1. Literature – Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been attempts to define literature. Simon and Delyse Ryan begin their attempt to answer the question What is Literature, with the observation, The quest to discover a definition for literature is a road that is much travelled, though the point of arrival, if ever reached, is seldom satisfactory. Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, and they change over time. In fact, the thing that is certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well, definitions of literature have varied over time, it is a culturally relative definition. In Western Europe prior to the century, literature as a term indicated all books. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high quality or distinction and this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing. The formalist definition is that literature foregrounds poetic effects, it is the literariness or poetic of literature that distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of writing. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura learning, a writing, grammar, originally writing formed with letters, in spite of this, the term has also been applied to spoken or sung texts. Poetry is a form of art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of. Possibly as a result of Aristotles influence, poetry before the century was usually less a technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive or rhetorical art. As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral tradition, novel, a long fictional prose narrative. It was the close relation to real life that differentiated it from the chivalric romance, in most European languages the equivalent term is roman. In English, the term emerged from the Romance languages in the fifteenth century, with the meaning of news, it came to indicate something newLiterature – The Classic of Rites (Chinese: 禮 記; pinyin: Lǐjì), an ancient Chinese text. Certain definitions of literature have taken it to include all written work.
2. Ordinary language – Such philosophical uses of language, on this view, create the very philosophical problems they are employed to solve. Ordinary language philosophy is a branch of linguistic philosophy closely related to logical positivism and this approach typically involves eschewing philosophical theories in favor of close attention to the details of the use of everyday ordinary language. These ideas were elaborated from 1945 onwards through the work of some Oxford University philosophers led initially by Gilbert Ryle. This Oxford group also included H. L. A. Hart, Geoffrey Warnock, J. O. Urmson, the close association between ordinary language philosophy and these later thinkers has led to it sometimes being referred to as Oxford philosophy. More recent philosophers with at least some commitment to the method of language philosophy include Stanley Cavell, John Searle. The later Wittgenstein held that the meanings of words reside in their ordinary uses, from this came the idea that philosophy had gotten into trouble by trying to understand words outside of the context of their use in ordinary language. The controversy really begins when ordinary language philosophers apply the same leveling tendency to questions such as What is Truth. or What is Consciousness, philosophers in this school would insist that we cannot assume that Truth is a thing, which the word truth represents. Instead, we must look at the ways in which the words truth. We may well discover, after investigation, that there is no entity to which the word truth corresponds. Therefore, ordinary language philosophers tend to be anti-essentialist, of course, this was and is a very controversial viewpoint. The essentialist Truth as thing is argued to be related to projects of domination. Similar arguments sometimes involve ordinary language philosophy with other anti-essentialist movements like post-structuralism, however, strictly speaking, this is not a position derived from Wittgenstein, as it still involves misuse of the term truth in reference to alternate truths. Early analytic philosophy had a positive view of ordinary language. Bertrand Russell tended to dismiss language as being of little philosophical significance, frege, the Vienna Circle, the young Wittgenstein, and W. V. Quine, all attempted to improve upon it, in using the resources of modern logic. By contrast, Wittgenstein would later describe his task as bringing back from their metaphysical to their everyday use. At its inception, ordinary language philosophy had been taken as either an extension of or as an alternative to analytic philosophy and it is now not uncommon to hear that Ordinary Language philosophy is no longer an active force. Wittgenstein is perhaps the one among the major figures of linguistic philosophy to retain anything like the reputation he had at that timeOrdinary language – Wittgenstein (second from right), Summer 1920
3. Poetry – Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor, simile and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. The oldest surviving poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logicPoetry – Aristotle
4. Novel – A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book. The genre has also described as possessing, a continuous. This view sees the novels origins in Classical Greece and Rome, medieval, early modern romance, the latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long prose narrative, Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel, a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, a novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word romance for extended narratives, fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion, historians would also invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the hand, depict the social, political and personal realities of a place and period with clarity. Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byrons Don Juan, Alexander Pushkins Yevgeniy Onegin, vikram Seths The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations, on the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, conduct and gallantry spread with novels, the novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella, short story, and flash fiction. However, in the 17th century critics saw the romance as of epic length, the length of a novel can still be important because most literary awards use length as a criterion in the ranking system. Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into consciously fictional novels by the Ming dynasty, parallel European developments did not occur for centuries, and awaited the time when the availability of paper allowed for similar opportunities. By contrast, Ibn Tufails Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus are works of didactic philosophy, in this sense, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan would be considered an early example of a philosophical novel, while Theologus Autodidactus would be considered an early theological novel. Epic poetry exhibits some similarities with the novel, and the Western tradition of the novel back into the field of verse epics. Then at the beginning of the 18th century, French prose translations brought Homers works to a wider public, longus is the author of the famous Greek novel, Daphnis and Chloe. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the circles of High Medieval. In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a tendency to emphasize themes of courtly loveNovel – Madame de Pompadour spending her afternoon with a book, 1756.
5. Aesthetics – Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgements of sentiment. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as critical reflection on art, in modern English, the term aesthetic can also refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory, one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic. The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι, for some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has also to give a definition of what art is. Art is an entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics, art as knowledge or art as action, any aesthetic doctrines that guided the production and interpretation of prehistoric art are mostly unknown. Western aesthetics usually refers to Greek philosophers as the earliest source of aesthetic considerations. Plato believed in beauty as a form in which beautiful objects partake and he felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, harmony, and unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the elements of beauty were order, symmetry. From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a revolution into what is often called modernism. German and British thinkers emphasized beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, and saw art as necessarily aiming at absolute beauty. For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the experiences, a younger sister of logic. For Immanuel Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a judgment of a subjective but similar human truth, however, beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. For Friedrich Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature, for Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the philosophy of art is the organon of philosophy concerning the relation between man and nature. So aesthetics began now to be the name for the philosophy of art, Friedrich von Schlegel, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel also gave lectures on aesthetics as philosophy of art after 1800. For Hegel, all culture is a matter of absolute spirit coming to be manifest to itself, stage by stage, Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest immediately to sense-perception, and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty. It is thus for Schopenhauer one way to fight the suffering, the British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic campsAesthetics – Bronze sculpture, thought to be either Poseidon or Zeus, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
6. Genre – Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry, prose, and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system. Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized, and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation, recombination, and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult. They also must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture bookGenre – A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)
7. Romance novel – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship, there are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, and science fiction. Walter Scott defined the literary form of romance as a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, Heyers first romance novel, The Black Moth, was set in 1751. The British company Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s and their books were sold in North America by Harlequin Enterprises Ltd, which began direct marketing to readers and allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An early American example of a romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss The Flame. Nancy Coffey was the editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, the genre is also popular in Europe and Australia, and romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written by authors from English-speaking countries, despite the popularity and widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, and criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre, erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. According to the Romance Writers of America, the plot of a romance novel must revolve about the two people as they develop romantic love for each other and work to build a relationship. Furthermore, a novel must have an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Others, including Leslie Gelbman, a president of Berkley Books, define the genre more simply, stating only that a romance must make the romantic relationship between the hero and the heroine. Bestselling author Nora Roberts sums up the genre, saying, The books are about the celebration of falling in love and emotion and commitment, some romance novel authors and readers believe the genre has additional restrictions, from plot considerations, to avoiding themes. While the majority of romance novels meet the criteria, there are also many books widely considered to be romance novels that deviate from these rules. Therefore, the definition, as embraced by the RWA and publishers, includes only the focus on a developing romantic relationship. As long as a romance novel meets those criteria, it can be set in any time period. There are no restrictions on what can or cannot be included in a romance novelRomance novel – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
8. Mystery fiction – Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved. In a closed circle of suspects, each suspect must have a credible motive, the central character must be a detective who eventually solves the mystery by logical deduction from facts fairly presented to the reader. Mystery fiction can be detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle or suspense element, Mystery fiction can be contrasted with hardboiled detective stories, which focus on action and gritty realism. Mystery fiction may involve a mystery where the solution does not have to be logical. This contrasted with parallel titles of the names which contained conventional hardboiled crime fiction. The first use of mystery in this sense was by Dime Mystery, the genre of mystery novels is a young form of literature that has developed over the past 200 years. The rise of literacy began in the years of the English Renaissance and, as began to read over time. As people became more individualistic in their thinking, they developed a respect for human reason, perhaps a reason that mystery fiction was unheard of before the 1800s was due in part to the lack of true police forces. Before the Industrial Revolution, many of the towns would have constables, naturally, the constable would be aware of every individual in the town, and crimes were either solved quickly or left unsolved entirely. As people began to crowd into cities, police forces became institutionalized and the need for detectives was realized – thus the mystery novel arose. An early work of mystery fiction, Das Fräulein von Scuderi by E. T. A. Hoffmann, was an influence on The Murders in the Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe as may have been Voltaires Zadig. Wilkie Collins epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, in 1887 Arthur Conan Doyle introduced Sherlock Holmes, whose mysteries are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. The genre began to expand near the turn of century with the development of dime novels, books were especially helpful to the genre, with many authors writing in the genre in the 1920s. An important contribution to fiction in the 1920s was the development of the juvenile mystery by Edward Stratemeyer. Stratemeyer originally developed and wrote the Hardy Boys and Nancy Drew mysteries written under the Franklin W. Dixon, the massive popularity of pulp magazines in the 1930s and 1940s increased interest in mystery fiction. The detective fiction author Ellery Queen is also credited with continuing interest in mystery fiction, interest in mystery fiction continues to this day because of various television shows which have used mystery themes and the many juvenile and adult novels which continue to be published. There is some overlap with thriller or suspense novels and authors in those genres may consider themselves mystery novelists. Comic books and like graphic novels have carried on the tradition, Mystery fiction can be divided into numerous categories, including traditional mystery, legal thriller, medical thriller, cozy mystery, police procedural, and hardboiledMystery fiction – Mystery, 1934 mystery fiction magazine cover
9. Fantasy – Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other elements as a main plot element, theme. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, in popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy works by many writers, artists, filmmakers. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, history. The identifying trait of fantasy is the reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent. This differs from realistic fiction in that whereas realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, an author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters, plots, and settings that are impossible in reality. Fantasy has often compared with science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements, a science fiction narrative is unlikely, though seeming possible through logical scientific and/or technological extrapolation, whereas fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. The imagined elements of fantasy do not need an explanation to be narratively functional. Authors have to rely on the suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment. Despite both genres heavy reliance on the supernatural, fantasy and horror are distinguishable, horror primarily evokes fear through the protagonists weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Beginning perhaps with the earliest written documents, mythic and other elements that would come to define fantasy. MacDonald was an influence on both J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, lord Dunsany established the genres popularity in both the novel and the short story form. Many popular mainstream authors also began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Indeed, juvenile fantasy was considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy in A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, intended for children, though works for adults only verged on fantasy. Political and social trends can affect a societys reception towards fantasy, in the early 20th century, the New Culture Movements enthusiasm for Westernization and science in China compelled them to condemn the fantastical shenmo genre of traditional Chinese literatureFantasy – Fairy tales and legends, such as Dobrynya Nikitich 's rescue of Zabava Putyatichna from the dragon Gorynych, have been an important source for fantasy.
10. The Time Traveler's Wife – The Time Travelers Wife is the debut novel of American author Audrey Niffenegger, published in 2003. Niffenegger, frustrated in love when she began the work, wrote the story as a metaphor for her failed relationships, the tales central relationship came to her suddenly and subsequently supplied the novels title. The novel, which has classified as both science fiction and romance, examines issues of love, loss, and free will. In particular, it uses time travel to explore miscommunication and distance in relationships, as a first-time novelist, Niffenegger had trouble finding a literary agent. She eventually sent the novel to MacAdam/Cage unsolicited and, after an auction took place for the rights, many reviewers were impressed with Niffeneggers unique perspectives on time travel. Some praised her characterization of the couple, applauding their emotional depth, others criticized her style as melodramatic. The novel won the Exclusive Books Boeke Prize and a British Book Award, a film version was released in August 2009. Henry has a genetic disorder, which comes to be known as Chrono-Impairment. When 20-year-old Clare meets 28-year-old Henry at the Newberry Library in 1991 at the opening of the novel, he has never seen her before, Henry begins time traveling at the age of five, jumping forward and backward relative to his own timeline. When he leaves, where he goes, or how long his trips will last are all beyond his control and his destinations are tied to his subconscious—he most often travels to places and times related to his own history. Certain stimuli such as stress can trigger Henrys time traveling, he goes jogging to keep calm. He searches out pharmaceuticals in the future that may be able to control his time traveling. He also seeks the advice of a geneticist, Dr. Kendrick, Henry cannot take anything with him into the future or the past, he always arrives naked and then struggles to find clothing, shelter, and food. He amasses a number of skills including lock-picking, self-defense. Much of this he learns from older versions of himself, on one of his early visits, Henry gives her a list of the dates he will appear and she writes them in a diary so she will remember to provide him with clothes and food when he arrives. During another visit, he reveals that they will be married in the future. Over time they develop a close relationship, at one point, Henry helps Clare frighten and humiliate a boy who abused her. Clare is last visited in her youth by Henry in 1989, on her eighteenth birthday and they are then separated for two years until their meeting at the libraryThe Time Traveler's Wife – First edition
11. Audrey Niffenegger – Audrey Niffenegger is an American writer, artist and academic. Niffeneggers debut novel, The Time Travelers Wife, was published in 2003, a film adaptation was released in 2009. She has written a novel, or novel in pictures as Niffenegger calls it. This book tells the story of three sisters who live in a seaside house. The book has been compared to the work of Edward Gorey, another graphic novel, The Adventuress, was released on September 1,2006. The 2004 short story The Night Bookmobile was serialised in 2008 in Visual Novel format in The Guardian, in March 2009, Niffenegger sold her second novel, a literary ghost story called Her Fearful Symmetry, to Charles Scribners Sons for an advance of $5 million. The book was released on October 1,2009 and is set in Londons Highgate Cemetery where, during research for the book, Niffenegger collaborated with Wayne McGregor on a balletic fable, Raven Girl, performed at the Royal Opera House in London in 2013,2015. She is currently working on a novel called The Chinchilla Girl in Exile and she is a professor in the Department of Creative Writing at Columbia College Chicago. She is the member of T3 or Text 3, an artist and writers group that also performs. Niffenegger is an alumna and board member of the Ragdale Foundation and she described herself as somewhere in the spectrum of agnosticism and atheism and ascribed her disbelief to her Catholic background. Ghostly An anthology of ghost stories selected and illustrated by Audrey Niffenegger, feature-length radio interview on KGNU with Claudia Cragg discussing Her Fearful Symmetry Audrey Niffenegger Papers at Newberry LibraryAudrey Niffenegger – Audrey Niffenegger in 2009
12. Time travel – Some ancient myths depict skipping forward in time. The Buddhist Pāli Canon mentions the relativity of time, in the period of our century, one hundred years, only a single day, twenty four hours would have passed for them. The Japanese tale of Urashima Tarō, first described in the Nihongi tells of a fisherman named Urashima Taro who visits an undersea palace. After three days, he returns home to his village and finds himself 300 years in the future, where he has forgotten, his house is in ruins. Early science-fiction stories feature characters who sleep for years and awaken in a changed society. Among them LAn 2440, rêve sil en fût jamais by Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving, Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, prolonged sleep, like the more familiar time machine, is used as a means of time travel in these stories. Decades-long and centuries-long sleep is featured in ancient myths. Like forward time travel, backward time travel has an uncertain origin, the narrator rides to ancient Greece on a hippogriff, meets Aristotle, and goes on a voyage with Alexander the Great before returning to the 19th century. While the narrator waits under a tree for a coach to take him out of Newcastle and he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery and explains to him the developments of the coming centuries. However, the story never makes it clear whether these events are real or a dream, charles Dickenss A Christmas Carol has early depictions of time travel in both directions, as the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, is transported to Christmases past and future. However, these might be interpreted as visions rather than as time travel because Scrooge experiences the time periods as a rather than as a participant. A clearer example of time travel is found in the popular 1861 book Paris avant les hommes by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard. This may have been the first story to feature an alternate history created as a result of time travel. Early time machines One of the first stories to feature time travel by means of a machine is The Clock that Went Backward by Edward Page Mitchell, however, the mechanism borders on fantasy. An unusual clock, when wound, runs backwards and transports people nearby back in time, the author does not explain the origin or properties of the clock. Enrique Gaspar y Rimbaus El Anacronópete may have been the first story to feature a vessel engineered to travel through time, H. G. Wellss The Time Machine popularized the concept of time travel by mechanical means. In technical papers, physicists generally avoid the language of moving or traveling through time. Movement normally refers only to a change in position as the time coordinate is variedTime travel – Statue of Rip Van Winkle in Irvington, New York
13. Metaphor – A metaphor is a figure of speech that refers, for rhetorical effect, to one thing by mentioning another thing. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas, antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile are all types of metaphor. The Philosophy of Rhetoric by rhetorician I. A. Richards describes a metaphor as having two parts, the tenor and the vehicle, the tenor is the subject to which attributes are ascribed. The vehicle is the object whose attributes are borrowed, other writers employ the general terms ground and figure to denote the tenor and the vehicle. Cognitive linguistics uses the target and source, respectively. Metaphors are most frequently compared with similes, a simile is a specific type of metaphor that uses the words like or as in comparing two objects, whereas what is commonly referred to as a metaphor states that A is B or substitutes B for A. What is usually referred to as a metaphor asserts the two objects in the comparison are identical on the point of comparison, a simile merely asserts a similarity, for this reason a common-type metaphor is generally considered more forceful than a simile. The metaphor category also contains these types, Allegory, An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates an important attribute of the subject. Antithesis, A rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences Catachresis, A mixed metaphor used by design and accident. Hyperbole, Excessive exaggeration to illustrate a point Metonymy, A figure of speech using the name of one thing in reference to a different thing of which the first is associated, example, in lands belonging to the crown the word crown is metonymy for ruler or monarch. Parable, An extended metaphor narrated as an anecdote illustrating and teaching such as in Aesops fables, pun, Similar to a metaphor, a pun alludes to another term. However, the difference is that a pun is a frivolous allusion between two different things whereas a metaphor is a purposeful allusion between two different things. Metaphor, like other types of analogy, can usefully be distinguished from metonymy as one of two modes of thought. Thus, a metaphor creates new links between otherwise distinct conceptual domains, whereas a metonymy relies on the links within them. A dead metaphor is one in which the sense of an image has become absent. Examples, to grasp a concept and to gather what youve understood use physical action as a metaphor for understanding, the audience does not need to visualize the action, dead metaphors normally go unnoticed. Some people distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché, others use dead metaphor to denote both. A mixed metaphor is one that leaps from one identification to a second identification inconsistent with the first, e. g. CheckmateMetaphor – A political cartoon from an 1894 Puck magazine by illustrator S.D. Ehrhart, shows a farm woman labeled "Democratic Party" sheltering from a tornado of political change.
14. Science fiction – Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a literature of ideas. Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying science fiction is what we point to when we say it, a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography, you do not know what it is, in 1970 or 1971William Atheling Jr. According to science fiction writer Robert A, rod Serlings definition is fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. Science fiction elements include, A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, a spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots, futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers. Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted physical laws, for time travel, wormholes. New and different political or social systems, e. g. utopian, dystopian, post-scarcity, paranormal abilities such as mind control, telepathy, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of science itself. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Keplers work the first science fiction story and it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earths motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, more examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Wells The War of the Worlds describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry and it is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth. In the late 19th century, the scientific romance was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland, the term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon. In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his series of Barsoom novels, situated on MarsScience fiction – A futuristic setting is a common but not a necessary hallmark of science fiction. A common thread in science fiction is exploring the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations on people's lives.
15. Free will – Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action. It is closely linked to the concepts of responsibility, praise, guilt, sin and it is also connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion, deliberation, and prohibition. Traditionally, only actions that are freely willed are seen as deserving credit or blame, There are numerous different concerns about threats to the possibility of free will, varying by how exactly it is conceived, which is a matter of some debate. Some conceive free will to be the capacity to make choices in which the outcome has not been determined by past events, determinism suggests that only one course of events is possible, which is inconsistent with the existence of such free will. This problem has been identified in ancient Greek philosophy, and remains a focus of philosophical debate. In contrast, compatibilists hold that free will is compatible with determinism, compatibilists thus consider the debate between libertarians and hard determinists over free will vs determinism a false dilemma. Different compatibilists offer very different definitions of free will even means. Contemporary compatibilists instead identify free will as a capacity, such as to direct ones behavior in a way responsive to reason. The underlying questions are whether we have control over our actions, and if so, what sort of control and these questions predate the early Greek stoics, and some modern philosophers lament the lack of progress over all these millennia. On one hand, humans have a sense of freedom. On the other hand, a feeling of free will could be mistaken. The conflict between intuitively felt freedom and natural law arises when either causal closure or physical determinism is asserted, with causal closure, no physical event has a cause outside the physical domain, and with physical determinism, the future is determined entirely by preceding events. The puzzle of reconciling free will with a universe is known as the problem of free will or sometimes referred to as the dilemma of determinism. This dilemma leads to a dilemma as well, How are we to assign responsibility for our actions if they are caused entirely by past events. Compatibilists maintain that mental reality is not of itself causally effective, classical compatibilists have addressed the dilemma of free will by arguing that free will holds as long as we are not externally constrained or coerced. Modern compatibilists make a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, that is, separating freedom of choice from the freedom to enact it, given that humans all experience a sense of free will, some modern compatibilists think it is necessary to accommodate this intuition. Compatibilists often associate freedom of will with the ability to make rational decisions, a different approach to the dilemma is that of incompatibilists, namely, that if the world is deterministic then, our feeling that we are free to choose an action is simply an illusion. Metaphysical libertarianism is the form of incompatibilism which posits that determinism is false, yet even with physical indeterminism, arguments have been made against libertarianism in that it is difficult to assign OriginationFree will – Traditionally, only actions that are freely willed are seen as deserving credit or blame
16. MacAdam/Cage – MacAdam/Cage is a small publishing firm located in San Francisco, California. It was founded by publisher David Poindexter in 1998, as of 2003, it published around 30 to 45 titles per year, primarily fiction, short story collections, history, biography, and essays, and had twelve employees. Most notably, it published The Time Travelers Wife by Audrey Niffenegger, Publishers Weekly describes MacAdam/Cage as one of the West Coasts most literary independent publishing firms. The companys most successful publication has been Audrey Niffeneggers The Time Travelers Wife, until then, its most successful publication had been Mark Dunns Ella Minnow Pea, which sold 30,000 copies. In 2004, the company launched a book division, headed by Chandler Crawford. The bulk of the books published by MacAdam/Cage are translations into English. In the beginning, the company hoped to issue about eight titles a year, in 2009, the company entered a debt crisis, unable to meet financial obligations. This led to lawsuit and complaints by writers regarding nonpayment, including Ed Cline known for his Sparrowhawk novels, Linda Robertson, other problems cited included a distribution channel change, issues with investors and the loss of an editor-in-chief. After a long hiatus, they presented a catalog in 2012. The company filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on January 17,2014, according to MacAdam/Cage, the company aims to publ authors, not books, meaning they attempt to foster careers. Some of the authors they have signed include Mark Dunn, Michael Kun, Norman Gautreau, according to Publishers Weekly, the firm is earning a reputation for going to great lengths both to find and serve its authors. For example, MacAdam/Cage paid Stephen Elliott, author of Life Without Consequences, as of 2004, The Observer reported that the company received about 100 unsolicited manuscripts each week, all of which are read. In any case, my own natural inclination is to go small and my background is in punk music - Id always pick the indie company over the giant corporation. Niffenegger described her relationship with MacAdam/Cage as like being a member of a family, initially, the publishing house was devoted to literary fiction. With the resumption of operations, its expanded to include genres such as true crime. The firms editorial offices are located in San Francisco, California, as of April 2006, Random House Canada became its distributor in Canada with Doubleday Canada publishing the paperback versions of MacAdams hardcovers in Canada. In late 2008 as noted, the experienced a cash crunch, causing them to lay off several employeesMacAdam/Cage – Audrey Niffenegger 's The Time Traveler's Wife is the most successful book MacAdam/Cage has published.
17. Scott Turow – Scott Frederick Turow is an American author and lawyer. Turow has written nine fiction and two books, which have been translated into more than 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies. Films have been based on several of his books, Turow was born in Chicago, to a family of Russian Jewish descent. He attended New Trier High School, and graduated from Amherst College in 1970 and he received an Edith Mirrielees Fellowship to Stanford University’s Creative Writing Center, where he attended from 1970 to 1972. In 1971, he married Annette Weisberg, a painter and he married Adriane Glazier in a private ceremony on May 29,2016. The officiant at the wedding was humorist Dave Barry, Scott Turow later became a Jones Lecturer at Stanford, serving until 1975, when he entered Harvard Law School. In 1977, Turow wrote One L, a book about his first year at law school, after earning his Juris Doctor degree cum laude in 1978, Turow became an Assistant U. S. Attorney in Chicago, serving in that position until 1986. There he prosecuted several high-profile corruption cases, including the tax case of state Attorney General William Scott. Turow also was lead counsel in Operation Greylord, the prosecution of Illinois judicial corruption cases. All four became bestsellers, and Turow won multiple literary awards, in 1990, Turow was featured on the June 11 cover of Time, which described him as Bard of the Litigious Age. In 1995, Canadian author Derek Lundy published a biography of Turow, entitled Scott Turow, in the 1990s a British publisher bracketed Turow’s work with that of Margaret Atwood and John Irving, republished in the series Bloomsbury Modern Library. Turow was elected the president of the Authors Guild in 2010 and was president from 1997 to 1998. As the Authors Guild president he has criticized for his copyright maximalist. Turow has often responded that he is not against E-books and does the majority of his own reading electronically and his goal, he said often, is to protect writing as a livelihood. From 1997 to 1998 Turow was a member of the U. S. Senate Nominations Commission for the Northern District of Illinois, which recommends federal judicial appointments. Turow is a partner of the law firm Dentons having been a partner of one of its constituents. Turow works pro bono in most of his cases, including a 1995 case where he won the release of Alejandro Hernandez and he was also appointed to the commission considering the reform of the Illinois death penalty by former Governor George Ryan. He was the first Chair of Illinois Executive Ethics Commission and he served as one of the 14 members of the Commission appointed in March,2000, by Illinois Governor George Ryan to consider reform of the capital punishment systemScott Turow – Scott Turow, January 2008
18. Murasaki Shikibu – Murasaki Shikibu was a Japanese novelist, poet and lady-in-waiting at the Imperial court during the Heian period. She is best known as the author of The Tale of Genji, Murasaki Shikibu is a descriptive name, her personal name is unknown, but she may have been Fujiwara no Takako, who was mentioned in a 1007 court diary as an imperial lady-in-waiting. She married in her late twenties and gave birth to a daughter before her husband died. It is uncertain when she began to write The Tale of Genji, in about 1005, Murasaki was invited to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Empress Shōshi at the Imperial court, probably because of her reputation as a writer. She continued to write during her service, adding scenes from life to her work. After five or six years, she left court and retired with Shōshi to the Lake Biwa region, scholars differ on the year of her death, although most agree on 1014, others have suggested she was alive in 1031. Murasaki wrote The Diary of Lady Murasaki, a volume of poetry, early in the 20th century her work was translated, a six-volume English translation was completed in 1933. Scholars continue to recognize the importance of her work, which reflects Heian court society at its peak, since the 13th century her works have been illustrated by Japanese artists and well-known ukiyo-e woodblock masters. Murasaki Shikibu was born c.973 in Heian-kyō, Japan, into the northern Fujiwara clan descending from Fujiwara no Yoshifusa, the Fujiwara clan dominated court politics until the end of the 11th century through strategic marriages of Fujiwara daughters into the imperial family and the use of regencies. In the late 10th century and early 11th century, Fujiwara no Michinaga arranged his four daughters into marriages with emperors, the lower ranks of the nobility were typically posted away from court to undesirable positions in the provinces, exiled from the centralized power and court in Kyoto. Despite the loss of status, the family had a reputation among the literati through Murasakis paternal great-grandfather and grandfather and her great-grandfather, Fujiwara no Kanesuke, had fifty-six poems included in thirteen of the Twenty-one Imperial Anthologies, the Collections of Thirty-six Poets and the Yamato Monogatari. Her great-grandfather and grandfather both had been friendly with Ki no Tsurayuki, who became notable for popularizing verse written in Japanese and her father, Fujiwara no Tametoki, attended the State Academy and became a well-respected scholar of Chinese classics and poetry, his own verse was anthologized. He entered public service around 968 as a official and was given a governorship in 996. He stayed in service until about 1018, Murasakis mother was descended from the same branch of northern Fujiwara as Tametoki. The couple had three children, a son and two daughters, in the Heian era the use of names, insofar as they were recorded, did not follow a modern pattern. A court lady, as well as being known by the title of her own position, if any, thus Shikibu is not a modern surname, but refers to Shikibu-shō, the Ministry of Ceremonials where Murasakis father was a functionary. Michinaga mentions the names of several ladies-in-waiting in a 1007 diary entry, one, Fujiwara no Takako, in Heian-era Japan, husbands and wives kept separate households, children were raised with their mothers, although the patrilineal system was still followed. Murasaki was unconventional because she lived in her fathers household, most likely on Teramachi Street in Kyoto and their mother died, perhaps in childbirth, when the children were quite youngMurasaki Shikibu – Late 16th-century (Azuchi–Momoyama period) depiction of Murasaki Shikibu, by Kanō Takanobu (ja)
19. Lady-in-waiting – A lady-in-waiting or Court Lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family in good society, although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a companion to her mistress than a servant. In courts where polygamy was practiced, a lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services. Lady-in-waiting or court lady is often a term for women whose relative rank, title. The development of the office of lady-in-waiting in Europe is connected to that of the development of a royal court, in the late 12th-century, the queens of France are confirmed to have had their own household, and noblewomen are mentioned as ladies-in-waiting. A number of tribes and cultural areas in the African continent, within certain traditional states of the Bini and Yoruba peoples in Nigeria, the queen mothers and high priestesses were considered ritually male due to their social eminence. Due to this fact, they were often attended on by women who belonged to their harems in much the way as their actually male counterparts were served by women who belonged to theirs. This resulted in a mix of Burgundian and Spanish customs when the Austrian court model was created, the first rank of the female courtiers was the Obersthofmeisterin, who was second in rank after the empress herself, and responsible for all the female courtiers. Second rank belonged to the ayas, essentially governesses of the imperial children, the rest of the female noble courtiers consisted of the Hoffräulein, unmarried females from the nobility who normally served temporarily until marriage. The Hoffräulein could sometimes be promoted to Kammerfräulein, the Austrian court model was the role model for the princely courts in Germany. The German court model in turn became the model of the early modern Scandinavian courts of Denmark. The Kingdom of Belgium was founded in 1830, after which a court was founded. The ladies-in waiting have historically been chosen by the Queen herself from among the Catholic noble houses of Belgium, the chief functions at court were undertaken by members of the higher nobility, involving much contact with the royal ladies. Belgian princesses were assigned a lady upon their 18th birthday, princess Clementine was given a Dame by her father, a symbolic act of adulthood. When the Queen entertains, the ladies welcome guests and assist the hostess in sustaining conversation and this system has formally remained roughly the same. However, in practice, many offices have since then left vacant. For example, in recent times, Maids of Honour have only appointed for coronations. The duties of ladies-in-waiting at the Tudor court were to act as royal companions, Tudor queens often had wide personal latitude in selection of their ladies-in-waitingLady-in-waiting – Marie Louise of Savoy-Carignan, Princesse de Lamballe was lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette of France.
20. Heian period – The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism, the Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan. Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family, the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 A. D. after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu. Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, a rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable. The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, therefore the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that later generations have always admired. The period is noted for the rise of the samurai class. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara and other noble families required guards, police, the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. Still, a military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away. The entry of the class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency and their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors, Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces. The early Heian period continued Nara culture, the Heian capital was patterned on the Chinese Tang capital at Changan, as was Nara, Kanmu endeavoured to improve the Tang-style administrative system which was in use. Known as the ritsuryō, this attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan. Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period, Kanmus avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, and he became recognized as one of Japans most forceful emperorsHeian period – Kyōto, "Capital of 1000 Years".
21. The Diary of Lady Murasaki – The Diary of Lady Murasaki is the title of a collection of diary fragments written by the 11th-century Japanese Heian era lady-in-waiting and writer Murasaki Shikibu. It is written in kana, then a newly developed writing system for vernacular Japanese, more common among women, unlike modern diaries or journals, 10th-century Heian diaries tend to emphasize important events more than ordinary day-to-day life and do not follow a strict chronological order. The work includes vignettes, waka poems, and a section written in the form of a long letter. It was probably written between 1008 and 1010 when Murasaki was in service at the imperial court, the largest portion of the diary detail the birth of Empress Shōshis children. Shorter vignettes describe interactions among imperial ladies-in-waiting and other writers, such as Izumi Shikibu, Akazome Emon. Murasaki includes her observations and opinions throughout, bringing to the work a sense of life at the early 10th century Heian court, through the rise and use of kana, aristocratic women court writers formed a foundation for classical court literature, according to Haruo Shirane. Kokin Wakashūs first imperial waka collection, published c,905, set the foundation for court literature. Up to this point, Japanese literature was written in Chinese – traditionally the language of men in the public sphere and it was in the literature of the imperial court that the gradual shift toward vernacular kana writing system was most evident, and where waka poetry became immensely popular. By the early 11th century new genres of womens court literature were appearing in the form of diaries, Women, relegated to the private sphere, quickly embraced the use of kana, unlike men who still conducted business in Chinese. Womens writing showed a difference from mens, more personal. The three most noteworthy Heian era diaries in the genre of Nikki Bungaku – Murasakis Murasaki Shikibu nikki, Sei Shōnagons The Pillow Book, Murasakis diary covers a discrete period, most likely from 1008 to 1010. 1014 short poetry collection, the Murasaki Shikibu shū, Women were often identified by their rank or that of a husband or another close male relative. Muraski is a nickname given her at court, from a character in Tale of the Genji, around 998 Murasaki married Fujiwara no Nobutaka, she gave birth to a daughter in 999. Two years later her husband died, scholars are unsure when she started writing the novel The Tale of Genji but she was certainly writing after she was widowed, perhaps in a state of grief. In her diary she describes her feelings after her husbands death, for some years I had existed from day to day in listless fashion. Doing little more than registering the passage of time, the thought of my continuing loneliness was quite unbearable. She began writing her diary after entering imperial service, the diary consists of anecdotes in the form of vignettes, a lengthy description about Shōshis s eldest son Prince Atsuhiras birth, and an epistolary section. Set at the court in Kyoto, it opens with these words, As autumn advancesThe Diary of Lady Murasaki – Murasaki Shikibu, depicted by Tosa Mitsuoki, from his illustrations of The Tale of Genji (17th century)
22. Japanese literature – Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese. Indian literature also had an influence through the Diffusion of Buddhism in Japan, since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century, Western and Eastern literature have strongly affected each other and continue to do so. Before the introduction of kanji from China, Japanese had no writing system and it is believed that Chinese characters came to Japan at the very beginning of the fifth century, brought by immigrants from the mainland of Korean and Chinese descent. Chinese characters were further adapted, creating what is known as manyōgana. The earliest literary works in Japan were created in the Nara period, one of the stories they describe is the tale of Urashima Tarō. The Heian period has been referred to as the era of art. During this era, literature became centered on an elite of nobility. The imperial court patronized the poets, most of whom were courtiers or ladies-in-waiting. Reflecting the aristocratic atmosphere, the poetry was elegant and sophisticated and expressed emotions in a rhetorical style, editing the resulting anthologies of poetry soon became a national pastime. The iroha poem, now one of two standard orderings for the Japanese syllabary, was developed during the early Heian period. Genji Monogatari written in the early 11th century by a woman named Murasaki Shikibu is considered the pre-eminent masterpiece of Heian fiction, other important writings of this period include the Kokin Wakashū, a waka-poetry anthology, and Makura no Sōshi. The Pillow Book was written by Sei Shōnagon, Murasaki Shikibus contemporary and rival, as an essay about the life, loves, another notable piece of fictional Japanese literature was Konjaku Monogatarishū, a collection of over a thousand stories in 31 volumes. The volumes cover various tales from India, China and Japan, the 10th-century Japanese narrative, Taketori Monogatari, can be considered an early example of proto-science fiction. The protagonist of the story, Kaguya-hime, is a princess from the Moon who is sent to Earth for safety during a celestial war and she is later taken back to her extraterrestrial family in an illustrated depiction of a disc-shaped flying object similar to a flying saucer. During the Kamakura period, Japan experienced many civil wars led to the development of a warrior class, and subsequent war tales, histories. Work from this period is notable for its more sombre tone compared to the works of previous eras, with themes of life and death, simple lifestyles, and redemption through killing. A representative work is Heike monogatari, an account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the twelfth century. Other important tales of the period include Kamo no Chōmeis Hōjōki, despite a decline in the importance of the imperial court, aristocratic literature remained the center of Japanese culture in the beginning of the Kamakura periodJapanese literature – Murasaki Shikibu, the author of The Tale of Genji.
23. Ukiyo-e – The ukiyo-e genre of art flourished in Japan from the 17th through 19th centuries. The term ukiyo-e translates as picture of the floating world, Edo became the seat of government for the military dictatorship in the early 17th century. The merchant class at the bottom of the social order benefitted most from the rapid economic growth. Many indulged in the entertainments of kabuki theatre, courtesans, the term ukiyo came to describe this hedonistic lifestyle. The earliest success was in the 1670s with Moronobus paintings and monochromatic prints of beautiful women, colour in prints came gradually—at first added by hand for special commissions. By the 1740s, artists such as Masanobu used multiple woodblocks to print areas of colour, from the 1760s the success of Harunobus brocade prints led to full-colour production becoming standard, each print made with numerous blocks. Specialists have prized the portraits of beauties and actors by masters such as Kiyonaga, Utamaro, Following the deaths of these two masters, and against the technological and social modernization that followed the Meiji Restoration of 1868, ukiyo-e production went into steep decline. Some ukiyo-e artists specialized in making paintings, but most works were prints, as printing was done by hand, printers were able to achieve effects impractical with machines, such as the blending or gradation of colours on the printing block. Ukiyo-e was central to forming the Wests perception of Japanese art in the late 19th century–especially the landscapes of Hokusai, Prints since the late 20th century have continued in an individualist vein, often made with techniques imported from the West. The Kanō school of painting incorporated features of both, since antiquity, Japanese art had found patrons in the aristocracy, military governments, and religious authorities. Later works appeared by and for townspeople, including inexpensive monochromatic paintings of female beauties and scenes of the theatre and pleasure districts, the hand-produced nature of these shikomi-e limited the scale of their production, a limit that was soon overcome by genres that turned to mass-produced woodblock printing. During a prolonged period of war in the 16th century. In the early 17th century Tokugawa Ieyasu unified the country and was appointed Shogun with supreme power over Japan and he consolidated his government in the village of Edo, and required the territorial lords to assemble there in alternate years with their entourages. The demands of the growing capital drew many male labourers from the country, the village grew during the Edo period from a population of 1800 to over a million in the 19th century. The centralized shogunate put an end to the power of the machishū and divided the population into four classes, with the ruling samurai class at the top. The experience of the quarters was open to those of sufficient wealth, manners. Woodblock printing in Japan traces back to the Hyakumantō Darani in 770 CE, until the 17th century such printing was reserved for Buddhist seals and images. Movable type appeared around 1600, but as the Japanese writing system required about 100,000 type pieces, in Saga Domain, calligrapher Honami Kōetsu and publisher Suminokura Soan combined printed text and images in an adaptation of The Tales of Ise and other works of literatureUkiyo-e
24. Edgar Allan Poe – Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and he is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole, and he was one of the countrys earliest practitioners of the short story. Poe is generally considered the inventor of the fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a difficult life. Poe was born in Boston, the child of two actors. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died the following year, thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia. They never formally adopted him, but Poe was with them well into young adulthood, tension developed later as John Allan and Edgar repeatedly clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, and the cost of secondary education for the young man. Poe attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money, Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. It was at time that his publishing career began, albeit humbly, with the anonymous collection of poems Tamerlane and Other Poems. With the death of Frances Allan in 1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement, however, Poe later failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, and he ultimately parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the several years working for literary journals and periodicals. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, in Richmond in 1836, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem The Raven to instant success and his wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. For years, he had been planning to produce his own journal The Penn, Poe and his works influenced literature in the United States and around the world, as well as in specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography. Poe and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, a number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19,1809 and he had an elder brother William Henry Leonard Poe, and a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had emigrated from Cavan, Ireland to America around the year 1750, Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeares King Lear, a play that the couple were performing in 1809Edgar Allan Poe – This plaque in Boston marks the approximate location where Edgar Poe was born.
25. Tjerita Si Tjonat – Tjerita Si Tjonat, Sato Kepala Penjamoen di Djaman Dahoeloe Kala is a 1900 novel written by the journalist F. D. J. One of numerous stories from the contemporary Indies, it follows the rise and fall of Tjonat. The novels style, according to Malaysian scholar Abdul Wahab Ali, is indicative of a period between orality and written literature. Tjerita Si Tjonat has been adapted to the multiple times. Thirteen-year-old Tjonat, the son of a village chief, is chased out of his hometown after he is caught stealing his fathers expensive batik shirt. Having no money and only a torn pair of pants. With the help of his mentor, Gondit, Tjonat sells the buffalo at a distant market. However, Gondit is unwilling to give Tjonat his share of the money until they reach Batavia, suspicious, Tjonat prepares a sharpened bamboo tip. When Gondit tries to him, Tjonat stabs him in the stomach with the bamboo. He then goes to Batavia on his own, ten years have passed, and Tjonat has worked a variety of jobs under various names. However, he was fired for stealing. Now he serves as a manservant for a rich Dutchman named Opmeijer, using his charms, Tjonat woos Opmeijers njai, Saipa, and convinces her to elope with him and take their masters possessions. The two make their way to Saipas hometown and marry, however, theirs is an unhappy relationship and, after several years, Tjonat stops supporting his wife and returning home, instead choosing to spend his time as a robber. After asking for a divorce, Saipa prepares to marry a fellow villager, however, in a fit of rage Tjonat returns to their home and kills Saipa. Tjonat, by now the leader of a gang of bandits, turns his attention to Lie Gouw Nio, however, Gouw Nio is already betrothed to Tio Sing Sang. After an attempt to kidnap her fails, Tjonat and his gang launch an assault on the Lies farmstead. The family is able to escape, and Lie Gouw Nio is sent to Batavia to stay with her future in-laws. In an attempt to eliminate the competition, several weeks later Tjonat and his gang invade Tio Sing Sangs home, killing his grandfather Keng Bo, after recovering, Sing Sang begins training in the use of weapons and prepares to fight TjonatTjerita Si Tjonat – Cover, first edition
26. Writer – A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers texts are published across a range of media, skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term. Some writers work from an oral tradition, Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas, some writers may use images or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words, as well as producing their own written works, writers often write on how they write, why they write, and also comment on the work of other writers. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be either in advance. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work, Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium, for example, a writers work may be read privately or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, the writer of a letter may include elements of criticism, biography, or journalism. The genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted, novel to film, poem to play, Writers may begin their career in one genre and change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature, many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of detail in the work both tend to be debated. Some writers write both fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was also a playwright, essayist, translator, poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one. To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they also exploit the properties of words with a range of techniques such as alliteration. A common theme is love and its vicissitudes, Shakespeares famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versionsWriter – Sculpture of Anonymus in Budapest.
27. Burnt Offering (Galzy novel) – Burnt Offering is a French novel by Jeanne Galzy. Published in French in 1929, it won the 1930 Prix Brentano and was published in English. Marie Pascal is a woman who teaches seventh-grade literature, geography, history. Annette blossoms under the attention paid to her, holds the door for her teacher, plucks the most beautiful flowers for her, and waits for her every afternoon after school to say goodbye. Initially reciprocating the childs devotion, Marie herself grows as a person and as a teacher and she declines, and finds it difficult to act on the childs attention and on two occasions even rebuffs her. During a vacation, which Marie spends as usual with her grandparents in the country, she receives a letter from Annette, no longer able to disguise or justify her feelings as maternal, Marie responds by withdrawing her affection. Annette does leave a token of love, the name Marie carved in her school desk, Burnt Offering is the seventh novel by Jeanne Galzy. It was published in France by Éditions Rieder in 1929, the few French and English reviews at the time of publication were positive. It was called as a sad and very beautiful novel. The novel has long been out of print, critics agree that Burnt Offering, like La Femme chez les garçons, reflects Galzys experiences as a teacher at the Lycée Lamartine in Paris. To deflect the charge of autobiographical fallacy critics present the novel as a roman à clef rather than as an autobiography, another autobiographical element is offered by the dedication in the French edition, to Mademoiselle Germaine Normand, Galzys first-grade teacher in high school in Montpellier. In Galzys first such novel, the love between the two women is no more than implicitBurnt Offering (Galzy novel) – 1934 French edition
28. Assam – Assam (English pronunciation, /əˈsæm/ listen is a state in northeastern India. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, along with Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya, is one of the Seven Sister States. Geographically, Assam and these states are connected to the rest of India via a 22 kilometres strip of land in West Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or Chickens Neck. Assam shares a border with Bhutan and Bangladesh, and its culture, people. Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk, the first oil well in Asia was drilled here. The state has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger. It provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant, the Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism, centred around Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, Assam receives more rainfall compared to most parts of India. This rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment, the precise etymology of Assam came from Ahom Dynasty. In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, in medieval times the Mughals used Asham and Kamrup, and during British colonialism, the English used Assam. Though many authors have associated the name with the 13th century Shan invaders the precise origin of the name is not clear. It was suggested by some that the Sanskrit word Asama was the root, which has been rejected by Kakati, among possible origins are Tai and Bodo. Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1, 500–2,000 feet were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making. According to a text, Kalika Purana, the earliest ruler of Assam was Mahiranga Danav of the Danava dynasty. The last of these rulers, also Naraka, was slain by Krishna, narakas son Bhagadatta became the king, who fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast. Samudraguptas 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa and Davaka as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire, ruled by three dynasties Varmanas, Mlechchha dynasty and Kamarupa-Palas, from their capitals in present-day Guwahati, Tezpur and North Gauhati respectively. All three dynasties claimed their descent from Narakasura, an immigrant from Aryavarta, in the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskar Varman, the Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the region and recorded his travelsAssam – Montage of Assam Clockwise from top left: academic complex of IIT Guwahati, Ahom Raja's Palace (Garhgaon), Kamakhya temple (Guwahati), Rang Ghar pavilions (Sivasagar), Kolia Bhomora bridge over Brahmaputra river (Tezpur), one horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) at Kaziranga National Park, and Sivadol (Sivasagar).
29. Padma Shri – Padma Shri is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan. Awarded by the Government of India, it is announced every year on Indias Republic Day and it has also been awarded to some distinguished individuals who were not citizens of India but did contribute in various ways to India. The selection criteria have been criticized in some quarters with the claim that many highly deserving artists have left out in order to favor certain individuals. On its obverse, the words Padma, meaning lotus in Sanskrit, and Shri, the geometrical pattern on either side is in burnished bronze. All embossing is in white gold, as of 2017,2913 people have received the awardPadma Shri – Padma Shri
30. Tio Ie Soei – Tio Ie Soei was a peranakan Chinese writer and journalist active in the Dutch East Indies and Indonesia. Born in the capital at Batavia, Tio entered journalism while still a teenager, by 1911 he had begun writing fiction, publishing Sie Po Giok – his first novel – that year. Over the next 50 years Tio wrote extensively in newspapers and magazines. He also wrote novels and biographies, including ones on Tan Sie Tat. Tio was born in Pasar Baru, Batavia, on 22 June 1890 and his father was to a Chinese immigrant from Fujian province, while his mother was peranakan Chinese. The young Tio was educated at a Dutch-run school for ethnic Chinese, learning Dutch and he made his first venture into journalism in 1905, working for a short period for Sinar Betawi. Not long afterwards he quit and joined Perniagaan, which was targeted at ethnic Chinese. He stayed with the publication for fifteen years. During this period he married the daughter of one of his coworkers, Tio wrote his earliest fiction in the 1910s. His first novel – targeted at children – was published 1911, entitled Sie Po Giok, it followed a young orphan who is treated unfairly by his uncle and eventually leaves for China. The story proved popular upon its release, and Tio followed with several short stories. He also wrote several biographical anthologies in this period, in 1920 Tio fell ill and resigned from Perniagaan. He and his moved to Pengalengan, south of Bandung. There they opened a vegetable farm, Tio continued to write, sending his work to various publications, including Bintang Soerabaia, Warna Warta, and Kong Po. One of these writings, published in the Bandung-based Lay Po in 1923 and this created a scandal, and Lie was accused of plagiarism. His time in West Java was one of his most productive, under his own name and the pen name Tjoa Pit Bak, he published several novels and biographies with various publishers. Some were translations of European works, while others were based on true events in the Indies. These were mostly crime stories, although others, such as his Pieter Elberveld, were historical stories based on Dutch language originals, when he had recovered his strength, Tio moved to Cirebon in 1925 and attempted to open a shopTio Ie Soei – Tio Ie Soei
31. Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin – Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin was one of the most highly esteemed Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman. Although his works are considered literary classicism, his best verse is rich with antitheses and conflicting sounds in a way reminiscent of John Donne. His distant ancestor Morza Bagrim, who relocated from the Great Horde in the 15th century to Moscow, was baptized, nevertheless, by the 18th century Derzhavins father was just a poor country squire who died when Gavrila was still young. He received a formal education at the gymnasium there but left for Petersburg as a private in the guards. There he rose from the ranks as a soldier to the highest offices of state under Catherine the Great. He first impressed his commanders during Pugachevs Rebellion, politically astute, his career advanced when he left the military service for civil service. He rose to the position of governor of Olonets and Tambov, personal secretary to the Empress, President of the College of Commerce, and finally the Minister of Justice. He was dismissed from his post in 1803 and spent much of the rest of his life in the estate at Zvanka near Novgorod, writing idylls. At his Saint Petersburg house, he held meetings of the conservative Lovers of the Russian Word society. He died in 1816 and was buried in the Khutyn Monastery near Zvanka, reburied by the Soviets in the Novgorod Kremlin, Derzhavin is best remembered for his odes, dedicated to the Empress and other courtiers. He paid little attention to the system of genres, and many a time would fill an ode with elegiac, humorous. In his grand ode to the Empress, for instance, he mentions searching for fleas in his wifes hair, unlike other Classicist poets, Derzhavin found delight in carefully chosen details, such as a colour of wallpaper in his bedroom or a poetic inventory of his daily meal. He believed that French was a language of harmony but that Russian was a language of conflict, although he relished harmonious alliterations, sometimes he deliberately instrumented his verse with cacophonous effect. He also provided lyrics for the first Russian national anthem, Let the thunder of victory sound, in 1800, Derzhavin wrote the political work Opinion, an anti-Semitic tract in response to a request by Emperor Paul I to investigate recent famines in Belorussia. According to D. S. Mirsky, Derzhavins poetry is a universe of amazing richness, its only drawback was that the great poet was of no use either as a master or as an example. He did nothing to raise the level of taste or to improve the literary language. Nevertheless, Nikolai Nekrasov professed to follow Derzhavin rather than Pushkin, gde stol byl yastv, tam grob stoit Im a czar - Im a slave - Im a worm - Im a god …Heart of a lion, wings of an eagle Are no longer with us. The current of Times river Will carry off all human deeds And sink into oblivion All peoples, kingdoms, and if theres something that remains Through sounds of horn and lyre, It too will disappear into the maw of time And not avoid the common pyreGavrila Romanovich Derzhavin – Gavrila Derzhavin by Vladimir Borovikovsky
32. Uwe Johnson – Uwe Johnson was a German writer, editor, and scholar. Johnson was born in Kammin in Pomerania and his father was a Swedish-descent peasant from Mecklenburg and his mother was from Pommern. At the end of World War II in 1945, he fled with his family to Anklam, the family eventually settled in Güstrow, where he attended John-Brinckman-Oberschule 1948–1952. He went on to study German philology, first in Rostock and his Diplomarbeit was on Ernst Barlach. Due to his lack of support for the Communist regime of East Germany. Beginning in 1953, Johnson worked on the novel Ingrid Babendererde, rejected by various publishing houses, in 1956, Johnsons mother left for West Berlin. As a result, he was not allowed to work a job in the East. Johnson himself moved to West Berlin at this time and he promptly became associated with Gruppe 47, which Hans Magnus Enzensberger once described as the Central Café of a literature without a capital. During the early 1960s, Johnson continued to write and publish fiction, and also supported himself as a translator, mainly from English-language works, and as an editor. He travelled to America in 1961, the year he was married, had a daughter, received a scholarship to Villa Massimo, Rome. 1964 - for the Berliner Tagesspiegel, Reviews of GDR television programmes boycotted by the West German press, in 1965, Johnson travelled again to America. He then edited Bertolt Brechts Me-ti, from 1966 through 1968 he worked in New York City as a textbook editor at Harcourt, Brace & World and lived with his family in an apartment at 243 Riverside Drive. During this time he began work on his opus, the Jahrestage and edited Das neue Fenster. On 1 January 1967 protesters from Johnsons own West Berlin apartment building founded Kommune 1 and he first learned about it by reading it in the newspaper. Returning to West Berlin in 1969, he became a member of the West German PEN Center, in 1970, he published the first volume of his Jahrestage. Two more volumes were to follow in the three years, but the fourth volume would not appear until 1983. Meanwhile, in 1972 Johnson became Vice President of the Academy of the Arts and was the editor of Max Frischs Tagebuch 1966-1971. In 1974, he moved to Sheerness on the English Isle of Sheppey, shortly after, he broke off work on Jahrestage due partly to health problems and this was not a completely unproductive periodUwe Johnson – Rudolf Noelte, Uwe Johnson, Erich Schellow
33. 2003 – 2003 was designated the, International Year of fresh water. January 22 – The last signal from NASAs Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, January 30 – Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so. February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all seven astronauts on board. February 4 – The leaders of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reconstitute the country into a loose state-union between Montenegro and Serbia, marking an end to the 85 year old Yugoslav state. February 15 – Millions of people take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States. February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government, february 27 – Former Bosnian Serb leader Biljana Plavšić is sentenced by the U. N. ICTY to 11 years in prison for war crimes committed during the Bosnian War. March 8 – Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum, march 12 Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper. The World Health Organization issues an alert on severe acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong. March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U. S. march 23 – Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum. April 9 – U. S. forces seize control of Baghdad, april 12 – Hungary approves joining the European Union in a referendum. April 14 – The Human Genome Project is completed, with 99% of the human genome sequenced to 99. 99% accuracy. April 29 – The United States announces the withdrawal of troops stationed in Saudi Arabia, may 11 Benvenuto Cellinis Cellini Salt Cellar table sculpture is stolen from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Lithuania approves joining the European Union in a referendum, may 12 – In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 30 people are killed in multiple bombings at a housing compound, mostly foreign expatriates. May 17 – Slovakia approves joining the European Union in a referendum, may 23 – Dewey, the first deer cloned by scientists at Texas A&M University, is born. May 28 – Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists, is born, june 8 – Poland approves joining the European Union in a referendum. June 14 – The Czech Republic approves joining the European Union in a referendum, june 30 – Warring parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo sign a peace accord, bringing an end to the Second Congo War, which left millions dead. July 5 – Severe acute respiratory syndrome is declared to be contained by the World Health Organization, july 18 – The Convention on the Future of Europe finishes its work and proposes the first European Constitution. July 24 – The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands, led by Australia, august 11 The Second Liberian Civil War comes to end after President Charles Taylor resigns and flees the country2003 – Richard Crenna
34. History of literature – Some recorded materials, such as compilations of data are not considered literature, and this article relates only to the evolution of the works defined above. Literature and writing, though connected, are not synonymous, scholars have often disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like literature than anything else, the definition is largely subjective. Moreover, given the significance of distance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical development of literature did not occur at an even pace across the world. Much has been written, for example, about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 1st century BC, the deliberate suppression of texts by organisations of either a spiritual or a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Certain primary texts, however, may be isolated which have a role as literatures first stirrings. Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in form are difficult or impossible to date. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid 2nd millennium BC, the Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th century BC at the earliest. Homers Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century BC and mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity and they also stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Bronze Age. The great Hindu epics were also transmitted orally, likely predating the Maurya period, the Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works by anonymous authors dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC. The Chu Ci anthology is a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by Qu Yuans verse writing. Qu Yuan is the first author of verse in China to have his name associated to his work and is regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Romanticism in Chinese classical literature. The first great author on military tactics and strategy was Sun Tzu, among the earliest Chinese works of narrative history, Zuo Zhuan is a gem of classical Chinese prose. This work and the Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian, were regarded as the models by many generations of prose stylists in ancient China. The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible developed over roughly a millennium, the oldest texts seem to come from the eleventh or tenth centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later. They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together, the Old Testament was compiled and edited by various men over a period of centuries, with many scholars concluding that the Hebrew canon was solidified by about the 3rd century BC. The works have been subject to various literary evaluations, friedrich Nietzsche wrote, “In the Jewish Old Testament, there are men, things and speeches in so grand a style that Greek and Indian literature have nothing to compare to it. One stands with awe and reverence before these tremendous remnants of what man once was, the taste for the Old Testament is a touchstone of greatness and smallness. ”Ancient Greek society placed considerable emphasis upon literature. Notable among later Greek poets was Sappho, who defined, in many ways, a playwright named Aeschylus changed Western literature forever when he introduced the ideas of dialogue and interacting characters to playwritingHistory of literature – A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh
35. History of the book – The history of the book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day. Its scope includes the history of ideas, history of religion, bibliography, the history of the book came into existence in the latter half of the 16th century. It was fostered by both Henri-Jean Martin and Lucien Febvres Lapparition du livre in 1958 as well as Marshall McLuhans Gutenberg GalaxyHistory of the book – A 15th-century Incunable. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.
36. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver, also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, acquisition, copy editing, production, printing, and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is also known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperbackPublishing – Printer working an early Gutenberg letter press from the 15th century. (engraving date unknown)
37. Fantasy literature – Fantasy literature is the body of written works that employ the motifs, themes, and stylistic approaches expected in the fantasy genre. Historically, most works of fantasy were written pieces of literature, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games, music and painting. Stories involving paranormal magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature, homers Odyssey satisfies the definition of the fantasy genre with its magic, gods, heroes, adventures and monsters. Fantasy literature as a distinct type emerged in Victorian times, with the works of such as Mary Shelley, William Morris. J. R. R. Tolkien played a role in the popularization and accessibility of the fantasy genre with his highly successful publications The Hobbit. Rarely does one consider modern fantasy without conjuring the memory and image of Tolkien, Tolkien was largely influenced by an ancient body of Anglo-Saxon myths, particularly Beowulf, as well as modern works such as The Worm Ouroboros by E. R. Eddison. Tolkiens close friend C. S. Lewis, author of The Chronicles of Narnia, the tradition established by these predecessors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has continued to thrive and be adapted by new authors. Tolkiens fiction has—particularly over the genre of high fantasy—prompted backlash, at the turn of the millennium, the Harry Potter novels of J. K. Rowling achieved widespread popularity. R. Martin in 2005, and 2011, Neil Gaiman in 2005, authors often engage in worldbuilding, constructing a framework or entire world against which the narrative plays out. Symbolism often plays a significant role in literature, often through the use of archetypal figures inspired by earlier texts or folklore. Some argue that fantasy literature and its archetypes fulfill a function for individuals and society, le Guin, in her essay From Elfland to Poughkeepsie, presented the idea that language is the most crucial element of high fantasy, because it creates a sense of place. She analyzed the misuse of a formal, olden-day style, saying that it was a trap for fantasy writers because it was ridiculous when done wrong. Brian Peters writes that in various forms of fantasy, even the villains language might be inappropriate if vulgar. The fantastical details of the series fade away by the installment, revealing that the wizarding community of the Harry Potter books is just as bad, if not worse. Farah Mendlesohn argues the world of literature is broken up into four categories, the portal quest, the immersive, the intrusive. How the fantastic enters the world is what determines how a story fits into these categories. In a portal quest such as C. S. Lewis The Chronicles of Narnia, The Lion, The Witch, in the intrusion fantasies like Bram Stokers Dracula, the fantastic invades the fictional world. With liminal fantasy, for example Phillip Pullman’s His Dark Materials, The Subtle Knife, tolkiens The Hobbit for example, allows the reader no escape from the fantasticFantasy literature – Fantasy
38. Horror novel – Horror is a genre of fiction which is intended to, or has the capacity to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle their readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon has defined the horror story as a piece of fiction in prose of variable length, which shocks or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing. It creates an eerie and frightening atmosphere, Horror is frequently supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural. Often the central menace of a work of fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. The genre of horror has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, evil, the demonic and these were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires, werewolves and ghosts. 18th century Gothic horror drew on these sources with the seminal and controversial The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole and this marked the first incorporated elements of the supernatural instead of pure realism. In fact, the first edition was published disguised as a medieval romance from Italy discovered and republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as contemporary, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or simply in poor taste — but it proved to be immediately popular. That first novel of Gothic horror inspired such works as Vathek by William Beckford, A Sicilian Romance, The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Italian by Ann Radcliffe and The Monk by Matthew Lewis. A significant amount of fiction of this era was written by women and marketed at a female audience. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the modern readers call horror literature in the 19th century. Each of these novels and novellas created an icon of horror seen in modern re-imaginings on the stage. The proliferation of periodicals, as early as the turn of the century. One writer who specialized in fiction for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction dealt with themes of madness. Later, specialist publications emerged to give horror writers an outlet, including Weird Tales, influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums. Early cinema was inspired by aspects of horror literature, and early horror cinema started a strong tradition of horror films. This imagery made these comics controversial, and as a consequence they were frequently censored, many modern novels claim an early description of the living dead in a precursor to the modern zombie tale, including Dennis Wheatleys Strange Conflict, H. P. Lovecraft stories such as Cool Air, In The Vault, richard Mathesons novel I Am Legend would also influence an entire genre of apocalyptic zombie fiction emblematic of the films of George A. RomeroHorror novel – An Illustration of Poe's " The Raven " by Gustave Doré
39. Narrative nonfiction – Creative nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. For a text to be considered creative nonfiction, it must be factually accurate, ultimately, the primary goal of the creative nonfiction writer is to communicate information, just like a reporter, but to shape it in a way that reads like fiction. Forms within this genre include biography, autobiography, memoir, diary, travel writing, food writing, literary journalism, chronicle, personal essays and other hybridized essays. According to Vivian Gornick, A memoir is a taken from life—that is, from actual. By this, she means that the topics and events discussed in the text verifiably exist in the natural world, the third characteristic that Lounsberry claims is crucial in defining the genre is The scene. She stresses the importance of describing and revivifying the context of events in contrast to the journalistic style of objective reportage. The fourth and final feature she suggests is Fine writing, a prose style. Creative nonfiction may be structured like traditional fiction narratives, as is true of Fenton Johnsons story of love and loss, Geography of the Heart, when book-length works of creative nonfiction follow a story-like arc, they are sometimes called narrative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction writers have embraced new ways of forming their texts—including online technologies—because the genre leads itself to grand experimentation, dozens of new journals have sprung up—both in print and online—that feature creative nonfiction prominently in their offerings. Writers of creative or narrative non-fiction often discuss the level, and limits, of invention in their works. To my mind this literary tinkering does not alter the more profound truth of the story and this concept of fact vs. fiction is elaborated upon in Brenda Miller and Suzanne Paolas book entitled Tell it Slant. They argue that. memory itself can be called its own bit of creative nonfiction and we continually—often unconsciously—renovate our memories, shaping them into stories that bring coherence to chaos. Memory has been called the ultimate mythmaker. as even one’s firsthand accounts are unreliable, however, the essence of the stories related here is true, as they were told to us by those who experienced them at first hand. In recent years, there have been several well-publicized incidents of memoir writers who exaggerated or fabricated certain facts in their work. The James Frey controversy hit in 2006, when The Smoking Gun website revealed that Freys memoir, A Million Little Pieces, in 2008, the New York Times featured an article about the memoirist Margaret Seltzer, whose pen name is Margaret B. Jones. Although there have been instances of traditional and literary journalists falsifying their stories, the truth is meant to be upheld, just told in a literary fashion. Essayist John DAgata explores the issue in his 2012 book The Lifespan of a Fact and it examines the relationship between truth and accuracy, and whether it is appropriate for a writer to substitute one for the other. He and fact-checker Jim Fingal undergo an intense debate about the boundaries of creative nonfiction, critics to date, however, have tended to focus on only one or two of each writer’s works, to illustrate particular critical pointsNarrative nonfiction – Journalism
40. Literary nonsense – Literary nonsense is a broad categorization of literature that balances elements that make sense with some that do not, with the effect of subverting language conventions or logical reasoning. Even though the most well-known form of nonsense is nonsense verse. The effect of nonsense is often caused by an excess of meaning and its humor is derived from its nonsensical nature, rather than wit or the joke of a punchline. Literary nonsense, as recognized since the century, comes from a combination of two broad artistic sources. The first and older source is the folk tradition, including games, songs, dramas. The literary figure Mother Goose represents common incarnations of this style of writing, the second, newer source of literary nonsense is in the intellectual absurdities of court poets, scholars, and intellectuals of various kinds. Todays literary nonsense comes from a combination of both sources, Lewis Carroll continued this trend, making literary nonsense a worldwide phenomenon with Alices Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Carrolls poem Jabberwocky, which appears in the book, is often considered quintessential nonsense literature. In literary nonsense, certain elements of language and logic that facilitate meaning are balanced by elements that negate meaning. These formal elements include semantics, syntax, phonetics, context, representation, Nonsense tautology, reduplication, and absurd precision have also been used in the nonsense genre. For a text to be within the genre of literary nonsense, if the text employs only occasional nonsense devices, then it may not be classified as literary nonsense, though there may be a nonsensical effect to certain portions of the work. Laurence Sternes Tristram Shandy, for instance, employs the device of imprecision by including a blank page. In Flann OBriens The Third Policeman, on the hand, many of the devices of nonsense are present throughout. Gibberish, light verse, fantasy, and jokes and riddles are sometimes mistaken for literary nonsense, pure gibberish, as in the hey diddle diddle of nursery rhyme, is a device of nonsense, but it does not make a text, overall, literary nonsense. If there is not significant sense to balance out such devices, Nonsense is distinct from fantasy, though there are sometimes resemblances between them. The distinction lies in the coherent and unified nature of fantasy, the nature of magic within an imaginary world is an example of this distinction. Fantasy worlds employ the presence of magic to explain the impossible. In nonsense literature, magic is rare but when it does occur, riddles only appear to be nonsense until the answer is foundLiterary nonsense – John Tenniel 's depiction of the nonsense creatures in Carroll 's Jabberwocky.
41. Mythopoeia – Mythopoeia is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional or artificial mythology is created by the writer of prose or other fiction. This meaning of the word mythopoeia follows its use by J. R. R. Tolkien in the 1930s, the authors in this genre integrate traditional mythological themes and archetypes into fiction. Mythopoeia is also the act of making mythologies, notable mythopoeic authors include Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, William Blake, H. P. Lovecraft, Lord Dunsany, Mervyn Peake and George MacDonald. While many literary works carry mythic themes, only a few approach the dense self-referentiality and it is invented mythology that, rather than arising out of centuries of oral tradition, are penned over a short period of time by a single author or small group of collaborators. Mythopoeia are almost invariably created entirely by an individual, like the world of Middle-earth, the term mythopoeia is from Greek μυθοποιία, myth-making. In early uses, it referred to the making of myths in ancient times and it was adopted and used by Tolkien as a title of one of his poems, written in 1931 and published in Tree and Leaf. The poem popularized the word mythopoeia as a literary and artistic endeavor, works of mythopoeia are often categorized as fantasy or science fiction but fill a niche for mythology in the modern world, according to Joseph Campbell, a famous student of world mythology. Campbell spoke of a Nietzschean world which has today outlived much of the mythology of the past. He claimed that new myths must be created, but he believed that present culture is changing too rapidly for society to be described by any such mythological framework until a later age. For example, the noted folklorist Alan Dundes argued that any novel cannot meet the criteria of myth. A work of art, or artifice, cannot be said to be the narrative of a sacred tradition. Perhaps the first attempt to construct mythology was the book of Pherecydes of Syros, Pherecydes transformed the Greek pantheon beyond recognition, with Zas rather than Zeus as the king of the gods, and Chronos rather than Kronos as Zass father. Pherecydess book was a key turning-point in the Greek movement towards scientific, Lord Dunsanys book The Gods of Pegana, published in 1905, is a series of short stories linked by Dunsanys invented pantheon of deities who dwell in Pegāna. It was followed by a further collection Time and the Gods and by some stories in The Sword of Welleran and Other Stories, in 1919 Dunsany told an American interviewer In The Gods of Pegana I tried to account for the ocean and the moon. I dont know anyone else has ever tried that before. Dunsanys work influenced J. R. R. Tolkiens later writings, the poem refers to the creative human author as the little maker wielding his own small golden sceptre ruling his subcreation. Tolkiens legendarium includes not only origin myths, creation myths and a poetry cycle. At about the time, he addressed the same topics in the form of a short storyMythopoeia – Because William Blake worked in multiple artistic mediums, printing and illustrating extensive art books, his own extensive mythological community is both written about and illustrated. Here, Los is tormented at his smithy by the characteristic part of human nature Spectre in an illustration Blake's poem Jerusalem. This image comes from Copy E. of that work, printed in 1821 and in the collection of the Yale Center for British Art
42. Romance fiction – The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship, there are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, and science fiction. Walter Scott defined the literary form of romance as a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, Heyers first romance novel, The Black Moth, was set in 1751. The British company Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s and their books were sold in North America by Harlequin Enterprises Ltd, which began direct marketing to readers and allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. An early American example of a romance was Kathleen Woodiwiss The Flame. Nancy Coffey was the editor who negotiated a multi-book deal with Woodiwiss. In North America, romance novels are the most popular literary genre, the genre is also popular in Europe and Australia, and romance novels appear in 90 languages. Most of the books, however, are written by authors from English-speaking countries, despite the popularity and widespread sales of romance novels, the genre has attracted significant derision, skepticism, and criticism. Romance erotica seems to be on the rise as more women explore this new subgenre, erotica is a term used to describe scenes in the novel that are risqué but not pornographic. According to the Romance Writers of America, the plot of a romance novel must revolve about the two people as they develop romantic love for each other and work to build a relationship. Furthermore, a novel must have an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Others, including Leslie Gelbman, a president of Berkley Books, define the genre more simply, stating only that a romance must make the romantic relationship between the hero and the heroine. Bestselling author Nora Roberts sums up the genre, saying, The books are about the celebration of falling in love and emotion and commitment, some romance novel authors and readers believe the genre has additional restrictions, from plot considerations, to avoiding themes. While the majority of romance novels meet the criteria, there are also many books widely considered to be romance novels that deviate from these rules. Therefore, the definition, as embraced by the RWA and publishers, includes only the focus on a developing romantic relationship. As long as a romance novel meets those criteria, it can be set in any time period. There are no restrictions on what can or cannot be included in a romance novelRomance fiction – "Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen, a pioneer of the genre
43. Tragedy – Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. In the wake of Aristotles Poetics, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, in the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre. Drama, in the sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy, taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation. The word tragedy appears to have used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = goat song, scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was that around which a chorus danced prior to the animals ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis says that the form of the word was trygodia from trygos and ode. There is some dissent to the origins of tragedy, mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested, friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the genre developed. Scott Scullion writes, There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as song for the prize goat, and as prize was established the billy goat, the clearest is Eustathius 1769.45, They called those competing tragedians, clearly because of the song over the billy goat. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, Athenian tragedies were performed in late March/early April at an annual state religious festival in honor of Dionysus. The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days, each playwright offered a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a concluding comic piece called a satyr play. The four plays sometimes featured linked stories, only one complete trilogy of tragedies has survived, the Oresteia of Aeschylus. The Greek theatre was in the air, on the side of a hill. Performances were apparently open to all citizens, including women, the theatre of Dionysus at Athens probably held around 12,000 peopleTragedy – Aristotle's Tragic Plot Structure
44. Tragicomedy – Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. Most often seen in literature, the term can variously describe either a tragic play which contains enough comic elements to lighten the overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending. There is no formal definition of tragicomedy from the classical age. It appears that the Greek philosopher Aristotle had something like the Renaissance meaning of the term in mind when, in Poetics, he discusses tragedy with a dual ending. In this respect, a number of Greek and Roman plays, for instance Alcestis, may be called tragicomedies, the word itself originates with the Roman comic playwright Plautus, who coined the term somewhat facetiously in the prologue to his play Amphitryon. For rule mongers, mixed works such as mentioned above, more recent romances such as Orlando Furioso. Two figures helped to elevate tragicomedy to the status of a regular genre, Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio, in the mid-sixteenth century, both argued that the tragedy-with-comic-ending was most appropriate to modern times and produced his own examples of such plays. Even more important was Giovanni Battista Guarini, Guarinis Il Pastor Fido, published in 1590, provoked a fierce critical debate in which Guarinis spirited defense of generic innovation eventually carried the day. Guarinis tragicomedy offered modulated action that never drifted too far either to comedy or tragedy, mannered characters, all three became staples of continental tragicomedy for a century and more. In England, where practice ran ahead of theory, the situation was quite different, for the law of writ and the liberty, these are the only men. Some aspects of this romantic impulse remain even in the work of more sophisticated playwrights, Shakespeares last plays, by the early Stuart period, some English playwrights had absorbed the lessons of the Guarini controversy. John Fletchers The Faithful Shepherdess, an adaptation of Guarinis play, was produced in 1608. Fletchers definition focuses primarily on events, a genre is determined by whether or not people die in it. Some of Fletchers contemporaries, notably Philip Massinger and James Shirley, wrote successful, richard Brome also essayed the form, but with less success. And many of their writers, ranging from John Ford to Lodowick Carlell to Sir Aston Cockayne. Tragicomedy remained fairly popular up to the closing of the theaters in 1642, the old styles were of course cast aside as tastes changed in the eighteenth century, the tragedy with a happy ending eventually developed into melodrama, in which form it still flourishes. The more subtle criticism that developed after the Renaissance stressed the thematic and formal aspects of tragicomedy, gotthold Ephraim Lessing defined it as a mixture of emotions in which seriousness stimulates laughter, and pain pleasure. Even more commonly, tragicomedys affinity with satire and dark comedy have suggested a tragicomic impulse in modern absurdist drama, friedrich Dürrenmatt, the Swiss dramatist, suggested that tragicomedy was the inevitable genre for the twentieth century, he describes his play The Visit as a tragicomedyTragicomedy – Tragic Comic masks of Ancient Greek theatre represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic.
45. Latin American literature – It rose to particular prominence globally during the second half of the 20th century, largely due to the international success of the style known as magical realism. Latin American literature has a rich and complex tradition of production that dates back many centuries. Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru. Mestizos and natives also contributed to the body of colonial literature, authors such as El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Guaman Poma wrote accounts of the Spanish conquest that show a perspective that often contrasts with the colonizers accounts. During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry, the libertadores themselves were also often distinguished writers, such as Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello. Such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, and usually mandatory elements of school curricula. Other important works of 19th Century Latin American literature include José Hernándezs epic poem Martín Fierro. The story of a poor gaucho drafted to fight a war against Indians, Martín Fierro is an example of the gauchesque. The Latin American wars of Independence that occurred in the nineteenth century in Latin America also led to a literary movement termed Resistance Literature. Writers were turning towards ideas and themes such as revolution, nationalism, cultural independence was a feeling that spread across Latin America during this time, and many writers began to depict themes in their works like individualism and pride in Latin American culture. Resistance literature was used as an attempt for Latin American writers to describe the journey towards Latin American identity, Resistance literature warned against the economic power of imperialist nations. Prominent writers of literature included José Martí and Rubén Darío. One example of this sort of message can be seen in Martís Our America, many of his works were published in La Revista Moderna de Mexico, a modernist magazine of the time. Women writers of the literature movement wrote about topics such as the marginalization and oppression of Indians, slaves. Many works in resistance literature written by women challenged the Latin American patriarchal societies and these prominent women writers discussed the hypocrisy of the dominant class and institutions that existed in their societies and criticized the corruption of the government. Some examples of types of works are Indole and Herencia. In the late 19th century, modernismo emerged, a movement whose founding text was the Nicaraguan Rubén Daríos AzulLatin American literature – Gabriel García Márquez, the most famous of the Boom writers
46. Medieval literature – Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. Just as in literature, it is a complex and rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane. Works of literature are often grouped by place of origin, language, however, in Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church made Greek and Old Church Slavonic the dominant written languages. The common people continued to use their respective vernaculars, although the extant versions of these epics are generally considered the works of individual poets, there is no doubt that they are based on their peoples older oral traditions. Celtic traditions have survived in the lais of Marie de France, the Mabinogion, another host of vernacular literature has survived in the Old Norse literature and more specifically in the Saga literature of Iceland. A notable amount of literature is anonymous. This is not only due to the lack of documents from a period, medieval authors often deeply respected the classical writers and the Church Fathers and tended to re-tell and embellish stories they had heard or read rather than invent new stories. And even when they did, they claimed to be handing down something from an auctor instead. From this point of view, the names of the individual authors seemed much less important, the invention of biography can be attributed to this time period. It had such ancient forebears as Plutarchs Parallel Lives and Suetoniuss Lives of the Twelve Caesars, theological works were the dominant form of literature typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. Catholic clerics were the center of society in the Middle Ages. Countless hymns survive from time period. The liturgy itself was not in fixed form, and numerous competing missals set out individual conceptions of the order of the mass, hagiographies, or lives of the saints, were also frequently written, as an encouragement to the devout and a warning to others. The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine reached such popularity that, in its time, francis of Assisi was a prolific poet, and his Franciscan followers frequently wrote poetry themselves as an expression of their piety. Dies Irae and Stabat Mater are two of the most powerful Latin poems on religious subjects, goliardic poetry was an art form used by some clerics to express dissent. The text of these plays was often controlled by local guilds, during the Middle Ages, the Jewish population of Europe also produced a number of outstanding writers. Maimonides, born in Cordoba, Spain, and Rashi, born in Troyes, secular literature in this period was not produced in equal quantity as religious literature, but much has survived and we possess today a rich corpusMedieval literature – The first page of Beowulf
47. Renaissance literature – Renaissance literature refers to European literature which was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance. It is characterized by the adoption of a humanist philosophy, the recovery of the literature of Antiquity. For the writers of the Renaissance Greco-Roman inspiration was shown both in the themes of their writing and in the forms they used. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective, platonic ideas were revived and put to the service of Christianity. The search for pleasures of the senses and a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period, new literary genres such as the essay and new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent, countries that were predominantly Catholic or Protestant experienced the Renaissance differently, areas where the Orthodox Church was culturally dominant, as well as those areas of Europe under Islamic rule were more or less outside its influence. The period focused on self-actualization and ones ability to accept what is going on in ones life, the earliest Renaissance literature appeared in Italy in the 14th century, Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli and Ariosto are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread at different times to other countries, the English Renaissance and the Renaissance in Scotland date from the late 15th century to the early 17th century. In northern Europe the scholarly writings of Erasmus, the plays of Shakespeare, the poems of Edmund Spenser and the writings of Sir Philip Sidney may be considered Renaissance in characterRenaissance literature – Renaissance
48. 12th century in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 12th century. The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase in the production of Latin texts and these two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters with a lasting influence on the development of literature in the following centuries. 1104, September 3 St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral,1170, Poet, politician and historian Lu You travels on the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. Before 1173, Copenhagen Psalter produced in northern England c, early 12th century Gesta Francorum Íslendingabók Liber Eliensis by monks of Ely Abbey By 1106 Lebor na hUidre by monks of Clonmacnoise 1108 Dei gesta per Francos by Guibert of Nogent c. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus c.1113 Primary Chronicle 1122–54 Peterborough Chronicle c, 1125–50 Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis by Albert of Aix c. 1135–39 Estoire des Engleis by Geoffrey Gaimar c.1140 Chronicon Roskildense 1145 Samguk Sagi by Kim Bu-sik, 1149–50 Visio Tnugdali transcribed by Brother Marcus c. 1150–55 Roman de Brut by Wace Concludes 1152 Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Book 1 by Otto of Freising 1154 – Henry of Huntingdon, 1178–1208 Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus c. 1181–82 Witherlogh by Sven Aggesen c.1183 De bello Troiano by Joseph of Exeter c, 1186–87 Historia brevis regum Dacie by Sven Aggesen 1188 Topographia Hibernica by Gerald of Wales 1190s Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja c. 1190–1215 Brut by Layamon 1192 Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi by Richard of Devizes c, 1152–64 Liber viarum Dei by Elisabeth of Schönau c.1160 Policraticus by John of Salisbury 1163. Makhzan al-Asrar by Nizami Ganjavi c, 1175–1200 Poema Morale c.1124 Vita Anselmi by Eadmer 1148 Alexiad by Anna Komnene c. 1150–1190 Le Roman de Tristan by Béroul c, 1155–1173 Tristan by Thomas of Britain c.1160 Roman dEnéas c.1165 Letter of Prester John c.1180 Chanson dAntioche c. 1155–60 Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure c.1170 Érec et Énide by Chrétien de Troyes c, Roman de toute chevalerie by Thomas de Kent c.1176 Cligès by Chrétien de Troyes 1177–80 Khosrow and Shirin by Nizami Ganjavi c. 1177–81 by Chrétien de Troyes Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette Yvain, 1180s Ipomedon by Hue de Rotelande Protheselaus by Hue de Rotelande Der arme Heinrich by Hartmann von Aue c. 1181–91 Perceval, le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes c.1190 Gregorius by Hartmann von Aue c, erec by Hartmann von Aue 1192 Layla and Majnun by Nizami Ganjavi c. 1184 Architrenius by John of Hauville Ludus de Antichristo Ordo Virtutum c.1119 Lyric poetry by William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, 1124–27 Waka anthology Kinyō Wakashū compiled by Minamoto no Shunrai 1140s–1150s Goliardic poetry by Hugh Primas of Orléans c. 1125–1175 First Grammatical Treatise by the First Grammarian 1191 Itinerarium Cambriae by Gerald of Wales 1194 Descriptio Cambriae by Gerald of Wales c,1110, Wace, Jèrriais poet Born c. 1126, Eadmer, English ecclesiastic and historian Born c,1130, Akka Mahadevi, female Indian Kannada language Vachana sahitya didactic poet Died 1131, December 4 Omar Khayyám, Persian philosopher, scientist and presumed poet Born c. 1141, Nizami Ganjavi, Seljuk Empire Persian romantic epic poet Born c,1146, Gerald of Wales, Cambro-Norman churchman and topographer Died c12th century in literature – Scribe of Eadwine Psalter (mid-12th century, English)
49. 2012 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2012. January 1 – Copyright restrictions on James Joyces major works are lifted on the first day of the year, february – James Joyces childrens story The Cats of Copenhagen is published for the first time by Ithys Press in Dublin. March – The discovery is announced of a collection of fairy tales gathered by historian Franz Xaver von Schönwerth, december – The discovery is announced of The Tallow Candle, a previously unknown story by Hans Christian Andersen. It was found at the bottom of a box in Denmark in October, man Booker Prize, Bring Up the Bodies by Hilary Mantel Miles Franklin Award, Anna Funder, All That I Am. List of literary awards List of poetry awards 2012 in Australian literature Literary events in 2012 at The Guardian Books to watch out for in autumn 2012 at The Guardian2012 in literature – Mo Yan in Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature
50. 2009 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2009. April 21 – UNESCO launches the World Digital Library, may 1 – Carol Ann Duffy is appointed Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, the first woman appointed to the position, she is also the first Scot and the first openly gay occupant of the post. May 5 – Posthumous publication of J. R. R. Tolkiens narrative poem The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún in alliterative verse based on the 13th century Poetic Edda and probably written in the 1930s. August 10 – Standard orthography for writing in the Silesian language is adopted in Cieszyn, october 8 – Romanian-born German novelist Herta Müller wins the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature. November 10 – Linden MacIntyre wins the 2009 Scotiabank Giller Prize for his novel The Bishops Man, australian publishers Allen & Unwin announce the suspension of their annual Iremonger Award, on the grounds that no manuscript of sufficient merit has been submitted. Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm-Zentrum library opens at Humboldt University of Berlin, hajime Asano and Seiji Kikuchi – Mayo Chiki. Reif Larsen – The Selected Works of T. S. Spivet Peter Lerangis – The Sword Thief D. J, machale – The Soldiers of Halla Joshua Mowll et al. Michael Crichton – Pirate Latitudes Andrew Hussie – Homestuck J. C. Hutchins – 7th Son, Book One, Descent Robert Jordan, edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction, Russell Wangersky, Burning Down the House Governor Generals Awards, Multiple categories, see 2009 Governor Generals Awards2009 in literature – Herta Müller
51. 2008 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2008. January 1 – In the UKs 2008 New Year Honours List, Hanif Kureishi, Jenny Uglow, Peter Vansittart, may 7–11 – First Palestine Festival of Literature. July – Salman Rushdies Midnights Children is the winner of a poll to select the Best of the Booker2008 in literature – Margaret Truman
52. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014