1. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
2. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 4.8 % of its total surface. North America is the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, Europe. North America was reached by its first human populations via crossing the Bering land bridge. The Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. The Americas are usually accepted as having been named by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam. For Waldseemüller, no one should object after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa".North America – Map of North America, from 1621.
3. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
4. Guatemala – With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populous state in Central America. Largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved in 1841. From the mid to 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping economic reforms. A military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. Guatemala's abundance of biologically unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is also known for its rich and distinct culture, characterized by a fusion of Spanish and Indigenous influences. The name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees". This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC.Guatemala – Tikal Mayan ruins.
5. Belize – Belize, formerly British Honduras, is a country on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered by the Caribbean Sea. Its mainland is about 290 km long and 110 km wide. With 22,800 square kilometres of land and as of 2015 a population of 368,310, Belize has the lowest population density in Central America. The country's rate of 1.87 % per year is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Its diversity of ecosystems give a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize, but over half the population is multilingual. Belize is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Belize is known for punta music. Delgado recorded the names of three major rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast: Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum, Rio Balis. These names, which correspond to Belize River, were provided to Delgado by his translator. It is likely that Delgado's "Balis" was actually the Mayan word belix, meaning "muddy-watered". There is no proof that Wallace settled in this area and some scholars have characterized this claim as a myth.Belize – "Caana" at Caracol
6. Caribbean Sea – The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. The numerous islands of the West Indies, adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea has an area of about 2,754,000 km2. The sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below level. The Caribbean Sea has the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras. The name "Caribbean" derives at the time of European contact during the late 15th century. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed. From the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the "South Sea" as opposed to the "North Sea". At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to Europeans. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was quickly colonised by Western cultures. As of 2015 the area is home to borders 12 continental countries. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows: On the North. In the Windward Channel - a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti. In the Mona Passage - a line joining Cape Engano and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico.Caribbean Sea – Roadtown, Tortola, British Virgin Islands
7. Gulf of Mexico – The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent. Atlantic and Pacific coasts, or sometimes the "south coast", in juxtaposition to the Great Lakes region being the "coast." One of the gulf's seven main areas is the Gulf of Mexico basin. The Gulf of Mexico formed approximately million years ago as a result of plate tectonics. The Gulf's basin is approximately 810 nautical miles wide and floored by sedimentary rocks and recent sediments. With the narrow connection to the Atlantic, the Gulf experiences very small tidal ranges. The size of the Gulf basin is approximately million km2. Almost half of the basin is continental shelf waters. The basin contains a volume of roughly 2,500 quadrillion liters. It was created by the collision of continental plates that formed Pangea. As interpreted by Randel T. Cox, this mountain range was breached in Late Cretaceous times by the formation of the Mississippi Embayment. The rifting was associated with zones of weakness including sutures where the Laurentia, South American, African plates collided to create it. First, there was a Late Jurassic phase of rifting during which rift valleys formed and filled with continental red beds. Second, as rifting progressed through Early and Middle Jurassic time, continental crust was thinned. It was at this time that tectonics first created a connection across central Mexico and later eastward to the Atlantic Ocean.Gulf of Mexico – Sediment in the Gulf of Mexico
8. Americas – The Americas, also collectively called America, encompass the totality of the continents of North America and South America. Together they comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 28.4 % of its land area. The topography is dominated by a long chain of mountains that run the length of the west coast. Humans first settled the Americas between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The first European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Ericson. However the colonization was later abandoned. The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted with European powers, which led to the Columbian exchange. The European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas began with Haitian Revolution in 1791. The population is with over 65 % of them living in one of the three most populous countries. The earliest known use of the name America dates to 1507, where it was applied to what is now known as South America. The scholarly consensus is that the name was derived from Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.Americas – CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection
9. List of countries by population – This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. For instance, the United Kingdom is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate. Also given in percent is each country's population compared to the population of the world, which the United Nations estimated at 7.5 billion in December 2016. Furthermore, the addition of figures from all countries may not equal the total. A handful of nations have not conducted a census in over 30 years, providing high margin estimates only. Areas that form integral parts of sovereign states, such as the countries of the United Kingdom, are counted as part of the sovereign states concerned. Note: All dependent countries that are parts of sovereign states are shown in italics.List of countries by population – A map of world population in 2014
10. Hispanophone – Hispanophone or Hispanosphere denotes Spanish language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world. The term derives from the Latin political name of the Iberian Peninsula, Hispania. The present map has colored the Hispanosphere, composed of the currently Hispanophone geographic areas. Hispanophones are estimated at between 500 and 550 million globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers. Around million live in million in Europe. There are a large number of Spanish speakers in the United States, comprising more than 34 million. In a cultural, rather than merely linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. In a cultural sense, the whole of Hispanophones are sometimes called the Hispanidad. During the Spanish period between 1492 and 1898, many people from Spain migrated to the new lands they had conquered. Their influences are found in the following continents and countries that were originally colonized by the Spaniards. Note The modern-day people that live in the region of ancient Hispania are the Portuguese, Spanish, Andorra and Gibraltar people. These kingdoms had their own nationalistic loyalties and political borders. Today, there is no single Castilian-Spanish identity for the whole country. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in recognizing their several Spanish identities at the same time. Spain is a culturally heterogeneous country, home to a wide range of subcultures, each one with its own customs and traditions.Hispanophone – Spanish official; spoken all over the country
11. Latin America – Latin America is the group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada. It has an area of almost 13 % of the Earth's land surface area. The term "Latin America" was first used in La revue des races Latines, a magazine "dedicated to the cause of Pan-Latinism". A further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. This term was also used by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America. This definition emphasizes a socioeconomic history of the region, characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase "the Caribbean" instead, as in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas. Cf. Languages of South America and Languages of North America. By the same logic, parts of the United States where Spanish and French are official languages would be considered Latin American. The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided based on geography, politics, demographics and culture. It may be subdivided into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America.Latin America – Presencia de América Latina (Presence of Latin America, 1964–65) is a 300 square meters (3,200 sq ft) mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of Concepción, Chile. It is also known as Latin America's Integration.
12. Administrative divisions of Mexico – The United Mexican States is a federal republic composed of 32 federal entities: 31 states and a "capital city". According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are sovereign. Each state has constitution. Mexico City is currently being reformed to have the same rights of a state. The states of the Mexican Federation are free, sovereign, independent of each other. Since states have legal autonomy, each has its own penal codes and judicial body. In addition, the federation makes up a constituency in which 32 senators are elected by the method of proportional representation. Federal Deputies, however, do not represent the states, but rather the citizens themselves. The Chamber of the Senate together comprise the Congress of the Union. The states are internally divided into municipalities. Each municipality is autonomous in its ability to elect their own council. The council is headed by a mayor elected every 3 years with no possibility of immediate reelection. Each municipality has a council composed of councilors in terms of size. The council is responsible, in most cases, to provide all utilities required for its population. This concept, which arises from the Mexican Revolution, is known as a "free municipality".Administrative divisions of Mexico – Mexican States and Federal District Estados Mexicanos y el Distrito Federal (Spanish)
13. Mexico City – Mexico City, officially City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an "alpha" global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas. It is located at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities. The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The city was responsible for generating the metropolitan area accounted for about 22 % of total national GDP. Mexico's capital is both one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, as of 1585 it was officially known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City served as the political, financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. No run-Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325. Between 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of the Pacific Ocean. Cortés put Moctezuma under arrest, hoping to rule through him.Mexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
14. List of cities in Mexico – This article contains lists of both the largest cities and largest municipalities in Mexico. See also the list of Metropolitan areas of Mexico. This is a list of cities in Mexico by fixed population, according to the 2010 national census. Note that Veracruz and Naucalpan are cities whose administration is divided between two municipalities; the list gives the population of each part of the city separately. Note also that Mexico City contains all including rural areas with relatively minor populations. The Distrito Federal's population is classified as 8,810,393 urban and 40,687 rural. All other localities are officially classified as solely urban by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. All of the map links are at the same scale. ‡ These cities extend beyond the borders of a single municipality. The following is a list of the most incorporated places in Mexico as of the 2010 census. As defined by the Mexico's Census Bureau the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Metropolitan areas of Mexico Demographics of Mexico National Population Council — official website. National Institute of Statistics and Geography — official website. Main Cities to Visit in Mexico — Towns of Mexico — List with all the small villages, towns and cities in MexicoList of cities in Mexico – 1 – Mexico City.
15. Regional power – In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. States which wield unrivalled influence within a region of the world possess regional hegemony. Regional powers shape the polarity of a regional area. Typically, regional powers have capabilities which do not have capabilities at a global scale. Slightly contrasting definitions differ as to what makes a regional power. These states to some extent meet the criteria to have regional status, as described above. Different experts have differing views on exactly which states are regional powers. States are arranged in alphabetic order. Primary, or major, regional powers are placed by analysts. Minor, regional powers are listed within their sub regions. Major regional powers in bold, minor regional powers in normal font. Algeria, Egypt, South Africa are generally regarded as the major regional powers in the African continent. Algeria Egypt South Africa Ethiopia Tanzania Nigeria Ghana Canada United States Argentina Brazil Mexico Historically, China was the dominant power in eastern Asia. In recent years, a re-balancing of economic might towards countries such as China and India has made significant changes in the geopolitics of Asia. South Korea have also earned greater influence over regions outside Asia.Regional power – Leaders of some regional powers during the G20 meeting in Mexico
16. Middle power – The concept of the "middle power" dates back to the origins of the European system. In the 16th century, Italian political thinker Giovanni Botero divided the world into three types of states -- grandissime, mezano and piccoli. According to Botero, middle power"... has sufficient strength and authority to stand on its own without the need of help from others." No standard method defines which states are middle powers. Some researchers use Gross National Product statistics to draw lists of middle powers around the world. Economically, middle powers are generally those, defined. Economics is not always the defining factor. Some define middle power to include nations that can be regarded as regional powers. However, traditional middle powers can be distinguished in terms of their mutually-influencing constitutive and behavioural differences. Constitutively, middle powers are wealthy, stable, egalitarian, social democratic and not regionally influential. Emerging middle powers by contrast are semi-peripheral, recently democratised states that demonstrate much regional influence and self-association. According to Enrico Fels from the University of Bonn: Firstly, just like great powers, middle powers must have sufficient control over material resources. Under this definition however, every state participant of the NATO nuclear sharing, would not be middle powers. Middle powers are states who commit their relative affluence, international prestige to the preservation of the international order and peace. Middle powers perform these internationalist activities because of an idealistic imperative they associate with being a middle power.Middle power – Leaders of the G-20 countries and others present at the 2008 G-20 Washington summit. Most members of the G-20 are middle powers while some are great powers.
17. Newly industrialized country – The category of newly industrialized country is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country's status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Another characterization of NICs is that of countries undergoing rapid economic growth. Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of an NIC. NICs usually share some other common features, including: Strong political leaders. A switch from agricultural to industrial economies, especially in the manufacturing sector. An increasingly open-market economy, allowing free trade with other countries in the world. Large national corporations operating in several continents. Strong capital investment from foreign countries. Political leadership in their area of influence. Rapid growth of urban centers and population. There is a clear distinction between these countries and the countries now considered NICs. All four economies are classified as high-income economies by the World Bank and Advanced economies by the International Monetary Fund and U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. All of them, like Western European countries, possess Human Development Index considered "very high" by the UN.Newly industrialized country – Newly industrialized countries as of 2013 [update].
18. List of countries by GDP (nominal) – This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their nominal gross domestic product converted to dollars at market exchange rates. GDP comparisons at exchange rates also do not inherently adjust for changes in price levels when making comparisons at different points in time. When no such adjustment has been made, this is referred to as nominal GDP. When an adjustment has been made to convert to constant dollars, it is referred to as real GDP. Several economies which are not considered to be countries are included in the lists because they appear in the sources as distinct economies. These economies are italicized and not are listed where applicable. Click on one of the headings to re-order the list according to that category. List of countries by GDP List of countries by GDP per capita List of countries by GDP per capitaList of countries by GDP (nominal) – A map of world economies by size of GDP (nominal) in USD, World Bank, 2014.
19. List of countries by GDP (PPP) – Countries are sorted from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The GDP data given on this page are derived from purchasing power parity calculations. It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries. PPP is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index. These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods. The first table includes estimates for all current 187 International Monetary Fund members, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2015. Data were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of 2015. The data for GDP at purchasing parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category. ^2 IMF estimate. 3 Data excludes French Polynesia. ^ a China's PPP is based on prices for an urban/rural breakdown.List of countries by GDP (PPP) – World Share of GDP (PPP) according to data released by the IMF, October 2014
20. Purchasing power parity – Observed deviations of the rate from purchasing parity are measured from its PPP value of 1. PPP exchange rates help to minimize misleading international comparisons that can arise with the use of market exchange rates. For example, suppose that two countries produce the same physical amounts of goods as each other in each of two different years. The idea originated with the School of Salamanca in the 16th century and was developed in its modern form by Gustav Cassel in 1918. The best-known purchasing power adjustment is the Geary–Khamis dollar. The real exchange rate is then equal to the nominal exchange rate, adjusted for differences in price levels. If parity held exactly, then the real rate would always equal one. There can be marked differences between purchasing power adjusted incomes and those converted via market exchange rates. At the other extreme, Denmark's nominal GDP per capita is around US$62,100, but its PPP figure is US$37,304. The purchasing power parity exchange rate serves two main functions. The PPP exchange-rate calculation is controversial because of the difficulties of finding comparable baskets of goods to compare purchasing power across countries. People in different countries typically consume different baskets of goods. It is necessary to compare the cost of baskets of goods and services using a price index. This is a difficult task because purchasing patterns and even the goods available to purchase differ across countries. Thus, it is necessary to make adjustments for differences in the quality of goods and services.Purchasing power parity – Big Mac hamburgers, like this one from Japan, are similar worldwide.
21. Economy of Mexico – Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Some of the government's challenges include the upgrade of infrastructure, the reduction of income inequality. All together 19.6 percent of GDP in 2013, are the lowest among the 34 OECD countries. The economy contains rapidly developing modern industrial and service sectors, with increasing private ownership. Recent administrations have expanded competition with the aim of upgrading infrastructure. In 2006, trade with Mexico's two northern partners accounted for 55 % of its imports. Recently, reform to the oil industry is currently being debated. Mexico had 15 companies in the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2016. Mexico's force is 52.8 million as of the year 2015. Mexican president Porfirio Díaz brought economic growth during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. This growth was accompanied by foreign investment and European immigration, the exploitation of the country's natural resources. Economic growth between 1876 and 1910 averaged 3.3 %. The war itself left a harsh toll on the population, which decreased over the 11-year period between 1910 and 1921. The reconstruction of the country was to take place in the following decades. During this period the nation adopted the economic model of import industrialization which protected and promoted the development of national industries.Economy of Mexico – Mexico City is the most important financial and economic centre in Mexico as well as Latin America.
22. North American Free Trade Agreement – The North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada. NAFTA has the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation. The signed agreement then needed to be ratified by each nation's parliamentary branch. The Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement had been very controversial and divisive in Canada, the 1988 Canadian election was fought almost exclusively on, sue. The PCs had a parliamentary majority and were easily able to pass the 1987 Canada-U.S. FTA and NAFTA bills. However, he was replaced by Kim Campbell. It also required U.S. partners to adhere to environmental regulations similar to its own. After emotional discussion, the House of Representatives passed the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act on November 17, 1993, 234-200. The agreement's supporters included 102 Democrats. The bill passed the Senate on November 20, 61-38. Senate supporters were 27 Democrats. Clinton signed it on December 8, 1993; the agreement went into effect on January 1, 1994. Clinton, while signing the NAFTA bill, stated that "NAFTA means jobs.North American Free Trade Agreement – Back row, left to right: Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, at the initialing of the draft North American Free Trade Agreement in October 1992. In front are Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development Jaime Serra Puche, United States Trade Representative Carla Hills, and Canadian Minister of International Trade Michael Wilson.
23. UNESCO – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has nine associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, communication/information. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group. On 18 the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, a Preparatory Commission was established. The first General Conference elected Dr. Julian Huxley to the post of Director-General. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO in terms of how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.UNESCO – UNESCO offices in Brasília
24. World Heritage Sites – A World Heritage Site is a landmark, officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by UNESCO. Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. The programme catalogues, names, conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. Since then, 192 parties have ratified the convention, making one of the most adhered to international instruments. Only Liechtenstein, Nauru, Somalia, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu are not Parties to the Convention. As of July 2016, 1052 sites are listed: 35 mixed properties, in 165 states parties. UNESCO references each World Heritage Site with an identification number; however, new inscriptions often include previous sites now listed as part of larger descriptions. Consequently, the identification numbers exceed 1,200, even though there are fewer on the list. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to rescue the endangered sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the Member States for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. The campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a complete and spectacular success. The project cost US$ million, about $ million of, collected from 50 countries. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a convention to protect the cultural heritage of humanity.World Heritage Sites – Site #252: Taj Mahal, an example of cultural heritage site
25. List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico – This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Mexico. The country has the largest number of World Heritage Sites of the seventh most in the world. As of July 2016 there are 27 cultural sites, 1 mixed site on the list, making for a total of 34. * = World Cultural Heritage Site † = World Natural Heritage Site *† = World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site Numbered sites: 1. Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México; 2. Ciudad Universitaria; 3. Xochicalco; 4. Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl; 5. Luis Barragan House and Studio; 6. Teotihuacan; 7. Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve; 8.List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico – Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco *
26. Goldman Sachs – The firm provides underwriting services to its clients, which include corporations, individuals. The firm also engages in market making and private equity deals, is a primary dealer in the U.S. Treasury security market. Former Goldman executives who moved on to government positions include former U.S. Second-generation Goldman alum Steve Mnuchin has been nominated by Donald Trump to serve as United States Secretary of the Treasury in his administration. Goldman Sachs was founded in New York in 1869 by Marcus Goldman. In 1882, Goldman's son-in-law Samuel Sachs joined the firm. In 1885, Goldman took his son Henry and his son-in-law Ludwig Dreyfuss into the business and the firm adopted its present name, Goldman Sachs & Co. The company made a name for itself pioneering the use of commercial paper for entrepreneurs and joined the New York Stock Exchange in 1896. By 1898, the firm's capital stood at $1.6 million, was growing rapidly. Goldman entered the IPO market in 1906 when it took Sears, Roebuck and Company public. The deal occurred due to Henry Goldman's personal friendship with the owner of Sears, Julius Rosenwald. Other IPOs followed, including F. W. Woolworth and Continental Can. In 1912, Henry S. Bowers became the first non-family member and non-Jew to become partner. In 1917, under growing pressure from the other partners in the firm due to his pro-German stance, Henry Goldman resigned. Control of the firm was now in the hands of the Sachs family.Goldman Sachs – Goldman Sachs Tower, at 30 Hudson Street, in Jersey City.
27. PricewaterhouseCoopers – PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG. PwC is a network with more than 223,000 people. As of 2015, 22 % of the workforce worked in Asia, 32 % in Western Europe. The firm was formed by a merger between Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. The name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding. As of 2016, PwC is the 5th-largest privately owned company in the United States. The PricewaterhouseCoopers name was formed by the combination following their merger in 1998. On 20 PricewaterhouseCoopers rebranded as PwC, although the legal name of the firm remained PricewaterhouseCoopers. The firm was created in 1998 when Coopers & Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse. Both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century. In 1854 William Cooper founded an accountancy practice in London, which became seven years later when his three brothers joined. In the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Coopers & Lybrand. Then in 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise substantially by acquiring Cork Gully, a leading firm in that field in the UK. An accountant, founded an accountancy practice in London in 1849.PricewaterhouseCoopers
28. States of Mexico – The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States. There are 31 states in Mexico. Mexico City is a federal entity with a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state, but is not a state itself. The states are further divided into municipalities. Notes: Joined the federation with the name of Coahuila y Texas. Joined the federation with the name of Estado de Occidente also recognized as Sonora y Sinaloa. Joined the federation as República Federada de Yucatán formed by the current states of Yucatan, Campeche and Quintana Roo. Definitely rejoined in 1848. State of Tabasco seceded on two occasions, the first on February 13, 1841, rejoining again on December 2, 1842. And the second time was to December 8 of that year. Includes the remote Revillagigedo Islands, which are federally administered.States of Mexico – Mexico D.F.
29. Global city – Patrick Geddes also used the term "world city" later in 1915. More recently, the term has been described as being synonymous with a city's influence and'financial capital', with other factors becoming less relevant. Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities, the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included. The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks. The 2004 rankings acknowledged new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than cultural factors. The following is a general guide to the rankings: Alpha ++ cities are cities most integrated with the global economy. The two instances are London and New York City. Alpha + cities are advanced service niches for the global economy. Examples are Hong Kong, Sydney, Tokyo and Paris. Alpha and Alpha − cities are cities that link economic regions into the economy. Examples of alpha cities are Moscow. Beta level cities are cities that link economic regions into the economy. Examples of beta cities are Hyderabad, Rome, Luxembourg and Geneva. Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy. Examples are Ankara and Marseilles.Global city – London
30. Valley of Mexico – Surrounded by volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including Teotihuacan, the Toltec, the Aztec. The phrase Basin of Mexico are both used at times to refer to the Valley of Mexico. The Basin of Mexico became a well known site that epitomized the scene of Classic Mesoamerican cultural development as well. The Valley of Mexico is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The valley contains most of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, well as parts of the State of Mexico, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala and Puebla. The largest and most-studied is the area which contains Mexico City. This section of the valley in particular is colloquially referred to as the "Valley of Mexico". The valley is surrounded by mountains and volcanoes that reach elevations of over 5,000 meters. Within this vulnerable watershed all the native fishes were extinct by the end of the 20th century. Hydrologically, the valley has three features. The first feature is the lakebeds of five now-extinct lakes, which are located in largest of the four sub-basins. The other two features are the mountainsides that collect the precipitation that eventually flows to the lake area. These last two are found in all four of the sub-basins of the valley. The Valley drains through a series of artificial canals to the Tula River, eventually the Pánuco River and the Gulf of Mexico. The valley is considered an earthquake prone zone.Valley of Mexico – A 19th century painting of the Valley of Mexico.
31. Boroughs of the Mexican Federal District – Mexico City is divided into sixteen mayoralties, which have regulatory powers and are not fully autonomous in their internal administration. As of 2000, the citizens within a mayoralty elect by plurality a head of government, as of 2016, known as "mayor". Mexico City recorded an official 2010 tally of 8,851,080 inhabitants. The municipalities are subdivided in some cases in the southernmost municipalities, also into towns and rural settlements. The Distrito Federal as a whole is bordered directly starting from the west-southwest.Boroughs of the Mexican Federal District
32. Greater Mexico City – For normative purposes, however, Greater Mexico City most commonly refers to the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico an agglomeration that incorporates 18 additional municipalities. But as of a 2014 census, it's estimated the population of Greater Mexico City at million people. It is surrounded by thin strips of highlands which separate it from other metropolitan areas, the biggest are Puebla, Toluca, Cuernavaca-Cuautla. Per the agreement, most urban planning projects will be administered by Metropolitan Commissions. The english name "Mexico City" remains. Its original 16 "Boroughs" became "municipalities". The Mexico City Metropolitan Area fully covers 5 regions in Mexico State, partly covers another 5 regions, the Federal District, 1 municipality in Hidalgo. Mostly related to the improvement of air quality and water sanitation, are coordinated for all constituent municipalities of this agglomeration. The majority of the population reports of urban areas in Mexico refer to this agglomeration, not to the MCMA conurbation. Together these 10 intrastate regions cover every single municipality except for the 1 municipality in Hidalgo State. Originally, a system of interconnected lakes occupied a large area of the valley, of which Lake Texcoco was the largest. Mexico City was built in the middle of the lake. In 1900 president Porfirio Díaz inaugurated the Valley's System of Drainage that hinders the growth of water bodies in the valley. The basin of the valley of Mexico was thus integrated artificially to the Moctezuma basin which connects to the Pánuco River. The last remnants of the system of lakes are found in the municipality of Atenco.Greater Mexico City – Mexico City's metro
36. Costa Rica – It has a population of around 4.5 million, of whom nearly a quarter live in the metropolitan area of the capital and largest city, San José. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous people before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. Since then, Costa Rica has remained among the most prosperous, progressive nations in Latin America. Following a bloody civil war, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army. Costa Rica is an observing member of the Organisation Internationale la Francophonie. Its rapidly developing economy, once heavily dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, ecotourism. Costa Rica is known for its environmental policies, being the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability. Costa Rica officially plans to become a carbon-neutral country by 2021. In 2012, it became the first country in the Americas to ban recreational hunting. Historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped. More recently, pre-Columbian Costa Rica has also been described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area. Arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, two different cultures coexisted. Agriculture became evident in the populations that lived in Costa Rica about 5,000 years ago. They mainly grew roots. For the second millennia BCE there were already settled farming communities.Costa Rica – A stone sphere created by the Diquis culture at the National Museum of Costa Rica. The sphere is the icon of the country's cultural identity.
37. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. Ideas of political autonomy gained its independence, formally proclaimed in 1821. Three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Peru is a democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a poverty level around 25.8 percent. Its economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing. The Peruvian population, estimated at million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as cuisine, literature, music. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, a conquistador. The Spanish Crown gave legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.Peru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
38. Uto-Aztecan – Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan /ˈjuːtoʊ.æzˈtɛkən/ is a Native American language family consisting of over 30 languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico. The name of the family was created to show that it includes both the Aztecan languages of Mexico. The Uto-Aztecan family is one of the largest linguistic families in the Americas in terms of number of speakers, geographic extension. The Uto-Aztecan language is Shoshoni, spoken as north as Salmon, Idaho, while the southernmost is the Pipil language of El Salvador. Ethnologue gives the total number of languages in the family as 61, the total number of speakers as 1,900,412. The roughly 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl languages account for almost four-fifths of these. Hopi and Tübatulabal are languages outside those groups. The Southern languages are divided into the Tepiman; the Tarahumaran languages including Guarijio language; the Cahitan languages, Nahuan languages. The homeland of the Uto-Aztecan languages is generally considered to have been in the American Southwest or possibly Northwestern Mexico. Linguistic scholars have discussed the possibility that the family originated within the Mesoamerican language area. The Proto-Uto-Aztecan language is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Uto-Aztecan languages. The proto-language would have been spoken by Mesolithic foragers in Aridoamerica, about 5,000 years ago. The geographic diffusion of speakers corresponded to the breakup of linguistic unity. This hypothesis has been criticized on several grounds, it is not generally accepted by Uto-Aztecanists.Uto-Aztecan – Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the total distribution in Mexico).
39. Language family – A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. No actual biological relationship between speakers is implied by the metaphor. The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one, used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics. Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older, but has been revived in recent years to better distinguish the relationships between languages from the genetic relationships between people. The evidence of linguistic relationship is found in observable shared characteristics that are not attributed to contact or borrowing. Genealogically related languages present shared retentions, features of the proto-language that cannot be explained by chance or borrowing. For example, Germanic languages are "Germanic" in that they share vocabulary and grammatical features that are not believed to have been present in the Proto-Indo-European language. These features are believed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, a descendant of Proto-Indo-European, the source of all Germanic languages. A family is a monophyletic unit; all its members derive from a common ancestor, all attested descendants of that ancestor are included in the family. Some taxonomists restrict the term family to a certain level, but there is little consensus in how to do so. Those who affix such labels also subdivide branches into groups, groups into complexes. A top-level family is often called a phylum or stock.Language family – Principal language families of the world (and in some cases geographic groups of families). For greater detail, see Distribution of languages in the world.
40. Nahua peoples – The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador. Their language of Uto-Aztecan affiliation is called Nahuatl and consists of many more variants, a number of which are mutually unintelligible. About another 1,000,000 speak only Spanish. Less than 1,000 native speakers remain in El Salvador. Evidence suggests the Nahua peoples originated in regions of the present day northwestern Mexico. They migrated into central Mexico around 500 CE. They spread out to become the dominant people in central Mexico. The Nahua is derived from the Nahuatl word-root nāhua -, which generally means "audible, intelligible, clear" with different derivations including "language". It was used with popoloca, "to speak unintelligibly" or "speak a foreign language". Another, related term is Nāhuatlācatl or Nāhuatlācah literally "Nahuatl-speaking people". The Nahuas are also sometimes referred to as Aztecs. Using this term for the Nahuas has generally fallen out of favor in scholarship, though it is still used for the Aztec Empire. They have also been called Mēxihcatl, Mēxihcah or in Spanish Mexicano "Mexicans", after the Nahua tribe which founded and predominated in the Aztec empire. At the turn of the 16th century, Nahua populations occupied territories ranging across modern-day Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua as far south as Panama. These were gradually assimilated into society in most places.Nahua peoples – " Atlantean figures " from the Nahua culture of the Toltecs at Tula.
41. Nahuan languages – The best known language is Nahuatl. As of 2008, the Mexican government recognizes thirty varieties that are spoken as languages. Nahuan languages include not just varieties known as Nahuatl, but also the extinct Pochutec language. The distinction between the Nahuatl and Pochutec is now thought to be due to contact; see Pochutec language for details. Thus, by that criterion, they could be considered different languages. The ISO divisions referenced below respond to intelligibility more than to reconstructional considerations. Like the higher-level groupings, they also are subject to considerable controversy. Campbell and Langacker's new arguments were received as being compelling. Furthermore, in "adopt the term'General Aztec' ", they may in fact have been the ones to introduce this designation. Part of their reconstruction of the Proto-Aztecan vowels was disputed by Dakin. She also explains the historical development of the applicative suffix with the shape - - lwia as coming from a single suffix of the shape - liwa. Dakin has proposed a internal classification of Nahuan, e.g. Dakin. She eventually southwards to Central America. The first produced Eastern dialects. Centuries later, the second group of migrations produced Western dialects.Nahuan languages – Map showing the areas of Mesoamerica where Nahuatl dialects are spoken today (white) and where it is known to have been spoken historically (grey)
42. Central MexicoCentral Mexico – Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza
43. Aztec – The Triple Alliance formed a tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle, Aztec culture had rich and complex religious traditions, as well as achieving remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments. The term extends to ethnic groups associated with the Aztec empire such as the Acolhua and Tepanec and others that were incorporated into the empire. In older usage the term was commonly used about modern speaking ethnic groups, as Nahuatl was previously referred to as the "Aztec language". In recent usage these ethnic groups are rather referred to as the Nahua peoples. Linguistically the term "Aztecan" is still used about the branch of the Uto-Aztecan languages that includes Pochutec and Pipil. To the Aztecs themselves the word "aztec" was not an endonym for any ethnic group. In the Nahuatl language "aztecatl" means "person from Aztlan". The term "Aztec" is still more common. For the same reason the notion of "Aztec civilization" is best understood as a particular horizon of a general Mesoamerican civilization. Particular to the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan was the Mexica patron God Huitzilopochtli, the ceramic ware known as Aztec I to III. The Aztec Empire was a empire based in Tenochtitlan that extended its power throughout Mesoamerica in the late postclassic period. Soon Texcoco and Tlacopan became junior partners in the alliance, facto led by the Mexica of Tenochtitlan. The empire extended its power by a combination of trade and military conquest. The Nahua peoples began to migrate into Mesoamerica in the 6th century.Aztec – The Aztec Pyramid at St. Cecilia Acatitlan, State of Mexico
44. Mesoamerican chronology – Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian, the Archaic, the Preclassic or Formative, the Classic, the Postclassic. However, this chronology applies to pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations as well. C. 3500-2000 BCE During the Archaic Era agriculture was developed in the region and permanent villages were established. Late in this era, use of loom weaving became common, class divisions began to appear. Many of the basic technologies of Mesoamerica in terms of stone-grinding, drilling, etc. were established during this period. 1800 BCE–200 CE During the Preclassic Era, or Formative Period, large-scale ceremonial architecture, writing, cities, states developed. The Olmec civilization flourished at such sites as La Venta and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán. Regional differences between cultures grew more manifest. The city-state of Monte Albán dominated the Valley of Oaxaca until the late Classic, leaving limited records in their mostly undeciphered script. Highly sophisticated arts such as stuccowork, architecture, sculptural reliefs, mural painting, lapidary developed and spread during the Classic era. In the Maya region, numerous city states such as Caracol reached their zeniths. Each of these polities was generally independent, although they sometimes became vassal states of each other. The main conflict during this period was between Tikal and Calakmul, who fought a series of wars over the course of more than half a millennium. Each of these states were eventually abandoned.Mesoamerican chronology – Vessel from the Capacha culture, found in Acatitan, Colima.
45. Spanish conquest of Mexico – The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before. In fact, Cortés had never commanded men in battle before. However, there was a whole generation of Spaniards who participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices. In their advance, the allies ambushed several times by the people they encountered. When Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge. The biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre. The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city. His men fled the capital city during the Noche Triste in June, 1520. The Spanish, Tlaxcalans and reinforcements returned to a civilization, wiped out by famine and smallpox. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs. Indigenous accounts are from native viewpoints and as the events had a direct impact on their polity. All accounts of the conquest, indigenous alike, have biases and exaggerations. In general, Spanish accounts do not credit their indigenous allies' support.Spanish conquest of Mexico – Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas. Spanish: Conquista de México por Cortés
46. Tenochtitlan – Mexico-Tenochtitlan, commonly known as Tenochtitlan was a Mexica located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. At its peak it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in Mexico City's downtown. Tenochtitlan was one of two Nahua altepetl on the island, the other being Tlatelolco. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is often thought to mean, "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggest the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain. Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2, situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. At the time of Spanish conquests, Mexico City comprised both Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco. The city was connected to the mainland by causeways leading to the north, south, west. The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city. The city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes. Since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish.Tenochtitlan – Model of the temple district of Tenochtitlan at the National Museum of Anthropology
47. Latin alphabet – The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. These Latin alphabets may discard letters, add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved including the creation for Medieval Latin of lower-case forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. The Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From on, ⟨ G ⟩ represented the voiced plosive / ɡ /, while ⟨ C ⟩ was generally reserved for the voiceless plosive / k /. The letter ⟨ K ⟩ was used rarely in a small number of words such as Kalendae, often interchangeably with ⟨ C ⟩. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters did not last. Thus it was during the Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin spelling and pronunciation; for the names of the letters in English see English alphabet. However, in place of taking an apex, the i was written taller: ⟨ á é ꟾ ó v́ ⟩. For example, what is transcribed lūciī a filiī was written ⟨ lv́ciꟾ · a · filiꟾ ⟩ in the inscription at right. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Cursive was used for quicker, informal writing.Latin alphabet – The Duenos inscription, dated to the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known forms of the Old Latin alphabet.
48. Literary language – A literary language is a register or dialect of a language, used in literary writing. This may also include liturgical writing. The difference between non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others. Where there is a strong divergence, the language is said to exhibit diglossia. Classical Latin was the literary register of Latin, as opposed to the Vulgar Latin spoken across the Roman Empire. Some literary works with low-register language from the Classical Latin period give a glimpse into the world of early Vulgar Latin. Literary language is a register, used on some literary work. For much of its history there has been a distinction in the English language between a colloquial language. Modern English longer has quite the same distinction between literary and colloquial registers. Western scholars distinguish two varieties: the Classical Arabic of the Qur ` an and early Islamic literature; and Modern Standard Arabic, the standard language in use today. Most Arabs consider the two varieties to be two registers of the same language. Classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages. Educated Arabic speakers are usually able to communicate in formal situations. This diglossic situation facilitates code-switching in which a speaker switches forth between the two varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. Western Eastern Armenian were eventually standardized into their own literary forms.Literary language – Samuel Crowther 's Yorùbá grammar led to Standard Yoruba becoming a literary language.
49. Chronicle – A chronicle is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line. Some made use of written materials; charters, letters, or the works of earlier chroniclers. Still others are tales of unknown origins as to hold mythical status. Copyists also affected chronicles in continuing a chronicle with information not available to the original author. The reliability of a particular chronicle is an important determination for modern historians. In modern times various contemporary newspapers or other periodicals have adopted "chronicle" as part of their name. Fictional stories have also adopted "chronicle" as part of their title, to give an impression of proportion to their stories. A chronicle which traces world history is called a universal chronicle. Scholars categorize the genre of chronicle into two subgroups: live chronicles, dead chronicles. A live chronicle is where one or more authors add to a chronicle in a regular fashion, recording contemporary events shortly after they occur. Because of the immediacy of the information, historians tend to value live chronicles, such as annals, over dead ones. The earliest medieval chronicle to combine contemporary entries, is the Chronicle of Ireland, which spans 431 to 911. Chronicles are the predecessors of modern "time lines" rather than analytical histories. If the chronicles deal with events year by year, they are often called annals. Unlike the modern historian, most chroniclers tended to take their information as they made little attempt from legend.Chronicle – Key concepts
50. Poetry – Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused in rhetoric, drama, comedy. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry uses conventions to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images -- a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, in their patterns of rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics.Poetry – Aristotle
51. Document – A document is a written, drawn, presented or recorded representation of thoughts. The modern term ` document' can longer be defined by it transmission medium, following the existence of electronic documents. 'Documentation' has more meanings than a written or drawn presentation of thoughts. The formal term ` document' is defined as a basic theoretical construct. It is everything which may be represented in order to serve as evidence for some purpose. But if it were to be captured, made an object of study, it has been made into a document. It has become physical evidence being used by those who study it. Indeed, scholarly articles written about the antelope are secondary documents, since the antelope itself is the primary document." . . A much-cited article concluded this way: "The evolving notion of "document" among. The other documentalists increasingly emphasized whatever functioned as a document rather than traditional physical forms of documents. The shift to digital technology would seem to make this distinction even more important. Levy’s thoughtful analyses have shown that an emphasis on the technology of digital documents has impeded our understanding of digital documents as documents. As an object of study, it has been made into a document.Document – Several common types of documents: a birth certificate, a legal document (a restraining order), and a bank statement.
52. Aztec codices – Aztec codices are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture. The pre-Columbian codices mostly do not in fact use the form and originally were, long folded sheets. They also differ from European books in that they mostly consist of pictograms; they were not meant to symbolize written narratives. The colonial era codices not only contain Aztec pictograms, but also Classical Nahuatl, Spanish, occasionally Latin. Some are entirely in Nahuatl without pictorial content. Colonial-era Nahuatl language documentation is the foundational texts of the New Philology, which utilizes these texts to create scholarly works from the indigenous viewpoint. The Codex Borbonicus is a codex written by Aztec priests around the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Like all pre-Columbian Aztec codices, it was originally pictorial in nature, although some Spanish descriptions were later added. Codex Bornobicus is held at the Library of the National Assembly of France. The Boturini Codex was painted by an unknown Aztec author some time between 1530 and 1541, roughly a decade after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Pictorial in nature, it tells the story of the legendary Aztec journey from Aztlán to the Valley of Mexico. Rather than employing separate pages, the author used one long sheet of amatl, or bark, accordion-folded into 1/2 pages. Unlike Aztec codices, the drawings are not colored, but rather merely outlined with black ink. Also known as "Tira la Peregrinación", it is named after one of Lorenzo Boturini Benaduci.Aztec codices – Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán.
53. Pyramid of the Sun – The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan, believed to have been constructed about 200 CE, one of the largest in Mesoamerica. It was constructed in two phases. Around 100 CE, brought the pyramid to nearly the size it is today. The second phase also saw the construction of an altar of the pyramid, which has not survived into modern times. Over the structure the ancient Teotihuacanos finished their pyramid with lime plaster imported from surrounding areas, on which they painted brilliantly colored murals. While the pyramid has endured for centuries, the plaster have not and are no longer visible. Snake rattles are among the few images associated with the pyramids. It is thought that the pyramid venerated a deity within Teotihuacan society, however, little evidence exists to support this hypothesis. The orientation of the structure may hold some anthropological significance. The pyramid was built over a man-made tunnel leading to a "cave" located six metres down beneath the centre of the structure. More recent excavations have suggested that the space could have served as a royal tomb. Only a few caches of artifacts have been found around the pyramid. These objects may have represented sacrificial victims. In addition, burial sites of children have been found in excavations at the corners of the pyramid. It is believed that these burials were part of a sacrificial ritual dedicating the building of the pyramid.Pyramid of the Sun – Front view of the Pyramid of the Sun
54. President of Mexico – The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Enrique Peña Nieto, who took office on December 1, 2012. Currently, the office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post, even on a basis, is allowed to serve again. The constitution and the office of the President closely follow the presidential system of government. He is vested with the "supreme executive power of the Union". Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty years. Be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election. Be a resident of Mexico for the entire year prior to the election. Not be an minister of religious denomination. Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not have been president already, even in a provisional capacity.President of Mexico – Incumbent Enrique Peña Nieto since December 1, 2012
55. Reform War – The Reform War is one of many episodes of the long struggle between Conservative forces that dominated the country's history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted to destroy the political, cultural power of the Catholic church as well as undermine the role of the Mexican army. Both the army were protected by corporate or institutional privileges established in the colonial era. Liberals sought to create a modern nation-state founded on liberal principles. The tide turned when Conservatives twice failed to take Veracruz. Liberal victories accumulated thereafter until Conservative forces surrendered in December 1860. After the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the country was strongly divided as it tried to recover from more than a decade of fighting. From 1821-57, 50 different governments ruled the country. These included dictatorships, a monarchy. The political division was roughly divided into two groups, the Conservatives. The political movements had their beginnings in the secret meetings of the Freemasonry. The secret nature of the society allowed for political discussion. Conservatives favored a centralized government, with many wanting a European-style monarchy. Conservatives favored protecting many of the institutions inherited from the colonial period, including tax and legal exemptions for the military. The limiting of the Church's and military's privileges.Reform War – Conservatives
56. French intervention in Mexico – It followed President Benito Juárez's suspension of interest payments to foreign countries on 17 July 1861, which angered these three major creditors of Mexico. Emperor Napoleon III of France was the instigator, justifying military intervention by claiming a broad foreign policy of commitment to free trade. For him, a friendly government in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets. Napoleon also wanted the silver that could be mined in Mexico to finance his empire. Napoleon built a coalition with Spain and Britain while the U.S. was deeply engaged in its civil war. The three European powers signed the Treaty of London on 31 October 1861, to unite their efforts to receive payments from Mexico. On 8 troops arrived at Mexico's main port, Veracruz. When the British and Spanish discovered that France planned to seize all of Mexico, they quickly withdrew from the coalition. The subsequent French invasion resulted in the Second Mexican Empire. The French fleets arrived at Veracruz, between 8 and 17 December 1861 intending to pressure the Mexicans into settling their debts. The Spanish fleet seized San Juan de Ulúa and subsequently the capital Veracruz on 17 December. The European forces advanced to Orizaba, Cordoba and Tehuacán, as they had agreed in the Convention of Soledad. The city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet on 27 February 1862, a French army, commanded by General Lorencez, arrived on 5 March. When the Spanish and British realised the French ambition was to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces on 9 April, their troops leaving on 24 April. In May, the French man-of-war Bayonnaise blockaded Mazatlán for a few days.French intervention in Mexico – Clockwise from left: French assault during the Second Battle of Puebla; French cavalry seize the Republican flag during the Battle of San Pablo del Monte; depiction of the execution of Emperor Maximilian I by Édouard Manet.
57. General (Mexico) – The military rank in Mexico of the general is divided in 4 categories: -General Brigadier: equivalent to the Brigadier and between "Coronel" and "General de Brigada". -General de Brigada: Brigade General. -General de Division: Divisional General. -General Secretario de la Defensa Nacional: The highest military rank in the Mexican army - the "Secretary of Defense." The only one above him is the President of Mexico. Army ranks and insignia of Mexico Naval ranks and insignia of Mexico Mexican Air Force#Ranks Mexican Army#RanksGeneral (Mexico) – Military of Mexico
58. Maximilian I of Mexico – Maximilian was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph I. After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy, he accepted an offer by Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico. France had invaded Mexico in the winter of 1861, as part of the War of the French Intervention. Seeking to legitimize French rule in the Americas, Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a Mexican monarchy for him. There, he declared himself Emperor of Mexico on 10 April 1864. The Empire managed to gain recognition by European powers including Britain, Austria, Prussia. The United States however, continued to recognize Juarez as the legal president of Mexico. Maximilian never completely defeated the Mexican Republic; Republican forces led by President Benito Juárez continued to be active during Maximilian's rule. With the end of the American Civil War in 1865, the United States began more explicit aid of President Juárez's forces. Matters worsened for Maximilian after the French armies withdrew in 1866. He was captured and executed by the Mexican government in 1867. Maximilian was born on 6 July 1832 in the Schönbrunn Palace in capital of the Austrian Empire. He was baptized the following day as Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph. The first name honored his godfather and paternal uncle, the second honored his maternal grandfather, The King of Bavaria.Maximilian I of Mexico – Emperor Maximiliano around 1865
59. Mexican Revolution – The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle c. 1910–1920 that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a "genuinely national revolution." Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in 1910 presidential election, following the rigged results revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency. Elements of the elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero, expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, organized labor. In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a fair election. Huerta remained until July 1914 when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces. Then Mexico was plunged into a civil war. Zapata was assassinated by agents of President Carranza. The armed conflict had several distinct phases. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces.Mexican Revolution – Collage of the Mexican Revolution
60. French Third Republic – It came to an end on 10 July 1940. Thus, the Third Republic, originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France. The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic. It consisted of a Chamber of a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s "the form of government that divides France least"; however, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized. On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution. On the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France and the overthrow of Emperor Napoleon III and his Second French Empire. The deputies then selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president. This first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris. French territories occupied at this time did not participate. The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, nominally. Due to left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters. The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire: the Treaty of Frankfurt signed on 10 May 1871. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety such as the controversial Law of Maturities, to pay reparations.French Third Republic – A French propaganda poster from 1917 is captioned with an 18th century quote: "Even in 1788, Mirabeau was saying that War is the National Industry of Prussia."
62. History of Mexico – The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. This era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became Mexico City, and remains the most populous city in Mexico. It became the capital of New Spain. During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking, largely Western culture. After a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. Racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas. Slavery was eliminated in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office. The Liberal Reform began by Mexican liberals ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854. The Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The US was engaged in its Civil War, so did not attempt to block the foreign intervention.History of Mexico – El Tajín
63. Pre-Columbian Mexico – It is currently unclear whether 21,000-year-old campfire remains found in the Valley of Mexico are the earliest human remains in Mexico. Indigenous peoples of Mexico began to selectively breed maize plants around 8000 BC. Evidence shows a marked increase in pottery working by the beginning of intensive corn farming between 1500 B.C.. Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form. These civilizations are credited with many advancements including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, theology. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico. In fact, many of the Mexican-based civilizations would carefully build ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events. The notion of human observation of celestial events would become central factors in the development of religious systems, writing systems, architecture. Mexican astronomers began a tradition of precise observing, commemorating astronomical events that later become a hallmark of Mexican civilized achievements. At some different points in time, three Mexican cities were among the largest cities in the world. Several others blossomed as centers of commerce, ceremonies, theology. In turn, they radiated influence outward into neighboring cultures in central Mexico. Cultural groups that flourished partially within the borders of modern-day Mexico include Hohokam. These Oasisamerica civilizations maintained close ties with those of Mesoamerica, evidenced by turquoise trade, macaws, cultural exchange. These civilizations extended their reach across Mexico, beyond, like no others.Pre-Columbian Mexico – An image of one of the pyramids in the upper level of Yaxchilán
64. Colonial Mexico – New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. Following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty in 1535. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City. The areas of southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, economic organization. Mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making its Asian empire. Although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every position, economic political, or religious came from him. It was on this basis that the conquest, government of the New World was achieved. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in the Kingdom of New Spain. It was one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas ` Septentrion', to the Philippine, Mariana and Caroline Islands. To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were from what they had encountered in the Caribbean.Colonial Mexico – "Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North" (1540) by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
65. Mexican War of Independence – September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day. The movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the last part of the 18th century. By that time the educated elite of New Spain had begun to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonial kingdoms. Changes in the social and political structure occasioned by Bourbon reforms and a deep economic crisis in New Spain caused discomfort among the Creole elite. Political events in Europe had a decisive effect on events in most of Spanish America. The same year, the ayuntamiento of Mexico City, supported by viceroy José de Iturrigaray, claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king. That led to a coup against the viceroy; when it was suppressed, the leaders of the movement were jailed. Despite the defeat in Mexico City, small groups of conspirators met in other cities of New Spain to raise movements against colonial rule. From 1810 the independence movement went through several stages, as leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. Secular priest José María Morelos called the separatist provinces to form the Congress of Chilpancingo, which gave the insurgency its own legal framework. After the defeat of Morelos, the movement survived as a guerrilla war under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero. By 1820, the few rebel groups survived most notably in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Veracruz. The reinstatement of the liberal Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 caused a change of mind among the elite groups who had supported Spanish rule. Monarchist Creoles affected by the constitution decided to support the independence of New Spain; they sought an alliance with the former insurgent resistance. Agustín de Iturbide led the military arm of the conspirators and in early 1821 he met Vicente Guerrero.Mexican War of Independence – Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman
66. First Mexican Empire – The Mexican Empire was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico. The First Mexican Empire was short-lived, lasting less than two years. The only monarch of the state was Agustín de Iturbide, reigning as Agustín I of Mexico, for less than eight months. The empire was briefly reestablished by the French in 1864. If the king refused the position, the law provided for another member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne. However, a full independence was expected. King Ferdinand, however, said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico. On 19 Mexican Congress named Iturbide as a constitutional emperor. On May it issued a decree confirming this appointment, officially a temporary measure until a European monarch could be found to rule Mexico. Iturbide's official title was, "By Divine Providence and First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico". His coronation took place on 21 July 1822 in Mexico City. In August 1822 on August 25, plotters, including 16 members of Congress, were arrested. As factions in the Congress began to sharply criticise his policies, the emperor decided on 31 October to dissolve the body. His troops revolted against Iturbide, calling for the restoration of the Congress on 1 December 1822. The insurrectionists requested their adherence to the plan.First Mexican Empire – Flag
67. First Mexican Republic – For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The republic was proclaimed on November 1, 1823 after the fall of the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide. Legally established on October 4, 1824 when the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States came into force. That caused violence. The republic was ruled by nine presidents. Guadalupe Victoria, was the only president who completed his full term in almost 30 years of independent Mexico. After the repeal of the Constitution of 1824, the Federal Republic was changed by a Centralist Republic. The unitary regime was formally established with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. In December 1822, Generals Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria signed the Plan of Casa Mata. This was because Santa Anna had previously made a secret agreement with the commander of the Imperial forces. By this agreement, Echávarri was to switch sides. This plan called for the convening of a new Constituent Congress. The insurrectionists requested their adherence to the plan. After three centuries of Spanish rule and an 11-year war of independence, Mexico obtained its sovereignty. The Treaty of Córdoba recognized New Spain as an independent empire, which took the name of the Mexican Empire.First Mexican Republic – Flag
68. Centralist Republic of Mexico – Like Spanish moderados, the Mexican conservatives were inspired by the ideal of a centralized, administrative republic in the Central Republic of 1835— 46. The unitary regime was formally established with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. The Republic lasted for almost eleven years. On August 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas, issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and with this, the return to federalism. The Mexican Republic was governed by eleven presidents. None were to finish their term before the Republic's dissolution. In 1835, the conservative party established a Congress, promulgated on October 23 of that year the Constitutional Bases. On December 1836, the seven constitutional laws, which established the system of governmental and administrative centralization in the country were enacted. The second law allowed the President to suppress the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. Military officers were not allowed to assume this office. The 58 articles of the third law established a bicameral Congress of Deputies and Senators, elected by governmental organs. Deputies had four-year terms; Senators were elected for six years. The seventh law prohibited reverting to the pre-reform laws for six years. The seven laws were enacted by the interim President of Mexico, the Congress. The revolt in Zacatecas was the first rebellion caused by attempts to centralize the Affairs of States.Centralist Republic of Mexico – Flag
69. Texas Revolution – The Texas Revolution began when colonists in the Mexican province of Texas rebelled against the increasingly centralist Mexican government. Texians disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. The Consultation installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed provisions from the fledgling Texas army. In March 1836, a political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, President Antonio López de Santa Anna vowed to personally retake Texas. His Army of Operations found the Texians completely unprepared. On March 31, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault at the Battle of San Jacinto. Vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage; in exchange for his life, he ordered the Mexican army to retreat south of the Rio Grande. Intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s. The annexation in 1845, led directly to the Mexican -- American War. After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region.Texas Revolution – The campaigns of the Texas Revolution
70. Pastry War – It ended several months later in March 1839 with a British-brokered peace. The intervention followed many claims due to unrest in Mexico. During the early years of the Mexican republic there was widespread civil disorder as factions competed for control of the country. The fighting often resulted in the looting of private property. Average citizens had few options for claiming compensation as they had no representatives to speak on their behalf. In complaint to King Louis-Philippe, a French chef known only as Monsieur Remontel, claimed that in a 1832 Mexican officers looted his shop in Tacubaya. Remontel demanded 60,000 pesos for the damage. Mexico declared war to France. With trade cut off, the Mexicans began smuggling imports into Mexico. Fearing that France would blockade the Republic's ports well, a battalion of Texan forces began patrolling Corpus Christi Bay to stop Mexican smugglers. He offered his services to the government, which ordered him to fight the French by any means necessary. He led Mexican forces against the French. In a skirmish with the rear guard of the French, Santa Anna was wounded by French grapeshot. His leg was buried with full military honors. Exploiting his wounds with eloquent propaganda, Santa Anna catapulted back to power.Pastry War – Bombing of San Juan de Ulúa in 1838
71. Second Federal Republic of Mexico – For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Other events during this period were the dictatorship of Santa Anna, the promulgation of the Constitution of 1857. During this period, there were the United States and the war with France. The Federal Republic was ruled by 14 presidents. In the midst of war with the United States, Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga staged a coup against the government of interim President José Joaquín de Herrera. Shortly afterwards, the Congress appointed him as interim president; the presidency went to Nicolás Bravo. Vice president Bravo took office. On August 4 the federalists led an uprising, causing the resignation of President Bravo. Mariano Salas took office on August 6; on August 22, he reestablished the 1824 Constitution and called an election. With the constitution again in force, the federal system was restored. There had already been battles before that date. Mexico, in turn, declared war on May 23. The main US force continued through into Mexico, defeating the forces of Pedro Ampudia in the Battle of Monterrey. On December 24, the Congress declared Antonio López de Santa Anna acting president and Valentín Gómez Farías president.Second Federal Republic of Mexico – General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
72. Second Mexican Empire – It was created with the support of Napoleon III of France, who attempted to establish a monarchist ally in the Americas. A referendum confirmed the coronation of the House of Habsburg as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The Empire came with the execution of Emperor Maximilian I. The rule of Emperor Maximilian was blemished by constant conflict. The two factions had set up parallel governments; the Conservatives in Mexico City controlling the Liberals in Veracruz. France acceded. In 1867, Maximilian was executed at the orders of Benito Juárez, in the Cerro de las Campanas near Querétaro. Maximilian proved to be too conservative for the liberals. He made many contributions. Before his death, Maximilian adopted the grandsons of Agustín de Iturbide: Agustín de Iturbide y Green and Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán. Napoleon III had more ambitious goals than merely the recovery of France's debts. Heavily influenced by the Empress Eugenie, he was bent on reviving the Mexican monarchy. However, in 1861 the United States was embroiled in the American Civil War, which made the government in Washington powerless to intervene. Encouraged by the Empress Eugenie, who saw herself in Mexico, Napoleon III took advantage of the situation. To give further encouragement, there was his half brother, the duc de Morny, the largest single holder of Mexican bonds.Second Mexican Empire – The Offering of the Mexican Crown by a Mexican delegation, Miramare, 1863.
73. Cristero War – The rebellion was set off under President Plutarco Elías Calles of a statute to enforce the anticlerical articles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The massive, rural uprising was tacitly supported by the Church hierarchy and was aided by urban Catholic support. US Ambassador Dwight W. Morrow brokered negotiations between the Church. The government made some concessions, the conflict ended in 1929. The Mexican Revolution remains the largest conflict in Mexican history. The overthrow of dictator Porfirio Díaz unleashed disorder, with many contending regions. Having a wholesale overturning of the previous order was potentially a danger to the Church's position. In the democratizing wave of political activity, the National Catholic Party was formed. The Constitutionalist faction won its leader, Venustiano Carranza, had a new revolutionary constitution drawn up. The Constitution of 1917 strengthened the anticlericalism of the previous document. Neither his successor, Gen. Alvaro Obregón, enforced the anticlerical articles. The Calles administration felt legal basis to pursue them were being challenged by the Catholic Church. On the opposing side was an armed professional military sponsored by the government. Calles' Mexico has been characterized as being one to eradicate religion in Mexico. A period of peaceful resistance to the enforcement of the anticlerical provisions of the constitution by Mexican Catholics brought no result.Cristero War – Mexican government forces publicly hanged Cristeros on main thoroughfares throughout Mexico, including in the Pacific states of Colima and Jalisco, where bodies would often remain hanging for extended lengths of time.
74. Institutional Revolutionary Party – Its membership in the Socialist International dates from 1996. Along with the left-wing PRD, they make Mexico one of the few nations with two major, competing parties part of the same international grouping. The PRI is the largest political party in Mexico according to membership. Enrique Peña Nieto, is a member of the PRI. In 1990, Peruvian Nobel Prize laureate for Mario Vargas Llosa, called the Mexican government under the PRI la dictadura perfecta. Even though the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution had ended in 1920, Mexico had continued to encounter political unrest. The intent was to institutionalize the agreements result of Mexican Revolution. In the first years of the party's existence, the PNR was, above all, the political machine existing. As ` President' of the government, the executive President continued to hold executive power in an era known as the Maximato. The following presidents of this period, Emilio Portes Gil, Abelardo L. Rodríguez were from the same ideology as Plutarco Elías Calles. This ended with the election of a candidate handpicked by the liberal PNR leaders. Though the strongly conservative Calles thought he could control him, it quickly became clear Cárdenas would not accept a subordinate role like his predecessors did. After establishing himself in 1936 Cárdenas had Calles and dozens of his corrupt associates arrested or deported to the United States. Cárdenas's successor Manuel Ávila Camacho gave its present name in 1946. From 1929 to 1982, the PRI won every presidential election by well over 70 percent of the vote -- margins that were usually obtained by electoral fraud.Institutional Revolutionary Party – Plutarco Elías Calles, president of Mexico (1924-28) and founder of the PNR in 1929.
75. Chiapas conflict – The Zapatista uprising started in January 1994, lasting before being crushed by the government. This resulted in an increasing division between people and communities to the government and communities that sympathized with the Zapatistas. Social tensions, para-military incidents increased, culminating in the killing of 45 people in the village of Acteal in 1997 by para-militaries. Violence occasionally erupts between Zapatista supporters and anti-Zapatista militias along with the government. The related incident occurred in 2014, with a Zapatista-affiliated teacher killed and 15 more wounded in Chiapas. The same issue appeared amongst the non-Criollos population in later years, especially during the 19th century. Since the 1990s, Mexico's economic policy concentrated more on industrial development and attracting foreign capital. The Salinas government initiated a process of privatization of land. Former ejidatorios now became formally illegal land-squatters, their communities informal settlements. The EZLN seized five villages in the state. The government responded by calling in the armed forces to retake the areas, 12 days of fighting ensued until a ceasefire was declared. These developments attracted a lot of international attention. The government will need to eliminate the Zapatistas to demonstrate their effective control of the national territory and of policy." To break the gridlock peace negotiations were started in March 1995 in the village of San Andrés Larráinzar. The peace process stagnated.Chiapas conflict – A Zapatista sign
76. Mexican Drug War – Since 2006, when intervention with the Mexican military began, the government's principal goal has been to put down the drug-related violence. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually. By the end of Felipe Calderón's administration, the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, not including 27,000 missing. Given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U.S. markets. Towards the end of the 1960s, Mexican narcotic smugglers started to smuggle drugs on a major scale. During the early 1980s, Colombia's Pablo Escobar dealt all over the world. By the mid-1980s, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine. Transporters from Mexico usually were given 35% to 50% of each cocaine shipment. Currently, the Gulf Cartel have taken to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the Mexican cartels continually shifts as older ones collapse. A disruption such as the deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the vacuum. The fighting between rival drug cartels began in earnest after the 1989 arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, who ran the cocaine business in Mexico. There was a lull in the fighting during the late 1990s but the violence has steadily worsened since 2000.Mexican Drug War – Mexican soldiers during a confrontation in Michoacán in August 2007
77. Geography of Mexico – The geography of Mexico describes the geographic features of Mexico, a country in the Americas. Mexico is located at 102 ° W in the southern portion of North America. From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 3,200 km in length. The northernmost constituent of Latin America, it is the most populous country in the world. Mexico is three times the size of Texas. Some geographers include the portion including the Yucatán Peninsula within North America. This portion includes Yucatán, representing 12.1 percent of the country's total area. Alternatively, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt may be said to delimit the physiographically on the north. Geopolitically, Mexico is generally not considered part of Central America. Politically, Mexico is divided into a federal district, which serves as the national capital. As well as numerous neighbouring islands, Mexican territory includes the Islas Revillagigedo in the Pacific. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. The Mexico-U.S. Boundary is jointly administered by the International Boundary and Water Commission.Geography of Mexico – Pico de Orizaba is the third highest peak in North America and highest in Mexico.
78. Climate of Mexico – The climate of Mexico is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south. Areas south of the twentieth-fourth parallel with elevations and heights up to 1,000 meters, have a yearly median temperature between 24 and 28 °C. Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5 °C difference between winter and summer median temperatures. Between 1,000 and 2,000 meters, one encounters yearly average temperatures between 16 and 20 °C. Above 2,000 meters, temperatures drop as low as an average yearly range between 8 and 12 °C in the Cordillera Neovolcánica. At 2,300 meters, Mexico City has a median temperature of 15 ° C with pleasant summers and mild winters. Rainfall varies widely both by season. Rainfall in these regions averages between 600 millimeters per year, although even less in some areas, particularly in the state of Baja California. Average totals are between 600 and 1,000 millimeters in most of the major populated areas of the southern altiplano, including Mexico City and Guadalajara. Parts of the northern altiplano, high peaks in the Sierra Madres receive yearly snowfall. Citlaltépetl, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl continue to support glaciers, the largest of, the Gran Glaciar Norte.Climate of Mexico – Hidalgo
79. Forests of Mexico – The forests of Mexico cover a surface area of about 64 million hectares, or 34.5% of the country. These forests are categorized by the type of biome: tropical forests, temperate forests, cloud forests, riparian forests, deciduous, evergreen, dry, moist, etc.. The agency in charge of Mexico's forests is the Comisión Nacional Forestal. Rainforests are found predominantly in regions with frequent rain and warm temperatures that allow for plants to retain their foliage year-round. The average rainfall in these forests is above 2,000 mm and temperature is always higher than 18° C, with little variation. The Lacandon Jungle is an area of rainforest which stretches into Guatemala and into the southern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. Mexico is home to about 200 species of oak. It is estimated that temperate forests in Mexico contain about 7,000 species of plants. The Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve contains the over-wintering habitats of the eastern population of the butterfly. The reserve is located on the border of Michoacán and Mexico State. Millions of butterflies arrive in the preserve annually. Butterflies only inhabit a fraction of the 56,000 hectares of the reserve from October–March. The biosphere's mission is not only to its habitat as well. The Jalisco Dry Forests are a region of large diversity in Mexico. The Chiapas Depression is a dry valley in southern Mexico and western Guatemala.Forests of Mexico – Forest in the Sierra Juárez of Oaxaca.
81. Metropolitan areas of Mexico – Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city. Southeastern states are divided into a small number of large municipalities whereas central states are divided into a large number of smaller municipalities. As such, metropolitan areas in the northwest usually do not extend over more than one municipality whereas metropolitan areas in the center extend over many municipalities. A metropolitan areas extend beyond the limits of one state: Greater Mexico City, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Comarca Lagunera, Tampico. There are a total of metropolitan areas of Mexico as defined by the following government bodies: The National Institute of Statistics and Geography. The Secretariat of Social Development. The National Population Council. The United States shares a 2,000-mile border with Mexico. The 2,000 miles is the most frequently crossed international border in the world, with every year. The distribution of population and urban population in Mexico has been changed significantly by the economic interaction between settlements in the United States. Metropolitan areas located at the border with the U.S. form transnational conurbations with deep demographic interaction. A megalopolis, is known as a corona regional de ciudades. The megalopolis consists with an approximate total population of almost 27 million people. National Institute of Statistics and Geography — official website.Metropolitan areas of Mexico – 1 - Mexico City, D. F..
82. List of mountain peaks of Mexico – This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of Mexico. The first table below ranks the 40 highest major summits of México by elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings. The second table below ranks the 40 most prominent summits of México. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. The third table below ranks the 40 most major summits of México. Of the 40 highest major summits of Mexico, three peaks exceed 5000 meters elevation, 28 peaks exceed 3000 meters elevation. Nine other peaks lie on a state border. Five peaks lie on a border. Of the 40 most major summits of México, only Pico de Orizaba exceeds 2000 kilometers of topographic isolation. Four peaks exceed 500 kilometers, 14 peaks exceed 200 kilometers, 33 peaks exceed 100 kilometers of topographic isolation. Six peaks lie on a border.List of mountain peaks of Mexico – Volcán Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba), a stratovolcano on the boundary between the states of Puebla and Veracruz, is the highest mountain peak of Mexico.
84. Territorial evolution of Mexico – Mexico has experienced many changes in territorial organization during its history as an independent state. The territorial boundaries of Mexico were affected by imperial decrees. The decree resulted from Spain. During the period of the Independence of Mexico, part of the territorial organization of New Spain was integrated into the new nation of the Mexican Empire. Added to this were the Captaincy General of Guatemala. This yielded Mexico's largest area as an independent nation. During the structuring of the Republic, legal changes reaffirmed the Catholic Church's status as the only religion for Mexicans. The new nation developed a representative federal republic that recognized the sovereignty of the States constituting the federal union. This break from During the Second Mexican Empire, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico made a new division of national territory. Territorial divisions throughout Mexican history were generally linked to political change and programs aimed at improving country's economic and social development. Whenever possible, natural features will be used for boundaries. This division was of great importance, because projected development were taken into account for the delimitation of the jurisdictions. Its former divisions, were restored in that year. Several of the former borders of the territories in northern Mexico remain unclear. The northern border for example, is described in various ways, either as the Gila River or the Colorado River.Territorial evolution of Mexico – Agustín de Iturbide, first Emperor of Mexico.
85. Time in Mexico – Mexico uses four main time zones since February 2015: Zona Sureste covers the state of Quintana Roo. Zona Centro covers the eastern three-fourths including Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. Zona Pacífico covers the states of Baja California Sur, Sonora. Zona Noroeste covers the state including Tijuana. In addition, the law dictates that all island territories should fall to their geographic location. Standard time was first defined in Mexico in 1921, when President Álvaro Obregón decreed two time zones. One zone designated for 90 ° W covered the states of Tabasco, Chiapas, Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo. A second zone designated for 105 ° W covered the rest of the country, from Baja California to Veracruz and Oaxaca. Hora del Sureste was created for tourist reasons in 1981, originally covering the states of Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo. First observation of DST was in 1931, but only for the state of Baja California. The "Hora del Oeste" the rest of the year. These states did not return to it until DST was adopted nationwide. Daylight time has been observed nationwide in Mexico beginning in 1996. Quintana Roo and Sonora states do not observe DST. The first is the the first Sunday in April.Time in Mexico – Winter
86. List of wettest tropical cyclones by country – This is a list of wettest tropical cyclones by country, using all known available sources. Below are the records for each country above. After rainfall and wind observations started during 1972, only 13 tropical cyclones passed within 220 km of the territory between 1972 and 2005. Rainfall observations started during 1907 while temperature, wind and other records started in 1952. Bangladesh has been the scene of the greatest tropical cyclone casualties in recent times. The country generally lies near sea level. This country has terrain mainly with elevations up to about 3,700 feet. It should be noted that equally heavy rains could have fallen during Hurricane Fifi of 1974. Tropical cyclones are usually in transition to extratropical cyclones by the time they reach Atlantic Canada, though occasionally they retain their tropical status. No tropical cyclone has ever hit Canada's Pacific coast. China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Precipitation associated with their remains can bring snow to Tibet. This led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food, 263 livestock in the snowstorm. Hurricane Flora of October 1963 drifted for four days leading to extreme rainfall across the mountainous island country. During the heaviest 24‑hour period of rainfall, 735 millimetres of rain fell at Santiago de Cuba.List of wettest tropical cyclones by country – A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005.
87. Politics of Mexico – The constituent states of the federation must also have a form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of a two-chamber legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The politics of Mexico are dominated by three political parties: the Party of the Democratic Revolution and Institutional Revolutionary Party. Registered political parties can also obtain private funding within the limits prescribed by the law. The coalition must present itself with logo. Once each party in the coalition has been assigned plurinominal seats, they do not necessarily continue to work as a coalition in government. Throughout the 20th century, PRI had an almost hegemonic power at the state and federal level, which slowly began to recede in the late 1980s. Suffrage is compulsory. All elections are direct;, no electoral college is constituted at the federal, state or municipal level. Presidential elections are scheduled every six years, in the exceptional case of absolute absence of the president. Elections are usually held on the first Sunday of July. State governors are also elected every six years, whereas the legislatures are renewed every three years. State elections need not be concurrent with federal elections. Elections within the Federal District are also organized by a electoral institute. A strongly ingrained concept in political life is "no reelection."Politics of Mexico – Vicente Fox, president 2000-2006
88. Congress of the Union – The Congress of the Union is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. The Congress is a bicameral assembly, consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in Second Chapter, Articles 50 to 79 of the 1917 Constitution. The upper chamber is the Senate, "Senado". It comprises 96 members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms; the other 32 seats are allocated based on proportional representation. The lower house is the Chamber of "Cámara de Diputados". It has 300 members are elected by popular vote to three-year terms; the other 200 seats are allocated according to proportional representation. The Congress of the Union has two chambers. There are two exceptions to that rule. A party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. Also, a party cannot get more than 300 seats overall. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the first runner-up. It is conventional to refer by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the "LXII Legislature"; the previous Congress was the "LXI Legislature," and forth. The I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution.Congress of the Union
89. Senate of the Republic (Mexico) – The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress. In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who are elected together by direct vote. Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election. The Senate is completely renewed every six years, since senators are barred from immediate reelection. This will change at the 2018 election. The current session is known as the LXII Legislatura. Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current Senators will serve during the 63rd Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies. According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. Not being active duty in rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election. Not to be secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election. Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated three years before the election. No minister of some religious cult. Senators can not be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately.Senate of the Republic (Mexico) – Former Senate tribune.
90. Chamber of Deputies (Mexico) – The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative for every 200,000 citizens. Currently there are 500 deputies. Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts. The remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; rather, they are allocated to parties based on each party's share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare. From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance to the legislature. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one in the world, completely renewed at an election. However, this will change at the 2018 elections; deputies are now permitted to run for reelection. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six mandate are known as mid-term elections.Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)
91. Constitution of Mexico – The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, during the Mexican Revolution. It was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor of 1857 and earlier Mexican constitutions. Constitution Day is one of Mexico's annual Fiestas Patrias, commemorating February 1917. Although the official anniversary is on February, the holiday takes place on the first Monday of February regardless of the date. Carranza convoked a congress specifically to draft the new constitution. It replaced the liberal Constitution of 1857, extending that constitution's restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. Its innovations were in expanding the Mexican state's power into the realms of economic nationalism, protection of workers' rights. The constitution was "a means to confer legitimacy on a shaky regime." The Liberal Party of Mexico's 1906 political program proposed a number of reforms that were incorporated into the 1917 Constitution. Article 27 of the Constitution incorporated some of the PLM's demands for reform in Mexico. Surprisingly, the PLM also called for restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church, which were incorporated in the constitution. These required to pay taxes; nationalization of religious institutions' real property; and the elimination of religious-run schools. The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States was drafted by the Constitutional Congress in Querétaro, not the capital.Constitution of Mexico – Venustiano Carranza, leader of the victorious faction, convoked the elected body to draft the new constitution.
92. Elections in Mexico – Elections in Mexico determine who, on the national level, takes the position of the head of state – the president – as well as the legislature. The President of Mexico is elected by the people. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even if she does not have an absolute majority. Since no President can serve single term in office, every presidential election in Mexico is a non-incumbent election. The Congress of the Union has two chambers. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the first runner-up. IFE website Mexico page of the ACE Project Adam Carr's Election Archive ElectionworldElections in Mexico – Mexico
93. Federal government of Mexico – Similar to the federal government of the United States of America, the federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, judicial. The seat of the federal government functions per the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, as amended. The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by his Cabinet, which, together, are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of a two-chamber legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The federal government, known as the Supreme Power of the Federation, is constituted by the Powers of the Union: the legislative, the judicial. Mexico City, as the capital of the federation is the seat of the powers of the Union. The legislative power is vested upon the Congress of a bicameral congress comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies is formed by 500 representatives of the nation. Deputies can not be reelected for the immediate term. Being a supplementary system of parallel voting, proportionality is only confined to the plurinominal seats. The Senate consists of 128 representatives of the constituent states of the federation. Senators can not be reelected for the immediate term. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, the Council of the Federal Judiciary. The ministers of the Supreme Court can not be appointed to serve more than once.Federal government of Mexico – San Lázaro Palace, the Chamber of Deputies, Congress of the Union
94. Foreign relations of Mexico – The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of the United Mexican States and managed through the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs. Since the 1930s, the Estrada Doctrine has served to these principles. Once the order was reestablished, its foreign policy was built under hemispheric prestige in subsequent decades. A greater priority to the Caribbean was given during the administration of President Felipe Calderón. Textually, the article establishes that: The powers and duties of the President are the following: X. Aside from these principles constitutionally recognized, the foreign policy has been based on some doctrines. This policy was said to be based on the principles of non-intervention, peaceful resolution of all nations. During the first presidency of the National Action Party, Vicente Fox appointed Jorge Castañeda to be his Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Castañeda immediately broke with the Estrada Doctrine, promoting what was called by the "Castañeda Doctrine". The foreign policy called for an openness and an acceptance of criticism from the international community, the increase of Mexican involvement in foreign affairs. On November 2006, President-elect Felipe Calderón announced that Patricia Espinosa would serve as his Secretary of Foreign Affairs starting on December 1, 2006. As as giving greater priority to Latin America and the Caribbean states. The foreign service officially started in 1822, the year after the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, which marked the beginning of the country's independence. In 1831, legislation was passed that underpinned the establishment of diplomatic representations with other states in Europe and the Americas. As emerging market, Mexico holds a significant global presence.Foreign relations of Mexico – Current headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs.
95. Mexican Armed Forces – The Mexican Armed Forces are composed of two independent entities: the Mexican Army and the Mexican Navy. The Mexican Army includes the Mexican Air Force. The Presidential Guard, Special Forces are part of the Army, but have their own chains of command. The Mexican Navy, includes the Naval Aviation. There are three main components of the Army: independent units. The Minister of Defense commands the Army by a large number of general officers. The Army uses a modified continental system in its headquarters. The Army is the largest branch of Mexico's armed services. Presently, there are 12 "Military Regions", which are further broken down into 44 subordinate "Military Zones." In both cases, a system is used for designation. The Air Force national headquarters is embedded in Mexico City. It also follows the continental system, with the usual A1, A2, A3, A4 sections. The Navy's national headquarters, is located in Mexico City, is smaller than the Army's headquarters. Great importance is placed on consultation among the factions within these year groups. The Navy's operational forces are organized as two independent groups: the Pacific Force.Mexican Armed Forces – Mexican Paratroopers
96. List of political parties in Mexico – This article lists political parties in Mexico. Mexico has a multi-party system, which means that there are more than three political parties. Nationally, there are three large political parties that dominate: the PRD. Other smaller political parties survive by forming local coalitions with any of the big three. As of 2011, Mexico has seven nationally recognized political parties by the Federal Electoral Institute. National recognition was given to those parties that secured representation in Congress. Institutional Revolutionary Party – the dominating party, under different names, at the municipal, state, national levels for most of the 20th century. This is the political party of Incumbent President Peña Nieto as of 2012 Elections. Party of the Democratic Revolution – a left of center party. Born in the 1988 elections. Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, lost the 1988 presidential election under dubious circumstances, which eventually helped the party consolidate itself. It has long controlled the Federal District. Labor Party – a laborist political party formed in 1990. It is often allied with the PRD for electoral purposes. Ecologist Green Party of Mexico – a minor party with an environmental platform.List of political parties in Mexico – Mexico
97. Cabinet of Mexico – The cabinet of Mexico is the Executive Cabinet and is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. It consists of eighteen Secretaries of the head of the federal executive legal office and the Attorney General. In addition to the legal Executive Cabinet there are other Cabinet-level administration offices that report directly to the President of the Republic. Officials from the extended Cabinet are subordinate to the President. The term "Cabinet" does not appear in the Constitution, where reference is made only to the Secretaries of State. Article 89 of the Constitution provides that the President of Mexico can remove Secretaries of State. The Executive Cabinet does not play a collective executive role. The Executive Cabinet members are appointed by the President of the Republic. Only the Attorney General needs to be approved by the Senate. Cabinet Secretaries are often selected from past and current governors, other political office holders. Private citizens such as former military officials are also common Cabinet choices. It is not rare for a Secretary to be moved to another. Some positions have cabinet-level rank therefore their incumbents are considered members of the extended cabinet. Some of the cabinet-level administration offices are: Executive Cabinet CIA: Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of MexicoCabinet of Mexico
98. Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation – It consists of eleven judges, known as ministers, one of whom is designated the court's president. Judges of the SCJN are appointed for 15 years. They are confirmed from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. The court itself is located just off the main plaza of Mexico City on the corners of Pino Suarez and Carranza Streets. It was built by Antonio Muñoz Garcia. Prior to the Conquest, this site was reserved for the ritual known as "Dance of the Flyers", still practiced today in Papantla. It was also the site of a very large market known as El Volador. There is also one mural done by American artist George Biddle entitled "War and Peace" at the entrance to the library. While this building is still the main home of the Court, an alternative site on Avenida Revolución was established in 2002.Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation – The Supreme Court building
99. Agriculture in Mexico – Small dogs were raised for food. There were no domesticated animals. Farming until the Mexican Revolution was focused on large private properties. The land redistributed. Since the 20th century NAFTA and economic policies have again favored large scale commercial agricultural holdings. Mexico's main crops include grains such as corn and wheat, various vegetables. Agricultural exports are important, especially coffee, winter fruits and vegetables. Sixty percent of Mexico’s agricultural exports go to the United States. The territory of Mexico roughly corresponds with that of Mesoamerica, one of the cradles of domestication. Archeological research in the Gulf coast of Tabasco shows the earliest evidence of cultivation in Mexico. The first fields were with fossilized pollen evidence showing forest clearing around 5100 BCE. The domestication of corn is followed by that of cotton. The tradition of planting corn, squash together allows the beans to replace the nitrogen that corn depletes from the soil. The three crops together are sometimes referred to as the Three Sisters. Soil erosion from production has been a problem since the Mesoamerican period.Agriculture in Mexico – Agave plants and an abandoned hacienda house in Jalisco
100. Automotive industry in Mexico – This is an article about the automotive industry in Mexico. In 1903, motorcars first arrived in Mexico City, rising to 800 by 1906. Madero's successful campaign against Díaz's dictatorship at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution. A short time after the end of Buick became the first automobile producer to be officially established in Mexico, beginning 1921. In 1925, Ford Motor Company was too established and as of 2016 remains the longest-running brand in the country. In 1959, Mexico produced a small truck called the Rural Ramírez, produced by the Ramirez truck company. Many car makers were already operational by 1961 when the first decline of the Mexican economy showed up. In the early 1960s, government regulations forced car companies to assemble cars in Mexico, using local well as imported components. The idea was to develop a national industry in the country, to promote employment and technological advances. Those companies that would not comply with these regulations left the country; these included Mercedes Benz, FIAT, Citroën, Peugeot and Volvo. The American Big Three remained along with American Motors, Renault, Volkswagen, Datsun and Borgward. However, the tax remained also held in Mexico. Ironically, it must be paid year after year. A second tax cost. Unlike the Tenencia, this tax is paid one time only.Automotive industry in Mexico – Honda Civic, Range Rover, Toyota RAV4 and Volkswagen Golf over Avenida Carlos Lazo, Mexico City.
101. Bank of Mexico – The Bank of Mexico, abbreviated BdeM or Banxico, is Mexico's central bank, monetary authority and lender of last resort. Its main objective is to achieve stability in the purchasing power of the national currency. The Bank of Mexico was created on 1 September 1925. In July 1931, the Monetary Law was constituted. He assumed office on 1 January 2010. Mexican peso Economy of Mexico Economic history of Mexico Official site of Banco de MéxicoBank of Mexico – Bank of Mexico headquarters in Mexico City
102. Economic history of Mexico – Mexico’s economic history has been characterized since the colonial era by resource extraction, agriculture, a relatively underdeveloped industrial sector. Economic elites in the colonial period were predominantly Spanish born, active as transatlantic merchants and mine owners and diversifying their investments with the landed estates. The largest sector of the population was indigenous subsistence farmers, who lived mainly in the south. New Spain was envisioned to Iberia, which huge silver mines accomplished. The mid-nineteenth-century Liberal Reforma attempted to modernize and industrialize the Mexican economy. Following a foreign intervention, the late nineteenth century found political stability and economic prosperity during the presidential regime of General Porfirio Díaz. Mexico was opened to a lesser extent, foreign workers. Foreign capital built a railway network, one of the keys by linking regions of Mexico and major cities and ports. As the construction of the bridge over a deep canyon at Metlac demonstrates, Mexico's topography was a barrier to economic development. The industry revived in the north of Mexico and the petroleum industry developed in the north Gulf Coast states with foreign capital. Regional civil wars lasted until 1920, known generally as the Mexican Revolution. Following the military phase of the Revolution, Mexican regimes attempted to "transform a largely rural and backward country... into a industrial power." The post-war years experienced what has been called the Mexican Miracle. This growth was fueled by import industrialization. Mexico sought a new model for economic growth.Economic history of Mexico – A photo of the Metlac Bridge, built during nineteenth-century railway construction that enabled modernization. Photo by Guillermo Kahlo.
103. Irrigation in Mexico – Mexico, a classified arid and semi-arid country, has a total land area of 2 million square kilometres, 23% of, equipped for irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture contributes about 50% of the total value of agricultural production and accounts for about 70% of agriculture exports. Mexico's government initiated a number of structural reforms in the sector aimed to introduce modern water management and irrigation. Approximately 33,000 km2; correspond to 80 bigger systems, namely irrigation districts. The remaining 29,000 km2; are distributed among irrigation units. The average size is relatively small, less than 1 ha is common, particularly in the irrigation units. At the same time, many landowners have farms larger than 50 family farms, combining individual land holdings, may surpass 500ha. These projects range to around 800 km ² of irrigated area each one. Most of the country experience from June to mid-October and significantly less rain during the remainder of the year. February and July generally are the wettest months, respectively. Less than a third of the runoff from precipitation occurs within 75% of the national territory, where most of the irrigated land is located. In 1995, 2 km3 were used for irrigation, 67 % of, supplied by superficial water, 33 % from groundwater. Only 40 km3 were actually used, due to inefficiencies related with water evapotranspiration. Two thirds of the country's 146 rivers drain into the Pacific Ocean. The Eastern Watershed is made up of the most important being the Bravo, Coatzacoalcos, Grijalva, Pánuco, Papaloapan and Usumacinta Rivers.Irrigation in Mexico – The Usumacinta River, taken in Chiapas. The far bank is Guatemala.
104. Oil reserves in Mexico – The Oil & Gas Journal estimated that as of 2007, the proven oil reserves in Mexico were 12.4 billion barrels. The US Energy Information Administration estimated proved reserves to be 10.3 billion barrels as of 2013. Mexican production has started to decline rapidly. Mexican crude production fell in 2007, was below 3.0 million barrels per day by the start of 2008. In mid-2008, Pemex said that it would try to keep crude production above 2.8 million barrels per day for the rest of the year. Mexican authorities were pessimistic that it could be raised back to previous levels even with foreign investment. To address some of these problems, in September 2007, Mexico’s Congress approved reforms including a reduction in the taxes levied on Pemex. Most of Mexico's decline involves one enormous oil field in the Gulf of Mexico. In mid-2008, Pemex announced that it would try to end the year with Cantarell producing at least million barrels per day. As for its other fields, 40% of Mexico's remaining reserves are in the Chicontepec Field, found in 1926. The field has remained undeveloped because the oil is trapped in impermeable rock, requiring very large numbers of oil wells to extract it. In 2002 Pemex began developing an field called "Proyecto Ku-Maloob-Zaap", located 105 kilometers from Ciudad del Carmen. It is estimated that by 2011 the field will produce nearly thousand barrels per day. However, this level of production will be achieved by using a nitrogen scheme similar to that of Cantarell. Pemex decreased its reserve estimate by 53 %, from 26.8 to 12.6 billion barrels.Oil reserves in Mexico – Listing
105. Mexican peso – The Mexican peso is the currency of Mexico. Modern dollar currencies have a common origin in the 15th -- 19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$". The current ISO 4217 code for the peso is MXN; prior to the 1993 revaluation, the MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, represented by "¢". As of November 2016, the peso's exchange rate was $22.64 per Euro and $20.87 per U.S. dollar. The name was originally used to pesos oro or pesos plata. The English translation of the Spanish word peso is weight. The peso was originally the name of the eight-real coins issued by Spain. In 1863, the first issue was made of coins denominated in worth one hundredth of the peso. This was followed by coins denominated "one peso". Coins denominated in reales continued to be issued until 1897. In 1905, the silver content of the peso remained initially unchanged. However, from 1918 onward, the weight and fineness of all the silver coins declined, until 1977, when the last 100-peso coins were minted. On January 1993 the Bank of Mexico introduced a new currency, the nuevo peso, written "N$" followed by the numerical amount. N$1.00, was equal to 1000 of the obsolete MXP pesos.Mexican peso – A two-peso coin from 1921, issued to commemorate the centennial of the independence of Mexico.
106. Petroleum industry in Mexico – The petroleum industry in Mexico makes Mexico the eleventh largest producer of oil in the world and the thirteenth largest in terms of net exports. The state-owned company Petróleos Mexicanos has exclusive rights over all production in Mexico. High taxes on the revenues of Pemex provide about a third of all the tax revenues collected by the Mexican government. Petroleum was used by the natives for incense and to repair canoes. Exploratory wells were first drilled by Mexican and some U.S. entrepreneurs. By 1901, commercial production of crude oil in Mexico had begun. California entrepreneur Edward L. Doheny opened the Ebano oil field along the Mexican Central Railway. In 1889, the Veracruz legislature passed a law titled "Ley sobre subdivision la propiedad territorial", under which the state gave land titles to private owners. The privatization of land allowed state to declare any land, not privatized to be public land. In 1883, the Mexican Congress passed the "Ley de Colonization," which allowed private land companies to survey public lands for the purpose of settlement. This allowed more than million acres of Mexican land to be owned by the surveyors. By the early century the reapportionment was complete. The law divided large estates into small, privately owned lots. Dealing with private landowners made it easier for foreign oil companies to lease oil property. Many property owners considered the up-front bonus they received for leasing their property to be “easy money.”Petroleum industry in Mexico – A gas station in Puerto Vallarta
107. Science and technology in Mexico – Science and technology have a long history in Mexico. Mexican civilizations developed mathematics, astronomy, calendrics, solved technological problems of water management for agriculture and flood control in Central Mexico. Following the Spanish conquest in 1521, New Spain was brought into the European sphere of technology. The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, established in 1551, was a hub in colonial Mexico for over a century. During 19th century under the regime of Porfirio Díaz, the process of industrialization began in Mexico. Following a ten-year civil war, Mexico made significant progress in science and technology. According to the World Bank, Mexico is Latin America's largest exporter of high-technology goods with $ billion worth of high-technology goods exports in 2012. Mexican high-technology exports accounted for 17 % of all manufactured goods according to the World Bank. Calendar system required an advanced understanding of mathematics. The concept of zero is one of the Olmecs' greatest achievements. It permitted numbers to be allowed for complex calculations. Although the invention of zero is often attributed to the Mayans, it was originally conceived by the Olmecs. To predict harvesting times, early peoples studied movements of the sun, stars, planets. They used this information to make calendars. The Aztecs created two calendars one for religion.Science and technology in Mexico
109. List of Mexican states by unemployment – This page lists the variation in Mexican unemployment statistics by state. As of the second semester of 2015, the national rate is 4.3 %. The state with the lowest reported rate is Guerrero at 2 %. The state with the highest rate is Tabasco at 6 %. List of Mexican states by HDI General: Mexican economyList of Mexican states by unemployment
110. Mexican Stock Exchange – The Mexican Stock Exchange, commonly known as Mexican Bolsa, Mexbol, or BMV, is the only stock exchange in Mexico. It is the second largest exchange in Latin America, only after Brazil's BM&F Bovespa. It is also the fifth largest exchange in the Americas. The platform is owned by BMV Group, which also owns the derivative exchange MexDer and the custody agency Indeval. The exchange kept modernising until its introduction of a fully electronic system for trading, consolidated in 1999. Afterwards, exclusive groups of issuing company representatives would gather to negotiate behind closed doors in different places around the city. Because of coinciding links between members of the two institutions, leaders began discussing a union between them. On 3 the merger was finalised, keeping the name Bolsa de México, the administrative offices at the Plateros Street address. The company was officially inaugurated on 21 October 1895. The National Securities Commission, later renamed National Banking and Securities Commission, was established to supervise the Bolsa de Valores de México. The Securities' Market Law was reformed according to the demutualisation of BMV. In 2003, the global market was made allowing national investors access to foreign securities from within the country. In 2006, the Mexican securities market was opened through the MexDer system allowing them operation from anywhere in the world. In 2010, the BMV signed an alliance with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, putting Mexican derivatives within reach of international investors. BMV, announced its first trade made as part of the Latin American Integrated Market on 2 December 2014.Mexican Stock Exchange – Front of the Mexican Stock Exchange Buildings in 2008.
111. Telecommunications in Mexico – Communications in Mexico are regulated by the Secretariat of Communication and Transportation, a federal executive cabinet ministry and by the Federal Telecommunications Institute. Telmex still remains the dominant player. The SCT has ceded many of its regulatory functions to the Federal Telecommunications Institute. The first transmission in Mexico was conducted by Javier Stavoli in 1931. In addition, public television has increased its market penetration in recent years. In 2014 there were 1,063 separately licensed analog and digital television stations. In general, the industry is mostly dominated by Telmex and América Móvil. The industry was privatized in 1990 under the control of Grupo Carso and since 1996 under Carlos Slim. Telmex has diversified its operations by incorporating mobile telephony. It has also expanded its operations to the United States. The industry is regulated by the government through the Federal Telecommunications Institute. In April 2009, the ITESM reported 25,217,500 users; 78% of personal computer Internet access is broadband access. ranking ninth in the world. The system is domestic with 120 earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable. Mexican satellites are operated by a leading private company in Latin America which services both North and South America.Telecommunications in Mexico – Telecommunications
112. Tourism in Mexico – Tourism in Mexico is a huge industry. The most notable attractions are the Meso-American ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, the beach resorts. The nation's temperate climate and unique culture -- a fusion of the Meso-American -- make Mexico an attractive destination. The majority of tourists come from the United States and Canada. Other visitors come from Europe and Asia. A small number of tourists also come from other Latin American countries. There is also a burgeoning domestic trade as a growing affluent middle class begins to go on holiday within their own country. While Mexico's class usually promotes national tourism, the middle/higher class usually prefers to travel overseas. General Porfirio Díaz became president of Mexico by coup in Mexico following decades of civil war. With the inauguration of Pullman service from the U.S. to Mexico in 1884, tourists no longer endured difficult and dangerous travel. Guides for English-speaking tourists were also published, most notably Terry's Guide to Mexico, which went at the beginning of the twentieth century. Mexico appealed to American tourists seeking an "exotic" holiday.It was promoted as the "Egypt of the New World." A line was constructed from the capital to the site, bringing scholars from the 1910 meeting of the International Congress of Americanists. In addition, the National Museum of Anthropology was refurbished in anticipation of tourists. Mexico was a beneficiary of the increasing tourism of Europeans and Americans to distant lands.Tourism in Mexico – Historic center of Mexico City and Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral
113. Transportation in Mexico – As the third largest and second most populous country in Latin America, Mexico has developed an extensive transportation network to meet the needs of the economy. As with communications, transportation in Mexico is regulated by a federal executive cabinet branch. All areas in the country are covered by it. The network in Mexico has an extent of 366,095 km, of which 116,802 km are paved, making it the largest paved-roadway network in Latin America. Of these, 10,474 km are multi-lane expressways: the rest have 6 or more lanes. The network in Mexico is classified by number of lanes and type of access. The great majority of the network are known simply as carreteras. More-lane freeways or expressways, with restricted or unrestricted access are known as autopistas. Speed limits in two-lane highways can vary depending on terrain conditions. The limit in multi-lane freeways or expressways is on average 110 km/h for automobiles and 95 km/h for buses and trucks. The expressways are, for the most part, toll autopistas de cuota.. . Most toll expressways have emergency telephone booths, emergency braking ramps at short intervals. The toll usually includes a "travelers' insurance" should an accident occur within the freeway. The tolls are, among the most expensive in the world, according to a comparative study realized in 2004 by the Chamber of Deputies.Transportation in Mexico – Highway network
114. Corruption in Mexico – Corruption in Mexico has permeated several segments of society – political, economic, social – and has greatly affected the country’s legitimacy, transparency, accountability, effectiveness. Many of these dimensions have evolved as a product of Mexico's legacy of oligarchic consolidation of power and authoritarian rule. Political contestation equated to political, economic, social neglect. Government accountability was low. Hierarchization was the norm. Beyond this, few checks were set on elected officials’ actions throughout the PRI's unbroken reign. Consequently, PRI rule yielded low levels of transparency and legitimacy within the councils of Mexico's government. 71 years of power provided an opportunity for corruption to become increasingly complex. With this type of institutionalized corruption, the political path in Mexico was very narrow. There were specified selective electoral mobilization. These issues, deeply engrained after over half a century's existence, have continued to generate and institutionalize political corruption in today's Mexico. Mexico's geographic location has played largely in the development of the country's role in organized crime and trafficking. As drug TCOs have increasingly made use of these areas, the groups have become progressively more complex, violent, diverse. Under this system, TCOs' influence has reached into Mexico's institutional bases. These networks -- alongside a lack of checks and balances -- have allowed corruption in government to flourish.Corruption in Mexico – PRI party
115. Demographics of Mexico – Throughout most of the twentieth century Mexico's population was characterized by rapid growth. Approximately 50 % of the population lives in one of the 55 metropolitan areas in the country. In total, about 78.84% of the population of the country lives in urban areas, meaning that only 21.16% live in rural areas. The Census Inegi in Mexico is the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. The National Population Council, is an institution under the Secretary of the Interior in charge of the research of population dynamics. The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, also undertakes analysis of the sociodemographic and linguistic indicators of the indigenous peoples in Mexico. In 1900, the Mexican population was million. These measures jointly led to an demographic increase between 1930 and 1980. The population's annual rate has been reduced from a 3.5 % peak, in 1965 to 0.99 % in 2005. While Mexico is now transitioning to the third phase of demographic transition, close to 50 % of the population in 2009 was younger. Fertility rates have also decreased in 1976 to 2.2 in 2006. The average annual population rate of the capital, the Federal District, was the first in the country at 0.2 %. However, Mexico itself constitutes the second country of total number of immigrants to the United States after Germany. The Mexican government projects that the Mexican population will then start declining slowly. Assumptions continued high net emigration.Demographics of Mexico – Population growth
116. Education in Mexico – Education in Mexico has a long history. The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was founded after the University of San Carlos in Lima. By comparison, the oldest in Anglo-America, was founded in 1636. Education in Mexico was until recently largely confined to elite males and under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. The Mexican state has been directly involved since the nineteenth century promoting secular education. The mid Liberal Reform separated church and state, which had a direct impact on education. President Benito Juárez sought the expansion of public schools. Madero in the early years of the Mexican Revolution. The 1917 Constitution strengthened the Mexican state's power in education, undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church to shape the educational development of Mexicans. During presidency of Álvaro Obregón in the early 1920s, his Minister of Public Education José Vasconcelos implemented a massive expansion of access to secular education. This work was expanded in the administration of Plutarco Elías Calles by Moisés Sáenz. Socialist education was repealed with the administration of Manuel Ávila Camacho. A number of private universities have opened since the mid century. Education in Mexico is currently regulated by the Secretariat of Public Education. Education standards are set except in "autonomous" universities chartered by the government.Education in Mexico – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México The main campus of this public university in Mexico City.
117. Health care in Mexico – Healthcare in Mexico is provided via public institutions, private entities, or private physicians. Healthcare delivered through private organizations operates entirely on the free-market system, i.e. it is available to those who can afford it. This is also the case of healthcare obtained at their private office or clinic. Public delivery, on the other hand, is accomplished via an elaborate provisioning and delivery system put in place by the Mexican Federal Government. In 2012, Mexico instituted universal healthcare. As of December 2013, there were 4,466 hospitals in Mexico. Hospitals were established in Mexico including ones exclusively for Indians. Some were established by the crown, others by private endowment, but most by the Catholic Church. Bishop Vasco de Quiroga established hospital complexes in the sixteenth century. In Mexico City, conqueror Hernán Cortés established the Hospital de Jesús Nazareno for Indians, which still functions as a hospital. The Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, was founded in 1791. The institution, still functioning, is now a World Heritage Site. It is one of the largest hospital complexes in Latin America. The complex was founded by the Bishop of Guadalajara to combine the functions of hospital, orphanage, almshouse. The Mexican program IMSS was founded in 1943 during the presidency of Manuel Avila Camacho.Health care in Mexico – Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
118. Mexican nationality law – This law was last modified in 2005. In general terms, Mexican nationality is based on the principle of jus sanguinis. The Mexican constitution also makes a distinction between citizens of Mexico. As in most other Central and South American countries, Mexican law differentiates between citizenship. Mexican law also distinguishes in many ways. Under the Mexican constitution, naturalized citizens are prohibited from serving in a wide array of mostly governmental. The Mexican law acknowledges that a Mexican by birth may possess another nationality. If, the case, however, such an individual must always leave the country as a Mexican. If in such a case, he can request a Certificate of Nationality from the government, renouncing the other nationality. Visa requirements for Mexican citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Mexico.Mexican nationality law – President Enrique Peña Nieto swears in new Mexicans at a naturalization ceremony.
119. Mexicans – "Mexicanos" redirects here. For the suburb of San Salvador, El Salvador, see: Mejicanos. Mexicans are the people of a multiethnic country in North America. Mexicans can also be those who identify with the Mexican and/or national identity. The Mexica founded Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl located in the Valley of Mexico. It became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City. In 21.5 % of Mexico's population in Mexico self-identify as being indigenous. There are about million Mexican nationals residing outside of Mexico, with about 11.7 million living in the United States. The larger Mexican diaspora can also self-identify as Mexican. The Mexican people have an identity that has evolved with the succession of conquests among Amerindian groups and later by Europeans. Mexicano is derived from the word Mexico itself. In the principal model to create demonyms in Spanish, the suffix -ano is added to the name of the place of origin.Mexicans – Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace depicting the history of Mexico from the Conquest to early 20th century.
120. Poverty in Mexico – It is divided in two categories: Extreme poverty. Additional figures from SEDESOL estimates that 6 % suffer from food insecurity. The result of millions in poverty is always a topic of discussion among opinion-makers. Despite theses changes, Mexico continues to suffer lack of opportunities. The governmental corruption is another factor to which poverty is frequently attributed. Only in recent years, after economic setbacks, Mexico has recovered to a level where the middle class, once virtually nonexistent, is beginning to flourish. Social stratification is still greatly present in Mexico can be traced back to the country's origin. Land ownership has dictated the hierarchy of wealth distribution amongst the population. After the country entered its economic industrial transformation, politicians have controlled the direction of wealth in Mexico and have remained among the wealthy. The average individual annual income in Mexico in 2002 was US$6,879.37. 12.3 percent of the Mexican force earns the daily minimum wage or MX$1,343.28 per month. Only 11.8 percent of the working population earn wages equal or above MX$6,716.40 per month. The urban rate, however, got stuck at 11.3 per cent." Social development began to take place in the form of written policy in the early 1900s. The economic crisis of the late 1920s and forward slowed down any possibility of social development in the country.Poverty in Mexico – Marginalized settlement "Colinas del Río", in the municipality Benito Juárez, Nuevo León, 2005.
121. Religion in Mexico – Catholic Christianity is the dominant religion in Mexico, representing about 82.7% of the total population as of 2010. Central Mexico remains one of the most Catholic areas in the world. Mexico has allowed freedom of religion since the mid-19th century. The open practice of Judaism established themselves in the country during that era. Modern growth has been seen in Mormonism and in folk religions, such as Mexicayotl. Buddhism and Islam have both made limited inroads through conversion. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 sometimes codified state intrusion into religious matters. The government does not provide financial contributions to the religious institutions, nor does the Roman Catholic Church participate in public education. Christmas is every year during Easter and Christmas all schools in Mexico, public and private, send their students on vacation. Until recently, even now they can not be elected to public office. Historically the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico is the oldest established church, established in the early century. At independence, the Roman Catholic Church kept its status as the only permissible church in Mexico. In the mid-nineteenth century, Mexican liberals curtailed Protestant missionaries, mainly from the United States, legally evangelized in Mexico. Christian denominations have grown in Mexico, dating from the twentieth century. With the growth of immigration from the Middle East, Eastern Catholic churches were established.Religion in Mexico – Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Zamora, Michoacán.
122. List of Mexican states by Human Development Index – None of the States has a low level of human development. Only Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, located south in the country, are in the medium level if the HDI. Puebla, Veracruz and Michoacán jumped from this level to high development states in 2010. Between the states, Querétaro and Campeche have climbed more positions jumping from 11 to 7 and 18 to 15 places respectively. - List of Mexican states by poverty rate List of Mexican states by unemploymentList of Mexican states by Human Development Index – Mexican States by Human Development Index, 2015.
123. Water supply and sanitation in Mexico – Water supply and sanitation in Mexico is characterized by achievements and challenges. Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas as well as in rural areas between 1990 and 2010. Additionally, a nationwide increase in access to improved sanitation was observed in the same period. In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large program to improve wastewater treatment. Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program. Data for Sanitation based on the WHO World Health Survey and the Census. During the past decade, the Mexican water and sector made major strides in service coverage with water supply and sanitation coverage. As shown above, in urban areas 97 % of the population is estimated to have access to 85 % to adequate sanitation. In rural areas, the respective shares are 79 % for sanitation. Coverage levels are particularly low however, in the South of the country. Quality of service also leaves much to be desired. About 36% of wastewater was being treated in 2006, a share, more than twice as high as the average for Latin America. However, an unknown share of Mexican treatment plants do not comply with norms for effluent discharge. In 2006, 63 % of the Mexican water was extracted from water, such as rivers or lakes. The remaining 37% came from aquifers.Water supply and sanitation in Mexico – Mexican investment per capita in water supply and sanitation from 1991 to 2006 in constant US Dollars of 2006
124. Oportunidades – Oportunidades is a government social assistance program in Mexico founded in 2002, based on a previous program called Progresa, created in 1997. It is designed to target poverty by providing cash payments to families in exchange for regular school attendance, nutrition support. Oportunidades is credited with educational attainment in regions where it has been deployed. "Rights holders": Program recipients are mothers, the caregiver directly responsible for children and family health decisions. Cash payments are made directly to families to decrease overhead and corruption. A system of evaluation and statistical controls to ensure effectiveness. Rigorous selection of recipients based on socioeconomic factors. Program requirements target measures considered most likely to lift families out of poverty, focusing on health, children's education. Other countries that have instituted conditional cash transfer programs include Brazil, Peru, Honduras, Jamaica, Chile, Malawi and Zambia. This required the establishment of a body with enough power to monitor the budget. Instead of restructuring an old agency, it was decided to form a new agency from the president. Officials in related structures such as the Ministry of Health and Education were not provided with the appropriate incentives to channel their work toward Progresa-Oportunidades. Many were individuals who now saw their resources shifting in a new direction. And officials often had more to gain politically from starting a new one. The program has sometimes been criticized for this completely "down" approach.Oportunidades – A view of Mexico city.
125. Women in Mexico – The status of women in Mexico has changed significantly over time. Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community. Marianismo has been an ideal, as being within the family under the authority of men. In the twentieth century, Mexican women made great strides toward towards a more equal social status. In 1953 women in Mexico were granted the vote in national elections. Urban women in Mexico worked in the earliest being the tobacco factories set up in major Mexican cities as part of the lucrative tobacco monopoly. Women ran a variety of enterprises in the colonial era, with the widows of elite businessmen continuing to run the business. In the colonial periods, non-elite women were small-scale sellers in markets. In the late century, as Mexico allowed foreign investment in industrial enterprises, women found increased opportunities for work outside the home. Women can now be seen owning their own business. “In 1910, women made up 14% of the workforce, by 2008 they were 38%”. Mexican women face discrimination and at times harassment from the men exercising machismo against them. Although women in Mexico are making great advances they are faced with the traditional expectation of being the head of the household. As of 2014, Mexico has the 16th highest female rate in the world. The Mayan civilization was initially established during the Pre-Classic period.Women in Mexico – A female Mexican vendor
126. Culture of Mexico – First inhabited more than 10,000 years ago, the cultures that developed in Mexico became one of the cradles of civilization. During the 300 rule by the Spanish, Mexico became a crossroad for the people and cultures of Europe, Africa and Asia. The government of independent Mexico actively promoted cultural traits in order to create a national identity. The culture of an individual Mexican is influenced among other factors. Colonization brought Roman Catholicism to the country, which became the main religion of Mexico. The Constitution of 1917 and anti-clerical laws imposed limitations on the church and sometimes codified state intrusion into church matters. The church does not participate in public education. 95.6% of the population were Christian in 2010. Roman Catholics are 89% of the total, 47% percent of whom attend church services weekly. In absolute terms, Mexico has the world's second largest number of Catholics after Brazil. According to the Government's 2000 census, approximately 87 percent of respondents identified themselves as Roman Catholic. 0.86 percent did not specify a religion. Mexico is known for its art traditions, mostly derived from the indigenous and Spanish crafts. Pre-Columbian art thrived over a wide timescale, to AD 1500. Artistic characteristics were repeated throughout the region, namely a preference for angular, linear patterns, three-dimensional ceramics.Culture of Mexico – Plaza de las Tres Culturas ("Square of the Three Cultures")
127. Architecture of Mexico – The country has the largest number of sites declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in the Americas. Archaeological finds of the remains of structures built by the indigenous peoples of Mexico have been made in the country. The native name of this city founded in the late Preclassic is still the subject of discussion. According to some sources, the original name was Dani Baá. It is known, however, that the local Mixtec called the Yuku kúi in their language. Like most of the Mesoamerican cities, Monte Albán was a city with a multi-ethnic population. Throughout its history, the city maintained strong ties during the early Classic period. The city was abandoned at the end of Phase Xoo. However, the ceremonial enclosure that constitutes the complex of the archeological site of Monte Albán was reused by the Mixtec during the Postclassic period. By this time, the Zapotec people's political power was divided including Zaachila, Yagul, Lambityeco and Tehuantepec. The oldest of the structures that have been discovered were built around the year 600. Calakmul won two of these wars, in 611. Modern archaeological theories speculate that the first dynasty of their rulers was probably of Olmec ethnicity. During the Tollan phase, the city reached population. Some authors estimate the urban area of Tollan-Xicocotitlan at the time was between 16 km ², with a population of between 16,000 and 55,000 people.Architecture of Mexico – A replica of El Ángel in front of the National Palace in Mexico City.
128. Mexican art – Mexican art consists of various visual arts that developed over the geographical area now known as Mexico. Mexican art is also filled most of the times with intricate patterns. During this time, all influences on production were indigenous, with art heavily tied to religion and the ruling class. There was little to no real distinction among art, writing. The dominant Mesoamerican culture was that of the Olmecs, which peaked around 1200 BCE. The Olmecs originated much of what is associated with Mesoamerica, such as hieroglyphic writing, calendar, monumental sculpture and jade work. While empires fell, the basic cultural underpinnings of the Mesoamerica stayed the same until the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. These included cities centered on temples usually built on pyramid bases, Mesoamerican ball courts and a mostly common cosmology. While the art of Mesoamerica extends over more time than anywhere else in the Americas, artistic styles show a number of similarities. Unlike Western art, almost all Mesoamerican art was created to serve religious or political needs, rather than art for art's sake. It is strongly based on nature, the gods. Octavio Paz states that "Mesoamerican art is a logic of forms, volumes, as the same time a cosmology." He goes on to state that this focus on time is highly distinct from European naturalism based on the representation of the human body. Even simple designs such as stepped frets on buildings fall into this representation of space and time, the gods. Art was expressed on a variety of mediums such as ceramics, architecture.Mexican art – Detail of a mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace.
129. Visual arts of Mexico – Visual arts of Mexico are any visual art made in Mexico, from prehistoric times to the present. Painting is one of the oldest arts of Mexico. It is believed that the American continent's oldest art, 7500 years old, is found in a cave on the peninsula of Baja California. The mural blossomed in religious building and houses of the nobility. Among native painters was Marcos Aquino. A Flemish painter Simon Pereyns is considered the most important painter of this era. Pereyns along with Francisco de Morales, Andrés de la Concha Juan de Arrúe formed a group of educated painters. The works preserved by this Flemish artist are, among others, San Cristóbal at the Metropolitan Cathedral. The church produced the most important works of the seventeenth century. Juan Correa, worked from 1671 to 1716 and reached great prestige and reputation for the quality of its design and scale of some of his works. Caravaggio and Francisco de Zurbarán as Painter of the King greatly influenced the artistic creation of this period. From many works for the churches of New Spain were brought. At the end of the Baroque period, Bartolome Esteban Murillo works were present in New Spanish workshops. Along with the construction of houses artistic religious themes proliferated. Sebastian Zalcedo painted a beautiful allegory of the Virgin of Guadalupe in oil on copper foil.Visual arts of Mexico – Painting cave in Yucatán.
130. Cinema of Mexico – During the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, Mexico all but dominated the Latin American industry. The Guadalajara International Film Festival is held annually In Guadalajara, Mexico. The first "picture", according to sources by film historian Jim Mora, was viewed in 1895 using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope. The cinematographe projector was introduced by Auguste Lumière. The "silent film" industry in Mexico produced several movies; however, many of the films were not well documented. The origins of early filmmaking is generally associated with Salvador Toscano Barragán. In 1898 Toscano made the country's first film with a plot, titled Don Juan Tenorio. During the Mexican Revolution, Toscano recorded several clips of the battles, which would become a full-length documentary in 1950, assembled by his daughter. Short films were either created or influenced from French film-makers. By 1906, 16 movie salons opened their doors to accommodate the popularity of cinema in Mexico City. Tent shows, were popular beginning in 1911 where lower-class citizens would perform picaresque humor and theatrical plays, a place for training for aspiring actors. Politically affiliated films appearing in 1908, often deemed propagandistic by today's terms. Significant battles were broadcast during the Revolution which fueled Mexicans' excitement in cinema. By 1911 fourteen movie houses were erected from the year prior. It was during this period that the documentary techniques were mastered as is evident in the Alva brother's production entitled Revolución orozquista.Cinema of Mexico – Salvador Toscano Mexico's first filmmaker.
131. Mexican cuisine – The staples are native foods, such as corn, beans, avocados, tomatoes, chili peppers, along with rice, brought by the Spanish. Europeans introduced a large number of other foods, the most important of which were meats from domesticated animals, various herbs and spices. Asian influences were also introduced into the mixture during this era as a result of African slavery in New Spain and the Manila-Acapulco Galleons. Over the centuries, this resulted based on local conditions, such as those in Oaxaca, Veracruz and the Yucatán Peninsula. Mexican cuisine is an important aspect of Mexico. For others, traditional Mexican cuisine was inscribed in 2010 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. Mexican cuisine is as complex as any other cuisine, such as those of China, France, Italy and Japan. It is created mostly with ingredients native to Mexico, well as those brought over by the Spanish conquistadors, with some new influences since then. Vegetables play an important role in Mexican cuisine. Common vegetables include zucchini, cauliflower, corn, potatoes, spinach, swiss chard, mushrooms, jitomate, etc.. Other traditional vegetable dishes include chiles rellenos, huitlacoche, huauzontle, nopalitos to name a few. European contributions include pork, chicken, beef, herbs and spices, as well as some fruits. Tropical fruits such as guava, prickly pear, sapote, mangoes, bananas, cherimoya are popular, especially in the center and south of the country. It has been debated how much is European. However, the basis of the diet is still corn and beans, with chile pepper as a seasoning, as they are complementary foods.Mexican cuisine – Chiles en nogada, a popular dish from Mexico
133. Folktales of Mexico – Mexico has a variety of cultures which came from European and Mesoamerican cultures. This mix of cultures leads to the creation of traditional narrations better known as legends and myths. Myths are narrations that tell us about the origin of the creation of our world and space. They usually try to explain natural phenomena. Then the Tecuciztecatl and Nanahuatzin were placed in front of the fire. All the gods said to Tecuciztécatl: “Tecuciztécatl enter the fire”, he tried to enter, but he could not. He tried 4 times but he did not succeed. It was established that he could not try more than four times. So the gods said to Nanahuatzin: "Try" and closing his eyes, he entered the fire. When Tecuciztécatl saw that Nanahuatzin had entered the fire, he ran and entered the fire too... After both gods entered the fire, all the other gods sat and waited to see how Nanahuatzin was going to get out. After a while the sky started to change its color, the light of dawn appeared. It is said that after this, all the gods knelt to wait Nanahuatzin as the form. Some of them thought that Nanahuatzin would rise from the part. Others said he would rise at the midday.Folktales of Mexico – A princess whose beauty is ethernal.... Iztaccíhuatl volcano is located in the borders of Puebla and Mexico State... "She" is near her brave lover Popocatepetl
134. Mexican handcrafts and folk art – Mexican handcrafts and folk art is a complex collection of items made with various materials and intended for utilitarian, decorative or other purposes. Some of the items produced by hand in this country include ceramics, wall hangings, vases, furniture, much more. Mexico's tradition is a blend of indigenous and European techniques and designs. Mexican artesanía is exported and is one of the reasons why tourists are attracted to the country. However, competition from manufactured imitations from countries like China have caused problems for Mexico's artisans. These crafts are collectively called "artesanía" in Mexican Spanish. This term was invented during the 20th century to distinguish merchandise made by traditional methods versus those made by industrial/assembly line methods. The word is also used to promote traditional products as a source of Mexican national identity. Most artesanía produced here shows both native influences in the crafting, the design or both. Artesanía can be defined as those items created by common people, using traditional methods which are well-founded in the past. Most artisans do not have school-based training in their craft, but rather learn it through informal apprenticeship. The term "common people" for Mexico generally applies to those outside the upper and middle classes. This definition best applies to the production of leatherwork, textiles and toys. The bold use of colors in other constructions extends back into pre-Hispanic times. Pyramids, temples, murals, religious objects were painted or colored ochre red, bright green, burnt orange, various yellows and turquoise.Mexican handcrafts and folk art – Crafts market at Villa del Carbón.
135. Languages of Mexico – Several different languages are spoken in Mexico, with a large majority of the population fluent in Spanish while some indigenous Mexicans are monolingual in indigenous languages. Most Mexicans are monolingual Spanish-speakers. In terms of legislation its status is not that of an official language. The Law of Linguistic Rights establishes Spanish as one of the country's national languages, along with 68 distinct indigenous languages. There are other languages not native to Mexico that are spoken in the most common being English. The slow process of replacing Mexico's languages with Spanish began with the arrival of Spanish forces and colonists in Mexico in the 16th century. Some priests attempted to describe and classify indigenous languages with Spanish. In 1696 Charles II banned the use of any languages other than Spanish throughout New Spain. Beginning in the 18th century, decrees ordering the Hispanization of indigenous populations became Mexican colonizers no longer learned the indigenous languages. After the independence the government initiated an educational system with the primary aim of Hispanization of the native populations. This policy was based on the idea was that this would help the indigenous peoples become a more integrated part of the Mexican nation. In 1889, Antonio García Cubas estimated that 38% of Mexicans spoke an indigenous language, down from 60% in 1820. By the end of the 20th century, this figure had fallen to 6%. For most of the 20th century successive governments denied the status of valid languages. Indigenous students were often punished for doing so.Languages of Mexico – A page of the Florentine Codex written in romanized Nahuatl (Nahuatl is not known to have been a written language prior to its romanization).
136. Mexican literature – Mexican literature is one of the most prolific and influential of Spanish language literatures along with those of Spain, Argentina and Cuba. It has internationally recognized authors such as Juan Rulfo, Octavio Paz, Carlos Fuentes, several others. Mexico's literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous peoples of the Spanish literature. With the arrival of the Spanish a new literature was produced in the newly established Viceroyalty of New Spain. Towards the end of the century, during Mexican writers inclined towards the dominant European trends of the time. Only the first volume was published in two volumes primarily consisting of collected poetry. The poets of the time that were included were Fernando Calderón, Ignacio Rodríguez Galván. Notable modernists of the time included Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera. Notable authors of that time were Luis G. Urbina, Efren Rebolledo, José Juan Tablada, Enrique González Martínez and Ramón López Velarde. The emergence of the Mexican Revolution favored the development of journalistic genre. This trend would be an antecedent for the flowering of ` revolutionary literature', embodied in the work of writers like Juan Rulfo. The most notable indigenist authors of the time included Miguel Angel Menendez Reyes, Francisco Rojas González. In alternative to these literature, also other literary styles were developed in the country, less known movements being outside the main focus. Among them should be noted the estridentistas that included authors such as Manuel Maples Arce. During the second half of 20th century, Mexican literature had diversified into themes, genres.Mexican literature – Nezahualcoyotl, who was revered as a sage and poet-king.
137. Music of Mexico – The music of Mexico is very diverse and features a wide range of musical genres and performance styles. It has been influenced by a variety of most notably indigenous peoples of Mexico and European. "La Cucaracha", although popularized during the Mexican Revolution, is a Mexican corrido. By types of ensembles: banda, Yucatecan trio, conjunto calentano, conjunto huasteco, conjunto jarocho, conjunto norteño, Yucatecan jarana ensemble, mariachi, marimba. The singing of short poetic units called coplas. The mode is usually major, with harmonic vocabulary mostly limited to progressions drawing from I, IV, II7, V and V5. Triple meter predominates, in duple meter. Son is performed most often by giant ensembles in which string instruments predominate, like marimba ensembles and wind ensembles. Mariachi can be considered one type of Mexican son. Mexican son also includes miscellaneous styles. The guitar is universally present in nearly all Mexican son subgenres. Other instruments may include trumpets, accordions. Abajeño music from Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán. Indigenous communities have produced their own variants of Mexican son, otherwise a primarily mestizo genre. The Purépecha are known for the sones abajeños, which are often played alongside a form of native love song.Music of Mexico – Pedro Vargas the " Nightingale of the Americas." Even though he trained as a tenor, he dedicated his life to singing popular songs.
138. National symbols of Mexico – The national symbols of Mexico are the flag, the coat of arms and the anthem. The flag is a vertical tricolor of green, red. The coat of arms features a golden eagle eating a snake on top of a cactus. The national flag was adopted on September 16, 1968, was confirmed by law on February 24, 1984. The current flag is a vertical tricolor of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. The colors of the flag originated from the banner of the Army of the Three Guarantees, which lasted until 1823. Other groups have used the national colors as part of their own symbols. For example, the Revolutionary Party political party has adopted the national colors as part of their logo. Several states, such as Querétaro and Hidalgo have incorporated either elements of the national flag, or even the entire flag, into their coats of arms. According to the official story of Mexico, the national coat of arms was inspired by an Aztec legend regarding the founding of Tenochtitlan. A closer look at the original Aztec codices, the post-Cortesian codices shows that there was no snake in the original legends. It is not mentioned what it is. Still other versions show the eagle clutching the Aztec symbol of war, "burning water". The bird featured on the Mexican coat of arms is the golden eagle. This bird is known as águila real.National symbols of Mexico – original eagle, from the Mendoza codex
139. Radio in Mexico – Radio in Mexico is a mass medium with 98 percent national penetration and a wider diversity of owners and programming than on television. In August 2015, there were 1,750 radio stations in operation in Mexico, more than 70 percent on the FM band. The development of Mexican radio would take place simultaneously in various cities around the country, as opposed to the Mexico City-based development of television. Radio stations would begin operations in Mexico City, Pachuca, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Morelia, San Luis Potosí, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez. Also in 1922, the first radio association in Mexico, was formed. On May 1923, the station "El Universal/La Casa del Radio" came to air in Mexico City with 50 watts of power. The station was co-owned by Raúl Azcárraga, owner of the La Casa del Radio chain of radio stores. Andrés Segovia and Manuel Ponce were among the luminaries present at the station's formal inauguration that evening. That the station would increase its power to 500 watts; it would leave the air in 1928. On September 15, company began the operation of its own station. 1924 also saw the launch of radio stations by the Secretariat of Public Education. The SEP would not operate another radio station until the 1960s. The Electric Communications Law, was promulgated in 1926 by President Plutarco Elías Calles. Article 12 of the law provided that programming "should not harm the security of the State" or "the established government". In 1929, callsigns were reassigned again.Radio in Mexico – The tower for XHUPC-FM, the radio station of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional
140. Sport in Mexico – The most popular sport in Mexico is association football, followed by boxing. Charrería is baseball the most popular sport in the northwest and southeast regions, basketball and bullfighting are also highly popular and appreciated. Mexico City hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics – the first time the event was held in Latin America. Since then the continental region hasn't held another edition of the Olympic Games until 2016, set to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mexico first has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since 1924. Mexico has also participated in several Winter Olympic Games since 1928. Mexico has more recently taekwondo and football. The Pan American Games competition is held among athletes every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games. Mexico Ranks 6th in the top ten nations all time at the Pan American Games. Mexico and Canada have hosted three Pan American Games more than any other nation. Among cities, only Mexico City have played host to the Pan American Games more than once, each holding that honor twice. Similar to the Olympic flame, the Pan American Games flame is lit well before the Games are to commence. The flame was lit for the first games in Olympia, Greece. The only exception was in 1963 when the torch was lit in Brasília by the indigenous Guaraní people. Charreada is the national sport of Mexico, it consists of a series of Mexico-developed equestrian events.Sport in Mexico – Estadio Olímpico Universitario is a multi-purpose stadium in Mexico City. It has been used in many international competitions
141. Television in Mexico – Television is a popular form of entertainment in Mexico, with mass entertainment playing an important role in creating a national, unified culture. Mexico has four commercial television networks reaching 75 % or more of the population. Two are owned by Televisa, Canal 5 networks, while Azteca owns the Azteca 7 and Azteca Trece networks. It will expand beginning in 2016. There are also several commercial networks with less than 75 % national reach. Chief among these are Multimedios Televisión, which broadcasts mostly in northeastern Mexico. Noncommercially, Canal Once operated by the Instituto Politécnico Nacional is the oldest educational service in Latin America. As SPR's national network complements that of Canal Once, almost all of its stations also retransmit that network. In Mexico, telenovelas usually involve a romantic couple that usually ends with a wedding. One common ending archetype, consists with the villain dying, going to jail, becoming permanently injured or disabled, or losing his/her mind. On September 7, 1946 at Latin America's first experimental television station was established and was given the XE1GC callsign. This experimental station broadcast an artistic program and interviews for two years. XHTV channel 4 in Mexico City, signed on August 31, 1950, making Mexico the first Spanish-speaking country to introduce television. It started transmitting regular programs on the following day. It is also the first Hispanophone or Spanish country to introduce television.Television in Mexico – The telenovela Abrázame muy fuerte.
142. Outline of MexicoOutline of Mexico – The Flag of Mexico
143. Battle of Agua Dulce – As part of the Goliad Campaign to retake the Texas Gulf Coast, Mexican troops ambushed a group of Texians on March 1836. The skirmish began approximately 26 miles south in territory belonging to the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. When Mexico transitioned in 1835, supporters of federalism took up arms. His troops easily defeated Johnson's small force on February 26. Several days later, on the morning of March 2, Urrea sent 150 troops to ambush the rebels. After a brief battle, the main body of the Texian and Tejano troops were defeated. Two others escaped the battle and were pursued for 7 miles. Grant was killed, as were 11 men under his command. Six Texians were taken prisoner; contrary to Santa Anna's orders, Urrea instead sent them to a jail in Matamoros. An additional six Texians escaped; five of them later died in the Goliad massacre. Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model to a more centralized government. His increasingly dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, incited federalists to revolt. The Mexican Army quickly put down revolts throughout the country's interior, including a brutal suppression of militias in Oaxaca and Zacatecas. Unrest continued in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. The area that bordered the United States, known as Texas, was populated primarily by English-speaking settlers, known as Texians.Battle of Agua Dulce – James Fannin, second-in-command to Sam Houston
144. Battle of the Alamo – The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians -- both Texas adventurers from the United States -- to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution. Several months previously, Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were then garrisoned at the Alamo. The Texian force grew slightly with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. Travis. On February 23, approximately 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas. For the next 10 days, the two armies engaged with minimal casualties. In the early morning hours of March 6, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo. After repelling two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian soldiers withdrew into interior buildings. Defenders unable to reach these points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape. Between seven Texians may have surrendered; if so, they were quickly executed. Most eyewitness accounts reported between 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded.Battle of the Alamo – The Alamo, as drawn in 1854.
145. Aries (album) – Aries is the ninth studio album by Mexican recording artist Luis Miguel. It was released by WEA Latina on 22 June 1993. The record was produced by Miguel, assisted by Kiko Cibrian, Rudy Pérez, Juan Luis Guerra. Three singles were released to promote the album. "Ayer" and "Hasta Que Me Olvides", topped the US Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart and the third, "Suave", peaked at number nine. Two other songs were released as "Hasta el Fin" and "Tú y Yo"; both peaked at number four on the Hot Latin Songs chart. To further promote the record, Miguel launched the 1993 Aries Tour to the United States. Aries peaked on the US Billboard Latin Pop Albums where it stayed for 19 weeks. Internationally, the album was certified triple platinum in Mexico, where it sold over million copies. It was also certified diamond in Argentina. Aries sold through 2000. Miguel received several accolades, including a Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Album. In 1991 Miguel released his eighth studio album, a collection of classic boleros, the oldest of which originated in the 1940s. In spite of the album's success, Miguel did not want to release a record, similar to Romance. Else I would not be able to interpret it, or sing in it".Aries (album) – Aries
146. Bald eagle – The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water for nesting. The bald eagle is an opportunistic feeder which subsists mainly on fish, which it swoops snatches from the water with its talons. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years. Bald eagles are not actually bald; the name derives from an older meaning of the word, "white headed". The adult is mainly brown with tail. Females are about 25 percent larger than males. The beak is hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown. The bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal. In the 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States. It was removed on June 28, 2007.Bald eagle – Bald eagle
147. Battle of Gonzales – The Battle of Gonzales was the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution. It was fought on October 2, 1835, between rebellious Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army soldiers. In 1831, Mexican authorities gave a small cannon to help protect them from frequent Comanche raids. Over the next four years, in 1835 several states revolted. When the initial request was refused, Ugartechea sent 100 dragoons to retrieve the cannon. Within two days, up to 140 Texians gathered in Gonzales, all determined not to give up the cannon. On October 1, settlers voted to initiate a fight. Mexican soldiers opened fire as Texians approached their camp in the early hours of October 2. After several hours of desultory firing, the Mexican soldiers withdrew. News of the skirmish spread throughout the United States, where it was often referred to as the "Lexington of Texas". The cannon's fate is disputed. It may have been seized by Mexican troops after the Battle of the Alamo. The Mexican Constitution of 1824 liberalized the country's immigration policies, allowing foreigners to settle in border regions such as Mexican Texas. In 1825, American Green DeWitt received permission to settle 400 families in Texas near the confluence of the San Marcos and Guadalupe Rivers. In July 1826 they destroyed the capital city, Gonzales.Battle of Gonzales – This cannon, displayed at the Gonzales Memorial Museum, may have precipitated the battle.
148. Battle of Goliad – The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. La Bahía lay halfway between the then-important Texas port of Copano. The plan was initially dismissed by the central committee coordinating the rebellion. The Texians soon continued their march. The garrison at La Bahía could not mount an effective defense of the fort's perimeter. After a 30-minute battle, the Mexican garrison, under Colonel Juan López Sandoval, surrendered. One Mexican soldier had been three others wounded, while only one Texian had been injured. The victory isolated Cos's men from the coast forcing them to rely on a long overland march to request or receive reinforcements or supplies. In 1835, Mexico operated two major garrisons at San Antonio de Béxar and Presidio La Bahía near Goliad. Goliad laid halfway between it and the major Texas port of Copano. In early 1835, as the Mexican government transitioned to centralism, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence and Safety. A central committee in San Felipe de Austin coordinated their activities. Colonel Nicolas Condelle, led 200 men to reinforce Presidio La Bahía. A contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Cos landed with approximately 500 soldiers.Battle of Goliad – Battle of Goliad
149. Battle of San Patricio – The Battle of San Patricio was fought on February 27, 1836 between Mexican troops and rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians. The battle marked the start of the Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast. It took place around San Patricio. By the end of 1835, all Mexican troops had been driven from Texas. After spending several weeks gathering horses for the Matamoros Expedition, in late February about 40 men led the herd to San Patricio. Unbeknownst to the Texians, on February 18, Mexican General José de Urrea led a large contingent of troops into Texas. Their goal was to neutralize the Texian soldiers gathered along the coast. Urrea's men easily followed the trail left by Johnson's herd of horses. Mexican soldiers surprised the sleeping Texians in San Patricio in the early hours of February 27. After a fifteen-minute battle, all but six Texians had been imprisoned. One Mexican soldier was four injured. Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model to a more centralized government. His increasingly dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, incited federalists to revolt. The Mexican army quickly put down revolts including a brutal suppression of militias in Oaxaca and Zacatecas. Unrest continued in the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas.Battle of San Patricio – approximate location of the battle
150. Juan Davis Bradburn – Juan Davis Bradburn, born John Davis Bradburn, was a brigadier general in the Mexican Army. His actions as commandant of the garrison at Anahuac in Mexican Texas in 1831 and 1832 led to the events known as the Anahuac Disturbances. Raised in the United States, Bradburn's first career was as a merchant and slave trader. He first entered Mexico in 1812 as part of the Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition fighting Spanish control of Texas. When the expedition was quashed, Bradburn moved to Louisiana, where he served during the Battle of New Orleans. After his discharge, Bradburn spent several years fighting for Mexican independence. Bradburn became an officer in the new Mexican Army. He served for Mexican emperor Agustín de Iturbide. In 1830, Bradburn established Anahuac, in Texas. The local settlers resented Bradburn's efforts to withhold land titles from those who had squatted in unauthorized areas. They were further angered by his attempts to enforce laws, largely ignored. The hard feelings escalated when Bradburn, following Mexican law, refused to return runaway slaves to their owners in the United States. A large force of Texians marched on Anahuac to secure Travis's release. The resulting confrontation encouraged other immigrants to take armed action against Mexican soldiers. As a result of his actions, Bradburn was "one of the most maligned men in the 19th century.Juan Davis Bradburn – Bradburn served under Agustín de Iturbide (pictured).
151. CMLL World Heavyweight Championship – The CMLL World Heavyweight Championship is a professional wrestling world heavyweight championship established in 1991 and promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. CMLL introduced the championship as they moved away from the National Wrestling Alliance to signal their independence. As part of the move away from the NWA they established a number of championships designated as "CMLL World Championships" for a variety of divisions. The current champion is the 15th overall person to hold the championship and the 18th overall champion. However, Mexican wrestling has used multiple weight divisions, often with the lower weight classes receiving more attention from the promoters. CMLL carries on this tradition. As it is a professional championship, it is not won legitimately; it is instead won via a scripted ending to a match. In 1991 CMLL decided to create a series of branded world championships, the first of, for the Heavyweight division. The first champion was crowned in the finals of a 16 tournament that saw Konnan el Bárbaro defeat Cien Caras. CMLL held a 16-man single-elimination tournament to November 20, 1992, which ended with Black Magic winning the title. With the victory he became the first so far only British wrestler to win the Championship. In September 1997 Steel signed a contract with the World Wrestling Federation, which forced CMLL to vacate the championship for the second time. On October 1997 Universo 2000 won the title, starting the first of his three reigns, which remains a record. The record run ended on April 18, 2003 when Mr. Niebla won the title. Mr. Niebla was champion for 543 days before Universo 2000 regained the championship.CMLL World Heavyweight Championship – Val Venis, the 8th CMLL World Heavyweight Champion under the name "Steel"
152. CMLL World Middleweight Championship – The CMLL World Middleweight Championship is a professional wrestling world championship promoted by the Mexican wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The CMLL World Middleweight Champion since November 2011, has been Dragón Rojo Jr. the longest reigning champion in the history of the championship. Since its creation in 1991, there have been 17 individual championship reigns shared between 12 wrestlers. El Dandy is the only three-time champion; Apolo Dantés had the shortest reign of 77 days. EMLL later created the World Middleweight Championship to represent the highest prize of the middleweight division, higher than the Mexican National Middleweight Championship. In 1952, EMLL changed the title to the NWA World Middleweight Championship. CMLL held a eight-man tournament to determine the first middleweight champion on December 18, 1991. The tournament final saw Blue defeat El Satánico to become the first new titleholder. In June 1992, many wrestlers left CMLL to join the newly formed Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, which significantly affected CMLL's middleweight championships. The Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission allowed AAA to assume control of the Mexican National Middleweight Championship as the reigning Octagón had joined AAA. Meanwhile, the CMLL World Middleweight Championship was vacated after the departure of the Blue Panther. CMLL held a 16-man royal match to reduce the field to two finalists. A week later El Dandy defeated Casas to become the second CMLL World Middleweight Champion. The championship has not been vacated since then. The Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission allowed AAA to take control of the Mexican National Middleweight Championship at that point in time.CMLL World Middleweight Championship – Negro Casas, the 12th and 15th champion
153. Chicxulub crater – The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Its center is located near the town of Chicxulub, after which the crater is named. It was comet at least 10 kilometres in diameter, the Chicxulub impactor, striking the Earth. It makes the feature the third of the largest confirmed impact structures on Earth. The crater was discovered by geophysicists, looking for petroleum in the Yucatán during the late 1970s. Penfield was initially unable to obtain evidence that the geological feature gave up his search. Later, through contact with Alan Hildebrand in 1990, Penfield obtained samples that suggested it was an feature. Evidence for the origin of the crater includes shocked quartz, a gravity anomaly, tektites in surrounding areas. Penfield's job was to use geophysical data to scout possible locations for drilling. In the data, Penfield found a huge underwater arc in a ring 70 km across. He then obtained a map of the Yucatán made in the 1960s. Penfield found another arc on the peninsula itself, the ends of which pointed northward. Pemex let Penfield and company official Antonio Camargo present their results at the 1981 Society of Exploration Geophysicists conference. Their report attracted scant attention. Coincidentally, the K -- Pg boundary were attending a separate conference on Earth impacts.Chicxulub crater – Imaging from NASA 's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission STS-99 reveals part of the 180 km (110 mi)-diameter ring of the crater. The numerous sinkholes clustered around the trough of the crater suggest a prehistoric oceanic basin in the depression left by the impact.
154. Hurricane Claudette (2003) – Hurricane Claudette was the third tropical storm and first hurricane of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Claudette began as a tropical wave in the eastern Caribbean. It moved westward brushing past the Yucatán Peninsula before moving northwestward through the Gulf of Mexico. Forecasting of its intensity was uncertain throughout its lifetime, resulting in widespread and often unnecessary preparations along its path. Claudette was the first hurricane to make landfall in July since Hurricane Danny in the 1997 season. The hurricane caused moderate damage in Texas, mostly from strong winds, as well as extensive beach erosion. Because of the damage, President George W. Bush declared portions of a Federal Disaster Area, allowing the affected citizens to apply for aid. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on July 1. It steadily organized as it resembled a tropical depression by July 7. However, reconnaissance aircraft indicated the system did not have tropical characteristics, remained simply a low-pressure system. Because it had storm-force winds, the system was upgraded immediately to Tropical Storm Claudette after it developed a low-level circulation later on July 8. Possibly due to its forward motion, the storm became disorganized and weakened. Claudette reached hurricane status for six hours on July 10. Soon after, the storm weakened back into a tropical storm. In response to a break in the subtropical ridge—a high-pressure ridge that often prevents tropical systems from moving northward—it turned to the west-northwest.Hurricane Claudette (2003) – Hurricane Claudette near landfall in Texas
155. CMLL World Light Heavyweight Championship – The CMLL World Light Heavyweight Championship is a professional wrestling world heavyweight championship promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre since 1991. The current CMLL World Light Heavyweight Champion in his first reign is La Máscara, who won it by defeating Ángel de Oro on April 8, 2016. La Máscara is the 15th overall champion and the 13th wrestler to officially hold the championship. The title has been vacated only once since its creation in 1991, has had one unofficial reign. In the 1950s EMLL became a member of the National Wrestling Alliance and began promoting the NWA World Light Heavyweight Championship in the late 1950s. EMLL left the NWA In the late 1980s to avoid the politics of the NWA, later rebranded themselves as "Consejo Mundal de Lucha Libre". Jerry Estrada was chosen as the first champion, with CMLL booking the tournament for the championship to end with Estrada defeating Pierroth Jr. Dr. Wagner Jr. won the title back eight days later before returning to Mexico. Since the change was not officially recognized, CMLL considers a two-time champion, not a three-time champion. CMLL held a 16-man elimination match to determine which two wrestlers should compete in the finals for the vacant title. On January 2013, Rey Escorpión defeated Volador Jr. in the tournament finals to become the overall champion. La Máscara is the current CMLL World Light Heavyweight Champion in his first reign, since defeating Ángel de Oro on April 8, 2016. Overall, there have been 15 reigns shared between 13 wrestlers, which does not include one unofficial reign by Aquarius. Only two men have held the title more than once; both Dr. Wagner Jr. and Atlantis have officially held the title twice. Because Aquarius' eight-day reign in 1996 is not officially recognized by CMLL, Jerry Estrada's 175-day reign is the shortest in the history of the championship.CMLL World Light Heavyweight Championship – Último Guerrero, held the championship for the longest period of time.
156. Colorado River – The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The 1,450-mile-long Colorado River drains an arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. and two Mexican states. After entering Mexico, the Colorado approaches the mostly dry Colorado River Delta at the tip of the Gulf of California between Baja California and Sonora. Beginning with small bands of nomadic hunter-gatherers, Native Americans have inhabited the Colorado River basin for at least 8,000 years. These societies are believed to have collapsed because of a combination of severe drought and poor use practices. Most native peoples that inhabit today are descended from other groups that settled in the region beginning about 1,000 years ago. Early contact between natives was generally limited to the fur trade in the headwaters and sporadic trade interactions along the lower river. American explorers collected valuable information that would later be used to develop the river for navigation and supply. Lesser numbers settled in the upper basin, the scene of major gold strikes in the 1870s. The system keystone, Hoover Dam, was completed in 1935. The Colorado is now considered with every drop of its water fully allocated. As demands for Colorado River water continue to rise, the level of human control of the river continues to generate controversy. The Colorado begins at just under 2 miles above sea level. After a short south, the river turns west below Grand Lake, the largest natural lake in the state. As it flows southwest, it gains strength from small tributaries, as well as larger ones including the Blue, Eagle and Roaring Fork rivers.Colorado River – The Colorado River at Horseshoe Bend, Arizona, a few miles below Glen Canyon Dam
157. Convention of 1832 – The Convention of 1832 was the first political gathering of colonists in Mexican Texas. Delegates hoped to quell the widespread belief that settlers in Texas wished to secede from Mexico. The convention was the first in a series of unsuccessful attempts at political negotiation that eventually led to the Texas Revolution. Under the 1824 Constitution of Mexico, Texas was denied merged into the new state Coahuila y Tejas. Tensions erupted in June 1832, when Texas residents systematically expelled all Mexican troops from eastern Texas. The lack of military oversight emboldened the colonists to increase their political activity. On October 1832, 55 political delegates met at San Felipe de Austin to petition for changes in the governance of Texas. Notably absent was any representation from San Antonio de Béxar, where many of the native Mexican settlers lived. The delegates elected a highly respected empresario, as president of the convention. They also voted the power to call future conventions. Before the petition could be delivered to Mexico City, the political chief of Ramón Músquiz, ruled that the convention was illegal and annulled the resolutions. Músquiz forwarded the new document to the Mexican Congress. In 1821 several of Spain's former colonies in the New World banded together to create a new country, Mexico. The Constitution of 1824 established Mexico as a federalist republic comprising multiple states. Sparsely populated Spanish provinces were denied independent statehood and instead merged with neighboring areas.Convention of 1832 – General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 's revolt against the Mexican government gave the Texians an excuse for their own rebellion.
158. Cougar – The cougar, also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the greatest of any large terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere. Generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types. It is the second-heaviest cat in the New World, after the jaguar. Secretive and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although there are daytime sightings. The cougar pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources are ungulates, also livestock. It also hunts species as small as rodents. This cat can also live in open areas. The cougar survives at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, abundance of prey. While large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, grizzly bear. It mostly avoids people. Fatal attacks on humans have recently been increasing in North America as more people enter their territories. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America except for an isolated Florida panther subpopulation.Cougar
159. Hurricane Dean – Hurricane Dean was the strongest tropical cyclone of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the most intense North Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Wilma of 2005, tying for overall. Additionally, it made the third most intense Atlantic landfall. It strengthened into a major hurricane, reaching Category 5 status on the Saffir -- Simpson hurricane wind scale before passing south of Jamaica on August 20. The storm made landfall as a powerful Category 5 storm. It emerged into the Bay of Campeche weakened, but still a hurricane. It strengthened briefly before making a second landfall near Tecolutla on August 22. Dean drifted to the northwest, weakening into a remnant low which dissipated uneventfully over the southwestern United States. The hurricane's intense winds, waves, storm surge were responsible for at least 45 deaths across ten countries and caused estimated damages of US$1.66 billion. First impacting the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Dean's path through the Caribbean devastated agricultural crops, particularly those of Martinique and Jamaica. Through the affected regions, repair took months to complete. Donations solicited by international aid organizations joined national funds in clearing roads, replanting destroyed crops. In Jamaica, where the damage was worst, production did not return to pre-storm levels for over a year. Mexico's industry, too, took almost a year to rebuild its damaged cruise ship infrastructure. Dean was the first hurricane to make landfall in the Atlantic basin since Hurricane Andrew on August 24, 1992.Hurricane Dean – Hurricane Dean intensifying while approaching the Yucatán Peninsula
160. Hurricane Erika (2003) – Hurricane Erika was a weak hurricane that struck extreme northeastern Mexico near the Texas-Tamaulipas border in mid-August of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. Erika was the eighth tropical cyclone, third hurricane of the season. At first, the National Hurricane Center operationally did not designate it as a hurricane because initial data suggested winds of 70 mph at Erika's intensity. It was not until later data was analyzed that the NHC revised it in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Under the influence of a high system, Erika moved quickly westward and strengthened under favorable conditions. It made landfall on August 16 and rapidly dissipated inland. While Erika's disturbance was moving across Florida, it dropped heavy rainfall. In south Texas, Erika produced moderate winds of 50 to 60 mph along with light rain, causing minor and isolated damage in the state. In northeastern Mexico, Erika produced moderate amounts of rainfall, flooding. There, two people were killed when their vehicle was swept away by floodwaters. A weak area of low pressure detached from a frontal system on August 8 while 1,150 miles to the east of Bermuda. On August 9, it generated convection as it passed beneath a cold-core upper-level low. As the system rapidly continued westward, much of the convection remained near the center of the upper-level low, preventing development of a closed circulation. The mid-level storm moved across Florida. With well-established outflow and low levels of shear, Erika strengthened as the circulation became better defined.Hurricane Erika (2003) – Erika weakening over northeastern Mexico several hours after landfall on August 16
161. Exsudoporus frostii – Exsudoporus frostii, commonly known as Frost's bolete or the apple bolete, is a bolete fungus first described scientifically in 1874. A member of the mushrooms produced by the fungus have tubes and pores instead of gills on the underside of their caps. Exsudoporus frostii is distributed to Georgia, in the southwest from Arizona extending south to Mexico and Costa Rica. Its fruit bodies are typically found growing near hardwood trees, especially oak. Another characteristic of moist fruit bodies is the amber-colored drops exuded on the pore surface. Although the mushrooms are considered edible, they are generally not recommended for consumption because of the risk of confusion with blue-bruising boletes. E. frostii may be distinguished from other superficially similar red-capped boletes by differences in distribution, associated tree species, morphology. The species was named based on specimens found in Brattleboro, Vermont. Boletus Frostii and Boletus Russellii are mushrooms with character, even though they were described by amateurs." William Murrill in 1909 placed the species in the genus Suillellus, while Sanshi Imai transferred it in 1968. Tubiporus has since been synonymized with Boletus. Following molecular studies that outlined a new phylogenetic framework for the Boletaceae, the bolete was transferred to the newly circumscribed genus Exsudoporus in 2014. Exsudoporus frostii is commonly known as the "apple bolete". In Mexico, its name is panza agria, which translates to "sour belly". The edge of the cap is curved inward, as it ages it can uncurl and turn upward.Exsudoporus frostii – Exsudoporus frostii
162. Fredonian Rebellion – The Fredonian Rebellion was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. The settlers, led by Empresario Haden Edwards, created the Republic of Fredonia near Nacogdoches. The short-lived republic included areas, previously settled. Supporters declared their independence from Mexico. On January 1827, a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 250 militiamen from Austin's colony marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. His brother Benjamin fled to the United States. Chief Richard Fields was killed by his own tribe. A local merchant was sentenced to death, but later paroled. The rebellion led Mexican President Guadalupe Victoria to increase the military presence in the area. As a result, hostile tribes in the area halted their raids on settlements and agreed to a peace treaty. The Comanche abided by this treaty for many years. Fearing that through the rebellion the United States hoped to gain control of Texas, the Mexican government severely curtailed immigration from the US. This new law was bitterly opposed by colonists and caused increasing dissatisfaction with Mexican rule. Some historians consider the Fredonian Rebellion to be the beginning of the Texas Revolution. It sparked the powder for later success.Fredonian Rebellion – The Old Stone Fort was seized during the Fredonian Rebellion.
163. Grass Fight – The Grass Fight was a small battle during the Texas Revolution, fought between the Mexican Army and the Texan Army. The battle took place on November 1835, just south of San Antonio de Béxar in the Mexican region of Texas. Bored with the inactivity, many of the Texian soldiers returned home; a smaller number of adventurers from the United States arrived to replace them. After the Texian Army rejected commander-in-chief Stephen F. Austin's call to launch an assault on Béxar on November 22, Austin resigned from the army. The men elected their new commander-in-chief. On November 26, Texian scout Deaf Smith brought news of a Mexican train, accompanied by 50 -- 100 soldiers, on its way to Bexar. The Texian camp was convinced that the train carried silver to pay the Mexican garrison and purchase supplies. Burleson ordered Colonel James Bowie to intercept the train. An additional 100 infantry followed. On seeing the commence, Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos sent reinforcements from Bexar. The Texians repulsed several attacks by Mexican soldiers, who finally retreated to Bexar. When the Texians examined the abandoned pack train they discovered that, instead of silver, the mules carried freshly grass to feed the Mexican Army horses. Historian Alwyn Barr states that three Mexican soldiers were killed, although Bowie and Burleson initially claimed the number was much higher. On October 1835, Texas colonists attacked a Mexican force at the Battle of Gonzales, formally launching the Texas Revolution. After the battle ended, disgruntled colonists continued to assemble in Gonzales, eager to put a decisive end to Mexican control over the area.Grass Fight – Gen. Martín Perfecto de Cos, commander of the Álamo garrison
164. Hurricane Guillermo (1997) – Hurricane Guillermo was the ninth most intense Pacific hurricane on record, attaining peak winds of 160 mph and a barometric pressure of 919 hPa. The system reached hurricane status before undergoing rapid intensification the following day. At the end of this phase, the storm attained its intensity as a powerful Category 5 hurricane. The storm was downgraded to a tropical storm on August 8. Once entering the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, Guillermo briefly weakened before re-attaining tropical storm status. On August 15, the storm reached an unusually high latitude of 41.8°N before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone. Throughout Guillermo's track, the storm never threatened any major landmass, resulting in little impact on land. However, because of its extreme intensity, it produced large swells across the Pacific Ocean, affecting areas to coastal Mexico. Along the American Pacific coast, three people drowned amid high waves, one in California. The effects of Guillermo were not deemed severe enough to justify retirement of its name. Hurricane Guillermo began its extensive track as a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on July 1997. Initially weak, the system tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean for several weeks. Once in the Pacific, banding features began to form. Additionally, a low system developed within the disturbance by July 29. Within a day of being classified, the system intensified into the seventh named storm of the 1997 season.Hurricane Guillermo (1997) – Hurricane Guillermo at peak intensity on August 5
165. Hasekura Tsunenaga – In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a diplomatic mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582. He is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas and in Europe. Although Hasekura's embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking. Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan. Little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ancestral ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a mid-level noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan, who had the opportunity to directly serve the daimyo Date Masamune. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle, constructed in Hasekura-ward, Kawasaki-city, Miyagi prefecture, by his grandfather Hasekura Tsunemasa. The place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura village, now Hasekura-ward in Kawasaki-city. It is recorded that important missions were given as his representative. It is also recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taiko Toyotomi Hideyoshi, for six months in 1597. In 1612, Hasekura's father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, his son should normally have been executed as well.Hasekura Tsunenaga – Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615 by Claude Deruet
166. Hurricane Carmen – Hurricane Carmen was the most intense tropical cyclone of the 1974 Atlantic hurricane season. Carmen originated as a tropical disturbance that emerged from Africa toward the end of August. The disturbance traveled westward, spawning a tropical depression east of the Lesser Antilles on August 29. Carmen moved ashore on the Yucatán Peninsula, where, despite striking a sparsely populated region, it killed several people. Before the storm's arrival, many residents had moved to higher ground. Upon entering the Gulf of Mexico, Carmen re-intensified as it approached the United States. Approximately 100,000 residents left their homes and sought shelter. The sugar industry suffered substantial losses. Throughout its course, the hurricane caused $162 million in damage. Due to the severity of the storm, the Carmen was retired from the list of Atlantic tropical cyclone names. The origins of Hurricane Carmen can be traced during the middle of August 1974. The disturbance moved slowly westward with little activity initially, although upon entering the Atlantic Ocean, it spawned a tropical wave within the Intertropical Convergence Zone. It eventually split into two components, the northernmost of which consolidated into an organized storm system. Moving westward, the system developed into a tropical depression on August 29, more than 200 mi east of Guadeloupe. Due to favorable outflow from an anticyclone nearby, the depression gradually strengthened as it moved through the Lesser Antilles.Hurricane Carmen – Hurricane Carmen as a Category 4 storm on September 1
167. Hurricane Edith (1971) – Hurricane Edith was the strongest hurricane to form during the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season. It quickly strengthened into a hurricane in the Caribbean Sea. Edith rapidly made landfall on Cape Gracias a Dios as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. After briefly entering the Gulf of Honduras it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Edith steadily dissipated over Georgia on September 18. The hurricane killed two people when it passed near Aruba. Striking northeastern Central America as a Category 5 hurricane, Edith killed at least 35 people. In Texas high tides caused coastal flooding but little damage. Edith caused moderate to heavy damage in portions of Louisiana from the storm. One tornado, rated F3 on the Fujita Scale, damaged injured multiple people in Baton Rouge. The outbreak extended eastward into Florida, of which a few destroyed entire buildings. Damage in the United States totaled US$ million. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa near Dakar on August 31. It organized into a tropical disturbance on September 2 with a small, circular area of convection. The system moved to the west, on September 3, the convection diminished after moving west of 40° W.Hurricane Edith (1971) – Radar image of Edith at peak intensity
168. Hurricane Iris – Hurricane Iris of 2001 was the most destructive hurricane in Belize since Hurricane Hattie in 1961. Iris was the second-strongest storm of the 2001 Atlantic season, behind Hurricane Michelle. It moved westward through the Caribbean, intensifying on October 5 south of Puerto Rico and into a hurricane the following day. While passing south of the Dominican Republic, Iris dropped heavy rainfall that caused landslides, killing eight people. Later, the hurricane passed south of Jamaica, where it destroyed two houses. On reaching the western Caribbean Sea, Iris rapidly intensified on the Saffir -- Simpson scale. The hurricane quickly dissipated over Central America, although its remnants contributed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Destruction totaled $250 million. The hurricane damaged or wrecked more than 95 % of the homes in 35 villages in the poorest parts of the country. Iris left about 15,000 people many receiving assistance from the government and the local Red Cross chapter. High winds also damaged large swaths of forest and crops, mostly affecting the industry. Iris killed 24 people in Belize, including 20 who died when a diving boat capsized near Big Creek. The storm also killed eight people and later dropped heavy rainfall in southern Mexico, where two people died. An area of convection soon blossomed along the wave's axis. However, Hurricane Hunters did not confirm the depression's formation until nine hours later.Hurricane Iris – Hurricane Iris before landfall in Belize
169. Hurricane Isis (1998) – Hurricane Isis was the deadliest tropical cyclone and only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. It moved northward, striking the southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California. Isis quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted before dissipating in the U.S. state of Idaho. The rainfall caused widespread damage to railways, stranding thousands of people. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 1998. It on August 19 spawned the tropical depression that eventually became Hurricane Bonnie. The wave crossed Central America into the eastern Pacific Ocean on August 25. The wave decreased its forward speed while approaching a low-level circulation over southern Mexico. On August 31, the two primary areas of convection were well-removed from the center. In real time, the National Hurricane Center first upgraded 21 hours later. The depression initially tracked slowly north-northwestward and gradually strengthened. Late on September 1 it intensified into Tropical Storm Isis while located about 200 miles south of Cabo San Lucas. Upon becoming a tropical storm, the deep convection was not organized, causing one forecaster to describe Isis as a monsoon-like system. A mid-level trough extending southward from the Arizona/California border caused the storm to accelerate northward.Hurricane Isis (1998) – Isis shortly after becoming a hurricane
170. Hurricane Ismael – Hurricane Ismael was a weak, but deadly Pacific hurricane that killed over one hundred people in northern Mexico in September of the 1995 Pacific hurricane season. It steadily strengthened as it moved to the north-northwest. Ismael attained status on September 14 while located 210 miles off the coast of Mexico. Ismael rapidly dissipated on September 16 over northwestern Mexico. The remnants extended eastward into the Mid-Atlantic States. Offshore, Ismael produced waves of up to 30 feet in height. As a result 52 ships were wrecked, killing 57 fishermen. On land, Ismael resulted in $26 million in damage. The hurricane destroyed thousands of houses, leaving 30,000 people homeless. Moisture from the storm extended into the United States, causing localized moderate damage in southeastern New Mexico. A poorly organized area of convection persisted about 170 miles on September 9. After three days without further organization a circulation developed off the southwest coast of Mexico. The system quickly organized, resulting in Dvorak classifications beginning later that day. Late on September 12 it developed into Tropical Depression Ten while located about 350 miles south-southwest of Manzanillo, Colima. Following an increase in deep convection it intensified into Tropical Storm Ismael early on September 13.Hurricane Ismael – Hurricane Ismael off the coast of Baja California nearing landfall
171. Hurricane John (2006) – Hurricane John was the eleventh named storm, seventh hurricane, fifth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. Hurricane John developed on August 28 to the south of Mexico. It attained peak winds of 135 mph on August 30. It slowly weakened as it moved dissipated on September 4. Moisture from the remnants of the storm entered the southwest United States. The hurricane threatened large portions of the western coastline of Mexico, resulting in the evacuation of tens of thousands of people. In coastal portions of western Mexico, strong winds downed trees, while heavy rain resulted in mudslides. Hurricane John caused moderate damage including the destruction of more than 200 houses and thousands of flimsy shacks. Damage totaled $663 million. In the southwest United States, moisture from the remnants of John produced heavy rainfall. The rainfall aided drought conditions in portions of northern Texas, although it was detrimental in locations that had received above-normal rainfall throughout the year. The tropical wave that would become John moved off the coast of Africa on August 17. It quickly showed signs of organization. It moved west-northwestward at 10 -- 15 mph. Convection increased late on August 26 over the area of low pressure.Hurricane John (2006) – Hurricane John on August 31
172. Hurricane Kenna – Hurricane Kenna is tied as the third-most intense Pacific hurricane to strike the west coast of Mexico in recorded history. Kenna was the sixteenth tropical depression, thirteenth tropical storm, seventh hurricane, third Category 5 hurricane of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season. Hundreds of buildings were destroyed along coastal areas of Puerto Vallarta. A tropical disturbance along the wave axis gradually became better organized. Dvorak classifications began late on October 20. Early on October 22, the system developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen-E while located about 375 mi south of Manzanillo, Colima. Initially the depression was disorganized, with sporadic deep convection. The depression quickly became better organized with a great increase six hours after forming it strengthened into Tropical Storm Kenna. Upper-level banding features improved in organization, as well. On October 23, the outer rainbands convection became more concentrated near the center, which coincided with a steady increase in strength. Late on October 23, Kenna intensified into a hurricane while located about 380 southwest of Manzanillo. Shortly after becoming a hurricane, Kenna began to rapidly intensify with a 17 mi wide eye located within its well-defined dense overcast. Despite a 27 increase in pressure in 12 hours, convective activity increased prior to Kenna making landfall. On October 25 Hurricane Kenna struck with estimated winds of 140 mph. The circulation dissipated on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains.Hurricane Kenna – Hurricane Kenna at peak intensity
173. Hurricane Lane (2006) – Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. It steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane made landfall in the state of Sinaloa at peak strength. It rapidly weakened and later brought precipitation to southern part of the U.S. state of Texas. Throughout its path, Lane resulted in moderate damage. Damage was heaviest in Sinaloa, where the hurricane made landfall, including reports of severe damage. Across Mexico, an estimated 4,320 homes were af