|The Mediterranean Portal|
|The Mediterranean Portal|
1. Mediterranean – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a surface area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
2. Continent – A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia. In geology, areas of continental crust include regions covered with water. Islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into geopolitical regions. By convention, "ideally separated by expanses of water." Many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. From this perspective the edge of the continental shelf is the true edge of the continent, as shorelines vary with changes in sea level. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia and the island of New Guinea together form a continent. As a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa. Extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the entire land surface of the Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent be a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions. Of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by ocean.Continent – The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
3. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
4. Asia – Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometers, 8.7 % of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. The western boundary with Europe is a cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A.D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Overall population growth has since fallen. Given its diversity, the concept of Asia -- a name dating back to classical antiquity -- may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Suez Canal. This makes a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg.Asia – Two-point equidistant projection of Asia and surrounding landmasses.
5. Africa – Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. With billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15 % of the world's human population. The continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognized de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the median age was 30.4. Algeria is Nigeria by population. Africa encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, languages. In the 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa. Most present states in Africa originate in the 20th century. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have originally referred to a Libyan tribe; see Terence #Biography for discussion. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran originally from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land.Africa – Map of Africa
6. Southern European – Some definitions of southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula, the Italian peninsula, Southern France, Greece and Malta. Different methods can be used to define southern Europe, including its political, economic, cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features -- flora. Geographically, southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, with no clear limits. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar landscapes including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees. Cooler climates can be found in certain parts of Southern European countries, for example within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy. Additionally, the north coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate. Southern Europe's flora is that of the Mediterranean Region, one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan. The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and Roman legions. It promoted Greek culture. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western Roman Empire based in Rome, the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire.Southern European – Geographic features of countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
7. Iberian Peninsula – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnᵻnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the third largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas. At that time, the name did not describe a distinct population of people. Strabo's Iberia included the entire land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks discovered the Iberian Peninsula by voyaging westward. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term around 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." Polybius identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are to be distinguished from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians".Iberian Peninsula – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
8. Italian Peninsula – The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe. It extends 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives the nickname lo Stivale. Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria, Salento and Gargano. Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan -- Emilian Apennines. It excludes the southern slopes of the Alps. All of the peninsula lies except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City. The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains, from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs. The Italian Peninsula's location between the centre of the Mediterranean Sea made it the target of many conquests. The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate, though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior. Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area: Apennine Mountains Roman Republic Roman Italy Insular Italy Media related to Italian Peninsula at Wikimedia CommonsItalian Peninsula – Satellite view of the peninsula in March 2003.
9. Balkan Peninsula – The Balkan Peninsula, or the Balkans, is a peninsula and a cultural area in Southeast Europe with different and disputed borders. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch to the Black Sea. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala 2,925 metres in the Rila range. From Antiquity through the Middle Ages, the Balkan Mountains had been called by the local Thracian name Haemus. According to Greek mythology, the Thracian king Haemus was turned by Zeus as a punishment and the mountain has remained with his name. A reverse scheme has also been suggested. D. Dechev considers that Haemus is derived from ` mountain ridge'. A third possibility is that "Haemus" derives from the Greek word "haema" meaning'blood'. The myth relates to a fight between the monster/titan Typhon. Typhon's blood fell on the mountains from which they got their name. The earliest mention of the name appears in an early Arab map, in which the Haemus mountains are referred to as Balkan. The Ottomans first mention it in a document dated from 1565. There exists also a claim about an earlier Bulgar Turkic origin of the word popular in Bulgaria, however it is only an unscholary assertion. In Turkish Balkan means "a chain of wooded mountains", while in Bulgarian language the word balkan means "mountain". Another possibility to its etymology is related to i.e. swampy forest.Balkan Peninsula – The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube - Sava - Kupa line
10. Pyrenees – The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between France and Spain, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. The demonym in English is Pyrenean. In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. The Greek historian Herodotus says Pyrene is the name of a town in Celtic Europe. Hercules, characteristically lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains. … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder rejects it as fabulosa, highly fictional. The Spanish Pyrenees are part from east to west: Girona, Barcelona, Lleida, Huesca, Navarra and Gipuzkoa. The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The independent principality of Andorra is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the range between the Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees. Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic, the Eastern Pyrenees.Pyrenees – Central Pyrenees
11. Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Spain – Lady of Elche
12. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
13. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 m, known as the "four-thousanders". The size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. The Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. In World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, German Alps. At present the region has 120 million annual visitors. The English Alps derives from the Latin Alpes. An ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts.Alps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
14. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
15. Central Europe – Central Europe lies between Eastern and Western Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical, cultural identity. Central Europe is going with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope or V4. While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as highly developed. Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Latin. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development. The keyword of social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns, parliaments. They agreed inspiring their late successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Even in Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged behind. Its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch’s book of 1903. On January 1904 -- Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria -- Hungary as its main aim.Central Europe – Certain and disputed borders of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I (AD 870–894)
16. Dinaric Alps – The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides is a mountain chain which spans areas of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The Dinaric Alps are the fifth most extensively mountainous area of Europe after the Caucasus Mountains, Alps, Pyrenees and Scandinavian Mountains. The Dinarides are named after Mount Dinara, Herzegovina. The Quaternary ice ages had little direct geologic influence on the Balkans. There is little evidence of extensive glaciation. Only the highest summits of Durmitor, Orjen and Prenj have glacial valleys and moraines as low as 600 m. However, in the Prokletije, a range on the northern Albanian border that runs east to west, there is evidence of major glaciation. The partially submerged Dinaric Alps form the numerous islands and harbors along the Croatian coast. The most extensive example of limestone mountains in Europe are those of the Karst of the Dinaric Alps. Here, all the characteristic features are encountered again and again through this wild and underpopulated country. Limestone is a very hard and resistant to erosion. Water is the most important force, dissolving the limestone by chemical action of its natural acidity. During subsequent millennia these work deeper, forming underground labyrinths of channels and shafts. The roofs of some of these caverns may eventually fall in, exposing the water to the surface once more. The Dinaric rivers carved many canyons characteristic in particular karst.Dinaric Alps – Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the most heavily karstified range of the Dinarides
17. Adriatic – The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along its eastern, Croatian, coast. It is divided into three basins, the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. An underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally. The water temperatures generally range from 30 ° C in summer to 12 ° C in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era. The plate's movement contributed to the formation of Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast. The western coast is terraced, while the eastern coast is highly indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity. The sea is abundant in fauna -- more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic, rare and threatened ones.Adriatic – Bay of Kotor, a ria in the Southern Adriatic
18. Balkan – The Balkan Peninsula, or the Balkans, is a peninsula and a cultural area in Southeast Europe with different and disputed borders. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch to the Black Sea. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala 2,925 metres in the Rila range. From Antiquity through the Middle Ages, the Balkan Mountains had been called by the local Thracian name Haemus. According to Greek mythology, the Thracian king Haemus was turned by Zeus as a punishment and the mountain has remained with his name. A reverse scheme has also been suggested. D. Dechev considers that Haemus is derived from ` mountain ridge'. A third possibility is that "Haemus" derives from the Greek word "haema" meaning'blood'. The myth relates to a fight between the monster/titan Typhon. Typhon's blood fell on the mountains from which they got their name. The earliest mention of the name appears in an early Arab map, in which the Haemus mountains are referred to as Balkan. The Ottomans first mention it in a document dated from 1565. There exists also a claim about an earlier Bulgar Turkic origin of the word popular in Bulgaria, however it is only an unscholary assertion. In Turkish Balkan means "a chain of wooded mountains", while in Bulgarian language the word balkan means "mountain". Another possibility to its etymology is related to i.e. swampy forest.Balkan – The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube - Sava - Kupa line
19. Rhodope Mountains – The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Its highest peak, Golyam Perelik, is the seventh highest Bulgarian mountain. The region is particularly notable for its karst areas with their deep river gorges, large caves and specific sculptured forms, such as the Trigrad Gorge. A significant part of Bulgaria's hydropower resources is located in the western areas of the range. There are a number of dams used for production, as tourist destinations. In Greece there are also the HPPs of Thisavros and Platanovrysi. The name of the Rhodope mountains has a Thracian provenance. The mountains are associated with the mythic figure of Orpheus. In geomorphological terms, the Rhodopes are part of the Rilo-Rhodope massif, the oldest landmass on the Balkan peninsula. The Rhodopes are spread over 14,735 square kilometers, of which 12,233 square kilometers are on Bulgarian territory. They have the greatest extent of any single mountain range in Bulgaria. The mountains are about 240 kilometers long and about 100 to 120 kilometres wide, with an average altitude of 785 meters. To the north the mountain slopes descend steeply towards the Upper Thracian Plain. To the west, the Rhodopes reach the Avram saddle, Yundola and the valley of the Mesta River. To the south and east they extend over the border with Greece.Rhodope Mountains – Vacha Reservoir.
20. Western Europe – Western Europe, also West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of the European continent. There may be differences between the purely geographic definitions of the term. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine Empire, survived and even thrived for another 1000 years. In East Asia, Western Europe was historically known in Japan, which literally translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty. In his writings, Ricci referred as "Matteo of the Far West". The term was still in use in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the West, influenced by the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were officially neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their economic systems.Western Europe – The Great Schism in Christianity, the predominant religion in Western Europe at the time.
21. Western Asia – Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the main difference being the exclusion of Egypt. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia is estimated at about million as of 2015. As a geographic concept, "Western Asia" includes the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian peninsula, Anatolia, Iran, South Caucasus. The Sinai Peninsula belongs to Western Asia, making a transcontinental country. The term has no "correct" or generally agreed-upon definition. The UNSD includes all other commonly West Asian listed nations. Use of the term in the context of world economy appears to date from the 1960s. Western Asia is located south of Eastern Europe. The Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut deserts in eastern Iran naturally delimit the region somewhat from Asia itself. European geographers historically viewed the North Caucasus as part of Western Asia, well as much of what is today European Russia. It also contains vast expanses of forest and fertile valleys. The region consists of grasslands, rangelands, mountains. Water shortages are a problem in many parts of West Asia, with rapidly growing populations increasing demands for water, while pollution threaten water supplies.Western Asia – A Lebanese cedar forest in winter.
22. Turkey – Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The Aegean Sea is to the south. The Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location between Europe and Asia has retained its strategic importance throughout history. Turkey has been inhabited by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia in 1243 when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. The empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Suspended by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1878, parliament were restored with the Young Turk Revolution on 24 July 1908. Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina on 6 October 1908. During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. Turkey's official language is a Turkic language spoken natively by 84.5 % of the population. According to polls, between 78.1% and 81.3% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities.Turkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
23. Levant – The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean. The Levant entered English in the late 15th century from French. It derives from the Italian Levante, meaning "implying the rising of the sun in the east. As such, it is broadly equivalent to the Arabic Mashriq, meaning "the land where the sun rises". Eventually the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine and Egypt. In 1581, England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire. Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon after World War I. This is probably the reason why the Levant has come to be used synonymously with Syria-Palestine. Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking that it derives from the name of Lebanon. The term is typically used in conjunction with prehistoric or ancient historical references. It does not include Anatolia, any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. The Sinai Peninsula is sometimes included, though more considered an intermediate, marginal area forming a land bridge between the Levant and northern African Egypt. The Levant has been described as the the "northwest of the Arabian plate". The Levant, which appeared in English in 1497, originally meant the East in general or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy". It is borrowed from the French levant ` rising', referring to the point where the sun rises.Levant – The Levantine Sea, the eastern portion of the Mediterranean.
24. Syrian Desert – The desert is very rocky and flat. The Syrian desert is part of the Al-Hamad, which covers portions of Saudi Arabia. Its border on the east is the Euphrates. In the north, the desert gives way to the more fertile areas of grass. In the south, it runs into the deserts of the southern Arabian Peninsula. Many mini-deserts exist in the Syrian Desert such as Palmyra. Damascus is located on an oasis. The desert's remarkable landscape was formed by lava flows in southern Syria. The Syrian Desert is the origin of the Syrian hamster. Some Bedouin still maintain their traditional way of life in the desert. Proto-Arabic texts written by literate Bedouin, are found throughout the Syrian Desert. These date approximately from the 1st B.C. to the 4th century A.D.. A series of Coalition military operations were relatively ineffective at removing the presence in the Desert. Arabian desert Fertile Crescent List of deserts by areaSyrian Desert
25. Negev Desert – The Negev or Naqab is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba, in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat. It contains several development towns, including Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon, well as a number including Tel as-Sabi. The origin of the word negev is from the Hebrew root denoting'dry'. In the Bible, the word Negev is also used for the direction'south'; some English-language translations use the spelling "Negeb". During the British Mandate it was called Beersheba sub-district. The Negev covers more than half of Israel, over some 13,000 km² or at least 55% of the country's land area. It forms an inverted triangle shape whose western side is contiguous with the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, whose eastern border is the Arabah valley. The Negev has a number of interesting cultural and geological features. Among the latter are three enormous, craterlike makhteshim, which are unique to the region; Makhtesh Ramon, Makhtesh Gadol, Makhtesh Katan. The Negev is a rocky desert. It is a melange of dusty mountains interrupted by deep craters. It can be split into five ecological regions: the Arabah Valley. The northern Negev, or Mediterranean zone, receives 300 mm of rain annually and has fairly fertile soils.Negev Desert – Ein Avdat in the Zin Valley in the Negev
26. Maghreb – The Maghreb, or the Greater Maghreb, is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. Historical terms for various portions of it include Mauretania, Numidia, Libya and Africa in classical antiquity. The maghrib is Arabic for "west", from the verb gharaba. In the strict sense, the definite al-maghrib denotes the country of Morocco in particular. It identified the westernmost territories that fell to the Islamic conquests of the 7th century. It is a proper noun for the present region of the Maghreb, also known politically as al-maghrib al-ʻarabīy or al-maghrib al-kabīr. The Berber language's alternative term for Tamazgha, has been popularized by Berber activists since the second half of the 20th century. The Ottoman Turks ruled the region well. Libya established the Maghreb Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market. It was envisioned initially by Muammar Gaddafi as a superstate. The union included Western Sahara implicitly under Morocco's membership, putting Morocco's cold war with Algeria to a rest. However, the union is now frozen. Tensions over Western Sahara re-emerged strongly, reinforced by the unsolved borderline issue between the two countries. These two main conflicts practically made it inactive as a whole. Western North Africa is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since from at least 10,000 BC.Maghreb – Magreb head ornament (Morocco)
27. Sahara Desert – The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world, the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic. Its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The name'Sahara' is derived from the plural Arabic language word for desert. The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia. It covers 9 million square kilometres, amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with a annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be million square kilometres. It is one of three physiographic provinces of the African physiographic division. The Sahara is mainly rocky hamada. Ergs form only a minor part, but many of the sand dunes are over 180 metres high. Rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, salt flats. Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania. The highest peak in the Sahara is a volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. Central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years. The northern limit also corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet of annual precipitation.Sahara Desert – A satellite image of the Sahara by NASA World Wind.
28. North Africa – North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nations definition of "North Africa" includes territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara. The countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, the Arabic word for "sunset". Egypt lies to the encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt. Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia. North Africa also includes a number of Spanish possessions. Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region. North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. They recede to the east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of, more than billion years old. The Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. Woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and fruits, also thrive in these areas. Most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.North Africa – Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
29. Atlas Mountains – The Atlas Mountains are a mountain range in the Maghreb. It stretches around 2,500 km through Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The range's highest peak is Jebel Toubkal, with an elevation of 4,167 metres in southwestern Morocco. It separates the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert. The Atlas mountains are primarily inhabited by Berber populations. The terms for'mountain' in some Berber languages are adrar and adras, which are believed to be cognates of the toponym Atlas. The rock of most of Africa is much older than the Atlas Mountains lying on the continent. The Atlas was formed during three subsequent phases of Earth's geology. The tectonic phase involves only the Anti-Atlas, formed in the Paleozoic Era as the result of continental collisions. North America, Europe and Africa were connected millions of years ago. The Anti-Atlas Mountains are believed to have originally been formed as part of Alleghenian orogeny. These mountains were formed when Africa and America collided, were once a chain rivaling today's Himalayas. Today, the remains of this chain can be seen in the Fall Line region in the Eastern United States. Some remnants can also be found in the later formed Appalachians in North America. A second phase took place during the Mesozoic Era.Atlas Mountains – Toubkal Mountain in Toubkal National Park in the High Atlas
30. Cyrenaica – Cyrenaica is the eastern coastal region of Libya. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca. Still in use, Cyrenaica includes all including the Kufra District. Cyrenaica borders on Tripolitania in the northwest and on Fezzan in the southwest. The region that used to be Cyrenaica officially until 1963 has formed several shabiyat, the administrative divisions of Libya, since 1995. The 2011 Libyan Civil War started in Cyrenaica, which came largely under the control of the National Transitional Council for most of the war. This mass is divided into two blocks. The Jebel Akhdar extends parallel to the coast from the Gulf of Sidra to the Gulf of Bomba, reaches an elevation of 872 meters. There is no continuous coastal plain, the longest strip running from the recess of Gulf of Sidra past Benghazi to Tolmeita. Thereafter, except for deltaic patches at Susa and Derna, the shore is all precipitous. A steep escarpment separates the coastal plain from a relatively level plateau, known as the Marj Plain, which lies at about 300 meters elevation. Above the Marj Plain lies a dissected plateau at about 700 meters elevation, which contains the highest peaks in the range. The plant communities of this portion of Cyrenaica include forest, woodland, steppe, oak savanna. Small areas of maquis are found on north-facing slopes near the sea, becoming more extensive on the lower plateau. Juniperus phoenicea, Ceratonia siliqua are common tree and large shrub species in the maquis.Cyrenaica – Map of Cyrenaica and Marmarica in the Roman era (Samuel Butler, 1907)
31. Libya – The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the proven oil reserves of any country in the world. Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The large city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited since the late Bronze Age. Ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire. Libya was an early center of Christianity. In the sixteenth century, the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted from 1911 to 1943. During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign. The Italian population then went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951.Libya – The temple of Zeus in the ancient Greek city of Cyrene.
32. Ceuta – Ceuta is an 18.5-square-kilometre Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a western border with Morocco. Separated by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta, along with the Spanish exclave Melilla, is one of one of two populated territories on mainland Africa. It was part of Cádiz province until 14 March 1995 when the city's Statute of Autonomy was passed. Ceuta, like the Canary Islands, was a free port before Spain joined the European Union. As of 2011, it has a population of 82,376. Its population consists of Christians, small minorities of Sephardic Jews and ethnic Sindhi Hindus. Spanish is the official language. Together with Gibraltar on the European side, it formed one of the famous "Pillars of Hercules". It changed hands approximately 400 years later when Vandal tribes ousted the Romans. After being controlled by the Visigoths, it then became an outpost of the Byzantine Empire. Ceuta was an Christian center since the fourth century. In the 7th century the Umayyads were unsuccessful. Under the leadership of the Berber Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Muslims used Ceuta as a staging ground for an assault on Visigothic Iberian Peninsula. After Julian's death, the Berbers took direct control of the city, which the indigenous Berber tribes resented.Ceuta – Ceuta, as seen from Monte Hacho
33. Autonomous cities of Spain – Spain is not a highly decentralized unitary state. Some scholars have referred without federalism". There are two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies". Neither has yet used this right. This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". All have the same parliamentary structure. While the Spanish territory was united under one crown by the 16th century, this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation. The constituent territories -- be crowns, kingdoms, principalities or dominions -- retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories also exhibited a variety of local customs, laws, currencies until the mid nineteenth century. From the 18th century onwards, the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated beyond the internal territorial boundaries. This culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served mostly for policies developed in Madrid. These were Catalonia. This gave rise along with Spanish nationalism. Therefore, social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain.Autonomous cities of Spain – A map of Iberia in 1757
34. Strait of Gibraltar – The name comes from the Rock of Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jebel Tariq named after Tariq ibn Ziyad. It is also known as the Straits of Gibraltar, the Gut of Gibraltar, Bab Al Maghrib, "Gate of the West". Europe and Africa are separated at the strait's narrowest point. Ferries cross in as little as 35 minutes. The Spanish side of the Strait is protected under El Estrecho Natural Park. On the northern side of the Strait are Spain and Gibraltar, while on the southern side are Morocco and Ceuta. Its boundaries were known as the Pillars of Hercules. There are several islets, such as the disputed Isla Perejil, that are claimed by both Morocco and Spain. Due to its location, the Strait is commonly used for illegal immigration to Europe. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Strait of Gibraltar as follows: On the West. A line joining Cape Trafalgar to Cape Spartel. On the East. A line joining Europa Point to P. Almina. The seabed of the Strait is composed of synorogenic Betic-Rif clayey flysch covered by Pliocene and/or Quaternary calcareous sourced from thriving cold water coral communities. Exposed bedrock surfaces, local sand dunes attest to the strong bottom current conditions at the present time.Strait of Gibraltar – The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. (North is to the left: The Iberian Peninsula is on the left and North Africa on the right).
35. Melilla – Melilla is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco with an area of 12.3 square kilometres. Melilla, along with Ceuta, is one of two permanently inhabited Spanish cities in mainland Africa. It was part of Málaga province until 14 March 1995 when the city's Statute of Autonomy was passed. Melilla, like Ceuta, was a free port before Spain joined the European Union. Both Spanish and Riffian-Berber are the two most widely spoken languages, with Spanish as the only official language. Melilla is officially subject to a territorial claim along with the city of Ceuta. The current Berber name of Melilla is Mřič or Mlilt which means the "white one". Melilla was later Punic trade establishment under the name of Rusadir. Later it became a part of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. Rusaddir is mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny who call it "oppidum et portus", also by Mela, by the Itinerarium Antonini. As centuries passed, it went through Byzantine and Hispano-Visigothic hands. The political history is similar to that of towns in the region of the Moroccan Rif and southern Spain. Local rule then Wattasid rulers. During the Middle Ages it was the Berber city of Mlila. Melilla was besieged during 1694 -- 1696 and 1774 -- 1775.Melilla – Port of Melilla
36. Morocco – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by large portions of desert. It has Mediterranean coastlines. Morocco has an area of 446,550 km2. The largest city is Casablanca. Major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, Nador. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Morocco remained the only North-African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was regained its independence in 1956. Culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.Morocco – Berber Roman King Ptolemy of Mauretania.
37. Monte Hacho – Monte Hacho is a low mountain that overlooks the Spanish city of Ceuta, on the north coast of Africa. According to the legend Hercules created a link between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. In classical civilization it was known as Mons Abila. It is now occupied by the Spanish army. Images of Fortaleza de HachoMonte Hacho – Monte Hacho, with Ceuta harbour in the foreground. Fortaleza de Hacho can be seen at the top of the hill.
38. Spanish army – The Spanish Army is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies - dating back to the 15th century. The Spanish army has existed continuously since the reign of Queen Isabella. During the 16th century, Habsburg Spain saw a steady growth in its military power. The Italian Wars resulted in an ultimate Spanish victory and hegemony by expelling the French. During the 16th century this formation evolved into the tercio formation. Battle tactics were developed because of Spain's inability to field sufficient cavalry forces to face the heavy French cavalry. With such numbers involved, Spain had trouble funding the effort on so many fronts. The non-payment of troops led to many events such as the Sack of Antwerp, when unpaid tercio units looted the Dutch city. The Thirty Years' War drew alongside most other European states. Nevertheless, Spanish armies continued to win major sieges throughout this period across large swathes of Europe. By the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Spain was forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic. In the second half of the century, a increasingly neglected Spanish army became infamous for being poorly equipped and rarely paid. In 1704 the old Tercios were transformed into Regiments. The first military school was created in Segovia in 1764.Spanish army – Military service in Spain (1945)
39. Pillars of Hercules – The Pillars of Hercules was the phrase, applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern Pillar, Calpe Mons, is the Rock of Gibraltar. According to Plato's account, the lost realm of Atlantis was situated beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in effect placing it in the realm of the Unknown. Renaissance tradition says the pillars bore the warning Ne plus ultra, serving as a warning to sailors and navigators to go no further. Instead of climbing the great mountain, Hercules used his superhuman strength to smash through it. By doing so, he connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and formed the Strait of Gibraltar. One part of the split mountain is Gibraltar and the other is either Monte Hacho or Jebel Musa. These two mountains taken together have since then been known as the Pillars of Hercules, though other natural features have been associated with the name. It bears the motto Plus Ultra, Latin for further beyond, implying that the pillars were a gateway. The columns of the Melqart temple at Tyre were also of religious significance. Syriac scholars were aware of the Pillars through their efforts to translate Greek scientific works into their language as well as into Arabic. The Syriac compendium of knowledge known as Ktaba d'ellat koll'ellan. Ulysses justifies endangering his sailors by the fact that his goal is to gain knowledge of the unknown. The motto along the base says Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia. The image was based on the use of the pillars in Spanish and Habsburg propaganda.Pillars of Hercules – The European Pillar of Hercules: the Rock of Gibraltar (foreground), with the North African shore in the background.
40. Jebel Musa, Morocco – Jebel Moussa is a mountain in the northernmost part of Morocco, on the African side of the Strait of Gibraltar. It is part of the Rif chain. The mountain is generally identified as the southern Pillar of Hercules, Abila Mons. To the north, it is generally identified as one of the Pillars of Hercules. The pillars of Hercules arose from one of his twelve labours. Earlier, Perseus defeated the Titan Atlas by showing the head of the Gorgon. Atlas was petrified; his hair became his shoulders became cliffs. Later, Hercules was directed to deliver them to Eurystheus. According to the legend this split in the mountain created a link between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. This link was the Strait of Gibraltar. Jebel Musa is 842 metres high. Across the Strait of Gibraltar, lie Spain and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. To the west and south is Morocco. By road, the mountain is about 72 kilometres east of Tangier. Jebel Musa is at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean.Jebel Musa, Morocco – View of Jebel Musa from Benzú, Spain
41. Carthage – The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean Sea during the first millennium BC. The Roman city was again occupied by the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, in 698. The archaeological site was first surveyed by Danish consul Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed by Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis Delattre. The Carthage National Museum was founded by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. The open-air Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under the auspices of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. The Latin Carthāgō, Carthāginis is an n-stem, as reflected in the English adjective Carthaginian. The Latin adjective pūnicus, a variant of the word "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latin—notably the Punic Wars and the Punic language. The Modern Standard Arabic قرطاج is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. Carthage was built to the north and the south. The city's location made master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had affording it great power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors. The city had 37 km in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities.Carthage – Thermes of Antoninus Pius at Carthage
42. Roman Empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman Empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
43. Vandal – They were possibly the same people as the Lugii. Around 400 the Vandals were pushed westwards again, this time by the Huns, crossing the Rhine into Gaul along with other tribes in 406. In 409, the Vandals crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, where the Hasdingi and the Silingi, settled in Gallaecia and Baetica respectively. Under king Genseric, the Vandals entered North Africa. By 439 they established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa well as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta and the Balearic Islands. They sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War of 533–4, in which Justinian I managed to reconquer the province for the Eastern Roman Empire. Renaissance and Early Modern writers characterized the Vandals as "sacking and looting" Rome. This led to the use of the term "vandalism" to describe any senseless destruction, particularly the "barbarian" defacing of artwork. The connection retains their tribal name as a toponym. Possible homelands of the Vandals in Scandinavia are Vendsyssel in Denmark and Hallingdal in Norway. The etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to wander". "Shining Vandal" is reported as one of the "Germanic Dioscuri". R. Some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to Slavs: Veneti, Wends, Lusatians or Poles.Vandal – Vandalic goldfoil jewellery from the 3rd or 4th century
44. Visigoths – The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes spread during the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or the Migration Period. Relations between the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths sacked Rome in 410. The Visigoths first settled as foederati of the Romans -- a relationship established in 418. However, they established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse. They next extended their authority at the expense of the Suebi and Vandals. In 507, however, their rule in Gaul was ended under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania. In or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted to Nicene Christianity gradually adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects. The Visigothic Code abolished the longstanding practice of applying different laws for Romans and Visigoths. Once legal distinctions were longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani. In the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of the episcopacy. In 712, a force of invading African Moors defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete. Their kingdom rapidly collapsed.Visigoths – Detail of the votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar, hanging in Madrid. The hanging letters spell [R]ECCESVINTUS REX OFFERET [King R. offers this].
45. Hispania – Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed Callaecia. The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania. One theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning "Island of the rabbit". Others "far-distant land". Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Another theory holds that the name derives from the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning place. The Iberian peninsula has long been inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo antecessor. In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the advancing migrations of modern humans. During the last ice age, the first large settlement of Europe by modern humans occurred. These were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia.Hispania – Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.
46. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
47. Muslim – A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows or practises the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. Muslims consider the Quran to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to messenger Muhammad. They also follow the sunnah practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts called hadith. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits". A female Muslim is sometimes called a Muslimah. Most Muslims will accept anyone who has publicly pronounced the declaration of faith as a Muslim. The shahadah states: the God and Muhammad is the last messenger of the God. The testimony authorized in the Quran can found in Surah 3:18 states. "There is no god except God", which in Arabic, is the exact testimony which God Himself utters, also those who possess knowledge utter. A female adherent is a muslima. Its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The Arabic muslimun is the stem IV participle of the triliteral S-L-M. A female Muslim can variously be called in their Arabic form of Muslimah, also spelled Muslima, Muslimette, Muslimess or, simply, the standard term: Muslim. General alternative designations given to Muslims include mosquegoer, masjidgoer, or archaic, dated and obsolete terms such as Muslimite or Muslimist. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim".Muslim – Afghan Muslims praying inside Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
48. Berber people – Berbers or Imazighen are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa. They are distributed in an area stretching to the Niger River. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. The majority of Berbers are predominantly Sunni Muslim. The Berber identity encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. They encompass a range of phenotypes, societies and ancestries. The unifying forces for the Berber people may be a collective identification with the Berber heritage and history. There are some twenty-five to million Berber speakers in North Africa. The majority of North Africa's population is believed to be Berber in origin, although due to Arabization most ethnic Berbers identify as Arabized Berbers. Berbers call some variant of the word i-Mazigh-en possibly meaning "free people" or "noble men". The name likely had Greek names for Berbers, Mazices. Dihya or Kahina was military leader who led a fierce Berber resistance against the Arab-Muslim expansion in North-West Africa. Kusaila was a seventh-century leader of the Awraba tribe of the Berber people and King of the Sanhadja confederation. A history by a Roman consul in Africa made the first reference of the term "barbarian" to describe Numidia. The use of the Berber spread in the period following the arrival of the Vandals during their major invasions.Berber people – Hoggar painting
49. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
50. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
51. Catalonia – Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, Tarragona. Largest city is Barcelona, the core of the seventh-most populous urban area in the European Union. Catalonia comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, with the remainder Rosselló. The official languages are the Aranese dialect of Occitan. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal the Count of Barcelona, were later called Catalonia. In the later Middle Ages Catalan literature flourished. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the Royal army in its territory, becoming a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, at a high economic costs for Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century Catalonia experienced industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained some political and cultural autonomy and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain.Catalonia – A Roman aqueduct in Tarragona.
52. Kingdom of Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Kingdom of Spain – Lady of Elche
53. Barcelona – Founded in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Besieged several times during its history, it is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is a major economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $ billion; it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand. Since 2011 it is a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club. The abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is ` BCN', also the IATA code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear.Barcelona – Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
54. Girona – Girona is the capital of of the comarca of the Gironès. Girona is located 99 km northeast of Barcelona. It is one of the Catalan cities. The historical inhabitants in the region were Iberians; Girona is the ancient Gerunda, a city of the Ausetani. Later, the Romans built a citadel there, given the name of Gerunda. The Visigoths ruled in Girona until it was conquered in 715. Finally, Charlemagne made it one of the fourteen original counties of Catalonia. Girona was wrested temporarily from the Moors, who recaptured it in 793. From this time until the moors were finally driven out, the city repeatedly changed hands and was sacked several times by the moors. Wilfred the Hairy incorporated Girona in 878. Alfonso I of Aragón declared a city in the 11th century. The ancient county later became a duchy when King Pero III of Aragon gave the title of Duke to his first-born son, John. In 1414, King Ferrando I in turn gave the title of prince of Girona to his first-born son, Alfonso. The title is currently carried by Princess Leonor of the second since the 16th century to do so. The 12th century saw the Jewish community of Girona flourish, having one of the most important Kabbalistic schools in Europe.Girona – Girona (Catalan) Gerona (Spanish)
55. Lleida – Lleida is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain. It is the city of the province of Lleida. Geographically, it is located in the Catalan Central Depression. The area has about 250,000 inhabitants. It is also the city of the Segrià comarca, as well as the largest city in the province. It had 137,387 inhabitants as of 2010, including the contiguous municipalities of Raimat and Sucs. Lleida is one of the oldest towns in Catalonia, with recorded settlements dating back to the Bronze period. Until the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the area served for an Iberian people, the Ilergetes. The town became a municipality, named Ilerda, under the reign of Augustus. It was reconquered after being ruled by the Moors for many centuries, who had conquered the town in the 8th century. In 1297, the University of Lleida was founded, becoming the third oldest in the whole of Spain. Since then, the city has been in a constant urban, demographic growth. In ancient times the city, named Iltrida and Ilerda, was the chief city of an Iberian tribe. King of the Ilergetes, Mandoni, king of the Ausetanes, defended it against the Carthaginian and Roman invasions. Under the Romans, the city was a place of considerable importance, historically as well as geographically.Lleida – La Seu Vella cathedral in Lleida
56. Tarragona – Tarragona is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of Tarragonès and Catalonia. Geographically, it is bordered by the Province of Barcelona and the Province of Lleida. The city has a population of 132,199. The real date of Tarragona is unknown. William Smith suggests that the city was probably founded by the Phoenicians, who called Tarchon, which, according to Samuel Bochart, means a citadel. It was seated on Sulcis or Tulcis on a bay of the Mare Internum, between the Pyrenees and the river Iberus. The city was capital of the province of Hispania Citerior. Subsequently, it became the capital of the province named in the Roman Empire and conventus iuridicus. Tarraco lies on the main road along the southeastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Strabo represents its population as equal to that of Carthago Nova. Sunny shores are celebrated by Martial and other poets; and its neighbourhood is described as producing good wine and flax. The city also minted coins. An inscribed base for a now lost statue of Tiberius Claudius Candidus was found in Tarragona during the nineteenth century. This important block was purchased by the British Museum in 1994.Tarragona – View of Tarragona
57. Andorra – Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, French are also commonly spoken. Andorra's tourism services an estimated million visitors annually. The euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world according to The Lancet. The origin of the Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses have been formulated. Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The pearl". Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter for fighting against the Moors.Andorra – Sant Joan de Caselles church, dating from the 11th century.
58. Aragon – Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca, Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares a nationality of Spain. Aragon's northern province of Huesca is positioned in the middle of the Pyrenees. It is home to the Aneto the highest mountain in the Pyrenees. As of 2015, the population of Aragon was 1,317,847, with slightly more than half of it living in its capital city. As of 2015, 50.45 %, live in the capital city of Zaragoza. Huesca is the only other city in the region with a population greater than 50,000. 71.8 %, live in the province of Zaragoza; 17.1 % in Huesca and 11.1 % in Teruel. The density of the region is the second lowest in Spain: only 26,8 / km2; after Castilla La Mancha. Only four cities have more than inhabitants: Zaragoza 700,000; Huesca 50,000; Teruel 35,000 and Calatayud 20,000. It is the only official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the region. The strip-shaped area in Aragon is often called La Franja. With such a low population large areas of Aragon remain wild and relatively untouched.Aragon – Loarre, one of the most important Romanesque castles in Europe
59. Valencian Community – The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populated with more than million inhabitants. It is often homonymously identified with its capital Valencia, Spain's third largest city. It is located along the Mediterranean coast in the south-east of the Iberian peninsula. It borders to the north, Aragon and Castile -- Murcia to the south. It is formed by the provinces of Castellón, Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon with the promulgation of its Furs in 1261. Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was finally reestablished to democracy. The Valencian people speak a variety of Catalan called Valencian, accounting for a third of all Catalan speakers. Valencian is a diglossic language, historically repressed in favour of Spanish, more recently during Franco's dictatorship. However, its social use continues to be threatened by Spanish due to migration from other parts of Spain, especially in the cities of València and Alicante. Furthermore, the linguistic conflict continues to be pressing, with some groups opposing the official standard based on Catalan orthography. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'.Valencian Community – Archeological site of Tossal de Manises, ancient Iberian – Greek – Carthaginian – Roman city of Akra Leuke or Lucentum
60. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
61. Catalan language – Catalan is a Romance language named after Catalonia, in northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France. It is a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the city of Alghero on the Italian island of Sardinia, where a variation of it is spoken. The Generalitat de Catalunya spends part of its annual budget in other territories. Catalan evolved around the eastern Pyrenees in the 9th century. The union of Aragon with the other territories of Spain in 1479 marked the start of the decline of the language. Catalan was banned in both states in the early 18th century. 19th-century Spain saw the officialization of the language during the Second Spanish Republic. However, the Francoist dictatorship banned the language again. There is no parallel in Europe of such community. Catalan dialects are mutually intelligible. They are divided into two blocks, Eastern and Western, differing mostly in pronunciation. "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two varieties of the same language. There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Valencian Academy of the Language in Valencia. Catalan shares many traits with its neighboring Romance languages.Catalan language – Homilies d'Organyà (12th century)
62. Aranese – In 2010, it was named the third language of the whole of Catalonia by Parliament of Catalonia. Between 65 % of the population can speak it; however, only 26 % reported being able to write in Aranese. In 2008, the Generalitat of Catalonia surveyed the population in the Val d'Aran. The survey reported that 78.2 % of the population could understand Aranese, 56.8 % could speak it, 34.8 % could write the language. Students in the Val d'Aran are required to have Aranese each week. At some levels of education, a foreign language is added to the three official languages -- usually French due to proximity -- and even 2 additional hours of English. /h/ is only pronounced in the towns of Bausen and Canejan. Foreign words which have not been adopted into Aranese also retain /h/: hardware, maharajah. / ɾ / is pronounced, at the end of a word, where it is generally silent, regardless of what follows. Notes: In practice, stressed ei tends to be pronounced: trueita pronounced as trueta. Word-final èi is often pronounced instead of: cantèi pronounced as cantè. Aranese orthography denotes where two consecutive vowels do not diphthongize, but rather form a hiatus. Some Hispanicisms are directly adopted into Aranese; for example: hasta. Aranese is regulated under unifying standards of Occitan, defined initially by Loís Alibèrt. These standards of the Conselh la Lenga Occitana have officially been recognized by the Conselh Generau d'Aran since 1999.Aranese – Aranese signage in Bossòst, Val d'Aran
63. Albania – It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. The present territory of Albania was part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe following the Balkan Wars, Albania was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. A socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations from much of the international community. In 1991, the Republic of Albania was established. Albania is a parliamentary republic. Tirana, is its financial and industrial heartland, with a population of about 800,000. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and infrastructure. Albania provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is an upper-middle economy with the service sector dominating the country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, the Union for the Mediterranean. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.Albania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
64. Algeria – Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the largest in Africa. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999. Berbers are generally considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power. Energy exports are the backbone of the economy. The national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria is the founding member of the Maghreb Union. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā ` a truncated form of the older Jazā ` ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.Algeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
65. Bosnia and Herzegovina – Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Moreover, the country was simply called "Bosnia" until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 federal units – cantons. The name is believed to have been derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast".Bosnia and Herzegovina – Mogorjelo, ancient Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century, near Čapljina
66. Croatia – Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, the Mediterranean. Its city is Zagreb, which forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with its twenty counties. Croatia has diverse, mostly continental and Mediterranean climates. Croatia's Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The country's population is million, most of whom are Croats, with the most common religious denomination being Roman Catholicism. The Croats arrived during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state by the 9th century. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatia entered a personal union in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. The fascist Croatian state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a constitutionally socialist state. On June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration.Croatia – Branimir Inscription
67. Cyprus – Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel and Palestine, southeast of Greece. The earliest human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. Cyprus was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. The resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute. The Cyprus Republic has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus, well as its territorial sea and exclusive economic area, according to international law. Another nearly 4 % of the island's area is covered by the UN zone. The international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a major destination in the Mediterranean. On 1 the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script.Cyprus – A copper mine on Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
68. Egypt – It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם. The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed more centralised society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.Egypt – The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
69. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe. Greece's population is approximately million as of 2015. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, Africa. Greece consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands. The Aegean Sea lies to the south. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. The establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church in the first century transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is one of the most visited the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.Greece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
70. Lebanon – Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to Israel to the south while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized country on the Asian continent. The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, the Druze, established themselves as well generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing a unique political system – confessionalism – a Consociationalism type of power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities.Lebanon – The Fall of Tripoli to the Egyptian Mamluks and destruction of the Crusader state, the County of Tripoli, 1289
71. Malta – Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 333 km north of Libya. The country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union. Malta has two official languages: English. King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross for the country's bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Malta's national flag. The country became a republic in 1974, although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a current member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the European Union in 2004; in 2008, it became part of the Eurozone. Catholicism is the official religion in Malta. The modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey". The ancient Greeks called the Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet", possibly due to Malta's unique production of honey; an endemic species of bee lives on the island. Another conjecture suggests that the Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth "a haven" or "port" in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary.Malta – Ġgantija megalithic temple complex
72. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco has a land border of 4.4 km, a coastline of 4.1 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by twenty percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, similar to Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. Monégasque, Italian, English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two military units. Economic development was spurred in the 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris.Monaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
73. Montenegro – Montenegro is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. Largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, his grandson Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. Large portions fell from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Austria-Hungary, its successors. Until 1851 the prince-bishops of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled the country from 1697 to 1918. On the basis of an referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year, thus regaining its statehood. Montenegro is also a candidate negotiating to join the European Union and NATO. On 2 Montenegro received an official invitation to join NATO, whereby it would be the 29th member country. This invitation was meant to start final accession talks. The country's name in most European languages reflects an adaptation of the Venetian Montenegro, roughly "Mount Black" or "black mountain". Particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain".Montenegro – Royal family at the proclamation of the Kingdom of Montenegro, King Nicholas I of Montenegro in the middle
74. Slovenia – Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It has a population of 2.06 million. It is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, NATO. Largest city is Ljubljana. Additionally, the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Hungarian languages meet here. Although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia has been strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The economic field is services, followed by industry and construction. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.Slovenia – A pierced cave bear bone, possibly flute, from Divje Babe
75. Syria – Largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Yazidis. Sunni Arabs make up the largest group in Syria. Largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In the Islamic era, Damascus was a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. A large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949 -- 71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, terminated by the 1961 Syrian d'état. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur. In the past, others believed that it was derived from the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon. The area designated by the word has changed over time. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of gyps and burnt lime.Syria – Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
76. Tunisia – Tunisia, officially the Tunisian Republic is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered to the west and southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is derived from Tunis, located on Tunisia's coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human index. In addition, Tunisia is also a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe -- with Italy -- have been forged through economic cooperation, industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Immigration began in the 12th BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated in 146 BC.Tunisia – Ancient ruins of a Roman villa at Carthage
77. List of states with limited recognition – These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past. There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being. According to declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. Proto-states often reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for entities whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. In the 1996 case Loizidou vs. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is currently in this position. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed. Some states are slow to establish relations with new states and thus do not recognise them, despite having no dispute and sometimes favorable relations. These are excluded from the list. There are 193 United Nations member states.List of states with limited recognition – Women in Somaliland, wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag.
78. Northern Cyprus – Northern Cyprus, officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is a self-declared state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus. Its southernmost point is the village of Louroujina. A coup d'état in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for military support. Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful. The Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus. Northern Cyprus is a democratic republic with an economy, dominated by the services sector. The official language is Turkish, with a distinct local dialect being spoken. The vast majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims, while religious attitudes are moderate and secular. Northern Cyprus has status in the PACE under the title "Turkish Cypriot Community". Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes to the constitution, via 13 amendments. Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus.Northern Cyprus – Sarayönü Square of Nicosia in 1969, after the division of the city
79. State of Palestine – The State of Palestine claims the West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as the designated capital. Most of the areas claimed by the State of Palestine have been occupied by Israel since 1967 in the aftermath of the Six-Day War. Its independence was declared on 15 November 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization in Algiers as a government-in-exile. In 1947, the UN adopted a plan in the remaining territory of the mandate. The plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied the West Bank. Egypt initially supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan. The annexation was ratified in 1950 but was rejected by the international community. In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel. The Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO later relocated after Black September in 1971. In spite of this decision, the PLO did not participate at the UN in its capacity of the State of Palestine's government.State of Palestine – The destroyed Palestinian Legislative Council building in Gaza City, Gaza–Israel conflict, September 2009
80. Akrotiri and Dhekelia – Akrotiri and Dhekelia, officially the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus. The territory comprises two Base Areas. The other area is the Eastern Sovereign Base Area, which includes parts of twelve village districts. The Sovereign Base Areas were created in 1960 by the London and Zurich Agreements, when Cyprus achieved independence from the British Empire. This did not affect the status of the bases. The Turkish advance halted when it reached the edge of the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area to avoid military conflict with the United Kingdom. Some Greek Cypriot refugees remain housed on land in the parts of Trachoni and Kolossi villages that fall within the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area. Locals claimed the masts would cause cancer, well as have a negative impact on wildlife in the area. As of 2010, around 3,000 troops of British Forces Cyprus are based at Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Ayios Nikolaos Station, in the ESBA, is an ELINT station of the UKUSA Agreement network. The election of left-wing Demetris Christofias as Cypriot president in February 2008 prompted concern in the United Kingdom. Their review did not mention the issue. Not to set up and administer "colonies". Not to create customs posts or other frontier barriers between the Sovereign Base Areas and the Republic. Not to establish commercial or civilian seaports or airports.Akrotiri and Dhekelia – A US Marine Corps CH-53 helicopter at RAF Akrotiri.
81. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
82. Gibraltar – Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 and shares its northern border with Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region. At its foot is a densely populated city area, home to over 30,000 Gibraltarians and other nationalities. An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar to the Spanish throne. The territory was subsequently ceded to Britain "in perpetuity" under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Today Gibraltar's economy is based largely on tourism, shipping. The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations as Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians overwhelmingly rejected proposals again in 2002. The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq, meaning "Mountain of Tariq". Earlier, it was known as one of the Pillars of Hercules. The pronunciation of the name in modern Spanish is. Within recorded history, the first inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BC. Subsequently, Gibraltar became known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. The Carthaginians and Romans also established semi-permanent settlements.Gibraltar – View of the northern face of the Moorish Castle 's Tower of Homage. Built in the 14th century, it is the only Marinid construction outside Africa.
83. Kosovo – Kosovo is a disputed territory and partially recognised state in Southeast Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo. Kosovo is landlocked in the central Balkan Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pristina. While Serbia recognises administration of the territory by Kosovo's elected government, it still continues to claim it as its own Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In antiquity, the Dardanian Kingdom, later the Roman province of Dardania was located in the region. On 17 February 2008 Kosovo's Parliament declared independence. It has since gained diplomatic recognition by Taiwan. Serbia refuses to recognise Kosovo as a state, although with the Brussels Agreement of 2013 it has accepted the legitimacy of Kosovo institutions. The entire region is commonly referred to in English simply as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova or Kosovë. The name of the plain was applied to the Kosovo Province created in 1864. This arrangement, dubbed the "asterisk agreement" was agreed in an 11-point arrangement agreed on 24 February 2012. By the declaration in 2008, its long name became "Republic of Kosovo". As such, it is difficult to locate any such group with precision. The Dardani, whose ethno-linguistic affiliation is difficult to determine, were a prominent group in the region during the late Hellenistic and Roman eras. The area was then conquered by Rome in the 160s BC, incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum in 59 BC.Kosovo – The Sinan Pasha Mosque and old stone bridge in Prizren