1. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
2. Middle power – In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition. The concept of the middle power dates back to the origins of the European state system, in the late 16th century, Italian political thinker Giovanni Botero divided the world into three types of states – grandissime, mezano and piccoli. According to Botero, a mezano or middle power. has sufficient strength, no agreed standard method defines which states are middle powers. Some researchers use Gross National Product statistics to draw lists of middle powers around the world, economically, middle powers are generally those that are not considered too big or too small, however that is defined. Economics is not always the defining factor, under the original sense of the term, a middle power was one that had some degree of influence globally but did not dominate in any one area. This usage is not universal, and some define middle power to include nations that can be regarded as regional powers, however, emerging and traditional middle powers can be distinguished in terms of their mutually-influencing constitutive and behavioural differences. Constitutively, traditional middle powers are wealthy, stable, egalitarian, social democratic, emerging middle powers by contrast are semi-peripheral, materially inegalitarian and recently democratised states that demonstrate much regional influence and self-association. According to Enrico Fels from the University of Bonn, Firstly, just like great powers, finally, with regards to security and related to the first first point, a middle power must be militarily self-sufficient enough to inflict great costs upon an actively aggressive great power. Under this definition however, nuclear-armed states like India and Pakistan, Middle powers are states who commit their relative affluence, managerial skills, and international prestige to the preservation of the international order and peace. Middle powers perform these internationalist activities because of an idealistic imperative they associate with being a middle power and this imperative was particularly profound during the most intense periods of the Cold War. According to Soeya Yoshihide, Middle Power does not just mean a states size or military or economic power, rather, middle power diplomacy is defined by the issue area where a state invests its resources and knowledge. Middle powers are the force in the process of transnational institutional-building. Characteristics of middle power diplomacy include, Commitment to multilateralism through global institutions, high degree of civil society penetration in the countrys foreign policy. The term first entered Canadian political discourse after World War II, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, for example called Canada a power of the middle rank and helped to lay out the classical definition of Canadian middle power diplomacy. When he was advocating for Canadas election to the United Nations Security Council, in March 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd defined his countrys foreign policy as one of middle power diplomacy, along the lines of similar criteria. Australia would influence international decision-makers on issues such as economic, security. The overlaps between the lists of middle powers and great powers show that there is no agreement among authorities. Some academics also believe that Germany and Japan are great powers, lists are often the subject of much debate and tend to place comparatively large countries alongside relatively smaller onesMiddle power – Leaders of the G-20 countries and others present at the 2008 G-20 Washington summit. Most members of the G-20 are middle powers while some are great powers.
3. Newly industrialized country – The category of newly industrialized country is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed countrys status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, another characterization of NICs is that of countries undergoing rapid economic growth. Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of an NIC, NICs usually share some other common features, including, Strong political leaders. A switch from agricultural to industrial economies, especially in the manufacturing sector, an increasingly open-market economy of developed nations, allowing free trade with other countries in the world. Large national corporations operating in several continents, Strong capital investment from foreign countries. Political leadership in their area of influence, rapid growth of urban centers and population. There is a distinction between these countries and the countries now considered NICs. All four economies are classified as high-income economies by the World Bank and Advanced economies by the International Monetary Fund, all of them, like Western European countries, have a Human Development Index considered very high by the UN. The table below presents the list of countries consistently considered NICs by different authors, turkey and South Africa are classified as developed countries by the CIA. Turkey was a member of the OECD in 1961 and Mexico joined in 1994. The G8+5 group is composed of the original G8 members in addition to China, India, Mexico, South Africa, note, Green-colored cells indicate higher value or best performance in index, while yellow-colored cells indicate the opposite. For China and India, the population of these two countries means that per capita income will remain low even if either economy surpasses that of the United States in overall GDP. When GDP per capita is calculated according to purchasing power parity, GDP per capita typically is an indicator for living standards in a given country as well. This group is expected to expand to G14 by adding Egypt alongside the five forementioned countries, authors set lists of countries accordingly to different methods of economic analysis. Sometimes a work ascribes NIC status to a country that other authors dont consider NIC and this is the case of countries such as Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Russia. NICs usually benefit from low wage costs, which translates into lower input prices for suppliers. This comparative advantage is often criticized by advocates of the trade movement. Critics of NICs argue economic freedom is not always associated with freedom in countries such as China, pointing out that Internet censorshipNewly industrialized country – Newly industrialized countries as of 2013 [update].
4. List of countries by GDP (nominal) – Gross domestic product is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, such fluctuations may change a countrys ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population. Comparisons of national wealth are also made on the basis of purchasing power parity. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures, india has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of neoliberal reforms in the early 1990s. When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world and it was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union, to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States. Several economies which are not considered to be countries are included in the lists because they appear in the sources as distinct economies and these economies are italicized and not ranked in the charts, but are listed where applicable. List of countries by GDP List of countries by GDP per capita List of countries by GDP per capitaList of countries by GDP (nominal) – A map of world economies by size of GDP (nominal) in USD, World Bank, 2014.
5. List of countries by GDP (PPP) – This article includes a list of countries by their gross domestic product, the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year. Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, the GDP dollar data given on this page are derived from purchasing power parity calculations. It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries, PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index. These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods. The first table includes estimates for the year 2016, for all current 187 International Monetary Fund members, as well as Hong Kong, data are in millions of international dollars and were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2015, the second table includes data mostly for the year 2015 for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states, as well as the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions. Data are in billions of dollars and were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product data update of 2016, the data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Click on one of the triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category. ^a Chinas PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the country. Chinas entry does not include the two administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. List of Muslim Countries by GDP Purchasing Power Parity at Materia IslamicaList of countries by GDP (PPP) – World Share of GDP (PPP) according to data released by the IMF, October 2014
6. List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico – This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Mexico. The country has the largest number of World Heritage Sites of any country in the Americas, as of July 2016 there are 27 cultural sites,6 natural sites and 1 mixed site on the list, making for a total of 34. * = World Cultural Heritage Site † = World Natural Heritage Site *† = World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site Numbered sites,1, centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México,2. Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl,5, luis Barragan House and Studio,6List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico – Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco *
7. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in CuscoPeru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
8. Palenque – Palenque, also anciently known as Lakamha, was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date from ca.226 BC to ca and it is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen,150 m above sea level. It averages a humid 26 °C with roughly 2160 mm of rain a year, the most famous ruler of Palenque was Kinich Janaab Pakal, or Pacal the Great, whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions. By 2005, the area covered up to 2.5 km². Mythological beings used a variety of glyphs in their titles indeed suggests a complex early history. For instance, Kuk Bahlam, the founder of the Palenque dynasty, is called a Toktan Ajaw in the text of the Temple of the Foliated Cross. The famous structures that we know today probably represent an effort in response to the attacks by the city of Calakmul. He is best known through his funerary monument, dubbed the Temple of Inscriptions after the text preserved in the temples superstructure. At the time Alberto Ruz Lhuillier excavated Pakals tomb it was the richest and best preserved of any scientifically excavated burial then known from the ancient Americas. It held this position until the discovery of the rich Moche burials at Sipan, Peru, the extensive iconography and textual corpus has also allowed for study of Classic period Maya mythology and ritual practice. After him, a king came to power, nicknamed Casper by archaeologists, the next two kings were probably Caspers sons. Little was known about the first of these, Butz Aj Sak Chiik, until 1994, the first tablet mentioned his successor Ahkal Mo Naab I as a teenage prince, and therefore it is believed that there was a family relation between them. For unknown reasons, Akhal Mo Naab I had great prestige, when Ahkal Mo Naab I died in 524, there was an interregnum of four years, before the following king was crowned en Toktán in 529. Kan Joy Chitam I governed for 36 years and his sons Ahkal Mo Naab II and Kan Balam I were the first kings who used the title Kinich, which means the great sun. This word was used also by later kings, Balam was succeeded in 583 by Yohl Iknal, who was supposedly his daughter. The inscriptions found in Palenque document a battle that occurred under her government in which troops from Calakmul invaded and sacked Palenque and these events took place in 599. A second victory by Calakmul occurred some years later, in 611, under the government of Aj Ne Yohl Mat. In this occasion, the king of Calakmul entered Palenque in person, consolidating a significant military disaster, Aj Ne Yohl Mat was to die in 612Palenque – Collage of Palenque.
9. Selva Lacandona – The Lacandon Jungle is an area of rainforest which stretches from Chiapas, Mexico, into Guatemala and into the southern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. The heart of this rainforest is located in the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas near the border with Guatemala in the Montañas del Oriente region of the state. It contains 1,500 tree species, 33% of all Mexican bird species, 25% of all Mexican animal species, 44% of all Mexican diurnal butterflies, the Lacandon has approximately 1.9 million hectares stretching from southeast Chiapas into northern Guatemala and into the southern Yucatán Peninsula. The Chiapas portion is located on the Montañas del Oriente centered on a series of canyonlike valleys called the Cañadas and it is bordered by the Guatemalan border on two sides with Comitán de Domínguez to the southwest and the city of Palenque to north. Dividing the Chiapas part of the forest from the Guatemalan side is the Usumacinta River, which of the largest in Mexico, the area has a mostly hot and humid climate with most rain falling from summer into fall, with an average of 2300 to 2600 mm per year. There is a dry season from March to May when as little as thirty mm falls. The average annual temperature s 24. 7C, the abundance of rain supports a large number of small rivers and streams many of which are fast moving and have waterfalls, such as the Agua Azul and the Lacanja waterfalls. The soils of the area are clay and lacking phosphorus. The best conserved area is within the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, the Lacandon is the best known of Mexico’s rainforest areas because of the attention it has received in the press and efforts by international organizations to protect what is left of it. The Lacandon is one of the most biodiverse rainforests in the world, mammoth Guanacaste trees shrouded in vines and bromeliads among clear running streams, enormous firms, palms and wild elephant’s ear plants can still be seen. It has 1,500 tree species, 33% of all Mexican bird species, 25% of all Mexican animal species, 44% of all Mexican diurnal butterflies and 10% of all Mexicos fish species. The jungle contains many endangered species such as the red macaw, the eagle, the tapir, the monkey, the howler monkeys. It is one of the last jungles in North America big enough to support jaguars, Central American jaguars are reported, though rare, in Selva Zoque. Its size and biodiversity has designated it as a “biodiversity hotspot” by the Washington DC based environmental group Conservation International and it is part of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which aims to link similar sites from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec down through Central America for conservation purposes. This is especially true for those located in remote trans-border tropical forests. There are two major attractions within the Chiapas portion of this rainforest, the El Chiflón Waterfall and the Gruta de San Francisco cave, El Chiflón is located 53 km west of Comitán de Domínguez formed by the San Vicente Rivers. The water fall from a height of over seventy meters surrounded by steeply sloped hills, El Chiflón is preceded by two smaller falls called Suspiro and Ala del Angel, which are about six meters in height. A cascade after it is called the Velo de Novia, the Gruta de San Francisco is located in the La Trinitaria municipality near the community of Santa MaríaSelva Lacandona – The Laguna Miramar in the Lacandon Jungle.
10. Mexican state – The United Mexican States is a federal republic composed of 31 states and Mexico City. According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free, each state has its own congress and constitution. Mexico City is currently being reformed to have the rights of a state. The states of the Mexican Federation are free, sovereign, autonomous and they are free to govern themselves according to their own laws, each state has a constitution that cannot contradict the federal constitution, which covers issues of national competence. Since states have autonomy, each has its own civil and penal codes. In addition, the federation makes up a constituency in which 32 senators are elected by the method of proportional representation, Federal Deputies, however, do not represent the states, but rather the citizens themselves. The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate together comprise the Congress of the Union, the states are internally divided into municipalities. Each municipality is autonomous in its ability to elect their own council, the council is headed by a mayor elected every 3 years with no possibility of immediate reelection. Each municipality has a composed of councilors in terms of population size. The council is responsible, in most cases, to all utilities required for its population. This concept, which arises from the Mexican Revolution, is known as a free municipality. In total there are 2438 municipalities in Mexico, the state with the highest number of municipalities is Oaxaca, with 570, Mexico City has a special status within the federation, being a federal district. Until January 2016, Mexico City was officially called Federal District and it is the seat of government of the Union and the capital of the United Mexican States. Mexico City was separated from the State of Mexico, of which it was the capital, on November 18,1824, as such, it did not belong to any state in particular but to all. Therefore, it was the president of Mexico, in representation of the federation, with full autonomy, Mexico City would have its own constitution – it previously had only an organic law called Statute of Autonomy – and its boroughs became municipalities. Until the ratification of Mexico Citys constitution, it is divided for administrative purposes into 16 delegacionesor boroughs. *Mexicos post agency, Correos de México, does not offer an official list, various competing commercially devised lists exist. The list here reflects choices among them according to these sources, on September 27,1821, after three centuries of Spanish rule, Mexico gained independenceMexican state – Mexican States and Federal District Estados Mexicanos y el Distrito Federal (Spanish)
11. Ciudad del Carmen – Isla del Carmen and Carmen Island redirect here. For the island in Baja California, see Isla del Carmen, Ciudad del Carmen is a city in the southwest of the Mexican state of Campeche. Ciudad del Carmen is located at 18. 63°N91. 83°W /18.63, -91.83 on the southwest of Carmen Island, as of 2010, Ciudad del Carmen had a population of 169,466, up from the 2005 census of 154,197. In July 2006 Ciudad del Carmen celebrated its 150th anniversary as a city, the city is nicknamed The Pearl of the Gulf. Ciudad del Carmen was a city mostly devoted to fishing until the 1970s when oil was discovered in the region, since then it has grown. To this day Carmen is known as one of the best locations to find seafood in Mexico, the construction of the first bridge was motivated by the sinking of one of the islands pangas which resulted in the death of nearly everyone on board. The bridge Puente El Zacatal, constructed in 1994, is one of the longest in Latin America. This border area at the edge of the Yucatán Peninsula was previously part of the state of Yucatán, then of Tabasco. In 1840 the city had a population of about 7,000, the city is also the seat of the state of Campeches Carmen municipality, which includes the city and the surrounding area. The 2010 census population of the municipality of Carmen was 221,094 people, the main university in Ciudad del Carmen is the Universidad Autónoma del Carmen. Founded in the era, Ciudad del Carmen was an important location which served to connect the Aztec. Ciudad del Carmen is located on an island covering an area of 11,513 hectares, the island is mainly 2 to 3 metres above sea level. Ciudad del Carmen is the head of Carmen municipality, like most of the cities along the Yucatans gulf coast, Ciudad del Carmen exhibits a Tropical savanna climate. The city, situated on Carmen Island, has a dry season that lasts from January through May. September and October bring copious rainfall, with both months averaging well over 200 milimeters, the vast majority of habitants in Ciudad del Carmen comes from other places. In the mid 1970s Ciudad del Carmen was transformed from a fishing and shrimping city into a hub for oil when Pemex discovered large amounts of petroleum off the coast. Ever since, Carmen has become a home for Mexican and foreign oil workers alike, including many Texans, and now houses many foreign companiesCiudad del Carmen – View of the city from the Terminos Lagoon
12. Maya civilization – The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture, the first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, and by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades. Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC, in the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, and Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates. This period saw the Maya civilization develop a number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful, the Classic period also saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. In the 9th century, there was a political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities. The Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city in 1697. Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the divine king, kingship was patrilineal, and power would normally pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had greatly increased, resulting in the reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, and the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, different parts of a city would often be linked by causeways. The principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, the Maya elite were literate, and developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing that was the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, there are also a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics. The Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice, the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide, the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, agriculture, cities, monumental architecture, writing, and calendrical systemsMaya civilization – El Castillo, at Chichen Itza
13. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
14. Obituary – An obituary is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the persons life and information about the upcoming funeral. In large cities and larger newspapers, obituaries are written only for people considered significant, in local newspapers, an obituary may be published for any local resident upon death. A necrology is a register or list of records of the deaths of people related to an organization, group or field. Historical necrologies can be important sources of information, two types of paid advertisements are related to obituaries. One, known as a notice, omits most biographical details. The other type, a paid advertisement, is usually written by family members or friends. Both types of advertisements are usually run as classified advertisements. A premature obituary is a false reporting of the death of a person who is still alive and it may occur due to unexpected survival of someone who was close to death. Other reasons for such publication might be miscommunication between newspapers, family members, and the home, often resulting in embarrassment for everyone involved. Irish author Brendan Behan said that there is no such thing as bad publicity except dying in a toilet. In this regard, some people will seek to have a newspaper editor publish a premature death notice or obituary as a malicious hoax. To that end, nearly all now have policies requiring that death notices come from a reliable source. The Los Angeles Times obituary of Elizabeth Taylor, for example, was written in 1999 after three months of research, then often updated before the actress 2011 death. Sometimes the prewritten obituarys subject outlives its author, an example is The New York Times obituary of Taylor, written by the theater critic Mel Gussow. Obituaries are a feature of The Economist, which publishes one full-page obituary per week, reflecting on the subjects life. Past subjects have ranged from Ray Charles to Uday Hussein, the British Medical Journal encourages doctors to write their own obituaries for publication after their death. For numerous summer seasons, CBC Radio One has run The Late Show, eulogy Funeral List of premature obituaries Lists of deaths by year Lists of people by cause of death Baranick, Alana, Sheeler, Jim, Miller, Stephen. Life on the Death Beat, A Handbook for Obituary Writers, the Dead Beat, Lost Souls, Lucky Stiffs, And The Perverse Pleasure of ObituariesObituary – American obituary for WWI death
15. Surrealist movement – Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream, leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I, the word surrealist was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire and first appeared in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances, writings and art works, after the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the son of writer. He admired the young writers anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition, later Breton wrote, In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most. Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and they began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields, continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values. They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin, freuds work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. They embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness, as Salvador Dalí later proclaimed, There is only one difference between a madman and me. Beside the use of analysis, they emphasized that one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power, the group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. They wanted to people from false rationality, and restrictive customs. Breton proclaimed that the aim of Surrealism was long live the social revolution. To this goal, at various times Surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism, in 1924 two Surrealist factions declared their philosophy in two separate Surrealist Manifestos. That same year the Bureau of Surrealist Research was established, leading up to 1924, two rival surrealist groups had formed. Each group claimed to be successors of a revolution launched by Guillaume Apollinaire, the other group, led by Breton, included Louis Aragon, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Jacques Baron, Jacques-André Boiffard, Jean Carrive, René Crevel and Georges Malkine, among others. Goll and Breton clashed openly, at one point literally fighting, at the Comédie des Champs-Élysées, in the end, Breton won the battle through tactical and numerical superioritySurrealist movement – Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes (1921), Tate, London
16. Romance film – Romance films make the romantic love story or the search for strong and pure love and romance the main plot focus. Occasionally, romance lovers face obstacles such as finances, physical illness, various forms of discrimination, as in all quite strong, deep, and close romantic relationships, tensions of day-to-day life, temptations, and differences in compatibility enter into the plots of romantic films. In romantic television series, the development of romantic relationships may play out over many episodes. Historical romance - A romantic story with a period setting and this includes films such as Gone with the Wind, Doctor Zhivago and Titanic. Romantic drama usually revolves around an obstacle which prevents deep and true love between two people. Music is often employed to indicate the mood, creating an atmosphere of greater insulation for the couple. The conclusion of a romantic drama typically does not indicate whether a final union between the two main characters will occur. Chick flick is a term associated with romance films as many are targeted to a female audience. As such, the terms cannot be used interchangeably, films of this genre include Dirty Dancing, The Notebook, Dear John, A Walk to Remember, and Romeo + Juliet. Romantic comedies are films with light-hearted, humorous plotlines, centered on romantic ideals such as true love is able to surmount most obstacles. Humour in such films tends to be of a verbal, low-key variety or situational, films within this genre include Four Weddings and a Funeral, Love Actually, Moonstruck, As Good as It Gets, Somethings Gotta Give, It Happened One Night, When Harry Met Sally. Romantic fantasies describe fantasy stories using many of the elements and conventions of the romance genre, romantic action comedies are films that blend romantic comedy and action. Examples include Killers, Knight and Day, Mr. & Mrs. Smith, This Means War, romantic thriller is a genre of film which has a storyline combining elements of the romance film and the thriller genre. Some examples of romantic thriller films are The Adjustment Bureau, The Phantom of the Opera, The Tourist, The Bodyguard, Unfaithful, and Wicker ParkRomance film – Tyrone Power passionately, lovingly, embraces Alice Faye in the 1938 film Alexander's Ragtime Band.
17. Pre-Columbian Mexico – While relatively few documents of the Mixtec and Aztec cultures of the Post-Classic period survived the Spanish conquest, more progress has been made in the area of Mayan archaeology and epigraphy. It is currently unclear whether 21, 000-year-old campfire remains found in the Valley of Mexico are the earliest human remains in Mexico, indigenous peoples of Mexico began to selectively breed maize plants around 8000 BC. Evidence shows an increase in pottery working by 2300 B. C. Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form and these civilizations are credited with many inventions and advancements including pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and theology. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico demonstrate a propensity for counting in Mexico. In fact, many of the later Mexican-based civilizations would carefully build their cities, astronomy and the notion of human observation of celestial events would become central factors in the development of religious systems, writing systems, fine arts, and architecture. Prehistoric Mexican astronomers began a tradition of observing, recording. At some different points in time, three Mexican cities were among the largest cities in the world and these cities and several others blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas, ceremonies, and theology. In turn, they radiated influence outward into neighboring cultures in central Mexico, cultural groups that flourished partially within the borders of modern-day Mexico include the Mogollon, Patayan, and Hohokam. These Oasisamerica civilizations maintained close ties with those of Mesoamerica, evidenced by turquoise trade, macaws, copper, cacao, and cultural exchange. For example, in Paquimé, a site connected to the Mogollon culture, there have been found ceremonial structures related to Mesoamerican religion and these civilizations extended their reach across Mexico, and beyond, like no others. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these five civilizations over the span of 3,000 years. But almost all found themselves within these five spheres of influence and their immediate cultural influence, however, extends far beyond this region. The Olmec flourished during the Formative period, dating from 1400 BCE to about 400 BCE, the decline of the Olmec resulted in a power vacuum in Mexico. Emerging from that vacuum was Teotihuacan, first settled in 300 B. C, by AD150, it had grown to become the first true metropolis of what is now called North America. Teotihuacan established a new economic and political order never before seen in Mexico and its influence stretched across Mexico into Central America, founding new dynasties in the Mayan cities of Tikal, Copan, and Kaminaljuyú. Teotihuacans influence over the Maya civilization cannot be overstated, it transformed political power, artistic depictions, within the city of Teotihuacan was a diverse and cosmopolitan population. Most of the ethnicities of Mexico were represented in the cityPre-Columbian Mexico – An image of one of the pyramids in the upper level of Yaxchilán
18. Mexican War of Independence – The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day, the movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the last part of the 18th century. By that time the elite of New Spain had begun to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonial kingdoms. Changes in the social and political structure occasioned by Bourbon Reforms, political events in Europe had a decisive effect on events in most of Spanish America. In 1808, King Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated in favor of French leader Napoleon Bonaparte, the same year, the ayuntamiento of Mexico City, supported by viceroy José de Iturrigaray, claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king. That led to a coup against the viceroy, when it was suppressed, despite the defeat in Mexico City, small groups of conspirators met in other cities of New Spain to raise movements against colonial rule. From 1810 the independence movement went through stages, as leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. Secular priest José María Morelos called the separatist provinces to form the Congress of Chilpancingo, after the defeat of Morelos, the movement survived as a guerrilla war under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero. By 1820, the few rebel groups survived most notably in the Sierra Madre del Sur, the reinstatement of the liberal Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 caused a change of mind among the elite groups who had supported Spanish rule. Monarchist Creoles affected by the constitution decided to support the independence of New Spain, agustín de Iturbide led the military arm of the conspirators and in early 1821 he met Vicente Guerrero. Both proclaimed the Plan of Iguala, which called for the union of all insurgent factions and was supported by both the aristocracy and clergy of New Spain and it called for monarchy in an independent Mexico. Finally, the independence of Mexico was achieved on September 27,1821, after that, the mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire. This ephemeral Catholic monarchy changed to a republic in 1823, due to internal conflicts. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, after the suppression of that mid-16th-century conspiracy, elites raised no substantial challenge to royal rule until the Hidalgo revolt of 1810. Elites in Mexico City in the century did force the removal of a reformist viceroy. The crowd was reported to shout, Long live the King, the attack was against Gelves as a bad representative of the crown and not against the monarchy or colonial rule itself. There was also a conspiracy in the mid-seventeenth century to unite creole elites, blacks. The man pushing this notion called himself Don Guillén Lampart y Guzmán, lamports conspiracy was discovered, and he was arrested by the Inquisition in 1642, and executed fifteen years later for seditionMexican War of Independence – Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman
19. First Mexican Empire – The Mexican Empire was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico. It was the former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence and for a short time, together with the Empire of Brazil. The First Mexican Empire was short-lived, lasting less than two years, the first and only monarch of the state was Agustín de Iturbide, reigning as Agustín I of Mexico, for less than eight months. The empire was briefly reestablished by the French in 1864, under the 24 February 1821 Plan of Iguala, to which most of the provinces subscribed, the Mexican Congress established a regency council which was headed by Iturbide. If the king refused the position, the law provided for another member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne, however, the goal was merely a political tactic to appease the last royalists, and a full independence was expected. King Ferdinand, however, refused to recognize Mexicos independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico, on 19 May 1822, Mexican Congress named Iturbide as a constitutional emperor. On 21 May it issued a decree confirming this appointment, which was officially a temporary measure until a European monarch could be found to rule Mexico, iturbides official title was, By Divine Providence and the National Congress, First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico. His coronation took place on 21 July 1822 in Mexico City, in August 1822 a plot to overthrow the monarchy was discovered and on August 25, plotters, including 16 members of Congress, were arrested. As factions in the Congress began to sharply criticise Iturbide and his policies, santa Anna and his troops revolted against Iturbide, calling for the restoration of the Congress on 1 December 1822. Santa Anna had secretly persuaded General Echávarri, the commander of the Imperial forces, to switch sides and support the revolution when it was ready to be proclaimed throughout Mexico. The independence heroes Vicente Guerrero, Nicolás Bravo and Guadalupe Victoria soon joined, signing the Plan of Casa Mata on February 1,1823, the insurrectionists sent their proposal to the provincial governments and requested their adherence to the plan. In the course of just six weeks, the Plan of Casa Mata traveled to remote places as Texas. Each provincial government that accepted the plan thereby withdrew its allegiance from the Imperial government and this left Emperor Agustín I isolated with little support outside of Mexico City and a few factions of the Imperial Army. Consequently, he reinstalled the Congress, which he had abolished, abdicated the throne. Santa Anna and the proponents of the Plan of Casa Mata went on to oversee the drafting of a new constitution. The territory of the Mexican Empire corresponded to the borders of Viceroyalty of New Spain, excluding the Captaincies General of Cuba, Santo Domingo, subsequent territorial evolution of Mexico over the next several decades would eventually reduce Mexico to less than half its maximum extent. The first Mexican empire was divided into the following intendances, History of Mexico Second Mexican Empire Federal Republic of Central America Imperial House of Mexico Mexican EmpireFirst Mexican Empire – Flag
20. Texas Revolution – The Texas Revolution began when colonists in the Mexican province of Texas rebelled against the increasingly centralized Mexican government. After a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas, hostilities erupted in October 1835. Texians disagreed on whether the goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the wars motives, Texians, the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texas army, in March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexicos honor, President Antonio López de Santa Anna vowed to personally retake Texas and his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians completely unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered. Santa Anna led a force to San Antonio de Béxar. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groces Landing on the Brazos River, becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houstons army staged an assault on Santa Anna. The Mexican troops were routed, and vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage, in exchange for his life, Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s. The annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, after a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, on the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States also claimed the land west of the Sabine River, following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. Texas was very sparsely populated, with fewer than 3,500 residents, and only about 200 soldiers, in the hopes that an influx of settlers could control the Indian raids, the bankrupt Mexican government liberalized immigration policies for the region. Finally able to settle legally in Texas, Anglos from the United States soon vastly outnumbered the Tejanos, most of the immigrants came from the southern United StatesTexas Revolution – The campaigns of the Texas Revolution
21. Pastry War – It ended several months later in March 1839 with a British-brokered peace. The intervention followed many claims by French nationals of losses due to unrest in Mexico, during the early years of the new Mexican republic there was widespread civil disorder as factions competed for control of the country. The fighting often resulted in the destruction or looting of private property, average citizens had few options for claiming compensation as they had no representatives to speak on their behalf. However, France had yet to secure trade agreements similar to those that the United States and England had, in complaint to King Louis-Philippe, a French pastry chef known only as Monsieur Remontel, claimed that in 1832 Mexican officers looted his shop in Tacubaya. Remontel demanded 60,000 pesos as reparations for the damage, French forces captured Veracruz by December 1838 and Mexico declared war on France. With trade cut off, the Mexicans began smuggling imports via Corpus Christi, Republic of Texas, fearing that France would blockade the Republics ports as well, a battalion of Texan forces began patrolling Corpus Christi Bay to stop Mexican smugglers. One smuggling party abandoned their cargo of about a hundred barrels of flour on the beach at the mouth of the bay and he offered his services to the government, which ordered him to fight the French by any means necessary. He led Mexican forces against the French, in a skirmish with the rear guard of the French, Santa Anna was wounded in the leg by French grapeshot. His leg was amputated and buried with military honors. Exploiting his wounds with eloquent propaganda, Santa Anna catapulted back to power, the French forces withdrew on 9 March 1839 after a peace treaty was signed. As part of said treaty the Mexican government agreed to pay 600,000 pesos as damages to French citizens while France received promises for future trade commitments in place of war indemnities. However, this amount was never paid and that was used as one of the justifications for the second French intervention in Mexico of 1861. Media related to Pastry War at Wikimedia CommonsPastry War – Bombing of San Juan de Ulúa in 1838
22. Forests of Mexico – The forests of Mexico cover a surface area of about 64 million hectares, or 34. 5% of the country. These forests are categorized by the type of tree and biome, tropical forests, temperate forests, cloud forests, riparian forests, deciduous, evergreen, dry, moist, the agency in charge of Mexicos forests is the Comisión Nacional Forestal. Forested areas were part of indigenous communities commons for hunting, gathering. Areas of Mexico were deforested in the period around Teotihuacan. In the colonial era, forests were a source of timber for construction, for fuel in smelting metals, forested lands were included in indigenous community lands in the colonial era. In Chihuahua and in Michoacán and forests were exploited by timber companies, although forests had historically been utilized, the late nineteenth century marked the beginning of industrial-scale exploitation. Rainforests are found predominantly along the southeastern Atlantic coast, in regions with frequent rain, the average rainfall in these forests is above 2,000 mm and temperature is always higher than 18 °C, with little variation. The Lacandon Jungle is an area of rainforest which stretches from Chiapas into Guatemala, the heart of this rainforest is located in the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas near the border with Guatemala in the Montañas del Oriente region of the state. It contains 1,500 tree species, 33% of all Mexican bird species, 25% of all Mexican animal species, 44% of all Mexican diurnal butterflies, Mexico is home to 50 species of pine and about 200 species of oak. It is estimated that forests in Mexico contain about 7,000 species of plants. The Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve contains the over-wintering habitats of the population of the monarch butterfly. The reserve is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests ecoregion on the border of Michoacán, millions of butterflies arrive in the preserve annually. Butterflies only inhabit a fraction of the 56,000 hectares of the reserve from October–March, the biospheres mission is not only to protect the butterfly species, but its habitat as well. The composition of the forest varies with altitude, oak species up to 2900 metres above sea level oak, paralleling the Pacific Coast in southwestern Mexico is a series of diverse tropical dry forests, adapted to an absence of rainfall for certain months of the year. Many trees here drop their leaves during the dry season but warm temperatures help to nurture plant life, the Jalisco Dry Forests are a region of large diversity in Mexico. Characteristic features of this forest are that the trees lose their leaves for a period of time during the dry season. The Chiapas Depression is a dry forest valley in southern Mexico, variations in altitude here have created amazingly diverse habitats for nearly 1,000 different dry adapted plant species. Five environmental requirements seem to govern the presence of forests in Mexico, high relative humidity, montane environments, irregular topography, deep litter layerForests of Mexico – Forest in the Sierra Juárez of Oaxaca.
23. Metropolitan areas of Mexico – Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city. Northwestern and southeastern states are divided into a number of large municipalities whereas central states are divided into a large number of smaller municipalities. As such, metropolitan areas in the northwest usually do not extend more than one municipality whereas metropolitan areas in the center extend over many municipalities. A few metropolitan areas extend beyond the limits of one state, Greater Mexico City, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Comarca Lagunera, there are a total of fifty-six metropolitan areas of Mexico as defined by the following government bodies, The National Institute of Statistics and Geography. The United States shares a 2, 000-mile border with Mexico, the 2,000 miles is the most frequently crossed international border in the world, with about 250 million legal crossings every year. The distribution of population and urban population in Mexico has been changed significantly by the interaction between settlements in its north and the United States. Metropolitan areas located at the border with the U. S. form transnational conurbations with deep economic and demographic interaction. For example, the San Diego – Tijuana metropolitan area consists of San Diego County in the U. S. and the municipalities of Tijuana, Playas de Rosarito, and Tecate in Mexico. The total population of the region has estimated to be just over 5 million in 2009. A megalopolis, is known in Spanish as a corona regional de ciudades, the megalopolis consists of 173 municipalities and the 16 boroughs of the Federal District, with an approximate total population of almost 27 million people. List of metropolitan areas by population List of metropolitan areas in the Americas by population List of cities in Mexico Demographics of Mexico National Population Council — official website, National Institute of Statistics and Geography — official websiteMetropolitan areas of Mexico – 1 - Mexico City, D. F..
24. List of mountain peaks of Mexico – This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of Mexico. The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three ways, The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. The first table ranks the 40 highest major summits of México by elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings, the second table below ranks the 40 most prominent summits of México. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation, the third table below ranks the 40 most isolated major summits of México. Of the 40 highest major summits of Mexico, three peaks exceed 5000 meters elevation, eight peaks exceed 4000 meters, and 28 peaks exceed 3000 meters elevation, volcán Tacaná lies on the international border between Chiapas and Guatemala, and nine other peaks lie on a state border. Five peaks lie on a state border, of the 40 most isolated major summits of México, only Pico de Orizaba exceeds 2000 kilometers of topographic isolation. Four peaks exceed 500 kilometers,14 peaks exceed 200 kilometers, six peaks lie on a state border. com Peakbagger. com Peaklist. org Peakware. com Summitpost. orgList of mountain peaks of Mexico – Volcán Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba), a stratovolcano on the boundary between the states of Puebla and Veracruz, is the highest mountain peak of Mexico.
25. List of wettest tropical cyclones by country – This is a list of wettest tropical cyclones by country, using all known available sources. Data is most complete for Australia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Japan, Hong Kong, Mexico, Taiwan, Yap, Chuuk, and the United States, with fragmentary data available for other countries. The French region of Réunion holds several records for tropical cyclone and worldwide rainfall, due to the rough topography. Below are the records for each country above, after rainfall and wind observations started on the island during 1972, only 13 tropical cyclones passed within 220 km of the territory between 1972 and 2005. Rainfall observations started on the islands during 1907, while temperature, wind, between 1952 and 200527 tropical cyclones caused storm force wind gusts of over 90 km/h on the islands, while only four caused hurricane-force gusts of over 125 km/h. Bangladesh has been the scene of the greatest tropical cyclone casualties in recent times, the country is quite flat and generally lies near sea level. This country has terrain mainly across its southern sections, with elevations up to about 3,700 feet and it should be noted that equally heavy rains could have fallen during Hurricane Hattie of 1961 and Hurricane Fifi of 1974. Tropical cyclones are usually in transition to extratropical cyclones by the time they reach Atlantic Canada, no tropical cyclone has ever hit Canadas Pacific coast. China is a country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina caused the collapse of two reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1,062 millimetres fell in Henan during a 24‑hour period. Typhoon Sam of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the wettest known cyclone to impact Hong Kong since records began in 1884. Precipitation associated with tropical cyclones and their remains can bring snow to Tibet and this led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food,230,000 kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm. Hurricane Flora of October 1963 drifted across Cuba for four days, during the heaviest 24‑hour period of rainfall,735 millimetres of rain fell at Santiago de Cuba. Total amounts of 2,033 millimetres over 4 days and 2,550 millimetres over 5 days produced staggering loss of life in Cuba, the islands of the eastern Caribbean are constantly threatened by tropical storms and hurricanes, mainly between August and October. Dominica is an island, with spots of elevation as high as nearly 4,750 feet. As Hurricane Jeanne moved through the region,422.3 millimetres of rain fell during the 24‑hour period ending on the morning of September 15,2004. This country, taking up two-thirds of Hispaniola, has some of the highest terrain surrounding the Caribbean Sea, most of the tropical cyclone rainfall totals on the list below are 24‑hour maxima, which likely underrepresent the storm total. Elevations of the islands surrounding Chuuk lagoon reach a height of about 1,450 feet, Typhoon Chataan led to excessive rainfall on this island from June 23 – July 3,2002, when a total of 939 mm fellList of wettest tropical cyclones by country – A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005.
26. Congress of the Union – The Congress of the Union is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. The Congress is an assembly, consisting of two chambers, the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate of the Republic. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, the upper chamber is the Senate, Cámara de Senadores or Senado. It comprises 128 seats,96 members are elected by popular vote for six-year terms. The lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, Cámara de Diputados and it has 500 seats,300 members are elected by popular vote to three-year terms, the other 200 seats are allocated according to proportional representation. The Congress of the Union has two chambers, the 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions to that rule, a party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. Also, a party cannot get more than 300 seats overall, the Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a six-year term,96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up and it is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the LXIII Legislature, the previous Congress was the LXII Legislature, the I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution. Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I, madero popularized the slogan, Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección. In keeping with that long held principle, and until 2014, on February 10,2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the General Election of 2018, Deputies and Senators will be allowed to run for reelection, Chamber of Deputies Senate Politics of Mexico List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies SenateCongress of the Union
27. Constitution of Mexico – The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention and it was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor to the Constitution of 1857, and earlier Mexican constitutions, the current Constitution of 1917 is the first such document in the world to set out social rights, serving as a model for the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Russian Constitution of 1918. Constitution Day is one of Mexicos annual Fiestas Patrias, commemorating the promulgation of the Constitution on 5 February 1917, although the official anniversary is on 5 February, the holiday takes place on the first Monday of February regardless of the date. Carranza convoked a congress specifically to draft the new constitution and it replaced the liberal Constitution of 1857, extending that constitutions restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. Its innovations were in expanding the Mexican states power into the realms of economic nationalism, political nationalism, the constitution was a means to confer legitimacy on a shaky regime. The Liberal Party of Mexicos 1906 political program proposed a number of reforms that were incorporated into the 1917 Constitution, Article 27 of the Constitution incorporated some of the PLMs demands for land reform in Mexico. Points in the PLMs call for improvement in education were also incorporated, such as completely secular education, compulsory attendance up until age 14, not surprisingly, the PLM also called for restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church, which were incorporated in the constitution. These included treating religious institutions as businesses and required to pay taxes, nationalization of religious institutions real property, the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States was drafted by the Constitutional Congress in Querétaro, not the capital. Carranza chose the site because it was where Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was executed, delegates to the congress were to be elected, with one per jurisdiction that had existed in 1912, when congressional elections had been held during the Francisco I. Those who had been hostile to the Constitutionalist Cause were banned from participating, Carranza was pressured to amnesty those who had been hostile as well as allow those who had gone into exile to return to Mexico, but he refused. The congress formally opened in November 1916, with delegate elections, the final draft was approved on 5 February 1917. The membership of the congress was not representative of all regions, classes, the 220 delegates were all Carrancistas, since the Constitutionalist faction had been victorious militarily. However, that did not mean they were of one mind, most delegates were middle class, not workers or peasants. Middle class professionals predominated, with lawyers, teachers, engineers, doctors, villas home state of Chihuahua had only one delegate. The predominantly civilian composition of the Constituent Congress was in contrast with the place of power in revolutionary Mexico. Most senior generals did not participate directly in the congress, an important group of delegates elected to the congress were the Bloc Renovador, who had been elected in 1912 to the Mexican legislature during Maderos presidency. Some considered them tainted for their continuing to serve during Victoriano Huertas regime, some congressmen fled Mexico, others were jailed by HuertaConstitution of Mexico – Venustiano Carranza, leader of the victorious faction, convoked the elected body to draft the new constitution.
28. List of political parties in Mexico – This article lists political parties in Mexico. Mexico has a multi-party system, which means there are more than three dominant political parties. Nationally, there are three political parties that dominate, the PRI, the PAN, and the PRD. Other smaller political parties survive in isolation or by forming coalitions with any of the big three. As of 2017, Mexico has seven nationally recognized political parties by the Federal Electoral Institute, National recognition was given to those parties that secured representation in Congress. Under Mexican law, parties are listed in the order in which they were first registered, thus, National Action Party – a right of center party, member of Centrist Democrat International. Institutional Revolutionary Party – the dominating party, under different names, at the municipal, state and it is currently the dominant party in the Chamber of Deputies and at the municipal and state level, and took primacy in the 2012 senatorial elections as well. This is the party of Incumbent President Peña Nieto as of the July 1,2012 Elections. Party of the Democratic Revolution – a left of center party, born as National Democratic Front, a joint effort from a splinter group of the PRI and several forces from the left, in the 1988 elections. Its first candidate and founder, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, lost the 1988 presidential election under dubious circumstances and it has long controlled the Federal District. Labor Party – a laborist political party formed in 1990 and it is often allied with the PRD for electoral purposes. Ecologist Green Party of Mexico – a minor party with an environmental platform and this party allied with the PAN to elect the first non-PRI president in almost seven decades. Since then it has mostly allied with the PRI, citizens Movement – a social democratic party, formed in 1997. New Alliance – originally created by academics of the Autonomous Technical Institute of Mexico and members of the National Educational Workers Union and it was established on July 14,2005. National Regeneration Movement – a left-wing nationalism party, formed in 2011, humanist Party – a humanist party, formed in 2014. Social Encounter Party – a right-wing and social party, formed in 2006. In terms of their congressional representation and share of the vote, only PRI, PAN. This list is complete as of 2006, http, //www. marketingpolitico. com. mx/Institutoselectorales. htm - Index of links to every Electoral Institute in each state of MexicoList of political parties in Mexico – Mexico
29. Automotive industry in Mexico – This is an article about the automotive industry in Mexico. In 1903, motorcars first arrived in Mexico City, totalling 136 cars in that year and rising to 800 by 1906. This encouraged then president Porfirio Díaz, to both the first Mexican highway code and, along with this, a tax for car owners which would be abolished in 1911 with Francisco I. Maderos successful campaign against Díazs dictatorship at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, a short time after the end of the armed struggle, Buick became the first automobile producer to be officially established in Mexico, beginning 1921. In 1925, Ford Motor Company was too established and began manufacturing vehicles in the country, in 1959, Mexico produced its first fully domestic vehicle, a small truck called the Rural Ramírez, produced by the Ramirez truck company. Many car makers were already operational by 1961 when the first decline of the Mexican economy showed up, in the early 1960s, government regulations forced car companies to assemble cars in Mexico, using local as well as imported components. The idea was to develop a car industry in the country, to promote employment. Those companies that would not comply with these regulations left the country, the American Big Three remained along with American Motors, Renault, Volkswagen, Datsun and Borgward. However, the tax remained to finance the 1970 FIFA World Cup, ironically, the tax remains today in most states, and it must be paid year after year. This tax is variable depending of the value, number of cylinders, type of transmission, air conditioning and further features. A second tax exists as well when purchasing a new vehicle called Impuesto sobre Automóviles Nuevos or ISAN, also depending on vehicles specifications, unlike the Tenencia, this tax is paid one time only. Federal law requires all listed car prices on media or dealerships to have the standard 16% VAT tax and ISAN included on the price, making listed prices total on car. Since many Mexican drivers default on paying this tax, the Government started taking countermeasures, however, due to this being perceived as uncontrollable, politicians started making proposals to abolish this tax, remarkably Felipe Calderón. Tenencia has, as of 2011, been abolished in Querétaro. On 4 March 2011, President Calderón announced Tenencia will be abolished by 2012 in all states. The growth of Mexicos economy during the late 90s stimulated car sales in Mexico and, eventually, annual passenger vehicle sales in Mexico reached the one million milestone in 2005. This increasing number of sales encouraged car makers to offer cars with alternative fuels like the Honda Civic Hybrid, Diesel cars do not apply for the privilege of driving every day in Mexico City, brand new Diesel vehicles enter the Hoy no Circula restrictions. Mexican studio Mastretta Cars first announced the creation of their MXT through Automóvil Panamericano magazine in May 2007, the vehicle is the first Mexican sports car ever built, and features specifications similar to those of Lotus Elise and Porsche CaymanAutomotive industry in Mexico – Honda Civic, Range Rover, Toyota RAV4 and Volkswagen Golf over Avenida Carlos Lazo, Mexico City.
30. Bank of Mexico – The Bank of Mexico, abbreviated BdeM or Banxico, is Mexicos central bank, monetary authority and lender of last resort. The Bank of Mexico is autonomous in exercising its functions, the Bank of Mexico was created on 1 September 1925. In July 1931, the Monetary Law was constituted and he assumed office on 1 January 2010. Mexican peso Economy of Mexico Economic history of Mexico Official site of Banco de MéxicoBank of Mexico – Bank of Mexico headquarters in Mexico City
31. Economic history of Mexico – Mexicos economic history has been characterized since the colonial era by resource extraction, agriculture, and a relatively underdeveloped industrial sector. Economic elites in the period were predominantly Spanish born, active as transatlantic merchants and silver mine owners. The largest sector of the population was indigenous subsistence farmers, who lived mainly in the center, New Spain was envisioned by the Spanish crown as a supplier of wealth to Iberia, which huge silver mines accomplished. A colonial economy to supply foodstuffs and products from ranching as well as a textile industry meant that the economy supplied much of its own needs. The mid-nineteenth-century Liberal Reforma attempted to decrease the power of the Roman Catholic Church. Following civil war and an intervention, the late nineteenth century found political stability. Mexico was opened to foreign investment and, to a lesser extent, foreign capital built a railway network, one of the keys for transforming the Mexican economy, by linking regions of Mexico and major cities and ports. As the construction of the bridge over a deep canyon at Metlac demonstrates. The mining industry revived in the north of Mexico and the industry developed in the north Gulf Coast states with foreign capital. Regional civil wars broke out in 1910 and lasted until 1920, following the military phase of the Revolution, Mexican regimes attempted to transform a largely rural and backward country … into a middle-sized industrial power. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 gave the Mexican government the power to expropriate property, which allowed for the distribution of land to peasants, Mexico benefited economically from its participation in World War II and the post-war years experienced what has been called the Mexican Miracle. This growth was fueled by import substitution industrialization, the Mexican economy experienced the limits of ISI and economic nationalism and Mexico sought a new model for economic growth. Huge oil reserves were discovered in the Gulf of Mexico in the late 1970s, when the price of oil dropped in the 1980s, Mexico experienced a severe financial crisis. Mexico implemented neoliberal economic policies and changed significant articles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 to ensure private property rights against future nationalization, in the twenty-first century, Mexico has strengthened its trade ties with China, but Chinese investment projects in Mexico have hit roadblocks in 2014–15. Mexicos continued dependence on oil revenues has had an impact when oil prices drop. Mexicos economy in the period was based on resource extraction, on agriculture and ranching. In the immediate post-conquest period, the indigenous and hierarchically organized central Mexican peoples were a ready labor supply. Indian communities tribute and labor were awarded to individual conquerors in an arrangement called encomienda, the colonial landscape in central Mexico became a patchwork of different sized holdings by Spaniards and indigenous communitiesEconomic history of Mexico – A photo of the Metlac Bridge, built during nineteenth-century railway construction that enabled modernization. Photo by Guillermo Kahlo.
32. Mexican peso – The Mexican peso is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a origin in the 15th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign. The Mexican peso is the 8th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded currency originating from the Americas, the current ISO4217 code for the peso is MXN, prior to the 1993 revaluation, the code MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, represented by ¢, as of March 31,2017, the pesos exchange rate was $19.94 per Euro and $18.71 per U. S. dollar. The name was used in reference to pesos oro or pesos plata. The Spanish word peso means weight, the peso was originally the name of the eight-real coins issued in Mexico by Spain. These were the so-called Spanish dollars or pieces of eight in wide circulation in the Americas, in 1863, the first issue was made of coins denominated in centavos, worth one hundredth of the peso. This was followed in 1866 by coins denominated one peso, coins denominated in reales continued to be issued until 1897. In 1905, the content of the peso was reduced by 49. 3%. However, from 1918 onward, the weight and fineness of all the coins declined, until 1977. On January 1,1993 the Bank of Mexico introduced a new currency, one new peso, or N$1.00, was equal to 1000 of the obsolete MXP pesos. The ISO4217 code, however, remained unchanged as MXN, thanks to the stability of the Mexican economy and the growth in foreign investment, the Mexican peso is now among the 15 most traded currency units in recent years. The first coins of the currency were 1 centavo pieces minted in 1863. Emperor Maximilian, ruler of the Second Mexican Empire from 1864–1867 and his portrait was on the obverse, with the legend Maximiliano Emperador, the reverse shows the imperial arms and the legends Imperio Mexicano and 1 Peso and the date. They were struck from 1866 to 1867, the New Mexican republic continued to strike the 8 reales piece, but also began minting coins denominated in centavos and pesos. In addition to copper 1 centavo coins, silver coins of 5,10,25 and 50 centavos and 1 peso were introduced between 1867 and 1869, gold 1, 2½,5,10 and 20-peso coins were introduced in 1870. The obverses featured the Mexican eagle and the legend Republica Mexicana, the reverses of the larger coins showed a pair of scales, those of the smaller coins, the denomination. One-peso coins were made from 1865 to 1873, when 8 reales coins resumed production, in 1882, cupro-nickel 1,2 and 5 centavos coins were issued but they were only minted for two yearsMexican peso – A two-peso coin from 1921, issued to commemorate the centennial of the independence of Mexico.
33. Mexicans – Mexicans are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America. Mexicans can also be those who identify with the Mexican cultural and/or national identity, the Mexica founded Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. It became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, at its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City. In 2015,21. 5% of Mexicos population in Mexico self-identify as being indigenous, there are about 12 million Mexican nationals residing outside of Mexico, with about 11.7 million living in the United States. The larger Mexican diaspora can also include individuals that trace ancestry to Mexico, the Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish. Mexicano is derived from the word Mexico itself, in the principal model to create demonyms in Spanish, the suffix -ano is added to the name of the place of origin. Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from the Nahuatl words for Moon and this meaning might then refer to Tenochtitlans position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey. The term Mexicano as a word to describe the different peoples of the region of Mexico as a group emerged in the 16th century. In that time the term did not apply to a nationality nor to the limits of the modern Mexican Republic. The document stated, el venturoso descubrimiento que los Mexicanos han hecho, Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje. The word has somewhat pejorative connotations and most of the Mexican citizens who would be defined as mestizos in the sociological literature would probably self-identify primarily as Mexicans, in Chiapas the word Ladino is used instead of mestizo. White Mexicans are Mexican citizens of full European descent, another group in Mexico, the mestizos, also include people with varying amounts of European ancestry, with some having a European admixture superior to 90%. Because of this, the line between whites and mestizos has become rather blur, and the Mexican government decided to abandon racial classifications. Intermixing would produce a group which would become the majority by the time of Independence. However, at its height, the immigrant population in Mexico never exceeded twenty percent of the total. Many of these came with money to invest and/or ties to allow them to become prominent in businessMexicans – Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace depicting the history of Mexico from the Conquest to early 20th century.
34. Oportunidades – Oportunidades is a government social assistance program in Mexico founded in 2002, based on a previous program called Progresa, created in 1997. It is designed to target poverty by providing cash payments to families in exchange for school attendance, health clinic visits. Oportunidades is credited with decreasing poverty and improving health and educational attainment in regions where it has been deployed, rights holders, Program recipients are mothers, the caregiver directly responsible for children and family health decisions. Cash payments are made from the government directly to families to decrease overhead, a system of evaluation and statistical controls to ensure effectiveness. Rigorous selection of recipients based on geographic and socioeconomic factors, Program requirements target measures considered most likely to lift families out of poverty, focusing on health, nutrition and childrens education. Oportunidades has become a model for programs instituted in countries, such as a pilot program in New York City, the Opportunity NYC. Other countries that have instituted similar conditional cash transfer programs include Brazil, Peru, Honduras, Jamaica, Chile, Malawi, Progresa-Oportunidades is designed to be a centrally run program that relies on a horizontal integration of programs and services among the agencies and ministries in the executive branch. This required the establishment of a body with power to coordinate the participants in the program. Instead of restructuring an old agency, it was decided to form a new agency with all of the appropriate powers, officials in related structures such as the Ministry of Health and Education were not provided with the appropriate incentives to channel their work toward Progresa-Oportunidades. Many were individuals who had worked on poverty programs and who now saw their resources shifting in a new direction. And officials often had more to gain politically from abandoning this program, as a centrally administered program, Oportunidades allows for low operational costs and a greater level of efficiency in the transmission of benefits directly to the participants in the program. The program has sometimes criticized for this completely “top down” approach. To effectively disseminate information about the program, Progresa-Oportunidades pursued a three-pronged strategy, first, an extensive amount of information was made generally available through the Internet. Secondly, information was provided to Congress and other government officials at all levels in the form of detailed proposals, program evaluations. Finally, public campaigns were initially minimal to avoid raised expectations. However, since 2006, the profile of the program has been raised, particularly through extensive radio. Traditionally, most anti-poverty programs in Mexico have relied on support to establish their funding. Several congressional provisions have helped to ensure this identity, among these are several provisions that prevent the program being used for political proselytizingOportunidades – A view of Mexico city.
35. Culture of Mexico – The culture of Mexico reflects the countrys complex history and is the result of the gradual blending of native culture with Spanish culture and other immigrant cultures. First inhabited more than 10,000 years ago, the cultures that developed in Mexico became one of the cradles of civilization, during the 300 year rule by the Spanish, Mexico became a crossroad for the people and cultures of Europe, Africa and Asia. The government of independent Mexico actively promoted shared cultural traits in order to create a national identity, the culture of an individual Mexican is influenced by their familial ties, gender, religion, location and social class, among other factors. The Spanish arrival and colonization brought Roman Catholicism to the country, Mexico is a secular state, and the Constitution of 1917 and anti-clerical laws imposed limitations on the church and sometimes codified state intrusion into church matters. The government does not provide any financial contributions to the church,95. 6% of the population were Christian in 2010. Roman Catholics are 89% of the total, 47% percent of whom attend church services weekly, in absolute terms, Mexico has the worlds second largest number of Catholics after Brazil. According to the Governments 2000 census, approximately 87 percent of respondents identified themselves as at least nominally Roman Catholic, approximately 3.52 percent of respondents indicated no religion, and 0.86 percent did not specify a religion. Mexico is known for its folk art traditions, mostly derived from the indigenous, pre-Columbian art thrived over a wide timescale, from 1800 BC to AD1500. Certain artistic characteristics were repeated throughout the region, namely a preference for angular, linear patterns, notable handicrafts include clay pottery from the valley of Oaxaca and the village of Tonala. Colorfully embroidered cotton garments, cotton or wool shawls and outer garments, Mexico is also known for its pre-Columbian architecture, especially for public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. Following the conquest, the first artistic efforts were directed at evangelization, the Spanish initially co-opted many indigenous stonemasons and sculptors to build churches, monuments and other religious art, such as altars. The prevailing style during this era was Baroque, in the period after independence into the early 20th century, Mexican fine arts continued to be largely influenced by European traditions. After the Mexican Revolution, a new generation of Mexican artists led a vibrant national movement that incorporated political, historic, the painters Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Siqueiros were the main propegaters of Mexican muralism. Their grand murals, often displayed on buildings, promoted social ideals. Rufino Tamayo and Frida Kahlo produced more works with abstract elements. Mexican art photography was largely fostered by the work of Manuel Álvarez Bravo, Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is Netzahualcoyotl, modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Outstanding colonial writers and poets include Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the worldCulture of Mexico – Plaza de las Tres Culturas ("Square of the Three Cultures")
36. Architecture of Mexico – Many of Mexicos older architectural structures, including entire sections of Pre-Hispanic and colonial cities, have been designated World Heritage sites for their historical and artistic significance. The country has the largest number of sites declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in the Americas, important archaeological finds of the remains of structures built by the indigenous peoples of Mexico have been made in the country. The native name of this city founded by the Zapotecs in the late Preclassic is still the subject of discussion, according to some sources, the original name was Dani Baá. It is known, however, that the local Mixtec called the city Yuku kúi in their language, like most of the great Mesoamerican cities, Monte Albán was a city with a multi-ethnic population. Throughout its history, the city maintained strong ties to other peoples in Mesoamerica, the city was abandoned by the social elite and much of the rest of its population at the end of Phase Xoo. However, the enclosure that constitutes the complex of the archeological site of Monte Albán was reused by the Mixtec during the Postclassic period. By this time, the Zapotec peoples political power was divided among various city-states, including Zaachila, Yagul, Lambityeco and Tehuantepec. The Maya appear to have founded Lakam Ha about 100 B. C. during the Formative period, predominantly as a farmers village favored by the numerous springs and streams nearby. The population of Lakam Ha grew during the Early Classic period as it became a city, during the Late Classic period it was made the capital of the Bakaal region in Chiapas. The oldest of the structures that have been discovered were built around the year 600, Bakaal was an important center of Mayan civilization between the 5th and 9th centuries, during which it formed various, shifting alliances, and fought numerous wars with its enemies. On more than one occasion it made an alliance with Tikal, Calakmul won two of these wars, in 599 and 611. C. Modern archaeological theories speculate that the first dynasty of their rulers was probably of Olmec ethnicity, during the Tollan phase, the city reached its greatest extent and population. Some authors estimate the area of Tollan-Xicocotitlan at the time was between 5 and 16 km², with a population of between 16,000 and 55,000 people. Teotihuacan was listed as a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1987 and it is known that it was a cosmopolitan place, however, by the documented presence of groups from the Gulf coast or the Central Valleys of Oaxaca. Located in the town of the same name, Tzintzuntzan was the ceremonial center of the pre-Columbian Tarascan state capital. Its ruins are situated on an artificial platform excavated into the Yahuarato hillside. There, five rounded pyramids called Yácatas face the lake, the site has a small archaeological museum. The buildings of Chichen Itza show a number of architecturalArchitecture of Mexico – A replica of El Ángel in front of the National Palace in Mexico City.
37. Cinema of Mexico – During the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, Mexico all but dominated the Latin American film industry. The Guadalajara International Film Festival is the most prestigious Latin American film festival and is held annually In Guadalajara, Mexico. Mexico City is the fourth largest film and television production center in North America, behind Los Angeles, New York City and Vancouver, the first moving picture, according to sources by film historian Jim Mora, was viewed in 1895 using Thomas Edisons kinetoscope. A year later, the projector was introduced by Auguste Lumière. Mexicos first queues appeared in cinemas in the capital to see international one-minute films such as The Card Players, Arrival of a Train, and The Magic Hat. The silent film industry in Mexico produced several movies, however, the origins of early filmmaking is generally associated with Salvador Toscano Barragán. In 1898 Toscano made the countrys first film with a plot, during the Mexican Revolution, Toscano recorded several clips of the battles, which would become a full-length documentary in 1950, assembled by his daughter. Other short films were created or influenced from French film-makers. By 1906,16 movie salons opened their doors to accommodate the popularity of cinema in Mexico City, carpas, or tent shows, were popular beginning in 1911 where lower-class citizens would perform picaresque humor and theatrical plays, a place for training for aspiring actors. Politically affiliated films appearing in 1908, often deemed propagandistic by todays terms, significant battles were filmed and broadcast during the Revolution which fueled Mexicans excitement in cinema. The popularity that cinema had experienced in the early 20th century continued to grow and it was during this period that the documentary techniques were mastered as is evident in the Alva brothers production entitled Revolución orozquista. The film was shot in the camps of the rebel and federal forces during the battle between General Huerta and the leader Pascual Orozco. Hence, in late September and early October 1911, city council members appointed additional movie house inspectors, furthermore, the head of the Entertainment Commission, proposed the implementation of censorship, however, Victoriano Huertas coup détat in February 1913, prevented the move to legislate censorship. The Alva brothers production of Aniversario del fallecimineto de la suegra de Enhart is indicative of the change in the aim of Mexican cinematographers, in regards to censorship, the Huerta government imposed a moral and political decree of censorship in approximately June 1913. This decree was imposed a few days after convencionista soldiers shot at the screen during a viewing of El aguila y la serpiente, for instance, favoritism towards the Zapatistas was illustrated in the film Sangre Hermana. Due to the content of this film, it is evident that the producers had no interest in displaying the events in such a way that the audience could come to their own conclusions. The cinematic productions of this period were reflective of the Italians style film dart, the film La Luz was the first film that attempted to adopt this style, even though it was viewed as a plagiarism of Piero Foscos Il Fuoco. Paranaguá attributes the influence that the Italian had on the Mexican cinema with the similarities between the situations of both countries, both countries were in a state of chaos and disorder- there was a war in Italy and a revolution in MexicoCinema of Mexico – Salvador Toscano Mexico's first filmmaker.
38. Folktales of Mexico – Mexico has a variety of cultures which came from European and Mesoamerican cultures. This mix of cultures leads to the creation of traditional tales and narrations better known as legends, myths are narrations that tell us about the origin of gods, of the creation of our world and space. The importance of both types of tales is that they are created inside the context of a group and as a result they can be used to see the different characteristics of the group’s culture and they usually show us religion, beliefs or try to explain natural phenomena. All of the gods formed two lines around the fire, and then the Tecuciztecatl and Nanahuatzin were placed in front of the fire. All the gods said to Tecuciztécatl, “Tecuciztécatl enter the fire”, he tried to enter and he tried 4 times but he did not succeed. It was established that he could not try more than four times, so the gods said to Nanahuatzin, “Try” and, making a big effort and closing his eyes, he entered the fire. When Tecuciztécatl saw that Nanahuatzin had entered the fire, he ran, after both gods entered the fire, all the other gods sat and waited to see how Nanahuatzin was going to get out. After a while the sky started to change its color, it was red and it is said that after this, all the gods knelt to wait Nanahuatzin as the sun form. Some of them thought that Nanahuatzin would rise from the north part, others said he would rise at the midday. The gods thought he could rise from everywhere because there was light everywhere, some gods looked at the east and said, “Here, the sun will rise from this part”, this phrase was true. One of these gods were Quetzalcoatl and Tótec, when the sun rose it was red and nobody could see it because it was very bright. Then the moon appeared from the part, they rose in the same order they entered the fire. Those who narrate fables say that they had the same intensity of light so the gods met again and said, so the gods decided After the gods got out of the fire, they stood immobile. So the gods had to die to make the sun move and it is said that the sun did not move after the gods died, then the wind started to blow and he made the sun move. That is why they work at different times, the sun lights during the day, before leaving for war, Popocatépetl asked Iztaccíhuatls father for permission to marry her. Shortly after, a rival of Popocatépetl falsely told Iztaccíhuatl that her love had been killed in battle, the princess died of grief after she heard this news. Popocatépetl returned victorious but was shocked by the princesss death, to honor her, he ordered a tomb to be built close to the sun. Ten hills were united to create a mountain, Popocatépetl laid the princesss body at the mountaintop, and the whole mountain took on the form of a sleeping womanFolktales of Mexico – A princess whose beauty is ethernal.... Iztaccíhuatl volcano is located in the borders of Puebla and Mexico State... "She" is near her brave lover Popocatepetl
39. Battle of Gonzales – The Battle of Gonzales was the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution. It was fought near Gonzales, Texas, on October 2,1835, in 1831, Mexican authorities gave the settlers of Gonzales a small cannon to help protect them from frequent Comanche raids. Over the next four years, the situation in Mexico deteriorated. When the initial request was refused, Ugartechea sent 100 dragoons to retrieve the cannon, the soldiers neared Gonzales on September 29, but the colonists used a variety of excuses to keep them from the town, while secretly sending messengers to request assistance from nearby communities. Within two days, up to 140 Texians gathered in Gonzales, all determined not to give up the cannon, on October 1, settlers voted to initiate a fight. Mexican soldiers opened fire as Texians approached their camp in the hours of October 2. After several hours of firing, the Mexican soldiers withdrew. Although the skirmish had little significance, it marked a clear break between the colonists and the Mexican government and is considered to have been the start of the Texas Revolution. News of the spread throughout the United States, where it was often referred to as the Lexington of Texas. It may have buried and rediscovered in 1936, or it may have been seized by Mexican troops after the Battle of the Alamo. The Mexican Constitution of 1824 liberalized the countrys immigration policies, allowing foreigners to settle in regions such as Mexican Texas. In 1825, American Green DeWitt received permission to settle 400 families in Texas near the confluence of the San Marcos and Guadalupe Rivers. The DeWitt Colony quickly became a favorite raiding target of local Karankawa, Tonkawa, and Comanche tribes, the town was rebuilt the following year, after DeWitt negotiated peace treaties with the Karankawa and Tonkawa. The Comanche continued to stage raids of the settlement over the next few years. During the 1830s, the Mexican government wavered between federalist and centralist policies, as the pendulum swung sharply towards centralism in 1835, several Mexican states revolted. In June, a group of settlers in Texas used the political unrest as an excuse to rebel against customs duties. The federal government responded by sending troops to Texas. Some communities supported the rebellion for a variety of reasons, others, including Gonzales, declared their loyalty to Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Annas centralist governmentBattle of Gonzales – This cannon, displayed at the Gonzales Memorial Museum, may have precipitated the battle.
40. Battle of Goliad – The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In the early-morning hours of October 9,1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano. In September, Texians began plotting to kidnap Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos, the plan was initially dismissed by the central committee coordinating the rebellion. However, within days of the Texian victory at the Battle of Gonzales, Captain George Collinsworth, the Texians soon learned that Cos and his men had already departed for San Antonio de Béxar but continued their march. The garrison at La Bahía was understaffed and could not mount a defense of the forts perimeter. Using axes borrowed from townspeople, Texians were able to chop through a door, after a 30-minute battle, the Mexican garrison, under Colonel Juan López Sandoval, surrendered. One Mexican soldier had killed and three others wounded, while only one Texian had been injured. The victory isolated Coss men in Béxar from the coast, forcing them to rely on an overland march to request or receive reinforcements or supplies. In 1835, Mexico operated two major garrisons within its Texas territory, the Alamo at San Antonio de Béxar and Presidio La Bahía near Goliad, Béxar was the political center of Texas, and Goliad laid halfway between it and the major Texas port of Copano. Military and civilian supplies and military personnel were sent by sea from the Mexican interior to Copano Bay. In early 1835, as the Mexican government transitioned from a federalist model to centralism, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence, a central committee in San Felipe de Austin coordinated their activities. The Texians staged a revolt against customs duties in June. In July, Colonel Nicolas Condelle, led 200 men to reinforce Presidio La Bahía, the following month, a contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Cos landed at Copano Bay on September 20 with approximately 500 soldiers, Cos briefly toured the port at Copano Bay and the small garrison at nearby Refugio and left small groups of soldiers to reinforce each of these locations. The main body of soldiers arrived in Goliad on October 2, as soon as Coss warships were spotted approaching Copano Bay, Refugio colonists sent messengers to San Felipe de Austin and Matagorda to inform the other settlements of Coss imminent arrival. Concerned that a lack of artillery would make the presidio at Goliad impossible to capture, colonists eagerly rushed to assist, and on October 2 the Battle of Gonzales officially opened the Texas Revolution. After learning of the Texian victory, Cos made haste for Béxar and he left with the bulk of his soldiers on October 5, but because he was unable to find adequate transportation most of his supplies remained at La Bahía. On October 6, members of the Texian militia in Matagorda convened at the home of Sylvanus Hatch, as their first order of business they elected George Collinsworth as their captain, Dr. William Carleton was then named first lieutenant and D. CBattle of Goliad – Battle of Goliad
41. Battle of San Patricio – The Battle of San Patricio was fought on February 27,1836 between Mexican troops and rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians. The battle marked the start of the Goliad Campaign, the Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast and it took place in and around San Patricio. By the end of 1835, all Mexican troops had driven from Texas. Frank W. Johnson, the commander of the army in Texas. After spending several weeks gathering horses for the Matamoros Expedition, in late February Johnson, Johnson assigned some of his troops to a ranch 4 miles outside town to guard the horses, while the rest of his men garrisoned in three different locations in town. Unbeknownst to the Texians, on February 18, Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops from Matamoros into Texas. Their goal was to neutralize the Texian soldiers gathered along the coast, Urreas men easily followed the trail left by Johnsons herd of horses. Mexican soldiers surprised the sleeping Texians in San Patricio in the hours of February 27. After a fifteen-minute battle, all but six Texians had been killed or imprisoned, one Mexican soldier was killed and four injured. Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model to a centralized government. His increasingly dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, the Mexican army quickly put down revolts in the Mexican interior, including a brutal suppression of militias in Oaxaca and Zacatecas. Unrest continued in the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas, the area that bordered the United States, known as Texas, was populated primarily by English-speaking settlers, known as Texians. In October, the Texians took up arms in what known as the Texas Revolution. The following month, Texians declared themselves part of an independent from Coahuila. By the end of the year, all Mexican troops had expelled from Texas. Leading federalists in Mexico advocated a plan to attack centralist troops in Matamoros, members of the General Council, the interim Texas governing body, were enamored with the idea of a Matamoros Expedition. They hoped it would inspire other federalist states to revolt and keep the bored Texian troops from deserting the army, most importantly, it would move the war zone outside Texas. Determined to quash the rebellion, Santa Anna began assembling a force to restore orderBattle of San Patricio – approximate location of the battle
42. Hurricane Claudette (2003) – Hurricane Claudette was the third tropical storm and first hurricane of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. A fairly long-lived July Atlantic hurricane, Claudette began as a wave in the eastern Caribbean. It moved quickly westward, brushing past the Yucatán Peninsula before moving northwestward through the Gulf of Mexico, Claudette remained a tropical storm until just before making landfall in Port OConnor, Texas, when it quickly strengthened to a strong Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Forecasting of its path and intensity was uncertain throughout its lifetime, resulting in widespread, Claudette was the first hurricane to make landfall in July in the United States since Hurricane Danny in the 1997 season. The hurricane caused one death and moderate damage in Texas, mostly from strong winds, because of the damage, President George W. Bush declared portions of South Texas a Federal Disaster Area, allowing the affected citizens to apply for aid. Claudette also caused significant rainfall and minor damage in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo as a tropical storm, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on July 1. It steadily organized as it moved westward, and resembled a tropical depression by July 7, however, surface reports and reconnaissance aircraft indicated the system did not have tropical characteristics, and remained simply a low-pressure system. The wave produced tropical storm-force winds as it moved through the Lesser Antilles on July 8, because it had tropical storm-force winds, the system was upgraded immediately to Tropical Storm Claudette after it developed a low-level circulation later on July 8. By early on July 9, while south of Puerto Rico, Claudette quickly strengthened over the waters of the Caribbean. Possibly due to its fast forward motion, the storm became disorganized and weakened, conditions briefly became more favorable over the western Caribbean, and Claudette reached hurricane status for six hours on July 10. Soon after, the storm encountered unfavorable winds and weakened back into a tropical storm. In response to a break in the subtropical ridge—a high-pressure ridge that often prevents tropical systems from moving northward—it turned to the west-northwest, Claudette made its first landfall at Puerto Morelos on the Yucatán Peninsula on July 11 as a tropical storm with 60 mph winds. Claudette wobbled to the northwest over the Gulf of Mexico and gradually restrengthened, upper-level winds steadily decreased, and Claudette again became a hurricane late on July 14. Residents along and inland of the central Texas coast were caught off guard both by its intensity and its time of arrival, the hurricane was projected to make landfall in the evening hours of July 15, but instead came ashore before noon. As slow as Claudette was to strengthen, it was slow to dissipate over land. Inland hurricane warnings were issued for several counties away from the coastline, the storm finally lost its low-level circulation early on July 17 over Chihuahua, although its rainfall and upper-level circulation continued into the Pacific Ocean. Mexican officials issued a storm warning 37 hours prior to the storms landfall between Chetumal and Cabo Catoche, Quintana Roo. The warning was upgraded to a warning about a day before landfallHurricane Claudette (2003) – Hurricane Claudette near landfall in Texas
43. Hurricane Erika (2003) – Hurricane Erika was a weak hurricane that struck extreme northeastern Mexico near the Texas-Tamaulipas border in mid-August of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Erika was the tropical cyclone, fifth tropical storm. At first, the National Hurricane Center operationally did not designate it as a hurricane because initial data suggested winds of 70 mph at Erikas peak intensity and it was not until later data was analyzed that the NHC revised it to Category 1 intensity in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm developed from an area of low pressure that was tracked for five days before developing in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on August 14. Under the influence of a pressure system, Erika moved quickly westward. It made landfall as a hurricane on northeastern Mexico on August 16, while Erikas precursor disturbance was moving across Florida, it dropped heavy rainfall. In south Texas, Erika produced moderate winds of 50 to 60 mph along with rain, causing minor. In northeastern Mexico, Erika produced moderate amounts of rainfall, resulting in mudslides, there, two people were killed when their vehicle was swept away by floodwaters. A weak surface area of low pressure detached from a system on August 8 while 1,150 miles to the east of Bermuda. It moved southwestward, and on August 9, it generated convection as it passed beneath a cold-core upper-level low. The surface low and the low turned westward as it revolved around a common center, and by August 11. As the system continued westward, much of the convection remained near the center of the upper-level low. A closed low-level circulation nearly developed on August 14 to the east of Key Largo, Florida, the mid-level storm continued westward and moved across Florida. With well-established outflow and low levels of shear, Erika strengthened as the circulation became better defined. A high pressure system persisted over the south-central United States, forcing the storm to move just south of due west at 25 mph, on August 15, convection organized into bands, and as its winds approached hurricane strength, an eye developed within the storm. The storm rapidly weakened over the mountainous Sierra Madre Oriental, the mid-level circulation maintained integrity as it crossed Mexico, and led to the formation of a tropical disturbance after entering the Gulf of California on August 18. It turned to the northwest and weakened on August 20, operationally Erika was never upgraded to hurricane status. Based on a persistent eye feature on radar and Doppler weather radar-estimated surface winds of 75 mph, the threat of Erikas onslaught prompted the evacuation of 51 oil platforms and 3 oil rigs in the western Gulf of MexicoHurricane Erika (2003) – Erika weakening over northeastern Mexico several hours after landfall on August 16
44. Fredonian Rebellion – The Fredonian Rebellion was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. The settlers, led by Empresario Haden Edwards, declared independence from Mexican Texas, the short-lived republic encompassed the land the Mexican government had granted to Edwards in 1825 and included areas that had been previously settled. In late December 1826, a group of Edwardss supporters took control of the region by arresting and removing from office several municipality officials affiliated with the established residents, supporters declared their independence from Mexico. Austin convinced tribal leaders to repudiate the rebellion, on January 31,1827, a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 250 militiamen from Austins colony marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. Haden Edwards and his brother Benjamin fled to the United States, Chief Richard Fields was killed by his own tribe. A local merchant was arrested and sentenced to death, but later paroled, the rebellion led Mexican President Guadalupe Victoria to increase the military presence in the area. As a result, several tribes in the area halted their raids on settlements. The Comanche abided by this treaty for many years, fearing that through the rebellion the United States hoped to gain control of Texas, the Mexican government severely curtailed immigration to the region from the US. This new immigration law was opposed by colonists and caused increasing dissatisfaction with Mexican rule. Some historians consider the Fredonian Rebellion to be the beginning of the Texas Revolution, in the words of one historian, the rebellion was premature, but it sparked the powder for later success. After winning independence in 1821, several of Spains colonies in the New World joined together to create a new country, the country divided itself into several states, and the area known as Mexican Texas became part of the border state Coahuila y Tejas. To assist in governing the area, the state created several departments. This department was subdivided into municipalities, which were governed by alcalde. A large portion of East Texas, ranging from the Sabine to the Trinity Rivers and from the Gulf Coast to the Red River, most residents of the municipality were Spanish-speaking families who had occupied their land for generations. An increasing number were English-speaking residents who had immigrated illegally during the Mexican War of Independence, many of the immigrants were adventurers who had arrived as part of various military filibustering groups which had attempted to create independent republics within Texas during Spanish rule. To better control the sparsely populated region, in 1824 the Mexican federal government passed the General Colonization Law to allow legal immigration into Texas. Under the law, each state would set its own requirements for immigration, after some debate, on March 24,1825, Coahuila y Tejas authorized a system granting land to empresario, who would recruit settlers for their particular colony. In addition, for every 100 families an empresario settled on Texas, they would receive 23,000 acres of land to cultivate, during the state governments deliberations, many would-be empresarios congregated in Mexico to lobby for land grantsFredonian Rebellion – The Old Stone Fort was seized during the Fredonian Rebellion.
45. Hasekura Tsunenaga – Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga was a Roman noble of Japanese imperial descent with ancestral ties to Emperor Kanmu and a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyō of Sendai. In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, and follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582, on the return trip, Hasekura and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manila, and then sailing north to Japan in 1620. He is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas, although Hasekuras embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking, Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan. Japans next embassy to Europe would only occur more than 200 years later, little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle that was constructed in Hasekura Ward, Kawasaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, the place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura Village, now Hasekura Ward in Kawasaki City. Hasekura and Date Masamune were of roughly the age. It is also recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taikō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in 1612, Hasekuras father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, and he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, and his son should normally have been executed as well, Date, however, gave him the opportunity to redeem his honour by placing him in charge of the Embassy to Europe, and soon gave him back his territories as well. The Spanish started trans-Pacific voyages between New Spain and the Philippines in 1565, the famous Manila galleons carried silver from Mexican mines westward to the entrepôt of Manila in the Spanish possession of the Philippines. There, the silver was used to purchase spices and trade goods gathered from throughout Asia, Spanish ships were periodically shipwrecked on the coasts of Japan due to bad weather, initiating contacts with the country. The Spanish wished to expand the Christian faith in Japan, however, some Japanese, such as Christopher and Cosmas, are known to have crossed the Pacific onboard Spanish galleons as early as 1587. It is known that gifts were exchanged between the governor of the Philippines and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who thanks him in a 1597 letter, writing The black elephant in particular I found most unusual. In 1609, the Spanish Manila galleon San Francisco encountered bad weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, the sailors were rescued and welcomed, and the ships captain, Rodrigo de Vivero, former interim governor of the Philippines, met with the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Vizcaino arrived in Japan in 1611 and had meetings with the ShogunHasekura Tsunenaga – Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615 by Claude Deruet
46. Hurricane Edith (1971) – Edith developed from a tropical wave on September 5 and quickly strengthened into a hurricane in the Caribbean Sea. Edith rapidly intensified on September 9 and made landfall on Cape Gracias a Dios as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale and it quickly lost intensity over Central America and after briefly entering the Gulf of Honduras it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Edith steadily weakened over land and dissipated over Georgia on September 18, the hurricane killed two people when it passed near Aruba. Striking northeastern Central America as a Category 5 hurricane, Edith destroyed hundreds of homes, in Texas high tides caused coastal flooding but little damage. Edith caused moderate to heavy damage in portions of Louisiana due to flooding, one tornado, rated F3 on the Fujita Scale, damaged several homes and injured multiple people in Baton Rouge. The tornado outbreak extended eastward into Florida, of which a few destroyed entire buildings, damage in the United States totaled US$25 million. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa near Dakar on August 31 and it moved westward into the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and organized into a tropical disturbance on September 2 with a small, circular area of convection. The system moved to the west, and on September 3, by the next day, the tropical disturbance was barely discernible from the clouds of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The depression moved quickly, and moved through the southern Lesser Antilles early on September 6. As the storm continued into open waters of the Caribbean, the low gradually weakened and was replaced with an anticyclone. This allowed the storm to further, and on September 8. On September 9, the storm intensified, and within 24 hours. Reconnaissance aircraft crews in the peak of the storm reported extreme turbulence, at its peak intensity, the very well-defined pinhole eye was only 5 miles in diameter. Late on September 9, Hurricane Edith made landfall on northeastern Nicaragua at Cabo Gracias a Dios and it continued to weaken as it moved northwestward, and made landfall near Belize City with tropical storm winds of 70 mph. Edith weakened further while crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, and emerged into the Gulf of Mexico near Campeche, Edith initially failed to re-intensify as it moved northwestward, despite low amounts of wind shear and warm waters. This was because an anticyclone over the Gulf was closely connected with Hurricane Fern, the anticyclone resulted in an easterly upper-level flow across Edith, creating conditions not conducive for intensification. As Fern moved inland over Texas, the became more favorable around Edith, and 36 hours after entering the Gulf of Mexico. Edith continued moving to the west-northwest, heading towards the coast of Mexico, but early on September 14, a mid-latitude trough of low pressure approached the storm, and caused Edith to turn to slowly drift towards the northeastHurricane Edith (1971) – Radar image of Edith at peak intensity
47. Hurricane Isis (1998) – Hurricane Isis was the deadliest tropical cyclone and only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. The ninth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isis developed on September 1 from an interaction between a wave and a large surface circulation to the southwest of Mexico. It moved northward, striking the extreme southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California, Isis made landfall at Topolobampo in the Mexican state of Sinaloa on September 3, and quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted for days before dissipating in the U. S. state of Idaho. In Mexico, Isis destroyed over 700 houses and killed 14 people, the rainfall caused widespread damage to roads and railways, stranding thousands of people. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 14,1998 and it traveled westward, and on August 19 spawned the tropical depression that eventually became Hurricane Bonnie. The wave continued westward across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, the wave decreased its forward speed while approaching a large low-level circulation over southern Mexico. On August 31, the two areas of convection were well-removed from the center. In real time, the National Hurricane Center first upgraded the system 21 hours later, the depression initially tracked slowly north-northwestward and gradually strengthened. Late on September 1 it intensified into Tropical Storm Isis while located about 200 miles south of Cabo San Lucas, upon becoming a tropical storm, the deep convection was not organized, causing one forecaster to describe Isis as a large monsoon-like system. A mid-level trough extending southward from the Arizona/California border caused the storm to accelerate northward, the storm quickly strengthened, six hours after Isis became a tropical storm it reached winds of 70 mph. At 1200 UTC on September 2, Isis made landfall on extreme southeastern Baja California Sur as a tropical storm. After entering the Gulf of California, an eye began to become apparent on satellite imagery. Continuing northward, it struck Topolobampo in the state of Sinaloa early on September 3 as a minimal hurricane, Isis weakened to a tropical storm a few hours after landfall, and subsequent to turning to the north-northwest the low-level circulation dissipated over Sierra Madre Occidental. The remnants entered southern Arizona on September 4 and tracked around an upper-level low, after entering Nevada on September 5, the remnants of Isis passed into Oregon before dissipating in Idaho on September 8. Coinciding with the National Hurricane Centers first advisory on Isis, the government of Mexico issued a storm warning from Dolores to Puerto Cortés along the Baja California Peninsula. After Isis became a hurricane, officials issued a warning from Dolores to Punta San Gabriel on the Baja California Peninsula. In Baja California Sur,2,500 residents were evacuated to emergency shelters, officials closed the port at Mazatlán and recommended fisherman along the coast of the Gulf of California to remain at portHurricane Isis (1998) – Isis shortly after becoming a hurricane
48. Hurricane Kenna – Hurricane Kenna is tied as the third-most intense Pacific hurricane to strike the west coast of Mexico in recorded history. Kenna was the tropical depression, thirteenth tropical storm, seventh hurricane, sixth major hurricane. After forming on October 22 to the south of Mexico from a tropical wave, weakening as it turned to the northeast, the hurricane struck near San Blas, Nayarit, with winds of 140 mph before dissipating on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains. The name Kenna was retired from the list of Pacific hurricane names due to its effects on Mexico, 95% of the buildings in San Blas were damaged, and hundreds of buildings were destroyed along coastal areas of Puerto Vallarta. The origin of Hurricane Kenna can be traced to a wave moving westward through the Caribbean Sea on October 16. The wave entered the eastern Pacific Ocean on October 19, conditions favored continued development, and Dvorak classifications began late on October 20. Early on October 22, the system developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen-E while located about 375 mi south of Manzanillo, initially the depression was disorganized, with little inner convective structure and sporadic deep convection. Computer models predicted an increase in wind shear by 60 hours, the depression quickly became better organized with a great increase in convection near the center, and six hours after forming it strengthened into Tropical Storm Kenna. Upper-level outflow and banding features improved in organization, as well, on October 23, the outer rainbands dissipated and convection became more concentrated near the center, which coincided with a steady increase in strength. Late on October 23, Kenna intensified into a hurricane while located about 380 mi southwest of Manzanillo, shortly after becoming a hurricane, Kenna began to rapidly intensify with a 17 mi wide eye located within its well-defined central dense overcast. Early on October 24 Kenna became a hurricane, and in a 24‑hour period the hurricane more than doubled its windspeed from 70 mph winds to 145 mph. A Reconnaissance Aircraft flight into the hurricane while it was near peak intensity recorded a pressure of 913 mbar, despite a 27 mbar increase in pressure in 12 hours, convective activity increased prior to Kenna making landfall. On October 25 Hurricane Kenna struck near San Blas in the state of Nayarit with estimated winds of 140 mph, the hurricane rapidly weakened over the mountainous terrain of western Mexico, and the circulation dissipated on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains. The remnants continued northeastward into the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern United States, about 27 hours before landfall, Mexican officials issued a hurricane watch from Mazatlán to Cabo Corrientes, with a tropical storm watch issued further south to Manzanillo. Six hours later when its track became more apparent, the watch was upgraded to a warning from Mazatlán to La Fortuna. Roughly 8,800 of the 9,000 residents in the location, San Blas, evacuated. Civil authorities closed all schools and docks in potentially affected areas, the Mexican Red Cross prepared for the storm by shipping 215 tonnes of relief supplies such as food, water, clothing, and medicine to the Red Cross branch in Jalisco. Assistance from the Yucatán Peninsula delivered 10 tonnes of food and water, the Mexican Red Cross prepared 20 emergency shelters in the state of NayaritHurricane Kenna – Hurricane Kenna at peak intensity
49. Tropical Storm Marco (2008) – Tropical Storm Marco is the smallest tropical cyclone on record. The thirteenth named storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, Marco developed out of an area of low pressure over the northwestern Caribbean during late September 2008. Influenced by a wave on October 4, a small low-level circulation center developed over Belize. After crossing the end of the Yucatán Peninsula and emerging into the Bay of Campeche. The depression quickly intensified into a storm and was given the name Marco later that day. Marco reached its intensity with winds of 65 mph early on October 7. Around this time, tropical storm force winds extended 11.5 miles from the center of the storm, around 1200 UTC, Marco made landfall near Misantla, Veracruz. The storm rapidly weakened after landfall, dissipating later that day, due to its small size, Marco caused minimal damage, however, the storms heavy rains led to floods up to 10 feet deep that covered highways and damaged homes. Tropical Storm Marco originated in a area of low pressure that persisted over the northwestern Caribbean in late September 2008. On October 4, a tropical wave reached the area. Development of the low was initially inhibited by its proximity to land, as the system neared the Bay of Campeche, convection quickly developed around the low. At 0000 UTC on October 6, the low was designated as Tropical Depression Thirteen while located over Laguna de Términos, a mid-level ridge located to the north of the depression led to movement in a general west-northwest direction. Forecasters anticipated intensification up until landfall because of the storms well-developed outflow, by 1200 UTC, the small cyclone, with a cloud shield no more than 85 miles across, was upgraded to Tropical Storm Marco. Favorable conditions for development allowed Marco to quickly intensify throughout the day on October 6, early on October 7, Marco reached its peak intensity with winds of 65 mph and a minimum pressure of 998 millibar. This was based on a mission into Marco which recorded flight-level winds of 70 mph. Following the quick increase in intensity, forecasters noted the possibility of Marco intensifying into a hurricane making landfall. The storm maintained an area of deep convection, averaging 9.2 miles in diameter. Shortly after reaching peak intensity, tropical storm force winds extended 11.5 miles from the center of Marco, at 1200 UTC, the center of Marco made landfall near Misantla, Veracruz, with winds of 65 mphTropical Storm Marco (2008) – Tropical Storm Marco near peak intensity
50. Meteorological history of Hurricane Wilma – The meteorological history of Hurricane Wilma, the most intense known tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin, began in the second week of October 2005. A large area of disturbed weather developed across much of the Caribbean Sea, by late on October 15, the system was sufficiently organized for the National Hurricane Center to designate it as Tropical Depression Twenty-Four. The depression drifted southwestward, and under conditions, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Wilma on October 17. Initially, development was due to its large size, though convection steadily organized. At its peak intensity, the eye of Wilma was about 2.3 miles in diameter, Wilma weakened over the Yucatán Peninsula, and reached the southern Gulf of Mexico before accelerating northeastward. Despite increasing amounts of wind shear, the hurricane re-strengthened to hit Cape Romano, Florida. Wilma weakened as it crossed the state, and entered the Atlantic Ocean near Jupiter. The hurricane again re-intensified before cold air and wind shear penetrated the inner core of convection, by October 26, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, and the next day, the remnants of Wilma were absorbed by another extratropical storm over Atlantic Canada. During the second week of October, a large, monsoon-like lower-level circulation. The system was enhanced by diffluence from an upper-level low across the southwestern Atlantic, by October 13, a broad area of low pressure developed and persisted about 150 miles southeast of Jamaica, possibly aided by the passage of tropical waves through the area at the time. Convection increased and became better organized, though upper-level wind shear initially prevented development. The system drifted westward, and early on October 14 the convection became more concentrated and it was then that the National Hurricane Center first indicated that it was possible for a tropical depression to develop in the area. Dvorak classifications were initiated on October 15, the system continued to organize, with the National Hurricane Center remarking the system could ultimately become a hurricane. The depression tracked westward, a motion due to weak steering currents caused by a high pressure area to its north across the Gulf of Mexico. Initially, the center of circulation was broad without an inner core, forecaster Lixion Avila remarked. This was due to the depression being located within an environment very conducive for development, specifically low amounts of wind shear, although deep convection and banding features increased, mid-level dry air from the north prevented significant organization, and the convection was split into two primary areas. Continued reconnaissance flights reported peak winds of about 30 mph, by early on October 17, the outer rainbands, which had previously dominated the structure of the cyclone, dissipated, while deep convection developed near and to the south of the center. Computer models predicted steady strengthening as the depression tracked westward before turning to the north, of the intensity models, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory predicted an intensity of 135 mph within 36 hours, with other forecasts being more conservative in their predictionsMeteorological history of Hurricane Wilma – Tropical Depression Twenty-Four on October 16
51. Hurricane Rick (2009) – Hurricane Rick is the third-most intense Pacific hurricane on record. An eye began to form during the afternoon of October 16, once fully formed, during the afternoon of October 17, the storm attained Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Several hours later, Rick attained its peak intensity as the third-strongest Pacific hurricane on record with winds of 180 mph, after maintaining this intensity for several hours, Rick began to weaken in response to a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear. By October 19, the storm was downgraded to a Category 3 hurricane, the long-anticipated northeast turn took place near the end of this phase, also accompanied by a brief decrease in forward motion. On October 21, Rick quickly moved northeast, brushing the tip of Baja California Sur before making landfall near Mazatlán with winds of 60 mph, several hours after moving inland, the final advisory from the NHC was issued as the storm weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated. Prior to landfall, the National Hurricane Center initially forecast Rick to make landfall in southern Baja California as a high-end Category 2 hurricane, officials ordered several hundred residents to evacuate from low-lying areas, although tropical storm warnings replaced the hurricane watches after the storm had weakened. Overall, the damage from Rick was significantly less than initially anticipated, in Mexico, three people were killed by the storm, one in Oaxaca and two in Baja California Sur. Hurricane Rick originated from a tropical disturbance wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on October 3,2009. Convective activity was initially sparse as the system tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean, by October 8, an area of low pressure developed within the disturbance wave and convection increased. The low eventually moved over South America and dissipated on October 11, the wave, however, remained well-defined and continued westward, entering the Pacific Ocean on October 12. By the morning of October 15, the wave began to regain convection and eventually spawned a new area of low pressure roughly 475 mi south-southwest of Puerto Ángel, Mexico. By the afternoon, the NHC reported that the system had become organized and was likely to develop into a tropical depression later that day. Around 11,00 am PDT, the NHC declared that the low had developed into a tropical depression, the storm featured well-developed outflow in all directions. Environmental conditions consisting of low shear, high moisture content. Additionally, the storm was being steered through this region by a low- to mid-level ridge over Mexico, six hours after being declared a depression, the system quickly intensified into a tropical storm, at which time it was given the name Rick. Deep convection, an indication of an eye forming, had begun wrapping around the center of the system. Early on October 16, an eyewall began to develop and several hours later. The rapid intensification was fueled by waters of 30 °C, several degrees above average, by the evening of October 16, microwave satellite imagery depicted a well-defined eye, however, this feature was not present on infrared imagesHurricane Rick (2009) – Hurricane Rick near peak intensity as a Category 5 hurricane on October 17
52. Romances (Luis Miguel album) – Romances is the twelfth studio album by Mexican singer Luis Miguel, released on 12 August 1997, by Warner Music Latina. It is the album of the Romance series, in which Miguel covers Latin songs from 1940 to 1978. Aside from Miguel, the production also involved arranger Bebu Silvetti, and Armando Manzanero, Romances consists of twelve cover versions and two new compositions by Manzanero and Silvetti. Recording took place in early 1997 at the Ocean Way recording studio in Los Angeles, Romances has sold over 4.5 million copies and received platinum certifications in several Latin American countries, the United States and Spain. Miguel promoted the album by touring the United States, Latin America, upon its release, Romances received generally positive reviews from music critics. They mainly praised his vocals and production of the album although some found the arrangements to be repetitive. The album earned Miguel several awards, including the Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Performance in the United States, six singles were released, Por Debajo de la Mesa, El Reloj, Contigo, De Quererte Así, Bésame Mucho, and Sabor a Mí. In 1991 Miguel released Romance, a collection of classic Latin ballads, the album was produced by Armando Manzanero and arranged by Bebu Silvetti, and was credited for revitalizing the bolero genre. It also made history as the first Spanish-language album to be certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in the United States, a follow-up to Romance was released in 1994 under the title Segundo Romance, which was produced by Miguel, Juan Carlos Calderón and Kiko Cibrian. He also expressed an interest in singing in Italian and Portuguese, two months later Manzanero confirmed that he was working with Miguel on another bolero-inspired ballads album, under the tentative title Tercer Romance. Miguels record label confirmed that fourteen tracks would be included on the album under the title Romances, Miguel collaborated with Silvetti for the arrangement of Romances, while Manzanero was in charge of direction. Recording began on 18 March 1997, at Ocean Way Recording in Hollywood, Silvetti has stated that when he produces an album he does not simply copy his own arrangements, because he feels that would be ridiculous, and prefers to be creative within his own style. About the selection of songs for the album, Manzanero stated that I give the songs, participants in the recording sessions included sixty-one musicians from the Los Angeles Philharmonic. He also covers songs from other styles including tango, bossa nova. Miguel had performed some of the composers songs on his previous Romance albums. Miguel recorded Manazeros songs Voy a Apagar la Luz/Contigo Aprendí and Amanecer, the two original compositions were Por Debajo de la Mesa by Manzanero and Contigo by Bebu Silvetti and Sylvia Riera Ibáñez. Miguel launched his Romances Tour, consisting of 84 concerts, in Las Vegas, Nevada, the performances featured Miguel performing dance-pop and bolero arrangements for two-and-a-half hours. Adam Sandler of Variety expressed a mixed reaction to the concert in the Universal Amphitheatre in Los Angeles and he noted that Miguel rarely acknowledged his audience or ventured out from center stageRomances (Luis Miguel album) – Romances
53. George W. Romney – George Wilcken Romney was an American businessman and Republican Party politician. He was the father of former Governor of Massachusetts and 2012 Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney, Romney was born to American parents living in the Mormon colonies in Mexico, events during the Mexican Revolution forced his family to flee back to the United States when he was a child. The family lived in states and ended up in Salt Lake City, Utah. Romney worked in a number of jobs, served as a Mormon missionary in the United Kingdom and he joined Nash-Kelvinator in 1948, and became the chief executive of its successor, American Motors Corporation, in 1954. There he turned around the firm by focusing all efforts on the compact Rambler car. Romney mocked the products of the Big Three automakers as gas-guzzling dinosaurs and became one of the first high-profile, devoutly religious, he presided over the Detroit Stake of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Having entered politics by participating in a constitutional convention to rewrite the Michigan Constitution during 1961–1962. Romney was a supporter of the American Civil Rights Movement. He briefly represented moderate Republicans against conservative Republican Barry Goldwater during the 1964 U. S. presidential election and he requested the intervention of federal troops during the 1967 Detroit riot. Initially a front runner for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 1968 election, he proved an ineffective campaigner, after Nixons election as president, he appointed Romney as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Romneys ambitious plans for housing production increases for the poor, and for housing to desegregate suburbs, were modestly successful. Romney left the administration at the start of Nixons second term in 1973, returning to private life, he advocated volunteerism and public service, and headed the National Center for Voluntary Action and its successor organizations from 1973 through 1991. He also served as a representative of the Twelve within his church. Romneys grandparents were polygamous Mormons who fled the United States with their children owing to the governments prosecution of polygamy. In the 1920s, Romneys uncle Rey L. Pratt played a role in the preservation and expansion of the Mormon presence in Mexico. A more distant kinsman was George Romney, a portrait painter in Britain during the last quarter of the 18th century. Romneys parents, Gaskell Romney and Anna Amelia Pratt, were United States citizens and they married in 1895 in Mexico and lived in Colonia Dublán in Galeana in the state of Chihuahua, where George was born on July 8,1907. George had three brothers, two younger brothers, and a younger sisterGeorge W. Romney – Romney while U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
54. CMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship – The CMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship is a professional wrestling championship promoted by the Mexican Lucha libre wrestling-based promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The championship is competed for in the Mini-Estrellas, or Minis. A Mini is not necessarily a person with dwarfism, as in North American midget professional wrestling, it can also be very short wrestlers who work in the Mini division. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules, the CMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship was created in early 1992 to give CMLLs Mini-Estrellas division a championship as its focal point. The first champion was Mascarita Sagrada, who won a tournament on March 1,1992 by defeating Espectrito in the final. When the creator of CMLLs Minis division, Antonio Peña, left CMLL to form his own promotion, AAA, Mascarita Sagrada, after Mascarita Sagrada left the promotion, the title was vacant until September 1992, when Orito won the championship in a match against El Felinito. In 1999, in a so-called Phantom title switch, then-champion Damiancito el Guerrero had the championship stripped, Damiancito had begun working under the ring name Virus in the regular-sized division for more than a year and thus no longer qualified as a Mini. Instead of vacating the title or making Virus lose it in a match, shockercito is the curren champion, having defeated Pierrothito on March 5,2017 to win the vacant championship. On January 18,2017 the previous champion, Astral, announced that he was moving into the regular sized division, shockercito is the 14th overall champion in his first reign and he is the 12th person to hold the championship. Key Key CMLL held a tournament in early 1992 to determine the first CMLL World Mini-Estrella Champion, the semi-finals were held on February 23,1992, general sources - Royal Duncan and Gary WillCMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship – Mascarita Sagrada, the first CMLL World Mini-Estrella champion
55. List of CMLL World Light Heavyweight Champions – The CMLL World Light Heavyweight Championship is a singles professional wrestling world championship promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre since 1991. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. The official definition of the Light Heavyweight weight class in Mexico is between 92 kg and 97 kg, but is not always strictly enforced, because Lucha Libre emphasizes the lower weight classes, this division is considered more important than the normally more prestigious heavyweight division of a promotion. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules, the first champion to be recognized by CMLL was Jerry Estrada, who defeated Pierroth Jr. in the finals of a 16-man tournament that took place between September 15 and September 26,1991. La Máscara is the current CMLL World Light Heavyweight Champion in his first reign, overall, there have been fifteen reigns shared among fourteen wrestlers. La Máscaras ongoing reign is currently the shortest reign, followed by Jerry Estradas reign, at 175 days, while Último Guerrero has held it for the longest period, aquarius unofficial title reign is the shortest on record,8 days, but is not acknowledged by CMLL. Key Key General source -Royal Duncan and Gary Will, MEXICO, CMLL EMLL Light Heavyweight TitleList of CMLL World Light Heavyweight Champions – Dr. Wagner Jr., one of two men to hold the CMLL World Light Heavyweight Championship twice.
56. List of Mexican National Trios Champions – The Mexican National Trios Championship is a Mexican professional wrestling three-man tag team championship created and sanctioned by Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. Although the Commission sanctions the title, it does not promote the events in which the title is defended. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules, the Mexican National Trios Championship was created in 1985. Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre was given the control of the title while the Commission only have to approve the champions. The first champion crowned was the team of Los Infernales, CMLL controlled the championship from 1985 until 1994, when Asistencia Asesoría y Administración took control of the championship. The first champion of the AAA-controlled era was Los Hermanos Dinamita, when the AAA began to co-promote events with Promotora Mexicana de Lucha Libre, the title became jointly operated, when the AAA and PROMELL split up in 1996, the championship was vacated. The Commission returned the championship to CMLL, allowing them to hold a tournament to crown the new champions, since 1996, the titles have been exclusively controlled by CMLL. Los Hijos del Infierno are the current champions, after defeating the trio of Los Reyes de la Atlantida for the title on August 9,2015 and this is the teams first reign and they are the 39th overall champions. Mephisto previously held the title once before with Averno and El Satánico, Los Reyes de la Atlantida hold the record for most reigns as a team, with three. The team of Blue Panther, Fuerza Guerrera and El Signo held the title for the longest period, at 1,728 days, while Los Payasos have held it for the shortest period, at 26 days. Key Championships without a start or end date are not included as it is not possible to calculate the specific number of dates for a reign. Key Championships without a start or end date are not included as it is not possible to calculate the specific number of dates for a reignList of Mexican National Trios Champions – Nicho el Millonario, one third of the 22nd. Mexican National Trios Champion along with Halloween and Damián 666
57. Mexican National Lightweight Championship – The Mexican National Lightweight Championship is a Mexican professional wrestling singles championship created and sanctioned by Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. Although the Commission sanctions the title, it does not promote the events in which the title is defended. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. The official definition of the weight class in Mexico is between 63 kg and 70 kg, but the weight limits for the different classes are not always strictly enforced. Since the title was back after being inactive for approximately four years it has been contested for in the Mini-Estrellas division exclusively. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules as is tradition in Mexico, the Mexican National Lightweight Championship was created in 1934, making it one of the oldest wrestling championships still active today. Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre has the control of the championship while the Commission only serves to approve the champions. Jack OBrien was recognized as the first champion in 1934, after winning a tournament sanctioned by Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. Eléctrico is the current Mexican National Lightweight Champion, having defeated Pequeño Nitro in a tournament final on August 13,2013. He is the 49th overall champion and the 39th person to hold the title, rodolfo Ruiz and Taro are tied for the most reigns as champion, with three in total, Mishima Ota has the shortest reign, at 1 day. Black Shadow holds the record for the longest individual reign, at over 1,901 days, Key Key In 2008 the Mexican National Lightweight Championship was reintroduced after being vacant since 2005. CMLL held two Torneo cibernetico elimination matches, one on September 9 and one on September 16 to determine the finalists, Pierrothito won the first torneo cibernetico by eliminating Pequeño Olimpico in the end. Mascarita Dorada won the torneo cibernetico, eliminating Pequeño Black Warrior in the last fall. On September 23,2009 Pierrothito defeated Mascarita Dorada to win the championship, the winners of each block faced off on August 13,2013 to determine the new champion. The finals saw Eléctrico defeat Pequeño Nitro to win the championship, Cibernetico – July 30,2013 Cibernetico – August 6,2013 General sources – Royal Duncan and Gary Will. – Los Reyes de Mexico, La Historia de Los Campeonatos Nacionales, specific CMLL World Middleweight Title history at wrestling-titles. com Cagematch. netMexican National Lightweight Championship – Ricky Marvin, held the championship in 2001
58. Mexican National Welterweight Championship – The Mexican National Welterweight Championship is a Mexican professional wrestling championship created and sanctioned by Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. While the commission sanctions the title, it does not promote the events at which the title is defended, consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre promotes the events and has the everyday control of the championship. The official definition of the weight class in Mexico is between 77 kg and 87 kg, but is not always strictly enforced. Because Lucha Libre emphasizes the lower classes, this division is considered more important than the normally more prestigious heavyweight division of a promotion. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules, the championship was created on June 17,1934, making it the oldest professiomal wrestling championshipstill promoted. Documentation is unclear on the details of the tournament other than that Mario Nuñez won the title by defeating Tony Canales in the final on June 17,1934. After El Felino vacated the title in 1992, control of the championship was granted to Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, in 1998 control of the Welterweight Championship was returned to CMLL when Arkangel de la Muerte defeated El Toreo on a CMLL show. Since then the title has been promoted exclusively by CMLL, karloff Lagarde holds all longevity records for the championship. He has had the longest individual reign, the longest combined reign, psicosis holds the record for the shortest reign, having held the title for only two days. Rey Cometa is the current champion, having defeated Bárbaro Cavernario on June 10,2016 and it is Rey Cometas first Welterweight Championship reign, he is the 74th overall champion and the 55th person to hold the title. Key Key On July 16,1992 then reigning Mexican National Welterweight Champion El Felino defeated América to win his first ever CMLL World Heavyweight Championship, after winning the title El Felino vacates the Mexican National title to focus on his CMLL World Welterweight Championship. CMLL held a 16-man tournament over two days, starting on August 9 with the finals of the tournament the week on August 15. CMLL announced that they would hold a tournament for the vacant championship starting on April 19,2013,10 wrestlers would compete in a Torneo cibernetico elimination match with the last two wrestlers meeting at a later date in a match to determine the next champion. CMLL announced the that Místico La Nueva Era, Valiente, Rey Cometa, Guerrero Maya, Jr. Fuego, Volador, Jr. Averno, Tiger, Sangre Azteca, of the group Valiente and Sagre Azteca had held the Welterweight championship before. The tournament saw Averno and Místico La Nueva Era outlast everyone to earn the rights to wrestle for the title on April 26,2013 as the event of CMLLs Arena Mexico 57th Anniversary Show. In the finals Averno, with the help of his cornerman Mephisto was able to defeat La Nueva Era to win the championship for the first timeMexican National Welterweight Championship – Rey Misterio, Jr., the 52nd Mexican National Welterweight Champion
59. NWA World Light Heavyweight Championship – The NWA World Light Heavyweight Championship is a professional wrestling championship sanctioned by the National Wrestling Alliance and currently promoted by NWA Mexico. For the majority of its existence was promoted by Mexican promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre and it began as an official National Wrestling Alliance title and was given to the NWAs Mexican affiliate, Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre, to control. The title was promoted in NWA Hollywood Wrestling until its closure in 1982. The title remained under the control of EMLL even after EMLL pulled out of the Alliance, due to its history, it was considered the most important title in EMLL/CMLL. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. The official definition of the heavyweight weight class in Mexico is between 92 kg and 97 kg, but is not always strictly enforced. The first champion was Gypsy Joe, who won the title on November 6,1952, after Stojack was stripped of the title, the NWA Executive board decided to give Salvador Lutteroth and Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre control of the championship in 1958. The first champion under Lutteroths authority was Dory Dixon, who had worked for EMLL for many years. During the late 1970s and early 1980s the title was defended in the Los Angeles area until that promotion closed in the early 1980s. In March 2010, Blue Demon, Jr. the president of NWA Mexico, sent letters to CMLL, NWA Mexico had previously tried to reclaim the three NWA-branded championships promoted by CMLL, but was ignored by CMLL. The promotion did not directly respond to the latest claim either, finally, on August 12,2010, CMLL debuted the new NWA World Historic Light Heavyweight Championship and returned the old title to NWA. There have been a total of 64 reigns shared between 39 wrestlers, ray Mendoza has held the Championship the highest number of times with six title reigns, Gory Guerreros two reigns combined come to 1,963 days, the highest total of any champion. Roddy Piper is the champion with the shortest reign,2 days, Key Key List of National Wrestling Alliance championships Official website NWA Title HistoriesNWA World Light Heavyweight Championship – Shocker, the 57th and 61st NWA World Light Heavyweight Champion
60. Tropical Depression One-E (2009) – Tropical Depression One-E was the earliest known tropical cyclone to impact the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The first system of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, One-E formed out of an area of disturbed weather on June 18,2009, throughout the day, convection developed around the center of circulation and the system was anticipated to become a tropical storm. Late on June 18, the National Hurricane Center noted that the system was on the verge of becoming a tropical storm, however, the following day, strong wind shear caused the depression to rapidly degenerate into a trough of low pressure before dissipating off the coast of Sinaloa. Although no longer a tropical cyclone, the remnants of the depression brought moderate rainfall to parts of Sinaloa, Nayarit, high winds accompanied the rainfall and left about 50,000 residences without power. Several trees were downed and some structures sustained damage from fresh water flooding, landslides occurred along major highways and significant structural damage was reported around Mazatlán. However, there was no loss of life or reports of injuries, Tropical Depression One-E originated from a tropical wave that exited the coast of Africa on May 29. Little convective activity was associated with the system as it traveled across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, on June 10, the wave crossed Central America and entered the northeastern Pacific basin. Over the following few days, the system became better organized and on June 15. The system continued to organize, and on June 17 the National Hurricane Center noted the likelihood for tropical cyclogenesis, although, at the time, the circulation was not well-defined. It organized further, and on June 18, the NHC initiated advisories on the first tropical depression of the 2009 season about 350 miles south-southwest of Mazatlán, Sinaloa. Deep convection persisted near the portion of the depression, however. The depression traveled northward along the periphery of a ridge over Mexico. Later on June 18, forecast models indicated that the system might rapidly degenerate prior to landfall, however, the NHC continued to forecast that the depression would attain tropical storm-status before landfall. Shortly after, the depression became disorganized as convection separated from the center of circulation due to increasing wind shear. Stable air ahead of the system inhibited the possibility of development as warm waters supported intensification. By the morning of June 19, the center of circulation was situated along the edge of deep convection. Despite this, the NHC continued to anticipate intensification prior to landfall, embedded within an easterly flow ahead of a mid-level trough, the storm turned towards the north-northeast and accelerated slightly. At 11,00 am PDT, the depression reached its intensity with winds of 35 mphTropical Depression One-E (2009) – Tropical Depression One-E at peak intensity
61. 1942 Belize hurricane – The 1942 Belize hurricane was the only known hurricane to strike Belize in the month of November. Initially a tropical storm, it strengthened slowly while moving westward, on November 6, the storm became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Later that day, it made landfall in Cayo Romano, Camagüey Province, impact in Cuba and the Bahamas was limited to lower barometric pressure readings and strong winds. While crossing Cuba, the weakened to a tropical storm early on November 7. The storm re-strengthened into a hurricane later that day and headed southwestward, late on November 8, this system curved westward and intensified into a Category 2 hurricane. Six hours later, it peaked with winds of 110 mph, early on November 9, the storm struck Caye Caulker and northern Belize District. Rapidly weakening, the fell to tropical storm status within 12 hours of landfall. By early on November 10, it emerged into the Bay of Campeche, the storm meandered erratically until striking the Yucatán Peninsula on November 11 and dissipating hours later. Strong winds were observed in Belize and Mexicos Yucatan Peninsula, severe damage was reported in the former. About 90% of structures in San Pedro Town were destroyed, while Newtown was completely obliterated, causing its residents to relocate, trees and crops such as coconuts also suffered heavy losses. Overall, nine deaths and approximately $4 million in damage were reported, a tropical wave moved through the West Indies between November 3 and November 4. The wave reached the vicinity of Turks and Caicos Islands on November 5, the storm moved north-northwestward and then westward across the southern Bahamas. A ridge aloft blocked the storms progress and caused it to re-curve west-southwestward on November 6. The system strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane at 1200 UTC on the modern day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, around 1800 UTC on November 6, the storm made landfall on Cayo Romano in Camagüey Province with winds of 80 mph. The system quickly weakened while crossing the terrain of Cuba and fell to tropical storm intensity early on November 7. Later that day, the storm re-intensified into a Category 1 hurricane, around midday on November 8, the storm curved westward while approaching Belize and strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane. This storm was the only hurricane to strike Belize in the month of November. At about 0000 UTC on November 9, the storm struck Caye Caulker, an observatory in Belize City recorded a barometric pressure of 991 mbar – the lowest in association with this storm1942 Belize hurricane – Surface analysis map of the hurricane on November 8
62. Azteca horse – The Azteca is a horse breed from Mexico, with a subtype, called the American Azteca, found in the United States. They are well-muscled horses that may be of any color. Aztecas are known to compete in western riding and some English riding disciplines. The Azteca was first developed in Mexico in 1972, from a blend of Andalusian, American Quarter Horse, from there, they spread to the United States, where American Paint Horse blood was added. The three foundation breeds of the Azteca are the Andalusian, American Quarter Horse, and Mexican Criollo or Criollo militar and they were chosen to produce a breed that combined athletic ability with a good temperament and certain physical characteristics. Azteca stallions and geldings measure between 15 and 16.1 hands at the withers, while mares stand between 14.3 and 16 hands, the ideal height is 14. 3–15.1 hands. Both sexes usually weigh from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds, the facial profile of the breed is straight or convex and the neck slightly arched. Overall, they are well-muscled horses, with broad croup and chest, gaits are free and mobile, with natural collection derived from the Andalusian ancestry of the breed. The breed is found in all colors, although gray is most often seen. White markings are allowed on the face and lower legs by breed associations, the American Azteca registry also allows non-solid pinto coloration. Horses are classified in one of six categories, designated with letters A through F. Only certain crosses between the different classes are permitted, in the American Azteca registry, horses with American Paint Horse breeding are also allowed. However, horses more than 25 percent Thoroughbred blood in their pedigrees within four generations cannot be registered. American Aztecas have four categories of registration based on the degree of blood from each foundation breed, seeking an ideal blend of 3/8 Quarter Horse. Unlike their Mexican counterparts, they do not have to go through physical inspections before being registered, the Azteca was first bred in 1972 as a horse for charros, the traditional horsemen of Mexico. Ariza used imported Andalusians, crossed with Quarter Horses and Criollos, early in the Aztecas history, breeders realized the need for a unified breeding program in order to produce horses that met the required characteristics. The Azteca Horse Research Center was created at Lake Texcoco, the first official Azteca was a stallion named Casarejo, who was a cross between an Andalusian stallion named Ocultado and a Quarter Horse mare named Americana. He was foaled at the Centro de Reproduccion Caballar Domecq in 1972, the Associacion Mexicana de Criadores de Caballos de Raza Azteca, or Mexican Breeders Association for the Azteca Horse, is the original breed registry and still maintains the international registryAzteca horse – Azteca horse
63. Hurricane Debby (1988) – Hurricane Debby was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the Gulf Coast of Mexico since Hurricane Barry in 1983. The system slowly intensified as it tracked west-northwestward toward Mexico, eventually reaching tropical storm status on September 2, thereafter, Debby began to rapidly strengthen, and the storm was upgraded to a hurricane later that day. After intensifying into a hurricane, Debby made landfall near Tuxpan, Veracruz, Debby quickly weakened inland, however, the storm managed to remain intact over Mexico. After crossing into the eastern Pacific from Mexico, Debby became Tropical Depression Seventeen-E, which moved northwest,300,000 people evacuated from Mexico as Debby caused mudslides and heavy rains throughout much of the country. Debby ended up causing at least 20 fatalities, all directly related, the total damage for Mexico was not released. A strong tropical wave formed off of Africas northwest coast on the August 15, as the wave moved westward a split area of the wave became Tropical Depression Seven near the Lesser Antilles. That system moved westward and became Tropical Storm Chris days later, the leftover wave continued westward and entered the Caribbean Sea as a disorganized center of showers. During the night of August 29, some convection came together, the center moved into the Bay of Campeche and was declared a 1.5 on the Dvorak Scale and was forecasted to become Tropical Depression Eight at that time,1800 UTC August 30. Banding came together and outflow patterns organized on September 1, Tropical Depression Eight moved westward and development increased, becoming Tropical Storm Debby on September 2. At that point, Debbys small center was only 35 mi from Mexico, no more reconnaissance aircraft were deployed prior to landfall and forecasters depended on satellite imagery, which called little change in strength. Debby made landfall in Tuxpan, Mexico on September 3 at 0000 UTC, Debby weakened over Mexicos mountainous terrain, but was able to keep its bonding to become Tropical Depression Seventeen-E in the Eastern Pacific basin. As Hurricane Debby entered the Eastern Pacific, it became Tropical Depression Seventeen-E on September 5, little movement occurred, leaving it stationary off the coast of Manazillo. Even though Tropical Depression Seventeen-E was a poorly organized cyclone, the possibility that it could become a tropical storm in the small. Six hours after that forecast, wind shear appeared and with the proximity to land. At this point, Tropical Depression Seventeen-E was under the influence of a low-level trough, a new low level center appeared on September 7, causing locally heavy rains and producing a new chance for Tropical Depression Seventeen-E to develop into a storm. Also at this point, Tropical Depression Seventeen-E was difficult to track through satellite imagery, Tropical Depression Seventeen-E came close to land, so the prediction to become a storm was doubtful and landfall was expected within 48 hours. Wind shear caused Tropical Depression to dissipate on September 8 near La Paz, multiple warnings and/or watches were released in accordance with Hurricane Debby. The first was a storm warning for Santa Cruz to Veracruz on September 2Hurricane Debby (1988) – Debby near landfall.
64. Hurricane Carlotta (2000) – Hurricane Carlotta was the most powerful hurricane of the 2000 Pacific hurricane season. The third tropical cyclone of the season, Carlotta developed from a wave on June 18 about 270 miles southeast off the coast of Mexico. With favorable conditions for development, it strengthened steadily at first, cooler waters caused Carlotta to gradually weaken, and on June 25 it degenerated into a remnant area of low pressure while located about 260 miles west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas. The hurricane produced rainfall and rough surf along the southwest coast of Mexico. A Lithuanian freighter traversing through the peak of the hurricane was lost after experiencing an engine failure, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on June 3. It tracked westward across the unfavorable Atlantic Ocean, and on June 15 it crossed Central America into the eastern Pacific Ocean, the system continued westward, and late on June 16 a low pressure area developed about 300 miles southwest of San José, Costa Rica. At around 1200 UTC on June 17, Dvorak classifications began on the disturbance, the next day, however, an area of concentrated convection developed just south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Ships in the vicinity confirmed the development of a circulation within the system. Based on its organization, it is estimated the system developed into Tropical Depression Three-E late on June 18 while located about 270 miles southeast of Puerto Angel, with favorable conditions, the cyclone strengthened and became Tropical Storm Carlotta early on June 19. The storm initially maintained a track toward the Mexican coastline, though a mid-level ridge turned it to the west, its closest point of approach was about 140 miles at 1200 UTC on June 19. Late that day, a ragged banding-eye feature developed on satellite imagery, while at the time it maintained an area of strong convection. The storm continued to intensify, and at 0600 UTC on June 20 Carlotta attained hurricane status while located about 155 miles south of Acapulco, operationally, it was upgraded to hurricane status six hours earlier. With a large anticyclone centered near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Carlotta turned more to the west, deep convection increased in coverage and intensity as the system maintained impressive upper-level outflow over its southern semicircle. At the time of its intensity, Carlotta maintained a well-defined central dense overcast around an eye of 20 miles in diameter. Hurricane Carlotta maintained peak winds for about twelve hours before weakening as it curved around the periphery of the ridge over Mexico. Late on June 21, the eye had become less distinct while its surrounding ring of convection eroded and warmed, early on June 22, northeasterly wind shear increased, and shortly thereafter the weakening trend was temporarily halted with some oscillations in the convective intensity and eye definition. Overall convection continued to diminish, and early on June 25 the winds dropped to depression status. Deep convection ceased to exist by 0600 UTC on June 25, the low-level circulation of Carlotta persisted for several days as it continued northwestwardHurricane Carlotta (2000) – Hurricane Carlotta near peak intensity
65. Hurricane Liza (1976) – Hurricane Liza is considered the worst natural disaster in the history of Baja California Sur. Slowly intensifying, the system attained tropical storm strength the following day, in favorable conditions, Liza continued to intensify, reaching hurricane strength on September 28 after developing an eye. The hurricane peaked in intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on September 30, with winds of 140 mph, Liza weakened as it moved northward into the Gulf of California. Shortly thereafter, the hurricane made its second landfall north of Los Mochis, Sinaloa with winds of 115 mph, inland, the hurricane rapidly weakened and dissipated on October 2. Prior to the arrival of Liza, residents along the Gulf of California coastline were evacuated, radio stations warned all nearby ships to remain at harbor. Liza brought heavy rainfall to the area, which caused significant flash flooding, following a dam burst by the El Cajoncito Creek along the outskirts of La Paz, hundreds of people were swept away by flood waters. In La Paz, the capital of the state,412 people died and 20,000 were left homeless, nearly one-third of the homes in the town were destroyed. Throughout the state, a variety of death tolls were reported, in the states of Sinaloa and Sonora, Liza caused moderate damage and left 30,000 to 54,000 homeless, along with 155 more casualties. Along the Gulf of California,108 people were presumed dead after 12 boats were lost, the government received criticism for the tragedy, citing that the dam that broke had been poorly built. Hurricane Liza originated from a large area of intense thunderstorms that developed about 400 mi southwest of the Mexican coast on September 25. Later that day, satellite indicated that the system had developed a cyclonic circulation. It is estimated that a depression developed at 1800 UTC on September 25, centered about 485 mi east-northeast of Zihuatanejo. The depression gradually intensified as it tracked west-northwestward, and became Tropical Storm Liza at 1800 UTC on the following day, thereafter, Liza turned to the north at 7 mph and began to strengthen while moving through sea surface temperatures of 85 °F. Within 48 hours of the formation, the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center reported winds of 65 mph. Around this time, the hurricane had developed an eye that was 17 mi in diameter, operationally, however, Liza was not upgraded to a hurricane until 18 hours later. Hours later, a flight into the hurricane revealed winds of 75 mph. Liza continued to intensify, attaining winds of 80 mph by early September 29, later that morning, the hurricane reached Category 2 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Liza continued to intensify and attained winds of 140 mph late on September 29Hurricane Liza (1976) – Hurricane Liza at peak intensity on September 30.
66. Hurricane Marty (2003) – Hurricane Marty was the deadliest tropical cyclone of the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. Forming on September 18, it became the 13th tropical storm, the hurricane was responsible for significant flooding and storm surges that caused $100 million in damage mostly on the peninsula of Baja California, and resulted in the deaths of 12 people. Marty affected many of the areas that had been affected by Hurricane Ignacio a month earlier. A tropical wave moved into the Pacific Ocean from Central America on September 10, convection along the wave became better organized as it moved westward, and a tropical depression developed on September 18. The depression moved generally west-northwestward before strengthening into Tropical Storm Marty on September 19, the storm entrained dry air into its circulation as it curved toward the northwest, disrupting the storms convective structure and inhibiting further intensification for the next two days. Eventually, Marty fought off the dry air and intensified, reaching hurricane strength on September 21, Marty began moving north-northwestward in response to a high pressure ridge to the west, and continued to strengthen, reaching a peak intensity of 100 mph early on September 22. Marty then moved northward at an increased speed before making landfall 10 mi northeast of Cabo San Lucas in Baja California Sur later that day. After making landfall, Marty turned back to the north-northwest, moving parallel to the eastern coast of the peninsula, fearing a repeat of the damage left by Hurricane Ignacio a month earlier, many residents stocked up on supplies, secured their homes and evacuated to emergency shelters. The government of Mexico issued hurricane warnings for areas of the eastern coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Tropical storm warnings were issued for the Mexican coastline to the Colorado River on September 23, but were discontinued later that day. Forecasters also predicted that the hurricane might cause 4 –6 feet of storm surge,8 inches of rain, serious flash flooding, many schools and tourist destinations were used as emergency shelters and most seaports and airports were closed down. As a result,300 residents were evacuated to shelters on higher ground. About 8 to 11 inches of rain fell in areas of the Baja California Peninsula, with the largest 24-hour rainfall total occurring at Todos Santos, Baja California Sur, santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur, reported 7.8 inches of rain. Five people drowned after their cars were swept away by floodwaters while trying to cross a flooded stream, the floods also damaged 4, 000-6,000 homes and buildings and significantly disrupted water and communications for an extended period of time. The hurricanes storm surge damaged boats and yachts in ports along the peninsulas coast, most of them beyond repair. Minor beach erosion was reported at San Felipe, Baja California, as a result, the Baja California Sur municipalities of La Paz, Los Cabos, Loreto, Comondú, and Mulegé were declared national disaster areas. 6,000 people were affected and total damage from the storm was $100 million, filming for the 2004 film Troy was interrupted when this hurricane moved through Baja California. On the mainland, the largest daily rainfall occurred on Sebampo, Sonora. Five fishermen drowned when their boat sank in the Gulf of CaliforniaHurricane Marty (2003) – Hurricane Marty over the Gulf of California on September 22, 2003
67. Hurricane Paul (2006) – Hurricane Paul was a hurricane that ultimately struck Mexico as a tropical depression in October 2006. It developed from an area of disturbed weather on October 21, Paul attained hurricane status on October 23, and later that day it reached its peak intensity of 105 mph, a strong Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. A strong trough turned the hurricane to the north and northeast into an area of vertical shear. It accelerated northeastward, and after passing a short distance south of Baja California Sur the low level circulation became decoupled from the rest of the convection. Paul weakened to a depression on October 25 a short distance off the coast of Mexico. Paul was the hurricane to threaten western Mexico in the season. Rough surf killed two people along Baja California Sur, while flooding was reported in Sinaloa, damage totaled more than $35 million. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on October 4 and it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean without development, and entered the eastern Pacific Ocean on October 18. The next day, it combined with an existing area of disturbed weather. The broad and disorganized system moved westward at 10–15 mph, on October 20, the system developed an area of low pressure, and began to show signs of organization. It continued to organize, and developed into Tropical Depression Seventeen-E on October 21 while located about 265 miles south-southwest of Manzanillo, upon forming, the depression possessed a small, tight low-level circulation beneath a well-defined mid-level circulation. Easterly wind shear initially restricted upper-level outflow as the cyclone moved to the west, the low level circulation gradually became more embedded within the convection as the cloud pattern improved. Early on October 22, wind shear began to decrease, which coincided with an increase of outflow on its eastern side, the storm temporarily degraded in appearance as it turned to the northwest. However, shear sharply abated over Paul late on October 22, resulting in the storm quickly gaining organization, an eye began to develop within the convection, and Paul intensified into a hurricane early on October 23. On October 23, while located 465 miles south-southwest of Cabo San Lucas, Paul reached its intensity of 105 mph. A large trough located off the west coast of California turned the hurricane to the north-northwest, the combination of increasing shear and dry air quickly weakened Paul to a tropical storm on October 24 as its low-level circulation became detached from the diminishing convection. The storm then turned to the northeast after passing near Socorro Island, despite increasing wind shear of over 50 mph, Paul remained a tropical storm while its circulation remained on the southwest side of its developing deep convection. Early on October 25, the storm passed about 100 miles south of the tip of Baja CaliforniaHurricane Paul (2006) – Hurricane Paul at peak intensity
68. Hurricane Tico – Hurricane Tico is one of three major hurricanes to strike Mazatlan. The origins of Hurricane Tico were from a tropical disturbance that crossed Costa Rica into the Pacific Ocean on October 7,1983. Over warm waters, the system was organized to be declared Tropical Depression Twenty-One on October 11. On October 12 it turned northward, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Tico on October 13. Tropical Storm Tico continued to intensify, two days after becoming a tropical storm, Tico strengthened further to attain hurricane status. Early on October 19, it reached winds of 130 mph. It weakened slightly as it approached the coast, and at about 1500 UTC that day Tico made landfall near Mazatlán with winds of 125 mph, the remains were tracked into the Mid-Atlantic States for five more days. Tico was the deadliest and most destructive cyclone of the season. Overall, the hurricane sank nine ships, and nine fishermen were killed. Hurricane Tico was responsible severe flooding and heavy damage due to strong winds, throughout the state of Sinaloa, the hurricane destroyed nearly 19,000 acres of bean and corn, although most of the agricultural damage occurred south of Mazatlán. In addition, the hurricane disrupted the flow of drinking water, a total of 13 hotels received extensive damage and 14 people were hurt. Twenty-five thousand people were homeless and damage throughout the country was estimated at $200 million, Hurricane Tico caused a total of 135 deaths in Mexico. Although most of its impact occurred in Mexico, Ticos remnants moved into the United States, a total of 141 people were killed and the damage amounted to $284 million. The origins of Hurricane Tico were from a tropical disturbance that crossed Costa Rica into the Pacific Ocean on October 7. The depression initially maintained a west-northwest motion, although on October 12 it turned sharply northward, gradually organizing, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Tico on October 13 by the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center. Tropical Storm Tico continued to intensify as it progressed toward the southwest Mexican coastline, a Hurricane Hunters flight late on October 13 indicated the beginnings of an eyewall,14 miles in diameter, although the eye was open and incomplete. The next day, Tico strengthened further to hurricane status. Around that time, a ridge to the north of Tico turned the hurricane northwestward away from landHurricane Tico – Hurricane Tico at peak strength
69. Illegal (song) – Illegal is a song recorded by Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira for her seventh studio album, Oral Fixation, Vol.2. It was written and produced by Shakira and Lester Mendez and it features Mexican guitarist Carlos Santana, epic Records released the song as the albums third and final single on 6 November 2006, following the release of Hips Dont Lie. Illegal is a pop and country ballad with lyrics concerning mourning of a past lover complete with a vocal performance by Shakira. It received mixed reviews from critics, who compared it with Alanis Morissettes material and were mixed towards Santanas contribution. The music video for the song, co-directed by Jaume de Laiguana and it features the singer portraying a girlfriend of a boxer and follows a similar storyline to the songs lyrics. Illegal has been performed by the live on few occasions, such as during the MTV5 Star event. Illegal is a ballad with lyrics revolving around mourning for the loss of a lover, as seen in the lines and it contains elements of pop and country music. Spence D. of the website IGN felt that Shakira adopted an almost modern day country-styled pop aesthetic, throughout the song, her vocals are subdued, complete with rolling delivering, breathy accentuations, and. AllMusic reviewer Stephen Thomas Erlewine noted that the lyrics You said you would love me until you died/And as far as I know youre still alive were similar to Alanis Morissettes You Oughta Know. Illegal was written and produced by Shakira and Lester Mendez, with all production handled by Jose Gacho Torres. Mexican guitarist Carlos Santana appears as a featured artist on the song, playing an electrical guitar throughout, the guitar was also played by Lyle Workman. The other instruments featured in the song are played by Lester Mendez, bass by Paul Bushnell. The mixing was done by Rob Jacobs while the engineering was finished by Kevin Killen, Serge Sergical Tsai and Vlado Meller. The song has received polarized reviews from music critics, a writer of Billboard was very positive towards the song, calling it gorgeous and Shakiras most understated performance to date. He further praised Santanas quiet guitar contribution, comparing it to tears accompanying the loss, in a review of Oral Fixation, Vol.2, Thomas Erlewine said that Shakira takes her music into unexpected directions with Illegal. Matt Cibula, in a review for PopMatters, found country music elements on the song, adding that its chorus could easily make it a CMT number-one single, a Dotmusic journalist praised the singers vocal performance in the song as a proof that she certainly has a sweet croon. Spence D. of IGN also praised her vocals in the quiet song, entertainment Weeklys David Browne gave a more mixed review, opining that Dont Bother and Illegal are sister-of-Alanis catfights weve heard before. Barry Walters from Rolling Stone said that Santanas contribution in the song was instantly recognizable, similarly, Lauren Murphy from entertainment. ie felt that his conscription and riff contribution to the song was somewhat lacklusterIllegal (song) – "Illegal"
70. Tropical Storm Jose (2005) – Tropical Storm Jose was a short-lived tropical storm which made landfall in central Mexico during August 2005. Jose was the named storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Tropical Storm Jose formed in the Bay of Campeche on August 22 and it retained tropical characteristics for less than one day before dissipating, but still brought heavy levels of rainfall to the region. Mudslides caused by the rainfall killed eight people, six of those directly, Tropical Storm Jose was first identified as a tropical wave that moved off the western coast of Africa on August 8,2005. On August 13, the system spawned Tropical Depression Ten over the central Atlantic, slight development took place as the system moved over the Yucatán Peninsula, however, by the time it entered the Bay of Campeche on August 21, little convection was associated with the system. The following morning, convection exploded under highly favorable divergence from an upper-level anticyclonic flow, at this time, the depression was situated roughly 110 mi east of Veracruz, Mexico. to take advantage of these favorable conditions. Located to the south of a ridge, the depression tracked just north of due west. The depression rapidly intensified as it moved to the west, becoming Tropical Storm Jose just six hours later, the global model guidance initially failed to resolve the storms track well, with some models indicating that it would stall offshore. Jose continued to strengthen as it moved towards the coast and made landfall in the state of Veracruz early on August 23 with winds reaching a peak of 60 mph. As Jose made its landfall an eye was beginning to form, Tropical Storm Jose quickly weakened after landfall and dissipated that afternoon in the mountains of central Mexico only 24 hours after forming. As Tropical Storm Jose formed so close to shore there was a time of less than 9 hours on the tropical storm warning for the Veracruz coastline. The area covered by the warning issued on August 22 was extended southwards as Jose intensified, the advisories issued by the National Hurricane Center emphasized that rainfall from Jose was the primary threat. Tropical Storm Jose was responsible for damaging crops, highways and homes, flooding districts in cities in the state of Veracruz. The government of that state estimated the damages caused by the storm to be approximately $45 million, damage to the highway infrastructure was estimated at $33 million. It was also reported that the storm damaged at least 16,000 homes, in addition over 420 square kilometers of various crops, including sugarcane, corn and bananas, were flooded. Many boats were also lost as a result of Jose,90 active medical brigades were sent to the region to reduce the risk of infections amongst the affected population. Jose was responsible for six direct casualties, one of these deaths was the result of a mud slide that killed a man was in Xalapa, Veracruz. The other five deaths were due to mudslides in OaxacaTropical Storm Jose (2005) – Jose on August 22, near landfall
71. Hurricane Lester (1998) – Hurricane Lester was the fifteenth tropical cyclone, twelfth named storm and eighth hurricane of the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. Lester originated from a wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on September 29. Under favorable conditions, the storm was classified as a depression on October 15. The depression was upgraded to a storm later that day. After undergoing fluctuations in intensity, Lester reached peak winds of 115 mph, after several days, it degenerated into a tropical storm on October 26, and dissipated shortly after. The hurricane made its closest approach to land on October 18, producing moderate winds, a mudslide triggered by the precipitation killed two children, although damage is unknown. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 29,1998 and on October 5, the wave axis continued westward, and after crossing Central America a low-level circulation developed on October 13, about 170 miles south of the border between El Salvador and Guatemala. The system drifted northwestward, and as convection increased around the center a banding featured began to develop, at 0000 UTC on October 15, the National Hurricane Center designated it as Tropical Depression Fourteen-E. The depression contained an envelope of convective activity, and under favorable conditions including warm water, low vertical wind shear and good outflow. Initially, the direction of forward movement was somewhat uncertain. On the morning of October 15, visible satellite imagery suggested that the center of circulation was located northeast of the previous estimates, thunderstorm activity organized close to the center by 1400 UTC, and by 1800 UTC the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Lester. Shortly thereafter, the took a slight jog to the west. At 1400 UTC on October 16, data from a Reconnaissance Aircraft confirmed that the storm had attained hurricane intensity with a central pressure of 992 mb. The first signs of an eye began to appear embedded within a ring of convection by early on October 17. Shortly after, the hurricane became nearly stationary due to a shortwave which passed north of the system, early on October 18, the eye began to wobble slightly and the ring of cold cloud tops were showing signs of disorganization, slowing further intensification for several hours. At 1400 UTC, Lesters winds increased to 100 mph and the storm made its closest approach to land on October 18, about 70 miles south of Puerto Angel, later that day, it weakened to Category 1 status, although quickly re-intensified. Vertical wind shear associated with a low pressure system developed and began to affect the storms circulation on October 19. However, early on October 20 the hurricane regained organization and once again intensified, Lester strengthened to reach a peak intensity of 115 mph on October 22, about 355 miles southwest of Manzanillo, ColimaHurricane Lester (1998) – Hurricane Lester near its closest approach to land, about 70 miles (110 km) south of Puerto Angel, Oaxaca
72. Licence to Kill – Licence to Kill is the sixteenth spy film in the James Bond film series by Eon Productions, and the first one not to use the title of an Ian Fleming story. It is the fifth and final consecutive Bond film to be directed by John Glen and it also marks Timothy Daltons second and final performance in the role of James Bond. The story has elements of two Ian Fleming short stories and a novel, interwoven with aspects from Japanese Rōnin tales, originally titled Licence Revoked in line with the plot, the name was changed during post-production because too many people did not know what revoked meant. Budgetary reasons caused Licence to Kill to be the first Bond film shot completely outside the United Kingdom, Broccoli, although he would later act as a consulting producer for GoldenEye before his death. DEA agents collect MI6 agent James Bond and Felix Leiter, on their way to Leiters wedding in Key West, Bond and Leiter capture Sanchez by attaching a hook and cord to Sanchezs plane and pulling it out of the air with a Coast Guard helicopter. Afterwards, Bond and Leiter parachute down to the church in time for the ceremony, Sanchez bribes DEA agent Ed Killifer and escapes. Meanwhile, Sanchezs henchman Dario and his crew ambush Leiter and his wife Della and take Leiter to an aquarium owned by one of Sanchezs accomplices, Sanchez has Leiter lowered into a tank holding a great white. When Bond learns Sanchez has escaped, he returns to Leiters house to find Leiter has been maimed, Bond, with Leiters friend Sharkey, start their own investigation. They discover a marine research centre run by Krest, where Sanchez has hidden cocaine, after Bond kills Killifer using the same shark tank used for Leiter, M meets Bond in Key Wests Hemingway House and orders him to an assignment in Istanbul, Turkey. Bond resigns after turning down the assignment, but M suspends Bond instead, Bond becomes a rogue agent, although he later receives unauthorised assistance from Q. Bond boards Krests ship the Wavekrest and foils Sanchezs latest drug shipment and he discovers that Sharkey has been killed by Sanchezs henchmen. Bond rescues Pam Bouvier, an agent and pilot, from Dario at a Bimini bar. He finds his way into Sanchezs employment by posing as an assassin for hire, two Hong Kong Narcotics Bureau officers foil Bonds attempt to assassinate Sanchez and take him to an abandoned warehouse. They are joined by Fallon, an MI6 agent who was sent by M to apprehend Bond, Sanchezs men rescue him and kill the officers, believing them to be the assassins. Later, with the aid of Bouvier, Q, and Sanchezs girlfriend Lupe Lamora, Sanchez kills Krest via a decompression chamber and admits Bond into his inner circle. Sanchez takes Bond to his base, which is disguised as the headquarters of a religious cult, Bond learns that Sanchezs scientists can dissolve cocaine in petrol and then sell it disguised as fuel to Asian drug dealers. The televangelist Professor Joe Butcher serves as middleman, working under Sanchezs business manager Truman-Lodge, during Sanchezs presentation to potential Asian customers, Dario discovers Bond and betrays him to Sanchez. Bond starts a fire in the laboratory, but is captured again, Bouvier arrives and shoots Dario, allowing Bond to pull Dario into the shredder, killing himLicence to Kill – British cinema poster for Licence to Kill, designed by Robin Behling
73. Ricky Marvin – Ricardo Fuentes Romero is a second generation Mexican professional wrestler, known by his ring name Ricky Marvin, and is most known for his work in the Japanese promotion Pro Wrestling Noah. Between 2005 and 2007, he wrestled as the masked Mushiking Joker character, a storyline arch-enemy of Mushiking Terry. He also worked as the masked character Bengala in Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, Suzuki and Ricky Marvin were the first Japanese/foreigner team to win the GHC Junior Heavyweight Tag Team Championship, one of three reigns with that championship. He is the son of retired professional wrestler Ricardo Fuentes and brother of Rolando Romero, Fuentes made his debut in 1995, using the ring name White Demon, an enmascarado character. As Ricky Marvin, his first appearance at a major CMLL event came at the second Gran Alternativa of 1999, in the first round, Marvin and Mendoza defeated Apolo Dantés and Alan Stone but lost to eventual tournament winners El Felino and Tigre Blanco in the second round. On July 16,1999, Marvin teamed with Sombra de Plata, losing to Fugaz and Sangre Azteca in a match that stole the show, the success of that match earned all four a match at CMLLs 66th Anniversary show on September 24,1999. This time, Marvin and Sombra de Plata won the match, Marvin made his Japanese debut on November 23,1999, defeating Sangre Azteca, who was also making his debut for CMLL Japan. The rivalry continued on March 17,2000, as Ricky Marvin defeated Sangre Azteca in a three falls match on the undercard of the 2000 Jucio Final pay-per-view. While working for CMLL Japan, Marvin defeated Virus to win the CMLL Japan Super Lightweight Champion on August 6,2000 and he held the title once more before the organization ceased operations in early 2001. On November 29,2000, Marvin defeated Virus, this time to win the Mexican National Lightweight Championship, Marvin held the championship until December 3,2001, when he lost it to Loco Max. In 2003, the CMLL group Los Guapos created Guapos U, Marvin was one of the wrestlers selected for the first class of Guapos U. During the storyline, fellow classmate Zumbido developed a rivalry with Marvin, Zumbido and Marvin met in a Lucha de Apuesta match in which both wrestlers put their hair on the line. The match ended in a draw, and, as a result, Marvin was the last wrestler eliminated in the Guapos U contest, losing the membership to El Terrible. At the CMLL 70th Anniversary Show, Ricky Marvin teamed with Virus and Volador, Marvin returned to Japan on several tours even after CMLL Japan folded, often working for Último Dragóns Toryumon Japan promotion. In Toryumon, Marvin defeated Super Nova on July 7,2002, Marvin only held the title for 17 days before losing it to Genki Horiguchi, but the title win helped convince Marvin that his future lay in Japan. From 2003 through 2015 Marvin worked primarily in Japan, only making occasional guest appearances in his native Mexico, in 2005 Marvin began working for Pro Wrestling Noah, often appearing at Pro Wrestling SEM events, Noahs league for younger, inexperienced wrestlers. Over time, Marvin began teaming regularly with Kotaro Suzuki, while teaming with Suzuki, Marvin also began a storyline feud with Suzukis masked alter ego Mushiking Terry, while he wrestled as the masked Mushiking Joker character himself. The two masked characters wrestled off and on between 2005 and 2007, with men occasionally wrestling unmasked as wellRicky Marvin – Marvin in 2011
74. NWA World Historic Middleweight Championship – The NWA World Historic Middleweight Championship is a professional wrestling championship promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The title, being a wrestling championship, is not won legitimately. The official definition of the weight class in Mexico is between 82 kg and 87 kg, but is not always strictly enforced. For example, the current NWA World Historic Middleweight Champion Último Guerrero is billed as weighing 95 kg, for over 62 years CMLL controlled NWA World Middleweight Championship, even after leaving the National Wrestling Alliance in the late 1980s. NWA Mexico had previously tried to reclaim the three NWA-branded championships promoted by CMLL, but was ignored by CMLL, in 1933 the Mexican National Middleweight Championship was introduced as Yaqui Joe won it in a tournament. On February 19,1939 Kallio lost the championship to EMLL wrestler Octavio Gaona, in 1952 EMLL joined the National Wrestling Alliance and the middleweight championship was rebranded as the NWA World Middleweight Championship from that point forward. In 1989 EMLL left the NWA because the promoters did not want to deal with the politics of the NWA at the time. EMLL changed their name to Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre and began to introduce a number of CMLL branded championships, on December 18,1991, Blue Panther won the CMLL World Middleweight Championship in a tournament, giving CMLL control of three different middleweight championships at the time. In 1992, then-CMLL promoter Antonio Peña left CMLL along with a number of CMLL wrestlers, one of the wrestlers that left CMLL was Octagón, who was the reigning Mexican National Middleweight Champion. The Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission granted AAA the rights to promote the Mexican National Middleweight Championship from that point on. On December 4,1993, Corazón de León won the NWA World Middleweight Championship on a CMLL show, on November 8,1994, Último Dragón won the championship and for the next 10 years the title was promoted primarily in Japan. On September 3,2004, Averno defeated Zumbido to win the vacant championship, bringing it back under CMLLs control. In March 2010, Blue Demon Jr. the president of the newly formed NWA Mexico, reached out to CMLL, while the NWA had previously tried to reclaim the three NWA-branded championships promoted by CMLL, those requests were ignored by CMLL. The promotion did not directly respond to the latest request either, instead the then-NWA Welterweight Champion, Mephisto, commented on the situation, when Averno made his first appearance with the championship it had been rebranded as the NWA World Historic Middleweight Championship. Último Guerrero is the current NWA World Historic Middleweight Champion, having defeated the champion, La Sombra, on August 31,2015 in Puebla, Puebla. Último Guerrero is the overall champion, with no wrestler holding the championship more than once so far. The championship has not been declared vacant since its creation in 2010 and has defended in both Mexico and in Japan. Volador Jr. was the shortest reigning champion, holding the title for 45 days in early 2012, while La Sombra currently holds the record for the longest reign,953 days or over two-and-a-half yearsNWA World Historic Middleweight Championship – Averno, the first NWA World Historic Middleweight Champion
75. Nunca Voy a Olvidarte – Nunca Voy a Olvidarte is a song written by Roberto Belester and first recorded by Mexican norteño band Bronco for their album Salvaje y Tierno. In the song, the protagonist is leaving and vows to never forget the time he spent with his lover, in 1993, Mexican singer-songwriter Cristian Castro covered the song on his album, Un Segundo en el Tiempo. Castros version peaked at number-one on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States became his first number-one single, the song received a Lo Nuestro and a Billboard Latin Music award for Pop Song of the Year. It earned an award for Latin Pop Song of the Year at the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers Awards of 1994, Nunca Voy a Olvidarte was written by Mexican songwriter Roberto Belester for Broncos album Salvaje y Tierno. Belester composed songs for several well-known Mexican bands such as Los Yonics, the song tells of a protagonist who is leaving his lover and tells her that he is never going to forget her. According to Castro, he bought Salvaje y Tierno after hearing Que No Quede Huella on the radio, Nunca Voy a Olvidarte debuted in the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart at number 31 in the week of 14 August 1993, climbing to the top ten two weeks later. The song peaked atop the chart 18 September 1993, replacing Mi Tierra by Gloria Estefan and was succeeded by Guadalupe, by José & Durval, Nunca Voy a Olvidarte ended 1993 as the fourth best performing Latin single of the year in the United States. In Mexico City, the reached number one on the ballads hit parade chart. At the 6th Lo Nuestro Awards in 1994, Nunca Voy a Olvidarte won the award for Pop Song of the Year, in the same year, it was the Pop Song of the Year at the inaugural Billboard Latin Music awards. Nunca Voy a Olvidarte was also the Song of the Year at the 1994 Eres Awards, at the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers Awards of 1994, the song was awarded Latin Pop Song of the Year. In 2005, the title was used for an album titled Nunca Voy a Olvidarte. Los Exitos. In 2009, the song was included on the compilation album La Historia de los Exitos by Fonovisa Records to celebrate the record labels 25th anniversary, in 2013, Castro re-recorded the song for his first live album En Primera Fila, Día 1. It was picked by George for India to cover as he felt it was something women could relate to, Indias version was included on the soundtrack for The 24 Hour Woman. On the Hot Latin Songs chart, the song debuted at number twenty-one on the week of 15 October 1994, on the Billboard Latin Pop Songs chart, the song debuted at number fifteen on the week of 5 November 1994 and peaked at number thirteen a week later. On the Billboard Tropical Songs, the peaked at number-one on the week of 29 October 1994 replacing Quien Eres Tú by Luis Enrique and was succeeded by En Las Nubes by Edgar Joel two weeks later. David Wilsons found that the melody and arrangements of the song were generic, an editor for Latina magazine remarked Indias cover as sensational and that it flattens Castros version of the song. Credits adapted from the Allmusic and Dicen Que Soy liner notes, Billboard Top Latin Songs Year-End Chart List of number-one Billboard Hot Latin Tracks of 1993 List of number-one Billboard Hot Tropical Songs from the 1990sNunca Voy a Olvidarte – "Nunca Voy a Olvidarte"
76. Rancho San Francisco – Rancho San Francisco was a land grant in present-day northwestern Los Angeles County and eastern Ventura County, California. It was a grant of 48,612 acres by Governor Juan B, Alvarado to Antonio del Valle, a Mexican army officer, in recognition for his service to the state of Alta California. It is not related to the city of San Francisco, the rancho was the location of the first popularly known finding of gold in the Southern California area in 1842, in Placerita Canyon. Much of the present day city of Santa Clarita lies within the boundary of what was Rancho San Francisco, the adobe headquarters of the rancho, and the site of the gold find, are designated California Historical Landmarks. The rancho included portions of the San Gabriel, Santa Susana, Topatopa, subsequently, the Tataviam who had been living there were relocated to the Mission, where they were baptized and put to work. The Estancia de San Francisco Xavier was built in 1804 at the confluence of Castaic Creek, following the Mexican War of Independence, the missions were secularized and the land taken by the Mexican government. In 1834, Lieutenant Antonio del Valle was assigned to inventory the property of Mission San Fernando, the rancho was supposed to be returned to the Tataviam, but Governor Alvarado deeded it to his friend Del Valle instead on January 22,1839. The Del Valle family moved into the former estancia buildings, on his deathbed, he attempted to reconcile with his estranged son Ygnacio by writing him a letter and offering the entire rancho to him as his inheritance. Del Valle died before his son received the letter, Ygnacio did return and took possession of the land, but after a lawsuit the property was split with his stepmother. On March 9,1842, Francisco Lopez, the uncle of Antonios second wife, Jacoba Feliz, when he awoke, he pulled a few wild onions from the ground finding flakes of gold in the roots. Contrary to some portraits of him as a farmer who stumbled upon his discovery by dumb luck, evidence suggests that gold had previously been found in the area about thirty years prior, but the Lopez gold find was the first popularly documented incident in the area. This sparked a rush on a much smaller scale than the 1849 California Gold Rush. About 2,000 people, mostly from the Mexican state of Sonora, knowledge of the gold find seems to have remained largely within Mexican territory. During the Mexican–American War, Del Valle destroyed the mine to prevent the United States from gaining its control, the tree where Lopez took his nap is now known as the Oak of the Golden Dream and is registered as California Historic Landmark #168. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo endorsed legitimate land titles held by the lands owners. Jacoba Feliz sued for control of Rancho San Francisco and she prevailed and a judgment was issued in her favor in 1857. Ygnacio Del Valle received the westernmost portion of 13,599 acres, Feliz took 21,307 acres, Feliz mortgaged her portion of the land to William Wolfskill, who returned a portion of it back to Del Valle in exchange for him settling her debts. Floods were followed by droughts, which exacerbated the ranchers problemsRancho San Francisco – 1843 Map of Rancho San Francisco
77. El Texano Jr. – Juan Aguilar Leos is a Mexican luchador, or professional wrestler, best known under the ring name El Texano Jr. While in CMLL member of groups Los Hijos del Averno and Los Perros del Mal, in November 2011, Aguilar left CMLL to join Perros del Mal Producciones and Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, where he is a two-time AAA Mega Champion. Juan Aguilar Leos was born on July 31,1984 in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, son of Juan Conrado Aguilar Jáuregui, two years later his parents had another son who would later be known under the ring name Súper Nova and in 2016 as Bengala. Juan Aguilar grew up in a family of luchadors as several uncles were in the business as well including El Dandy, Negro Navarro, Apolo Navarro, over time several of his cousins also became professional wrestlers such as Mictlán, Trauma I, Trauma II, Pólvora and Inquisidor. Aguilar was trained by his father prior to his wrestling debut. In 1999 he began working as the enmascarado character Kempo Kid, between 1999 and 2002 or 2003 the Kempo Kid would win several Lucha de Apuestas, or bet matches where he forced his opponents to unmask as a result. His mask victories included Extasis, Avispón Jr. and Apolo Negro, in late 2002, or early 2003 Kempo Kid lost a Lucha de Apuestas match to Stuka Jr. and was forced to unmask. As part of the wrestlers are supposed to announced their real name. He subsequently took the ring name El Texano Jr. adopting the same cowboy style character that his father used including carrying a lariat with him to the ring. Not long after adopting the new ring name he began working for Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre, the worlds oldest and Mexicos largest wrestling promotion. On October 7,2005 Texano Jr. won his first professional wrestling championship when he teamed up with El Sagrado, over the next 569 days Texano Jr. On April 29,2007 the team lost the Mexican National Trios Title to the Los Perros del Mal faction of Mr. Águila, Damián 666 and Halloween. The title change came about as El Texano Jr. turned on his partners mid-match, not long after turning Rudo Texano Jr. joined Los Perros del Mal and began teaming with El Terrible on a regular basis. On June 13,2008 Texano Jr. participated in the event of CMLLs annual Infierno en el Ring show. The match ended up with Texano Jr. and Heavy Metal being the last two in the ring, with Texano pinning Heavy Metal to force Heavy Metal to be shaved bald after the match. On August 26,2008 Texano Jr. and El Terrible defeated Sagrado and Rayman to win the Occidente Tag Team Championship, a regional tag team title defended mainly in the Mexican stated of Guadalajara. In late 2008 Perros del Mal leader Perro Aguayo Jr. decided to leave CMLL taking with him most of the Perros del Mal group, when Averno and Mephisto formed the group Los Hijos del Averno both Texano Jr. and El Terrible joined the group. On March 8,2009 Texano Jr. won his second big Luchas de Apuestas match, defeating former team mate Máximo, Texano Jr. continued to be successful as he won his first singles championship, the NWA World Light Heavyweight Championship from Atlantis on April 5,2009El Texano Jr. – Texano Jr. (right) with the AAA Mega Championship belt at the Rey de Reyes (2013)
78. Tropical Storm Arlene (1993) – Tropical Storm Arlene brought torrential rainfall to the western United States Gulf Coast, particularly to the U. S. state of Texas, in June 1993. The first named storm of the hurricane season, Arlene developed from an area of low pressure in the Bay of Campeche on June 18. The depression slowly strengthened as it tracked west-northwestward and later north-northwestward across the western Gulf of Mexico, Arlene was subsequently upgraded to a tropical storm on June 19, but failed to intensify further due to its proximity to land. The cyclone then made landfall on Padre Island, Texas, with winds of 40 mph, the precursor disturbance to Tropical Storm Arlene dropped heavy rainfall over Central America. As a result,20 fatalities occurred, all of which were from a mudslide in El Salvador, heavy rainfall also produced heavy rainfall on the Yucatán Peninsula. After Arlene became a cyclone, rainfall in Mexico inundated areas of Campeche. In total, five people were killed in Mexico, flood damage in South Texas was extensive, with widespread urban flooding and road closures. Entire plots of farmland were inundated by torrential rains brought by Arlene, the landfalling Arlene interacted with a passing cold front which helped to produce showers further northeast, though damage in those locales was comparatively less severe. In total, Arlene caused 26 deaths and at least US$60.8 million in damage, the precursor to Arlene was first identified in satellite images as a cluster of disturbed weather east of the Mosquito Coast on June 9. Over the following week, the system grew in expanse as it tracked northwestward as strong wind shear in the area prohibited the development of a tropical cyclone. The tropical storm quickly deteriorated to tropical depression intensity after landfall, the remnants of Arlene continued to track across the Rio Grande Valley before they faded into the ambient environment. The precursor to Arlene caused torrential and prolonged rainfall across Central America, in El Salvador, a single landslide attributed to the flooding killed 20 people. Flooding in Mexico associated with the system killed four in the state of Yucatán and one in Campeche. As many as 4,000 homes were flooded, impacting roughly 10,000 people, the highest rainfall total in Mexico was documented in Mérida, Yucatán, where a station measured 13.26 in of rain. As a tropical cyclone, however, Arlenes highest rainfall total occurred in the Camargo Municipality of Tamaulipas, in Matamoros, roads were blocked by mud and rocks. Arlene passed over several offshore oil platforms as it tracked northwestward across the Gulf of Mexico, the strongest surface wind gust reported in association with Arlene was clocked at 63 mph on an oil platform south of Sabine Pass, Texas. Four other oil platforms experienced gusts or sustained winds of at least gale force, issued 21 hours before landfall, the warning was discontinued after the system moved inland. Prior to the warning, Arlene had satisfied the criterion for a storm watch as a developing tropical depressionTropical Storm Arlene (1993) – Tropical Storm Arlene near its Texas landfall on June 19
79. Tropical Storm Lidia (1981) – Tropical Storm Lidia was a deadly, destructive tropical cyclone that occurred during the 1981 Pacific hurricane season. It resulted in casualties and caused greater damage than Hurricane Norma. On October 6, a depression formed and strengthened into a tropical storm six hours later. Lidia brushed the Gulf of California coast of Baja California Sur, Tropical Storm Lidia rapidly weakened and dissipated the same day. Lidia killed at least 73 people and caused at least $80 million which is equivalent to $193 million in damage and it inflicted heavy rain and flooding throughout parts of northwestern Mexico, especially Sinaloa. A tropical depression formed on October 6 while located 210 mi south of Cabo San Lucas, ahead of a southwesterly flow over Mexico and a front, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Lidia at 0000 UTC October 7. Lidia moved generally north, and reached its maximum windspeed of 50 mph, despite encountering warm sea surface temperatures, which are generally favorable for intensification, Lidia slowly weakened as it moved towards southern Baja California. The tropical cyclone passed over the tip of the Baja California Peninsula on 1700 UTC October 7. Two hours later, Lidia entered the Gulf of California, Lidia made landfall on the shores of Sinaloa about 23 mi south of Los Mochis on October 8, with winds of 45 mph. At 0600 UTC, the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center ended advisories as the cyclone dissipated inland about 17 mi northeast of that same place. The remnants of Lidia continued their northeast track, moving over Mexico, Tropical Storm Lidia caused flash flooding, with highest point point maxima was 20.59 inches at El Varejona and Badiraguato in Sinaloa. Heavy rainfall sent water down a dry bed in Pericos, killing 40 people. In the village Bachiulato, six died while attempting to save peasants from the flooding. In the northern part of Sinaloa,42 were confirmed killed and 76 were missing, around Los Mochis, four people were killed. About 800 houses were destroyed in that town. In Culiacán, eleven people were killed, losses to cattle, crops, and fishing vessels were more than $80 million, equivalent to $193 million. Electricity was cut off to two settlements, Guamúchil and Guasave, telephone service was also cut off to Culiacán. Heavy rain caused flooding that cut off seven towns in Sinaloa from the outside world and it also contaminated the water supply in Culiacán, leaving many without clean drinking waterTropical Storm Lidia (1981) – Tropical Storm Lidia near landfall
80. Volador Jr. – He is the son of Ramón Ibarra Banda, better known as the wrestler Super Parka and previously known as Volador. Ibarra is the nephew of the original La Parka, the cousin of El Hijo de L. A. Park and the uncle of CMLL wrestler Flyer, he is also related to a number of other luchadors in the Ibarra family. Volador Jr. originally worked under a mask but was forced to unmask when he lost his mask to long time friend turned rival, La Sombra and he has won CMLLs Torneo Gran Alternativa, Leyenda de Plata and Torneo Nacional de Parejas Increibles tournaments. Volador Jr. made his wrestling debut in 1999 after training with his father. Initially he worked on the independent circuit around his native Coahuila, on August 14,2001 Volador Jr. competed in the annual Torneo Gran Alternativa teaming with Atlantis. The team was eliminated in the semifinals by Black Warrior and Sangre Azteca after having defeated Máscara Año 2000, Volador Jr. participated in a tournament to determine the first ever CMLL World Super Lightweight Champion, but was defeated in the first round to Rocky Romero. On December 5,2003 he, El Felino and Safari won the vacant Mexican National Trios Championship by defeating the team of Alan Stone, Super Crazy, in the first round the team had defeated Perro Aguayo, Jr. and Sangre Azteca. El Felino and Safari lost the Mexican National Trios Championship on March 25,2005 to Pandilla Guerrera, on June 2,2006 he competed in the Torneo Gran Alternativa, teaming with Dos Caras, Jr. but were eliminated in the first by Último Guerrero and Nitro. On August 13,2007 Volador teamed up with El Sagrado, on January 16,2009, La Sombra and Volador Jr. dubbed Super Sky Team, defeated Averno and Mephisto to win the CMLL World Tag Team Championship. Super Sky Teams status as champions ended on February 3,2009. El Sagrado and La Sombra lost the Mexican Trios Championship to Poder Mexica, following the title loss, Volador Jr. and La Sombra focused on working as a team, defended their tag team titles eight times through 2009 and 2010. Their teamwork resulted in them being voted the CMLL Tag Team of the year for 2009 by the fans of CMLL, Volador Jr. was also voted Most popular wrestler of the year in the same poll. On January 22,2010, Volador Jr. teamed up with El Terrible to participate in CMLLs Torneo Nacional de Pareja Increíbles, a tournament where CMLL teams up a Tecnico, in the second round of the tournament the team faced Averno and Místico. Initially Místico wrestle as the tecnico he has been for years, Místico even went so far as to ripping up Voladors mask, a rudo move, and won the match after an illegal low blow to Volador Jr. After the match Místico took the microphone and claimed that all was fair in war and defending Mexico City, in the second fall Místico pulled his mask off and threw it to Volador Jr. in an attempt to get Volador Jr. disqualified. The end came when Volador Jr. reversed Místicos La Mística, following the match Místico angrily proclaimed “¡Yo soy la máxima figura de la lucha libre. ”. On February 12,2010, Místico lost the Mexican National Light Heavyweight Championship to Volador Jr. two falls to one, on the February 26 CMLL Super Viernes show it was announced that Místico, Volador Jr. La Sombra and El Felino would face off in a four way Lucha de Apuesta match as the event of the 2010 Homenaje a Dos LeyendasVolador Jr. – Volador Jr. in December 2010.
81. Alfredo Guati Rojo National Watercolor Museum – The Alfredo Guati Rojo National Watercolor Museum was the first museum in the world dedicated specifically to watercolor painting. It is located in the Coyoacán borough of Mexico City, in a private house which was donated to the museum by the city government. It was founded and run by artist Alfredo Guati Rojo from its beginnings in 1964 until his death in 2003, the museum and the modern history of watercolor in Mexico is the work of artist Alfredo Guati Rojo. He studied art at the San Carlos Academy in the 1930s, while he studied all aspects of art, he stated that he was always drawn to watercolor painting. After graduation, he decided to teach short courses for those with inclination and this became an art institute which offered courses in ceramics, fashion design, furniture design, and jewelry making as well as the fine arts. In 1957, it rented a house in Colonia Roma. Guati Rojo established a space in the institute in Colonia Roma dedicated to the showing of watercolors in 1964 and these shows began to attract attention and favorable reviews, and allowed artists to sell paintings. It was renamed the Salon Nacional de Acuarela in 1967 and dedicated itself to the promotion of both Mexican and international watercolor painting. By 1977, they had amassed a collection of 300 watercolors, soon after, the coupled formed a private society with the aim of founding the museum without government help. This society raised money for two years by presenting shows and concerts, the museum was formally established at the Colonia Roma site, with Guati Roja as first director, but also providing much of the needed money from his own funds, along with the initial 300 pieces. This gave it the name of Museo Nacional de la Acuarela, in 1985, the arts institute, along with the watercolor museum, was destroyed by the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. In 1987, the city government bought the house on Salvador Novo Street in Coyoacan, the present site, however, the government also stated that it could do no more to support the project. The museum continued on private donations and the efforts of Guati Rojo’s work and he not only provided much of the funding, but his popularity helped to promote the museum along with Mexican watercolor painting in general. In 2003, Guati Rojo died, a few weeks after his wife, at the time, he was working on two books, one about the museum and the other an autobiography, both left unfinished. His funeral was held at the museum with his ashes on display under the work called “El circo de la vida” and his death sparked concerns about the future of the museum, along with the legal status of the museum site. However, the museum remains on the same site. The museums remains dedicated to the rescue and promotion of painting in Mexico. Its permanent collection shows examples of the art from the period to the presentAlfredo Guati Rojo National Watercolor Museum – View of the main building on the complex
82. Amate – Amate is a type of bark paper that has been manufactured in Mexico since the precontact times. It was used primarily to create codices, Amate paper production never completely died, nor did the rituals associated with it. It remained strongest in the rugged, remote areas of northern Puebla. Spiritual leaders in the village of San Pablito, Puebla were described as producing paper with magical properties. Foreign academics began studying this use of amate in the mid-20th century. Through this and other innovations, amate paper is one of the most widely available Mexican indigenous handicrafts, Amate paper has a long history. The development of paper in Mesoamerica parallels that of China and Egypt and it is not known exactly where or when paper making began in Mesoamerica. The oldest known amate paper dates back to 75 CE and it was discovered at the site of Huitzilapa, Jalisco. Huitzilapa is a shaft tomb culture site located northwest of Tequila Volcano near the town of Magdalena, the crumpled piece of paper was found in the southern chamber of the sites shaft tomb, possibly associated with a male scribe. Rather than being produced from Trema micrantha, from which modern amate is made, iconography dating from the period contains depictions of items thought to be paper. For example, Monument 52 from the Olmec site of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán illustrates an individual adorned with ear pennants of folded paper. The oldest known surviving book made from amate paper may be the Grolier Codex, arguments from the 1940s to the 1970s have centered on a time of 300 CE of the use of bark clothing by the Maya people. Ethnolinguistic studies lead to the names of two villages in Maya territory that relate the use of paper, Excachaché and Yokzachuún. Anthropologist Marion mentions that in Lacandones, in Chiapas, the Maya were still manufacturing and using bark clothing in the 1980s, however, according researcher Hans Lenz, this Maya paper was likely not the amate paper known in later Mesoamerica. The Mayan language word for book is hun, Amate paper was used most extensively during the Triple Alliance Empire. This paper was manufactured in over 40 villages in territory controlled by the Aztecs and this amounted to about 480,000 sheets annually. Most of the production was concentrated in the state of Morelos. This paper was assigned to the sector, to be used as gifts on special occasions or as rewards for warriorsAmate – Part of the Huexotzinco Codex, written on amate.
83. Museo Estatal de Arte Popular de Oaxaca – The Museo Estatal de Arte Popular de Oaxaca or MEAPO is a small museum in the municipality of San Bartolo Coyotepec just south of the city of Oaxaca in Mexico. It is dedicated to the crafts and to the artisans and the cultures behind the items and it is run by director Carlomagno Pedro Martínez, a recognized artisan and artist in barro negro. The Museo Estatal de Arte Popular de Oaxaca or MEAPO is a museum in San Bartolo Coyotepec just south of the city of Oaxaca. It is on the side of the main plaza of the town. The main purpose of the museum is to conserve and promote Oaxacan handcrafts, folk arts, the museum is also a venue to promote new folk/popular artists. The permanent displays trace the history of Oaxaca handcrafts and folk art from the early period to the present day. The museum works to build collaborative partnerships such as that they hold with the Friends of Oaxacan Folk Art association based in New York City. This organization has worked with the museum on projects such as scholarships, the physical museum has three permanent halls and a permanent collection that focuses on the common crafts of the state of Oaxaca. Its largest collection is of barro negro pottery, which is the most important handcraft produced in San Bartolo Coyotepec, the collection includes 120 pieces made by 37 artisans in the municipality. These pieces were selected for their qualities with many having participated in state, national. Another important segment of the collection was donated by the Artesanías e Industrias Populares del Estado de Oaxaca and this consists of 99 pieces from eight regions of Oaxaca and includes pieces made of ceramic, palm, cornhusks, tin and crafts related to fireworks. Due to lack of space, the museum cannot display all of its collection at one time in the permanent halls. However, images of items are available online at MEAPO’s permanent “cyber-museum. ”They cyber-museum at museo-meapo. com was created by MEAPO staff with Gema Ríos Rosario. The purpose of the site is to allow an audience to view. According to the museum, it “transforms the visitor into an active agent, the cyber-museum is part of the museum’s efforts to promote a dynamic image with attractive, interested and novel content, emphasizing the artistic value of the artisans and their works. MEAPO’s director is artist and artisan Carlomagno Pedro Martínez, a native of San Bartolo Coyotepec, in addition to being the director, Martínez is an accomplished artist and artisan. His training began in his family’s barro negro workshop, but he extended this with artistic training at the Taller de Artes Plásticas Rufino Tamayo, since then, Martínez has produced many pieces in barro negro, many of which are completely artistic. His work began winning awards in 1985 when he was only 20, starting in 1989, his work has been shown abroad in the United States, South America, the Middle East, Europe and Asia where he has given classes, conferences and workshopsMuseo Estatal de Arte Popular de Oaxaca – Large barro negro "cantaro" jar on display at the museum
84. Baluarte Bridge – The Baluarte Bridge, officially the Baluarte Bicentennial Bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge in Mexico. It is located between the municipalities of Concordia in Sinaloa and Pueblo Nuevo in Durango, along the Durango–Mazatlán highway, the bridge has a total length of 1,124 m, with a central cable-stayed span of 520 m. With the road deck at 403 m above the valley below, the Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the third-highest bridge overall, construction of the bridge began in 2008, it was inaugurated in January 2012 and opened to traffic in late 2013. The bridge forms part of a new highway linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of northern Mexico and has reduced the time between Durango and Mazatlán from approximately 6 to 2.5 hours. The bridges four-lane roadway,20 metres wide by 1,124 metres long, is supported at a height of 403 metres above the Baluarte riverbed by 12 piers,76 steel cables pass over saddles in the pylons to form 152 suspenders in a two plane semi-fan layout. The tallest intermediate pier, P9, is 148 metres high and it crosses a gorge in the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains with a clearance of 390 metres below the deck, substantially taller than the Eiffel Tower. Its clearance is 120 metres higher than that of the previous record-holder, Frances Millau Viaduct, which has a clearance of 270 metres. The bridges central span,520 metres long, is also the longest cable-stayed span in North America,37 metres longer than that of the John James Audubon Bridge in St. Francisville, construction on the bridge began on 21 February 2008. The cost has risen significantly from the bid of 1.28 billion pesos, according to an SCT official. The work is being funded by Mexicos National Infrastructure Fund and the Durango-Mazatlán Trust and it is planned that the cost of the bridge will be recovered by concessionary fees from the highways operator. By January 2012, the construction had required the use of 1,500 workers and engineers,12,000 tonnes of steel and 90,000 cubic metres of concrete. 447,000 cubic metres of rock were excavated to lay the bridges foundations, the Baluarte Bridge construction is part of an 18 billion peso project to build a new highway connecting Durango with Mazatlán across some of Mexicos most rugged mountains. The cost of the bridge itself has been put at 2.18 billion pesos and it will replace a notoriously dangerous road over the mountains, which are known locally as the Devils Backbone. The old road was built in the 1940s in terrain so difficult that mules had to be used to bring in supplies for the construction workers and it is the only crossing through the mountains for 500 miles. The new Mazatlán–Durango highway will include 63 tunnels and 32 bridges, when completed, the new highway is expected to slash the travelling time between Durango and Mazatlán from eight hours to two and a half. It is intended to form part of a road link between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Mexico. Around 2,000 vehicles are expected to use the bridge daily, the Baluarte Bridge was inaugurated by President Calderón on 5 January 2012. Officials from Guinness World Records were on hand at the ceremony to certify the bridge as the worlds highest cable-stayed bridgeBaluarte Bridge – Baluarte Bridge under construction, 10 March 2012
85. Battle of Acapulco – The Battle of Acapulco were a series of battles during the French intervention in Mexico. Acapulco was a key port of the Pacific trade routes and thus changed hands several times in the course of the Franco-Mexican war, in this period the population of the city had decreased from 6000 to 2000. Juan Álvarez and a group of Indian guerrillas were still in control of Guerrero as well as Acapulco, on the morning of January 8,1863, a French war steamer the Diamant, anchored into the Acapulco port. On the following day an apology was sent back but the first two demands were declined, and the city began its preparations against the expected attack, the forts returned the fire and after one hour of constant barrage the artillery of Fort Guerrero was eliminated. Ten minutes later Fort Iturbide was silenced and at ten in the morning Fort Galeana had the same fate, Fort Álvarez still actively exchanged shots with the fleet, though the Mexican firing range was half of those of the French. During the bombardment a number of French shells also ripped into the town, until an American envoy objected to it, the next day at 6 oclock the siege of Fort Álvarez continued to the afternoon when the ships withdrawn from its range. Their fire was returned effectively from one of the forts by Luis Ghilardi, some of the bigger caliber guns did significant damage to the flagship Pallas, which almost sank in the clash. The second battle of Acapulco was preceded by a three-month blockade implemented by French naval division of the Pacific ocean, the city surrendered on June 3, and the French troops entered the town without resistance. The French captured three smaller boats and relieved the siege allowing American ships to dock in the harbor unless they unload passengers or goods, Admiral Bouët sent for a garrison of Algerian Riflemen Battalion of 474 men from Vera Cruz in May and they took the city on June 3–4. They pursued the retreating republicans to Puebla Nuevo where they clashed a smaller force of 200 soldiers, killing 50 of them, the Algerian Battalion had four men injured. They pushed forward along the road to Los Cajones, where they were stopped by the Liberals and they fled back to Acapulco where they strengthened the forts with guns and assigned a warship to guard the port. The city was beleaguered from the start cutting all provision to relieve the garrison of 250 of the famine, in June 1864 General Juan Vicario attempted to break through the siege by 3000 Mexicans of Álvarez to the city but were seriously defeated and gave up that last effort. Álvarez fired bullets onto Acapulco as a sign of superiority The French Admiral issued an order to evacuate Acapulco that was due to come into effect on December 11,1864. Three French vessels were in port ready to sail for Mazatlán, with about 200 refugees, a representative group of foreign residents met with General Álvarez who assured them of protection of person and property. Despite such assurance, the lack of confidence in the Mexican regulars led to an emigration of this group. The USS Saranac was in port as well as the steamship Golden Age to monitor events, even the high clergy devoted supporters of the Empire agreed on the restoration Santa Anna. Santa Anna was working on this plan with passion never seen before and he chose one of his nephews to be his agent in Mexico. He declared that he would all his fortune of 20 million francs to the holy warBattle of Acapulco – One of the Acapulco Forts that survived the bombardment
86. Battle of Cuautla (1911) – It has been described as the six of the most terrible days of battle in the whole Revolution. Eventually, the remains of the defending Golden Fifth regiment, the Fifth Cavalry Regiment of the Federal Army, withdrew, the Zapatista victory convinced Porfirio Díaz to come to terms with Francisco Madero, agree to the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez and resign as president. While the Zapatistas enjoyed numerical supremacy, the troops held strong defensive positions, were better armed and trained. In late 1910 and early 1911 armed insurrections against the regime of Porfirio Díaz broke out throughout Mexico. By early March Zapata became concerned that if he did not control the urban centers in Morelos before Madero began negotiations with Díaz. He also wanted to ensure the autonomy of Morelos from the national government, finally, Zapatas rise in Morelos created the potential for conflict with the powerful Figueroa family who controlled the neighboring state of Guerrero. Figueroa promised military support to Zapata in Morelos but Zapata did not trust him, consequently, he decided to attack the better garrisoned and fortified city of Cuautla. He arrived at Cuautla on May 11,1911, Zapata had 4,000 troops who were inexperienced in laying sieges. In turn, the city was defended by a force of around 350 to 400 veteran federal soldiers of the undefeated Golden Fifth regiment. By May 12, the Zapatistas had fully surrounded the town, the commander of Cuautla refused to surrender, vowing to fight as long as a soldier and a cartridge. The battle that Zapata faced was different from what he was used to, at Cuautla however, the soldiers were well fortified beyond barricades and possessed heavy artillery which would make standard cavalry charges ineffective. Additionally, the federales held high positions on top of the towns aqueducts from which they had control of the Western side of town, on the first day, around 300 of Zapatas soldiers were killed in an attack on the town. On May 14, his troops managed to cut the federal troops off from water supplies, the next day, Zapata launched a general assault and had his troops pour gasoline into the empty aqueducts and set them alight. The fire dislodged the soldiers of the Fifth from their excellent positions, an empty railroad car which was turned into a bunker, complete with a machine gun nest was also doused with gasoline and set alight burning to death all the federal soldiers inside. Most of the fighting was hand to hand, with machetes and bayonets, no prisoners were taken by either side. In the end, that days assault was repulsed, as the battle dragged on, General Victoriano Huerta arrived in nearby Cuernavaca, capital of Morelos, with 600 soldiers with the hope of coming in aid of the besieged federal garrison. However, Huerta realized that if he left the capital unattended, the federal troops began running out of ammunition and the exhausted remains of the Golden Fifth regiment decided to pull out of town on May 19, and Zapatas troops occupied the town. Porfirio Díaz himself later stated that it was the fall of Cuautla to Zapata which convinced him to come to peace with Madero, on May 21,1911 he signed the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, two days after the capture of the townBattle of Cuautla (1911) – Zapata's troops on the march in Morelos
87. Frans Blom – Frans Blom was a Danish explorer and archaeologist. Frans Blom was born in 1893 in Copenhagen, Denmark to a family of antique merchants. He was restless and started travelling, eventually reaching Mexico in 1919, travelling to remote locations in the Mexican jungle, he became interested in the Maya ruins which he encountered where he was working. He started drawing and documenting these ruins, after he showed his work to the Mexican National Museum of Anthropology, it financed some of his expeditions. He met Sylvanus G. Morley, who brought him to Harvard University in Cambridge, here he took a masters degree in Archeology. He taught at Tulane University in New Orleans and during his tenure, in 1923 his studies at Palenque documented a number of features neglected by earlier researchers. In 1924 Blom excavated the Maya archaeological site of Uaxactun in Guatemala, from his explorations around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, he wrote some of the first scholarly reports of a number of sites of the Olmec civilization. In 1926 he was head of Tulanes newly established Department of Middle American Research. In 1932 he was married to the American Mary Thomas, Blom acquired an alcohol habit which later forced him to retire from the university. Blom moved to Mexico, where he met the Swiss photographer Gertrude “Trudi” Duby, in 1950, the Bloms bought a large house in San Cristóbal de las Casas. The house today functions as a museum, the Bloms continued undertaking expeditions for the Mexican government. Blom died in 1963, at age 70, I de store Skove, Breve fra Meksiko Tribes and Temples Conquest of Yucatan La selva Lacandona, with Gertrude Duby Johansen, Steen. Fra jaguarens hus - en beretning om mayaforskeren Frans Blom, leifer, Tore, Jesper Nielsen, Toke Sellner. Reunert, Det urolige blod - Biografi om Frans BlomFrans Blom – Frans Blom in 1922.
88. Borda House, Mexico City – It stands out due to its notable architectural features such as the sculpted stone decorative details on the ground floor. The original building encompassed the city block. It had various inner courtyards, and Borda had a balcony built all the way around the building. This allowed one to all the way around the building on the outside. This mansion was built as a gift for Borda’s wife of 16 years, Teresa Verdugo y Aragonés and it was intended to rival that of Hernán Cortés and it is located near the old monastery of San Francisco and the Palace of Iturbide. Today these streets are known as Madero, Bolivar,16 de Septiembre and it had three floors, covered in red tezontle rock and grey white sandstone. Near the main entrance was a niche with a statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The original building had two floors with ironwork railing that wound around the building on the second and third floors. The interior had a library, four dining rooms,25 alcoves. The entire interior was decorated with carpets, heavy curtains, paintings, porcelain, clocks, sculptures. Over the centuries, the mansion was fragmented and most of it demolished, leaving today five plots, four of which contain the original façade and double balcony. The building on 28 Bolivar street which houses the Hotel Coliseo has an early 20th-century façade, at the beginning of the 20th century, number 33 on Madero street was home to the Salón Rojo, one of the first movie houses in the city. The Salón Rojo was created by Salvador Toscano and then reinaugurated by German Camus, in the 1950s, it housed an upscale carpet business and then it was a post office. In the later 20th century, it was bought by the Santander Serfin bank, the museum offered a small collection of indigenous clothing and colonial-era garb. It has a kind of embroidery and featherwork “dictionary” designed to explain the significance of the different designs found in the exhibits, unfortunately, it closed a few years ago. Number 26 on the Bolivar side is the remaining plot which has all the interior original from the 18th century, all the other plots were demolished. It housed the Harem Baths in the first part of the 20th century, at the beginning of the new millennium, it was completely renovated and rescued by the Yturbe familyBorda House, Mexico City – Facade of the Borda House
89. Alberto Braniff – Alberto Braniff was a pioneering Mexican airplane pilot. He is considered the first aviator in Latin America, Braniff was born in a wealthy and powerful family in Mexico during the Porfiriato. Alberto went to study in Europe, where aviation flourished as he was a young adult and it was while in France that Braniff was able to acquire a French built airplane. Soon after, he shipped back to his country, with his airplane aboard the ship. Mexico during that era was a new country in need of new achievements. After their country lost the Mexican-American War, Mexicans needed to look up to someone or to type of success as a source of national pride. When Braniff returned home with his airplane, many Mexicans began to see him as a symbol of hope, Braniff, who had learned to fly the airplane while still in Europe, took it up upon himself to become that source of pride. Years before Braniff was born, a prominent Mexico City newspaper had predicted that it would be impossible to fly to that city because of its high altitude and thin air. The article was published during an era when aerostat popularity was rising in Europe, the exact year remains unclear, but most historical articles report that Braniff flew his airplane over Mexico City between 1908 and 1910. Apart from being the first pilot to fly an airplane over Mexico City, later on, other luminaries such as Argentinas Jorge Newbery and Perus Jorge Chavez followed Braniff as famous Latin American aviators. Braniff died in Mexico City in 1966 and it remains unclear whether he had any family connection with the Braniff brothers of Texas that created Braniff Airways. Alberto Branif shown in Mexican stamp issued for the 100 anniversary of his first flew in Mexico,1910Alberto Braniff – Left to Right: Pascual Orozco, Alberto Braniff, Pancho Villa and Peppino Garibaldi
90. Capilla abierta – A capilla abierta or “open chapel” is considered to be one of the most distinct Mexican construction forms. Mostly built in the 16th century during the colonial period, the construction was basically an apse or open presbytery, containing an altar. The capilla abierta was an apse or presbytery of a reduced size, located on the ground floor or the first floor. The main idea is to allow the number of people to congregate in front of a single altar. Portico style chapels can be seen in Tlalmanalco, Atlatlahucan and Cempoala, with the best known of the type being found in Acolman. Almost all open chapels were part of a structure, whether it was the main church or the cloister of the monastery. One significant exception is the chapel in Actopan, Hidalgo, the most important feature of the open chapels was to allow the largest number of people possible to congregate in front of a single altar and have that altar visible to all. This is one reason why all capilla abiertas were built facing a large atrium or other open area, one of the most obvious features for visibility was to have chapel located on an upper floor, such as the one located in Tlahueilpa. However, other architectural designs appear with this goal in mind, in San Juan Teposcolula, the buttresses holding up the roof were placed so that they did not block the view from any point in the atrium. In some cases, the chapel inspired designs for covered churches. In reality, it would be five churches facing a single altar, however, only one nave was ever built. Another interesting church design with visibility in mind is the Royal Chapel of San Gabriel de Cholula, the chapel has a square floor plan with seven naves with seven sections each, separated by octagonal pillars. The inspiration for design is the Islamic mosque. This design was used at the Church of San Francisco de los Naturales in San Francisco de Mexico. This same need may have also been the reason behind the construction of single nave churches with no side chapels later in the colonial period. The open chapel was used during the very early colonial period in central Mexico. Several examples appear in Cuzco, Peru, at the churches of Santo Domingo, La Merced and San Jeronimo, some sources state that the capilla abiertas were constructed because the native populations in the 16th century were too afraid to enter the dark confines of European style churches. However, a number of these chapels predate their traditional church counterparts, the most likely reason for their construction was the fact that in the early colonial period, there was an enormous number of indigenous people and few friars and priests to evangelize and say MassCapilla abierta – Capilla abierta of Tlalmanalco, Mexico State
91. Carnival of Huejotzingo – Carnival of Huejotzingo is one of Mexico’s carnivals, which takes place in the Huejotzingo municipality in the state of Puebla. The carnival involves the participation of 12,000 residents in costume, mock battles related to this event are reenacted as well as a Romeo and Juliet story and the first Catholic wedding and baptism in Mexico. The Carnival of Huejotzingo is the carnival of its kind. Festivities start in the morning of the Saturday before Ash Wednesday and end in the evening of Shrove Tuesday, about 12,000 people of the municipality participate in costume, most which carry hand carved muskets, with which gunpowder is set off. The activities of this focus on a number of reenactments. Festivities are daytime, beginning in the morning, with a break for a meal in the mid afternoon. There are pre Hispanic elements to this carnival, including the battles which have been compared to the “flower wars” of the Aztecs. Carnival coincides with the time that the pre Hispanic inhabitants of Huejotzingo petitioned the gods for fertility of the lands, the carnival is led by a “General en Jefe de las Fuerzas o Ejercicios Carnavalesco” who is in charge of leading all four days of festivities. S/he is selected at a meeting occurs just after the end of the current year’s carnival. Participants can prepare for up to six months in advance, the garments are still locally made, if not by the participants, then by local craftspeople. Children are also part of the festivities, with their own costumes, the carnival attracts between 32,000 and 35,000 spectators from both Mexico and abroad, bringing about ten million pesos to the municipality. The carnival is also the beginning of the Tianguis Turístico, the reenactments are repeated all three days and end at nightfall on the third day. The most important involve mock battles among different “battalions” of “soldiers” which is based on the historic Battle of Puebla which occurred on May 5,1862. These occur at times of the day and continue until those that represent the French Imperial Army loses. The battles can result in enough gun smoke from the used in participants’ muskets to cover the town. When not fighting the soldiers either parade, often to the music of live bands, parades of the battalions start by circling the main square twice, with each battalion followed by a live band. Traditional tunes include La marcha de Zacatecas, Juana Gallo and ¡Que chula es Puebla, played as the soldiers dance and constantly set off their muskets. The second reenactment is a similar to a Romeo and Juliet story which comes from the end of the 18thCarnival of Huejotzingo – Parade of participants in front of the municipal hall
92. Eduardo Castro Luque – Eduardo Enrique Castro Luque was the deputy-elect of Ciudad Obregón, Sonora and a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. Born and raised in Ciudad Obregón, Castro Luque ran for office in his municipality and was elected as a legislature for Sonora in the Congress of Mexico on 1 July 2012. Before running for office, he had served as the manager of the Yaquis de Obregón baseball team in his hometown and was working at his privately owned publicity agency. On 14 September 2012, two days before entering office, he was gunned down outside his home by gunmen and he was later pronounced dead at a local hospital. Northern Mexico has been the scene of violent confrontations between Mexicos drug gangs, Eduardo Enrique Castro Luque was born on 12 December 1963 in the Mexican northern city of Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. He was married to Rossana Coboj and had one boy named Eduardo and he held a bachelors degree in Business administration from the Sonora Institute of Technology. The 48-year-old politician had never held an office before he was elected on 1 July 2012. Prior to running for office, Castro Luque owned a publicity agency and was the manager of the Yaquis de Obregón baseball team in his hometown. Initial reports stated that on 14 September 2012 at around 20,55 local time, Castro Luque was returning home at Chapultepec neighborhood in the city of Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. Unaware of the assailant, the deputy-elect got out of his car and made a few steps towards the entrance when an unknown gunman shot at him nine times. The assassin then asked Castro Luque for tool support and then shot him at close range, once they had materialized the attack, the killer fled the scene in a motorcycle. Castro Luque was taken to a hospital by his wife and young son while still being alive. He was scheduled to take office as a Sonoras state Legislature in just two days, the Municipal Police of Cajeme, Sonora reported that Castro Luques front house door had been forced open and that some people had stolen his laptop a day before the assassination. At 3,00 p. m. during a ceremony in the Cathedral of Ciudad Obregón, friends, supporters, politicians. The Bishop Felipe Padilla celebrated mass with over 900 attendees, the municipality of Cajeme, Sonora – where Castro Luque was killed – is reportedly under dispute between two drug groups, the Sinaloa Cartel and the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. In August 2012, Édgar Morales Pérez, the mayor-elect of a town in San Luis Potosí, was ambushed and killed by gunmen before taking office, just like Castro Luque, Morales Pérez was a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. The Attorney General of Sonora established a special group to carry out the inquiry of Castro Luques assassination. On 24 September 2012, the PGJE indicated that Manuel Ernesto Fernández Félix, in Mexico, political candidates have to appoint a person to take over their duties if they die or are unable to serveEduardo Castro Luque – Eduardo Castro Luque
93. Richard E. Cavazos – Richard Edward Cavazos, a Korean War recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross as a first lieutenant, who advanced in rank to become the United States Armys first Hispanic four-star general. During the Vietnam War, as a lieutenant colonel, Cavazos was awarded a second Distinguished Service Cross, in 1976, Cavazos became the first Mexican American to reach the rank of brigadier general in the U. S. Army. Cavazos served with distinction for thirty-three years, with his final command as head of the U. S. Army Forces Command. Richard Cavazos, a Mexican-American was born on January 31,1929 in Kingsville and his brother is U. S. Secretary of Education Lauro Cavazos. He graduated as the distinguished graduate from the ROTC program at Texas Technological University in 1951 and he then earned a B. S. degree in geology from Texas Technological College in 1951, where he played on the football team and was a distinguished graduate of the ROTC program. He received further education at the U. S. Army Command and Staff College, the British Army Staff College, the Armed Forces Staff College. He received basic training at Fort Benning, Georgia, followed by training at Airborne School. He then deployed to Korea with the 65th Infantry, on February 25,1953, Cavazos Company E was attacked by the enemy. During the fight against a superior enemy force, Cavazos distinguished himself. His company was able to emerge victorious from the battle, on June 14,1953, Cavazos again distinguished himself during an attack on Hill 142, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroic actions on that day. On September 10,1953, per General Orders No,832, Cavazos was awarded his first Distinguished Service Cross for his actions during the Korean War. His citation reads, In February 1967, Cavazos, then a lieutenant colonel, became commander of the 1st Battalion, in October and November 1967, his battalion was engaged in fighting near the Cambodian border. During an attack at Loc Ninh in October 1967, his unit was able to repulse the enemy, for his valiant leadership at Loc Ninh, he was awarded a second Distinguished Service Cross. On December 17,1967, per General Orders No,6479, Lieutenant Colonel Cavazos was awarded his second Distinguished Service Cross for his actions on October 30,1967. His citation reads, After Vietnam, Cavazos served as commander of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, in 1976, Cavazos became the first Hispanic to reach the rank of brigadier general in the U. S. Army. In 1980, he became commander of III Corps — and is recognized for his leadership of the Corps. In 1982, Cavazos again made history by being appointed the Armys first Hispanic four-star general. The same year, Cavazos assumed command of the U. S. Army Forces Command and his early support for the National Training Center and his involvement in the development of the Battle Command Training Program enormously influenced the war fighting capabilities of the U. S. ArmyRichard E. Cavazos – General Richard E. Cavazos
94. Chautla Hacienda – The Chautla Hacienda was a formerly vast extension of farmland located in the San Martin Texmelucan Valley in the state of Puebla, northwest of the city of Puebla in Mexico. It was established in the 18th century, primarily producing grain, in the 19th century, it became the property of an Englishman by the name of Thomas Gillow. He passed the property to his son Eulogio Gillow, who became the first archbishop of Antequera, Eulogio worked to modernize the hacienda, building the first hydroelectric dam in Latin America on the property. He also built the property’s signature building, an English style residence, today, only a small fraction of the hacienda remains, and it is run as a recreational and cultural center by an agency of the state of Puebla. The present-day hacienda is located in the San Martin Texmelucan Valley, eight km outside the city of the same name, located between Mexico City and Puebla, the hacienda lies within the Puebla metropolitan area. In the colonial era, the highway which crosses the valley served as a market road that transported agricultural goods to the larger cities of Mexico City, Puebla. The area has a cooler and wetter climate than Mexico City. Overall, the property measures about sixty hectares, thirty five of which is forest, the property includes the original manor house, a small lake formed by a dam built on the Atoyac River, and an English style residence hall on the edge of the lake. The manor house was built by the Marquis of Selva Negra, the first owner of the property. It is built at an elevation which overlooks the property, although trees block the view of the lake, the house now serves as the entrance to the hacienda and it is surrounded by a number of ash trees that are centuries old. Visitors enter a portal into the inner courtyard. The courtyard fountain, built in 1941, is covered in Talavera plates and tiles, opposite the fountain is a small chapel. The four flanks of the enclosing the courtyard feature small watchtowers on the four outer corners. The entrance to the museum is on the north side. The museum contains photographs, paintings, furniture and other items displayed among the rooms of the house including the salon, the kitchen. Beside the manor house are the remains of other buildings such as horse stables. To reach the rest of the property, one exits the house into the east garden and this garden contains a large white fountain flanked by two reflecting pools. In this garden, there are a number of paths, including one that leads to the lake, the lake is formed by a dam which was originally created by a former owner in the late 19th centuryChautla Hacienda – El Castillo at the Chautla Hacienda
95. Cholula, Puebla – Cholula is a city and district located in the center west of the state of Puebla, next to the city of Puebla de Zaragoza, in central Mexico. Cholula is best known for its Great Pyramid, with the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios sanctuary on top, the city and district are divided into two, San Pedro Cholula and San Andrés Cholula, which together are officially called the Distrito Cholula de Rivadavia. Surrounding the city proper is a number of rural communities which belong to the municipalities of San Andrés. The city itself is divided into eighteen neighborhoods or barrios, each with a patron saint and this division has pre-Hispanic origins as does the division into two municipalities. The most important of these festivals is dedicated to the Virgin of the Remedies, the patron of the city in its entirety. The city of Cholula is located just west of the capital of Puebla and is part of its metropolitan area. The city is divided into two municipalities, called San Pedro Cholula and San Andrés Cholula, which include a number of smaller communities that surround the city proper. The main plaza of the city is located in the municipality of San Pedro Cholula, of the two sub-divisions, San Andrés is more residential and has the higher indigenous population. The city as a whole is called the Distrito Cholula de Rivadavia. It was created in 1895 and named in honor of Bernardino de Rivadavia, since the early colonial period, the city has been organized into eighteen barrios or neighborhoods. The pre-Hispanic city had official neighborhoods, called capullis, which the Spanish reorganized around parish churches, the official chronicler of the city, however, still refers to the neighborhoods by their pre-Hispanic term. Eight of the barrios are located in the municipality of San Andrés, the neighborhoods of San Andres Cholula are San Miguel Xochimehuacan, Santiago Xicotenco, San Pedro Colomoxco, Santa María Coaco, La Santísima, San Juan Aquiahuac, San Andresito and Santo Niño. Most of these barrios have a saints name followed by the indigenous name that remains from the pre-Hispanic period. The neighborhoods closest to the center are urbanized, with those on the edges of the city maintaining more of their character, with economies based primarily on agriculture. The main unifying factor of these neighborhoods and municipalities is a framework of regular cyclical social events. Many Cholutecans still use their surnames, such as former town stewards Raymundo Tecanhuehue. This is because a number of members of the old Indian nobility were allowed certain privileges after the Conquest, the city is located on the flat plains of the Valley of Puebla, with Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl visible to the west. Like the city of Puebla, it has a street grid oriented to the cardinal directionsCholula, Puebla – View of Pyramid and church
96. Coatlicue statue – The Coatlicue statue is a 2.7 metre tall andesite statue usually identified with the Aztec goddess Coatlicue. It is currently located in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City, on the bottom of the statue, not normally visible, is a carving of Tlaltecuhtli. The statue was discovered in the plaza of Mexico City on 13 August 1790. The sun stone was found nearby on 17 December, the first scholar to study the statue was Antonio de León y Gama, who incorrectly identified the god depicted as Teoyamiqui. Criollos and Europeans regarded the statue as a horrible, deformed monster, mexican Indians on the other hand began to worship it, visiting it with candles and adorning it with flowers. To prevent this, the statue was buried in the patio of the University of Mexico where it could not be seen, the statue was dug up in 1803, so that Alexander von Humboldt could make drawings and a cast, after which it was reburied. Another statue, called Yolotlicue, was discovered in 1933, though badly damaged, it is identical to Coatlicue except for having a skirt of hearts instead of snakes. Two fragments of a statue or statues also exist, suggesting that these were part of a larger setCoatlicue statue – The Coatlicue statue in the National Museum of Anthropology.
97. Colonia Roma – Currently Roma and neighboring Condesa are known for being the epicenter of hipster subculture in the city, and rivals Polanco as the center of the citys culinary scene. Besides residential buildings, the streets are lined with restaurants, bars, clubs, shops, cultural centers. Many are housed in former French-style mansions dating from the Porfiriato period at the beginning of the 20th century, Roma was designated as a Barrio Mágico by the city in 2011. The area was a shallow part of Lake Texcoco, dotted with tiny islands. During the colonial period, the dried up and became rural lands first owned by Hernán Cortés. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, this area west of what was Mexico City proper was being turned into “modern” colonias for the wealthy seeking to escape the deterioration of city center. The colonia’s height as an “aristocratic” and “European” enclave was from its founding in the 1900s until about the 1940s, however, wealthy residents began to move to newer neighborhoods as early as the 1940s and problems associated with urbanization began to appear in the 1950s. Older mansions began to give way to commercial buildings in the 1960s and 1970s as the deterioration became more serious. The 1985 Mexico City earthquake caused destruction in the colonia, especially to newer and more commercial and apartment buildings. Since then, there have been efforts to conserve the area’s architectural heritage, veracruz, Parque España/Avenida Álvaro Obregón Avenida Coahuila divides Roma into the official neighborhoods of Roma Norte and Roma Sur. Roma consists of several sub-areas, Roma Norte II and III, east of Avenida de los Insurgentes, Coahuila, bisected by Romas signature boulevard, Avenida Álvaro Obregón, is where the vast majority of the hippest restaurants, bars, clubs, etc. are found. It is home to about 1,100 mansions and other architecturally and historically important structures, most of these are no longer residences but rather offices, cultural centers and other businesses. In the northeast corner of this area is the village of La Romita. La Romita is a section of Roma which used to be an independent village and colonia. It was an independent village until the very early 20th century, when Colonia Roma was created, Romita was officially incorporated into it, but the local residents fought redevelopment. The area has since developed semi-independently from the rest of Colonia Roma, even today, the area is relatively difficult to access, with narrow streets leading to a very small plaza and church called Santa María de la Natividad de Aztacalco. The local residents were of a lower social class than the rest of Roma. The area still has a reputation for crime and is found at the extreme northeast of the colonia near Metro Cuauhtémoc, Roma Norte I, west of Insurgentes, has fewer landmark buildings and is a mix of offices, restaurants, retail and residentialColonia Roma – Replica of Michelangelo's David in Plaza Río de Janeiro, a symbol of Colonia Roma
98. Comala – Comala is a town and municipality located in the Mexican state of Colima, near the state capital of Colima. It has been nicknamed the “White Village of America” as the facades of the buildings in town have all painted white since the 1960s. The historic center of the town was declared a Historic Monument Zone and it is the municipal seat of the Comala Municipality, the local governing authority for over 400 other communities, including the former Nogueras Hacienda, the home of artist Alejandro Rangel Hidalgo. Historically, Comala has been a small agricultural village/town, at the beginning of the 20th century, the town had only three streets around the main square. It is also associated with Juan Rulfo’s novel Pedro Páramo, although it is not known if Rulfo was referring to the town directly in the novel. The town is surrounded by papaya, banana, mamey, almond and palm orchards, with orange. It is possible to see the Volcano of Colima from the town, many of the older buildings, especially in the town center have walls made of adobe, and many of the houses have small yards with flowers guarded by iron fences. The historic center of the town was declared a Historic Monument Zone by presidential decree in 1988 and is distinguished by streets paved with river stone, in 1961, the town decided to paint itself white as a way to distinguish itself from the surrounding communities. Today, it is filled with structures with walls and red tile roofs. The town is centered on a square or plaza, dedicated to Benito Juárez. In the center of the plaza, there is a kiosk with a stone base topped with a metal roof structure. Surrounding the kiosk are garden areas with trees and rose bushes, four fountains in each of the corners. Just off the square on two opposing sides, there are arcades which contain businesses and these businesses sell local products and restaurants serves local cuisine. This includes a dish called tatemado, which is pork in a sauce made with guajillo chili peppers, as well as pozole. One important beverage sold here is ponche and it has been made for generations in Comala with at least twenty families currently involved in its production although there are thought to be more who produce it clandestinely. The drink has been given a certification of the name so that products called “ponche de Comala” must be from the area, ramon Salazar Salazar was one of the pioneers in the making of ponche, and his son Ramiro Salazar Trujillo is still involved into the craft. Ponche has been made in at least fourteen different flavors with the most traditional being pomegranate, coconut and nuts such as pistachio, other common flavors include coffee, peanut, tamarind, blackberry, plum, and rompope. The drink has a low alcohol content and is drunk as an aperitif cold or at room temperatureComala – Main Plaza and church
99. Convention of London (1861) – The Convention of London was a treaty, signed by France, Spain, and the United Kingdom, on 31 October 1861. The purpose of the treaty was to agree on a course of action towards obtaining loan repayments from Mexico and it led the three countries to put pressure on Mexico through blockades. After Frances invasion, Spain and the United Kingdom, realising Frances intention to colonise Mexico, the resulting struggle is known as the French intervention in Mexico by the army of the Second French Empire, also known as the Maximilian Affair and The Franco-Mexican War. The parties to the convention invited the United States to seek a solution to the financial and social chaos in Mexico. Earlier in May the English navy had already disembarked a 400-men strong contingent at San Blas to secure the Mexican Pacific coast custom houses, the ongoing civil war from 1858 resulted in both Mexican political parties becoming indebted. Aside from the previous loan contracts the opposing sides ran out of funds. Miguel Miramón of the conservatives chose to apply for a disadvantageous loan lent by creditor firm Jecker and it was composed of 15,000,000 pesos in internal bonds,619,000 pesos in cash and 368,000 in military clothing. These loans formed the basis of the long-term French claims, which led to the French Intervention in Mexico, in 1860 Miramón took a step further and seized a British deposit of 660,000 pesos reserved for the British bondholders by the Liberal cabinet of Benito Juárez. The same year Juárez also crossed the line by illegally seizing 1,100,000 pesos at Laguna Seca that constituted the property of mainly western European merchants. He immediately returned one third of the plunder and promised to pay 12% interest on the rest after the victory in the civil war. After their victory Juárez expelled the Spanish minister for allegedly supporting the Miramón faction, on 11 June 1861 Mexico passed the recompensation deadline of the Lacuna Seca incident and was still not ready to repay the withheld money. Next month the Mexican Government suspended to transfer payments for two years. The British financial claims dated back to the end of 1851 when, at the Doyle Convention, Mexico agreed to pay 5,000,000 pesos on a 3% yearly interest rate and a 5% redeem rate. At the time of the London Convention, these rate rose to 4 and 6 percent, respectively, and the amount of debt had been reduced to 1,800,000 pesos. That same year, the Spanish and Mexican Government settled an old claim of 983,000 pesos and additionally provided a new fund of 6,600,000 pesos, the interest rate of the first bonds was set at 3% while the latter was issued at 5%. Mexico also had similar negotiations with France in 1851 and 1853, the French also addressed unfulfillable individual claims on the behalf of French nationals living in Mexico. Altogether with the Jecker debt, France sought a consolidated 10,000,000 pesos, the same concerns were brought up in the case of Mexico where Juan de Borbón seemed to be a possible pretender to the Mexican throne. The United States regarded the claims as being unjustifiable or even outrageous, except for those of the British and this offer was rejected by the allied powersConvention of London (1861) – Don Pacheco Expelled Spanish Minister to Mexico, one of the provisos of the Spanish claims
100. Costa Chica of Guerrero – The Costa Chica of Guerrero is an area along the south coast of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, extending from just south of Acapulco to the Oaxaca border. Geographically, it consists of part of the Sierra Madre del Sur, various rivers here form large estuaries and lagoons that host various species of commercial fish. This area is paired with the Costa Chica of Oaxaca as both have significant populations of Afro-Mexicans, who settled in the area as escaped slaves, the Afro-Mexican presence in Guerrero is strongest in this region, especially in the coastal municipalities from Marquelia to Cuajinicuilapa. Another important ethnic group is the Amuzgo, who are by far the largest indigenous ethnicity in the region, in the municipalities of Xochistlahuaca, Tlacoachistlahuaca, the Amuzgo, especially in Xochistlahuca, still wear traditional clothing and speak the Amuzgo language. Many women still weave cloth on backstrap looms, the region is one of the poorest in Mexico, with an economy based on subsistence agriculture and fishing, with some commerce, especially along Highway 200, which parallels the coast. The Costa Chica of Guerrero is a coastal region beginning just southeast of Acapulco and it is culturally paired with the Costa Chica of Oaxaca as both have significant populations of Afro-Mexicans, who often also have indigenous ancestry. The Costa Chica is one of the seven regions of the state along with Zona Norte, Tierra Caliente, Centro, La Montaña, Acapulco, the largest metropolitan area of the region is San Marcos. Most of the terrain is dominated by the Sierra Madre del Sur as it parallels the coast, between the mountains and the ocean is a narrow strip of hilly land called the Lomérios de la Vertiente del Pacífico and coastal plains called the Planicies Costeras. The region is filled with winding rivers which empty into the Pacific, the vegetation is deciduous low height tropical forest that loses most of its leaves during the dry season from November to May. Oceanside municipalities include San Marcos, Florencio Villarreal, Copala, Marquelia, the three main lagoons are Tecomate, Chautengo and Tres Palos. The largest bay is the Bay of Puerto Marques next to Acapulco, the area has a hot climate that reaches an average high temperature of 32C. The dry season extends from November to May and a season from June to October. The area is prone to cyclones from June to October, in 1997, Hurricane Pauline devastated the Costa Chica in both Guerrero and Oaxaca with winds reaching between 166 and 200km /hr. The toll was 120 dead, and 8,700 other victims, the region was left with partially destroyed roads with left a number of communities physically isolated for days. The Costa Chica is one of two zones in Mexico with significant Afro-Mexican populations, with the other being in the state of Veracruz, while Afro-Mexicans are found in most parts of the Costa Chica, the highest concentrations in Guerrero are found between Marquelia and Cuajicuilapa. Members of this group in the region are identified by skin color. Some consider the classification to be racism, while others identify as primarily Afro-Mexican, many also have indigenous or mestizo ancestry. After the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, disease, war and overwork all, in a number of areas, the Spanish brought in African slaves to replace the lost laborCosta Chica of Guerrero – Ravine in the mountains of Xochistlahuaca
101. Cuernavaca Cathedral – The Cuernavaca Cathedral is the Roman Catholic church of the Diocese of Cuernavaca, located in the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. By the 18th century, the church of the monastery began to function as the church of the city and in the late 19th century. Unlike the other structures from its time, the importance of this church provoked a number of renovation projects. This one took out the remaining decorations of the interior. The church was part of the monastery of the Assumption of Mary of Cuernavaca and these monasteries were built to evangelize and subdue the indigenous populations shortly after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. These monasteries began the effort which would spread south towards Oaxaca. The organization of the Cuernavaca monastery was founded in 1525 by the first twelve Franciscans to arrive to the new Spanish colony, among these were Antonio Maldonado, Antonio Ortiz, Alonso de Herrera and Diego de Almonte. The original purpose of the organization was the evangelization of the local indigenous peoples. However, the church and its walled atrium was originally off limits to all except the Spanish. Building of the complex began in 1529 on land donated by Juana de Zúñiga de Cortés. It was the construction in New Spain by the order. Like other monasteries of the time, it was built large, tall, thick walls. The monastery’s lands originally extended far beyond the current complex, and included large gardens and other used by the monks to produce food. The complex, including the church, was built in stages, the year of 1532 is engraved in a monogram of the Virgin Mary at the north entrance, but it does not indicate the termination of this facade. It is most likely to have finished by 1574. According to stories, a monk who died this year was accustomed to climbing onto the roof of the church to see how food reserves were, visiting friar Alonso Ponce wrote in 1585 that the complex was finished and well constructed, and included the church, dormitory and gardens. This same monk notes the retirement and deaths of a number of monks at the site. Most of the church was finished by the late 17th centuryCuernavaca Cathedral – Facade and belltower of the cathedral
102. Ferocactus latispinus – Ferocactus latispinus is a species of barrel cactus native to Mexico. The species name is derived from the Latin latus broad, ferocactus recurvus is a former name for the species. Subspecies spiralis is restricted to the parts of Oaxaca and Puebla. Ferocactus latispinus grows as a single globular light green cactus reaching the dimensions of 30 cm in height and 40 cm across and its spines range from reddish to white in colour and are flattened and reach 4 or 5 cm long. Flowering is in autumn or early winter. The funnel-shaped flowers are purplish or yellowish and reach 4 cm long, two subspecies are recognised, differing in their number of radial spines. Latispinus — 9–15 radial spines, Devils Tongue Barrel or Crows Claw Cactus, ferocactus latispinus is fairly commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant. It blooms at an age which is a desirable horticultural feature. It is hardy to −4 °C, with a minimum temperature of 10 °C. The slime mold, Didymium wildpretii feeds on the remains of F. latispinus in MexicoFerocactus latispinus – Ferocactus latispinus
103. First Battle of Rellano – The First Battle of Rellano was an engagement on 24 March 1912 during the Mexican Revolution at the Rellano railroad station, in the state of Chihuahua. It was fought between government troops loyal to Francisco I, Madero, led by General José González Salas, and rebel troops under Pascual Orozco. The battle was a victory for Orozco, Orozco was resentful over Maderos appointment of Venustiano Carranza, rather than himself, as defense minister. Furthermore, over the course of 1911 Orozco began courting the support of the powerful Chihuahuan Terrazas family who were enemies of Pancho Villa. This led to a break between Villa and Orozco, the final straw came when Madero appointed Abraham González, Villas mentor, as governor of Chihuahua. In March 1912 Orozco decreed a formal revolt against Maderos government, General José González Salas was sent from Mexico City in an expedition against Orozco on March 8. He set up his headquarters in Torreón, Coahuila, with a view of quelling Orozcos uprising in middle of March, on March 18 he led 6000 men into Chihuahua. Progress was slow because the troops were forced to repair railroad tracks, furthermore, González split his force into three columns. A cavalry column under Trucy Aubuert was sent ahead to scout, González then sent another unit of cavalry under Joaquín Téllez to continue the scouting. The two cavalry units and the infantry and artillery under González were all supposed to converge together in Ciudad Jiménez, however, the second scouting force also got detached from the main force. As a result, the colorados, as Orozcos troops were known because of their red flag, however, the first few hours of fighting involved minor skirmishes and proved indecisive. Eventually, the forces retreated to Rellano where, along with newly arrived reinforcements. By this point, Orozco had about 3000 men, Gonzálezs men continued to proceed by rail, at that point, Orozcos co-conspirator, Emilio Campa, loaded a locomotive with dynamite and sent it at the federal troops which were moving by rail. Later, the tactic of using explosive-laden trains became known as the loco loco or the máquina loca, the casualties, however, were fairly low as a good portion of the infantry had disembarked when they saw the locomotive approaching. The soldiers who had been on the train moving north when they were ambushed by about 1000 Orozquistas troops firing upon them from the surrounding hills. A cavalry squadron under General Aureliano Blanquet attempted to encircle the rebels but had to retreat when more of them arrived, the sound of the battle alerted Téllezs cavalry unit which soon arrived on the scene. The federal troops made a retreat towards Torreón, with Téllez fighting a rear guard action. After arriving in Torreon, González waited a day and a half for news of what had happened to Téllezs cavalry, with none arriving, he grew desperate and committed suicideFirst Battle of Rellano – A corrido extolling Pascual Orozco, the leader of the rebel army and commander at Rellano
104. Manuel Gamio – Manuel Gamio was a Mexican anthropologist, archaeologist, sociologist, and a leader of the indigenismo movement. He is often considered as the father of modern studies in Mexico. He devised a system for classifying the hunter-gatherers of Central America. Gamio was born in Mexico City, where he studied engineering at the School of Mining, however, at age 19 he left his studies to work on a family rubber plantation, where the states of Oaxaca, Veracruz and Puebla join. There he learned Nahuatl from the workers and developed a strong interest in Mexicos indigenous cultures. He returned to study at the National Museum under Zélia Nuttall, from Boas he adopted the cultural approach characteristic of the anthropology of the United States in the twentieth century. Boas considered Gamio one of his best students, other individuals associated with the school included Eduard Seler, Alfred M. Tozzer and Boas. This was during the Mexican Revolution, and thus was a time to establish new scientific institutions. Gamio was director of the school from 1916 through 1920, when it closed for lack of funds, in 1911 he established a ceramic sequence for the Valley of Mexico based on earlier stratigraphic excavations at Azcapotzalco, Distrito Federal. Between 1913 and 1916 he was general of archaeological monuments of the Mexican Ministry of Public Education. He performed field work at places in the Valley of Mexico, including Copilco, Cuicuilco. He was the first scientific investigator to explore Teotihuacan, a result of these investigations was the book La población del valle de Teotihuacan, published in 1922. A revision of his Columbia thesis, this work is still an important source for information on the northern zone of the State of Mexico. He also produced documentary films. He estimated the population of Teotihuacan at 300,000. He criticized the Mexican census for classifying Spanish-speaking Indians as whites, earlier, in 1916, he had published the important book Forjando patria, pro nacionalismo, a treatise on cultural assimilation of indigenous Mexicans into the racially mixed society of the country. Other works in Spanish include Hacia un México nuevo and Consideraciones sobre el problema del indigenismo, in the 1920s he investigated the highlands of Guatemala, near the cities of Quiche, Huehuetenango and Quetzaltenango, concentrating on pottery styles. Due to the similarity of pottery from Guatemala and central Mexico and he hypothesized that some of the early natives of central Mexico abandoned that area in search of a place free of earthquakes and volcanosManuel Gamio – Manuel Gamio
105. David M. Gonzales – On April 25,1945, at age 21, PFC Gonzales was killed in action in the Philippines while, in the face of enemy machine gun fire, digging out fellow soldiers who had been buried in a bomb explosion. David Gonzales was a machine shop worker in Los Angeles when he joined the U. S. Army at the San Pedro. On April 25,1945, Gonzales company found itself engaged in combat against Japanese forces at Villa Verde Trail on Luzon island in the Philippines and this fusing allowed the bomb to bury itself deeply into the ground prior to detonation. This event trapped five American soldiers in their standing foxholes, on December 8,1945, President Harry S. Truman, posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor to Gonzales, presenting the medal to his surviving family. On February 2,1949, Gonzales body arrived in a train to San Fernando. In 1999, David Gonzales, Jr. and his wife Bea attended a ceremony for war heroes in Santa Ana, there they discovered that the picture the Army was sending out to military ceremonies was not of his father, but of someone else. Gonzales Jr. wrote to the Army in Washington, D. C. to tell them of their mistake and he then wrote to Congressman Howard Berman, who in turn referred the letter to his aide Fred Flores. Flores, who was also from Pacoima, California, immediately called Pentagon officials and had them correct the mistake, during a November 7,2002 ceremony at Los Angeles Mission College, Congressman Berman presented David Gonzales, Jr. Finally he presented the Gold Star Lapel Button, which identifies the next of kin of members of the military who lost their lives while engaged in action. The photo of a soldier who was not Gonzales, but identified as that of the winner, had been erroneously displayed in the Pentagons Hall of Heroes. The photo was removed and replaced with a one of Gonzales after the renovations of the Pentagon — made necessary by the 9/11 attack — were completed on March 31,2003. In honor of David M. Gonzales, Pacoima Park in Los Angeles County, the local Army recruiting station there also carries his name, as does a county Probation Department camp in Malibu. In November 2015 the interchange between the 5 and 118 freeways in Los Angeles San Fernando Valley was renamed the David M. Gonzales Memorial Interchange, hispanic Americans in World War II The 32nd Infantry Division in World War II, The Red Arrow. The 32nd Red Arrow Veteran Association Medal of Honor recipients from the 32nd Red Arrow Infantry DivisionDavid M. Gonzales – Pvt. David M. Gonzales, Medal of Honor recipient
106. Huaquechula – Huaquechula is a town in Huaquechula Municipality located in state of Puebla in central Mexico. The settlement dates back at least as far as 1110 CE although its center has moved to twice to its current location. Since its founding, it has been a community, today raising crops such as peanuts, corn and sorghum. These have been declared a heritage of the state of Puebla and bring tourists to the town. The town of Huaquechula is about sixty km from the state capital, the plaza’s fountain is made of black sandstone. Facing this plaza are the municipal “palace” a parish church, a center called Cuauhquechollan. The monastery was begun in 1531 and was finished in 1580, built by the Franciscan order, with attribution to Juan de Alameda and it is similar to the monastery in Huejotzingo, though it lacks that building’s pre-Hispanic symbolism. The facade is Plateresque with a richly adorned main portal in sandstone, the main altarpiece in the monastery is also Plateresque and dates from the 17th century and is over ten meters high and five meters wide. The former cloister area is now a local museum, the walls still contains remnants of the monastery’s rich mural work, and the rooms contains archeological pieces, copies of various codices and a section dedicated to Day of the Dead. In front, there is a cross over an image of the world and images of the sun. The town also has other reminders of its long history, the Piedra Máscara monument is located on the old road to San Juan Vallarta. It represents the old gods of the pre Hispanic population, the Piedra del Sol y la Luna is located on the old road to Xonaca, and depicts a lunar eclipse. The Piedra del Coyote is near the river leads to Xonaca. It represents the death of a coyote, a cross was later erected over this stone. The patron saint is Saint Francis of Assisi, whose feast day is celebrated on October 4, as has been for centuries, the economy is based on agriculture, growing peanuts, corn, onions and sorghum, along with livestock and basic commerce. Traditional handcrafts include wax items, items made from tin and pressed glass such as jars, candelabras and incense burners, often with reliefs of angels, the town is known for two annual events, with traditions found nowhere else. The better known of these is the creation of “cabo del año” altars for family members who have died in the past year. These altars are generally large in the form of a pyramid, covered in white satin or crepe paperHuaquechula – Coat of arms
107. Huave language – Huave is a language isolate spoken by the indigenous Huave people on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The language is spoken in four villages on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in the southeast of the state, the Huave people of San Mateo del Mar, who call themselves Ikoots, meaning us, refer to their language as ombeayiiüts, meaning our language. In San Francisco del Mar, the terms are Kunajts and umbeyajts. The term Huave is thought to come from the Zapotec languages, meaning people who rot in the humidity, however, Martínez Gracida claims the meaning of the term means many people in Isthmus Zapotec, interpreting hua as abundant and be as a shortened form of binni. The etymology of the term requires further investigation, neither of the above etymologies is judged plausible by Isthmus Zapotec speakers. Although genetic relationships between the Huave language and several families have been proposed, none has been substantiated. While Huave is still in use in most domains of life in at least one of the four villages where it is spoken. Recently, fieldwork and revitalization projects have been carried out in the Huave communities by universities of different countries, as of 2011, it is reported that teenagers have taken to texting in Huave, so as to be able to communicate without their parents knowing what they are saying. Also as of 2011, a station in San Mateo del Mar. Huave of San Mateo del Mar is partly tonal, distinguishing between high and low tone in penultimate syllables only, Huave is one of only two Mesoamerican languages not to have a phonemic glottal stop. The phonemic inventory, reconstructed for the ancestor of the four existing Huave varieties as presented in Campbell 1997, is as follows, Consonants. Huave is similar to the Mayan languages in being both morphologically and syntactically ergative and consistently head-marking and it is less morphologically complex than Mayan languages, however, and usually each word has only a few affixes. There are obligatory categories on the verb of absolutive person and present, past or future tense, plus additional categories of subject, indefinite subject. Complex sentences in Huave often juxtapose multiple verbs each inflected for the appropriate person, an interesting feature of Huave is that verbs meaning give can be used to produce causative meaning, whilst a verb meaning come is used to produce purpose clauses. There are other purpose clauses introduced by more ordinary particles in which the verb is inflected for a special subordinate mode, word order, like verb morphology, in Huave follows a fully ergative pattern. The basic word order can be expressed simply as Ergative Verb Absolutive. This means that whilst in transitive clauses the order is AVO. Adjectives and demonstratives can be placed either before or after the noun to which they refer, reduplication is a very productive phonological process in HuaveHuave language – Location of the four Huave speaking towns within the state of Oaxaca
108. Huejotzingo Municipality – Huejotzingo (modern Nahuatl pronunciation is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in the central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the period, when it was a dominion. Modern Huejotzingo is located where a Franciscan monastery was founded in 1525, and in 1529, today, Huejotzingo is known for the production of alcoholic apple cider and fruit preserves, as well as its annual carnival. This carnival is distinct as it centers on the re-enactment of several historical, the largest of these is related to the Battle of Puebla, with about 2,000 residents representing French and Mexican forces that eng