting. Stories involving paranormal terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature. Homer's Odyssey satisfies the definition of the genre with its magic, gods, heroes, adventures and monsters. Fantasy literature as a distinct type emerged with the works of writers such as Mary Shelley, William Morris and George MacDonald. Rarely does one consider modern fantasy without conjuring the memory and image of Tolkien and his creations. The tradition established by these predecessors of early twentieth centuries has continued to thrive and be adapted by new authors. The influence of J.R.R. Tolkien's fiction has—particularly over the genre of high fantasy—prompted backlash. At the turn of the millennium, the Harry Potter novels of J. K. Rowling achieved widespread popularity. Authors often engage against which the narrative plays out. Symbolism often plays a significant role in literature, often through the use of archetypal figures inspired by earlier texts or folklore. Some argue that the messages are continually updated for current societies. Ursula K.Fantasy literature – Fantasy
65. Horror novel – It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere. Horror is frequently supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. These were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, ghosts. Gothic horror drew on these sources by Horace Walpole. This marked the first incorporated elements of the supernatural instead of pure realism. In fact, the first edition was published disguised from Italy republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as contemporary, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or simply in poor taste — but it proved to be immediately popular. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the modern readers call literature in the 19th century. Each of these novellas created an enduring icon of horror screen. The proliferation of cheap periodicals, as as the turn of the century, led in horror writing. One writer who specialized for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction dealt with themes of cruelty. Later, specialist publications emerged to give an outlet, including Unknown Worlds. Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums. This imagery made these comics controversial, as a consequence they were frequently censored.Horror novel – An Illustration of Poe's " The Raven " by Gustave Doré
66. Narrative nonfiction – Creative nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. For a text to be considered creative nonfiction, it written to literary style and technique. Forms within this genre include biography, autobiography, memoir, diary, travel writing, food writing, literary journalism, other hybridized essays. By this, she means that the events discussed in the verifiably exist in the natural world. The third characteristic that Lounsberry claims is crucial in defining the genre is "The scene". She stresses the importance of revivifying the context of events in contrast to the journalistic style of objective reportage. The final feature she suggests is "Fine writing: a literary style". When book-length works of creative nonfiction follow a story-like arc, they are sometimes called narrative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction writers have embraced new ways of forming their texts—including online technologies—because the genre leads itself to grand experimentation. Dozens of new journals have sprung up—both in print and online—that feature creative nonfiction prominently in their offerings. To my mind this literary tinkering does not alter the more profound truth of the story." This concept of fact vs. fiction is elaborated in Suzanne Paola's book entitled "Tell it Slant." They argue that "...memory itself can be called its own bit of creative nonfiction. We continually—often unconsciously—renovate our memories, shaping them into stories that bring coherence to chaos. Memory has been called the ultimate'mythmaker'..." as even one’s firsthand accounts are unreliable.Narrative nonfiction – Journalism
67. Literary nonsense – Even though the most well-known form of literary nonsense is nonsense verse, the genre is present in many forms of literature. The effect of nonsense is often caused by an excess of meaning, rather than a lack of it. Its humor is derived from the "joke" of a punchline. Literary nonsense, as recognized since the nineteenth century, comes from a combination of two artistic sources. The first and older source is the oral folk tradition, such as the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle Diddle. The literary figure Mother Goose represents common incarnations of this style of writing. The second, newer source of literary nonsense is in the intellectual absurdities of court poets, intellectuals of various kinds. Today's literary nonsense comes from a combination of both sources. Lewis Carroll continued this trend, making literary nonsense a worldwide phenomenon with Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Carroll's Jabberwocky, which appears in the latter book, is often considered quintessential nonsense literature. In literary nonsense, formal elements of language and logic that facilitate meaning are balanced by elements that negate meaning. These formal elements include semantics, syntax, phonetics, context, formal diction. Nonsense tautology, absurd precision have also been used in the nonsense genre. For a text to be within the genre of literary nonsense, it must have an abundance of nonsense techniques woven into the fabric of the piece. It does not make a text, overall, literary nonsense.Literary nonsense – John Tenniel 's depiction of the nonsense creatures in Carroll 's Jabberwocky.
68. Lyric poetry – Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic and epic. Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress. The most common meters are as follows: Iambic – two syllables, with the short or unstressed syllable followed by the long or stressed syllable. Trochaic – two syllables, with the long or stressed syllable followed by the short or unstressed syllable. In English, this metre is found almost entirely in lyric poetry. Pyrrhic – Two unstressed syllables Anapestic – three syllables, with the first two short or unstressed and the last long or stressed. Dactylic – three syllables, with the first one long or stressed and the other two short or unstressed. Spondaic – two syllables, with two successive long or stressed syllables. Some forms have a combination of meters, often using a different meter for the refrain. For the ancient Greeks, poetry had a technical meaning: verse, accompanied by barbitos. Because such works were typically sung, it was also known as melic poetry. The scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria created a canon of nine lyric poets deemed especially worthy of critical study. These archaic and classical musician-poets included Sappho, Alcaeus, Anacreon and Pindar. Archaic lyric was characterized by strophic composition and live musical performance.Lyric poetry – Henry Oliver Walker 's 1896 Lyric Poetry in the Library of Congress 's Thomas Jefferson Building
69. Mythopoeia – Mythopoeia is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional or artificial mythology is created by the writer of prose or other fiction. This meaning of the mythopoeia follows its use by J. R. R. Tolkien in the 1930s. The authors in this genre integrate mythological themes and archetypes into fiction. Mythopoeia is also the act of making mythologies. Mythopoeic authors include Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, William Blake, H. P. Lovecraft, Lord Dunsany, Mervyn Peake and George MacDonald. While literary works carry mythic themes, only a few approach the dense self-referentiality and purpose of mythopoeia. Mythopoeia are almost invariably created entirely like the world of Middle-earth. The mythopoeia is from Greek μυθοποιία, "myth-making". In early uses, it referred in ancient times. It was adopted and used by Tolkien as a title of one of his poems, published in Tree and Leaf. The poem popularized the mythopoeia as a literary and artistic endeavor and genre. Campbell spoke of a Nietzschean world which has today outlived much of the mythology of the past. For example, the noted folklorist Alan Dundes argued that "any novel cannot meet the cultural criteria of myth. A work of artifice, can not be said to be the narrative of a culture's sacred tradition... at most, artificial myth." Perhaps the first attempt to construct mythology was the book of Syros written in Greek Southern Italy in the 6th century BCE.Mythopoeia – Because William Blake worked in multiple artistic mediums, printing and illustrating extensive art books, his own extensive mythological community is both written about and illustrated. Here, Los is tormented at his smithy by the characteristic part of human nature Spectre in an illustration Blake's poem Jerusalem. This image comes from Copy E. of that work, printed in 1821 and in the collection of the Yale Center for British Art
70. Romance fiction – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. There are many subgenres of the novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, science fiction. Austen inspired the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction. The Black Moth, was set in 1751. Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s. Their books were allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An American example of a mass-market romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss' The Flame and the Flower, published by Avon Books. Nancy Coffey was the senior editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, comprising almost 55% of all paperback books sold in 2004. Romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written from English-speaking countries leading to an Anglo-Saxon perspective in the fiction. Despite widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre. Erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. Furthermore, a novel must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending."Romance fiction – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
71. Science fiction – Science fiction often has been called a "literature of ideas." Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of themes. Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible." Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about futures. A spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots and other types of characters arising from a future human evolution. Futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, humanoid computers. Scientific principles that contradict accepted physical laws, for example time travel, wormholes, or faster-than-light travel or communication. New and different political or social systems, e.g. utopian, dystopian, post-scarcity, or post-apocalyptic. Paranormal abilities such as control, telepathy, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Kepler's work the first science story. It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story to the moon. More examples appeared throughout the 19th century.Science fiction – A futuristic setting is a common but not a necessary hallmark of science fiction. A common thread in science fiction is exploring the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations on people's lives.
72. Tragedy – Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. In the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against theatre. Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy. Taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation. The word "tragedy" appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = "goat song", which comes from tragos = "he-goat" and aeidein = "to sing". There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy, mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested. Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed. Scott Scullion writes: There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as "song for the prize goat". Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides.Tragedy – Aristotle's Tragic Plot Structure
73. Tragicomedy – Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. There is no complete formal definition of tragicomedy from the classical age. In this respect, a number of Greek and Roman plays, for instance Alcestis, may be called tragicomedies, though without any definite attributes outside of plot. The word itself originates with the comic playwright Plautus, who coined the term to his Amphitryon. Two figures helped to elevate tragicomedy to the status of a regular genre, by, meant one with its own set of rigid rules. Even more important was Giovanni Battista Guarini. Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, published in 1590, provoked a fierce critical debate in which Guarini's spirited defense of generic innovation eventually carried the day. Guarini's tragicomedy offered modulated action that never drifted far either to a pastoral setting. All three became staples of continental tragicomedy for a century and more. In England, where practice ran ahead of theory, the situation was quite different. For the law of writ and the liberty, these are the only men." By the early Stuart period, some English playwrights had absorbed the lessons of the Guarini controversy. John Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess, an adaptation of Guarini's play, was produced in 1608. Some of Fletcher's contemporaries, notably Philip Massinger and James Shirley, wrote successful and popular tragicomedies. Richard Brome also essayed the form, but with less success.Tragicomedy – Tragic Comic masks of Ancient Greek theatre represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic.
74. Latin American literature – American literature has a rich and complex tradition of literary production that dates back many centuries. Pre-Colombian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala. Natives also contributed to the body of colonial literature. The "libertadores" themselves were also often distinguished writers, such as Andrés Bello. Such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, usually mandatory elements of high curricula. Important works of 19th Century Latin American literature include José Hernández's epic poem Martín Fierro. In the 19th century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío's Azul. José Martí, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico and the USA and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. And in 1900 the Uruguayan José Enrique Rodó wrote what became read as a manifesto for Ariel. The Venezuelan Romulo Gallegos wrote in 1929 what came to be one of the most well known Latin American novels in Doña Barbara. Doña Barbara is a masterpiece of criollismo. The novel became an immediate hit, being translated into over forty languages. In Chile, others founded in 1938 the Mandrágora group, strongly influenced by Surrealism as well as by Vicente Huidobro's Creacionismo.Latin American literature – Gabriel García Márquez, the most famous of the Boom writers
75. Medieval literature – Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of this time was composed of religious writings well as secular works. Just as in modern literature, it is a rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane, touching all points in-between. Works of literature are often grouped by place of origin, genre. However, in Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Orthodox Church made Greek and Old Church Slavonic the dominant written languages. The common people continued to use their respective vernaculars. Celtic traditions have survived in the lais of Marie de France, the Arthurian cycles. Another host of literature has survived in the Old Norse literature and more specifically in the Saga literature of Iceland. A notable amount of medieval literature is anonymous. And even when they did, they often claimed to be handing down something from an auctor instead. The invention of biography can be attributed to this period. Theological works were the dominant form of literature typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. It is their literature, produced in the greatest quantity. Countless hymns survive from this period. The liturgy itself was not in numerous competing missals set out individual conceptions of the order of the mass.Medieval literature – The first page of Beowulf
76. Renaissance literature – Renaissance literature refers to European literature, influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance. For the writers of the Renaissance Greco-Roman inspiration was shown both in the literary forms they used. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective. Platonic ideas were put to the service of Christianity. The search for a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period. New literary genres such as new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent; countries that were predominantly Protestant experienced the Renaissance differently. Areas where the Orthodox Church was culturally dominant, well as those areas of Europe under Islamic rule were more or less outside its influence. The period focused on one's ability to accept what is going on in one's life. The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in the 14th century; Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli and Ariosto are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance continued to spread around Europe through the 17th century. The Renaissance in Scotland date from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.Renaissance literature – Renaissance
77. 12th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 12th century. The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase from the multiplying cathedral schools. These two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters in the following centuries. 1104: September 3 St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral and the St. Cuthbert Gospel of St. John removed from his tomb. 1170: Poet, politician and historian Lu You travels on the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by'Gallus Anonymus' c. 1113 Primary Chronicle 1122–54 Peterborough Chronicle c. 1125–50 Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis by Albert of Aix c. 1149–50 Visio Tnugdali transcribed by Brother Marcus c. 1150–55 Roman de Brut by Wace Concludes 1152 Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Book 1 by Otto of Freising 1154 – Henry of Huntingdon: Historia Anglorum c. 1178–1208 Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus c. 1181–82 Witherlogh by Sven Aggesen c. 1183 De bello Troiano by Joseph of Exeter c. 1186–87 Historia brevis regum Dacie by Sven Aggesen 1188 Topographia Hibernica by Gerald of Wales 1190s Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja c. 1190–1215 Brut by Layamon 1192 Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi by Richard of Devizes c. 1152–64 Liber viarum Dei by Elisabeth of Schönau c. 1160 Policraticus by John of Salisbury 1163? Makhzan al-Asrar by Nizami Ganjavi c.12th century in literature – Scribe of Eadwine Psalter (mid-12th century, English)
78. 14th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 14th century. See also: 14th century in poetry, 13th century in literature, list of years in literature. 1323 – The name Pléiade is adopted by a group of fourteen poets in Toulouse. Arnaut Vidal de Castelnou d'Ari wins the d'or for a sirventes in praise of the Virgin Mary. At about this date, Raimon de Cornet writes Doctrinal de trobar in support of the aims of the Gay Saber. 21 September -- The deposed King Edward II of England perhaps writes the "Lament of Edward II". 6 April – Tuscan writer Petrarch sees a woman he names Laura in the church of Sainte-Claire d'Avignon, which awakes in him a lasting passion. 27 August – Death of Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester in England. C. 1330 – Production of the Macclesfield Psalter in East Anglia. 1331 – Production of the Nuremberg Mahzor. 1341: 8 April – Petrarch becomes poet laureate at a ceremony in Rome. 1357 – The Polychronicon concludes, Ranulf Higden having ceased work on it at least a dozen years earlier. 1362: September – Petrarch's library is donated to the Republic of Venice, although subsequently dispersed. 1368 The new Hongwu Emperor in China halts government taxation on books. The Bibliothèque nationale de France is founded as the Royal Library by Charles V of France.14th century in literature – Yoshida Kenkō
79. 15th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 15th century. See also: 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature, list of years in literature. 1403 – A guild of stationers is founded in the City of London. As the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, it continues to be a Livery Company in the 21st century. 1403–08 – The Yongle Encyclopedia is written in China. C. 1408–11 – An Leabhar Breac is probably compiled by Murchadh Ó Cuindlis at Duniry in Ireland. C. 1410 -- John, commissions the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, illustrated by the Limbourg brothers between c. 1412 and 1416. 1424 – The first French royal library is transferred by the English regent of France, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, to England. 1425 – At about this date the first Guildhall Library is established in the City of London under the will of Richard Whittington. 1434 – Japanese Noh actor and playwright Zeami Motokiyo is exiled to Sado Island by the Shogun. 1443 – King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul as the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is first described in the Hunminjeongeum published on 1444: 15 June -- Cosimo de' Medici founds the Laurentian Library in Florence. 1448 – Pope Nicholas V founds the Vatican Library in Rome. 1 August -- A manuscript of Dante's Divine Comedy is sold in London.15th century in literature – Page of the Gutenberg Bible
80. 2012 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2012. January 1 – Copyright restrictions on James Joyce's major works are lifted on the first day of the year. February – James Joyce's children's story The Cats of Copenhagen is published for the first time by Ithys Press in Dublin. December – The discovery is announced of "The Tallow Candle", a previously unknown story by Hans Christian Andersen. It was found in October. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: Hot Art Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2012 Governor General's Awards. Man Booker Prize: Bring Up the Bodies by Hilary Mantel Miles Franklin Award: Anna Funder, All That I Am.2012 in literature – Mo Yan in Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature
81. 2011 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2011. July – J. K. Rowling terminates her relationship with long-standing agent Christopher Little to join rival Neil Blair. September 24 – The first 100 Thousand Poets for Change Day takes place, the organisation having been founded by Michael Rothenberg and Terri Carrion in March. November 12 – Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Literature Museum Library opens in Istanbul, Turkey. Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2011 Governor General's Awards. Corral, Shane McCrae, Kerri Webster List of literary awards List of poetry awards 2011 in comics 2011 in Australian literature2011 in literature – Tomas Tranströmer in 2008
82. 2010 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2010. February – The Wheeler Centre, Australia's "literary hub", is officially opened. April 3 – First release of the Apple iPad electronic book reading device. April 12 – Little-known author Paul Harding wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his debut novel Tinkers published by tiny Bellevue Literary Press. July 27 – Stieg Larsson's Millennium Trilogy becomes an international sensation. As of May 2010, a total of million copies have been sold worldwide. On July 27 Amazon says Larsson is first author to sell more than million Kindle e-books. November 16 – The 2010 Governor General's Awards are announced. Winners include Dianne Warren for English fiction, Kim Thúy for French fiction, Robert Chafe for drama. November – Mark Twain's Autobiography is published 100 years after the author's death, the delay instructed by Twain himself. Unofficial copies had been published several times during the 20th century. Censorship in the Republic of Ireland by the state ceases as all prior bans expire. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: A Very Capable Life Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2010 Governor General's Awards.2010 in literature – Mario Vargas Llosa in 2010
83. 2009 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2009. April 21 – UNESCO launches the World Digital Library. August 10 -- Standard orthography for writing in the Silesian language is adopted at a meeting of the Standardization Committee of the Silesian Language. October 8 – Romanian-born German novelist Herta Müller wins the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature. November 10 – Linden MacIntyre wins the 2009 Scotiabank Giller Prize for his novel The Bishop's Man. Allen & Unwin announce the suspension of their annual Iremonger Award, on the grounds that no manuscript of sufficient merit has been submitted. Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm-Zentrum library opens at Humboldt University of Berlin. Hajime Asano and Seiji Kikuchi – Mayo Chiki! Reif Larsen – The Selected Works of T.S. Spivet Peter Lerangis – The Sword Thief Patrick Ness – The Ask and the Answer D.J. Machale – The Soldiers of Halla Joshua Mowll et al. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: Burning Down the House Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2009 Governor General's Awards.2009 in literature – Herta Müller
84. 2008 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2008. May 7–11 – First Palestine Festival of Literature. July – Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children is the winner of a poll to select the "Best of the Booker". First Twitter novels appear. Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction: Stardust Governor General's Awards: Multiple categories; see 2008 Governor General's Awards. Sweet Ladies!2008 in literature – Margaret Truman
85. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014