1. Southeast Asia – Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia consists of two regions, Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar. Maritime Southeast Asia, comprising Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Cocos Islands, definitions of Southeast Asia vary, but most definitions include the area represented by the countries listed below. All of the states are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the area, together with part of South Asia, was widely known as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea, Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia includes, Maritime Southeast Asia includes, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Southeast Asia. Eastern Bangladesh and the Seven Sister States of India are culturally part of Southeast Asia, the eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago, homo floresiensis also lived in the area up until 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the population in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor. Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD. The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years and their vessels, such as the vinta, were ocean-worthy. Magellans voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships, Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar by the Austronesian people, as well as commerce between West Asia and Southeast Asia. Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome and this was later replaced by Hinduism. Theravada Buddhism soon followed in 525, in the 15th century, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreat to Bali, in Mainland Southeast Asia, Burma, Cambodia and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture, very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the 2nd century BCE onwards. Prior to the 13th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism were the religions in Southeast AsiaSoutheast Asia – A golden vestment similar to those worn by the Hindu Brahmin Caste, found in Butuan (Philippines) Archeological Digs. This artefact shows the influence of Indian culture in Southeast Asia, also through trade.
2. Federation of Malaya – The Federation of Malaya was a federation of 11 states that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957, and in 1963 Malaysia was formed with the Singapore, North Borneo, the combination of states that formerly made up the Federation of Malaya is currently known as Peninsular Malaysia. From 1946 to 1948, the 11 states formed a single British crown colony known as the Malayan Union, due to opposition from Malay nationalists, the Union was disbanded and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the symbolic positions of the rulers of the Malay states. Within the Federation, while the Malay states were protectorates of the United Kingdom, Penang, like the Malayan Union before it, the Federation did not include Singapore, despite its traditional connections with Malaya. The Federation achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957, Singapore separated from Malaysia to become an independent republic on 9 August 1965. The Federation of Malaya Agreement was formulated by the British–Malay Pleno Conference between June and December 1946, at the end of the meeting, the Pleno Conference produced a 100-page Blue Book. The Federation of Malaya Agreement was signed on 1 April 1946 at King House by the Malay rulers, the Agreement superseded the Agreement creating the Malayan Union, and prepared for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948. The position of the Malay rulers was also restored, as with the Malayan Union, the Federation excluded Singapore, despite its traditional links to Malaya. The Federation of Malaya Executive Council comprised 7 official and 7 unofficial members, additionally,9 State Council Yang Di Pertua, Chief Ministers and 2 representatives from the Straits Settlements became unofficial members. The Malay Conference of Rulers would advise the High Commissioner on immigration issues, the British Resident was replaced with a Chief Minister in each state of the federation. The conditions of citizenship of the Federation of Malaya were further tightened using law enforcement, the federation agreement set the powers of the federal and state governments. Financial matters must be handled by the respective states, the Sultan was given full power on religious issues and Malay customs. Foreign policy and defence continued to be administered by the British government, the federation agreement was made the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya and officially declared on 1 February 1948. The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council held its first meeting in the Tuanku Abdul Rahman Hall and it was opened by the British High Commissioner Sir Edward Gent. Attendees included the British Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, Lord Listowel, the membership of the Council was structured to include, the British High Commissioner,3 ex officio members,11 State and Settlement Members 11 official members, and 34 appointed unofficial members. The unofficial members were required to be either Federation citizens or British subjects, at this first Council meeting, several minor committees were formed, the Standing Committee on Finance, the Election Committee, and the Committee of Privileges. The first session passed the Kuala Lumpur City Bill, the Transfer of Power Bill, in 1950, the Federation of Malaya Government rejected the registration of the Malay Nationalist Party of Malaya as a legitimate political party. PKMM had two wings, namely Angkatan Pemuda Insaf and Angkatan Wanita Sedar, initially, PKMM did not have communist leaningsFederation of Malaya – Flag (1950–1963)
3. Sabah – Sabah, nicknamed Malay, Negeri Di Bawah Bayu, is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Sabah has a level of autonomy in administration, immigration. It is situated in northern Borneo, bordering the state of Sarawak to the southwest, Kalimantan of Indonesia to the south, Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam in the west and the Philippines to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu is the city, the economic centre of the state. Other major towns in Sabah include Sandakan and Tawau, as of the 2015 census in Malaysia, the states population is 3,543,500. Sabah has a climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal. The state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range National Park, Kinabatangan River, second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah and Mount Kinabalu is the highest point of Sabah as well of Malaysia. The earliest human settlement in Sabah can be traced back to 20, the state had a trading relationship with China from the 14th century AD. Sabah came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 15th century, the state was subsequently acquired by the North Borneo Chartered Company in the 19th century. During World War II, Sabah was occupied by the Japanese for three years and it became a British Crown Colony in 1946. On 31 August 1963, Sabah was granted self-government by the British, following this, Sabah became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia alongside Sarawak, Singapore, and the Federation of Malaya. Sabah exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity, culture and language, the head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. The government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia. Sabah is divided into divisions and districts. Malay is the language of the state, and Islam is the official religion. Sabah is known for its musical instrument, the sompoton. Sabah is the state in Malaysia to celebrate the Kaamatan festival. Sabah has abundant natural resources, and its economy is strongly export-oriented, the primary exports include oil, gas, timber and palm oilSabah – (Left) The first concession treaty was signed by Brunei Sultan, Abdul Momin on 29 December 1877. (Right) Sultan Jamalalulazam of Sulu signed the second concession treaty on 22 January 1878.
4. Federal Territories (Malaysia) – The Federal Territories in Malaysia comprise three territories, Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan, governed directly by the federal government of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia, Putrajaya is the administrative capital. Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya are enclaves in the state of Selangor, the territories fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry for the Federal Territories, which was formed under Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawis administration on 27 March 2006. The first Minister for the Federal Territories was Mohd, Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor has been the minister since May 2013. The federal territories were part of two states - Selangor and Sabah. Both Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya were part of Selangor, while Labuan was part of Sabah, Kuala Lumpur, the state capital of Selangor, became the national capital of the Federation of Malaya in 1948. Since independence in 1957, the federal as well as the Selangor state ruling party had been the Alliance, however, in the 1969 elections the Alliance, while retaining control of the federal government, lost its majority in Selangor to the opposition. The same election also resulted in a race riot in Kuala Lumpur. It was realised that if Kuala Lumpur remained part of Selangor, the solution was to separate Kuala Lumpur from the state and place it under direct federal rule. On 1 February 1974, Kuala Lumpur became the first federal territory of Malaysia, the Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Salahuddin cried after signing the cession agreement as he was very fond and proud of the city. The cession of Kuala Lumpur had the effect of securing the Selangor state government for the Barisan Nasional until the 2008 general election. The separation of Kuala Lumpur meant that Kuala Lumpur voters lost representation in the Selangor State Legislative Assembly, Labuan, an island off coast of mainland Sabah, was chosen by the federal government for development into an offshore financial centre. Labuan became the federal territory in 1984. Putrajaya is a city, designed to replace Kuala Lumpur as the seat of the federal government. Sultan Salahuddin, who was serving as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong at that time, was asked again to land to the federal government. Putrajaya became the federal territory on 1 February 2001. In the recent years, efforts were made to forge an identity for the three federal territories. A flag of Federal Territory was introduced to represent the territories as a wholeFederal Territories (Malaysia)
5. Capital (political) – A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government. In some jurisdictions, including countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. The word capital derives from the Latin caput, meaning head, in several English-speaking states, the terms county town, county seat, and borough seat are also used in lower subdivisions. In unitary states, subnational capitals are known as administrative centres. The capital is often, but not necessarily, the largest city of its constituent, historically, the major economic centre of a state or region often becomes the focal point of political power, and becomes a capital through conquest or federation. Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Changan, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, and Berlin. Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e. g. Constantinople, Rome, Jerusalem, Ancient Babylon, Moscow, Belgrade, Paris, and Peking. A capital city that is also the economic, cultural. The convergence of political and economic or cultural power is by no means universal, traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e. g. Nanking by Shanghai, Quebec City by Montreal, and numerous US state capitals. The decline of a dynasty or culture could also mean the extinction of its city, as occurred at Babylon. Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such, for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, are located in or near them. In Canada, there is a capital, while the ten provinces. The states of such countries as Mexico, Brazil, and Australia all have capital cities, for example, the six state capitals of Australia are Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney. In Australia, the capital cities is regularly used, to refer to the aforementioned state capitals plus the federal capital Canberra and Darwin. Abu Dhabi is the city of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. In unitary states which consist of multiple constituent countries, such as the United Kingdom or the Kingdom of Denmark, the national capitals of Germany and Russia, the Stadtstaat of Berlin and the Federal City of Moscow, are also constituent states of both countries in their own rightCapital (political) – Parliament Hill, the national legislative buildings, in Ottawa, the capital of Canada.
6. Malaysia – Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, with a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia, located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, the first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946, Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while allowing freedom of religion for non-Muslims, the government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the prime minister, since its independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6. 5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third largest in Southeast Asia, the name Malaysia is a combination of the word Malay and the Latin-Greek suffix -sia/-σία. The word melayu in Malay may derive from the Tamil words malai and ur meaning mountain and city, land, malayadvipa was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word melayu or mlayu may have used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on SumatraMalaysia – "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
7. Jawi alphabet – Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two scripts in Brunei, used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay dominated areas in Indonesia. It can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, day-to-day usage of Jawi is maintained in more conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. Jawi is still used on road and building signs, and taught in primary and religious schools in Brunei. The word Jawi is an adjective for the Arabic noun Jawah, both terms may have originated from the term Javadwipa, the ancient name for Java. Prior to the onset of the Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still firmly established in the region and this is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription. The spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent introduction of Arabic writing system began with the arrival of Muslim merchants in the region since the seventh century. The conversion of King Phra Ong Mahawangsa of Kedah in 1136, at the early stage of Islamisation, the Arabic script was taught to the people who had newly embraced Islam in the form of religious practices, such as the recitation of Quran as well as salat. Many Arabic characters are never used as they are not pronounced in Malay language and this was the same for the acceptance of Arabic writing in Turkey, Persia and India which had taken place earlier and thus, the Jawi script was then deemed as the writing of the Muslims. The inscription on the stone contains a proclamation issued by the Sri Paduka Tuan of Terengganu, urging his subjects to extend and uphold Islam and this has attested the strong observance of the Muslim faith in the early 14th century Terengganu specifically and the Malay world as a whole. The development of Jawi script was different from that of Pallava writing which was restricted to the nobility. The Jawi script was embraced by the entire Muslim community regardless of class, with the increased intensity in the appreciation of Islam, scriptures originally written in Arabic were translated in Malay and written in the Jawi script. Additionally local religious scholars later began to elucidate the Islamic teachings in the forms of original writings, moreover, there were also individuals of the community who used Jawi for the writing of literature which previously existed and spread orally. With this inclusion of literature, Malay literature took on a more sophisticated form. This was believed to have taken place from the 15th century, other forms of Arabic-based scripts existed in the region, notably the Pegon alphabet of Javanese language in Java and the Serang alphabet of Bugis language in South Sulawesi. Both writing systems applied extensively the Arabic diacritics and added several alphabets other than Jawi alphabets to suit the languages, due to their fairly limited usage, the spelling system of both scripts did not undergo similar advance developments and modifications as experienced by Jawi script. The script became prominent with the spread of Islam, as the Malays found that the earlier Pallava script was totally unsuited as a vehicle to relay religious concepts. The Malays held the script in high esteem as it is the gateway to understanding Islam and its Holy Book, the use of jawi script was a key factor driving the emergence of Malay as the lingua franca of the region, alongside the spread of IslamJawi alphabet – A copy of Undang-Undang Melaka ('Laws of Malacca'). The Malacca system of justice as enshrined in the text was the legal source for other major regional sultanates like Johor, Perak, Brunei, Pattani and Aceh.
8. Pinyin – Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooksPinyin – A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Putonghua is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.
9. Sarawak – Sarawak is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. The capital city, Kuching, is the centre of the state. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri, Sibu, as of the 2015 census, the total population of Sarawak is 2,636,000. Sarawak has a climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal. It has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park, Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia, Bakun Dam, one of the largest dams in Southeast Asia, is located on one of its tributaries, the Balui River. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak, the earliest known human settlement in Sarawak, located at the Niah Caves, dates back to 40,000 years ago. A series of Chinese ceramics dated from the 8th to 13th century AD was uncovered at the site of Santubong. The coastal regions of Sarawak came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 16th century, in 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. He, and his descendants, governed the state from 1841 to 1946, during World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, on 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia, established on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation, the creation of the Federation also resulted in a communist insurgency that lasted until 1990. The head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, Sarawak exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity, culture, and language, major ethnic groups in Sarawak are, Iban, Malay, Chinese, Melanau, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu. English and Malay are the two official languages of the state, there is no official religion. The Gawai Dayak is a festival celebrated on a public holiday. The official explanation of the word Sarawak is that it is derived from the Sarawak Malay word serawak, which means antimony. A popular alternative explanation is that it is a contraction of the four Malay words purportedly uttered by Pangeran Muda Hashim, Saya serah pada awak, James Brooke became the first of the White Rajah dynasty to govern Sarawak. Sarawak is nicknamed Land of the Hornbills and these birds are important cultural symbols for the Dayak people, representing the spirit of God. It is also believed if a hornbill is seen flying over residencesSarawak – A west view of a river from the anchorage off Sarawak, Borneo circa 1800s. Painting from the National Maritime Museum of London.
10. Brunei – Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace, is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is surrounded by the state of Sarawak. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang, Brunei is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo, the remainder of the islands territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia. Bruneis population was 408,786 in July 2012, the maritime state was visited by Spains Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castille War. During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline, the Sultanate ceded Sarawak to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906, after the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, an armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British. Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984, Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country. It has developed wealth from petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, according to the International Monetary Fund, Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries with a debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the fifth-richest nation out of 182, based on its petroleum, according to legend, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak Betatar, later to be Sultan Muhammad Shah. He moved from Garang, a place in the Temburong District to the Brunei River estuary, according to legend, upon landing he exclaimed, Baru nah, from which the name Brunei was derived. He was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei, before the rise of the Bruneian Empire under the Muslim Bolkiah Dynasty, Brunei is believed to have been under Buddhist rulers. It was renamed Barunai in the 14th century, possibly influenced by the Sanskrit word varuṇ, the word Borneo is of the same origin. In the countrys name, Negara Brunei Darussalam, darussalam means abode of peace. The people are pagans and are men of goodwill and their colour is whiter than that of the other sort. in this island justice is well administered. One of the earliest Chinese records is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni, which some scholars believe to refer to BorneoBrunei – The tomb of a ruler of Po-ni in Nanjing, China.
11. Borneo – Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest island in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, the island is politically divided among three countries, Malaysia and Brunei in the north, and Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory, in the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on an island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, antipodal to an area of Amazon rainforest, Borneo is itself home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world, and to Bornean orangutans. The island is known by names, internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei. The name Brunei possibly was derived from the Sanskrit word váruṇa, meaning either ocean or the mythological Varuna. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, which was derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, prior to that the island was also known by other names. In 977 Chinese records began to use the term Po-ni to refer to Borneo or Brunei, in 1225 it was also mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua. The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, to the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia, Java and Sulawesi, to the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres, it is the third-largest island in the world and its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia, with an elevation of 4,095 m. The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,143 km, other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan, the Barito in South Kalimantan, and Rajang in Sarawak. Clearwater Cave, for example, has one of the worlds longest underground rivers, deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres deep. The South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula, the Borneo rainforest is 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world. There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees,221 species of mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo and it is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals. The Borneo rainforest is one of the few remaining habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutanBorneo – A large log being placed on a railroad car at Batottan, British North Borneo in 1926
12. Kuching – Kuching /ˈkuːtʃɪŋ/, officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia. It is also the capital of Kuching Division, Kuching was the third capital of Sarawak in 1827 during the administration of the Bruneian Empire. The town continued to receive attention and development during the rule of Charles Brooke such as the construction of a system, hospital, prison, fort. In 1941, the Brooke administration had a Centenary Celebration in Kuching, during World War II, Kuching was occupied by Japanese forces from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese government set up a Batu Lintang camp near Kuching to hold prisoners of war, after the war, the town survived intact. However, the last Rajah of Sarawak, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke decided to cede Sarawak as part of British Crown Colony in 1946, Kuching remained as capital during the Crown Colony period. After the formation of Malaysia in 1963, Kuching retained its status as capital and was granted city status in 1988. Since then, the Kuching city is divided into two administrative regions managed by two local authorities. The administrative centre of Sarawak state government is located at Wisma Bapa Malaysia, Kuching is a major food destination for tourists and the main gateway for travellers visiting Sarawak and Borneo. The city has one of the major industrial and commercial centres in East Malaysia. The name of Kuching was already in use for the city by the time Brooke arrived in 1841, there are many theories as to the derivation of the word Kuching. It was perhaps derived from the Malay word for cat, kucing or from Cochin, an Indian trading port on the Malabar Coast, some Hindu artefacts can be seen today at the Sarawak State Museum. However, another source reported that the Kuching city was known as Sarawak before the Brooke arrived. The settlement was renamed to Sarawak proper during the kingdom expansion and it was only in 1872 that Charles Brooke renamed the settlement to Kuching. There was one unlikely theory based on a story on miscommunication, according to the story, James Brooke arrived in Kuching on his yacht Royalist. He then asked his local guide about the name of the town, the local guide thinking that James Brooke was pointing towards a cat, and said the word Kuching. However, ethnic Malays in Sarawak usually refer the name of a cat as pusak instead of the Malay word kucing, some source also stated that it was derived from a fruit called mata kucing, a fruit that grows widely in Malaysia and Indonesia. There was also a hill in the city that was named after the fruit, which is called Bukit Mata KuchingKuching – These statues of cats became a symbol of Kuching City.
13. Kota Kinabalu – Kota Kinabalu, formerly known as Jesselton, is the capital of the state of Sabah, Malaysia. It is also the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah, the city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies to its west and Mount Kinabalu, Kota Kinabalu has a population of 452,058 according to the 2010 census, when the adjacent Penampang and Putatan districts are included, the metro area has a combined population of 628,725. In the 15th century, the area of Kota Kinabalu was under the influence of Bruneian Empire, in the 19th century, the British North Borneo Company first set up a settlement near the Gaya Island. However, it was destroyed by fire in 1897 by a leader named Mat Salleh. In July 1899, the place located opposite to the Gaya Island was identified as a place for settlements. Development in the area was started soon after that, and the place was named Api-api before it was renamed after the vice-chairman of BNBC as Jesselton, Jesselton became a major trading port in the area, and was connected to the North Borneo Railway. Jesselton was largely destroyed during World War II, the Japanese occupation of Jesselton provoked several local uprisings notably the Jesselton Revolt but they were eventually defeated by the Japanese. After the war, BNBC was unable to finance the high cost of reconstructions, the British Crown declared Jesselton as the new capital of North Borneo in 1946 and started to rebuild the town. After the formation of Malaysia, North Borneo was renamed as Sabah, in 1967, Jesselton was renamed as Kota Kinabalu. Kota Kinabalu was granted city status in 2000, Kota Kinabalu is often known as KK both in Malaysia and internationally. It is a major tourist destination and a gateway for travellers visiting Sabah. Kinabalu Park is located about 90 kilometres from the city and there are other tourist attractions in. Kota Kinabalu is also one of the industrial and commercial centres of East Malaysia. These two factors combine to make Kota Kinabalu one of the fastest growing cities in Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu is named after Mount Kinabalu, which is situated about 50 kilometres east-northeast of the city. Kinabalu is derived from the name Aki Nabalu meaning the place of the dead. Aki means ancestors or grandfather, and Nabalu is a name for the mountain in the Dusun language, there is also a source claiming that the term originated from Ki Nabalu, Ki meaning have or exist, and Nabalu meaning spirit of the dead. Kota is a Malay word for a fort, town, or a city and it is also used formally in a few other Malaysian towns and cities, for example, Kota Bharu, Kota Tinggi, and Kota KemuningKota Kinabalu – Bomb damage at the town of Jesselton during World War II, this was part of the Borneo Campaign by Allied forces during 1945.
14. Miri District – Miri District is an administrative district in Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysia covering a total area of 4707 km2. The Miri District can be divided into Miri City, Sibuti sub-district and they are governed by Miri District Office located in Miri City, Sibuti sub-district office, and Niah sub-district office. The Miri City is administered by Miri City Council, meanwhile, Niah and Sibuti sub-district falls under the jurisdiction of Subis District Council headquartered at Bekenu. There has been a growth of Miri District population of 3. 5% from 1991 to 2000, meanwhile, from 2000 to 2010, there is a population growth of 2. 88%Miri District – Districts of Sarawak
15. Miri Division – Miri Division is one of the twelve administrative divisions of Sarawak, Malaysia. It has an area of 26,777.1 square kilometres. The population of Miri Division was 316,400, ethnically, the population was Iban, Chinese, Malay, Melanau, Kayan, Kenyah, Lun Bawang and Kelabit. Due to the industry, there is also a large foreign worker population. Miri Division consists of two districts, Miri and Marudi, the economy is largely based on petroleum and natural gas extraction from both onshore and offshore wells, and related petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas and chemical production. Another major industry is timber processing from Miris huge tropical rainforest, processed wood products, rather than log export has been given priority by the government. Agriculture is includes oil palm, rubber, and pepper as the main products, Tourism, particularly ecotourism, is a growing component of the economy. - Web page about Miri City Miri TourismMiri Division – Miri
16. Marudi, Sarawak – Marudi is a town on the Baram River in Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysia. Marudi is a town situated inland from Miri, similar in size to Kapit though nowhere near as busy. Its main attraction is another of the Brooke outposts, the beige wooden Fort House and it is the cultural heart of Sarawaks highland tribesfolk, collectively called Orang Ulu. Before Miri was founded, Marudi was the centre of the northern region of Sarawak. Marudi, a town about 100 km upriver from Kuala Baram, is the largest town in the sparsely populated Baram district. It is the district headquarters and has been since the days of the White Rajahs. Marudi used to be a stone to the well-known tourist destination. Pioneer tourists would travel from Miri to Marudi first, and then from the river, with the completion of a small airport at Mulu, most tourists prefer to take Twin Otters operated by MASwings of Malaysia Airlines direct from Miri Airport. Charles Brooke succeeded James Brooke as the new Rajah of Sarawak in 1868, by 1883, Sultan of Brunei ceded the Baram region to Charles Brooke. The fourth division of Sarawak was immediately created with the installation of Mamerto George Gueritz as the first Resident of the Division, the administration was helped by two junior officers,30 rangers, and a few native police. Charles Hose became Resident of Baram District in 1891 and the fort in Marudi was renamed as Fort Hose and this peace conference also led to the birth of first Baram Regatta, a long boat race competition among the natives which continued to be held until today. The Resident Office moved from Marudi to Miri in 1912 after rapid oil discovery activity development in Miri, Marudi is served by Marudi Airport which is in the town. Twin Otters fly to Miri up to nine times daily and serve Bario, Long Banga, Long Lellang, Long Akah, the airport is a 10-minute walk east of the centre. It contains Runway 10/28 that is 1 km long and its parking bay can handles 3 to 4 de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter at the same time. Express boats between Marudi and Kuala Baram used to operate regularly in the morning and early afternoon until the road connecting Miri to Marudi was paved, since then there is only one boat operating and it leaves Miri early in the morning. Taxis go from Kuala Baram to Miri, express boats service stop business since 1 Jun 2015. Marudi is now has a road to Miri which only need about 1.5 hours to reach Miri City. But theres still a ferry need to passby at Sungai Baram, the ferry fee just reduced from RM15.00 to RM1.00 per one way after the Chief Minister of Sarawak announced at Dewan Undangan Negeri Sarawak in April 2015Marudi, Sarawak – Charles Hose
17. Royal Dutch Shell – Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo-Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas supermajors and the fifth-largest company in the world measured by 2015/16 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies and it also has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide, as of 31 December 2014 Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues, Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom. Shell first entered the industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it sold in 1994. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shells business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the worlds largest producer of liquefied natural gas, Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange, as of January 2013, Shells largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9. 85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6. 89%. Shells logo, known as the pecten, is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world and it was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Shell Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned a company in Houndsditch, London. For various reasons, the new firm operated as a company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British, national patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production, the British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary ForceRoyal Dutch Shell – Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
18. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of JapanWorld War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
19. Petronas – PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on 17 August 1974. Petronas is ranked among Fortune Global 500s largest corporations in the world, Fortune ranks Petronas as the 75th largest company in the world in 2013. Fortune also ranks Petronas as the 12th most profitable company in the world, since its incorporation, Petronas has grown to be an integrated international oil and gas company with business interests in 35 countries. As of the end of March 2005, the Petronas Group comprised 103 wholly owned subsidiaries,19 partly owned outfits and 57 associated companies, together, these companies make the Petronas Group, which is involved in various oil and gas based activities. The Financial Times has identified PETRONAS as one of the new seven sisters, the company is headquartered at the Petronas Towers which was officially opened on Malaysias 42nd National Day,31 August 1998 – in the corporations 24th Anniversary year. PETRONAS was not the first company to extract oil or gas in Malaysia and it was Royal Dutch Shell that began the oil exploration in Sarawak, then under the White Rajahs, at the end of the 19th century. In 1910, the first oil well was drilled in Miri and this became the first oil producing well known as the Grand Old Lady. The authorities in the two new states retained their links with Royal Dutch Shell, which brought Malaysias first offshore oil field onstream in 1968, by 1974, however, only Esso was still in the area. It made its first discoveries of gas in that year. By 1974, Malaysias output of crude oil stood at about 81,000 barrels per day, several factors converged in the early 1970s to prompt the Malaysian government into setting up a state oil and gas company, as first proposed in its Five Year Plan published in 1971. Former Chief Minister of Sarawak, Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub was one of the people who proposed the idea of Malaysia setting up their own oil company, by 1985, the majors, reduced in number from seven to five, were producing less than 20% of the world total. The oil crisis of 1973–74 made the government even more aware of Malaysias dependence on foreign oil, another factor in the decision was that the technology had recently been developed for extensive exploration and drilling offshore. Malaysian crude turned out to be high quality with low sulphur content. A final and crucial factor in the creation of PETRONAS, the difficulties this policy has caused for foreign companies and investors are outweighed by the benefits they believe they gain from Malaysias political stability. The Malaysian government chose to create a company, rather than using taxes, production limits, leasing. The government wanted, and needed, the co-operation of the majors, PETRONAS was established in August 1974 and operates under the terms of the Petroleum Development Act passed in October 1974. It was modelled on Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas company founded in 1971 in succession to Permina, on 6 September 1974, Malaysias then prime minister, Tun Abdul Razak, announced the appointment of Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah as chairman and chief executive of PETRONAS. Tun Razak said, From among the new blood, I intended to bring Tengku Razaleigh into the Cabinet, however, I have an important job for him, a job as important as that of a Cabinet MinisterPetronas – The PETRONAS Twin Towers.
20. Kuah – Pekan Kuah is a town, mukim and district capital of Langkawi, Kedah, Malaysia. It is the point for those coming by ferry from either the mainland or Penang Island. The town is centered on its jetty, which brings in flocks of tourists each year who come to enjoy the shopping and other attractions of Langkawi. Over the years, Pekan Kuah has developed into a modern and vibrant town with shopping and dining opportunities. Pekan Kuah has a range of hotels but no resorts. Also, the nightlife in Kuah consists mostly of eating out in restaurants, though there are a few bars. Still, Pekan Kuah boasts many facilities and attractions, making it a convenient and attractive place to stay despite the lack of beach, today, Pekan Kuah is booming as a commercial center with shopping complexes, restaurants, fast food outlets, hotels and handicraft shops. While Pekan Kuah is more of a center and shopping zone. Most of these are recreational parks where you can come to some rest. Dataran Lang or ‘Eagle Square’, is the location of a sculpture in the shape of a sea-eagle perched on rocks in pre-flight pose. This 12-meter high statue greets visitors who come to Pekan Kuah by ferry as they ride to the jetty, the eagle is the emblem of Langkawi Island as its name is thought by some to have been derived from the Malay word for eagle. The square is an area with ponds, terraces and bridges. Langkawi Legend Park is a recreational area opened on 27 April 1996 dedicated to Langkawi’s heritage of myths, in addition, there are 4 artificial lakes and a man-made beach to complement the picturesque scenery. The park is open from morning till late at night and is walking distance from the jetty. Adjoining Taman Lagenda is another park, the CHOGM Park, built to commemorate the 1989 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malaysia, Langkawi was the retreat destination for the Government heads that attended the function. Until recently the Park carried the flags of all the Commonwealth Nations that participated, the park has a man-made beach next to it and a children play area. The Al-Hana Mosque is one of Langkawi’s largest and most popular mosques and it is located in Pekan Kuah to accommodate Muslim patrons and allows visitors who come to view the architecture. The mosque incorporates motifs and carvings from Uzbekistan along with traditional Malay elements, the mosque was opened by the first Prime Minister of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman in 1959Kuah – Kuah Pekan Kuah
21. Andaman Sea – The sea has been traditionally used for fishery and transportation of goods between the coastal countries and its coral reefs and islands are popular tourist destinations. The fishery and tourist infrastructure was damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. At its southeastern reaches, the Andaman Sea narrows to form the Straits of Malacca, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Andaman or Burma Sea as follows, On the Southwest. The Eastern limit of the Bay of Bengal, a line joining Lem Voalan in Siam, and Pedropunt in Sumatra. The average depth of the sea is about 1,000 meters, the northern and eastern parts are shallower than 180 meters due to the silt deposited by the Irrawaddy River. This major river flows into the sea from the north through Myanmar, the western and central areas are 900–3,000 meters deep. Less than 5% of the sea is deeper than 3,000 meters, and in a system of submarine valleys east of the Andaman-Nicobar Ridge, the sea floor is covered with pebbles, gravel and sand. Running in a rough north–south line on the seabed of the Andaman Sea is the boundary between two plates, the Burma Plate and the Sunda Plate. As a result, a basin center was created, which began to form the marginal basin which would become the Andaman Sea. The boundary between two tectonic plates results in high seismic activity in the region. Numerous earthquakes have been recorded, and at least six, in 1797,1833,1861,2004,2005 and 2007, had the magnitude of 8.4 or higher. On December 26,2004, a portion of the boundary between the Burma Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate slipped, causing the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. This megathrust earthquake had a magnitude of 9.3, between 1300 and 1600 kilometers of the boundary underwent thrust faulting and shifted by about 20 meters, with the sea floor being uplifted several meters. This rise in the sea floor generated a tsunami with an estimated height of 28 meters that killed approximately 280,000 people along the coast of the Indian Ocean. The initial quake was followed by a series of aftershocks along the arc of the Andaman, the entire event severely damaged the fishing infrastructure. Within the sea, to the east of the main Great Andaman island group, lies Barren Island and this island-volcano is 3 km in diameter and rises 354 meters above the sea level. Its recent activity resumed in 1991 after a period of almost 200 years. It is caused by the subduction of the India Plate beneath the Andaman island arcAndaman Sea – Satellite image of the Andaman Sea showing the green algae and silt deposits due to the Irrawaddy River in its northern part
22. Kedah – Kedah also known by its honorific, Darul Aman, or Abode of Peace is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a area of over 9,000 km². The mainland has a flat terrain, which is used to grow rice. Langkawi is an archipelago of islands, most of which are uninhabited, Kedah was called Kadaram by ancient and medieval Tamil people and Syburi by the Siamese when it was under their influence. To the north, Kedah borders the state of Perlis and shares a boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand. It borders the states of Perak to the south and Penang to the southwest, the states capital is Alor Setar and the royal seat is in Anak Bukit. Other major towns include Sungai Petani, and Kulim on the mainland, archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley reveals that a Hindu–Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient Kedah possibly as early as 110 A. D. The discoveries in Bujang Valley also made the ancient Kedah as the oldest civilisation of Southeast Asia, reference to ancient Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A. D. It described goods from Kadaram heaped together in the streets of Chola capital. Other than Kadaram, Kedah was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature, Kataha-Nagara, Anda-Kataha, Kataha-Dvipa, according to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the Kedah Annals, Kedah was founded by a Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the further, the Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam. In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the control of Srivijaya. In 1025, the city was conquered by Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, a second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty who conquered Kedah in the late 11th century. During the reign of Kulothunga Chola I Chola overlordship was established over the Sri Vijaya province Kedah in the late 11th century and it was later under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, in the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and then Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The Siamese nevertheless invaded Kedah in 1821, and it remained under Siamese control under the name of Syburi, in 1896, Kedah along with Perlis and Satun was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon Syburi which lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. In World War II, Kedah was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan, the Japanese returned Kedah to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah was a reluctant addition to the Federation of Malaya in 1948, since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam ShahKedah – Candi Bukit Batu Pahat of Bujang Valley.
23. Thailand – Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the worlds 51st-largest country and it is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok and its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the worlds 20th largest by GDP at PPP and it became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy and it is considered a middle power in the region and around the world. The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens, by outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The word Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma, the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned, another theory is the name derives from Chinese, Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam, the signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it reverted to Thailand. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means free man in the Thai language, ratcha Anachak Thai means kingdom of Thailand or kingdom of Thai. Etymologically, its components are, ratcha, -ana- -chak, the Thai National Anthem, written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as, prathet Thai. The first line of the anthem is, prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai, Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh. There is evidence of habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire, later Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Menam Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati in the 7th century, the History of the Yuan mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282Thailand – The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya.
24. Sultan Abdul Halim – Tuanku Abdul Halim ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, DMN GCB KStJ is the current Sultan of Kedah, reigning since 1958. He served as the fifth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 1970 to 1975, and he is the first person to hold the position of Yang di-Pertuan Agong twice, as well as the oldest elected to the office. He is the second longest-reigning living monarch in the world and the second oldest currently reigning monarch after Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. Born at Istana Anak Bukit near Alor Star as Tunku Abdul Halim, he was the second, but eldest surviving son, of Sultan Badlishah and he is of Malay and Siamese descent. His mother was a Kedah-born Princess named Tunku Sofiah binti Tunku Mahmud, Abdul Halims maternal grandfather, Tunku Mahmud, was once Raja Muda or heir presumptive to the throne of Kedah. He was educated at Alor Merah and Titi Gajah Malay schools and he went on to Wadham College, Oxford and obtained a Diploma in Social Science and Public Administration. He subsequently joined the Kedah Administrative Service, serving in the Alor Star district office and later, on 6 August 1949 Abdul Halim was appointed Raja Muda or heir apparent and succeeded as twenty-seventh Sultan of Kedah on his fathers death on 15 July 1958. He was installed at the Balai Besar, Kota Star Palace in Alor Star on 20 February 1959, Tuanku Abdul Halim served as Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 21 September 1965 to 20 September 1970. Tuanku Abdul Halim was elected as the fifth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and he was the third youngest monarch to ascend the throne of Yang di-Pertuan Agong after Tuanku Syed Putra of Perlis and Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu. Tunku Abdul Rahman had felt that he should not serve under a nephew, given strict Malay royal protocol, on 2 November 2006, Tuanku Abdul Halim was for the second time elected Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong to serve a five-year term. He is the first person to have been elected twice to this office, in October 2011, Abdul Halim was elected to serve a second term as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which commenced on 13 December 2011. He is the first person to hold the position twice and he was officially installed on April 11,2012 at Istana Negara. Sultan Abdul Halims tenure as Yang Di Pertuan Agong ended on 12 December 2016, Tuanku Abdul Halim had two wives,1. Tuanku Bahiyah, daughter of Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan and she served as Sultanah of Kedah and Raja Permaisuri Agong. She died on 26 August 2003 at Istana Kuala Cegar in Alor Star and they had three daughters, Yang Teramat Mulia Tunku Soraya, now known as Duli Yang Amat Mulia, Raja Puan Muda Perak. She is the Tunku Temenggong of Kedah, Tuanku Haminah binti Hamidun, married 1975. A commoner from Perak, she was titled Che Puan Kedah until 9 January 2004 when she was crowned as Sultanah and she is serving as Raja Permaisuri Agong during his second term as Yang di-Pertuan Agong. On 15 July 2008, Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah celebrated his Golden Jubilee as the Sultan of Kedah and he is only the fourth Sultan in a line of 28 Sultans who have celebrated 50 years of reign in KedahSultan Abdul Halim – Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah
25. Golden Jubilee – A golden jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. The golden jubilee is a ceremony to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the accession of the king. The first Golden Jubilee of Thailand was the celebration of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, King Rama IX celebrated his golden jubilee on 9 June 1996, having acceded to the throne in 1946 which makes him Thailands longest-reigning monarch and the longest-living monarch today. The largest faceted diamond in the world, known as the Golden Jubilee Diamond, was purchased as a gift for the King on the 50th anniversary of his coronation by Thai businessmen, currently, the diamond is located in the Royal Thai Palace as part of the crown jewels. In 1996, Banharn Silpa-archa, the Prime Minister, and the Thai people celebrated the King with a large celebration, the symbol of the golden jubilee of King Bhumibol Adulyadej was designed by Wiyada Charoensuk, who won the contest for the design. The golden jubilee of George III of the United Kingdom was celebrated on 25th October 1809, Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her golden jubilee in 2002, having ascended the throne in 1952. In 1887 the United Kingdom and the British Empire celebrated Queen Victorias golden jubilee, Victoria marked 20 June 1887—the fiftieth anniversary of her accession—with a banquet, to which fifty European kings and princes were invited. Although she could not have been aware of it, there was a plan by Irish Republicans to blow up Westminster Abbey while the Queen attended a service of thanksgiving and this assassination attempt, when it was discovered, became known as the Jubilee Plot. At the time, Victoria was a popular monarch. Emperor Wu of Han dynasty Kangxi Emperor of Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor of Qing dynasty Yeongjo of Joseon In Japan, Emperor Hirohito, celebrated his golden jubilee on 10 November 1976. Showa Memorial Park was established as part of a project to commemorate his golden jubilee, for the year 2015, the Singapore50 initiative is launched in Singapore to celebrate 50 years of independence from Malaysia. The logo is meant to identify with the SG50 celebrations, national Day Parade ceremonies for that year are themed Majulah Singapura - Our Golden Jubilee. In Bavaria, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria celebrated his jubilee as Elector Palatine in 1792. In Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Karl August celebrated his golden jubilee in 1826, in Austria-Hungary, Emperor Franz Josef celebrated his golden jubilee in 1898. In Baden, Grand Duke Frederick I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1906, in Liechtenstein, Prince Johann II celebrated his golden jubilee in 1908. In Greece, King George I was assassinated mere weeks before his golden jubilee was due to be celebrated in 1913, in Montenegro, Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš celebrated his golden jubilee in 1914. In Norway, King Haakon VII celebrated his golden jubilee in 1955, in Burundi, King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng celebrated his golden jubilee in 1965. In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie celebrated his jubilee, dating from when he became regentGolden Jubilee – The Singapore50 logo representing the golden jubilee celebrations.
26. Sumatran rhinoceros – The Sumatran rhinoceros, also known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros, is a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the extant species of the genus Dicerorhinus. It is the smallest rhinoceros, although it is still a large mammal, it stands 112–145 cm high at the shoulder, with a length of 2. 36–3.18 m. The weight is reported to range from 500 to 1,000 kg, averaging 700–800 kg, like both African species, it has two horns, the larger is the nasal horn, typically 15–25 cm, while the other horn is typically a stub. A coat of hair covers most of the Sumatran rhinos body. Members of the species once inhabited rainforests, swamps, and cloud forests in India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, in historical times, they lived in southwest China, particularly in Sichuan. They are now endangered, with only five substantial populations in the wild, four on Sumatra. Their numbers are difficult to determine because they are animals that are widely scattered across their range. Survival of the Peninsular Malaysia population is in doubt, and one of the Sumatran populations may already be extinct. In 2015, researchers announced that the Bornean rhinoceros had become extinct from the part of Borneo, however. The Sumatran rhino is a solitary animal except for courtship. It is the most vocal rhino species and also communicates through marking soil with its feet, twisting saplings into patterns, and leaving excrement. The species is much better studied than the similarly reclusive Javan rhinoceros, there was little or no information about procedures that would assist in ex situ breeding. Though a number of rhinos died once at the destinations and no offspring were produced for nearly 20 years. In March 2016, a Sumatran rhinoceros was spotted in Indonesian Borneo, the first documented Sumatran rhinoceros was shot 16 km outside Fort Marlborough, near the west coast of Sumatra, in 1793. Drawings of the animal, and a description, were sent to the naturalist Joseph Banks, then president of the Royal Society of London. In 1814, the species was given a name by Johann Fischer von Waldheim. The scientific name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis comes from the Greek terms di, cero, sumatrensis signifies of Sumatra, the Indonesian island where the rhinos were first discoveredSumatran rhinoceros – Sumatran rhinoceros
27. Azizulhasni Awang – Mohd Azizulhasni bin Awang is a Malaysian professional track cyclist. Nicknamed The Pocket Rocketman due to his stature, he is the first Malaysian cyclist to win a medal at the UCI Track Cycling World Championships. Azizulhasni was chosen as the flag bearer for Malaysia at the 2008 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations and he won his first World Championship medal in 2009, a silver in individual sprint. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, he won a medal in the individual keirin. Azizulhasni was born in Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia and he is the seventh of eighth children in his family. Azizul took up cycling aged 10 after watching his brother racing and he was coached by the Dungun Cycling Team before entering the Sport School. He was thankful to his father for giving him a second hand bicycle as a reward after he obtained 7A 1B in his Penilaian Menengah Rendah. Azizul received three offers from MRSM, Science School, and the Bukit Jalil Sports School after his PMR, at that time he had an ambition to be either a physician or an athlete and ultimately chose the Sports School due to his interest in cycling. Azizulhasnis greatest achievement is winning the medal in the 2016 Olympics in Brazil in keirin. Among his other achievements is winning the medal at the 2009 World Championships in the sprint category. He was named Malaysian Sportsman of the Year in 2009 and 2010 and he was ruled out of the World Championships that year. Azizul is studying sports science at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015, he became the first non-Australian athlete to receive a Blue Award from Victoria University. Azizul married Athiah Ilyana bt Abd Samat on 30 January 2010, the couple live in Melbourne with their two daughters. World Championships 2009 – Sprint 2010 – Keirin 2015 – Keirin 2016 – Keirin Commonwealth Games 2010 – Team sprint 2014 – Keirin Olympic Games 2016 – Keirin Official websiteAzizulhasni Awang – Azizul Hasni Awang
28. Hong Kong – Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the Pearl River Delta of East Asia. Macau lies across the delta to the west, and the Chinese province of Guangdong borders the territory to the north. With a total area of 1,106 square kilometres. Hong Kong was later occupied by Japan during World War II until British control resumed in 1945, under the principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China. Except in military defence and foreign affairs, Hong Kong maintains its independent executive, legislative, in addition, Hong Kong develops relations directly with foreign states and international organisations in a broad range of appropriate fields. Hong Kong is one of the worlds most significant financial centres, with the highest Financial Development Index score and consistently ranks as the worlds most competitive and freest economic entity. As the worlds 8th largest trading entity, its legal tender, Hong Kongs tertiary sector dominated economy is characterised by simple taxation with a competitive level of corporate tax and supported by its independent judiciary system. However, while Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world and it has a very high Human Development Index ranking and the worlds longest life expectancy. Over 90% of the population use of well-developed public transportation. Seasonal air pollution with origins from neighbouring areas of Mainland China. Hong Kong was officially recorded in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking to encompass the entirety of the island, before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour —between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was a point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. Detailed and accurate romanisation systems for Cantonese were available and in use at the time, fragrance may refer to the sweet taste of the harbours fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River or to the incense from factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Hong Kong developed Victoria Harbour, the name had often been written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926. Nevertheless, a number of century-old institutions still retain the form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric. As of 1997, its name is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. This is the title as mentioned in the Hong Kong Basic Law. Hong Kong has carried many nicknames, the most famous among those is the Pearl of the Orient, which reflected the impressive nightscape of the citys light decorations on the skyscrapers along both sides of the Victoria HarbourHong Kong – The Cenotaph in Hong Kong commemorates those who died in service in WWI and WWII.
29. History of Malaysia – Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country located on strategic sea-lane that exposes it to global trade and foreign culture. Although Muslims had passed through the Malay Peninsula as early as the 10th century, the adoption of Islam in the 14th century saw the rise of a number of sultanates, the most prominent of which was the Sultanate of Malacca. Islam had a influence on the Malay people, but has also been influenced by them. The Portuguese were the first European colonial powers to themselves on the Malay Peninsula and Southeast Asia, capturing Malacca in 1511. However, it was the British who, after initially establishing bases at Jesselton, Kuching, Penang and Singapore, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies. A fourth phase of influence was immigration of Chinese and Indian workers to meet the needs of the colonial economy created by the British in the Malay Peninsula. Japanese invasion during World War II ended British domination in Malaysia, the subsequent occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak from 1942 to 1945 unleashed nationalism. In the Peninsula, the Malayan Communist Party took up arms against the British, a tough military response was needed to end the insurgency and bring about the establishment of an independent, multi-racial Federation of Malaya on 31 August 1957. On 31 August 1963, the British territories in North Borneo and Singapore were granted independence, approximately two years later, the Malaysian parliament passed a bill without the consent of signatory of Malaysia Agreement 1963 to separate Singapore from the Federation. A confrontation with Indonesia occurred in the early-1960s, race riots in 1969 led to the imposition of emergency rule, and a curtailment of political life and civil liberties which has never been fully reversed. Since 1970 the National Front coalition headed by United Malays National Organisation has governed Malaysia, Economic growth dramatically increased living standards by the 1990s. This growing prosperity helped minimise political discontent, stone hand-axes from early hominoids, probably Homo erectus, have been unearthed in Lenggong. They date back 1.83 million years, the oldest evidence of habitation in Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of human habitation in Malaysia is the 40, 000-year-old skull excavated from the Niah Caves in todays Sarawak. It was excavated from a trench uncovered by Barbara and Tom Harrisson in 1958. This is also the oldest modern human skull in Southeast Asia, the skull probably belongs to a 16-to 17-year-old adolescent girl. The first foragers visited the West Mouth of Niah Caves 40,000 years ago when Borneo was connected to the mainland of Southeast Asia, the landscape around the Niah Caves was drier and more exposed than it is now. Prehistorically, the Niah Caves were surrounded by a combination of closed forests with bush, parkland, swamps, the foragers were able to survive in the rainforest through hunting, fishing, and gathering molluscs and edible plantsHistory of Malaysia – The proclamation on the forming of the independent Federation of Malaysia by Lee Kuan Yew (top) for Singapore, Tun Fuad Stephens (centre) for North Borneo and Stephen Kalong Ningkan (bottom) for Sarawak. However, Singapore was pulled out less than two years after the merger due to racial issues.
30. Prehistoric Malaysia – The earliest anatomically modern humans skeleton in Peninsular Malaysia, Perak Man, dates back 11,000 years and Perak Woman dating back 8,000 years, were both discovered in Lenggong. The site has a stone tool production area, created using equipment such as anvils. The Tambun Cave paintings are situated in Perak. From East Malaysia, Sarawaks Niah Caves, there is evidence of the oldest human remains in Malaysia, Niah Caves in Sarawak is an important prehistoric site where human remains dating to ca.40,000 years ago have been found. Archeologists have claimed a much earlier date for stone tools found in the Mansuli valley, near Lahad Datu in Sabah, archaeological finds from the Lenggong valley in Perak show that people were making stone tools and using jewellery. The archaeological data from this come from cave and rock shelter sites. It is believed that Neolithic farmers made their entrance in this region between 3–4000 years ago, more people arrived, including new tribes and seafarers. The Malay Peninsula became the crossroads in maritime trades of the ancient age, seafarers who came to Malaysias shores included Indians, Egyptians, peoples of the Middle East, Javanese and Chinese. Ptolemy named the Malay Peninsula the Golden Chersonese, the population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change – the effects of the drowning of an ancient continent. A2009 genetic study published by the 2009 Human Genome Organization Pan-Asian SNP Consortium found that Asia was originally settled by humans via a southern route. The migration came from Africa via India, into Southeast Asia and what are now islands in the Pacific, genetic similarities were found between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Oppenheimer locates the origin of the Austronesians in Sundaland and its upper regions. The theory of the Proto Malay people originating from Yunnan is supported by R. H Geldern, J. H. C Kern, J. R Foster, J. R Logen, Slametmuljana and Asmah Haji Omar. The Proto Malay who first arrived had agricultural skills while the second wave Deutero Malay who arrived around 1500 BC to dwell along the coastlines had advanced fishery skills. During the migration, both groups intermarried with peoples of the islands, such as those from Java, and also with aboriginal peoples of Australoid, Negrito. Other evidences that support this include, Stone tools found in the Malay archipelago are analogous to Central Asian tools. Similarities between Malay customs and Assamese customs, the Malay language and the Cambodian language are kindred languages because the ancestral home of Cambodians was near the source of the Mekong River. According to Kedah Annals, Kadaram was founded by Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron, Persia around 630 CE, the other Malay literature, Sejarah Melayu too alleged that they were the descendants of Alexander The GreatPrehistoric Malaysia – Cave paintings of Tambun, 2000 years old, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
31. Dutch Malacca – Dutch Malacca was the longest period that Malacca was under foreign control. The Dutch ruled for almost 183 years with intermittent British occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and this era saw relative peace with little serious interruption from the Malay kingdoms due to the understanding earlier on forged between the Dutch and the Sultanate of Johor in 1606. This time also marked the decline of the importance of Malacca, in the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company began the campaign to destroy Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca into a fortress, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese, the Dutch with their local allies assaulted and wrested Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor effort effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, as per the agreement with Johor in 1606, the Dutch took control of Malacca and agreed not to seek territories or wage war with the Malay kingdoms. Malacca was controlled as a colony of the VOC, all the chief administrators of Malacca were Dutch governors except for the brief period that the city was under British Residents during the Wars of Napoleon. The governors and residents list is as follows, The Dutch improved and expanded the Portuguese fortress and built walls to protect the harbour, during their rule the famous city hall or Stadthuys was also constructed, which still stands today. History of the Dutch in MalaysiaDutch Malacca – Dutch Malacca, ca. 1724–26
32. British Malaya – The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States, under British rule, Malaya was one of the most profitable territories of the Empire, being the worlds largest producer of tin and later rubber. The Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya in 1948, on 16 September 1963, the federation, along with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore, formed into a larger federation of Malaysia. The British first became involved with Malay politics formally in 1771, the British colonised Singapore in 1819 and were in complete control of the state at that time. In the mid-18th century, British firms could be found trading in the Malay Peninsula, Light was also a captain in the service of the East India Company. The Sultan faced multiple external threats during this period, Siam, which was at war with Burma and which saw Kedah as its vassal state, frequently demanded that Kedah send reinforcements. Kedah, in cases, was a reluctant ally to Siam. Through negotiation between the Sultan and Light, the Sultan agreed to allow the firm to build a trading post and to operate in Kedah, Light conveyed this message to his superiors in India. The British, however, decided against the proposal, two years later, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa died and was succeeded by Sultan Abdullah Mahrum Shah. The new Sultan offered Light the island of Penang in return for assistance for Kedah. Light informed the East India Company of the Sultans offer, the Company, however, ordered Light to take over Penang and gave him no guarantee of the military aid that the Sultan had asked for earlier. Light later took over Penang and assured the Sultan of military assistance, soon the Company made up its mind and told Light that they would not give any military aid to Kedah. In June 1788, Light informed the Sultan of the Companys decision, feeling cheated, the Sultan ordered Light to leave Penang, but Light refused. Lights refusal caused the Sultan to strengthen Kedahs military forces and to fortify Prai, recognising this threat, the British moved in and razed the fort in Prai. The British thereby forced the Sultan to sign an agreement that gave the British the right to occupy Penang, in return, on 1 May 1791 the Union Flag was officially raised in Penang for the first time. In 1800, Kedah ceded Prai to the British and the Sultan received an increase of 4,000 pesos in his annual rent, Penang was later named Prince of Wales Island, while Perai was renamed Province Wellesley. In 1821, Siam invaded Kedah, sacked the capital of Alor Star, before the late 19th century, the British largely practised a non-interventionist policyBritish Malaya – George Town, capital of Penang. Across the North Channel seen is Butterworth, on the mainland known as Seberang Perai, formerly Province Wellesley.
33. Straits Settlements – The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia. Originally established in 1826 as part of the controlled by the British East India Company. The colony was dissolved in 1946 as part of the British reorganisation of its Southeast Asian dependencies following the end of the Second World War, the Straits Settlements originally consisted of the four individual settlements of Malacca, Dinding, Penang and Singapore. The Penang territory included Penang Island, formerly known as Prince of Wales Island, christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were also included. The island of Labuan, off the coast of Borneo, was incorporated into the colony with effect from 1 January 1907. Most of the territories now form part of Malaysia, from which Singapore separated in 1965, the Cocos Islands were transferred to Australian control in 1955. Christmas Island was transferred in 1958 and their administration was combined in 1996 to form the Australian Indian Ocean Territories. This resulted in the exchange of the British settlement of Bencoolen for the Dutch colony of Malacca, the Settlements were largely Chinese in population, with a tiny but important European minority. Their capital was moved from Penang to Singapore in 1832 and their scattered nature proved to be difficult and, after the company lost its monopoly in the china trade in 1833, expensive to administer. During their control by the East India Company, the Settlements were used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners, the years 1852 and 1853 saw minor uprisings by convicts in Singapore and Penang. As there was little or no vernacular press in the Settlements, such an act seemed irrelevant, earlier, on 4 February 1867, Letters Patent had granted the Settlements a colonial constitution. Penang and Malacca were administered, directly under the governor, by resident councillors, the Dindings, which included Pangkor Island as well as the towns of Lumut, and Sitiawan, were ceded by Perak to the British government under the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite the island of Penang, was ceded to Great Britain in 1800 by the Sultan of Kedah, on its northern and eastern border, the boundary with Kedah was rectified by treaty with Siam in 1867. It was administered by an officer, with some assistants. About a tenth of the area was covered by low hills with thick jungle. Large quantities of rice were grown by the Malay inhabitants, the governor of the Straits Settlements was also High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States on the peninsula, for British North Borneo, the sultanate of Brunei and Sarawak in Borneo. Since the administration of the colony of Labuan, which for a period was vested in the British North Borneo Company, was resumed by the British government he was governor of Labuan. During World War II, the Japanese invaded Malaya and the Straits Settlements by landing on Kelantan on 8 December 1941, on 16 December Penang became the first Straits Settlement to fall into Japanese handsStraits Settlements – Panoramic view of Singapore from St Andrew's Church Spire, 1863.
34. Federated Malay States – Two years later, the Union became the Federation of Malaya and finally Malaysia in 1963 with the inclusion of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. The United Kingdom was responsible for foreign affairs and defence of the federation, even so, the British Resident General would give advice on domestic issues, and the states were bound by treaty to follow that advice. The federation had Kuala Lumpur, which was part of Selangor. The first FMS Resident General was Sir Frank Swettenham, the federation, along with the other Malay states and British possessions of the peninsula, was overrun and occupied by the Japanese during World War II. Although the Resident General was the administrator of the federation. This formed the basis for the Conference of Rulers that was created later on under Article 38 of the Malaysian Constitution on 27 August 1957, the Federated Malay States had a flag of its own until its dissolution in 1946. The flag consisted of four different-coloured stripes, from top to bottom, white, red, yellow, the same design concept is used in Malaysian national emblem. In the middle is a circle with a Malayan tiger in it. The National History Museum located near the Dataran Merdeka in Kuala Lumpur, the coat of arms of the Federated Malay States featured a shield guarded by two tigers. On the top of the shield is the crown, symbolising the federation of monarchies under the protection of the United Kingdom, a banner with the phrase Dipelihara Allah written in Jawi is located underneath the shield. The combinations of the four colours of the shield represents the colours of the flags of the states of the FMS in the way the stripes of the FMS flag do. The phrase Dipelihara Allah was also adopted as the current state motto for the state of Selangor, in addition to a state flag, the Federated Malay States also had a naval jack or ensign for use on government ships. This was the largest and the only full-scale clash of battleships during World War I, with the Treaty of Federation the Malay Rulers effectively gave up their political power in their states, having to act after consulting and only with the due consent of their respective Residents. However, the United Kingdom pledged not to interfere in matters relating to native Malay traditions, a well-ordered system of public administration was established, public services were extended, and large-scale rubber and tin production was developed. This control was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1941 to 1945 during World War II, the British established the Federal Council in 1898 to administer the FMS. It was headed by the High Commissioner, assisted by the Resident-General, the Sultans and this structure remained until the Japanese invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941. From 1896 to 1936, real power lay in the hands of the Resident-General, the State Council was made up of the Resident, native chiefs, and representative of the Chinese community nominated by the Sultan. The council discussed matters of interest for each state such as legislative and administrative issues as well as revision of all sentence of capital punishmentFederated Malay States – Malay Rulers at the first Durbar, Kuala Kangsar, Perak
35. British Borneo – British Borneo comprised the four northern parts of the island of Borneo, which are now Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and Sarawak. During the British colonial rule until 1963, Sarawak, Labuan and Sabah known as, Kingdom of Sarawak – Crown Colony of Sarawak, Crown Colony of Labuan, in 1687 Father Ventimiglia, a Theatine, was commissioned by Pope Innocent XI to preach Christianity in Borneo. There are no memorials of this mission, which has left no traces in the island although the missionary declared that God had blessed his labours, Father Cuarteron was originally a sea-captain and had vowed, after escaping great peril, to devote himself to the evangelisation of Borneo. He landed at Labuan in 1857, in company with several missionaries who deserted him in 1860, although alone in the island of Labuan, Father Cuarteron courageously continued his labours. At length, seeing that isolation made him powerless, he went to Rome in 1879 to request that the Propaganda place the mission in charge of an institute, from Rome Father Cuarteron went to Spain, where he soon died. The island of Labuan has an area of 30 square miles and contains 6,800 inhabitants, the prefect Apostolic lives at Labuan. The stations served are Labuan and Kuching, the two most important towns, outside of these two places where the missionaries live ten stations are visited, Sibu, Kanowit, Igan, Oya, Mukah, Baram, Papar, Jesselton, Putatan, and Sandakan. According to the Missions-Atlas of P, the first prefect Apostolic appointed under the new administration was the Rev. Thomas Jackson. The society continued in charge of the mission, during the Second World War, the British realised they were unable to defend the colony from the powerful Imperial Japanese Navy. They destroyed the airfields, and especially the oil fields there, in 1943, the Chinese population of about 50,000 rebelled against Japan and seized some towns. They were overwhelmed with many executed, australia sent special operation forces, which trained and armed local militia units and aided the landing of an Australian division in June 1945. Japanese forces numbered about 31,000, and held out until October 1945 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles, ed. article name needed. WorldStatesmen- Malaysia historical context, not worked in hereBritish Borneo – British Borneo.
36. Kingdom of Sarawak – The Kingdom of Sarawak was a state in Borneo established in 1841 by James Brooke receiving independent kingdom status from the Sultanate of Brunei as a reward for helping fight piracy and insurgency. Its statehood and identity as a country was first recognised by the United States in 1850. Sarawak gained self-government from the British on 22 July 1963 and formed the Federation of Malaysia together with Singapore, North Borneo, however, it never restore its full independence and sovereignty as enjoyed during the rule of the White Rajahs. Sarawak was part of the Sultanate of Brunei in Borneo, during the reign of Pangeran Indera Mahkota, Sarawak was in chaos from piracy and insurgency. Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II the Sultan of Brunei, ordered Pengiran Muda Hashim in 1839 to restore order, Pangeran Muda Hashim initially requested assistance but James Brooke refused. Brooke was by then an independent adventurer with his own ship having left military employment in India after recovering from battle injuries. In 1841, James Brooke paid another visit to Sarawak and this time he agreed to assist Pangeran Muda Hashim, the success in defeating the pirates and insurgents led to the signing of a treaty in 1841 ceding as a reward Sarawak and Serian to James Brooke. Thereafter, on 24 September 1841, Pangeran Muda Hashim bestowed the title Rajah on James Brooke and he effectively became the Rajah of Sarawak and founded the White Rajah Dynasty of Sarawak, later extending his administration through an agreement with the Sultan of Brunei. James Brooke, who was to become the first White Rajah, as time went on Sarawaks size would increase tremendously as more territory was leased or annexed from the Sultanate of Brunei. When the Pacific War began in December 1941, Sarawak was brought into the war against Japan on the side of the Allies as part of the British Empire, Sarawak depended upon British protection as she had very limited armed forces, although the Sarawak Rangers were mobilised. Sarawaks small merchant marine was used by the British in the Far Eastern campaign, a government in exile was formed, although it proved ineffectual due to the lack of contact with Sarawak. Sarawak, along with the rest of Borneo, was liberated by the Australian Imperial Force in 1945, after World War II, Vyner Brooke ceded Sarawak to the Colonial Office for a sizeable pension for him and his three daughters. Duncan Stewart, the second British governor of Sarawak, was assassinated in the resulting unrest, as of now there is no serious movement for the restoration of the monarchy. Sarawak is notably different from peninsular Malaysia and even Sabah in that its ethnic groups are more varied due to the proportion of tribal peoples such as Dayaks. Chinese migration was encouraged at various times by the Brookes, when he assumed control of the original area around Kuching in the 1840s much of the system of government was based on the ineffective Bruneian model. James set about reforming the government and eventually creating a service known as the Sarawak Service which recruited European. He invited the Anglican Mission to set up church and schools, particularly, the mission through Father McDougall set up the St. Thomas Anglican School, in 1848, still the oldest established European school in Southeast Asia. Thus, the residents became exposed to and trained in many British and European methods, however, James retained many of the customs and symbols of neighbouring Malay monarchies and combined them with his own style of absolute ruleKingdom of Sarawak – A sketch of Pangeran Raja Muda Hashim.
37. Crown Colony of Labuan – Labuan, made up of the main Labuan Island and six smaller islands. Since 15th century, Labuan was part of Brunei and the became the shelter for the ships from storms. Later on in 1846, Labuan was ceded to Great Britain in 1848 to become a Crown colony under the Treaty of Labuan, in 1890, it came to be administered by the British North Borneo Company. It was reverted to British government rule in 1904, then, on 1 January 1907, it joined the Straits Settlements and had been administered from Singapore, the capital of the Straits Settlements. During World War II, Labuan was occupied by Japan from December 1941 to June 1945, Labuan was renamed Maida Island after Marquis Toshinari Maeda, the first commander of Japanese forces in northern Borneo. The liberation of Borneo began on 10 June 1945 when the Allied Forces under the command of General McArthur landed at Labuan with a convoy of 100 ships, the 9th Australian Division launched an attack supported by massive air and sea bombardments that resulted in the surrender of the Japanese. On 9 September 1945, General Masao Baba, commander of Japanese military, surrendered at the Layang-layang beach before Major General George F. Wooten, Labuan was later separated from Sabah, becoming a Federal Territory, administered by the federal government, on 16 April 1984. 1846 Treaty of Labuan, officially became Crown colony to Great Britain,1890 Incorporated into the territory of the British North Borneo Company which in 1881 had taken over land previously part of Brunei. 1906 The boundaries of the Straits Settlements were extended to include the Colony of Labuan,1907 Became part of the Straits Settlements. 1946 Labuan returned to the Crown Colony of North Borneo,1963 Became part of Sabah and Malaysia. 1984 Ceded to Federal Government by Sabah and made into Federal TerritoryCrown Colony of Labuan – Flag
38. Japanese occupation of Malaya – Malaya was gradually occupied by the Japanese between 8 December 1941 and the Allied surrender at Singapore on the 16 February 1942. The Japanese remained in occupation until their surrender to the Allies in 1945, the first Japanese garrison in Malaya to lay down their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson. The Japanese Army said the new Japanese empire was an Asian equivalent of the Monroe Doctrine, the regions of Asia, it was argued, were as essential to Japan as Latin America was to the U. S. The Japanese Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka formally announced the idea of the Co-Prosperity Sphere on 1 August 1940, in a press interview, leaders in Japan had long had an interest in the idea. These factors helped make the formation of the sphere, while lacking any real authority or joint power, Japanese Military Affairs Bureau Unit 82 was formed in 1939 or 1940 and based in Taiwan to bring this about. In its final planning stages, the unit was under the then-Colonel Yoshihide Hayashi, intelligence on Malaya was gathered through a network of agents which included Japanese embassy staff, disaffected Malayans, and Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese business people and tourists. Japanese spies, which included a British intelligence officer, Captain Patrick Stanley Vaughan Heenan, heenans intelligence enabled the Japanese to destroy much of the Allied air forces on the ground. By 1941 the Japanese had been engaged for four years in trying to subjugate China and they were heavily reliant on imported materials for their military forces, particularly oil from the United States. From 1940 to 1941, the United States, the United Kingdom, the object of the embargoes was to assist the Chinese and encourage the Japanese to halt military action in China. The Japanese considered that pulling out of China would result in a loss of face and decided instead to take action against US, British. The Japanese forces for the invasion were assembled in 1941 on Hainan Island, the troop build-up in Indo-China and Hainan was noticed by the Allies and, when asked, the Japanese advised that it related to its operations in China. This battle marked the start of the Pacific War and the start of the Japanese occupation of Malaya. Kota Bharu airport was occupied in the morning, sungai Patani, Butterworth, and Alor Star airports were captured on 9 December 1941. Japanese soldiers landing at Kota Bharu divided into two forces, with one moving down the east coast towards Kuantan, and the other southwards towards the Perak River. On 11 December 1941, the Japanese started bombing Penang, Jitra and then Alor Star fell into Japanese hands on 12 December 1941. The British had to retreat to the south, on 16 December 1941, the British left Penang to the Japanese, who occupied it on 19 December. The Japanese continued to advance southwards, capturing Ipoh on 26 December, fierce resistance to Japanese progress in the Battle of Kampar lasted three days and three nights between 30 December 1941 and 2 January 1942, before the British had to retreat once again. On 7 January 1942, two brigades of the 11th Indian Infantry Division were defeated in the Battle of Slim River, giving the Japanese army easy passage to Kuala Lumpur, the capital of MalayaJapanese occupation of Malaya – Japanese possessions in British Malaya on 1942.
39. Japanese occupation of British Borneo – Because of its oil resources, Borneo was a prime target for Japan, and a very poorly guarded one. Chronically short of resources, Japan needed an assured supply, particularly of oil. In 1941, the Americans and British had placed an embargo on exports of raw materials to Japan because of its aggression in China. Borneo was strategically important to Japan as it is located on the sea routes between Java, Sumatra, Malaya and Celebes. Control of these routes was vital to securing the territory, the Japanese invasion plan called for the British territories to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Army and the southern Dutch territory to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The IJA unit that invaded northern Borneo was the 35th Infantry Brigade, the Brigade was led by Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi and consisted of units previously stationed at Canton, southern China. Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi, the Support Force—commanded by Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita—consisted of the cruisers Kumano and Suzuya and the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri. The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching, the convoy proceeded without being detected and, at dawn on 16 December 1941, two landing units secured Miri and Seria with little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured, after securing the oilfields, on 22 December, the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching. The Japanese airforce bombed Singkawang airfield to prevent a Dutch attack, after escorts drove off a lone Dutch submarine, the Japanese task force entered the mouth of the Santubong river on 23 December. The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang, and the troops in twenty transports, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka, the 2nd Battalion of the 15th Punjab Regiment, which was stationed in Kuching, was the sole Allied infantry unit on the entire island. Although they resisted the Japanese attack on the airfield, they were outnumbered and retreated up the Santubong river. At about 16,40 on 25 December, Japanese troops successfully captured Kuching airfield, the Punjab Regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area. On 31 December 1941, a force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy the remainder of Brunei, Jesselton was defended by the North Borneo Armed Constabulary, with only 650 men. They hardly provided any resistance to slow down the Japanese invasion, on 3 January 1942, the Japanese army invaded Labuan Island. On 18 January 1942, using fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan. On the morning of the 19 January, Governor Charles Robert Smith surrendered British North Borneo and was interned with other staff, the occupation of British Borneo was thus completed. Southern and central Borneo were taken by the Japanese Navy, following its attacks from east and west, after ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942Japanese occupation of British Borneo – Japanese possessions in British Borneo, including Dutch Borneo on 1943.
40. Malayan Emergency – Malayan Emergency was the colonial governments term for the conflict. The MNLA termed it the Anti-British National Liberation War, the rubber plantations and tin-mining industries had pushed for the use of the term emergency since their losses would not have been covered by Lloyds insurers if it had been termed a war. Despite the communists defeat in 1960, communist leader Chin Peng renewed the insurgency against the Malaysian government in 1967 and he fled to exile in Thailand, where he lived until his death on 16 September 2013. The Malayan economy relied on the export of tin and rubber, when the British took control of the Malayan economy, they imposed taxes on some Malayan goods, affecting their traditional industries. This led to an increase in poverty for the Malayan people, many Chinese people found employment in tin mines or fields responsible for the trade of materials. This heightened inter-ethnic tensions as the Malay people found that ethnic Chinese had replaced them in certain jobs and this forced many Malays into the rubber industry, which in turn was heavily dependent upon volatile world prices. Economic tension intensified during the Second World War. The Japanese occupation of Malaya began in 1941 and from that point onwards the “export of primary products was limited to the small amounts required for the Japanese economy. ”This led to large areas of rubber plantations being abandoned. The latter was progressively affected by a shortage of parts for machines. Rice imports, which made up a portion of the Malayan diet, fell rapidly due to limited trade. Many people believed that the British would soon return and ‘save’ them so they did not attempt to learn the skills that would be essential for survival. This then led to famine in Malaya from 1942. The withdrawal of Japan at the end of World War II left the British Malayan economy disrupted, problems included unemployment, low wages, and high levels of food inflation, well above the healthy rate of 2–3%. The Malayan Communist Party began to use the failing economy as a tool of propaganda against the British, the British had not addressed the underlying economic problems that were now worse within Malaya than they had ever been. There was considerable labour unrest and a number of strikes occurred between 1946 and 1948. One example of this was a 24-hour general strike organised by the MCP on 29 January 1946, during this time, the British administration was attempting to organise Malayas economy, as revenue from Malayas tin and rubber industries was important to Britains own post-war recovery. Protesters were dealt with harshly, by measures including arrests and deportations, in turn, protesters became increasingly militant. In 1947, alone, the communists in Malaya organised a further 300 strikes, on 16 June 1948, the first overt act of the war took place when three European plantation managers were killed at Sungai Siput, PerakMalayan Emergency – Australian Avro Lincoln bomber dropping 500lb bombs on communist rebels in the Malayan jungle (c. 1950)
41. North Borneo Self-government Day – North Borneo Self-government Day is a self-government day celebrated on 31 August every year by the state of Sabah in Malaysia. Only since 2012, the holiday has received widely by the Sabah state government. The task to reconstructing the territory was taken by the Crown colony government with the first Crown Colony Governor appointed was Edward Twining on 5 May 1949. Ralph Hone succeeded him to continue the reconstruction of the territory, north Borneo Self-government Day,31 August, also happens to be Hari Merdeka, a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule in 1957. The Borneo Heritage Foundation and Sabah DAP have stated that they will be celebrating Sabah Independence Day instead of Hari Merdeka on that day and he added Everyone now knows that 31 August is Malayas and Sabahs Independence Day… its not our independence day. They can celebrate it both in Malaya and in Sabah as they have the same Independence Day date, and we can join them if they invite us. Masing was commenting on Shabery Cheek’s recent proposal that Malaysia should continue to commemorate 31 August as its Independence Day, Merdeka Day Sarawak Self-government Day Malaysia DayNorth Borneo Self-government Day – The celebration on 2013.
42. Malaysia Agreement – Singapore later ceased to be a part of Malaysia, becoming an independent state on 9 August 1965. It came into being in 1946, through a series of agreements between the United Kingdom and Malayan Union, the Malayan Union was superseded by the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948, and achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957. The committee is also a successor to the former Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories and it stated that all people have a right to self-determination and proclaimed that colonialism should be brought to a speedy and unconditional end. Under the Malaysia Agreement signed between Great Britain and the Federation of Malaya, Britain would enact an Act to relinquish control over Singapore, Sarawak. The issue of self-determination with respect to the peoples of North Borneo, Sarawak and it has accordingly been decided to set up a Commission to carry out this task and to make recommendations. The five-man team, which comprised two Malayans and three British representatives, was headed by Lord Cobbold. In Singapore, the Peoples Action Party sought merger with Malaysia on the basis of the mandate it obtained during the general elections of 1959 when it won 43 of the 51 seats. However, this mandate became questionable when dissension within the Party led to a split, in July 1961, following a debate on a vote of confidence in the government,13 PAP Assemblymen were expelled from the PAP for abstaining. They went on to form a new party, the Barisan Sosialis. More defections occurred until the PAP had a majority of just one seat in the Assembly, given this situation, it would have been impossible to rely on the mandate achieved in 1959 to move forth with merger. A new mandate was necessary, especially since the Barisan argued that the terms of merger offered were detrimental to the Singapore people. While Brunei sent a delegation to the signing of the Malaysia Agreement, United Nations General Assembly 18th Session - the Question of Malaysia Malaysia Timeline by the BBC News Channel. Allen, J. de V. Stockwell, Anthony J. Wright, a collection of treaties and other documents affecting the states of Malaysia 1761-1963Malaysia Agreement – Agreement relating to Malaysia
43. Cobbold Commission – It was also responsible for the subsequent drafting of the Constitution of Malaysia prior to the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. The Commission was headed by former Bank of England governor, Lord Cobbold, the Commission released its findings, report and recommendations on 1 August 1962. It concluded that the formation of Malaysia should be implemented, however, Lord Cobbold also stressed that all parties enter the federation as equal partners. The remaining third is divided between those who insist on independence before Malaysia is considered and those who would prefer to see British rule continue for some years to come. If the conditions and reservations which they have put forward could be substantially met, moreover once a firm decision was taken quite a number of the third category would be likely to abandon their opposition and decide to make the best of a doubtful job. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMISSION TERM OF REFERENCE INTRODUCTION1, cardinal Principles of the rule of the English Rajah D. Legal Meaning of the Term Native E. North Borneo and Sarawak Governments Papers on Malaysia FCobbold Commission – The members.
44. 20-point agreement – The 20-point agreement often serves as a focal point amongst those who argue that Sabahs rights within the Federation have been eroded over time. It was decided to set up a Commission to carry out that task, the five-man team, which comprised two Malayans and three British representatives, was headed by Lord Cobbold. An inter-governmental committee was appointed to work out the details of the Malaysia Agreement. Lord Lansdowne served for Britain and Tun Abdul Razak, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya served for Malaya. The 20 points were written with a view to safeguarding the interests, rights, a similar proposal, with certain differences in content, was made by Sarawak, and is commonly referred to as the 18-point agreement. Attention is often drawn to these memoranda by those who believe that their principles were not subsequently adhered to after federation, There have been numerous calls for the 20-point memorandum to be reviewed so as to take into account social, economic, and political changes over time. 17 January 1962, The Commission of Enquiry was announced to observe the views of the people of Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei,21 June 1962, The Cobbold Report was completed and submitted to the prime ministers of Britain and Malaya. The Commissions view was - firm support for a federated Malaysia,31 July 1962, The British and Malayan governments decided in principle that the proposed Federation of Malaysia should be brought into being by 31 August 1963. An Inter-Governmental Committee was to be formed to work on future constitutional arrangements, August 1962, The Report was published to all parties. Reportedly, this came as a surprise to North Borneo,13 –14 August 1962, Donald Stephens convened a meeting of political leaders who drew up a 14-point memorandum of minimum demands. 12 &26 September 1962, North Borneo and Sarawak legislative council agreed to the formation of Malaysia on condition that state rights were safeguarded, Malay should be the national language of the Federation b. English should continue to be used for a period of 10 years after Malaysia Day c, english should be an official language of North Borneo for all purposes, State or Federal, without limitation of time. A new Constitution for North Borneo was of course essential, the Head of State in North Borneo should not be eligible for election as Head of the Federation. The Federal Government should not be able to veto the entry of persons into North Borneo for State Government purposes except on strictly security grounds. North Borneo should have unfettered control over the movements of other than those in Federal Government employ from other parts of Malaysia into North Borneo. There should be no right to secede from the Federation, borneanisation of the public service should proceed as quickly as possible. Every effort should be made to encourage British Officers to remain in the service until their places can be taken by suitably qualified people from North Borneo. North Borneo should retain control of its own finance, development and tariff, a) the Prime Minister should be elected by unofficial members of Legislative Council b) There should be a proper Ministerial system in North Borneo20-point agreement – The Report of the Inter-Governmental Committee. On 1 August 1962
45. Malaysia Day – Malaysia Day is held on 16 September every year to commemorate the establishment of the Malaysian federation on the same date in 1963. It marked the joining together of Malaya, North Borneo, Singapore, the formation of the new federation was planned to occur on 1 June 1963, but was later postponed to 31 August 1963, to coincide with the sixth Hari Merdeka. Several issues related to objections of neighbouring Indonesia and the Philippines to the formation of Malaysia delayed the declaration to 16 September of the same year. The postponement was also done to allow the United Nations team time to conduct fact-finding mission in North Borneo, contrary to popular beliefs, no referendum was ever conducted in both North Borneo and Sarawak. The Malaysia Agreement 1963 set out the terms and conditions for the component States to be federated under a new constitution into one new nation called Malaysia. It is under this Agreement that the Malaysia Bill, the constitutions of Sarawak, Sabah, through the introduction of the Malaysia Bill to the Malayan Parliament on 9 July 1963, and consent from Tuanku Syed Putra, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, on 29 August 1963. Since 2010, Malaysia Day has been a public holiday, Prime Minister Najib Razak made the decision after a question-and-answer session at Parliament on 19 October 2009, giving Malaysians two celebrations related to the countrys independence. Malaysia Forever was a song composed by Bobby Gimby to celebrate the Formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, Bobby Gimby received the nickname The Pied Piper of Canada after the Prime Minister nicked Gimby as the Pied Piper from Canada. The song was recorded in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore and it is a folk song with a length of 2 minutes sung by the Choir of the Marymount Vocational School. On the days before the merger, it was taught to school prior to merger. Merdeka Day Sarawak Self-government Day North Borneo Self-government Day 20-point agreement 18-point agreement History of Malaysia Singapore in Malaysia Malaysia ForeverMalaysia Day – 2011 Malaysia Day celebration at Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur
46. Singapore in Malaysia – Singapore was one of the 14 states of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965. Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963 as a new political entity from the merger of the Federation of Malaya with former British colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. This marked the end of a 144-year period of British rule in Singapore, the union, however, was unstable due to distrust and ideological differences between leaders of the State of Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia. Such issues resulted in frequent disagreements relating to economics, finance, there were also major racial riots that year involving the majority Chinese community and the Malay community in Singapore. During a 1965 Singaporean by-election, UMNO threw its support behind the opposition Barisan Sosialis candidate, in 1965, Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided upon the expulsion of Singapore from the Federation, leading to the independence of Singapore on 9 August 1965. The Peoples Action Party won the first election in Singapore after the merger, Racial tensions increased dramatically within a year. These included financial and economic benefits that were given to Malays. Malays and Muslims in Singapore were being increasingly incited by the Federal Governments accusations that the PAP was mistreating the Malays, numerous racial riots resulted, and curfews were frequently imposed to restore order. The external political situation was tense at the time, with Indonesia actively against the establishment of the Federation of Malaysia. Indonesia also conducted seditious activities to provoke the Malays against the Chinese, one of the more notorious riots was the 1964 race riots that took place on Prophet Muhammads birthday on 21 July, near Kallang Gasworks, twenty-three were killed and hundreds injured. More riots broke out in September 1964, the price of food skyrocketed when the transport system was disrupted during this period of unrest, causing further hardship. The Singapore Government later named 21 July each year as Racial Harmony Day, another contributor was the fear that the economic dominance of Singapores port would inevitably shift political power away from Kuala Lumpur in time, should Singapore remain in the Federation. The state and federal governments also had disagreements on the economic front, despite an earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore did not extend to Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the agreed to for economic development of the two eastern states. The situation escalated to such an intensity that talks broke down and abusive speeches. UMNO extremists called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew, on 7 August 1965, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia. On that day, a tearful Lee announced that Singapore was a sovereign, independent nation and his speech included this quote, For me it is a moment of anguish because all my life…. you see the whole of my adult life…. I have believed in merger and the unity of two territoriesSingapore in Malaysia – Lee Kuan Yew and Tunku Abdul Rahman
47. Peninsular Malaysia – Peninsular Malaysia, also known as West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. Its area is 130,598 square kilometres and it shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore, across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra. East Malaysia is to the east across the South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia accounts for the majority of Malaysias population and economy, as of 2015 its population is roughly 25 million. In 1963, the name Malaysia was adopted by the new federation uniting the Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, at the time, the Philippines had also contemplated adopting the name. Peninsular Malaysia is also known as West Malaysia or Malaya, in current everyday usage the word Malaya is almost always used jocularly, e. g. Gempar satu Malaya. Which roughly means shakes the whole of Malaya, the term Malaya generally included Singapore until 1946, when Singapore was excluded from the formation of Malayan Union. In Singapore law, Malaya includes Singapore, whereas the term States of Malaya does not, the majority of people on Peninsular Malaysia are ethnic Malays, predominantly Muslim. Large Chinese and Indian populations exist, the Orang Asli are the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia, they numbered around 140,000 and mostly lived in inland parts of the region. Unlike the East Coast, the West Coast is partitioned further into three regions, including, The Northern Region, Perlis, Kedah, Penang and Perak, the Central Region, Selangor and the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The Southern Region, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca and Johor Even though Johor has a coastline facing the South China Sea and these rights were granted as part of Sarawaks 18-point agreement and Sabahs 20-point agreement with Federation of Malaya in forming the Federation of Malaysia. Malaya Malayan dollar Peninsular Malaysia travel guide from WikivoyagePeninsular Malaysia – A map of Peninsular Malaysia.
48. List of rivers of Malaysia – This is an incomplete list of rivers that are at least partially in Malaysia. The rivers are grouped by strait or sea, the rivers flowing into the sea are sorted along the coast. Rivers flowing into other rivers are listed by the rivers flow into. The rivers that have their mouths in Malaysia are given in italics, the same river may be found in more than one state as many rivers cross state bordersList of rivers of Malaysia – The Gombak River (left) merges with the Klang River (right) in Kuala Lumpur.
49. Politics of Malaysia – Executive power is exercised by the federal government and the 13 state governments. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament and the 13 state assemblies. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts. The Constitution of Malaysia is codified and the system of government is based on the Westminster system, whereas, the Parliament consists of the Dewan Negara and Dewan Rakyat. Malaysia has had a multi-party system since the first direct election of the Federal Legislative Council of the Malaya in 1955 on a first-past-the-post basis, the ruling party since then had always been the Alliance Party coalition and from 1973 onwards, its successor, the Barisan Nasional coalition. The Barisan Nasional coalition currently consists of the United Malays National Organisation, Malaysian Chinese Association, the opposition are made up of the newly formed pact, the Coalition of Hope, the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, the Socialist Party of Malaysia and other smaller parties. Although Malaysian politics has been stable, critics allege that the government, ruling party. However, since the 8 March 2008 General Election, the coverage on the countrys politics has noticeably increased. Early organised political movements in Malaysia were organised along regional and ethnic groups and were not political parties in the modern sense and these in turn were primarily influenced by the Egyptian Islamic reform magazine, al-Manar published in Cairo by Rashid Rida from 1898 to 1936. While these publications were concerned with the Islamic religion, it also touched extensively on the social, political. One of the first such movements was the New Hope Society that was established in Johor Bahru in 1916, the Sultan Idris Training College for Malay teachers in Tanjung Malim was fertile ground for the exchange of ideas. This magazine allowed for the discussion of larger issues as well political issues. Eunos himself was a Justice of Peace, a member of the Muslim Advisory Board set up by the administration during World War I. In his capacity as the chairman of the KM, he became the first Malay member of the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements, one of the first issues championed by the KM was the appeal for land to be set aside for a Malay settlement. The appeal was granted and a sum of $700,000 was set aside for the KM to purchase and this settlement has evolved and is now part of the Eunos neighbourhood in Singapore. The KM also became the catalyst for the establishment of similar organisations in the states of the British Malaya such as the Penang Malay Association. People associated with the KM included the first President of Singapore, the KM survived World War II and entered into a political coalition with the United Malays National Organisation and the Malayan Chinese Association to form the Singapore Alliance Party. It however eventually faded away with the defeats of the Alliance in the 1955 legislative elections in SingaporePolitics of Malaysia – Current Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Tun Razak.
50. Constitution of Malaysia – The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, the Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State whose roles are largely ceremonial. Reid Commission, The conference proposed the appointment of a commission to devise a constitution for a fully self-governing and this proposal was accepted by Queen Elizabeth II and the Malay Rulers. The report of the Commission was completed on 11 February 1957, Constitution, The Constitution came into force on 27 August 1957 but formal independence was only achieved on 31 August. The Constitution, in its current form, consists of 15 Parts containing 230 articles and 13 schedules, the following is a list of the schedules to the Constitution. Some of these liberties and rights are subject to limitations and exceptions, Article 5 enshrines a number of basic fundamental human rights, no person may be deprived of life or personal liberty except in accordance with law. A person who is unlawfully detained may be released by the High Court, a person has the right to be informed of the reasons of his arrest and to be legally represented by a lawyer of his choice. A person may not be arrested for more than 24 hours without a magistrates permission, Article 6 provides that no person may be held in slavery. All forms of forced labour are prohibited, but federal law, such as the National Service Act 1952 and it is expressly provided that work incidental to serving a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a court of law is not forced labour. • No person shall suffer greater punishment for an offence than was prescribed by law at the time it was committed. • A person who has been acquitted or convicted of an offence not be tried again for the same offence except where a retrial is ordered by a court. Article 8 by clause provides that all persons are equal before the law and this Article protects Malaysian citizens against being banished from the country. Article 10 is a key provision of Part II of the Constitution, several acts of law regulate the freedoms granted by Article 10, such as the Official Secrets Act, which makes it a crime to disseminate information classified as an official secret. The Police has extensive powers under the Act to maintain order in proclaimed areas. These include the power to close roads, erect barriers, impose curfews, another law which previously curtailed the freedoms of Article 10 is the Police Act 1967, which criminalised the gathering of three or more people in a public place without a licence. However the relevant sections of the Police Act dealing with such gatherings have been repealed by the Police Act 2012, the Peaceful Assembly Act 2012, which came into operation on the same day, replaced the Police Act as the principal legislation dealing with public gatherings. Peaceful Assembly Act 2012 The Peaceful Assembly Act gives citizens the right to organise, under the law, citizens are allowed to hold assemblies, which includes processions, upon giving 10 days notice to the police. However, street protests, which consist of mass marches or rallies, are not permittedConstitution of Malaysia – Malaysia
51. Elections in Malaysia – Elections in Malaysia exist at two levels, federal level and state level. Federal level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, at the federal level, voters elect the 222-member House of Representatives of the bicameral Parliament. Members are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on using the first past the post system. The party that has the majority of the House of Representatives will form the federal government, the Constitution of Malaysia requires that a general election must be held at least once every five years. However, the Prime Minister can ask the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to dissolve the Parliament at any time before this period has expired. A general election should be no later than two months in West Malaysia and three months for East Malaysia after the dissolution of the Parliament. Since independence, the winner of the election has always been the Barisan Nasional. At the state level, voters elect representatives to the Dewan Undangan Negeri, the number of representatives varies between the different states, with as many as 71 electorates in Sarawak and as little as 15 in Perlis. Members are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on using the first-past-the-post system. State assembly constituencies are usually smaller than the parliamentary constituencies, the party that forms the majority of the state assembly will form the state government. Usually, state elections are held simultaneously with the parliamentary election and this is because state assemblies are dissolved by their respective Ruler or governor on the advice of the chief minister of the state. For example, following the 1977 Kelantan Emergency, an election was called in Kelantan in March 1978. In the 2004 and 2008 general elections, the election of Sabah were held simultaneously with the parliamentary election as well. The worst result for the Alliance was in 1969, when it lost its majority in Perak, Selangor and Penang in addition to Kelantan. In the 2008 elections, in addition to Kelantan, BN lost four states to the coalition of opposition parties composed of PAS, Democratic Action Party. Perak was returned to BN control in 2009 following a constitutional crisis, in the 2013 elections, BN recaptured the state of Kedah, leaving Kelantan, Penang and Selangor in PR control. Although there used to be elections for members of governments such as municipal councils, today. Local government elections were suspended after the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1964, the suspension was never lifted and instead made permanent under the Local Government Act 1976Elections in Malaysia – Malaysia
52. Judiciary of Malaysia – Judiciary of Malaysia is largely centralised despite Malaysias federal constitution, heavily influenced by the English common law and to a lesser extent Islamic law. There are generally two types of trials, criminal and civil, the hierarchy of courts begins from the Magistrates Court, Sessions Court, High Court, Court of Appeal, and finally, the Federal Court. The jurisdiction of the courts in civil or criminal matters are contained in the Subordinate Courts Act 1948, article 121 of the Constitution provides for two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, the High Court in Malaya, and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak. Thus this creates two separate local jurisdiction of the courts – for Peninsular Malaysia and for East Malaysia, the superior courts are the High Court, Court of Appeal, and the Federal Court, while the Magistrates Courts and the Sessions Courts are classified as subordinate courts. The current President of the Federal Court, effective 1 April 2017, is Tan Sri Md, raus Sharif, the President of the Court of Appeal is Tan Sri Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin, and the Chief Judge of Malaya is Tan Sri Ahmad Maarop. The current Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak is Justice Tan Sri Richard Malanjum, bypassing many other senior judges, Tan Sri Dato Zaki was the first lawyer appointed directly to the Federal Court. After some 2 months as a judge, Tan Sri Dato Zaki was subsequently appointed as the President of the Court of Appeal. There are three courts with different jurisdiction within what is known as the Superior Court and they are the Federal Court, the highest court in the land, the Appeal Court, the High Court of Malaya and the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak. Each is head by a judge called the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, President of the Appeal Court and Chief Judge of the High Courts of Malaya and Sabah. The Federal Court is the highest court in Malaysia, the Federal Court may hear appeals of civil decisions of the Court of Appeal where the Federal Court grants leave to do so. The Federal Court also hears appeals from the Court of Appeal. It is the court of jurisdiction for cases which began in any subordinate courts. The High Courts have unlimited jurisdiction in all matters other than matters involving Islamic law. The High Courts have original jurisdiction in criminal cases punishable by death, cases are heard by a single judge in the High Court, or by a judicial commissioner. While High Court judges enjoy security of tenure, judicial commissioners are appointed for a term of two years, and do not enjoy similar protection under the Constitution, an application for a judicial review is applied in this court. The Magistrates Courts and Sessions Courts in Malaysia have the power in control the criminal and civil matters. Somewhat like the former Quarter Sessions in England, but does not exceed RM1,000,000 as per ss 65,73,93 of the Subordinate Courts Act 1948. The exception however is in relating to motor vehicle accidents, landlord and tenant and distressJudiciary of Malaysia – The Sultan Abdul Samad Building nearby Merdeka Square formerly housed the superior courts of the country. Today the courts have shifted to either the Palace of Justice in Putrajaya during the early 2000s, or the Kuala Lumpur Courts Complex in 2007.
53. Law of Malaysia – The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the common law legal system. This was a result of the colonisation of Malaya, Sarawak. The supreme law of the land—the Constitution of Malaysia—sets out the legal framework, Federal laws enacted by the Parliament of Malaysia apply throughout the country. There are also state laws enacted by the State Legislative Assemblies which applies in the particular state, the constitution of Malaysia also provides for a unique dual justice system—the secular laws and sharia laws. Adat provided Malay law before colonization, prior to the independence in 1957, most of the laws of United Kingdom were imported and either made into local legislation or simply applied as case laws. Malaysian law is based on other jurisdictions namely Australia and India. The criminal law in Malaysia—the Criminal Procedure Code—was based on the Indian criminal code, similarly, the Contracts Act is based on the Indian model. Malaysian land law is based on the Australian Torrens system, the Federal Constitution is the supreme law of the land. It provides the framework for the laws, legislation, courts. It also defines the government and monarch, and their powers, the dual system of law is provided in Article 121 of the Constitution of Malaysia. Article 3 also provides that Islamic law is a state law matter with the exception for the Federal Territories of Malaysia, Islamic law refers to sharia law, and in Malaysia it is known and spelled as syariah. The court is known as the Syariah Court, looking at the Malaysian legal system as a whole, sharia law plays a relatively small role in defining the laws on the country. With regards to law, the Syariah courts has jurisdiction in personal law matters, for example marriage, inheritance. In some states there are sharia criminal laws, for there is the Kelantan Syariah Criminal Code Enactment 1993. Their jurisdiction is limited to imposing fines for an amount not more than RM5000. In August 2007, the then Chief Justice of Malaysia proposed to replace the current common law application in Malaysia with sharia law, complications have arisen with regard to the dual justice system, for example with regard to freedom of religion. Article 11 of the Constitution provides that Every person has the right to profess, however, in the case of Lina Joy—a Malay who converted to Christianity—the Federal Court of Malaysia refused to allow her to change her religion indicated in her identity card. The judges held that they had no jurisdiction on the matter—that it was a matter of the Shariah Court, Federal laws are made by legislators sitting in the Parliament of Malaysia and applies nationwideLaw of Malaysia – The Malaysian Parliament Building.
54. Law enforcement in Malaysia – The Royal Malaysia Police is the main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in Malaysia. The force is an organisation with responsibilities ranging from traffic control to intelligence gathering. Its headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur, the constitution, control, employment, recruitment, fund, discipline, duties and powers of the police force is specified and governed by the Police Act 1967. An occupied by the Ministry of Home Affairs, RMP have six departments involved in crime and terrorism prevention, all departments are led by the directors with the rank of Commissioner of Police. The Malaysian Government utilises the services of auxiliary police, volunteer police. It is in effect the coast guard of Malaysia, the agency is not part of nor are there any plans for it be integrated into the Malaysian Armed Forces. The Agency and its members are part of the Malaysian Civil Service, besides the RMP and MMEA, other government agencies that also enforce specific laws are as follows, The Royal Malaysian Customs is the government agency of the Ministry of Finance of the Malaysia. The department responsible for administrating the nation’s indirect tax policy, in other words, KDRM administers seven main and thirty-nine subsidiary laws. Apart from this, KDRM implements eighteen laws for government agencies. The Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission is a government agency in Malaysia that investigates and prosecutes corruption in the public, the MACC is currently headed by Chief Commissioner Datuk Abu Kassim Bin Mohamed. He was appointed in January 2010 to replace former Chief Commissioner Datuk Seri Ahmad Said Bin Hamdan, similarly, the agency is currently under the Prime Ministers Department. RELA Corps is a civil volunteer corps formed by the Malaysian government. RELA has the authority to deal with situations like policemen, such as raiding suspected streets or places such as factories, restaurants and they are also fully authorised to conduct the interrogation and even detaining people who forget to bring their travelling documents, like passports and/or working permits. Besides that they are tasked with security works at times. During times of war, they are absorbed into the Malaysian Army as support groups despite their law enforcing duties and they are also tasked to do SAR works if needed. The Malaysian Road Transport Department is a government department under the Malaysian Ministry of Transport and this department is responsible for issuing Malaysian number plates. According to the Road Transport Act, the enforcement is charged with the responsibility of undertaking registration and licensing of drivers and all motor vehicles, crime in Malaysia Laws of MalaysiaLaw enforcement in Malaysia – The police officers at Johor Bahru Square, Johore Bahru wearing different uniforms.
55. Prime Minister of Malaysia – It is in practice, the most powerful political position in Malaysia. The Prime Minister has always been from the United Malays National Organisation part of Barisan Nasional since independence, Tunku Abdul Rahman was the Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya, restyled to Prime Minister of Malaysia on 16 September 1963 after the formation of Malaysia. Federation of Malaya became independent on 31 August 1957, the 6th and current prime minister is Najib Razak, who took office on 3 April 2009. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the Prime Ministers advice shall appoint other Ministers from either Dewan Rakyat or Dewan Negara, the Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament of Malaysia. The members of the Cabinet shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, the Prime Ministers Department is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions and powers. The Yang di-Pertuan Agongs choice of replacement prime minister will be dictated by the circumstances, the power of the prime minister is subject to a number of limitations. Conventionally, between the dissolution of one Parliament and the convening of the next, the prime minister, from time to time prime ministers are required to leave the country on business and a deputy is appointed to take their place during that time. In the days before jet aeroplanes, such absences could be for extended periods, ismail Abdul Rahman occasionally acted as Acting Prime Minister when Tunku Abdul Rahman and Abdul Razak Hussein was on leave for going abroad. In 1988, when UMNO as the member of the Barisan Nasional coalition was declared unlawful and illegal political party. Ling Liong Sik became the new Chairman of the Barisan Nasional and served as an Acting Prime Minister for a couple of days until the new party, anwar Ibrahim acted as an Acting Prime Minister for two months started from 19 May 1997 as Mahathir Mohamad was on vacation. Colour key, Alliance Party Barisan Nasional Note Prime ministers are granted certain privileges after leaving office at government expense. Former prime ministers continue to be important national figures, the most recently deceased prime minister was Tunku Abdul Rahman, who died on 6 December 1990. Air transports of heads of state and government Official state car Spouse of the Prime Minister of Malaysia Leader of the Opposition Chief Ministers in MalaysiaPrime Minister of Malaysia – Incumbent Najib Razak since 3 April 2009
56. State legislative assemblies of Malaysia – A state legislative assembly is the legislative branch of the state governments of each of the 13 Malaysian states. Members of a legislative assembly comprises elected representatives from single-member constituencies during state elections through the first-past-the-post system. The assemblies have powers to enact state laws as provided for by the Constitution of Malaysia, the majority party in each assembly forms the state government, and the leader of the majority party becomes menteri besar or chief minister of the state. After the March 2008 general election, the Barisan Nasional coalition were the majority party in eight states, in February 2009, BN regained Perak after 3 Pakatan Rakyat assembly members defected. The state legislative assemblies are unicameral, unlike the bicameral Parliament of Malaysia, the hereditary rulers or Yang di-Pertua Negeri are vested with powers to dissolve their respective state legislative assemblies on the advice of the menteri besar or chief minister. Once dissolved, elections must be carried out within a period of sixty days. Usually, state elections are held simultaneously with the parliamentary elections, with the exception of SarawakState legislative assemblies of Malaysia – Malaysia
57. Yang di-Pertuan Agong – The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom, Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world and his queen consort is called Raja Permaisuri Agong. The couple are styled in English as His Majesty and Her Majesty, in Malaysias constitutional monarchy, Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution. The constitution specifies that the power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and is exercised by him on the advice of the federal Council of Ministers. The latter is headed by the Prime Minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the members of Parliament. Among them, Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing PM if no party has won a majority vote. It, however, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the PM and he also can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament. He may discontinue or dissolve Parliament but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the PM and he can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him. The 15th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan and his reign began on 13 December 2016, after his election on 14 October 2016 at the 243rd Conference of Rulers. The ceremonial installation of the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong will be held on 24 April 2017, common English terms used in the media and by the general public include King, Paramount Ruler, Head of State, Head of the Federation, and Head of State of the Federation. In Malaysian passports prior to the 2010 redesign, the title The Supreme Head of Malaysia was used in the English version of the passport note, since the issuance of ICAO compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is used. In August 1957, having rejected the title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one. After a ruler had served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the states have also stood for election. In the event of a vacancy of the office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the term had expired. The new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term, after his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-electedYang di-Pertuan Agong – Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
58. Agriculture in Malaysia – Agriculture in Malaysia makes up Twelve percent of the nations GDP. Sixteen percent of the population of Malaysia is employed through some sort of agriculture, large-scale plantations were established by the British. These plantations opened opportunity for new crops such as rubber, palm oil, a number of crops are grown for domestic purpose such as bananas, coconuts, durian, pineapples, rice, rambutan. The climate of Malaysia produces the proper conditions for production of exotic produce and it is located on a peninsula in southeast Asia. This area is rarely affected by hurricanes or drought. Malaysia maintains a humidity level around ninety percent because of its close to the equator. The weather stays hot and humid all year round and this ministry is also known as the Kementerian Pertanian & Industry Asas Tani Malaysia. The MOA had its name changed to the current title on 27 March 2004, the ministry serves as an agency for private agricultural businesses to get advised by experts that specialise in agriculture, fishing, and livestock. The ministry plans the policies, strategies, and different development programs and it monitors, surveys, directs, and puts into action the projects given by the Integrated Agricultural Development Project. The ministry has services such as collecting, analysing and restoring information and agricultural data through science and it provides references and agricultural management systems for plantation owners to access all collected agriculture information. Rice is a part of everyday Malaysian diet. In 1998, Malaysia produced 1.94 million metric tons of rice, even with this high production, Malaysia still only produces eighty percent of what it needs to support itself and must import the rest. The average Malaysian citizen consumes 82.3 kilograms of rice per year, the increasing population is calling for more research and technological advancement to increase rice production for consumption within the nation. Vol.322009 Nearly twenty four percent of Malaysias land area is composed of dedicated to agriculture alone. There are around 43,000 different agricultural machines and tractors, Malaysia contains 7,605,000 hectares of arable and permanent cropland. Malaysia produces 535,000 metric tons of bananas per year, only about five percent of Malaysias cropland is actually irrigated. This chart displays a predicted relationship between consumption of rice, the amount planted, and the increase in population from 2008 up until 2030, typically, Malaysia is responsible for one third of the worlds rubber export. However, production has decreased because most states are switching to a profitable productAgriculture in Malaysia – Oil Palm Trees Malaysia
59. Malaysian ringgit – The Malaysian ringgit is the currency of Malaysia. It is divided into 100 sen, the ringgit is issued by the Bank Negara Malaysia. In modern usage ringgit is used almost solely for the currency, to differentiate between the three currencies, the Malaysian currency is referred to as Ringgit Malaysia, hence the official abbreviation and currency symbol RM. Internationally, the ISO4217 currency code for Malaysian ringgit is MYR, the Malay names ringgit and sen were officially adopted as the sole official names in August 1975. Previously they had been known officially as dollars and cents in English and ringgit and sen in Malay, in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia, denominations of 10 sen are called kupang in Malay, e. g.50 sen is 5 kupang. On 12 June 1967, the Malaysian dollar, issued by the new bank, Bank Negara Malaysia, replaced the Malaya. The new currency retained all denominations of its predecessor except the $10,000 denomination, and also brought over the colour schemes of the old dollar. In November 1967, five months after the introduction of the Malaysian dollar and this ended on 8 May 1973, when the Malaysian government withdrew from the agreement. The Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Brunei Currency and Monetary Board still maintain the interchangeability of their two currencies, as of 2009, in 1993, the currency symbol RM was introduced to replace the use of the dollar sign $. US$130 and RM1,000 worth of US$260. Despite these measures, the ringgit lost 50% of its value against the US dollar between 1997 and 1998, and suffered general depreciation against other currencies between December 2001 and January 2005. As of 4 September 2008, the ringgit has yet to regain its value circa 2001 against the Singapore dollar, the euro, the Australian dollar, and the British pound. On 21 July 2005, Bank Negara announced the end of the peg to the US dollar immediately after Chinas announcement of the end of the peg to the US dollar. According to Bank Negara, Malaysia allows the ringgit to operate in a float against several major currencies. Following the end of the peg, the ringgit appreciated to as high as 3.16 to the US dollar in April 2008. The ringgit had also enjoyed a period of appreciation against the Hong Kong dollar, the initial stability of the ringgit in the late-2000s had led to considerations to reintroduce the currency to foreign trading. As a result, the US dollar appreciated significantly to close at 3.43 to the MYR as of 4 September 2008, while other major currencies, including the renminbi and Hong Kong dollar, followed suit. The ringgit spiked at 3.73 to the US dollar by March 2009, before recovering to 3.00 to the US dollar by mid-2011. The first series of sen coins were introduced in 1967 in denominations of 1 sen,5 sen,10 sen,20 sen,50 sen, followed by the introduction of the 1 ringgit coin in 1971Malaysian ringgit – The Malaysian ringgit third series coinage and fourth series banknote designs announced in 2011 by Bank Negara Malaysia.
60. Bursa Malaysia – Bursa Malaysia Berhad is an exchange holding company approved under Section 15 of the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007. It operates a fully integrated exchange, offering the complete range of exchange-related services including trading, clearing, settlement, on 18 May 2015, the MYX joined the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges Initiative as part the SSEs regional dialogue in Bangkok hosted by the Stock Exchange of Thailand. Bursa Malaysia was known as Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange from its founding in 1930 when the Singapore Stockbrokers Association was set up as an organisation dealing in securities in Malaya. The first formal securities business organisation in Malaysia was the Singapore Stockbrokers Association and it was re-registered as the Malayan Stockbrokers Association in 1937. The Malayan Stock Exchange was established in 1960 and the trading of shares commenced. The board system had trading rooms in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, in 1964, the Stock Exchange of Malaysia was established. With the secession of Singapore from Malaysia in 1965, the Stock Exchange of Malaysia became known as the Stock Exchange of Malaysia and Singapore. The Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange which was incorporated on 14 December 1976 as a limited by guarantee. It consisted of a Main Board, a Second Board and MESDAQ with total market capitalisation of MYR700 billion, in June 2006, Bursa Malaysia and FTSE Group jointly introduced FTSE Bursa Malaysia Index. On 7 November 2006, the index passed the 1,000 mark hurdle and it was partly boosted by the strong overnight close in the Wall Street. On 10 March 2008, trading on the exchange was suspended for one due to composite index fall by more than 10 percent or 130 points to 1166.32 points. This was largely by combination of such as the United States subprime mortgage crisis. Dealers expected the move was an over-reaction to the election results, the index gained 2. 1% the next day on the morning session as investor reinvest in plantation stocks and blue chips. On 3 July 2008, trading on the exchange was suspended for the day when it suffered multiple hardware glitches, the glitches only affected the equities market, not the bonds and commodity market. The FCPO, the global benchmark for the crude palm oil market, is a deliverable contract which is traded electronically on Bursa Malaysias trading platform. Crude palm kernel futures and crude oil futures are primarily traded on Bursa Malaysia in Malaysian Ringgit. Their codenames are FPKO, FCPO and FUPO, respectively, under the Bursa Suq Al-Sila concept, the bank buys a commodity from a supplier such as a CPO producer at a principal amount, and sells it to a customer at a profit. The customer then sells back the commodity to the market for cashBursa Malaysia – The offices of Bursa Malaysia
61. Tourism in Malaysia – Malaysia is ranked 11th in the world and 2nd in Southeast Asia for tourist arrivals. In an effort to diversify the economy and make Malaysias economy less dependent on exports, as a result, tourism has become Malaysias third largest source of foreign exchange income. And accounted for 7% of Malaysias economy as of 2005, the government agency in charge of promoting tourism in Malaysia is Tourism Malaysia or the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board. On 20 May 1987, the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism was established, TDC existed from 1972 to 1992, when it became the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board, through the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board Act,1992. In 1999, Malaysia launched a marketing campaign called Malaysia, Truly Asia which was largely successful. The extra revenue generated by tourism helped the economy during the economic crisis of 2008. Medical tourism is popular in Malaysia, with the Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council reporting an arrival of 641,000 foreign patients in 2011,728,800 in 2012,881,000 in 2013 and 882,000 in 2014. Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council, a government agency with the aim of promoting tourism, was launched in 2009 as an initiative by the Ministry of Health. In 2016, Malaysia recorded 26,757,392 tourist arrivals, alor Star – capital of Kedah, the state of the Paddy fields. Johor Bahru – capital of Johor, and gateway to Singapore, kangar – capital of Perlis, and gateway to Thailand. Kota Kinabalu – capital of Sabah, kota Bharu – capital of Kelantan. Kuala Terengganu – capital of Terengganu, famous for the turtles and beaches, kuantan – capital of Pahang, noted for its many beaches. Kuching – capital of Sarawak, the Cat City of Malaysia, malacca City – a historical city in Malaysia. This is the other cultural World Heritage Site in Malaysia, noted for its prstine coral reefs and ecotourism attractions too. Seremban – the capital of Negeri Sembilan, and the nearest cities to Port Dickson, putrajaya – the administrative centre of Malaysia, known for its lavish buildings, bridges and man-made lakes. Petaling Jaya – a satellite city located in the state of Selangor and it has the most commercial complexes in Malaysia. Beside the main cities, there other town and places in Malaysia offer some special tourist attraction, such as in Taiping, Perak for their landscape and local attraction. Teluk Intan for their Leaning tower, genting Highlands, Cameron Highlands and Bukit Tinggi in Pahang for a cool climateTourism in Malaysia – Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur
62. Demographics of Malaysia – The demographics of Malaysia are represented by the multiple ethnic groups that exist in this country. Malaysias population, according to the 2010 census, is 28,334,000 including non-citizens, of these,5.72 million live in East Malaysia and 22.5 million live in Peninsular Malaysia. The Malaysian population continues to grow at a rate of 2. 4% per annum, Malay fertility rates are 40% higher than Malaysian Indians and 56% higher than Malaysian Chinese. In 2010, the Malays and Bumiputeras were 60. 3%, Chinese 24. 6%, the Chinese population has shrunk to half of its peak share from 1957 when it was 45% of Malaya, although in absolute numbers they have multiplied more than threefold. The population distribution is uneven, with some 79% of its citizens concentrated in Peninsular Malaysia, censuses were taken in Malaysia in 1970,1980,1991, and 2000, with the one in 2000 taking place between 5 and 20 July. The total population is around 28.3 million according to the 2010 census, the population distribution is highly uneven, with some 20 million residents concentrated in Peninsula Malaysia. 74. 7% of the population is urban, due to the rise in labour-intensive industries, Malaysia is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers, which is about 10% of the Malaysian population. The exact numbers are unknown, there are a million foreign workers. The state of Sabah alone had nearly 25% of its 2.7 million population listed as foreign workers in the last census. Sabah based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million population,2 million are illegal immigrants, of this population, approximately 70,500 refugees and asylum seekers are from the Philippines,69,700 from Burma, and 21,800 from Indonesia. The USCRI named Malaysia as one of the ten worst places for refugees on account of the discriminatory practices toward them. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, in 2000 Source, National Census 2000, Department of Statistics Malaysia. Population estimates are rounded to the nearest hundred, in 2010 Source, National Census 2010, Department of Statistics Malaysia Data from July 2010. The corresponding figures in Singapore was 2.16,1.48 and 1.95, Data for obtained from Department of Statistics releases. All key rates sampled per 1000 of population, total fertility rate by state as of 2011, Malaysias population comprises many ethnic groups. People of Austronesian origin make up the majority of the population, large Chinese and Indian minorities also exist. Malays, as Bumiputra, see Malaysia as their land, however, since then racial stability has prevailed, if not full harmony. Mixed marriages are on the rise, Bumiputra status is also accorded to certain non-Malay indigenous peoples, including ethnic Thais, Khmers, Chams and the natives of Sabah and SarawakDemographics of Malaysia – A sign of a Kuala Lumpur kopi tiam that depicts the ethnic groups of Malaysia
63. Education in Malaysia – Education in Malaysia is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Although education is the responsibility of the Federal Government, each state, the main legislation governing education is the Education Act 1996. The education system is divided into preschool education, primary education, secondary education, post-secondary education, Education may be obtained from the multilingual public school system, which provides free education for all Malaysians, or private schools, or through homeschooling. By law, primary education is compulsory, as in many Asia-Pacific countries such as the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Japan, standardised tests are a common feature. Currently, there are 37 private universities,20 private university colleges, Sekolah Pondok, Madrasah and other Islamic schools were the earliest forms of schooling available in Malaysia. Early works of Malay literature such as Hikayat Abdullah mention these schools indicating they pre-date the current secular model of education, secular schools in Malaysia were largely an innovation of the British colonial government. Many of the earliest schools in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca, many English-language schools are considered quite prestigious. British historian Richard O. Winstedt worked to improve the education of the Malays and was instrumental in establishing Sultan Idris Training College with the purpose of producing Malay teachers, Richard James Wilkinson helped established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar in 1905 which aimed to educate the Malay elite. Many Malays failed to pursue additional education due to this issue and he remarked, In the fewest possible words, the Malay boy is told You have been trained to remain at the bottom, and there you must always remain. Why, I ask, waste so much money to attain this end when without any school, and without any special effort. To remedy this problem, the British established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar, most of these were single-sex schools. During the British colonial period, large numbers of immigrants from China, the Chinese and Indian communities eventually established their vernacular schools with school curricula and teachers from China and India respectively. In the 1950s, there were four initial proposals for developing the national system, the Barnes Report, Ordinance Report, the Fenn-Wu Report. The Barnes proposal was implemented through the 1952 Education Ordinance amidst Chinese protests, in 1956, the Razak Report was adopted by the Malayan government as the education framework for independent Malaya. Malay-medium schools would be known as national, while other schools would be known as national-type. Chinese secondary schools were given the options of accepting government funding and change into English national-type schools or remain Chinese, most of the schools accepted the change, although a few rejected the offer and came to be known as Chinese Independent High Schools. Shortly after the change, some of the national-type schools reestablished their Chinese independent high school branches, in the 1970s, in accordance to the national language policy, the government began to change English-medium primary and secondary national-type schools into Malay-medium national schools. The language change was made starting from the first year in primary school, then the second year in the following yearEducation in Malaysia – Batu Pahat High School in Johor.
64. Healthcare in Malaysia – Healthcare in Malaysia is mainly under the responsibility of the governments Ministry of Health. Infant mortality rate – a standard in determining the efficiency of healthcare – in 2005 was 10, comparing favourably with the United States. Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 74 years, healthcare in Malaysia has undergone radical transformations. Earliest pre-colonial medical care was confined to traditional remedies current among local populations of Malays, Chinese, Indian, the advent of colonialism brought western medical practice into the country. Malaysia has a system of health care. It implements a universal system, which exists along the private healthcare system. Infant mortality rate, a standard in determining the efficiency of healthcare, in 2005 was 10, comparing favourably with the United States. Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 74 years, infant mortality fell from 75 per 1000 live births in 1957 to 7 in 2013. Healthcare in Malaysia is divided into private and public sectors, public provision is rather basic, especially in rural areas. This has meant an increase of more than RM2 billion. Over the last couple of years, they have increased their efforts to overhaul the systems, the government hospitals have the countrys best healthcare equipment and facilities apart from having specialists in the field. However, yhe main drawback is the shortage of staff in public hospitals compare to number of patients seeking treatment has led to long queues, private hospitals are mostly located at urban areas and are equipped with the latest diagnostic and imaging facilities. Private hospitals were not seen as an investment, it has often taken up to ten years before companies have seen any profits. The Government has also been trying to promote Malaysia as a health care destination, Government agencies have invested heavily in healthcare companies. About a third of private hospital beds are in concerns with government investment and this has meant an overall increase of more than RM2 billion. Another issue is the overperscription of drugs, though this has decreased in recent years, over the last couple of years, the Malaysian Health Ministry has increased its efforts to overhaul the system and attract more foreign investment. The Malaysian government has developed a National Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan which serves as a time bound guide for preparedness and response plan for influenza pandemic. Since the Nipah virus outbreak in 1999, the Malaysian Health Ministry have put in place processes to be prepared to protect the Malaysian population from the threat of infectious diseasesHealthcare in Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur Hospital
65. Languages of Malaysia – The indigenous languages of Malaysia belong to the Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian families. The national, or official, language is Malay which is the tongue of the majority Malay ethnic group. The main ethnic groups within Malaysia comprise the Malays, Chinese and Indians, with other ethnic groups represented in smaller numbers. The largest native languages spoken in East Malaysia are the Iban, Dusunic, English is widely understood in service industries and is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary school. It is also the language spoken in most private colleges and universities. Malaysia contains speakers of 137 living languages,41 of which are found in Peninsula Malaysia, the government provides schooling at the primary level in each of the three major languages, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil. Within Malay and Tamil there are a number of dialectal differences, there are a number of Chinese languages native to the ethnic Chinese who originated from southern China, which include Yue, Min and Hakka Chinese. The official language of Malaysia is known as Bahasa Malaysia and it is a standardised form of the Malay language. There are 10 dialects of Malay used throughout Malaysia, Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots. A variant of the Malay language that is spoken in Brunei is also spoken in East Malaysia. Citizens of Minangkabau, Bugis or Javanese origins, who can be classified Malay under constitutional definitions may also speak their respective ancestral tongues, the native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the tribal language in Sarawak while Dusun and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Some of these languages remain strong, being used in education, Sabah has tenth sub-ethnic languages, Bajau, Bruneian, Murut, Lundayeh/Lun Bawang, Rungus, Bisaya, Iranun, Sama, Suluk and Sungai. There are over 30 native groupings, each of which has its own dialect and these languages are in danger of dying out, unlike the major ones such as Kadazandusuns which have developed educational syllabuses. Iban also has developed an educational syllabus, Languages on the peninsular can be divided into three major groups, Negrito, Senoi, and Malayic, further divided into 18 subgroups. The Semai is used in education, Thai is also spoken in northern parts of Peninsular especially in Northern Kedah and Langkawi, Perlis, Northern Perak, Northern Terengganu, and Northern Kelantan. Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English, English used with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. Most Malaysians are conversant in English, as most Malaysian Chinese have ancestry from the southern provinces of China, various southern Chinese varieties are spoken in MalaysiaLanguages of Malaysia – A sign showing common languages in Malaysia: Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil
66. Water supply and sanitation in Malaysia – This article has been written in December 2010 with a partial update in May 2015. Water supply and sanitation in Malaysia is characterised by numerous achievements, universal access to water supply at affordable tariffs is a substantial achievement. The government has stated its intention not to embark on new private sector contracts for water provision. A number of challenges remain, only some of which have been addressed by the reforms, first, tariffs are low, thus making cost recovery impossible at current levels so that the sector continues to depend on government subsidies. Second, water losses as well as per capita water use remain high despite efforts at water demand management, third, a large-scale water transfer project from the Pahang River to Kuala Lumpur is controversial because of its negative social and environmental impacts. Fourth, the development of sewerage and wastewater treatment has lagged behind the development of water infrastructure, for example, much of the collected wastewater is not yet being treated. The sanitation sub-sector has been excluded in the 2006 reforms of the water supply sub-sector, Water resources in Malaysia are abundant and available throughout the year. They are estimated at 580 km3/year, equivalent to more than 3,000 cubic meters per capita, in 1995, total water withdrawal was estimated at 12.5 km3, or less than 3 percent of available resources. 76 percent of water was used for agriculture,11 percent for water supply and 13 percent for industries. Thus only less than 1% of available resources is used for drinking water supply. Malaysia is geographically divided in Peninsular Malaysia and Eastern Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia is drained by a dense network of rivers and streams, the longest being the Pahang River. Other major rivers in the peninsular Malaysia are the Kelantan River, Terengganu River, Dungun, Endau River, Sedili Besar River, the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is more urbanised and industrialised than the sparsely populated and water-rich East Coast. Major rivers in Eastern Malaysia include Malaysia’s longest river, the Rajang River in Sarawak, the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state, which surrounds the capital, are the industrial heartland of the country and home to almost half its population. The constant growth of the area increases its water needs. In 1998 the main sources of supply for the area were the Ampang intake built in 1906, the Klang Gates Dam built in 1928. In February 1998 a water crisis had occurred as water levels in all three reservoirs dropped simultaneously, Water rationing had to be introduced shortly before the Commonwealth Games were held in the city. The crisis was blamed on a drought induced by El Nino, however, actual rainfall in the preceding months had not been significantly below average. The government used the crisis to justify plans to build a mega project, the project includes the construction of the Kelau dam on the Pahang river in the neighbouring state bearing the same name, as well as the transfer of water via a tunnel through a mountain rangeWater supply and sanitation in Malaysia – Surface water stored in reservoirs, such as this reservoir supplying Penang, are the most important source of drinking water supply in Malaysia
67. Women in Malaysia – Women in Malaysia receive support from the Malaysian government concerning their rights to advance, to make decisions, to health, education and social welfare, and to the removal of legal obstacles. The Malaysian government has ensured these factors through the establishment of Ministry of National Unity and this was followed by the formation of the Womens Affairs Ministry in 2001 to recognise the roles and contributions of Malaysian women. 47% of Malaysian women are in the workforce, the issue of womens rights in the country is subject to ideological disagreements between conservative and liberal interpretations of Islam, and between more secular forces. Non-Muslim women, and Muslim women in four states, enjoy equal parental rights, there may be employment discrimination against women, but not due to any Islamic ruling. In Kedah State, women performers can appear only before female audiences, sexual harassment is common, and since 2010 trains on the Malaysian Railway have included pink-coloured women-only cars as a means of cutting down on it. There are also buses in Kuala Lumpur since 2010. In 2011, the government launched a women-only taxi service in the greater Kuala Lumpur area, the taxis have women drivers, and operate on an on-call basis. Female genital mutilation is practiced in Malaysia, with an estimated of more than 90% of women from Muslim families having undergone the practice, reasons cited for the performance of FGM include religious obligation, hygiene, cultural practices, and the belief that it prevents pre-marital sex. However, the form of FGM practiced in the country is not as severe as in parts of the world, such as Northeast Africa. Women in Malaysia have certain protections from domestic violence, including the Domestic Violence Act 1994, under the Penal Code, women may charge their husbands for acts of abuse such as physical violence or threats - the only criminal offense with a marital exemption is Rape. According to one study, in Malaysia, 39% of women above 15 years of age have been abused by their partners. Domestic violence is seen as a public issue, Women’s Aid Organisation has introduced a SMS helpline for victims of DV. There is controversy as to what acts constitute DV, either under the Domestic Violence Act 1994 or under the Penal Code, the debate is on what type of coercion may a husband use to compel his wife to perform her duties. The approach to DV in Malaysia has been criticized as weak, Women in Malaysia have restrictions in marriage, although some of their rights are protected. Under the Islamic Family Law, the maintenance by her husband is conditioned by her obedience. However, some rights of the wife are protected by the Married Women Act,1957,4 - Capacity of married women. The literacy rate is lower for females compared to males - estimates as of 2010, for population aged 15, Malaysia, has, in recent years invested in the education of both sexes, and as a result, more girls are now studying at the university level. Mahathirs remarks were made in response to a new Islamic law that enables men to divorce or take up to four wives, the law also granted husbands more authority over their wives propertyWomen in Malaysia – A designated coach of a train for women only at Kuala Lumpur Railway Station.
68. Culture of Malaysia – The culture of Malaysia draws on the varied cultures of the different people of Malaysia. The first people to live in the area were tribes that still remain, they were followed by the Malays. Chinese and Indian cultural influences made their mark when trade began with those countries, other cultures that heavily influenced that of Malaysia include Persian, Arabic, and British. The many different ethnicities that currently exist in Malaysia have their own unique and distinctive cultural identities, arts and music have a long tradition in Malaysia, with Malay art dating back to the Malay sultanates. Traditional art was centred on such as carving, silversmithing. Islamic taboos restricted artwork depicting humans until the mid-20th century, performing arts and shadow puppet shows are popular, and often show Indian influences. Various influences can be seen in architecture, from individual cultures in Malaysia, large modern structures have been built, including the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers. Malaysian music has a variety of origins, and is based around percussion instruments. Much early Malaysian literature was based on Indian epics, which remained unchanged even as Malays converted to Islam, English literature remained restricted to the higher class until the arrival of the printing press. Locally created Chinese and Indian literature appeared in the 19th century, cuisine is often divided along ethnic lines, but some dishes exist which have mixed foods from different ethnicities. Each major religious group has its major holy days declared as official holidays, official holidays differ by state, the most widespread one is Merdeka day which celebrates the independence of Malaya. Although festivals often stem from an ethnic background, they are celebrated by all people in Malaysia. Traditional sports are popular in Malaysia, while it has become a powerhouse in international sports such as badminton, Malaysia hosted the Commonwealth Games in 1998, the first Commonwealth Games where the torch passed through more countries than England and the host. This especially affected language, only Malay texts are considered official cultural texts, government control over the media is strong, and most media outlets are related to the government in some way. Malaysia consists of two geographical regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Malaysia was formed when the Federation of Malaya merged with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore in 1963, UMNO has dominated the coalition from its inception. Although Islam is the state religion, the Constitution of Malaysia guarantees freedom of religion. Malaysia is a multi–ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society, the society of Malaysia has been described as Asia in miniatureCulture of Malaysia – A magnet depicting the ethnic groups of Malaysia
69. Malaysian cuisine – Malaysian cuisine consists of cooking traditions and practices found in Malaysia, and reflects the multiethnic makeup of its population. The vast majority of Malaysias population can roughly be divided among three ethnic groups, Malays, Chinese and Indians. This resulted in a symphony of flavours, making Malaysian cuisine highly complex, Chilli peppers are indispensable to Malaysian kitchens, and both fresh and dried chilies are used. Chillies come in sizes, shapes and even colours. Green chillies are more peppery in taste while red chillies, green chillies which have left to ripen, have a slightly sweeter heat. If a milder flavour is preferred, the seeds and membranes would be removed from the pods before it is cut, or the chillies would be left whole. Some common uses include but are not limited to grinding the chillies into a paste or sambal, chopping fresh chillies as a condiment or garnish, Belacan is essential to Malaysian cooking. It is a type of paste which is pressed into a block. In its raw form it has a pungent, and some would say awful. Once cooked however, the shrimp pastes aroma and flavour mellows out, to prepare belacan for use, a typical method involves wrapping a small amount of the shrimp paste block in foil, which is then roasted over a flame or placed into a pre-heated oven. Belacan is most commonly pounded or blended with local chilli peppers, shallots and lime juice to make the most popular and ubiquitous relish in Malaysia, sambal belacan. Belacan is also crumbled into a spice paste called rempah, which will usually include garlic, ginger, onions or shallots. The coconut is another feature of Malaysian cuisine, and virtually all parts of the plant are used for culinary purposes. The white fleshy part of the endosperm is grated, shredded and used as it is, dried to make desiccated coconut, or toasted until dark brown. Grated coconut flesh is also squeezed to obtain milk, which is used extensively in savoury dishes. Coconut oil is used for cooking and cosmetic purposes, and may be obtained either from processing copra or extracted from fresh coconuts as virgin coconut oil. Coconut water, the liquid found inside the cavity of each coconut, is a popular cooler in Malaysias hot. Gula melaka is unrefined palm sugar produced from the sap of the coconut flower and it is the most traditional sweetener in Malaysian cooking and imbues a rich caramel-like flavour with a hint of coconutMalaysian cuisine – Street food – a cook preparing murtabak at a mamak stall
70. Malay folklore – They include among others, themes and subject matter related to the indigenous knowledge of the ethnic Malays and related ethnic groups within the region. The stories within this system of lore often incorporate supernatural entities, others relate to creation myths and place naming legends that are often inter-twined with historical figures and events. Ancient rituals for healing and traditional medicine as well as complex philosophies regarding health, the oral forms of this lore are transmitted primarily through nursery rhymes, folksongs, theatrical exhibitions, and stories that are commonly told from parent to child. The oral traditions are often integrated with moral values and some may also include stories of talking animals, of all the types of oral transmission, those in the form of music appear to be most pervasive in Malay society. They are also utilized in the ceremonial functions in royal weddings, in rites of ascension and royal birthday celebrations. Every region or each of the states may employ different versions of oral transmission, the Middle Eastern-influenced ghazal can be heard in the southern Malaysian state of Johor especially is the district of Muar. Forms of nursery rhymes and lullabies are sung at weddings and cultural festivals in the state of Melaka by Malays. The contents of the songs are mostly to do with advise on love, life, many of these songs are in the form of stories weaved into poetry or simple rhyme. However, due to the nature of inter-mingling and mutual co-migrations within these areas the folksongs may also be heard in far from their original geographic origins. Stories of love and romance of princes and princesses, kings and queens, the fact that numerous royal courts existed and still exist in Southeast Asia supplied the basis of the stories. These stories are told by professional story tellers called penglipur lara. The few penglipur lara that exist today are farmers or at least rural villagers. In the past, travelling penglipur lara would carry the stories from one kampung to another, making the stops at marketplaces. The essence of the remain the same but sometimes, adjustments are made according to the individual story-tellers preference. Animal fables are often used to explain natural phenomena. Other times, they are moral tales. In almost all instances, the animals in these stories possess the ability to speak, reason and think like humans, the kancil or mouse-deer serves as the main character in a number of the stories. The Malays regard this humble animal in the highest esteem due to its ability to overcome obstacles and defeat adversaries despite of its rather small, the mouse-deer appears in the state herald of Melaka and even plays a part in the legend of Malaccas foundingMalay folklore – A dancer performing the Ulek Mayang. Manifested in a dance and healing ceremony, it narrates a mystical tale about the sea spirits in a forbidden love with a fisherman.
71. Media of Malaysia – The media of Malaysia include television, radio, newspapers, and web-based media such as bloggers. Many media outlets are owned directly by the government of Malaysia or owned by component parties of the Barisan Nasional coalition government. Two opposition parties, PAS and PKR, publish their own newspapers, respectively Harakah and Suara Keadilan, there are over 30 newspapers and tabloids published mainly in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil. The most prominent newspapers include The Star, New Straits Times, theSun, Berita Harian, Utusan Malaysia, Sin Chew Jit Poh, state-owned RTM operates two free-to-air terrestrial local television channels licensed to broadcast in Malaysia, as well as 34 radio channels nationwide. Meanwhile, Media Prima is the parent company of four television channels, privately owned by Astro All Asia networks plc, Astro is Malaysias current only satellite television provider. There are 200 channels to choose from at an amount of RM49.95 per month. Astro had 20 radio channels, of which 17 are Astro-branded radio stations, hyppTV by UniFi is one of Malaysias IPTV provider but to take the TV package, the customer must select at least one internet package, from RM149 per month to RM350 per month. ABNXcess is Malaysias only cable provider and has over 180 channels at a price of RM55 per month for the first year then RM80 for every subsequent year. The regulated freedom of the press has been criticised, legislation such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression. The move was condemned by politicians from the opposition Democratic Action Party, the directive was later withdrawn by the Energy, Water and Communications Ministry. Malaysia was ranked 141 out of 178 countries in the Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders in 2010 and 122 out of 179 countries in 2012, the ban was imposed before the 1 May 1969 general election in MalaysiaMedia of Malaysia – Opposition newspapers with some pro-government newspapers on sale in Kuala Lumpur, from bottom Sinar Harian, Harakah, Suara Keadilan and Kosmo!.
72. Malayan tiger – When in 1968 Panthera tigris corbetti was newly designated, the tigers inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula were included into this subspecies. In 2004, Panthera tigris jacksoni was recognised as a new subspecies when a genetic analysis found that they are distinct in mtDNA, in Malay language the tiger is called harimau, also abbreviated to rimau. There is no difference between the Malayan and the Indochinese tiger when specimens from the two regions are compared cranially or in pelage. Malayan tigers appear to be smaller than Indian ones, from measurements of 11 males and 8 females, the average length of a male is 8 ft 6 in, and of a female 7 ft 10 in. Body length taken from 16 female tigers in the State of Terengganu ranged from 70 to 103 in and their height ranged from 23 to 41 in, and their body weight from 52 to 195 lb. Data from 21 males in the State of Terengganu showed that total length ranged from 75 to 112 in and their height ranged from 24 to 45 in, and their body weight from 104 to 284.7 lb. The geographic division between Malayan and Indochinese tigers is unclear as tiger populations in northern Malaysia are contiguous with those in southern Thailand, in Singapore tigers were extirpated in the 1950s, and the last one shot in 1932. Most of the rivers that drain into the South China Sea had some evidence of tigers. Tiger signs were not reported from Perlis, Penang, and Malacca, and the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya in the west coast. The total potential tiger habitat was 66,211 km2, which comprised 37,674 km2 of confirmed tiger habitat,11,655 km2 of expected tiger habitat and 16,882 km2 of possible tiger habitat. All the protected areas greater than 402 km2 in size had tigers, according to the report, the decline meant that the species might have to be moved to the Critically Endangered category in the IUCN list. Malayan tigers prey on sambar deer, barking deer, wild boar, Bornean bearded pigs, Malayan tigers also prey on sun bear, young elephants and rhino calves. Whether their principal prey includes adult gaur and tapir is unknown, occasionally, livestock is also taken, however, tiger predation reduces the numbers of wild boar which can become a serious pest in plantations and other croplands. Studies indicate that in areas where predators are extinct, wild pigs are over 10 times more numerous than in areas where tigers. Information on dietary preference, morphological measurements, demographic parameters, social structure, communication, home range sizes, habitat fragmentation due to development projects and agriculture are serious threats. Commercial poaching occurs at varying levels in all range states. In Malaysia there is a domestic market in recent years for tiger meat. Tigers are included on CITES Appendix I, banning international trade, all tiger range states and countries with consumer markets have banned domestic trade as wellMalayan tiger – Malayan tiger
73. Negaraku – Negaraku is the national anthem of Malaysia. It was selected as an anthem at the time of the Federation of Malayas independence from Britain in 1957. The tune was used as the state anthem of Perak. At the time of independence, each of the states that made up the Federation of Malaya had their own anthem. Tunku Abdul Rahman, at the time the Chief Minister and Minister for Home Affairs, on his suggestion, a worldwide competition was launched. 514 entries were received from all over the world, next the committee decided to invite selected composers of international repute to submit compositions for consideration. They were all turned down too, the Committee then turned to the Perak State Anthem. On 5 August 1957, it was selected on account of the flavour of its melody. New lyrics for the anthem were written jointly by the Panel of Judges— with the Tunku himself playing the leading role. At the time this melody was, while still the State Anthem of Perak, the song had been very popular on the island of Mahé in the Seychelles, where the Sultan of Perak had formerly been living in exile. Realising that his state did not in fact possess an anthem, he, in not to appear backward in front of his hosts. The song was introduced into an Indonesian Bangsawan, which was performing in Singapore around 1940. In no time at all, the melody became popular and was given the name Terang Bulan. Aside from its dignity and prestige as the Perak State Anthem, the anthem was given a new quick march beat in 1992, which proved unpopular. Some Malaysians have gone as far as to say that the altered tempo resembled circus music, and was the subject of much derision. In July 2003, it was reported in the Malaysian press that the anthem would be rearranged for the time after that. There was an outcry of dismay and the change of name was scrapped. This love song was performed using jazz instruments on a dance beatNegaraku – Pierre-Jean de Béranger, the creator of a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie", from which this song was adopted.
74. Flag of Malaysia – In blazon, the Malaysian flag is described as, A banner Gules, seven bars Argent, the canton Azure charged with decrescent and mullet of fourteen points Or. This means a red flag with seven white stripes, the upper-left quarter is blue with a yellow waning crescent. The flag of Malaysia, which was first raised on 16 September 1963, prior to the creation of the national flag, each state in Malaya had its own flag, many of which are unchanged in design to this day. When the Federation of Malaya replaced the short lived Malayan Union, three flags were forwarded to the public. The first flag had 11 white stars with two Malay kris in the middle against a blue backdrop, the second flag concentric circle of 11 stars around crossed keris on a blue field. The third had 11 alternate red and white stripes and a yellow crescent, the third design, by Mohamad Hamzah of the Public Works Department, was chosen as the winner through a public poll held by The Malay Mail. Since Malaya was fighting the communists during the Malayan Emergency, the star had an ironic resemblance to the communists symbols. Therefore, the star was modified to six more points. The Malayan flag was approved by King George VI on 19 May 1950 and was first raised in front of Istana Selangor on 26 May 1950, on 31 August 1957, it was raised upon independence at Merdeka Square in place of the British Union Flag. The Malayan flag was designed by Mohamed Hamzah, a 29-year-old architect working for the Public Works Department in Johor Baharu and he entered the Malayan flag design competition in 1947 with two designs that he completed within two weeks. The first design was a flag with blue kris in the middle. The second design, which was among the three finalists, was similar to the current flag but with a five-pointed star and it borrows major design elements from the East India Company flag, notably the red and white stripes. The competition attracted 373 entries and voting was made by the public via post. Malayan senior statesman Dato Onn Jaafar met with Mohamed Hamzah after he won the competition, Mohamed Hamzah died just short of his 75th birthday on 13 February 1993 in Jalan Stulang Baru, Kampung Melayu Majidee, Johor. Following the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, the design of the Malayan flag was modified to reflect and honour the new states in the federation. When Kuala Lumpur was designated a Federal Territory on 1 February 1974, the additional stripe, during the National Day celebrations, everyone is encouraged to fly the Jalur Gemilang at their homes, office buildings, shops and corporate premises. If the flag is fixed at home, it is to be raised pointing towards the road. If the flag is put in a group of flags with state and private company flags, the flag anthem is written as dedication and pride of the Malaysian national flagFlag of Malaysia – The Malaysian flag flying above the Tourism Malaysia office in Trafalgar Square, London. The flag of Uganda is seen by its side over Uganda House.
75. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis – Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was named in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum. The Latin term rosa-sinensis literally means rose of China, though it is not closely related to the true roses. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2. 5–5 m tall and 1. 5–3 m wide, with leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer. The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers, the root is a branched tap root. The stem is aerial, erect, green, cylindrical and branched, the leaf is simple, with alternate phyllotaxy and is petiolate. The leaf shape is ovate, the tip is acute and margin is serrated, the flower is complete, actinomorphic, bracteate or ebracteate, bracteolate or ebracteolate, pedicellate, dichlamydeous, regular, pentamerous, hypogynous, and solitary. It can bloom all year round, despite its size and red hues, which are attractive to nectarivore birds, it is not visited regularly by hummingbirds when grown in the Neotropics. In the subtropical and temperate Americas, hummingbirds are attracted to it. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of many plant species with a characteristic known as polyploidy. The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are edible and are used in salads in the Pacific Islands, the flower is additionally used in hair care as a preparation. It is also used to shine shoes in certain parts of India and it can also be used as a pH indicator. When used, the flower turns acidic solutions to a pink or magenta color. It is also used for the worship of Devi, and the red variety is especially prominent, in Indonesia, these flowers are called kembang sepatu, which literally means shoe flower. In several countries the flowers are dried to use in a beverage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology. It is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics and subtropics, as it does not tolerate temperatures below 10 °C, in temperate regions it is best grown under glass. However, plants in containers may be placed outside during the months or moved into shelter during the winter months. Numerous varieties, cultivars, and hybrids are available, with colors ranging from white through yellow and orange to scarlet and shades of pink. The cultivar Cooperi has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia, called Bunga Raya in MalayHibiscus rosa-sinensis – Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
76. Outline of Malaysia – Malaysia comprises thirteen states and three federal territories with a total land area of 329,847 square kilometres. The capital of Malaysia is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, the population stands at over 25 million. The country is separated into two regions—Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo—by the South China Sea, Malaysia borders Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The country is located near the equator and experiences a tropical climate, Malaysia is headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and politically led by a Prime Minister. The government is closely modeled after the Westminster parliamentary systemOutline of Malaysia – An enlargeable map of Malaysia