1. South China Sea – The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres. The areas importance largely results from one-third of the worlds shipping sailing through its waters, the sea and its mostly uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are reflected in the variety of names used for the islands. South China Sea is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and this name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea, the International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as South China Sea. The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period also referred to the sea, Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature. There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions, during the Eastern Han dynasty, Chinas rulers called the Sea Zhang Hai. Fei Hai became popular during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai, became gradually widespread during the Qing Dynasty. In Southeast Asia it was called the Champa Sea or Sea of Cham. The majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941. Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai South China Sea and this was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the South Sea, 南海 Nánhǎi, in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, it was long called the South China Sea, with the part within Philippine territorial waters often called the Luzon Sea, Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines. However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute in 2011, a PAGASA spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines will continue to be called the Philippine Sea. In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed Administrative Order No, states and territories with borders on the sea include, the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore, and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China Sea include the Pearl, Min, Jiulong, Red, Mekong, Rajang, Pahang, Pampanga, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the South China Sea as follows, On the South. From Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa to Kiushan Tao on to the South point of Haitan Tao, the Mainland, the Southern limit of the Gulf of Thailand and the East coast of the Malay Peninsula. The sea lies above a drowned continental shelf, during recent ice ages global sea level was hundreds of metres lower, the South China Sea opened around 45 million years ago when the Dangerous Ground rifted away from southern China. Extension culminated in seafloor spreading around 30 million years ago, a process that propagated to the SW resulting in the V-shaped basin we see today, extension ceased around 17 million years agoSouth China Sea – The northeastern portion of the South China Sea
2. Sabah – Sabah, nicknamed Malay, Negeri Di Bawah Bayu, is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Sabah has a level of autonomy in administration, immigration. It is situated in northern Borneo, bordering the state of Sarawak to the southwest, Kalimantan of Indonesia to the south, Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam in the west and the Philippines to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu is the city, the economic centre of the state. Other major towns in Sabah include Sandakan and Tawau, as of the 2015 census in Malaysia, the states population is 3,543,500. Sabah has a climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal. The state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range National Park, Kinabatangan River, second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah and Mount Kinabalu is the highest point of Sabah as well of Malaysia. The earliest human settlement in Sabah can be traced back to 20, the state had a trading relationship with China from the 14th century AD. Sabah came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 15th century, the state was subsequently acquired by the North Borneo Chartered Company in the 19th century. During World War II, Sabah was occupied by the Japanese for three years and it became a British Crown Colony in 1946. On 31 August 1963, Sabah was granted self-government by the British, following this, Sabah became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia alongside Sarawak, Singapore, and the Federation of Malaya. Sabah exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity, culture and language, the head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. The government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia. Sabah is divided into divisions and districts. Malay is the language of the state, and Islam is the official religion. Sabah is known for its musical instrument, the sompoton. Sabah is the state in Malaysia to celebrate the Kaamatan festival. Sabah has abundant natural resources, and its economy is strongly export-oriented, the primary exports include oil, gas, timber and palm oilSabah – (Left) The first concession treaty was signed by Brunei Sultan, Abdul Momin on 29 December 1877. (Right) Sultan Jamalalulazam of Sulu signed the second concession treaty on 22 January 1878.
3. Capital (political) – A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government. In some jurisdictions, including countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. The word capital derives from the Latin caput, meaning head, in several English-speaking states, the terms county town, county seat, and borough seat are also used in lower subdivisions. In unitary states, subnational capitals are known as administrative centres. The capital is often, but not necessarily, the largest city of its constituent, historically, the major economic centre of a state or region often becomes the focal point of political power, and becomes a capital through conquest or federation. Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Changan, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, and Berlin. Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e. g. Constantinople, Rome, Jerusalem, Ancient Babylon, Moscow, Belgrade, Paris, and Peking. A capital city that is also the economic, cultural. The convergence of political and economic or cultural power is by no means universal, traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e. g. Nanking by Shanghai, Quebec City by Montreal, and numerous US state capitals. The decline of a dynasty or culture could also mean the extinction of its city, as occurred at Babylon. Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such, for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, are located in or near them. In Canada, there is a capital, while the ten provinces. The states of such countries as Mexico, Brazil, and Australia all have capital cities, for example, the six state capitals of Australia are Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney. In Australia, the capital cities is regularly used, to refer to the aforementioned state capitals plus the federal capital Canberra and Darwin. Abu Dhabi is the city of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. In unitary states which consist of multiple constituent countries, such as the United Kingdom or the Kingdom of Denmark, the national capitals of Germany and Russia, the Stadtstaat of Berlin and the Federal City of Moscow, are also constituent states of both countries in their own rightCapital (political) – Parliament Hill, the national legislative buildings, in Ottawa, the capital of Canada.
4. Kuala Lumpur – Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or more commonly called KL is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city. Being rated as an Alpha world city, Kuala Lumpur is the global city in Malaysia which covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing regions in South-East Asia, in terms of population. Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia, the city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they were moved to Putrajaya in early 1999. Some sections of the judiciary still remain in the city of Kuala Lumpur. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is situated in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural, financial and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a key city. Kuala Lumpur is one of three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Since the 1990s, the city has played host to international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades and it is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers, which have become an iconic symbol of Malaysias futuristic development. Kuala Lumpur means muddy confluence, kuala is the point where two rivers join together or an estuary, and lumpur means mud. One suggestion is that it was named after Sungai Lumpur, it was recorded in 1824 that Sungei Lumpoor was the most important tin-producing settlement up the Klang River. It has also proposed that Kuala Lumpur was originally named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu. Another suggestion is that it was initially a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning flooded jungle or decayed jungle, there is however no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes. It is also possible that the name is a form of an earlier. It is unknown who founded or named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur was originally a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was openedKuala Lumpur – Clockwise from top left: Petronas Twin Towers, Petaling Street, Masjid Jamek and Gombak / Klang river confluence, National Monument, National Mosque, skyline of KL. Centre: KL Tower
5. Malaysia – Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, with a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia, located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, the first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946, Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while allowing freedom of religion for non-Muslims, the government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the prime minister, since its independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6. 5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third largest in Southeast Asia, the name Malaysia is a combination of the word Malay and the Latin-Greek suffix -sia/-σία. The word melayu in Malay may derive from the Tamil words malai and ur meaning mountain and city, land, malayadvipa was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word melayu or mlayu may have used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on SumatraMalaysia – "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
6. Pinyin – Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooksPinyin – A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Putonghua is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.
7. Sarawak – Sarawak is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. The capital city, Kuching, is the centre of the state. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri, Sibu, as of the 2015 census, the total population of Sarawak is 2,636,000. Sarawak has a climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal. It has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park, Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia, Bakun Dam, one of the largest dams in Southeast Asia, is located on one of its tributaries, the Balui River. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak, the earliest known human settlement in Sarawak, located at the Niah Caves, dates back to 40,000 years ago. A series of Chinese ceramics dated from the 8th to 13th century AD was uncovered at the site of Santubong. The coastal regions of Sarawak came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 16th century, in 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. He, and his descendants, governed the state from 1841 to 1946, during World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, on 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia, established on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation, the creation of the Federation also resulted in a communist insurgency that lasted until 1990. The head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, Sarawak exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity, culture, and language, major ethnic groups in Sarawak are, Iban, Malay, Chinese, Melanau, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu. English and Malay are the two official languages of the state, there is no official religion. The Gawai Dayak is a festival celebrated on a public holiday. The official explanation of the word Sarawak is that it is derived from the Sarawak Malay word serawak, which means antimony. A popular alternative explanation is that it is a contraction of the four Malay words purportedly uttered by Pangeran Muda Hashim, Saya serah pada awak, James Brooke became the first of the White Rajah dynasty to govern Sarawak. Sarawak is nicknamed Land of the Hornbills and these birds are important cultural symbols for the Dayak people, representing the spirit of God. It is also believed if a hornbill is seen flying over residencesSarawak – A west view of a river from the anchorage off Sarawak, Borneo circa 1800s. Painting from the National Maritime Museum of London.
8. Kuching – Kuching /ˈkuːtʃɪŋ/, officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia. It is also the capital of Kuching Division, Kuching was the third capital of Sarawak in 1827 during the administration of the Bruneian Empire. The town continued to receive attention and development during the rule of Charles Brooke such as the construction of a system, hospital, prison, fort. In 1941, the Brooke administration had a Centenary Celebration in Kuching, during World War II, Kuching was occupied by Japanese forces from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese government set up a Batu Lintang camp near Kuching to hold prisoners of war, after the war, the town survived intact. However, the last Rajah of Sarawak, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke decided to cede Sarawak as part of British Crown Colony in 1946, Kuching remained as capital during the Crown Colony period. After the formation of Malaysia in 1963, Kuching retained its status as capital and was granted city status in 1988. Since then, the Kuching city is divided into two administrative regions managed by two local authorities. The administrative centre of Sarawak state government is located at Wisma Bapa Malaysia, Kuching is a major food destination for tourists and the main gateway for travellers visiting Sarawak and Borneo. The city has one of the major industrial and commercial centres in East Malaysia. The name of Kuching was already in use for the city by the time Brooke arrived in 1841, there are many theories as to the derivation of the word Kuching. It was perhaps derived from the Malay word for cat, kucing or from Cochin, an Indian trading port on the Malabar Coast, some Hindu artefacts can be seen today at the Sarawak State Museum. However, another source reported that the Kuching city was known as Sarawak before the Brooke arrived. The settlement was renamed to Sarawak proper during the kingdom expansion and it was only in 1872 that Charles Brooke renamed the settlement to Kuching. There was one unlikely theory based on a story on miscommunication, according to the story, James Brooke arrived in Kuching on his yacht Royalist. He then asked his local guide about the name of the town, the local guide thinking that James Brooke was pointing towards a cat, and said the word Kuching. However, ethnic Malays in Sarawak usually refer the name of a cat as pusak instead of the Malay word kucing, some source also stated that it was derived from a fruit called mata kucing, a fruit that grows widely in Malaysia and Indonesia. There was also a hill in the city that was named after the fruit, which is called Bukit Mata KuchingKuching – These statues of cats became a symbol of Kuching City.
9. Miri Division – Miri Division is one of the twelve administrative divisions of Sarawak, Malaysia. It has an area of 26,777.1 square kilometres. The population of Miri Division was 316,400, ethnically, the population was Iban, Chinese, Malay, Melanau, Kayan, Kenyah, Lun Bawang and Kelabit. Due to the industry, there is also a large foreign worker population. Miri Division consists of two districts, Miri and Marudi, the economy is largely based on petroleum and natural gas extraction from both onshore and offshore wells, and related petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas and chemical production. Another major industry is timber processing from Miris huge tropical rainforest, processed wood products, rather than log export has been given priority by the government. Agriculture is includes oil palm, rubber, and pepper as the main products, Tourism, particularly ecotourism, is a growing component of the economy. - Web page about Miri City Miri TourismMiri Division – Miri
10. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of JapanWorld War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
11. Petronas – PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on 17 August 1974. Petronas is ranked among Fortune Global 500s largest corporations in the world, Fortune ranks Petronas as the 75th largest company in the world in 2013. Fortune also ranks Petronas as the 12th most profitable company in the world, since its incorporation, Petronas has grown to be an integrated international oil and gas company with business interests in 35 countries. As of the end of March 2005, the Petronas Group comprised 103 wholly owned subsidiaries,19 partly owned outfits and 57 associated companies, together, these companies make the Petronas Group, which is involved in various oil and gas based activities. The Financial Times has identified PETRONAS as one of the new seven sisters, the company is headquartered at the Petronas Towers which was officially opened on Malaysias 42nd National Day,31 August 1998 – in the corporations 24th Anniversary year. PETRONAS was not the first company to extract oil or gas in Malaysia and it was Royal Dutch Shell that began the oil exploration in Sarawak, then under the White Rajahs, at the end of the 19th century. In 1910, the first oil well was drilled in Miri and this became the first oil producing well known as the Grand Old Lady. The authorities in the two new states retained their links with Royal Dutch Shell, which brought Malaysias first offshore oil field onstream in 1968, by 1974, however, only Esso was still in the area. It made its first discoveries of gas in that year. By 1974, Malaysias output of crude oil stood at about 81,000 barrels per day, several factors converged in the early 1970s to prompt the Malaysian government into setting up a state oil and gas company, as first proposed in its Five Year Plan published in 1971. Former Chief Minister of Sarawak, Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub was one of the people who proposed the idea of Malaysia setting up their own oil company, by 1985, the majors, reduced in number from seven to five, were producing less than 20% of the world total. The oil crisis of 1973–74 made the government even more aware of Malaysias dependence on foreign oil, another factor in the decision was that the technology had recently been developed for extensive exploration and drilling offshore. Malaysian crude turned out to be high quality with low sulphur content. A final and crucial factor in the creation of PETRONAS, the difficulties this policy has caused for foreign companies and investors are outweighed by the benefits they believe they gain from Malaysias political stability. The Malaysian government chose to create a company, rather than using taxes, production limits, leasing. The government wanted, and needed, the co-operation of the majors, PETRONAS was established in August 1974 and operates under the terms of the Petroleum Development Act passed in October 1974. It was modelled on Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas company founded in 1971 in succession to Permina, on 6 September 1974, Malaysias then prime minister, Tun Abdul Razak, announced the appointment of Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah as chairman and chief executive of PETRONAS. Tun Razak said, From among the new blood, I intended to bring Tengku Razaleigh into the Cabinet, however, I have an important job for him, a job as important as that of a Cabinet MinisterPetronas – The PETRONAS Twin Towers.
12. Miri, Malaysia – Miri /ˈmɪriː/ is a coastal city in northeastern Sarawak, Malaysia, located near the border of Brunei, on the island of Borneo. The city covers an area of 997.43 square kilometres, Miri is the second largest city in Sarawak, with a population of 234,541. The city is also the capital of Miri District of the Miri Division, before Miri was founded, Marudi was the administrative centre of the northern region of Sarawak. Miri was founded in 1910 when the first oil well was drilled by Royal Dutch Shell, the discovery of an oil field in Miri has led to rapid development of Miri town. Miri became the centre of the northern region of Sarawak by 1929. The subsequent Japanese occupation led Miri to become a target of Allied air raids caused the destruction of oil refinery facilities in Miri. The petroleum industry continued to be a player in the citys economy after the war. Oil exploration has moved offshore since the 1950s, but subsequently new inland oil fields were found in 1989 and 2011, in 1974, the formation of Malaysian oil and gas company Petronas led to co-operation between Petronas and Shell on oil exploration in the Miri region. In 2005, Miri became the 10th city in Malaysia to be granted city status. Miri is the main tourist gateway to Gunung Mulu National Park, Loagan Bunut National Park, Lambir Hills National Park, Niah National Park, the Gunung Mulu National Park with its Sarawak Chamber is one of the favourite ecotourism destinations. Miri is also the birthplace of the Malaysian petroleum industry, other major industries in the city include timber, oil palm and tourism. Miri town is named after a minority group called Jatti Meirek or simply Mirek. This ethnic group is the earliest settlers in the region of Miri Division, europeans who later came here for oil exploration mistakenly pronounced Miriek as Miri and hence the name continue to be used today. The first foragers visited the West Mouth of Niah Cave 50,000 years ago when Borneo was connected to the mainland of Southeast Asia, the landscape of Niah Cave was drier and more open than it is now. Prehistoric Niah Cave was surrounded by a mosaic of closed forests with bush, parkland, swamps, the foragers were able to survive in the rainforests through hunting, fishing, mollusc collection, and plant gathering. The earliest evidence of population in the area dates back to 40,000 BC in Niah Cave at Paleolithic period. This is evidenced by the discovery of a Homo sapiens skull nicknamed Deep Skull in a trench uncovered by Tom Harrisson in 1958. The skull probably belongs to a 16- to 17-year-old adolescent girl, unfossilised Manis paleojavanica bone dated back to 30,000 BC was also found in the proximity of the Deep Skull, as well as with the Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites inside the Niah CavesMiri, Malaysia – Charles Hose advocated Miri oil exploration to Royal Dutch Shell.
13. Malay language – Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It has a status in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia. As the Bahasa Kebangsaan or Bahasa Nasional of several states, Standard Malay has various official names, in Singapore and Brunei it is called Bahasa Melayu, in Malaysia, Bahasa Malaysia, and in Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia and is designated the Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu. However, in areas of central to southern Sumatra where the language is indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as Bahasa Melayu and consider it one of their regional languages. There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay, as well as Macassar Malay, Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast. A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages. The history of the Malay language can be divided into five periods, Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period, Late Modern Malay and it is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible. Old Malay was influenced by Sanskrit literary language of Classical India, Sanskrit loanwords can be found in Old Malay vocabulary. Batenburg on November 29,1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the Tatang and it is a small stone of 45 by 80 centimetres. The earliest surviving manuscript in Malay is the Tanjong Tanah Law in post-Pallava letters and this 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra. The laws were for the Minangkabau people, who still live in the highlands of Sumatra. The Malay language came into use as the lingua franca of the Malacca Sultanate. During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature, the development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Malayalam and Sanskrit vocabularies, called Classical Malay. Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognisable to speakers of modern Malay, however, there is no connection between Malaccan Malay as used on Riau and the Riau vernacular. One of the oldest surviving letters written in Malay is a letter from Sultan Abu Hayat of Ternate, Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia, the letter is addressed to the king of Portugal, following contact with Portuguese explorer Francisco Serrão. The letters show sign of non-native usage, the Ternateans used the unrelated Ternate language, Malay was used solely as a lingua franca for inter-ethnic communications. Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia, malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, is also a member of this language family. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking, many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian languageMalay language – Malay Traffic-signs
14. Kuah – Pekan Kuah is a town, mukim and district capital of Langkawi, Kedah, Malaysia. It is the point for those coming by ferry from either the mainland or Penang Island. The town is centered on its jetty, which brings in flocks of tourists each year who come to enjoy the shopping and other attractions of Langkawi. Over the years, Pekan Kuah has developed into a modern and vibrant town with shopping and dining opportunities. Pekan Kuah has a range of hotels but no resorts. Also, the nightlife in Kuah consists mostly of eating out in restaurants, though there are a few bars. Still, Pekan Kuah boasts many facilities and attractions, making it a convenient and attractive place to stay despite the lack of beach, today, Pekan Kuah is booming as a commercial center with shopping complexes, restaurants, fast food outlets, hotels and handicraft shops. While Pekan Kuah is more of a center and shopping zone. Most of these are recreational parks where you can come to some rest. Dataran Lang or ‘Eagle Square’, is the location of a sculpture in the shape of a sea-eagle perched on rocks in pre-flight pose. This 12-meter high statue greets visitors who come to Pekan Kuah by ferry as they ride to the jetty, the eagle is the emblem of Langkawi Island as its name is thought by some to have been derived from the Malay word for eagle. The square is an area with ponds, terraces and bridges. Langkawi Legend Park is a recreational area opened on 27 April 1996 dedicated to Langkawi’s heritage of myths, in addition, there are 4 artificial lakes and a man-made beach to complement the picturesque scenery. The park is open from morning till late at night and is walking distance from the jetty. Adjoining Taman Lagenda is another park, the CHOGM Park, built to commemorate the 1989 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malaysia, Langkawi was the retreat destination for the Government heads that attended the function. Until recently the Park carried the flags of all the Commonwealth Nations that participated, the park has a man-made beach next to it and a children play area. The Al-Hana Mosque is one of Langkawi’s largest and most popular mosques and it is located in Pekan Kuah to accommodate Muslim patrons and allows visitors who come to view the architecture. The mosque incorporates motifs and carvings from Uzbekistan along with traditional Malay elements, the mosque was opened by the first Prime Minister of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman in 1959Kuah – Kuah Pekan Kuah
15. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi-, in Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago was the proper name for the Aegean Sea and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands. It is now used to refer to any group or, sometimes. Archipelagos may be isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago, archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs generated by subduction zones or hotspots, but may also be the result of erosion, deposition, and land elevation. Depending on their origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as oceanic islands, continental fragments. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin, continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the Bahamas, Greece, Hawaii, the largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed. ArchipelagoArchipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
16. Kedah – Kedah also known by its honorific, Darul Aman, or Abode of Peace is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a area of over 9,000 km². The mainland has a flat terrain, which is used to grow rice. Langkawi is an archipelago of islands, most of which are uninhabited, Kedah was called Kadaram by ancient and medieval Tamil people and Syburi by the Siamese when it was under their influence. To the north, Kedah borders the state of Perlis and shares a boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand. It borders the states of Perak to the south and Penang to the southwest, the states capital is Alor Setar and the royal seat is in Anak Bukit. Other major towns include Sungai Petani, and Kulim on the mainland, archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley reveals that a Hindu–Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient Kedah possibly as early as 110 A. D. The discoveries in Bujang Valley also made the ancient Kedah as the oldest civilisation of Southeast Asia, reference to ancient Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A. D. It described goods from Kadaram heaped together in the streets of Chola capital. Other than Kadaram, Kedah was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature, Kataha-Nagara, Anda-Kataha, Kataha-Dvipa, according to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the Kedah Annals, Kedah was founded by a Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the further, the Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam. In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the control of Srivijaya. In 1025, the city was conquered by Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, a second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty who conquered Kedah in the late 11th century. During the reign of Kulothunga Chola I Chola overlordship was established over the Sri Vijaya province Kedah in the late 11th century and it was later under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, in the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and then Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The Siamese nevertheless invaded Kedah in 1821, and it remained under Siamese control under the name of Syburi, in 1896, Kedah along with Perlis and Satun was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon Syburi which lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. In World War II, Kedah was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan, the Japanese returned Kedah to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah was a reluctant addition to the Federation of Malaya in 1948, since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam ShahKedah – Candi Bukit Batu Pahat of Bujang Valley.
17. Golden Jubilee – A golden jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. The golden jubilee is a ceremony to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the accession of the king. The first Golden Jubilee of Thailand was the celebration of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, King Rama IX celebrated his golden jubilee on 9 June 1996, having acceded to the throne in 1946 which makes him Thailands longest-reigning monarch and the longest-living monarch today. The largest faceted diamond in the world, known as the Golden Jubilee Diamond, was purchased as a gift for the King on the 50th anniversary of his coronation by Thai businessmen, currently, the diamond is located in the Royal Thai Palace as part of the crown jewels. In 1996, Banharn Silpa-archa, the Prime Minister, and the Thai people celebrated the King with a large celebration, the symbol of the golden jubilee of King Bhumibol Adulyadej was designed by Wiyada Charoensuk, who won the contest for the design. The golden jubilee of George III of the United Kingdom was celebrated on 25th October 1809, Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her golden jubilee in 2002, having ascended the throne in 1952. In 1887 the United Kingdom and the British Empire celebrated Queen Victorias golden jubilee, Victoria marked 20 June 1887—the fiftieth anniversary of her accession—with a banquet, to which fifty European kings and princes were invited. Although she could not have been aware of it, there was a plan by Irish Republicans to blow up Westminster Abbey while the Queen attended a service of thanksgiving and this assassination attempt, when it was discovered, became known as the Jubilee Plot. At the time, Victoria was a popular monarch. Emperor Wu of Han dynasty Kangxi Emperor of Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor of Qing dynasty Yeongjo of Joseon In Japan, Emperor Hirohito, celebrated his golden jubilee on 10 November 1976. Showa Memorial Park was established as part of a project to commemorate his golden jubilee, for the year 2015, the Singapore50 initiative is launched in Singapore to celebrate 50 years of independence from Malaysia. The logo is meant to identify with the SG50 celebrations, national Day Parade ceremonies for that year are themed Majulah Singapura - Our Golden Jubilee. In Bavaria, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria celebrated his jubilee as Elector Palatine in 1792. In Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Karl August celebrated his golden jubilee in 1826, in Austria-Hungary, Emperor Franz Josef celebrated his golden jubilee in 1898. In Baden, Grand Duke Frederick I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1906, in Liechtenstein, Prince Johann II celebrated his golden jubilee in 1908. In Greece, King George I was assassinated mere weeks before his golden jubilee was due to be celebrated in 1913, in Montenegro, Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš celebrated his golden jubilee in 1914. In Norway, King Haakon VII celebrated his golden jubilee in 1955, in Burundi, King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng celebrated his golden jubilee in 1965. In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie celebrated his jubilee, dating from when he became regentGolden Jubilee – The Singapore50 logo representing the golden jubilee celebrations.
18. Sumatran rhinoceros – The Sumatran rhinoceros, also known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros, is a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the extant species of the genus Dicerorhinus. It is the smallest rhinoceros, although it is still a large mammal, it stands 112–145 cm high at the shoulder, with a length of 2. 36–3.18 m. The weight is reported to range from 500 to 1,000 kg, averaging 700–800 kg, like both African species, it has two horns, the larger is the nasal horn, typically 15–25 cm, while the other horn is typically a stub. A coat of hair covers most of the Sumatran rhinos body. Members of the species once inhabited rainforests, swamps, and cloud forests in India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, in historical times, they lived in southwest China, particularly in Sichuan. They are now endangered, with only five substantial populations in the wild, four on Sumatra. Their numbers are difficult to determine because they are animals that are widely scattered across their range. Survival of the Peninsular Malaysia population is in doubt, and one of the Sumatran populations may already be extinct. In 2015, researchers announced that the Bornean rhinoceros had become extinct from the part of Borneo, however. The Sumatran rhino is a solitary animal except for courtship. It is the most vocal rhino species and also communicates through marking soil with its feet, twisting saplings into patterns, and leaving excrement. The species is much better studied than the similarly reclusive Javan rhinoceros, there was little or no information about procedures that would assist in ex situ breeding. Though a number of rhinos died once at the destinations and no offspring were produced for nearly 20 years. In March 2016, a Sumatran rhinoceros was spotted in Indonesian Borneo, the first documented Sumatran rhinoceros was shot 16 km outside Fort Marlborough, near the west coast of Sumatra, in 1793. Drawings of the animal, and a description, were sent to the naturalist Joseph Banks, then president of the Royal Society of London. In 1814, the species was given a name by Johann Fischer von Waldheim. The scientific name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis comes from the Greek terms di, cero, sumatrensis signifies of Sumatra, the Indonesian island where the rhinos were first discoveredSumatran rhinoceros – Sumatran rhinoceros
19. Malaysia Airlines – Malaysia Airlines is the flag carrier of Malaysia and a member of the oneworld airline alliance. The companys headquarters are located at Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia Airlines owns two subsidiary airlines, Firefly and MASwings. Firefly operates scheduled flights from its two home bases Penang International Airport and Subang International Airport, the airline focuses on tertiary cities. Malaysia Airlines has a freighter operated by MASkargo, which manages freighter flights. The airline began as Malayan Airways Limited and flew its first commercial flight in 1947, Malayan Airways was headquartered in Singapore. In 2013, the airline initiated a plan after large losses beginning in 2011 and cut routes to prominent. Malaysia Airlines also began a restructuring and intended to sell units such as engineering. In 2014, Malaysia Airlines lost two aircraft—Flight 370 and Flight 17—less than five months apart, exacerbating the airlines financial troubles and leading to the renationalisation of the airline. Prior to 2014, MAS had one of the worlds best safety records—just two fatal accidents in 68 years of operation, including the hijacking in 1977 of Flight 653 that resulted in 100 deaths. In 1947, the airline began as Malayan Airways, being renamed Malaysian Airways after Malaysia gained independence, after that, it changed its name once more to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines. MSA ceased operations in 1972, and two airlines were born — Malaysian Airline System and Singapore Airlines, scheduled air passenger and mail services in Malaya commenced in 1937 when Wearnes Air Service commenced operating services between Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Wearnes Air Service was started by two Australian brothers, Theodore and Charles Wearnes, the service commenced as a thrice weekly flight between Singapore and Penang. The first flight, using an 8-seater de Havilland DH. 89A enabled the expansion to daily services as well as the addition of Ipoh as a destination, during World War II, WAS services ceased after the Japanese occupation of Malaya and Singapore in 1941. After the war, MAL was restructured to include just the partnership of Straits Steamship, the airlines first flight was a charter flight from the British Straits Settlement of Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, on 2 April 1947, using an Airspeed Consul twin-engined aircraft. This inaugural flight on the Raja Udang, with five passengers. Weekly scheduled flights quickly followed from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, by 1955, Malayan Airways fleet had grown to include a large number of Douglas DC-3s, and finally went public in 1957. Over the next few years, the airline expanded rapidly, boosted by post-war air travel demand when flying became more than a privilege for the rich and famous. By April 1960, the airline was operating Douglas DC-3s, Super Constellations and Viscounts on new routes from Singapore to Hong Kong, flights were also introduced from Singapore to cities in the Borneo Territories, including Brunei, Jesselton, Kuching, Sandakan and SibuMalaysia Airlines – An Airspeed Consul, the first aircraft type operated by Malayan Airways.
20. History of Malaysia – Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country located on strategic sea-lane that exposes it to global trade and foreign culture. Although Muslims had passed through the Malay Peninsula as early as the 10th century, the adoption of Islam in the 14th century saw the rise of a number of sultanates, the most prominent of which was the Sultanate of Malacca. Islam had a influence on the Malay people, but has also been influenced by them. The Portuguese were the first European colonial powers to themselves on the Malay Peninsula and Southeast Asia, capturing Malacca in 1511. However, it was the British who, after initially establishing bases at Jesselton, Kuching, Penang and Singapore, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies. A fourth phase of influence was immigration of Chinese and Indian workers to meet the needs of the colonial economy created by the British in the Malay Peninsula. Japanese invasion during World War II ended British domination in Malaysia, the subsequent occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak from 1942 to 1945 unleashed nationalism. In the Peninsula, the Malayan Communist Party took up arms against the British, a tough military response was needed to end the insurgency and bring about the establishment of an independent, multi-racial Federation of Malaya on 31 August 1957. On 31 August 1963, the British territories in North Borneo and Singapore were granted independence, approximately two years later, the Malaysian parliament passed a bill without the consent of signatory of Malaysia Agreement 1963 to separate Singapore from the Federation. A confrontation with Indonesia occurred in the early-1960s, race riots in 1969 led to the imposition of emergency rule, and a curtailment of political life and civil liberties which has never been fully reversed. Since 1970 the National Front coalition headed by United Malays National Organisation has governed Malaysia, Economic growth dramatically increased living standards by the 1990s. This growing prosperity helped minimise political discontent, stone hand-axes from early hominoids, probably Homo erectus, have been unearthed in Lenggong. They date back 1.83 million years, the oldest evidence of habitation in Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of human habitation in Malaysia is the 40, 000-year-old skull excavated from the Niah Caves in todays Sarawak. It was excavated from a trench uncovered by Barbara and Tom Harrisson in 1958. This is also the oldest modern human skull in Southeast Asia, the skull probably belongs to a 16-to 17-year-old adolescent girl. The first foragers visited the West Mouth of Niah Caves 40,000 years ago when Borneo was connected to the mainland of Southeast Asia, the landscape around the Niah Caves was drier and more exposed than it is now. Prehistorically, the Niah Caves were surrounded by a combination of closed forests with bush, parkland, swamps, the foragers were able to survive in the rainforest through hunting, fishing, and gathering molluscs and edible plantsHistory of Malaysia – The proclamation on the forming of the independent Federation of Malaysia by Lee Kuan Yew (top) for Singapore, Tun Fuad Stephens (centre) for North Borneo and Stephen Kalong Ningkan (bottom) for Sarawak. However, Singapore was pulled out less than two years after the merger due to racial issues.
21. Portuguese Malacca – Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years, was a Portuguese colony. The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China, eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri the first King of Malacca in 1411. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509, although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble however quickly ensued. The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat, Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the way they could establish themselves in Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships, the Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. The Sultan refused all the demands, conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down the Malaccan side. A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca, as the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. Also, with hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy and they endured years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital and he rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless, the Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks, frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched and he was later remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed to North. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the sultans forces must be silencedPortuguese Malacca – Portuguese Malacca by Ferdinand Magellan, ca. 1509-1512.
22. Dutch Malacca – Dutch Malacca was the longest period that Malacca was under foreign control. The Dutch ruled for almost 183 years with intermittent British occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and this era saw relative peace with little serious interruption from the Malay kingdoms due to the understanding earlier on forged between the Dutch and the Sultanate of Johor in 1606. This time also marked the decline of the importance of Malacca, in the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company began the campaign to destroy Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca into a fortress, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese, the Dutch with their local allies assaulted and wrested Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor effort effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, as per the agreement with Johor in 1606, the Dutch took control of Malacca and agreed not to seek territories or wage war with the Malay kingdoms. Malacca was controlled as a colony of the VOC, all the chief administrators of Malacca were Dutch governors except for the brief period that the city was under British Residents during the Wars of Napoleon. The governors and residents list is as follows, The Dutch improved and expanded the Portuguese fortress and built walls to protect the harbour, during their rule the famous city hall or Stadthuys was also constructed, which still stands today. History of the Dutch in MalaysiaDutch Malacca – Dutch Malacca, ca. 1724–26
23. Unfederated Malay States – The term Unfederated Malay States was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, in 1946 the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States, in 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, the Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the UK in August 1957. Johor accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom in 1885, unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor remained outside of the Federated Malay States. Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states to the United Kingdom and these states then became British Protected States. With the assistance of Japan, they returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War. The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the Advisor, in contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States enjoyed greater autonomy. The de facto language of the Unfederated Malay States was MalayUnfederated Malay States
24. British Borneo – British Borneo comprised the four northern parts of the island of Borneo, which are now Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and Sarawak. During the British colonial rule until 1963, Sarawak, Labuan and Sabah known as, Kingdom of Sarawak – Crown Colony of Sarawak, Crown Colony of Labuan, in 1687 Father Ventimiglia, a Theatine, was commissioned by Pope Innocent XI to preach Christianity in Borneo. There are no memorials of this mission, which has left no traces in the island although the missionary declared that God had blessed his labours, Father Cuarteron was originally a sea-captain and had vowed, after escaping great peril, to devote himself to the evangelisation of Borneo. He landed at Labuan in 1857, in company with several missionaries who deserted him in 1860, although alone in the island of Labuan, Father Cuarteron courageously continued his labours. At length, seeing that isolation made him powerless, he went to Rome in 1879 to request that the Propaganda place the mission in charge of an institute, from Rome Father Cuarteron went to Spain, where he soon died. The island of Labuan has an area of 30 square miles and contains 6,800 inhabitants, the prefect Apostolic lives at Labuan. The stations served are Labuan and Kuching, the two most important towns, outside of these two places where the missionaries live ten stations are visited, Sibu, Kanowit, Igan, Oya, Mukah, Baram, Papar, Jesselton, Putatan, and Sandakan. According to the Missions-Atlas of P, the first prefect Apostolic appointed under the new administration was the Rev. Thomas Jackson. The society continued in charge of the mission, during the Second World War, the British realised they were unable to defend the colony from the powerful Imperial Japanese Navy. They destroyed the airfields, and especially the oil fields there, in 1943, the Chinese population of about 50,000 rebelled against Japan and seized some towns. They were overwhelmed with many executed, australia sent special operation forces, which trained and armed local militia units and aided the landing of an Australian division in June 1945. Japanese forces numbered about 31,000, and held out until October 1945 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles, ed. article name needed. WorldStatesmen- Malaysia historical context, not worked in hereBritish Borneo – British Borneo.
25. Crown Colony of Labuan – Labuan, made up of the main Labuan Island and six smaller islands. Since 15th century, Labuan was part of Brunei and the became the shelter for the ships from storms. Later on in 1846, Labuan was ceded to Great Britain in 1848 to become a Crown colony under the Treaty of Labuan, in 1890, it came to be administered by the British North Borneo Company. It was reverted to British government rule in 1904, then, on 1 January 1907, it joined the Straits Settlements and had been administered from Singapore, the capital of the Straits Settlements. During World War II, Labuan was occupied by Japan from December 1941 to June 1945, Labuan was renamed Maida Island after Marquis Toshinari Maeda, the first commander of Japanese forces in northern Borneo. The liberation of Borneo began on 10 June 1945 when the Allied Forces under the command of General McArthur landed at Labuan with a convoy of 100 ships, the 9th Australian Division launched an attack supported by massive air and sea bombardments that resulted in the surrender of the Japanese. On 9 September 1945, General Masao Baba, commander of Japanese military, surrendered at the Layang-layang beach before Major General George F. Wooten, Labuan was later separated from Sabah, becoming a Federal Territory, administered by the federal government, on 16 April 1984. 1846 Treaty of Labuan, officially became Crown colony to Great Britain,1890 Incorporated into the territory of the British North Borneo Company which in 1881 had taken over land previously part of Brunei. 1906 The boundaries of the Straits Settlements were extended to include the Colony of Labuan,1907 Became part of the Straits Settlements. 1946 Labuan returned to the Crown Colony of North Borneo,1963 Became part of Sabah and Malaysia. 1984 Ceded to Federal Government by Sabah and made into Federal TerritoryCrown Colony of Labuan – Flag
26. Japanese occupation of British Borneo – Because of its oil resources, Borneo was a prime target for Japan, and a very poorly guarded one. Chronically short of resources, Japan needed an assured supply, particularly of oil. In 1941, the Americans and British had placed an embargo on exports of raw materials to Japan because of its aggression in China. Borneo was strategically important to Japan as it is located on the sea routes between Java, Sumatra, Malaya and Celebes. Control of these routes was vital to securing the territory, the Japanese invasion plan called for the British territories to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Army and the southern Dutch territory to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The IJA unit that invaded northern Borneo was the 35th Infantry Brigade, the Brigade was led by Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi and consisted of units previously stationed at Canton, southern China. Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi, the Support Force—commanded by Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita—consisted of the cruisers Kumano and Suzuya and the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri. The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching, the convoy proceeded without being detected and, at dawn on 16 December 1941, two landing units secured Miri and Seria with little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured, after securing the oilfields, on 22 December, the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching. The Japanese airforce bombed Singkawang airfield to prevent a Dutch attack, after escorts drove off a lone Dutch submarine, the Japanese task force entered the mouth of the Santubong river on 23 December. The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang, and the troops in twenty transports, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka, the 2nd Battalion of the 15th Punjab Regiment, which was stationed in Kuching, was the sole Allied infantry unit on the entire island. Although they resisted the Japanese attack on the airfield, they were outnumbered and retreated up the Santubong river. At about 16,40 on 25 December, Japanese troops successfully captured Kuching airfield, the Punjab Regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area. On 31 December 1941, a force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy the remainder of Brunei, Jesselton was defended by the North Borneo Armed Constabulary, with only 650 men. They hardly provided any resistance to slow down the Japanese invasion, on 3 January 1942, the Japanese army invaded Labuan Island. On 18 January 1942, using fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan. On the morning of the 19 January, Governor Charles Robert Smith surrendered British North Borneo and was interned with other staff, the occupation of British Borneo was thus completed. Southern and central Borneo were taken by the Japanese Navy, following its attacks from east and west, after ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942Japanese occupation of British Borneo – Japanese possessions in British Borneo, including Dutch Borneo on 1943.
27. Malayan Union – The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, the capital of the Union was Kuala Lumpur. The former Strait Settlement of Singapore was administered as a crown colony. The idea of the Union was first expressed by the British on October 1945 in the aftermath of the Second World War by the British Military Administration, Sir Harold MacMichael was assigned the task of gathering the Malay state rulers approval for the Malayan Union in the same month. In a short period of time, he managed to obtain all the Malay rulers’ approval, hence the approval was given, though it was with utmost reluctance. When it was unveiled, the Malayan Union gave equal rights to people who wished to apply for citizenship, however, the citizenship proposal was never actually implemented. Due to opposition to the proposal, it was postponed then modified. The Sultans, the rulers of the Malay states, conceded all their powers to the British Crown except in religious matters. The Malayan Union was placed under the jurisdiction of a British Governor, State Councils became an extended hand of the Federal government that had to do its bidding. Also, British Residents replacing the Sultans as the head of the State Councils meant that the status of the Sultans were greatly reduced. A Supreme Court was established in 1946 of which Harold Curwen Willan was the only Chief Justice, the Malays generally opposed the creation of the Union. The opposition was due to the methods Sir Harold MacMichael used to acquire the Sultans approval, the reduction of the Sultans powers, and easy granting of citizenship to immigrants. The United Malays National Organisation or UMNO, a Malay political association formed by Dato Onn bin Jaafar on 1 March 1946, Malays also wore white bands around their heads, signifying their mourning for the loss of the Sultans political rights. They also encouraged Malay opposition to the Malayan Union, after the inauguration of the Malayan Union, the Malays, under UMNO continued opposing the Malayan Union. They utilised civil disobedience as a means of protest by refusing to attend the ceremonies of the British governors. They had also refused to participate in the meetings of the Advisory Councils, hence Malay participation in the government bureaucracy, the British had recognised this problem and took measures to consider the opinions of the major races in Malaya before making amendments to the constitution. The Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948, odyssey, Perspectives on Southeast Asia – Malaysia and Singapore 1870–1971Malayan Union – Flag
28. Malayan Emergency – Malayan Emergency was the colonial governments term for the conflict. The MNLA termed it the Anti-British National Liberation War, the rubber plantations and tin-mining industries had pushed for the use of the term emergency since their losses would not have been covered by Lloyds insurers if it had been termed a war. Despite the communists defeat in 1960, communist leader Chin Peng renewed the insurgency against the Malaysian government in 1967 and he fled to exile in Thailand, where he lived until his death on 16 September 2013. The Malayan economy relied on the export of tin and rubber, when the British took control of the Malayan economy, they imposed taxes on some Malayan goods, affecting their traditional industries. This led to an increase in poverty for the Malayan people, many Chinese people found employment in tin mines or fields responsible for the trade of materials. This heightened inter-ethnic tensions as the Malay people found that ethnic Chinese had replaced them in certain jobs and this forced many Malays into the rubber industry, which in turn was heavily dependent upon volatile world prices. Economic tension intensified during the Second World War. The Japanese occupation of Malaya began in 1941 and from that point onwards the “export of primary products was limited to the small amounts required for the Japanese economy. ”This led to large areas of rubber plantations being abandoned. The latter was progressively affected by a shortage of parts for machines. Rice imports, which made up a portion of the Malayan diet, fell rapidly due to limited trade. Many people believed that the British would soon return and ‘save’ them so they did not attempt to learn the skills that would be essential for survival. This then led to famine in Malaya from 1942. The withdrawal of Japan at the end of World War II left the British Malayan economy disrupted, problems included unemployment, low wages, and high levels of food inflation, well above the healthy rate of 2–3%. The Malayan Communist Party began to use the failing economy as a tool of propaganda against the British, the British had not addressed the underlying economic problems that were now worse within Malaya than they had ever been. There was considerable labour unrest and a number of strikes occurred between 1946 and 1948. One example of this was a 24-hour general strike organised by the MCP on 29 January 1946, during this time, the British administration was attempting to organise Malayas economy, as revenue from Malayas tin and rubber industries was important to Britains own post-war recovery. Protesters were dealt with harshly, by measures including arrests and deportations, in turn, protesters became increasingly militant. In 1947, alone, the communists in Malaya organised a further 300 strikes, on 16 June 1948, the first overt act of the war took place when three European plantation managers were killed at Sungai Siput, PerakMalayan Emergency – Australian Avro Lincoln bomber dropping 500lb bombs on communist rebels in the Malayan jungle (c. 1950)
29. Colony of Singapore – The Colony of Singapore was a British Crown colony that existed from 1946 until 1963, when Singapore became part of Malaysia. When the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies at the end of World War II, in 1946, the Straits Settlements were dissolved and Singapore together with the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas islands became a separate Crown colony. The colony was governed by the British Empire until it gained partial internal self-governance in 1955, incidents of looting and revenge-killing were widespread. When British troops returned to Singapore in September 1945, thousands of Singaporeans lined the streets to cheer them, Singapore was ruled by a British Military Administration between September 1945 and March 1946, during which it also served as the headquarters of the British governor general for Southeast Asia. However much of the infrastructure had been destroyed, including electricity and water systems, telephone services. There was also a shortage of food including rice, and this led to malnutrition, disease and rampant crimes, unemployment, high food prices, and workers discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by the demand for tin. But it would take several years before the economy returned to pre-war levels. On 1 April 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved and Singapore became a Crown Colony with an administration headed by a Governor. In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established, the failure of the British to defend Singapore had destroyed their credibility as infallible rulers in the eyes of the locals in Singapore. The British, on their part, were prepared to embark on a program of gradually increasing self-governance for Singapore, the Crown colony was dissolved on 16 September 1963 when Singapore became part of Malaysia, which ended the 144 years British rule of the island. On 9 August 1965, Singapore officially left Malaysia to become the independent Republic of Singapore, the first Singaporean elections, held in March 1948 to select members of the Legislative Council, were rather limited. The right to vote was restricted to adult British subjects, of which only 23,000 or about 10 percent of eligible registered to vote. In addition, only six of the seats on the Legislative Council were to be elected. The other three seats were won by independents, since the left-wing groups were the strongest critics of the colonial system, progress on self-government stalled for several years. The colonial government also tried to prevent contacts between Singaporean Chinese and China, which had just fallen under the rule of the Communist Party of China, tan Kah Kee, a local businessman and philanthropist, was denied re-entry into Singapore after he made a trip to China. A second Legislative Council election was held in 1951 with the number of elected seats increased to nine and this election was again dominated by the SPP which won six seats. This slowly contributed to the formation of a government of SingaporeColony of Singapore – Sir Franklin Charles Gimson
30. Cobbold Commission – It was also responsible for the subsequent drafting of the Constitution of Malaysia prior to the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. The Commission was headed by former Bank of England governor, Lord Cobbold, the Commission released its findings, report and recommendations on 1 August 1962. It concluded that the formation of Malaysia should be implemented, however, Lord Cobbold also stressed that all parties enter the federation as equal partners. The remaining third is divided between those who insist on independence before Malaysia is considered and those who would prefer to see British rule continue for some years to come. If the conditions and reservations which they have put forward could be substantially met, moreover once a firm decision was taken quite a number of the third category would be likely to abandon their opposition and decide to make the best of a doubtful job. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMISSION TERM OF REFERENCE INTRODUCTION1, cardinal Principles of the rule of the English Rajah D. Legal Meaning of the Term Native E. North Borneo and Sarawak Governments Papers on Malaysia FCobbold Commission – The members.
31. 18-point agreement – A Commission of Enquiry, headed by Lord Cameron Cobbold, and The Lansdowne Committee, an inter-governmental committee, were appointed to aid in the drafting of the Malaysia Agreement. Lord Lansdowne served for Britain and Tun Abdul Razak, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, the 18 points were based on the Nine Cardinal Principles of the rule of the English Rajah. A similar memorandum, known as the 20-point agreement, was prepared and submitted by North Borneo, now, Sarawaks and Sabahs rights within Malaysia have since been badly eroded. De V. Stockwell, Anthony J. Wright, a collection of treaties and other documents affecting the states of Malaysia 1761-1963. An Agreement Forged and Forgotten, Borneo Post The 18 Point Agreement Revisited, Borneo Post18-point agreement – Main history 1
32. Malaysia Day – Malaysia Day is held on 16 September every year to commemorate the establishment of the Malaysian federation on the same date in 1963. It marked the joining together of Malaya, North Borneo, Singapore, the formation of the new federation was planned to occur on 1 June 1963, but was later postponed to 31 August 1963, to coincide with the sixth Hari Merdeka. Several issues related to objections of neighbouring Indonesia and the Philippines to the formation of Malaysia delayed the declaration to 16 September of the same year. The postponement was also done to allow the United Nations team time to conduct fact-finding mission in North Borneo, contrary to popular beliefs, no referendum was ever conducted in both North Borneo and Sarawak. The Malaysia Agreement 1963 set out the terms and conditions for the component States to be federated under a new constitution into one new nation called Malaysia. It is under this Agreement that the Malaysia Bill, the constitutions of Sarawak, Sabah, through the introduction of the Malaysia Bill to the Malayan Parliament on 9 July 1963, and consent from Tuanku Syed Putra, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, on 29 August 1963. Since 2010, Malaysia Day has been a public holiday, Prime Minister Najib Razak made the decision after a question-and-answer session at Parliament on 19 October 2009, giving Malaysians two celebrations related to the countrys independence. Malaysia Forever was a song composed by Bobby Gimby to celebrate the Formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, Bobby Gimby received the nickname The Pied Piper of Canada after the Prime Minister nicked Gimby as the Pied Piper from Canada. The song was recorded in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore and it is a folk song with a length of 2 minutes sung by the Choir of the Marymount Vocational School. On the days before the merger, it was taught to school prior to merger. Merdeka Day Sarawak Self-government Day North Borneo Self-government Day 20-point agreement 18-point agreement History of Malaysia Singapore in Malaysia Malaysia ForeverMalaysia Day – 2011 Malaysia Day celebration at Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur
33. Singapore in Malaysia – Singapore was one of the 14 states of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965. Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963 as a new political entity from the merger of the Federation of Malaya with former British colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. This marked the end of a 144-year period of British rule in Singapore, the union, however, was unstable due to distrust and ideological differences between leaders of the State of Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia. Such issues resulted in frequent disagreements relating to economics, finance, there were also major racial riots that year involving the majority Chinese community and the Malay community in Singapore. During a 1965 Singaporean by-election, UMNO threw its support behind the opposition Barisan Sosialis candidate, in 1965, Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided upon the expulsion of Singapore from the Federation, leading to the independence of Singapore on 9 August 1965. The Peoples Action Party won the first election in Singapore after the merger, Racial tensions increased dramatically within a year. These included financial and economic benefits that were given to Malays. Malays and Muslims in Singapore were being increasingly incited by the Federal Governments accusations that the PAP was mistreating the Malays, numerous racial riots resulted, and curfews were frequently imposed to restore order. The external political situation was tense at the time, with Indonesia actively against the establishment of the Federation of Malaysia. Indonesia also conducted seditious activities to provoke the Malays against the Chinese, one of the more notorious riots was the 1964 race riots that took place on Prophet Muhammads birthday on 21 July, near Kallang Gasworks, twenty-three were killed and hundreds injured. More riots broke out in September 1964, the price of food skyrocketed when the transport system was disrupted during this period of unrest, causing further hardship. The Singapore Government later named 21 July each year as Racial Harmony Day, another contributor was the fear that the economic dominance of Singapores port would inevitably shift political power away from Kuala Lumpur in time, should Singapore remain in the Federation. The state and federal governments also had disagreements on the economic front, despite an earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore did not extend to Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the agreed to for economic development of the two eastern states. The situation escalated to such an intensity that talks broke down and abusive speeches. UMNO extremists called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew, on 7 August 1965, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia. On that day, a tearful Lee announced that Singapore was a sovereign, independent nation and his speech included this quote, For me it is a moment of anguish because all my life…. you see the whole of my adult life…. I have believed in merger and the unity of two territoriesSingapore in Malaysia – Lee Kuan Yew and Tunku Abdul Rahman
34. 1997 Asian financial crisis – At the time, Thailand had acquired a burden of foreign debt that made the country effectively bankrupt even before the collapse of its currency. As the crisis spread, most of Southeast Asia and Japan saw slumping currencies, devalued stock markets and other asset prices, Indonesia, South Korea and Thailand were the countries most affected by the crisis. Hong Kong, Laos, Malaysia and the Philippines were also hurt by the slump, brunei, China, Singapore, Taiwan and Vietnam were less affected, although all suffered from a loss of demand and confidence throughout the region. Foreign debt-to-GDP ratios rose from 100% to 167% in the four large Association of Southeast Asian Nations economies in 1993–96, in South Korea, the ratios rose from 13% to 21% and then as high as 40%, while the other northern newly industrialized countries fared much better. Only in Thailand and South Korea did debt service-to-exports ratios rise, the efforts to stem a global economic crisis did little to stabilize the domestic situation in Indonesia, however. After 30 years in power, President Suharto was forced to step down on 21 May 1998 in the wake of rioting that followed sharp price increases caused by a drastic devaluation of the rupiah. The effects of the crisis lingered through 1998, in 1998 the Philippines growth dropped to virtually zero. By 1999, however, analysts saw signs that the economies of Asia were beginning to recover, after the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, economies in the region are working toward financial stability on financial supervision. Until 1999, Asia attracted almost half of the capital inflow into developing countries. The economies of Southeast Asia in particular maintained high interest rates attractive to investors looking for a high rate of return. As a result, the regions received a large inflow of money. At the same time, the economies of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore. This achievement was widely acclaimed by financial institutions including IMF and World Bank, the causes of the debacle are many and disputed. Thailands economy developed into an economic bubble fueled by hot money, more and more was required as the size of the bubble grew. The same type of situation happened in Malaysia, and Indonesia, the short-term capital flow was expensive and often highly conditioned for quick profit. Development money went in an uncontrolled manner to certain people only, not particularly the best suited or most efficient. As the U. S. economy recovered from a recession in the early 1990s, the U. S. Federal Reserve Bank under Alan Greenspan began to raise U. S. interest rates to head off inflation. S. dollar. For the Southeast Asian nations which had pegged to the U. S. dollar1997 Asian financial crisis – Fall of Suharto: President Suharto resigns, 21 May 1998.
35. Coat of arms of Malaysia – The Coat of Arms of Malaysia is a coat of arms comprising a shield or escutcheon, two tigers for supporters, a crescent and fourteen point star for a crest and a motto). As the Malaysian emblem descended from the coat of arms of the Federated Malay States under British colonial rule, the Coat of Arms of Malaysia consists of a shield guarded by two supporters as rampant tigers. The shield is topped by a crest consisting of a crescent with a 14-pointed federal star. The yellow colour of the crest, a crescent and a 14-pointed federal star, the crescent also represents Islam as the official religion while the federal star represents the thirteen states and the Federal Territories of Malaysia. Originally, the star represented the original fourteen states of Malaysia. It was not changed when Singapore left the Federation in 1965, the escutcheon, represented by a shield, is primarily intended to serve as a representation of states unified under the Malaysian federation, and is subdivided into ten divisions. The upper portion or chief of the shield contains five krises on a red background, representing the five former Unfederated Malay States, Johore, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. The permutations of the red, black, white and yellow make up the colours of these states flags. Red, black and yellow are for Negeri Sembilan, black and white for Pahang, black, white and yellow for Perak, in the lower middle of the shield, there are three sections formerly representing the new states of Sabah, Singapore and Sarawak. Since 1965, Singapores section has been replaced by a depiction of the national flower, in the sinister section is the Malacca tree representing Malacca The two rampant tigers supporting the shield are traditional Malay symbols. They are retained from the armorial ensign of the Federation of Malaya. The motto of the arms, located below the shield, consists of a banner with the phrase Unity is Strength written in both romanised Malay and Jawi, the original English phrase was replaced by romanised Malay some time after independence. The origins of the Malaysian coat of arms can be traced to the formation of the Federated Malay States under the rule of the United Kingdom. The arms, like its successors, included a shield. The motto was originally written in Jawi as Dipelihara Allah flanked by two eight-pointed stars. Dipelihara Allah is today the Selangor state motto, the founding of the Federation of Malaya in 1948 led to a revision of the arms. Among the changes were a complete representation the 11 states of the federation on the shield, the replacement of the eastern crown with a yellow crescent. The original Jawi motto was replaced with Unity is Strength in both English and Jawi MalayCoat of arms of Malaysia – Coat of arms of Malaysia Jata Negara
36. Environment of Malaysia – The environment of Malaysia refers to the biotas and geologies that constitute the natural environment of this Southeast Asian nation. Malaysias ecology is megadiverse, with a range of flora. Tropical rainforests encompass between 59% to 70% of Malaysias total land area, of which 11. 6% is pristine, Malaysia has the worlds fifth largest mangrove area, which totals over a half a million hectares. Human intervention poses a significant threat to the environment of this country. Agriculture, forestry and urbanisation contribute to the destruction of forests, mangroves, ecosystems and landscapes are dramatically altered by human development, including the construction of roads and damming of rivers. Geographical phenomena, such as landslides and flooding in the Klang Valley, along with haze, subtle climate change occurs as a direct result of air pollution and the greenhouse effect, which in turn is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. Low-lying areas near the coastline of Sabah and Sarawak are under threat from current sea level rise, the environment is the subject of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment at the federal level. The Department of Wildlife and National Parks is responsible for the preservation of flora, several environmental organisations have been established to raise awareness regarding the environmental issues in Malaysia. Malaysia is home to 15500 species of plants,746 birds,379 reptiles,198 amphibians. There are also 286 species of mammals in Malaysia, of which 27 are endemic and 51 are threatened, some of these mammals are found in both Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. The former has 193 species of mammals, while the latter has 215, among the mammals that are native to Malaysia include the Asian elephant, the Indochinese tiger, the leopard cat and the pot-bellied pig. Endangered species include the orangutan, the tiger, the Asian elephant, the Malayan tapir, the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Singapore roundleaf horseshoe bat. The tropical moist broadleaf forests of Peninsular Malaysia consist of 450 species of birds and over 6000 different species of trees, the rainforests of East Malaysia are denser, with over 400 species of tall dipterocarps and semihardwoods. The national flower of Malaysia is the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, an evergreen that was introduced into the Malay peninsula in the 12th century, the rafflesia is also widely found in the country. There are various ecoregions in Malaysia with varying degrees of prevalence, Malaysia has many national parks, although most of them are de facto state parks. The Taman Negara National Park in central Peninsular Malaysia is 130 million years old, about 41% of the land area is classified as low human disturbance, 19% is categorised as medium human disturbance and 40% falls under the high human disturbance category. 2. 7% of the land is protected,1. 77% is partially protected and 4. 47% is totally or partially protected. Malaysia lies along the 1st parallel north to the 7th parallel north circles of latitude, roughly equal to Roraima, according to the Köppen climate classification system, Malaysia has a tropical rainforest climate due to its proximity to the equatorEnvironment of Malaysia – The rafflesia can be found in the jungles of Malaysia.
37. List of rivers of Malaysia – This is an incomplete list of rivers that are at least partially in Malaysia. The rivers are grouped by strait or sea, the rivers flowing into the sea are sorted along the coast. Rivers flowing into other rivers are listed by the rivers flow into. The rivers that have their mouths in Malaysia are given in italics, the same river may be found in more than one state as many rivers cross state bordersList of rivers of Malaysia – The Gombak River (left) merges with the Klang River (right) in Kuala Lumpur.
38. States and federal territories of Malaysia – The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia. Malaysia is a federation comprising thirteen states and three federal territories, eleven states and two federal territories are located on the Malay Peninsula, collectively called Peninsular Malaysia or West Malaysia. Two states are on the island of Borneo, and the remaining one federal territory consists of islands offshore of Borneo, out of the 13 states in Malaysia,9 of the states are hereditary monarchies. The governance of the states is divided between the government and the state governments, while the federal territories are directly administered by the federal government. The specific responsibilities of the federal and the governments are listed in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of Malaysia. Theoretically, any matter not set out in the Ninth Schedule can be legislated on by the individual states, however, legal scholars generally view this as a paupers bequest because of the large scope of the matters listed in the Ninth Schedule. The courts themselves have generally favoured a broad interpretation of the language of the Ninth Schedule, the Ninth Schedule specifically lists the following matters as those that can only be legislated on by the states, land tenure, the Islamic religion, and local government. Nine of the states, based on historical Malay kingdoms, are known as the Malay states. Each Malay state has a ruler as titular head of state. The rulers of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilans elective ruler holds the title of Yamtuan Besar, whereas the ruler of Perlis is titled Raja. The federal head of state, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected among the nine rulers to serve a 5-year term and they have separate immigration policies and controls and a unique residency status. Each state has a legislature called Dewan Undangan Negeri. Members of DUN are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on population, the state leader of the majority party in DUN is usually appointed Chief Minister by the Ruler or Governor. The term of DUN members is five years unless the assembly is dissolved earlier by the Ruler or Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister, however, Rulers and Governors hold discretionary powers in withholding consent to dissolve the DUN. Each state sends two senators elected by the DUN to the Dewan Negara, the house of the federal parliament. The law in question must also be passed by the assembly as well. Non-Islamic issues that fall under the purview of the state may also be legislated on at the level for the purpose of conforming with Malaysian treaty obligations. Each state is divided into districts, which are then divided into mukimStates and federal territories of Malaysia – Malaysia
39. Cabinet of Malaysia – The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysias government. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament, according to the Article 43 of the Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister, in practice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers. Members of the Cabinet must be members of either house of Parliament, most ministers are appointed from the lower house, the Dewan Rakyat, although a few are appointed from the upper house, the Dewan Negara. The Prime Minister must be a member of the Dewan Rakyat, although Deputy Ministers and/or Parliamentary Secretaries may be appointed to each portfolio, they are not included in the Cabinet. The Cabinet meets weekly, every Wednesday, the composition of the Cabinet, and the number of portfolios depends mainly on the wishes of the Prime Minister at the time. However, the post of Finance Minister was considered so important as to be a necessity, the position of Deputy Prime Minister is one that exists by convention, and as a result a Prime Minister could theoretically form a Cabinet without a Deputy. Deputy ministers exist for each portfolio, although they are not considered members of the Cabinet, the position of Deputy Minister was created by constitutional amendment in 1960. The office of secretary for each ministry exists but none were appointed after the 2008 Malaysian general election. Parliamentary secretaries were provided for by an amendment in 1963, Deputy ministers and parliamentary secretaries are also appointed from members of Parliament, and deputise for the ministers in government ministries and in Parliament respectively. An additional office, that of the Political Secretary, exists, Political Secretaries need not be members of Parliament. Before taking office, all members of the Cabinet, Deputy Ministers, Parliamentary Secretaries, an outline of the functions of the Cabinet are as follow, To formulate national economic policies and development programs. The Cabinet is responsible to formulate various development programs and projects for the development of the country, examples are the New Economic Policy, the National Development Policy, and the National Vision Policy. To set the budget and finance of the country, the government is allowed to generate revenues from the people through the collection of taxes, fines, summons, custom duties, fees, etc. The government is allowed to plan for the development programs. As an arena for suggestions, debates, and criticisms, the Cabinet is allowed to discuss almost any issues of national interests, except those that touch on the special rights of the Malays, Bumiputeras and/or royal privileges. To propose and amend the law, law is proposed by the Executive and introduce in Parliament with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd readings for approval. Most provisions for the amendments of the constitution requires a 2/3 majority of the number of members from both the Houses or DewansCabinet of Malaysia – Malaysia
40. Elections in Malaysia – Elections in Malaysia exist at two levels, federal level and state level. Federal level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, at the federal level, voters elect the 222-member House of Representatives of the bicameral Parliament. Members are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on using the first past the post system. The party that has the majority of the House of Representatives will form the federal government, the Constitution of Malaysia requires that a general election must be held at least once every five years. However, the Prime Minister can ask the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to dissolve the Parliament at any time before this period has expired. A general election should be no later than two months in West Malaysia and three months for East Malaysia after the dissolution of the Parliament. Since independence, the winner of the election has always been the Barisan Nasional. At the state level, voters elect representatives to the Dewan Undangan Negeri, the number of representatives varies between the different states, with as many as 71 electorates in Sarawak and as little as 15 in Perlis. Members are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on using the first-past-the-post system. State assembly constituencies are usually smaller than the parliamentary constituencies, the party that forms the majority of the state assembly will form the state government. Usually, state elections are held simultaneously with the parliamentary election and this is because state assemblies are dissolved by their respective Ruler or governor on the advice of the chief minister of the state. For example, following the 1977 Kelantan Emergency, an election was called in Kelantan in March 1978. In the 2004 and 2008 general elections, the election of Sabah were held simultaneously with the parliamentary election as well. The worst result for the Alliance was in 1969, when it lost its majority in Perak, Selangor and Penang in addition to Kelantan. In the 2008 elections, in addition to Kelantan, BN lost four states to the coalition of opposition parties composed of PAS, Democratic Action Party. Perak was returned to BN control in 2009 following a constitutional crisis, in the 2013 elections, BN recaptured the state of Kedah, leaving Kelantan, Penang and Selangor in PR control. Although there used to be elections for members of governments such as municipal councils, today. Local government elections were suspended after the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1964, the suspension was never lifted and instead made permanent under the Local Government Act 1976Elections in Malaysia – Malaysia
41. Foreign relations of Malaysia – Malaysia is an active member of various international organisations, including the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It has also in recent times been a proponent of regional co-operation. The FPDA continues to operate, and the Five Powers have a permanent Integrated Area Defence System based at RMAF Butterworth, under the leadership of Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia pursued a strongly pro-Commonwealth anti-communist foreign policy. Under Prime Ministers Tun Abdul Razak and Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia shifted its policy towards non-alignment, in 1971, ASEAN issued its neutralist and anti-nuclear Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration. In the same year, Malaysia joined the Non-Aligned Movement, consistent with this policy Malaysia established diplomatic relations with the Peoples Republic of China in 1974. This policy shift was continued and strengthened by Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad and he was involved with a spat with Australian prime minister Paul Keating, who called him a recalcitrant after he refused to attend the APEC summit in Seattle. A strong tenet of Malaysias policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs, Malaysia views regional co-operation as the cornerstone of its foreign policy. It attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, Malaysia is also a member of G-15 and G-77 economic groupings. Despite Mahathirs frequently anti-Western rhetoric he worked closely with Western countries, under his successor, Abdullah Badawi, relations with Western countries, particularly Australia, have improved. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Datuk Seri Anifah Aman, Malaysia has stated it will only establish an official relations with Israel once a peace agreement with the State of Palestine been reached and called for both parties to find a quick resolution. Malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in Namibia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, East Timor, Malaysia is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005, and Malaysia has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth and it is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Developing 8 Countries. Asian Development Bank, Five-Power Defense Arrangement, G-77, and South Centre, on 31 October 2011 Malaysia became a party to the Antarctic Treaty. The policy towards territorial disputes by the Malaysian government is one of pragmatism, solving disputes in a number of ways, Malaysia has asserted sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with China, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei. Tensions have eased since the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea, however, it is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties. Malaysia was not party to a March 2005 joint accord among the oil companies of China. However, as Chinese fishing vessels and coast guard ships have become increasingly assertive, Malaysia has increased its diplomatic, Singapore was a part of Malaysia for two years, but it ultimately was asked by Tunku to secede after increased racial tensions due to the election campaigns in 1964Foreign relations of Malaysia – Malaysia
42. Government of Malaysia – The Government of Malaysia refers to the Federal Government or national government authority based in the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and the federal executive based in Putrajaya. Malaysia is a federation of 13 states operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster parliamentary system and is categorised as a representative democracy, the federal government of Malaysia adheres to and is created by the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the supreme law of the land. The federal government adopts the principle of separation of powers under Article 127 of the Federal Constitution, the state governments in Malaysia also have their respective executive and legislative bodies. The judicial system in Malaysia is a court system operating uniformly throughout the country. The federal or central government is the authority in Malaysia having its base in Putrajaya. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Malaysia who is known as the head of government. The bicameral parliament consists of the house, the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat and the upper house. All seventy Senate members sit for three-year terms, twenty-six are elected by the thirteen state assemblies, the 222 members of the Dewan Rakyat are elected from single-member districts by universal adult suffrage. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the body is elected through a first-past-the-post system. Parliament has a mandate of five years by law. The king may dissolve parliament at any time and usually does so upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body. The Executive branch of the government consists of the Prime Minister as the head of the government, followed by the various ministers of the Cabinet. The highest court in the system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal. The subordinate courts in each of these jurisdictions include Sessions Courts, Magistrates Courts, Malaysia also has a Special Court to hear cases brought by or against all Royalty. The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the elected head of government of Malaysia. He heads the Cabinet, whose members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong advice of the prime minister, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament. The Prime Ministers Department is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions, each state governments in Malaysia is created by the respective state constitutions. Each state has a state legislative chamber whose members are elected from single-member constituenciesGovernment of Malaysia – Ensign of the Government of Malaysia
43. Judiciary of Malaysia – Judiciary of Malaysia is largely centralised despite Malaysias federal constitution, heavily influenced by the English common law and to a lesser extent Islamic law. There are generally two types of trials, criminal and civil, the hierarchy of courts begins from the Magistrates Court, Sessions Court, High Court, Court of Appeal, and finally, the Federal Court. The jurisdiction of the courts in civil or criminal matters are contained in the Subordinate Courts Act 1948, article 121 of the Constitution provides for two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, the High Court in Malaya, and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak. Thus this creates two separate local jurisdiction of the courts – for Peninsular Malaysia and for East Malaysia, the superior courts are the High Court, Court of Appeal, and the Federal Court, while the Magistrates Courts and the Sessions Courts are classified as subordinate courts. The current President of the Federal Court, effective 1 April 2017, is Tan Sri Md, raus Sharif, the President of the Court of Appeal is Tan Sri Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin, and the Chief Judge of Malaya is Tan Sri Ahmad Maarop. The current Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak is Justice Tan Sri Richard Malanjum, bypassing many other senior judges, Tan Sri Dato Zaki was the first lawyer appointed directly to the Federal Court. After some 2 months as a judge, Tan Sri Dato Zaki was subsequently appointed as the President of the Court of Appeal. There are three courts with different jurisdiction within what is known as the Superior Court and they are the Federal Court, the highest court in the land, the Appeal Court, the High Court of Malaya and the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak. Each is head by a judge called the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, President of the Appeal Court and Chief Judge of the High Courts of Malaya and Sabah. The Federal Court is the highest court in Malaysia, the Federal Court may hear appeals of civil decisions of the Court of Appeal where the Federal Court grants leave to do so. The Federal Court also hears appeals from the Court of Appeal. It is the court of jurisdiction for cases which began in any subordinate courts. The High Courts have unlimited jurisdiction in all matters other than matters involving Islamic law. The High Courts have original jurisdiction in criminal cases punishable by death, cases are heard by a single judge in the High Court, or by a judicial commissioner. While High Court judges enjoy security of tenure, judicial commissioners are appointed for a term of two years, and do not enjoy similar protection under the Constitution, an application for a judicial review is applied in this court. The Magistrates Courts and Sessions Courts in Malaysia have the power in control the criminal and civil matters. Somewhat like the former Quarter Sessions in England, but does not exceed RM1,000,000 as per ss 65,73,93 of the Subordinate Courts Act 1948. The exception however is in relating to motor vehicle accidents, landlord and tenant and distressJudiciary of Malaysia – The Sultan Abdul Samad Building nearby Merdeka Square formerly housed the superior courts of the country. Today the courts have shifted to either the Palace of Justice in Putrajaya during the early 2000s, or the Kuala Lumpur Courts Complex in 2007.
44. Malaysian Armed Forces – The Malaysian Armed Forces, the military of Malaysia, consists of three branches, namely the Malaysian Army, the Royal Malaysian Navy, and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Since 19 December 2016, General Raja Mohamed Affandi Raja Mohamed Noor is the Chief of Malaysian Armed Forces and its role is to defend the sovereignty and strategic interests of Malaysia from all forms of threat. It is responsible for assisting civilian authorities to overcome all threats, preserve public order, assist in natural disasters. It is also sustaining and upgrading its capabilities in the sphere to uphold the national foreign policy of being involved under the guidance of the United Nations. The main theatres of operations were within Malaysian borders, primarily to fight an insurgency led by the Communist Party of Malaya in what was known as the Emergency. The only foreign incursion of Malaysian territory in modern times were in World War II by Japan, Operations on foreign soil have mainly been peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations. First Emergency An insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malayan Races Liberation Army organised by the CPM against the British, Moro attacks on Malaysia Congo Peacekeeping Mission A contingent of 1,947 personnel were dispatched as part of the United Nations Operation in the Congo or ONUC. This contingent was known as the Malayan Special Force to the Congo and their experiences there were later recounted through the drawings of the cartoonist, the insurgency ended when the NKCP signed a peace treaty with the Malaysian government in 1990. Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation An intermittent armed conflict between Malaysia and Indonesia with skirmishes mainly occurring in Sarawak and Sabah in the island of Borneo, in 1964, armed raids were made on Peninsular Malaysia. Combat eased with the deposing of Indonesias President Sukarno in 1965 by the Indonesian army, Communist insurgency in Malaysia A low level resurgence of insurgent activity by the armed elements of the CPM from sanctuaries in the Malaysian-Thai border. The insurgency was only ended after the CPM signed a treaty with the Governments of Malaysia. Iran/Iraq Border Participated as part of the UN Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group to supervise the Iran–Iraq War ceasefire, namibia Contributed a battalion to the UN Transition Assistance Group to supervise Namibias elections and transition to independence. Angola A contingent was sent under the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II to enforce the ceasefire in Angolan civil war, Cambodia An observer team was sent under the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia to aid in the administration of Cambodia and to organise and run elections. Following the Dayton Agreement, forces were redeployed as MALCON Command under the NATO led Implementation Force in Operation Joint Endeavor with deployments at Livno, Glamoč, MALCON further participated as part of the NATO led Stabilisation Force until 1998. Up to 8,000 troops were deployed in this theatre of operations. On 18 January 1994, Lieutenant General Abu Samah Bin Abu Bakar was appointed the Commander of UNOSOM II forces, Mozambique A team of observers were sent under the United Nations Operations in Mozambique. Lahad Datu standoff Deployed a contingent called Malaysian Medical Team to Chaman, Pakistan to treat refugees from Afghanistan during the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, Deployed approximately a brigade-sized force on islands surrounding Sabah waters in Ops Pasir to prevent the recurrence of 2000 Sipadan kidnappings. Deployed a contingent to Acheh after the disaster in 2004Malaysian Armed Forces – Royal guard of the Malaysian Army outside the main gate of the Istana Negara, Kuala Lumpur
45. Parliament of Malaysia – The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament. The Parliament assembles in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament, located in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The term Member of Parliament usually refers to a member of the Dewan Rakyat, the term Senator usually refers to a member of the Dewan Negara, the upper house of the Parliament. In line with the nature of the new country, the upper house would also have members elected by state legislative assemblies in addition to members appointed by the King. Parliament first sat at the headquarters building of the Federated Malay States Volunteer Force on a hill near Jalan Tun Ismail. The Dewan Negara met in a hall on the floor while the Dewan Rakyat met in the hall on the first floor. In 1963, when Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore merged to form Malaysia, both Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara were expanded to include representatives from the new states. When Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965, it ceased to be represented in the Parliament of Malaysia, significant change regarding the composition of Dewan Negara occurred during this period. Under the 1957 Constitution of Malaya, senators elected by the assemblies were in the majority, totaling 22 members with 2 for each state. Parliament has been suspended only once in the history of Malaysia, from 1969 to 1971 – when Parliament reconvened – the nation was run by the National Operations Council. Debates in Parliament are broadcast on radio and television occasionally, such as during the tabling of a budget, the prohibitive cost was also cited as a reason. It is subordinate to the Head of State, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Dewan Rakyat consists of 222 members of Parliament elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on population in a general election using the first-past-the-post system. A general election is held five years or when Parliament is dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister. Suffrage is given to registered voters 21 years and above, however voting is not compulsory, the age requirement to stand for election is 21 years and above. The Dewan Negara consists of 70 members,26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies,4 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to represent the 3 federal territories, the rest 40 members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister. Senators must be 30 years or above, and are appointed to a term for a maximum of two terms. The dissolution of the Parliament does not affect the Dewan Negara, Members of Parliament are permitted to speak on any subject without fear of censure outside Parliament, the only body that can censure an MP is the House Committee of PrivilegesParliament of Malaysia
46. List of political parties in Malaysia – This is a list of political parties in Malaysia, including existing and historical ones. Under the current legislation, all parties must be registered under the Societies Act. The Election Offences Act regulate the maximum allowed for candidates vying for parliamentary seats. The permissible campaign expenditure set by the Election Offences Act is RM100,000 per candidate for state seats, and RM200,000 per candidate for federal seats. According to this guideline, with 505 state seats and 222 parliamentary seats in the 2013 general election, due to the lack of record and regulations, Malaysian politicians may not even know how much they spent on their campaigns or overspending the expenditure than permitted by law. Another related problem was the surrounding political funds and their use. Although many politicians, including members of newly appointed cabinets, voluntarily disclosed their personal finances, such disclosure is not compulsory, the deposit was RM10,000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM5,000 to contest a state assembly seat. The deposit is used to pay for infringements of laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses. Additionally it is required that each provide a RM5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election. Political donations are legal in Malaysia, there is no limit, and parties are not obliged to disclose the source of the funding, which makes political donations a vague subject but still entirely legal in the country. All political donations are allowed to be given into accounts of individuals, anonymous donors and foreigners may request to not to reveal their identities. The list is sorted by the year in which the parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies. The candidates and supporters of the political parties tend to wear the following shirt colours while making their rounds in various wards or campaigning. Communist Party of Malaya, operated legally from 1945–1948, after it was banned, the party went underground as the Malayan Races Liberation Army to conduct an armed rebellion. In 1970, the former 8th Regiment of the Malayan Races Liberation Army, in 1974, a third split occurred among cadres who wanted the CPM to end its ideological opposition to the larger Malaysian federation and formed the Communist Party of Malaya. The party became the first political party banned by the British Government, conscious Women Front, left-wing Malay women socialist party. SNAP joined Pakatan Rakyat on 20 April 2010, SNAP quits Pakatan Rakyat on 6 May 2011. On 17 January 2013, the Federal Court of Malaysia declared that SNAP is no longer a party because the party did not furnish evidence that leadership tussle in the party has been resolvedList of political parties in Malaysia – Malaysia
47. State legislative assemblies of Malaysia – A state legislative assembly is the legislative branch of the state governments of each of the 13 Malaysian states. Members of a legislative assembly comprises elected representatives from single-member constituencies during state elections through the first-past-the-post system. The assemblies have powers to enact state laws as provided for by the Constitution of Malaysia, the majority party in each assembly forms the state government, and the leader of the majority party becomes menteri besar or chief minister of the state. After the March 2008 general election, the Barisan Nasional coalition were the majority party in eight states, in February 2009, BN regained Perak after 3 Pakatan Rakyat assembly members defected. The state legislative assemblies are unicameral, unlike the bicameral Parliament of Malaysia, the hereditary rulers or Yang di-Pertua Negeri are vested with powers to dissolve their respective state legislative assemblies on the advice of the menteri besar or chief minister. Once dissolved, elections must be carried out within a period of sixty days. Usually, state elections are held simultaneously with the parliamentary elections, with the exception of SarawakState legislative assemblies of Malaysia – Malaysia
48. Yang di-Pertuan Agong – The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom, Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world and his queen consort is called Raja Permaisuri Agong. The couple are styled in English as His Majesty and Her Majesty, in Malaysias constitutional monarchy, Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution. The constitution specifies that the power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and is exercised by him on the advice of the federal Council of Ministers. The latter is headed by the Prime Minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the members of Parliament. Among them, Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing PM if no party has won a majority vote. It, however, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the PM and he also can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament. He may discontinue or dissolve Parliament but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the PM and he can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him. The 15th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan and his reign began on 13 December 2016, after his election on 14 October 2016 at the 243rd Conference of Rulers. The ceremonial installation of the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong will be held on 24 April 2017, common English terms used in the media and by the general public include King, Paramount Ruler, Head of State, Head of the Federation, and Head of State of the Federation. In Malaysian passports prior to the 2010 redesign, the title The Supreme Head of Malaysia was used in the English version of the passport note, since the issuance of ICAO compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is used. In August 1957, having rejected the title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one. After a ruler had served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the states have also stood for election. In the event of a vacancy of the office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the term had expired. The new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term, after his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-electedYang di-Pertuan Agong – Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
49. Economy of Malaysia – Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, which is relatively open and state-oriented. The economy of Malaysia is the fourth largest in Southeast Asia, after the more populous Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. Malaysia is also the third richest in Southeast Asia by GDP per capita values, after the city-states of Singapore, Malaysias economy is one of the most competitive in the world, ranking 14th in the Ease of Doing Business Index for 2015. Malaysian economy is highly robust and diversified with export value of products in 2014 stood at 63.3 billion USD. Malaysia exports the second largest volume and value of oil products globally after Indonesia. Due to a reliance on oil exports for central government revenue. However government had step up measures to increase revenue by introducing the widely unpopular Government Service Tax at 6% rate to reduce deficits, as one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays a very significant role in Malaysias economy. At one time, it was the largest producer of tin, rubber, manufacturing has a large influence in the countrys economy, accounting for over 40% of the GDP. Malaysia is also the worlds largest Islamic banking and financial centre, in the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysias growth, high levels of investment played a significant role in this. With Japanese investment, heavy industries flourished and in a matter of years, Malaysia consistently achieved more than 7% GDP growth along with low inflation in the 1980s and the 1990s. In 1991, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad outlined his ideal, tan Sri Nor Mohamed, a government minister, said Malaysia could attain developed country status in 2018 if the countrys growth remains constant or increases. Malaysia experienced a boom and underwent rapid development during the late 20th century and has GDP per capita of US$11,062.043 in 2014. In 2009, the PPP GDP was US$383.6 billion, about half the 2014 amount, in 2014, the Household Income Survey undertaken by the government indicated that there were 7 million households in Malaysia, with an average of 4.3 members in each household. The average household income of Malaysia increased by 18% to RM5,900 a month, compared to RM5,000 in 2012. According to a HSBC report in 2012, Malaysia will become the worlds 21st largest economy by 2050, with a GDP of $1.2 trillion and a GDP per capita of $29,247. The report also says The electronic equipment, petroleum, and liquefied natural gas producer will see an increase in income per capita. Malaysian life expectancy, relatively high level of schooling, and above average fertility rate will help in its rapid expansion, viktor Shvets, the managing director in Credit Suisse, has said Malaysia has all the right ingredients to become a developed nationEconomy of Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur, financial centre of Malaysia.
50. Agriculture in Malaysia – Agriculture in Malaysia makes up Twelve percent of the nations GDP. Sixteen percent of the population of Malaysia is employed through some sort of agriculture, large-scale plantations were established by the British. These plantations opened opportunity for new crops such as rubber, palm oil, a number of crops are grown for domestic purpose such as bananas, coconuts, durian, pineapples, rice, rambutan. The climate of Malaysia produces the proper conditions for production of exotic produce and it is located on a peninsula in southeast Asia. This area is rarely affected by hurricanes or drought. Malaysia maintains a humidity level around ninety percent because of its close to the equator. The weather stays hot and humid all year round and this ministry is also known as the Kementerian Pertanian & Industry Asas Tani Malaysia. The MOA had its name changed to the current title on 27 March 2004, the ministry serves as an agency for private agricultural businesses to get advised by experts that specialise in agriculture, fishing, and livestock. The ministry plans the policies, strategies, and different development programs and it monitors, surveys, directs, and puts into action the projects given by the Integrated Agricultural Development Project. The ministry has services such as collecting, analysing and restoring information and agricultural data through science and it provides references and agricultural management systems for plantation owners to access all collected agriculture information. Rice is a part of everyday Malaysian diet. In 1998, Malaysia produced 1.94 million metric tons of rice, even with this high production, Malaysia still only produces eighty percent of what it needs to support itself and must import the rest. The average Malaysian citizen consumes 82.3 kilograms of rice per year, the increasing population is calling for more research and technological advancement to increase rice production for consumption within the nation. Vol.322009 Nearly twenty four percent of Malaysias land area is composed of dedicated to agriculture alone. There are around 43,000 different agricultural machines and tractors, Malaysia contains 7,605,000 hectares of arable and permanent cropland. Malaysia produces 535,000 metric tons of bananas per year, only about five percent of Malaysias cropland is actually irrigated. This chart displays a predicted relationship between consumption of rice, the amount planted, and the increase in population from 2008 up until 2030, typically, Malaysia is responsible for one third of the worlds rubber export. However, production has decreased because most states are switching to a profitable productAgriculture in Malaysia – Oil Palm Trees Malaysia
51. Tourism in Malaysia – Malaysia is ranked 11th in the world and 2nd in Southeast Asia for tourist arrivals. In an effort to diversify the economy and make Malaysias economy less dependent on exports, as a result, tourism has become Malaysias third largest source of foreign exchange income. And accounted for 7% of Malaysias economy as of 2005, the government agency in charge of promoting tourism in Malaysia is Tourism Malaysia or the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board. On 20 May 1987, the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism was established, TDC existed from 1972 to 1992, when it became the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board, through the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board Act,1992. In 1999, Malaysia launched a marketing campaign called Malaysia, Truly Asia which was largely successful. The extra revenue generated by tourism helped the economy during the economic crisis of 2008. Medical tourism is popular in Malaysia, with the Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council reporting an arrival of 641,000 foreign patients in 2011,728,800 in 2012,881,000 in 2013 and 882,000 in 2014. Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council, a government agency with the aim of promoting tourism, was launched in 2009 as an initiative by the Ministry of Health. In 2016, Malaysia recorded 26,757,392 tourist arrivals, alor Star – capital of Kedah, the state of the Paddy fields. Johor Bahru – capital of Johor, and gateway to Singapore, kangar – capital of Perlis, and gateway to Thailand. Kota Kinabalu – capital of Sabah, kota Bharu – capital of Kelantan. Kuala Terengganu – capital of Terengganu, famous for the turtles and beaches, kuantan – capital of Pahang, noted for its many beaches. Kuching – capital of Sarawak, the Cat City of Malaysia, malacca City – a historical city in Malaysia. This is the other cultural World Heritage Site in Malaysia, noted for its prstine coral reefs and ecotourism attractions too. Seremban – the capital of Negeri Sembilan, and the nearest cities to Port Dickson, putrajaya – the administrative centre of Malaysia, known for its lavish buildings, bridges and man-made lakes. Petaling Jaya – a satellite city located in the state of Selangor and it has the most commercial complexes in Malaysia. Beside the main cities, there other town and places in Malaysia offer some special tourist attraction, such as in Taiping, Perak for their landscape and local attraction. Teluk Intan for their Leaning tower, genting Highlands, Cameron Highlands and Bukit Tinggi in Pahang for a cool climateTourism in Malaysia – Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur
52. Transport in Malaysia – Transportation in Malaysia started to develop during British colonial rule, and the countrys transport network is now diverse and developed. Malaysias road network is extensive, covering 144,403 km, the main highway of the country extends over 800 km, reaching the Thai border from Singapore. The network of roads in Peninsular Malaysia is of high quality, the main modes of transport in Peninsular Malaysia include buses, trains, cars and to an extent, commercial travel on aeroplanes. The official airline of Malaysia is Malaysia Airlines, providing international, most of the major cities are connected by air routes. The railway system is state-run, and covers a total of 1,849 km, popular within the cities is Light Rapid Transit, which reduces the traffic load on other systems, and is considered safe, comfortable and reliable. Malaysias road network covers 144,403 kilometres, of which 116,169 kilometres is paved, the longest highway of the country, the North-South Expressway, extends over 800 kilometres between the Thai border and Singapore. The road systems in Sabah and Sarawak are less developed and of quality in comparison to that of Peninsular Malaysia. Recently, the construction of Pan-Borneo Highway is approved under 2015 Malaysian Budget, the highway project span 1,663 km mostly mirror the existing trunk road, and it involves the widening of the present three-metre wide single-carriageway into a dual-carriageway. Driving on the left has been compulsory since the introduction of vehicles in Federated Malay States in 1903 during British colonial era. The railway system is state-run, and covers a total of 1,849 kilometres, most of the railway lines are consisted of ballasted setup, along with concrete sleepers, which serves better in wet and humid tropical condition, compared to wooden sleepers which can rot over time. As early as 1980s, due to the need for local suppliers of such products,1,792 kilometres of it is narrow gauge, while 57 kilometres is standard gauge. 767 kilometres of narrow gauge tracks and all of the standard gauge tracks are electrified, intra-city travel is through relatively inexpensive elevated Light Rapid Transit systems and KTM Komuter are used in some cities, such as Kuala Lumpur. Currently, Malaysia is extending the existing LRT1 & LRT2 lines and work on new LRT3, Malaysia already approved her first Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail project spanning 375 km between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. This rapid development had spurred growth of local Malaysian rail service Companies which caters these niche needs, Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. The national airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air services, major cargo airlines include MASkargo and Transmile Air Services. Kuala Lumpur International Airport is the main and busiest airport of Malaysia, in 2014, it was the worlds 13th busiest airport by international passenger traffic, recording over 25.4 million international passenger traffic. It was also the worlds 20th busiest airport by passenger traffic, of this,3,200 kilometres are in Peninsular Malaysia,1,500 kilometres are in Sabah, and 2,500 kilometres are in Sarawak. Malaysia is strategically located on the Strait of Malacca, one of the most important shipping lanes in the world, port Klang is Malaysias busiest port, and the 13th busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 10.3 million TEUsTransport in Malaysia – The 966km North-South Expressway, which runs through seven states in Peninsular Malaysia, is the longest expressway in Malaysia.
53. Demographics of Malaysia – The demographics of Malaysia are represented by the multiple ethnic groups that exist in this country. Malaysias population, according to the 2010 census, is 28,334,000 including non-citizens, of these,5.72 million live in East Malaysia and 22.5 million live in Peninsular Malaysia. The Malaysian population continues to grow at a rate of 2. 4% per annum, Malay fertility rates are 40% higher than Malaysian Indians and 56% higher than Malaysian Chinese. In 2010, the Malays and Bumiputeras were 60. 3%, Chinese 24. 6%, the Chinese population has shrunk to half of its peak share from 1957 when it was 45% of Malaya, although in absolute numbers they have multiplied more than threefold. The population distribution is uneven, with some 79% of its citizens concentrated in Peninsular Malaysia, censuses were taken in Malaysia in 1970,1980,1991, and 2000, with the one in 2000 taking place between 5 and 20 July. The total population is around 28.3 million according to the 2010 census, the population distribution is highly uneven, with some 20 million residents concentrated in Peninsula Malaysia. 74. 7% of the population is urban, due to the rise in labour-intensive industries, Malaysia is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers, which is about 10% of the Malaysian population. The exact numbers are unknown, there are a million foreign workers. The state of Sabah alone had nearly 25% of its 2.7 million population listed as foreign workers in the last census. Sabah based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million population,2 million are illegal immigrants, of this population, approximately 70,500 refugees and asylum seekers are from the Philippines,69,700 from Burma, and 21,800 from Indonesia. The USCRI named Malaysia as one of the ten worst places for refugees on account of the discriminatory practices toward them. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, in 2000 Source, National Census 2000, Department of Statistics Malaysia. Population estimates are rounded to the nearest hundred, in 2010 Source, National Census 2010, Department of Statistics Malaysia Data from July 2010. The corresponding figures in Singapore was 2.16,1.48 and 1.95, Data for obtained from Department of Statistics releases. All key rates sampled per 1000 of population, total fertility rate by state as of 2011, Malaysias population comprises many ethnic groups. People of Austronesian origin make up the majority of the population, large Chinese and Indian minorities also exist. Malays, as Bumiputra, see Malaysia as their land, however, since then racial stability has prevailed, if not full harmony. Mixed marriages are on the rise, Bumiputra status is also accorded to certain non-Malay indigenous peoples, including ethnic Thais, Khmers, Chams and the natives of Sabah and SarawakDemographics of Malaysia – A sign of a Kuala Lumpur kopi tiam that depicts the ethnic groups of Malaysia
54. Malaysians – Malaysians are the people who are identified with the country of Malaysia. This connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural, for most Malaysians, several of those types of connections exist and are the source of their being considered Malaysians. Although citizens make up the majority of Malaysians, non-citizen residents, the country is home to people of many different kinds of national origins and ethnicities. As a result, Malaysians do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, the majority of the population in Malaysian soil is made up of immigrants and their descendants. Malayan independence from Great Britain grew gradually over the course of years since the formation of the Federation of Malaya in 1948. World War II in particular gave rise to a desire amongst Malayans to have their country recognised as a sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. As of 2010, Malaysians make up 0. 4% of the total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth. Approximately 30% of current Malaysians are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20 percent of Malaysian residents in the 2000s were not born in Malaysian soil. It is estimated, by 2031, nearly one-half of Malaysians above the age of 15 will be born or have one foreign born parent. Bumiputera, according to the 2010 Malaysian Census, numbered at 17,523,508 or 61. 85% of the countrys 28,334,135 population, classification of 2010 Census ethnic group is as set by Inter-Agency Technical Committee in Appendix 1. Information on citizenship should be used with caution as it is subject to content, Malaysia contains speakers of 137 living languages,41 of which are found in Peninsula Malaysia. Malaysian, or Standard Malay, is the language, while English is considered the de facto administrative language. The Bumiputeras speak various Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages as well as smaller language families such as Tai-Kadai, Chinese Malaysians predominantly speak varieties of Chinese from the southern provinces of China. The more common varieties in the country are Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, tamil is the predominant language among Indian Malaysians, though languages like Telugu, Malayalam and Punjabi are also widely spoken. The Malaysian constitution guarantees freedom of religion while making Islam the state religion, according to the Population and Housing Census 2010 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. Approximately 61. 3% of the population practice Islam,19. 8% practice Buddhism,9. 2% Christianity,6. 3% Hinduism and 1. 3% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. 0. 7% declared no religion and the remaining 1. 4% practised other religions or did not provide any information, saw Swee-Hock, The Population of Malaysia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 220–, ISBN 978-981-4620-36-9Malaysians – The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census.
55. Education in Malaysia – Education in Malaysia is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Although education is the responsibility of the Federal Government, each state, the main legislation governing education is the Education Act 1996. The education system is divided into preschool education, primary education, secondary education, post-secondary education, Education may be obtained from the multilingual public school system, which provides free education for all Malaysians, or private schools, or through homeschooling. By law, primary education is compulsory, as in many Asia-Pacific countries such as the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Japan, standardised tests are a common feature. Currently, there are 37 private universities,20 private university colleges, Sekolah Pondok, Madrasah and other Islamic schools were the earliest forms of schooling available in Malaysia. Early works of Malay literature such as Hikayat Abdullah mention these schools indicating they pre-date the current secular model of education, secular schools in Malaysia were largely an innovation of the British colonial government. Many of the earliest schools in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca, many English-language schools are considered quite prestigious. British historian Richard O. Winstedt worked to improve the education of the Malays and was instrumental in establishing Sultan Idris Training College with the purpose of producing Malay teachers, Richard James Wilkinson helped established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar in 1905 which aimed to educate the Malay elite. Many Malays failed to pursue additional education due to this issue and he remarked, In the fewest possible words, the Malay boy is told You have been trained to remain at the bottom, and there you must always remain. Why, I ask, waste so much money to attain this end when without any school, and without any special effort. To remedy this problem, the British established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar, most of these were single-sex schools. During the British colonial period, large numbers of immigrants from China, the Chinese and Indian communities eventually established their vernacular schools with school curricula and teachers from China and India respectively. In the 1950s, there were four initial proposals for developing the national system, the Barnes Report, Ordinance Report, the Fenn-Wu Report. The Barnes proposal was implemented through the 1952 Education Ordinance amidst Chinese protests, in 1956, the Razak Report was adopted by the Malayan government as the education framework for independent Malaya. Malay-medium schools would be known as national, while other schools would be known as national-type. Chinese secondary schools were given the options of accepting government funding and change into English national-type schools or remain Chinese, most of the schools accepted the change, although a few rejected the offer and came to be known as Chinese Independent High Schools. Shortly after the change, some of the national-type schools reestablished their Chinese independent high school branches, in the 1970s, in accordance to the national language policy, the government began to change English-medium primary and secondary national-type schools into Malay-medium national schools. The language change was made starting from the first year in primary school, then the second year in the following yearEducation in Malaysia – Batu Pahat High School in Johor.
56. Healthcare in Malaysia – Healthcare in Malaysia is mainly under the responsibility of the governments Ministry of Health. Infant mortality rate – a standard in determining the efficiency of healthcare – in 2005 was 10, comparing favourably with the United States. Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 74 years, healthcare in Malaysia has undergone radical transformations. Earliest pre-colonial medical care was confined to traditional remedies current among local populations of Malays, Chinese, Indian, the advent of colonialism brought western medical practice into the country. Malaysia has a system of health care. It implements a universal system, which exists along the private healthcare system. Infant mortality rate, a standard in determining the efficiency of healthcare, in 2005 was 10, comparing favourably with the United States. Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 74 years, infant mortality fell from 75 per 1000 live births in 1957 to 7 in 2013. Healthcare in Malaysia is divided into private and public sectors, public provision is rather basic, especially in rural areas. This has meant an increase of more than RM2 billion. Over the last couple of years, they have increased their efforts to overhaul the systems, the government hospitals have the countrys best healthcare equipment and facilities apart from having specialists in the field. However, yhe main drawback is the shortage of staff in public hospitals compare to number of patients seeking treatment has led to long queues, private hospitals are mostly located at urban areas and are equipped with the latest diagnostic and imaging facilities. Private hospitals were not seen as an investment, it has often taken up to ten years before companies have seen any profits. The Government has also been trying to promote Malaysia as a health care destination, Government agencies have invested heavily in healthcare companies. About a third of private hospital beds are in concerns with government investment and this has meant an overall increase of more than RM2 billion. Another issue is the overperscription of drugs, though this has decreased in recent years, over the last couple of years, the Malaysian Health Ministry has increased its efforts to overhaul the system and attract more foreign investment. The Malaysian government has developed a National Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan which serves as a time bound guide for preparedness and response plan for influenza pandemic. Since the Nipah virus outbreak in 1999, the Malaysian Health Ministry have put in place processes to be prepared to protect the Malaysian population from the threat of infectious diseasesHealthcare in Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur Hospital
57. Languages of Malaysia – The indigenous languages of Malaysia belong to the Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian families. The national, or official, language is Malay which is the tongue of the majority Malay ethnic group. The main ethnic groups within Malaysia comprise the Malays, Chinese and Indians, with other ethnic groups represented in smaller numbers. The largest native languages spoken in East Malaysia are the Iban, Dusunic, English is widely understood in service industries and is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary school. It is also the language spoken in most private colleges and universities. Malaysia contains speakers of 137 living languages,41 of which are found in Peninsula Malaysia, the government provides schooling at the primary level in each of the three major languages, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil. Within Malay and Tamil there are a number of dialectal differences, there are a number of Chinese languages native to the ethnic Chinese who originated from southern China, which include Yue, Min and Hakka Chinese. The official language of Malaysia is known as Bahasa Malaysia and it is a standardised form of the Malay language. There are 10 dialects of Malay used throughout Malaysia, Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots. A variant of the Malay language that is spoken in Brunei is also spoken in East Malaysia. Citizens of Minangkabau, Bugis or Javanese origins, who can be classified Malay under constitutional definitions may also speak their respective ancestral tongues, the native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the tribal language in Sarawak while Dusun and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Some of these languages remain strong, being used in education, Sabah has tenth sub-ethnic languages, Bajau, Bruneian, Murut, Lundayeh/Lun Bawang, Rungus, Bisaya, Iranun, Sama, Suluk and Sungai. There are over 30 native groupings, each of which has its own dialect and these languages are in danger of dying out, unlike the major ones such as Kadazandusuns which have developed educational syllabuses. Iban also has developed an educational syllabus, Languages on the peninsular can be divided into three major groups, Negrito, Senoi, and Malayic, further divided into 18 subgroups. The Semai is used in education, Thai is also spoken in northern parts of Peninsular especially in Northern Kedah and Langkawi, Perlis, Northern Perak, Northern Terengganu, and Northern Kelantan. Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English, English used with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. Most Malaysians are conversant in English, as most Malaysian Chinese have ancestry from the southern provinces of China, various southern Chinese varieties are spoken in MalaysiaLanguages of Malaysia – A sign showing common languages in Malaysia: Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil
58. Religion in Malaysia – Malaysia is a multicultural and multiconfessional country. The remainder is accounted for by other faiths, including Animism, Folk religion, Sikhism, numbers of self-described atheists in Malaysia are few, the state has come under criticism from human rights organisations for its discrimination against atheists. Islam in Malaysia is represented by the Shafii version of Sunni theology, Islam was introduced by traders arriving from Arabia, China and India. It became firmly established in the 15th century, the constitution makes Malaysia a secular country and guarantees freedom of religion, while establishing Islam as the religion of the Federation to symbolise its importance to Malaysian society. The king is seen as the defender of the faith in the country and members of the royal family may lose certain privileges if they leave Islam. Malaysian Chinese practice various faiths, Mahayana Buddhism and the Chinese traditional religion, Hinduism is practised by the majority of Malaysian Indians. Christianity has established itself in some communities, especially in East Malaysia and it is not tied to any specific ethnic group. Other religions, such as the Bahai Faith and Sikhism also have adherents in Malaysia, relations between different religious groups are generally quite tolerant. Christmas, Chinese New Year, and Deepavali have been declared national holidays alongside Islamic holidays such as Muhammads birthday etc, various groups have been set up to try to promote religious understanding among the different groups, with religious harmony seen as a priority by Malaysian politicians. However, Muslims are prevented from converting to other religions by law, restrictions on religious freedom exist, especially for Muslims who are not allowed to legally convert to other religions, and are often forced into rehabilitation camps if they attempt to. All the worlds religions have substantial representation in Malaysia. The Population and Housing Censuses figures shows approximately these proportions of the following these religions. Most Malaysian Chinese follow Mahayana Buddhism or Chinese traditional religions, statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83. 6% of Malaysias ethnic Chinese identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism and Christianity. Actually, the percentage of practitioners of the Chinese folk religions may be higher, Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay Bumiputra community with an additional 40. 4% identifying as Muslims. Many indigenous tribes of East Malaysia have converted to Christianity, although Christianity has made inroads into Peninsular Malaysia. No ethnic Malay is allowed to leave Islam, while non-Malay Muslims seeking to require permission from a sharia court. Holidays have been declared for days in numerous religions, although only Islam has more than one national holiday. Whether a religion obtains approval of the government is determined by the Registrar of Societies, only upon approval do they qualify for government benefitsReligion in Malaysia – Penang State Mosque in George Town, Penang.
59. Culture of Malaysia – The culture of Malaysia draws on the varied cultures of the different people of Malaysia. The first people to live in the area were tribes that still remain, they were followed by the Malays. Chinese and Indian cultural influences made their mark when trade began with those countries, other cultures that heavily influenced that of Malaysia include Persian, Arabic, and British. The many different ethnicities that currently exist in Malaysia have their own unique and distinctive cultural identities, arts and music have a long tradition in Malaysia, with Malay art dating back to the Malay sultanates. Traditional art was centred on such as carving, silversmithing. Islamic taboos restricted artwork depicting humans until the mid-20th century, performing arts and shadow puppet shows are popular, and often show Indian influences. Various influences can be seen in architecture, from individual cultures in Malaysia, large modern structures have been built, including the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers. Malaysian music has a variety of origins, and is based around percussion instruments. Much early Malaysian literature was based on Indian epics, which remained unchanged even as Malays converted to Islam, English literature remained restricted to the higher class until the arrival of the printing press. Locally created Chinese and Indian literature appeared in the 19th century, cuisine is often divided along ethnic lines, but some dishes exist which have mixed foods from different ethnicities. Each major religious group has its major holy days declared as official holidays, official holidays differ by state, the most widespread one is Merdeka day which celebrates the independence of Malaya. Although festivals often stem from an ethnic background, they are celebrated by all people in Malaysia. Traditional sports are popular in Malaysia, while it has become a powerhouse in international sports such as badminton, Malaysia hosted the Commonwealth Games in 1998, the first Commonwealth Games where the torch passed through more countries than England and the host. This especially affected language, only Malay texts are considered official cultural texts, government control over the media is strong, and most media outlets are related to the government in some way. Malaysia consists of two geographical regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Malaysia was formed when the Federation of Malaya merged with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore in 1963, UMNO has dominated the coalition from its inception. Although Islam is the state religion, the Constitution of Malaysia guarantees freedom of religion. Malaysia is a multi–ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society, the society of Malaysia has been described as Asia in miniatureCulture of Malaysia – A magnet depicting the ethnic groups of Malaysia
60. Cinema of Malaysia – The cinema of Malaysia consists of feature films produced in Malaysia, shot in the languages of Malay, Chinese and Tamil. Malaysia produces about 20 feature films annually, and between 300–400 television dramas and serials a year apart from the productions by the individual television stations. Malaysia also holds its own annual National Film Festival, there are about 250 cinemas and cineplexes in Malaysia, showing not only local films but also foreign films. Malaysian cinema began in 1933 with Leila Majnun, based on a classical Persian story of two ill-fated lovers, directed by B. S. Rajhans and produced by the Singapore-based Motilal Chemical Company of Bombay, the cast was derived from a local opera group. However, they managed to produce five or six movies prior to the Japanese invasion in 1941. Ironically, the Japanese would exploit Malaysia for exactly the same purposes even obtaining the help of the Shaws to break into their extensive Southeast Asian film exhibition network, the Japanese film studios shot a number of films in Shonan depicting the area as a sort of Japanese frontier. Films such as Southern Winds II, Tiger of Malay or Singapore All-Out Attack presented the area as a land rich in resources, occupied by simple but honest people, and highly exotic. Following the end of World War II in 1945, the Shaw Brothers resumed production in 1947 with a Rajhans-directed film called Singapura Di Waktu Malam starring Siput Sarawak, backed by their chain of theatres, which they either owned or rented, the film enjoyed a good response. The Shaw Brothers proceeded to produce films and introduced new faces. Her first film, Cempaka, revolved around the life of an island girl. In 1948, P. Ramlee - who later became the legend of the Malay film world. P. Ramlee’s talents in composing and singing brought him prominence. He was very versatile as a actor, a comic, dramatic artiste, scripwriter. Most of the films carried plenty of singing and dancing scenes. After Rajhans, Shaw Brothers imported many other Indian film directors, among them S. Ramanathan, seetharama Sastry, Phani Majumdar and D. Ghoss. There were also some local film directors such as L. Krishnan and K. M. Bashker who learned the trade and techniques through experience, by the 1960s, many of the expatriates were replaced by local directors. The success enjoyed by the Shaw Brother’s film studio, known as the Malay Film Productions, there was a Nusantara film company started. In 1951, Hsu Chiu Meng started the Nusantara film company, however, he depended heavily on independent theatres, and after producing about a dozen films Nusantara closed down in 1954Cinema of Malaysia – Coliseum Theatre (Kuala Lumpur)
61. Malaysian cuisine – Malaysian cuisine consists of cooking traditions and practices found in Malaysia, and reflects the multiethnic makeup of its population. The vast majority of Malaysias population can roughly be divided among three ethnic groups, Malays, Chinese and Indians. This resulted in a symphony of flavours, making Malaysian cuisine highly complex, Chilli peppers are indispensable to Malaysian kitchens, and both fresh and dried chilies are used. Chillies come in sizes, shapes and even colours. Green chillies are more peppery in taste while red chillies, green chillies which have left to ripen, have a slightly sweeter heat. If a milder flavour is preferred, the seeds and membranes would be removed from the pods before it is cut, or the chillies would be left whole. Some common uses include but are not limited to grinding the chillies into a paste or sambal, chopping fresh chillies as a condiment or garnish, Belacan is essential to Malaysian cooking. It is a type of paste which is pressed into a block. In its raw form it has a pungent, and some would say awful. Once cooked however, the shrimp pastes aroma and flavour mellows out, to prepare belacan for use, a typical method involves wrapping a small amount of the shrimp paste block in foil, which is then roasted over a flame or placed into a pre-heated oven. Belacan is most commonly pounded or blended with local chilli peppers, shallots and lime juice to make the most popular and ubiquitous relish in Malaysia, sambal belacan. Belacan is also crumbled into a spice paste called rempah, which will usually include garlic, ginger, onions or shallots. The coconut is another feature of Malaysian cuisine, and virtually all parts of the plant are used for culinary purposes. The white fleshy part of the endosperm is grated, shredded and used as it is, dried to make desiccated coconut, or toasted until dark brown. Grated coconut flesh is also squeezed to obtain milk, which is used extensively in savoury dishes. Coconut oil is used for cooking and cosmetic purposes, and may be obtained either from processing copra or extracted from fresh coconuts as virgin coconut oil. Coconut water, the liquid found inside the cavity of each coconut, is a popular cooler in Malaysias hot. Gula melaka is unrefined palm sugar produced from the sap of the coconut flower and it is the most traditional sweetener in Malaysian cooking and imbues a rich caramel-like flavour with a hint of coconutMalaysian cuisine – Street food – a cook preparing murtabak at a mamak stall
62. Malay folklore – They include among others, themes and subject matter related to the indigenous knowledge of the ethnic Malays and related ethnic groups within the region. The stories within this system of lore often incorporate supernatural entities, others relate to creation myths and place naming legends that are often inter-twined with historical figures and events. Ancient rituals for healing and traditional medicine as well as complex philosophies regarding health, the oral forms of this lore are transmitted primarily through nursery rhymes, folksongs, theatrical exhibitions, and stories that are commonly told from parent to child. The oral traditions are often integrated with moral values and some may also include stories of talking animals, of all the types of oral transmission, those in the form of music appear to be most pervasive in Malay society. They are also utilized in the ceremonial functions in royal weddings, in rites of ascension and royal birthday celebrations. Every region or each of the states may employ different versions of oral transmission, the Middle Eastern-influenced ghazal can be heard in the southern Malaysian state of Johor especially is the district of Muar. Forms of nursery rhymes and lullabies are sung at weddings and cultural festivals in the state of Melaka by Malays. The contents of the songs are mostly to do with advise on love, life, many of these songs are in the form of stories weaved into poetry or simple rhyme. However, due to the nature of inter-mingling and mutual co-migrations within these areas the folksongs may also be heard in far from their original geographic origins. Stories of love and romance of princes and princesses, kings and queens, the fact that numerous royal courts existed and still exist in Southeast Asia supplied the basis of the stories. These stories are told by professional story tellers called penglipur lara. The few penglipur lara that exist today are farmers or at least rural villagers. In the past, travelling penglipur lara would carry the stories from one kampung to another, making the stops at marketplaces. The essence of the remain the same but sometimes, adjustments are made according to the individual story-tellers preference. Animal fables are often used to explain natural phenomena. Other times, they are moral tales. In almost all instances, the animals in these stories possess the ability to speak, reason and think like humans, the kancil or mouse-deer serves as the main character in a number of the stories. The Malays regard this humble animal in the highest esteem due to its ability to overcome obstacles and defeat adversaries despite of its rather small, the mouse-deer appears in the state herald of Melaka and even plays a part in the legend of Malaccas foundingMalay folklore – A dancer performing the Ulek Mayang. Manifested in a dance and healing ceremony, it narrates a mystical tale about the sea spirits in a forbidden love with a fisherman.
63. Ketuanan Melayu – Ketuanan Melayu is a political concept emphasising Malay preeminence in present-day Malaysia. The Malays of Malaysia claimed a position and special rights owing to their long domicile. The oldest political institution in Malaysia is the system of Malay rulers of the nine Malay states, the term Tanah Melayu in its name which literally means Malay homeland, assumes proprietorship of the Malay states. In this way Britain strengthened Malay ethno-nationalism, Malay ethnicity and culture, though other cultures would continue to flourish, the identity of the emerging political community was to be shaped by the historic political culture of its dominant Malay ethnic group. This quid pro quo arrangement is referred to as the Malaysian social contract. The concept of ketuanan Melayu is usually cited by politicians, particularly those from the United Malays National Organisation, although the idea itself predates Malaysian independence, the phrase ketuanan Melayu did not come into vogue until the early 2000s decade. The idea of Malay supremacy gained attention in the 1940s, when the Malays organised themselves to protest the Malayan Unions establishment, the National Culture Policy, also introduced in 1970, emphasised an assimilation of the non-Malays into the Malay ethnic group. However, during the 1990s Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad rejected this approach, during the 2000s decade politicians began stressing ketuanan Melayu again, and publicly chastised government ministers who questioned the social contract. Ethnic Malays which make up the majority population of Malaysia at 50, the true origin of ethnic Malays is still the subject of studies among historians, anthropologists and linguists. However, a recent genetic studies carried out by HUGO involving almost 2000 people across Asia, hindu and Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the Indian subcontinent. The beginning of the first Millennium saw the rise of ancient Malay states in the areas of Malay peninsular, notably the Red Earth Kingdom, Gangga Negara, Langkasuka, Kedah. Between 7th and 13th centuries, many of small, often prosperous peninsular maritime trading states became part of the Srivijaya empire. By 15th century, the Malacca Sultanate, whose hegemony reached over much of the western Malay archipelago, had become the centre of Islamization in the east, the Malaccan tradition was transmitted onwards and fostered a vigorous ethos of Malay identity. Since this era, the Islamic faith became closely identified with Malay society, the present day Malaysian Malays are divided broadly into Malays proper or Peninsular Malays and foreign Malays. The Malays proper consist of individuals who adhere to the Malay culture which has developed in the Malay peninsula. Among notable groups are Kedahan Malays, Kelantanese Malays and Terengganuan Malays, among notable groups are the Javanese, Minangkabau and Bugis Malays. Though this definition is not according to lineage, it is however correct in the sense of social behaviours. Culture, which controls a great proportion of general mentality and social behaviour, is succeeded through the mother tongue and this is also apparent from the name of UMNO, who are a staunch political proponent of this roleKetuanan Melayu – United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action condemned by many as a defence of ketuanan Melayu.
64. Public holidays in Malaysia – There are two types of public holidays in Malaysia, those at national and state levels. National holidays are observed by most governmental and private organisations. State holidays are observed by certain states in Malaysia or when it is relevant to the state itself. In addition, government agencies are closed every Saturday and Sunday in most of Malaysia, while in Kedah, Kelantan, Johor and Terengganu they are closed every Friday and Saturday. Malaysia has one of the highest numbers of public holidays in the world, ranking number seven in the top ten countries after Thailand, Indonesia, India, some holidays are federally gazetted public holidays and some are public holidays observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by ethnic or religion groups, but are not public holidays. The main holy days of each religion are public holidays. The most widespread holiday is the Hari Kebangsaan, otherwise known as Hari Merdeka on 31 August commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya and this, as well as Labour Day, the Kings birthday and some other festivals are major national public holidays. Federal Territory day is celebrated in the three Federal territories, Malaysia Day, held on 16 September to commemorate the formation of Malaysia, became a nationwide holiday in 2010. Before that it was celebrated only in Sabah, New Years Day is also observed as a public holiday in all Malaysian states, except for Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. Muslim holidays are prominent in Malaysia. The most important of these is Hari Raya Puasa which is the Malay translation of Eid al-Fitr and it is generally a festival honoured by the Muslims worldwide marking the end of Ramadan will the fasting month. In addition to Hari Raya Puasa, they also celebrate Hari Raya Aidiladha, Awal Muharram, Malaysian Chinese typically hold the same festivals observed by Chinese around the world. Chinese New Year is the most prominent, lasting for 15-days, other festivals celebrated by Chinese are the Qingming Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival. Malaysian Indians of the Hindu faith celebrate Deepavali, the festival of light, the most important Sikh festival is the Sikh new year or Vaisakhi festival. Other important days are Lodi and Gurpurab, other Indian and Indochinese communities observe their new year celebrations at around the same time, such as Pohela Boishakh of the Bengalis and Songkran of the Thais. People in the states do celebrate the Thai festival of Loy Kratong. Wesak, the Buddhist festival commemorating Buddhas birth, is a public holiday, malaysias Christian community observes most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and EasterPublic holidays in Malaysia – States that rest on Saturdays and Sundays States that rest on Fridays and Saturdays
65. Sport in Malaysia – Sports in Malaysia are an important part of Malaysian culture. Sports in Malaysia are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect, Malaysians from different walks of life join in a wide variety of sports for recreation as well as for competition. Other most popular sports are bicycling, swimming, climbing, camping, bowling, hiking, fishing and scuba diving. In the spectating aspect, the six sports with most fans are association football, field hockey, rugby union, badminton, volleyball, handball, basketball. Malaysia has hosted major sports events including the Commonwealth Games in 1998. Most Malaysians live in housing areas with such as public parks, pedestrian zone, health clubs. Other most popular sports are bicycling, swimming, climbing, camping, bowling, hiking and fishing, scuba diving is another recreation, particularly around the southeastern region of Sabah. The Malaysia national badminton team has won 6 silver medals and 2 bronze medals in badminton in the Olympic Games since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992, in 1992 Razif Sidek and Jalani Sidek won the bronze medal in mens doubles. In 1996, Rashid Sidek won the medal in mens singles while Cheah Soon Kit. Lee Chong Wei won three medals in mens singles each in 2008,2012 and 2016. In 2016, Chan Peng Soon and Goh Liu Ying won silver medals in mixed doubles while Tan Wee Kiong, the Malaysia national badminton team is ranked world number 6 in the BWF World Team Ranking. Malaysia has won the Thomas Cup, the mens team trophy. Malaysia also holds its own international badminton tournament, the Malaysia Open. Squash in Malaysia is governed by the Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia, the Kuala Lumpur Open and Malaysian Open are annual squash tournaments held in Malaysia. The Malaysia mens national team has reached the quarterfinal stage at the World Team Squash Championships six times. The mens team has won the Asian Squash Team Championships three times, the Malaysia womens national squash team has won the silver medal once and bronze medal at the World Team Squash Championships four times. The womens team has won the Asian Squash Team Championships seven times, nicol David is an eight-time world champion and ranked world number 1 in woman squash since 2006. Her compatriots Low Wee Wern and Delia Arnold are ranked world number 7 and 28, male squash players Mohd Nafiizwan Adnan and Ong Beng Hee are ranked world number 32 and 34, respectively in the PSA World RankingsSport in Malaysia – Lee Chong Wei
66. Flag of Malaysia – In blazon, the Malaysian flag is described as, A banner Gules, seven bars Argent, the canton Azure charged with decrescent and mullet of fourteen points Or. This means a red flag with seven white stripes, the upper-left quarter is blue with a yellow waning crescent. The flag of Malaysia, which was first raised on 16 September 1963, prior to the creation of the national flag, each state in Malaya had its own flag, many of which are unchanged in design to this day. When the Federation of Malaya replaced the short lived Malayan Union, three flags were forwarded to the public. The first flag had 11 white stars with two Malay kris in the middle against a blue backdrop, the second flag concentric circle of 11 stars around crossed keris on a blue field. The third had 11 alternate red and white stripes and a yellow crescent, the third design, by Mohamad Hamzah of the Public Works Department, was chosen as the winner through a public poll held by The Malay Mail. Since Malaya was fighting the communists during the Malayan Emergency, the star had an ironic resemblance to the communists symbols. Therefore, the star was modified to six more points. The Malayan flag was approved by King George VI on 19 May 1950 and was first raised in front of Istana Selangor on 26 May 1950, on 31 August 1957, it was raised upon independence at Merdeka Square in place of the British Union Flag. The Malayan flag was designed by Mohamed Hamzah, a 29-year-old architect working for the Public Works Department in Johor Baharu and he entered the Malayan flag design competition in 1947 with two designs that he completed within two weeks. The first design was a flag with blue kris in the middle. The second design, which was among the three finalists, was similar to the current flag but with a five-pointed star and it borrows major design elements from the East India Company flag, notably the red and white stripes. The competition attracted 373 entries and voting was made by the public via post. Malayan senior statesman Dato Onn Jaafar met with Mohamed Hamzah after he won the competition, Mohamed Hamzah died just short of his 75th birthday on 13 February 1993 in Jalan Stulang Baru, Kampung Melayu Majidee, Johor. Following the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, the design of the Malayan flag was modified to reflect and honour the new states in the federation. When Kuala Lumpur was designated a Federal Territory on 1 February 1974, the additional stripe, during the National Day celebrations, everyone is encouraged to fly the Jalur Gemilang at their homes, office buildings, shops and corporate premises. If the flag is fixed at home, it is to be raised pointing towards the road. If the flag is put in a group of flags with state and private company flags, the flag anthem is written as dedication and pride of the Malaysian national flagFlag of Malaysia – The Malaysian flag flying above the Tourism Malaysia office in Trafalgar Square, London. The flag of Uganda is seen by its side over Uganda House.