1. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
3. Gulf of Mexico – The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U. S. states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas border the Gulf on the north, Atlantic and Pacific coasts, or sometimes the south coast, in juxtaposition to the Great Lakes region being the north coast. One of the seven main areas is the Gulf of Mexico basin. The Gulf of Mexico formed approximately 300 million years ago as a result of plate tectonics, the Gulfs basin is roughly oval and is approximately 810 nautical miles wide and floored by sedimentary rocks and recent sediments. It is connected to part of the Atlantic Ocean through the Florida Straits between the U. S. and Cuba, and with the Caribbean Sea via the Yucatan Channel between Mexico and Cuba, with the narrow connection to the Atlantic, the Gulf experiences very small tidal ranges. The size of the Gulf basin is approximately 1.6 million km2, almost half of the basin is shallow continental shelf waters. The basin contains a volume of roughly 2,500 quadrillion liters, the consensus among geologists who have studied the geology of the Gulf of Mexico, is that prior to the Late Triassic, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist. It was created by the collision of plates that formed Pangea. As interpreted by Roy Van Arsdale and Randel T. Cox, geologists and other Earth scientists agree in general that the present Gulf of Mexico basin originated in Late Triassic time as the result of rifting within Pangea. The rifting was associated with zones of weakness within Pangea, including sutures where the Laurentia, South American, first, there was a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic phase of rifting during which rift valleys formed and filled with continental red beds. Second, as rifting progressed through Early and Middle Jurassic time and it was at this time that tectonics first created a connection to the Pacific Ocean across central Mexico and later eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. This flooded the basin created by rifting and crustal thinning to create the Gulf of Mexico. While the Gulf of Mexico was a basin, the subsiding transitional crust was blanketed by the widespread deposition of Louann Salt. Initially, during the Late Jurassic, continued rifting widened the Gulf of Mexico and progressed to the point that sea-floor spreading, at this point, sufficient circulation with the Atlantic Ocean was established that the deposition of Louann Salt ceased. During the Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, the occupied by the Gulf of Mexico experienced a period of cooling. The subsidence was the result of a combination of stretching, cooling. Initially, the combination of stretching and cooling caused about 5–7 km of tectonic subsidence of the central thin transitionalGulf of Mexico – Sediment in the Gulf of Mexico
4. List of countries by population – This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. For instance, the United Kingdom is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately, in addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically, some countries, notably Thailand, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens, for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate. Also given in percent is each countrys population compared to the population of the world, figures used in this chart are based on the most up to date estimate or projections by the national census authority where available, and are usually rounded off. Where updated national data are not available, figures are based on the projections for 2016 by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Because the compiled figures are not collected at the time in every country, or at the same level of accuracy. Furthermore, the addition of figures from all countries may not equal the world total, a handful of nations have not conducted a census in over 30 years, providing high error margin estimates only. Areas that form parts of sovereign states, such as the countries of the United Kingdom, are counted as part of the sovereign states concerned. Note, All dependent territories or constituent countries that are parts of states are shown in italicsList of countries by population – A map of world population in 2014
5. Hispanophone – Hispanophone or Hispanosphere denotes Spanish language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world. The term derives from the Latin political name of the Iberian Peninsula, the present map has colored the Hispanosphere, composed of the currently Hispanophone geographic areas. Hispanophones are estimated at between 500 and 550 million globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers, around 360 million live in Hispanic America and 50 million in Spain or 70 million in Europe. There are a number of Spanish speakers in the United States. In a cultural, rather than merely linguistic sense, the notion of Hispanophone goes further than the above definition, in a cultural sense, the whole of Hispanophones are sometimes called the Hispanidad. During the Spanish period between 1492 and 1898, many people from Spain migrated to the new lands they had conquered and their influences are found in the following continents and countries that were originally colonized by the Spaniards. Note The modern-day people that live in the region of ancient Hispania are the Portuguese, Spanish, Andorra, historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian kingdoms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. These kingdoms had their own nationalistic loyalties and political borders, today, there is no single Castilian-Spanish identity for the whole country. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in recognising their several Spanish identities at the same time, Spain is a culturally heterogeneous country, home to a wide range of subcultures, each one with its own customs and traditions. Some such subcultures have their own language, Spains various subcultures coexist in Spains provinces, and each one has its own traditions and idiosyncrasies. Some even have their own language, all of them along the continuum of Romance languages. The existence of distinct cultures in Spain allows an analogy to be drawn to the United Kingdom. Using the term Spanish for someone of Spanish descent would then be expected to be equivalent to using Briton to describe someone descending from some part of the United Kingdom. In contrast with Spain, because of centuries of gradual and mutual consolidation across the Iberian peninsula and it is a subtle, yet important, distinction. In Spain, as in the United Kingdom, the economically dominant territories spread their language for mutual communication, however, the political dominance in the United Kingdom tends to be sharper compared to Spain, where the medieval territories dont exist anymore. Spanish is the language in a great part of the Americas. Hispanic Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry or national origin is of any of the nations composing the Hispanosphere, a Hispanic persons status is independent from whether or not he or she speaks the Spanish language, for not all Hispanic Americans speak Spanish. A Hispanic person may be of any race, as of 2013 Hispanics accounted for 17. 1% of the population, around 53.2 million peopleHispanophone – Spanish official; spoken all over the country
6. Administrative divisions of Mexico – The United Mexican States is a federal republic composed of 31 states and Mexico City. According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free, each state has its own congress and constitution. Mexico City is currently being reformed to have the rights of a state. The states of the Mexican Federation are free, sovereign, autonomous and they are free to govern themselves according to their own laws, each state has a constitution that cannot contradict the federal constitution, which covers issues of national competence. Since states have autonomy, each has its own civil and penal codes. In addition, the federation makes up a constituency in which 32 senators are elected by the method of proportional representation, Federal Deputies, however, do not represent the states, but rather the citizens themselves. The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate together comprise the Congress of the Union, the states are internally divided into municipalities. Each municipality is autonomous in its ability to elect their own council, the council is headed by a mayor elected every 3 years with no possibility of immediate reelection. Each municipality has a composed of councilors in terms of population size. The council is responsible, in most cases, to all utilities required for its population. This concept, which arises from the Mexican Revolution, is known as a free municipality. In total there are 2438 municipalities in Mexico, the state with the highest number of municipalities is Oaxaca, with 570, Mexico City has a special status within the federation, being a federal district. Until January 2016, Mexico City was officially called Federal District and it is the seat of government of the Union and the capital of the United Mexican States. Mexico City was separated from the State of Mexico, of which it was the capital, on November 18,1824, as such, it did not belong to any state in particular but to all. Therefore, it was the president of Mexico, in representation of the federation, with full autonomy, Mexico City would have its own constitution – it previously had only an organic law called Statute of Autonomy – and its boroughs became municipalities. Until the ratification of Mexico Citys constitution, it is divided for administrative purposes into 16 delegacionesor boroughs. *Mexicos post agency, Correos de México, does not offer an official list, various competing commercially devised lists exist. The list here reflects choices among them according to these sources, on September 27,1821, after three centuries of Spanish rule, Mexico gained independenceAdministrative divisions of Mexico – Mexican States and Federal District Estados Mexicanos y el Distrito Federal (Spanish)
7. List of cities in Mexico – This article contains lists of both the largest cities and largest municipalities in Mexico. See also the list of Metropolitan areas of Mexico and this is a list of cities in Mexico by fixed population, according to the 2010 Mexican national census. Note that Veracruz and Naucalpan are cities whose administration is divided between two municipalities, the list gives the population of each part of the city separately, note also that Mexico City contains all of the Distrito Federals area, including rural areas with relatively minor populations. The Distrito Federals population is classified as 8,810,393 urban and 40,687 rural, all other localities are officially classified as solely urban by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. All of the map links are at the same scale, ‡ These cities extend beyond the borders of a single municipality. The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places in Mexico as of the 2010 census, as defined by the Mexicos Census Bureau the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Metropolitan areas of Mexico Demographics of Mexico National Population Council — official website, National Institute of Statistics and Geography — official website. Main Cities to Visit in Mexico — Towns of Mexico — List with all the villages, townsList of cities in Mexico – 1 – Mexico City.
8. Middle power – In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition. The concept of the middle power dates back to the origins of the European state system, in the late 16th century, Italian political thinker Giovanni Botero divided the world into three types of states – grandissime, mezano and piccoli. According to Botero, a mezano or middle power. has sufficient strength, no agreed standard method defines which states are middle powers. Some researchers use Gross National Product statistics to draw lists of middle powers around the world, economically, middle powers are generally those that are not considered too big or too small, however that is defined. Economics is not always the defining factor, under the original sense of the term, a middle power was one that had some degree of influence globally but did not dominate in any one area. This usage is not universal, and some define middle power to include nations that can be regarded as regional powers, however, emerging and traditional middle powers can be distinguished in terms of their mutually-influencing constitutive and behavioural differences. Constitutively, traditional middle powers are wealthy, stable, egalitarian, social democratic, emerging middle powers by contrast are semi-peripheral, materially inegalitarian and recently democratised states that demonstrate much regional influence and self-association. According to Enrico Fels from the University of Bonn, Firstly, just like great powers, finally, with regards to security and related to the first first point, a middle power must be militarily self-sufficient enough to inflict great costs upon an actively aggressive great power. Under this definition however, nuclear-armed states like India and Pakistan, Middle powers are states who commit their relative affluence, managerial skills, and international prestige to the preservation of the international order and peace. Middle powers perform these internationalist activities because of an idealistic imperative they associate with being a middle power and this imperative was particularly profound during the most intense periods of the Cold War. According to Soeya Yoshihide, Middle Power does not just mean a states size or military or economic power, rather, middle power diplomacy is defined by the issue area where a state invests its resources and knowledge. Middle powers are the force in the process of transnational institutional-building. Characteristics of middle power diplomacy include, Commitment to multilateralism through global institutions, high degree of civil society penetration in the countrys foreign policy. The term first entered Canadian political discourse after World War II, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, for example called Canada a power of the middle rank and helped to lay out the classical definition of Canadian middle power diplomacy. When he was advocating for Canadas election to the United Nations Security Council, in March 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd defined his countrys foreign policy as one of middle power diplomacy, along the lines of similar criteria. Australia would influence international decision-makers on issues such as economic, security. The overlaps between the lists of middle powers and great powers show that there is no agreement among authorities. Some academics also believe that Germany and Japan are great powers, lists are often the subject of much debate and tend to place comparatively large countries alongside relatively smaller onesMiddle power – Leaders of the G-20 countries and others present at the 2008 G-20 Washington summit. Most members of the G-20 are middle powers while some are great powers.
9. Newly industrialized country – The category of newly industrialized country is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed countrys status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, another characterization of NICs is that of countries undergoing rapid economic growth. Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of an NIC, NICs usually share some other common features, including, Strong political leaders. A switch from agricultural to industrial economies, especially in the manufacturing sector, an increasingly open-market economy of developed nations, allowing free trade with other countries in the world. Large national corporations operating in several continents, Strong capital investment from foreign countries. Political leadership in their area of influence, rapid growth of urban centers and population. There is a distinction between these countries and the countries now considered NICs. All four economies are classified as high-income economies by the World Bank and Advanced economies by the International Monetary Fund, all of them, like Western European countries, have a Human Development Index considered very high by the UN. The table below presents the list of countries consistently considered NICs by different authors, turkey and South Africa are classified as developed countries by the CIA. Turkey was a member of the OECD in 1961 and Mexico joined in 1994. The G8+5 group is composed of the original G8 members in addition to China, India, Mexico, South Africa, note, Green-colored cells indicate higher value or best performance in index, while yellow-colored cells indicate the opposite. For China and India, the population of these two countries means that per capita income will remain low even if either economy surpasses that of the United States in overall GDP. When GDP per capita is calculated according to purchasing power parity, GDP per capita typically is an indicator for living standards in a given country as well. This group is expected to expand to G14 by adding Egypt alongside the five forementioned countries, authors set lists of countries accordingly to different methods of economic analysis. Sometimes a work ascribes NIC status to a country that other authors dont consider NIC and this is the case of countries such as Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Russia. NICs usually benefit from low wage costs, which translates into lower input prices for suppliers. This comparative advantage is often criticized by advocates of the trade movement. Critics of NICs argue economic freedom is not always associated with freedom in countries such as China, pointing out that Internet censorshipNewly industrialized country – Newly industrialized countries as of 2013 [update].
10. List of countries by GDP (PPP) – This article includes a list of countries by their gross domestic product, the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year. Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, the GDP dollar data given on this page are derived from purchasing power parity calculations. It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries, PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index. These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods. The first table includes estimates for the year 2016, for all current 187 International Monetary Fund members, as well as Hong Kong, data are in millions of international dollars and were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2015, the second table includes data mostly for the year 2015 for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states, as well as the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions. Data are in billions of dollars and were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product data update of 2016, the data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Click on one of the triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category. ^a Chinas PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the country. Chinas entry does not include the two administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. List of Muslim Countries by GDP Purchasing Power Parity at Materia IslamicaList of countries by GDP (PPP) – World Share of GDP (PPP) according to data released by the IMF, October 2014
11. UNESCO – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. It is the heir of the League of Nations International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, UNESCO has 195 member states and nine associate members. Most of its offices are cluster offices covering three or more countries, national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs, education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and it is also a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, on 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944, a prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCOs Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place between 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General and this change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organizations fields of competence. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organizations publications amounted to interference in the racial problems. South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, UNESCOs early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947. This project was followed by missions to other countries, including, for example. In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory, in 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults. Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, UNESCOs early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960. The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam, during the 20-year campaign,22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro, Fes, Kathmandu, Borobudur, the organizations work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978, since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 and 2005UNESCO – UNESCO offices in Brasília
12. World Heritage Sites – A World Heritage Site is a landmark which has been officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some form of significance. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the interests of humanity. The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture, under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The program was founded with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the Worlds Cultural and Natural Heritage, since then,192 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most adhered to international instruments. As of July 2016,1052 sites are listed,814 cultural,203 natural, in 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the Member States for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia, the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. The project cost $80 million, about $40 million of which was collected from 50 countries, the projects success led to other safeguarding campaigns, saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, and the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, the United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, the Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of June 2016, it has been ratified by 192 states, including 188 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See, Niue, a country must first list its significant cultural and natural sites, the result is called the Tentative List. A country may not nominate sites that have not been first included on the Tentative List, next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File. The Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and these bodies then make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list, up to 2004, there were six criteria for cultural heritage and four criteria for natural heritage. In 2005, this was modified so there is now only one set of ten criteria. Nominated sites must be of outstanding value and meet at least one of the ten criteria. Thus, the Geneva Convention treaty promulgates, Article 53, PROTECTION OF CULTURAL OBJECTS AND OF PLACES OF WORSHIP. There are 1,052 World Heritage Sites located in 165 States Party, of these,814 are cultural,203 are natural and 35 are mixed propertiesWorld Heritage Sites – Site #252: Taj Mahal, an example of cultural heritage site
13. List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico – This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Mexico. The country has the largest number of World Heritage Sites of any country in the Americas, as of July 2016 there are 27 cultural sites,6 natural sites and 1 mixed site on the list, making for a total of 34. * = World Cultural Heritage Site † = World Natural Heritage Site *† = World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site Numbered sites,1, centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México,2. Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl,5, luis Barragan House and Studio,6List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico – Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco *
14. Goldman Sachs – Goldman Sachs was founded in 1869 and is headquartered at 200 West Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, with additional offices in other international financial centers. The firm provides asset management, mergers and acquisitions advice, prime brokerage, and securities underwriting to its clients, which include corporations, governments, and individuals. The firm also engages in making and private equity deals. The loan was made in November 2008 and repaid with interest in June 2009, the list of former employees of Goldman Sachs who moved on to government positions includes former U. S. In addition, former Goldman employees have headed the New York Stock Exchange, the World Bank, Goldman Sachs was founded in New York in 1869 by Marcus Goldman. In 1882, Goldmans son-in-law Samuel Sachs joined the firm, in 1885, Goldman took his son Henry and his son-in-law Ludwig Dreyfuss into the business and the firm adopted its present name, Goldman Sachs & Co. The company made a name for itself pioneering the use of paper for entrepreneurs. By 1898, the firms capital stood at $1.6 million, Goldman entered the initial public offering market in 1906 when it took Sears, Roebuck and Company public. The deal occurred due to Henry Goldmans personal friendship with the owner of Sears, other IPOs followed, including F. W. Woolworth and Continental Can. In 1912, Henry S. Bowers became the first non-family member, in 1917, under growing pressure from the other partners in the firm due to his pro-German stance, Henry Goldman resigned. Control of the firm was now in the hands of the Sachs family, waddill Catchings joined the company in 1918. In 1920, the firm moved from 60 Wall Street to $1.5 million 12-story premises on 30–32 Pine Street, by 1928, Catchings was the Goldman partner with the single largest stake in the firm. On December 4,1928, the firm launched the Goldman Sachs Trading Corp. a closed-end fund, the fund failed during the Stock Market Crash of 1929, amid accusations that Goldman had engaged in share price manipulation and insider trading. In 1930, the firm ousted Catchings, and Sidney Weinberg assumed the role of partner and shifted Goldmans focus away from trading. It was Weinbergs actions that helped to some of Goldmans tarnished reputation. On the back of Weinberg, Goldman was lead advisor on the Ford Motor Companys IPO in 1956, under Weinbergs reign the firm also started an investment research division and a municipal bond department. It also was at time that the firm became an early innovator in risk arbitrage. For most of the 1950s and 1960s, this would be Weinberg, Levy was a pioneer in block trading and the firm established this trend under his guidanceGoldman Sachs – Goldman Sachs Tower, at 30 Hudson Street, in Jersey City.
15. PricewaterhouseCoopers – PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the second largest professional services firm in the world, vault Accounting 50 has ranked PwC as the most prestigious accounting firm in the world for seven consecutive years, as well as the top firm to work for in North America for three consecutive years. PwC is a network of firms in 157 countries,756 locations, as of 2015, 22% of the workforce worked in Asia, 26% in North America and Caribbean and 32% in Western Europe. The companys global revenues were $35.9 billion in FY2016, of which $15.2 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $9.1 billion by its Tax practice, the firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. The trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding, as of 2016, PwC is the 5th-largest privately owned company in the United States. The firm was created in 1998 when Coopers & Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse, both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century. In 1854 William Cooper founded a practice in London, which became Cooper Brothers seven years later when his three brothers joined. In 1898, Robert H. Montgomery, William M. Lybrand, Adam A. Ross Jr. and his brother T. Edward Ross formed Lybrand, Ross Brothers and Montgomery in the United States. In 1957 Cooper Brothers, Lybrand, Ross Bros & Montgomery, in 1973 the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Coopers & Lybrand. Then in 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise in insolvency substantially by acquiring Cork Gully, in 1990 in certain countries including the UK, Coopers & Lybrand merged with Deloitte Haskins & Sells to become Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte, in 1992 they reverted to Coopers & Lybrand. Samuel Lowell Price, an accountant, founded a practice in London in 1849. In 1865 Price went into partnership with William Hopkins Holyland and Edwin Waterhouse, Holyland left shortly afterwards to work alone in accountancy and the firm was known from 1874 as Price, Waterhouse & Co. The original partnership agreement, signed by Price, Holyland and Waterhouse could be found in Southwark Towers, by the late 19th century, Price Waterhouse had gained significant recognition as an accounting firm. As a result of growing trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, Price Waterhouse opened an office in New York in 1890, and the American firm itself soon expanded rapidly. It was said by those involved with the merger that at the end of the discussion, the partners at the table realized they had different views of business. In 1998, Price Waterhouse merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers, after the merger the firm had a large professional consulting branch, as did other major accountancy firms, generating much of its fees. Management Consulting Services was the fastest growing and often most profitable area of the practice, the major cause for growth in the 1990s was the implementation of complex integrated ERP systems for multi-national companies. PwC came under increasing pressure to avoid conflicts of interests by not providing some consulting services, particularly financial systems design and implementation, since it audited a large proportion of the worlds largest companies, this was beginning to limit its consulting marketPricewaterhouseCoopers
16. States of Mexico – The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States. There are 31 states in Mexico, Mexico City is a federal entity with a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state, but is not a state itself. The states are divided into municipalities. Notes, Joined the federation with the name of Coahuila y Texas, Joined the federation with the name of Estado de Occidente also recognized as Sonora y Sinaloa. Joined the federation as República Federada de Yucatán formed by the current states of Yucatan, Campeche, became independent in 1841 constituting the second Republic of Yucatán and definitely rejoined in 1848. State of Tabasco seceded from Mexico on two occasions, the first on February 13,1841, rejoining again on December 2,1842, and the second time was from November 9,1846 to December 8 of that year. Includes the remote Revillagigedo Islands, which are federally administeredStates of Mexico – Mexico D.F.
17. Boroughs of the Mexican Federal District – Mexico City is divided into sixteen mayoralties, which have regulatory powers and are not fully autonomous in their internal administration. As of 2000, the citizens within a mayoralty elect by plurality a head of government, as of 2016, mexico City recorded an official 2010 census tally of 8,851,080 inhabitants. The municipalities are subdivided into neighborhoods and in cases in the southernmost municipalities, also into towns. Mexico City as a whole is bordered directly by the municipalities, going clockwiseBoroughs of the Mexican Federal District
18. Mesoamerican chronology – Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods, the Paleo-Indian, the Archaic, the Preclassic or Formative, the Classic, and the Postclassic. However, this applies to other pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations as well. 3500-2000 BCE During the Archaic Era agriculture was developed in the region, Late in this era, use of pottery and loom weaving became common, and class divisions began to appear. Many of the technologies of Mesoamerica in terms of stone-grinding, drilling. 1800 BCE–200 CE During the Preclassic Era, or Formative Period, large-scale ceremonial architecture, writing, cities, the Olmec civilization developed and flourished at such sites as La Venta and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán. 200–1000 CE The Classic Era was dominated by numerous independent city-states in the Maya region and also featured the beginnings of political unity in central Mexico, regional differences between cultures grew more manifest. The city-state of Monte Albán dominated the Valley of Oaxaca until the late Classic, highly sophisticated arts such as stuccowork, architecture, sculptural reliefs, mural painting, pottery, and lapidary developed and spread during the Classic era. In the Maya region, numerous city states such as Tikal, Calakmul, Copán, Palenque, Uxmal, Cobá, each of these polities was generally independent, although they often formed alliances and sometimes became vassal states of each other. The main conflict during this period was between Tikal and Calakmul, who fought a series of wars over the course of more than half a millennium, each of these states declined during the Terminal Classic and were eventually abandoned. This is sometimes seen as a period of increased chaos and warfare, the Postclassic is often viewed as a period of cultural decline. However, it was a time of technological advancement in architecture, engineering, metallurgy came into use for jewelry and some tools, with new alloys and techniques being developed in a few centuries. The Postclassic was a period of rapid movement and population growth — especially in Central Mexico post-1200 —, for instance, in Yucatán, dual rulership apparently replaced the more theocratic governments of Classic times, whilst oligarchic councils operated in much of Central Mexico. Likewise, it appears that the wealthy pochteca and military orders became more powerful than was apparently the case in Classic times and this afforded some Mesoamericans a degree of social mobility. The Toltec for a time dominated central Mexico in the 11th–13th century, the northern Maya were for a time united under Mayapan, and Oaxaca was briefly united by Mixtec rulers in the 11th–12th centuries. The Aztec Empire arose in the early 15th century and appeared to be on a path to asserting dominance over the Valley of Mexico region not seen since Teotihuacan. Spain was the first European power to contact Mesoamerica, however, and its conquistadores, by the 15th century, the Mayan revival in Yucatán and southern Guatemala and the flourishing of Aztec imperialism evidently enabled a renaissance of fine arts and science. Examples include the Pueblan-Mexica style in pottery, codex illumination, and goldwork, the flourishing of Nahua poetry, arguably, the Post-Classic continued until the conquest of the last independent native state of Mesoamerica, Tayasal, in 1697. Mesoamerican civilization was a network of different culturesMesoamerican chronology – Vessel from the Capacha culture, found in Acatitan, Colima.
19. Cholula (Mesoamerican site) – Cholula, was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BC, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier. The site of Cholula is just west of the city of Puebla. Its immense pyramid is the largest such structure in the Americas, and it is located in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of the central Mexican highlands. It is surrounded to the west by the snow-covered peaks Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl, the summer rainy season and the melted snow in winter provide a great environment for irrigation agriculture. There is also a confluence of several streams with the Atoyac River that creates a wetland to the north. This has resulted in abundant and excellent agriculture during the colonial period, maize is the major crop cultivated but they also harvested maguey, chiles, and cochineal for dye. The soil is rich in clay, which made pottery and brick-making an important part of their economy, textiles and elaborate decorative capes were also popular. Cholula’s strategical location in the center of the Mexican highlands gives it a place as a trade outpost. Here, trade routes connected the Gulf coast, the Valley of Mexico, Tehuacan Valley, from there, trade routes went to the Pacific coast, where the longer Pacific Coast communication and trade route existed. Because of its location, Cholula served as the center where primary trade routes. Textiles were of importance for Cholula’s economy. During the Postclassic period they were a unit of tribute. Textiles were manufactured for local consumption and traded extensively by different merchants that frequented the city, textile production accounts are provided by ethnohistorical and archaeological sources. Spanish writings from Colonial times have noted their excellence in dying techniques, artifacts such as spindle whorls found at different Cholula site loci provide evidence for the extensive production of textiles in the site. These are rare from the Formative and the Classic periods but become more prevalent in the Postclassic, only unbaked-clay whorls may have been used during the earlier periods but these are not preserved in the archaeological record. The high concentration of spindle whorls recovered from Cholula in comparison to other Mesoamerican sites attests to the important role played in their economy. Cholula grew from a village to a regional center between AD600 and 700. The earliest occupation dates back to the Early Formative period, in the 1970s, Mountjoy discovered a waterlogged deposit dating to the Late Middle Formative period near the ancient lake shoreCholula (Mesoamerican site) – Basalt head sculpture
20. Nahua people – The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador. Their language of Uto-Aztecan affiliation is called Nahuatl and consists of many dialects and variants. About 1,500,000 Nahua speak Nahuatl and another 1,000,000 speak only Spanish, less than 1,000 native speakers remain in El Salvador. Evidence suggests the Nahua peoples originated in Aridoamerica, in regions of the present day northwestern Mexico and they split off from the other Uto-Aztecan speaking peoples and migrated into central Mexico around 500 CE. They settled in and around the Basin of Mexico and spread out to become the dominant people in central Mexico, the name Nahua is derived from the Nahuatl word-root nāhua-, which generally means audible, intelligible, clear with different derivations including language. It was used in contrast with popoloca, to speak unintelligibly or speak a foreign language, another, related term is Nāhuatlācatl or Nāhuatlācah literally Nahuatl-speaking people. The Nahuas are also referred to as Aztecs. Using this term for the Nahuas has generally fallen out of favor in scholarship and they have also been called Mēxihcatl, Mēxihcah or in Spanish Mexicano Mexicans, after the Mexica, the Nahua tribe which founded and predominated in the Aztec empire. At the turn of the 16th century, Nahua populations occupied territories ranging across modern-day Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala and these were gradually assimilated into mestizo society in most places. The last of the southern Nahua populations are the Pipil of El Salvador, Nahuatl was a lingua franca for trade and rule during the apogee of the Aztec empire. There are many Nahuatl place names in regions where Nahuas were not the most populous group, Nahua populations in Mexico are centered in the middle of the country, with most speakers in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, Guerrero and San Luis Potosí. But smaller populations are spread throughout the country, following recent population movements within Mexico, within the last 50 years, Nahua populations have appeared in the United States, particularly in New York City, L. A. and Houston. Archaeological, historical and linguistic evidence suggest that the Nahuas originally came from the deserts of northern Mexico, before the Nahuas entered Mesoamerica, they were probably living for a while in northwestern Mexico alongside the Cora and Huichol peoples. The first group of Nahuas to split from the group were the Pochutec who went on to settle on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca possibly as early as 400 CE. From c.600 CE the Nahua quickly rose to power in central Mexico and expanded into areas earlier occupied by Oto-Manguean, Totonacan and Huastec peoples. Around 1000 CE the Toltec people, normally assumed to have been of Nahua ethnicity, from this period on the Nahua were the dominant ethnic group in the Valley of Mexico and far beyond, and migrations kept coming in from the north. After the fall of Toltecs a period of population movements followed. And in central Mexico different Nahua groups based in their different Altepetl city-states fought for political dominanceNahua people – " Atlantean figures " from the Nahua culture of the Toltecs at Tula.
21. Maya civilization – The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture, the first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, and by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades. Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC, in the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, and Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates. This period saw the Maya civilization develop a number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful, the Classic period also saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. In the 9th century, there was a political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities. The Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city in 1697. Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the divine king, kingship was patrilineal, and power would normally pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had greatly increased, resulting in the reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, and the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, different parts of a city would often be linked by causeways. The principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, the Maya elite were literate, and developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing that was the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, there are also a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics. The Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice, the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide, the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, agriculture, cities, monumental architecture, writing, and calendrical systemsMaya civilization – El Castillo, at Chichen Itza
22. Kukulcan – Kukulkan is the name of a Maya snake deity that also serves to designate historical persons. The depiction of the Feathered Serpent is present in cultures of Mesoamerica. Kukulkan is closely related to the deity Ququmatz of the Kiche people, little is known of the mythology of this Pre-Columbian era deity. The cult of Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl was the first Mesoamerican religion to transcend the old Classic Period linguistic and ethnic divisions and this cult facilitated communication and peaceful trade among peoples of many different social and ethnic backgrounds. Although the cult was centred on the ancient city of Chichen Itza in the modern Mexican state of Yucatán. In Yucatán, references to the deity Kukulkan are confused by references to an individual who bore the name of the god. Because of this, the distinction between the two has become blurred and this individual appears to have been a ruler or priest at Chichen Itza who first appeared around the 10th century. At Chichen Itza, Kukulkan is also depicted presiding over sacrifice scenes, sizeable temples to Kukulkan are found at archaeological sites throughout the north of the Yucatán Peninsula, such as Chichen Itza, Uxmal and Mayapan. In the Yucatec Maya language, the name is spelt Kukulkan, the Yucatec form of the name is formed from the word kuk feather with the adjectival suffix -ul, giving kukul feathered, combined with can snake, giving a literal meaning of feathered snake. Kukulkan was a deity associated with the Itza state in the northern Yucatán Peninsula. Although the cult of Kukulkan had its origins in earlier Maya traditions and this influence probably arrived via Putún Maya merchants from the Gulf Coast of Mexico. These Chontal merchants probably actively promoted the feathered serpent cult throughout Mesoamerica, Kukulkan headed a pantheon of deities of mixed Maya and non-Maya provenance, used to promote the Itza political and commercial agenda. It also eased the passage of Itza merchants into central Mexico and other non-Maya areas, at Chichen Itza, Kukulkan ceased to be the Vision Serpent that served as a messenger between the king and the gods and came instead to symbolise the divinity of the state. El Castillo, Chichen Itza served as a temple to Kukulkan, after the fall of Chichen Itza, the nearby Postclassic city of Mayapan became the centre of the revived Kukulkan cult, with temples decorated with feathered serpent columns. At the time of the Spanish colonization, the high priest of Kukulkan was the patriarch of the Xiu faction and was one of the two most powerful men in the city. The cult of Kukulkan spread as far as the Guatemalan Highlands, stories are still told about Kukulkan among the modern Yucatec Maya. In one tale, Kukulkan is a boy who was born as a snake, as he grew older it became obvious that he was the plumed serpent and his sister cared for him in a cave. He grew to such a size that his sister was unable to continue feeding him, so he flew out of his cave and into the sea, to let his sister know that he is still alive, Kukulkan causes earth tremors every year in JulyKukulcan – Kukulkan at the base of the west face of the northern stairway of El Castillo, Chichen Itza
23. Gukumatz – Ququmatz was a deity of the Postclassic Kiche Maya. Ququmatz was the Feathered Serpent divinity of the Popol Vuh who created humanity together with the god Tepeu, Ququmatz is considered to be the rough equivalent of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, and also of Kukulkan of the Yucatec Maya tradition. It is likely that the serpent deity was borrowed from one of these two peoples and blended with other deities to provide the god Ququmatz that the Kiche worshipped. Ququmatz may have had his origin in the Valley of Mexico, some scholars have equated the deity with the Aztec deity Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, who was also a creator god. Ququmatz may originally have been the god as Tohil, the Kiche sun god who also had attributes of the feathered serpent. Ququmatz was one of the gods who created the world in the Popul Vuh, Ququmatz, god of wind and rain, was closely associated with Tepeu, god of lightning and fire. Both of these deities were considered to be the ancestors of the Kiche nobility by direct male line. Ququmatz carried the sun across the sky and down into the underworld, the deity was particularly associated with water, clouds, the wind and the sky. Kotuja, the Kiche king who founded the city of Qumarkaj, the priests of Ququmatz at Qumarkaj, the Kiche capital, were drawn from the dominant Kaweq dynasty and acted as stewards in the city. The name translates literally as Quetzal Serpent although it is rendered less accurately as Feathered Serpent. The name derives from the Kiche word quq, referring to the Resplendent quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno and this is combined with the word kumatz snake. The male Resplendent quetzal boasts iridescent blue-green tail feathers measuring up to 1 metre long that were prized by the Maya elite. The blue-green feathers symbolised vegetation and the sky, both symbols of life for the ancient Maya, while the red feathers of the birds chest symbolised fire. Together, this gave a profound religious symbolism to the bird. The snake was a Maya symbol of rebirth due to its habit of shedding its skin to reveal a fresher one underneath, Ququmatz thus combined the celestial characteristics of the Quetzal with the serpentine underworld powers of the snake, giving him power over all levels of the Maya universe. These characteristics also indicated a sexual duality between his masculine feathered serpent aspect and his association with water and wind. This duality enabled the god to serve as a mediator between the sun god Tohil and the feminine moon goddess Awilix, a role that was symbolised with the Mesoamerican ballgame. In ancient Maya highland texts Ququmatz is strongly associated with water, the Kiche are reported to have believed that Ququmatz was a feathered serpent that moved in the waterGukumatz – Ballcourt marker at Mixco Viejo, depicting Q'uq'umatz carrying Tohil across the sky in his jaws
24. Mayan languages – The Mayan languages form a language family spoken in Mesoamerica and northern Central America. Mayan languages are spoken by at least 6 million Maya peoples, primarily in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, in 1996, Guatemala formally recognized 21 Mayan languages by name, and Mexico recognizes eight more within their territory. The Mayan language family is one of the best-documented and most studied in the Americas, modern Mayan languages descend from the Proto-Mayan language, thought to have been spoken at least 5,000 years ago, it has been partially reconstructed using the comparative method. The proto-Mayan language diversified into at least six different branches, the Huastecan, Quichean, Yucatecan, Qanjobalan, Mamean and Cholan-Tzeltalan branches, Mayan languages form part of the Mesoamerican language area, an area of linguistic convergence developed throughout millennia of interaction between the peoples of Mesoamerica. All Mayan languages display the diagnostic traits of this linguistic area. For example, all use relational nouns instead of prepositions to indicate spatial relationships, during the pre-Columbian era of Mesoamerican history, some Mayan languages were written in the logo-syllabic Maya script. Its use was widespread during the Classic period of Maya civilization. Mayan languages are the descendants of a proto-language called Proto-Mayan or, in Kiche Maya, the Proto-Mayan language is believed to have been spoken in the Cuchumatanes highlands of central Guatemala in an area corresponding roughly to where Qanjobalan is spoken today. The earliest proposal was that of Sapper which identified the Chiapas-Guatemalan highlands as the cradle of Mayan languages was published by the German antiquarian. Terrence Kaufman and John Justeson have reconstructed more than 3000 lexical items for the proto-Mayan language, Proto-Yucatecan and Proto-Cholan speakers subsequently split off from the main group and moved north into the Yucatán Peninsula. Speakers of the branch moved south into the areas now inhabited by Mamean and Quichean people. When speakers of proto-Tzeltalan later separated from the Cholan group and moved south into the Chiapas highlands, in the Archaic period, a number of loanwords from Mixe–Zoquean languages seem to have entered the proto-Mayan language. This has led to hypotheses that the early Maya were dominated by speakers of Mixe–Zoquean languages, in the case of the Xincan and Lencan languages, on the other hand, Mayan languages are more often the source than the receiver of loanwords. Mayan language specialists such as Campbell believe this suggests a period of contact between Maya and the Lencan and Xinca people, possibly during the Classic period. During the Classic period the major branches began diversifying into separate languages, the split between Proto-Yucatecan and Proto-Cholan had already occurred by the Classic period, when most extant Maya inscriptions were written. Both variants are attested in inscriptions at the Maya sites of the time. They propose that it originated in western and south-central Petén Basin, the language of the classical lowland inscriotions then would have been proto-Cholan. During the Spanish colonization of Central America, all languages were eclipsed by SpanishMayan languages – Maya civilization
25. Telmex – Telmex is still the dominant fixed-line phone carrier in Mexico. In addition to traditional telephone service, Telmex offers Internet access, data, hosted services. Telmex owns 90 percent of the lines in Mexico City and 80 percent of the lines in the country. Telmex is an owned subsidiary of América Móvil. Telmex was founded in 1947 when a group of Mexican investors bought Swedish Ericssons Mexican branch, in 1950, the same investors bought the Mexican branch of the ITT Corporation, thus becoming the only telephone provider in the country. In 1972, the Mexican government bought the company, turning it into a government monopoly, in 1990, Telmex was bought by a group of investors formed principally by Carlos Slim Helú, France Télécom, and Southwestern Bell Corporation, whose tender was the largest. However, controversially, the payment itself took place over the course of the several years. After privatization, Telmex began investing in new infrastructure, creating a nationwide fiber optic network. In 1991, the Mexican government sold its stock in Telmex. Although Telmex is now a company, it stills remains as a quasi-monopoly. There are other companies in Mexico, but they have failed to be fierce competitors for Telmex. Among these companies are, Alestra, Axtel, Maxcom, Megacable, Totalplay, in the 1990s, mobile telephones were becoming popular among the general population. The early market leader was Iusacell, and Telmex had no presence in the market and this prompted Telmex to form a subsidiary to provide mobile communications. The subsidiary was Radio Móvil Dipsa, and it offered service under the brand Telcel, Telcel started out in a distant second place in its mobile market, but in 1995 everything changed, when the Mexican currency crisis hit many Mexicans hard. Iusacell decided to stay with wealthier customers, offering expensive plans, in 2000, Telmex spun off their mobile unit, creating América Móvil, which controls Radio Móvil Dipsa and was free to develop its own business as an independent entity. It started with 80% of the mobile market, in 2010, America Móvil bought 60% of Telmex, paying over 23 billion dollars. In 2011, America Móvil purchased the remaining 40% of Telmex, in August 2012, America Móvil started the process to de-list Telmex from the Mexican Stock Exchange. In the mid-1990s, Telmex began providing Internet access as an Internet service provider with the brand Uninet, a year later, the brand was changed to Telmex Internet Directo PersonalTelmex – A Telmex retail store
26. Centralist Republic of Mexico – The Centralist Republic of Mexico, officially the Mexican Republic was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23,1835, after the repeal of the Constitution of 1824. Like Spanish moderados, the Mexican conservatives were inspired by the ideal of a centralized, the unitary regime was formally established on December 30,1836, with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. The centralist Republic lasted for almost eleven years, on August 22,1846, acting President José Mariano Salas, issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and with this, the return to federalism. The Mexican Republic was governed by eleven presidents, none were to finish their term before the Republics dissolution. In 1835, the party established a Congress which was declared constitutional. On December 30,1836, the seven laws, which established the system of governmental. The constitutional laws of the Mexican Republic, better known as the seven laws were a series of laws of a nature which replaced the Constitution of 1824. The 15 articles of the first law granted citizenship to those who could read and had an income of 100 pesos, except for domestic workers. The second law allowed the President to close Congress and suppress the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, military officers were not allowed to assume this office. The 58 articles of the law established a bicameral Congress of Deputies and Senators. Deputies had four-year terms, Senators were elected for six years, the seventh law prohibited reverting to the pre-reform laws for six years. The seven laws were enacted by the interim President of Mexico, José Justo Corro, the revolt in Zacatecas was the first rebellion caused by attempts to centralize the Affairs of States. The rebellion began as a response to the order of the Government disintegrating bodies of militia, the rebellion was led by Governor Francisco García Salinas, who led an army of about four thousand men against the even federal Government. Antonio López de Santa Anna, President at the time, personally fought the revolt, the Governor García Salinas, was defeated in the battle of Zacatecas. As punishment to the rebelliousness of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes party was separated and declared on 23 May 1835 Federation territory, the Texan Revolution began in the battle of Gonzales on October 2,1835. The discontent of the American settlers began almost as soon as they settled in the State of Coahuila, as a result of the rebellion of 1827 Fredonia was decreed on April 6,1830 laws that increased the discontent of the colonists. In 1831, the Mexican authorities gave Gonzalez settlers a small cannon to protect themselves from frequent Comanche raids. Due to the order of the Government disintegrating bodies of militia, Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, Commander of Mexican troops in Texas, on 1 October, settlers voted to start a fight and refused to return the barrelCentralist Republic of Mexico – Flag
27. Texas Revolution – The Texas Revolution began when colonists in the Mexican province of Texas rebelled against the increasingly centralized Mexican government. After a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas, hostilities erupted in October 1835. Texians disagreed on whether the goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the wars motives, Texians, the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texas army, in March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexicos honor, President Antonio López de Santa Anna vowed to personally retake Texas and his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians completely unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered. Santa Anna led a force to San Antonio de Béxar. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groces Landing on the Brazos River, becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houstons army staged an assault on Santa Anna. The Mexican troops were routed, and vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage, in exchange for his life, Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s. The annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, after a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, on the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States also claimed the land west of the Sabine River, following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. Texas was very sparsely populated, with fewer than 3,500 residents, and only about 200 soldiers, in the hopes that an influx of settlers could control the Indian raids, the bankrupt Mexican government liberalized immigration policies for the region. Finally able to settle legally in Texas, Anglos from the United States soon vastly outnumbered the Tejanos, most of the immigrants came from the southern United StatesTexas Revolution – The campaigns of the Texas Revolution
28. Reform War – The War of the Reform is one of many episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted to eliminate the political, economic, and cultural power of the Catholic church as well as undermine the role of the Mexican Army, both the Catholic Church and the Army were protected by corporate or institutional privileges established in the colonial era. Liberals sought to create a modern nation-state founded on liberal principles, the liberals passed a series of separate laws implementing their vision of Mexico, and then promulgated the Constitution of 1857, which gave constitutional force to their program. The Liberals lack military experience and lost most of the early battles, Liberal victories accumulated thereafter until Conservative forces surrendered in December 1860. After the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the country was divided as it tried to recover from more than a decade of fighting. From 1821-57,50 different governments ruled the country and these included dictatorships, constitutional republican governments and a monarchy. The political division was divided into two groups, the Liberals and the Conservatives. The Liberal political movements had their beginnings in the meetings of the Freemasonry. The secret nature of the society allowed for discreet political discussion, Conservatives favored a strong centralized government, with many wanting a European-style monarchy. Conservatives favored protecting many of the institutions inherited from the period, including tax and legal exemptions for the Catholic Church. Liberals favored the establishment of a federalist republic based on ideas coming out of the European Enlightenment, until the end of the Reform period Mexico’s history would be dominated by these two factions vying for control and fighting against foreign incursions at the same time. The Reform Era of Mexican history is defined from 1855-76. In the 1850s the Liberal ousted Antonio López de Santa Anna under the Plan of Ayutla in 1855 and this ascendancy came after the loss of about half of Mexico’s national territory to the US in the Mexican–American War. Liberals believed that the power of the Roman Catholic Church. The Liberals challenge to the Catholic Churchs hegemony in Mexico came about in stages even before the 1850s and this included Catholic newspapers such as La Cruz and conservative groups that strongly attacked Liberal policies and ideology. This ideology had roots in the European Enlightenment, which sought to reduce the role of the Catholic Church in society. The Reforms began in the 1830s and 1840s coalesced into the laws of the Reform era. The 1857 Constitution of Mexico was promulgated near the end of the first phase, more Reform laws were passed from 1861–63 and after 1867 when the Liberals emerged victorious after two civil wars with Conservative opponentsReform War – Conservatives
29. French intervention in Mexico – It followed President Benito Juárezs suspension of interest payments to foreign countries on 17 July 1861, which angered these three major creditors of Mexico. Emperor Napoleon III of France was the instigator, justifying military intervention by claiming a broad foreign policy of commitment to free trade, for him, a friendly government in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets. Napoleon also wanted the silver that could be mined in Mexico to finance his empire, Napoleon built a coalition with Spain and Britain while the U. S. was deeply engaged in its civil war. The three European powers signed the Treaty of London on 31 October 1861, to unite their efforts to receive payments from Mexico, on 8 December the Spanish fleet and troops arrived at Mexicos main port, Veracruz. When the British and Spanish discovered that France planned to all of Mexico. The subsequent French invasion resulted in the Second Mexican Empire, after heavy guerrilla resistance led by Juárez, which continued even after the capital had fallen in 1863, the French eventually withdrew from Mexico and Maximilian I was executed in 1867. The British, Spanish and French fleets arrived at Veracruz, between 8 and 17 December 1861 intending to pressure the Mexicans into settling their debts, the Spanish fleet seized San Juan de Ulúa and subsequently the capital Veracruz on 17 December. The European forces advanced to Orizaba, Cordoba and Tehuacán, as they had agreed in the Convention of Soledad, the city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet on 27 February 1862, and a French army, commanded by General Lorencez, arrived on 5 March. When the Spanish and British realised the French ambition was to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces on 9 April, in May, the French man-of-war Bayonnaise blockaded Mazatlán for a few days. Mexican forces commanded by General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862, the pursuing Mexican army was contained by the French at Orizaba, Veracruz, on 14 June. More French troops arrived on 21 September, and General Bazaine arrived with French reinforcements on 16 October, the French occupied the port of Tampico on 23 October, and unopposed by Mexican forces took control of Xalapa, Veracruz on 12 December. The French bombarded Veracruz on 15 January 1863, two months later, on 16 March, General Forey and the French Army began the siege of Puebla. They were forced to make a defence in a nearby hacienda, danjou was mortally wounded at the hacienda, and his men mounted an almost suicidal bayonet attack, fighting to nearly the last man, only three French Legionnaires survived. To this day, the anniversary of 30 April remains the most important day of celebration for Legionnaires. The French army of General François Achille Bazaine defeated the Mexican army led by General Comonfort in its campaign to relieve the siege of Puebla, at San Lorenzo, Puebla surrendered to the French shortly afterward, on 17 May. On 31 May, President Juárez fled the city with his cabinet, retreating northward to Paso del Norte, having taken the treasure of the state with them, the government-in-exile remained in Chihuahua until 1867. French troops under Bazaine entered Mexico City on 7 June 1863, the main army entered the city three days later led by General Forey. General Almonte was appointed the provisional President of Mexico on 16 June, the Superior Junta with its 35 members met on 21 June, and proclaimed a Catholic Empire on 10 JulyFrench intervention in Mexico – Clockwise from left: French assault during the Second Battle of Puebla; French cavalry seize the Republican flag during the Battle of San Pablo del Monte; depiction of the execution of Emperor Maximilian I by Édouard Manet.
30. Second Mexican Empire – It was created with the support of Napoleon III of France, who attempted to establish a monarchist ally in the Americas. A referendum confirmed the coronation of the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, the Empire came to an end on June 19,1867, with the execution of Emperor Maximilian I. The rule of Emperor Maximilian was blemished by constant conflict, the two factions had set up parallel governments, the Conservatives in Mexico City controlling central Mexico and the Liberals in Veracruz. The United States government viewed Emperor Maximilian as a French puppet and they demanded the withdrawal of French forces, and France acceded. In 1867, the fell and Maximilian was executed at the orders of Benito Juárez. Maximilian proved to be too liberal for the conservatives, and too conservative for the liberals and he regarded Mexico as his destiny and made many contributions. Before his death, Maximilian adopted the grandsons of the first Mexican emperor, Agustín de Iturbide, Agustín de Iturbide y Green, Napoleon III had more ambitious goals in mind than merely the recovery of Frances debts. Heavily influenced by his wife the Empress Eugenie, he was bent on reviving the Mexican monarchy. Prior to 1861 any interference in the affairs of Mexico by any of the European powers would have viewed as a challenge to the United States. However, in 1861 the United States was embroiled in its own bloody conflict, the American Civil War, encouraged by the Empress Eugenie, who saw herself as the champion of the Catholic Church in Mexico, Napoleon III took advantage of the situation. Napoleon III saw the opportunity to make France the great modernizing influence in the Western Hemisphere as well as enabling the country to capture the South American markets. To give him encouragement, there was his half brother, the duc de Morny. 1832, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian born on 6 July, the son of Archduke Franz Karl and his wife Sophie in Schönbrunn Palace. 1851, Begins career in the Imperial and Royal Navy with the rank of lieutenant,1856, The construction of his castle of Miramar near the Adriatic port of Trieste began. 1857, Ferdinand Max appointed the governor-general of the northern Italian provinces of Lombardy-Venetia, on 27 July marries the Princess Charlotte of Belgium in Brussels. 1859, On 19 April relieved of his post as governor-general, War breaks out with France and Piedmont-Sardinia. 1861, Napoleon III suggests Maximilian as a candidate for the throne of Mexico,1863, In October a Mexican delegation arrives at Miramar to offer Maximilian and Charlotte the crown. Maximilian makes his acceptance conditional on a plebiscite in his favorSecond Mexican Empire – The Offering of the Mexican Crown by a Mexican delegation, Miramare, 1863.
31. Mexican Revolution – The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle c. 1910–1920 that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution and its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Madero challenged Díaz in 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, armed conflict ousted Díaz from power and a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency. The origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election, elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero, expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, and organized labor. In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a free, Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces. Then the revolutionaries attempt to come to a political agreement following Huertas ouster failed, Zapata was assassinated in 1919, by agents of President Carranza. The armed conflict lasted for the part of a decade, until around 1920. Revolutionary forces unified against Huertas reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces, although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexicos power struggles. The United States played a significant role. Out of Mexicos population of 15 million, the losses were high, perhaps 1.5 million people died, nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States. Politically, the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 is seen by scholars as the end point of the armed conflict. The period 1920–1940 is often considered to be a phase of the Revolution, during which power was consolidated, after the presidency of his ally, General Manuel González, Díaz ran for the presidency again and legally remained in office until 1911. The constitution had been amended to allow presidential re-election, Díazs re-election was ironic, since he had challenged Benito Juárez on the platform no re-election. During the Porfiriato there were regular elections although there were contentious irregularities, the contested 1910 election, was a key political event that led to the Mexican Revolution. As Díaz aged, the question of succession became increasingly important. In 1906, the office of president was revived, with Díaz choosing his close ally Ramón Corral from among his Cientifico advisers to serve in the post. By the 1910 election, the Díaz regime had become highly authoritarian and he had been a national hero, opposing the French Intervention in the 1860s and distinguishing himself in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862Mexican Revolution – Collage of the Mexican Revolution
32. Institutional Revolutionary Party – Though it is a full member of the Socialist International, the PRI is not considered a social democratic party in the traditional sense, its modern policies have been characterized as centrist. Its membership in the Socialist International dates from 1996, along with its rival, the left-wing PRD, they make Mexico one of the few nations with two major, competing parties part of the same international grouping. The PRI is the largest political party in Mexico according to membership, the adherents of the PRI party are known in Mexico as priístas and the party is nicknamed el tricolor because of its use of the colors green, white and red. The current president of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, is a member of the PRI, at first glance, the PRIs name looks like a confusing oxymoron or paradox to English speakers since they normally associate the term revolution with the destruction of institutions. In 1990, Peruvian Nobel Prize laureate for literature, Mario Vargas Llosa, even though the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution had ended in 1920, Mexico had continued to encounter political unrest. The intent was to institutionalize the agreements result of Mexican Revolution, in the first years of the partys existence, the PNR was, above all, the only political machine existing. As President of the government, the executive President continued to hold power as in an era known as the Maximato. The following presidents of this period, Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio and this ended with the election of Lázaro Cárdenas, a candidate handpicked by the liberal PNR leaders. Though the now strongly conservative Calles thought he could control him, after establishing himself in the presidency, in 1936 Cárdenas had Calles and dozens of his corrupt associates arrested or deported to the United States. Cárdenass successor Manuel Ávila Camacho gave the party its present name in 1946, from 1929 to 1982, the PRI won every presidential election by well over 70 percent of the vote—margins that were usually obtained by massive electoral fraud. Toward the end of his term, the incumbent president in consultation with party leaders, in essence, given the PRIs overwhelming dominance, the president chose his successor. The PRIs dominance was near-absolute at all levels as well. It held a majority in the Chamber of Deputies, as well as every seat in the Senate. After several decades in power the PRI had become a symbol of corruption, consequently, its left wing went on to form its own party the Party of the Democratic Revolution in 1989. The conservative National Action Party became a party after 1976 when it obtained the support from businessmen after recurring economic crises. Critics claim electoral fraud, with voter suppression and violence, was used when the machine did not work. However, the three major parties now make the claim against each other. Subsequent administrations maintained stability with continued assistance from PRI members such as Secretary of Finance Francisco Gil Diaz, Lázaro Cárdenas renamed the party the Party of the Mexican Revolution whose aim was to establish a democracy of workers and socialismInstitutional Revolutionary Party – Plutarco Elías Calles, president of Mexico (1924-28) and founder of the PNR in 1929.
33. Geography of Mexico – The geography of Mexico describes the geographic features of Mexico, a country in the Americas. Mexico is located at about 23° N and 102° W in the portion of North America. From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 3,200 km in length. Mexico is bounded to the north by the United States, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the east by the Gulf of Mexico, and to the southeast by Belize, Guatemala, and the Caribbean Sea. The northernmost constituent of Latin America, it is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, Mexico is three times the size of Texas. Almost all of Mexico is on the North American Plate, with parts of the Baja California Peninsula in the northwest on the Pacific. Some geographers include the portion east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec including the Yucatán Peninsula within North America and this portion includes Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán, representing 12.1 percent of the countrys total area. Alternatively, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt may be said to delimit the region physiographically on the north, geopolitically, Mexico is generally not considered part of Central America. Politically, Mexico is divided into states and a federal district. As well as numerous neighbouring islands, Mexican territory includes the more remote Isla Guadalupe, the meandering Río Bravo del Norte defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean, Boundary is jointly administered by the International Boundary and Water Commission. On its south, Mexico shares an 871 kilometer border with Guatemala and a 251-kilometer border with Belize. Mexico has a 9,330 kilometer coastline, of which 7,338 kilometers face the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, and the remaining 2,805 kilometers front the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Mexicos exclusive economic zone, which extends 200 nautical miles off each coast, indeed, the state capital of Yucatán, Mérida, is farther north than Mexico City or Guadalajara. The northwest coastal plain is the given the lowland area between the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Gulf of California. The Sierra Madre Occidental averages 2,250 metres in elevation, the northeast coastal plain extends from the eastern slope of the Sierra Madre Oriental to the Gulf of Mexico. The median elevation of the Sierra Madre Oriental is 2,200 metres, the Mexican Altiplano, stretching from the United States border to the Cordillera Neovolcánica, occupies the vast expanse of land between the eastern and western sierra madres. A low east-west range divides the altiplano into northern and southern sections and these two sections, previously called the Mesa del Norte and Mesa Central, are now regarded by geographers as sections of one altiplanoGeography of Mexico – Pico de Orizaba is the third highest peak in North America and highest in Mexico.
34. Climate of Mexico – The climate of Mexico is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones, land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south, areas south of the twentieth-fourth parallel with elevations and heights up to 1,000 meters, have a yearly median temperature between 24 and 28 °C. Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5 °C difference between winter and summer median temperatures, between 1,000 and 2,000 meters, one encounters yearly average temperatures between 16 and 20 °C. Above 2,000 meters, temperatures drop as low as an average yearly range between 8 and 12 °C in the Cordillera Neovolcánica, at 2,300 meters, Mexico City has a yearly median temperature of 15 °C with pleasant summers and mild winters. Average daily highs and lows for May, the warmest month, are 26 and 12 °C, and average highs and lows for January. Rainfall varies widely both by location and season, arid or semiarid conditions are encountered in the Baja California Peninsula, the northwestern state of Sonora, the northern altiplano, and also significant portions of the southern altiplano. Rainfall in these regions averages between 300 and 600 millimeters per year, although less in some areas, particularly in the state of Baja California. Average rainfall totals are between 600 and 1,000 millimeters in most of the populated areas of the southern altiplano, including Mexico City. Parts of the altiplano, highlands and high peaks in the Sierra Madres receive yearly snowfall. Citlaltépetl, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl continue to support glaciers, the largest of which is the Gran Glaciar Norte, Mexico has pronounced wet and dry seasons. Most of the experiences a rainy season from June to mid-October. February and July generally are the driest and wettest months, respectively, Mexico City, for example, receives an average of only 5 millimeters of rain during February but more than 160 millimeters in July. Coastal areas, especially those along the Gulf of Mexico, experience the largest amounts of rain in September, tabasco typically records more than 300 millimeters of rain during that month. A portion of northwestern Baja California has a mediterranean climate influenced by the California Current, with a season that occurs in winter. Another area of climate as a result of elevation occurs in the interior of Sonora. Mexico lies squarely within the belt, and all regions of both coasts are susceptible to these storms from June through NovemberClimate of Mexico – Hidalgo
35. Metropolitan areas of Mexico – Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city. Northwestern and southeastern states are divided into a number of large municipalities whereas central states are divided into a large number of smaller municipalities. As such, metropolitan areas in the northwest usually do not extend more than one municipality whereas metropolitan areas in the center extend over many municipalities. A few metropolitan areas extend beyond the limits of one state, Greater Mexico City, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Comarca Lagunera, there are a total of fifty-six metropolitan areas of Mexico as defined by the following government bodies, The National Institute of Statistics and Geography. The United States shares a 2, 000-mile border with Mexico, the 2,000 miles is the most frequently crossed international border in the world, with about 250 million legal crossings every year. The distribution of population and urban population in Mexico has been changed significantly by the interaction between settlements in its north and the United States. Metropolitan areas located at the border with the U. S. form transnational conurbations with deep economic and demographic interaction. For example, the San Diego – Tijuana metropolitan area consists of San Diego County in the U. S. and the municipalities of Tijuana, Playas de Rosarito, and Tecate in Mexico. The total population of the region has estimated to be just over 5 million in 2009. A megalopolis, is known in Spanish as a corona regional de ciudades, the megalopolis consists of 173 municipalities and the 16 boroughs of the Federal District, with an approximate total population of almost 27 million people. List of metropolitan areas by population List of metropolitan areas in the Americas by population List of cities in Mexico Demographics of Mexico National Population Council — official website, National Institute of Statistics and Geography — official websiteMetropolitan areas of Mexico – 1 - Mexico City, D. F..
36. Territorial evolution of Mexico – Mexico has experienced many changes in territorial organization during its history as an independent state. The territorial boundaries of Mexico were affected by presidential and imperial decrees, the decree resulted in the independence from Spain. During the period of the Independence of Mexico, part of the organization of New Spain was integrated into the new nation of the Mexican Empire. Added to this were the Captaincy General of Yucatán and the Captaincy General of Guatemala and this yielded Mexicos largest land area as an independent nation. During the structuring of the Republic, territorial and legal changes reaffirmed the Catholic Churchs status as the religion for Mexicans. The new nation developed a popular and representative federal republic that recognized the sovereignty of the States constituting the federal union and this break from federalism brought Mexico its most turbulent and unstable era. During the Second Mexican Empire, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico made a new division of national territory, territorial divisions throughout Mexican history were generally linked to political change and programs aimed at improving the administrative, countrys economic and social development. The reorganization was accomplished by Manuel Orozco y Berra, and was according to the following rules. Whenever possible, natural features will be used for boundaries, the surface area of each department will take into account the terrain, weather, and all elements of production, so that the departments will hold an equal number of inhabitants. This division was of importance, because geographical features and projected development were taken into account for the delimitation of the jurisdictions. The territorial division of the Second Mexican Empire was used for a period because the Empire was overthrown in early 1867 with the execution of Maximilian I. The Federal Republic, and its divisions, were restored in that year. Several of the borders of the states and territories in northern Mexico remain unclear. The northern border of Sonora, for example, is described in various ways, the following maps do not show the separation of Zacatecas and Tabasco, which never became independent republics and were never proclaimed as such. The maps do not show the claim of Mexico on part of the former British Honduras, by the law of October 3,1835, the centralist system was introduced in the country. The entities that formed the Republic lost their freedom, independence and sovereignty, the Seven Constitutional Laws were enacted on December 30,1836. The sixth discussed the configuration in its first and second articles. Shortly thereafter, the Eighth Organic Base—a separate statute from the Seven Laws—was enacted and that initial territorial composition was regarded as final until 30 June 1838, by law of that dateTerritorial evolution of Mexico – Agustín de Iturbide, first Emperor of Mexico.
37. Time in Mexico – Mexico uses four main time zones since February 2015, Zona Sureste covers the state of Quintana Roo. Zona Centro covers the eastern three-fourths of Mexico, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Zona Pacífico covers the states of Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Nayarit, Sinaloa, and Sonora. Zona Noroeste covers the state of Baja California, including Tijuana, in addition, the law dictates that all island territories should fall within the time zone corresponding to their geographic location. Standard time was first defined in Mexico in 1921, when President Álvaro Obregón decreed two time zones, one time zone designated for 90° W covered the states of Tabasco, Chiapas, Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo. A second time zone designated for 105° W covered the rest of the country, from Baja California to Veracruz and Oaxaca. It was decreed in 1942 that the Hora del Noroeste should cover only the states of Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, the time zone Hora del Sureste was created for tourist reasons in 1981, originally covering the states of Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo. The three states returned one year later to the Hora del Centro, Quintana Roo, however, returned to the Hora del Sureste from October 1997 to August 1998, first observation of DST was in 1931, but only for the state of Baja California. It used the Hora del Centro from April 1 to September 30, until 1996, Baja California was the only Mexican state to officially observe DST every year, coinciding with the observance of DST across the border in San Diego, California. These states abandoned DST the following year and did not return to it until DST was adopted nationwide, daylight saving time has been observed nationwide in Mexico beginning in 1996. But in the rest of the country, daylight saving time is observed between 2 a. m. on the first Sunday in April through 2 a. m. on the last Sunday in October, Quintana Roo and Sonora states do not observe DST. The first is the three or four weeks between the second Sunday in March and the first Sunday in April, the second is the single week between the last Sunday in October and the first Sunday in November. During these periods, clocks in Mexico City match those in Denver rather than those in Chicago, the Mexican Stock Exchange changes its hours during these periods in order to maintain synchronization with the U. S. markets. In 1998 the state of Chihuahua moved from Central time to Mountain time and this is likely because Ciudad Juárez is directly across the border from El Paso, Texas, which is on Mountain Time. Later, in 2001, Mexico experimented with a daylight saving period from the first Sunday in May till the last Sunday in September. When the United States extended their DST period in 2007, the congress refused to do the same for Mexico. For the second time, congress refused to adopt it nationwide, congress refused to approve the change for the third time in a 10-year period, discarding the bill on June 29,2016. Daylight saving time is observed in all parts of the country except for the states of Quintana Roo, and Sonora and this is to coincide with the non-observation in Arizona, with which Sonora shares its northern border. The island territories do not currently observe daylight time either, during non-DST period, Mexico uses 4 different time zonesTime in Mexico – Winter
38. Politics of Mexico – The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions. The executive power is exercised by the branch, which is headed by the President. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Senate, judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary and the collegiate, unitary and district tribunals. The politics of Mexico are dominated by three parties, National Action Party, the Party of the Democratic Revolution and Institutional Revolutionary Party. Registered political parties receive public funding for their operation and can obtain private funding within the limits prescribed by the law. The coalition must present itself with a name and logo. Proportional representation seats are assigned to the coalition based on the percentage of votes obtained in the elections, once each party in the coalition has been assigned plurinominal seats, they do not necessarily continue to work as a coalition in government. Throughout the 20th century, PRI had an almost hegemonic power at the state and federal level and it was in 1997, that PRI lost its absolute majority at the Congress of the Union, and in 2000 the first non-PRI president was elected since 1929. Suffrage is universal, free, secret and direct for all Mexican citizens 18 and older, the identity document in Mexico serves also as the voting card, so all citizens are automatically registered for all elections, that is, no pre-registration is necessary for every election. All elections are direct, that is, no electoral college is constituted for any of the elections at the federal, only when an incumbent president is absolutely absent, the Congress of the Union constitutes itself acts as an electoral college to elect an interim president by absolute majority. Presidential elections are scheduled every six years, except in the case of absolute absence of the president. Elections are usually held on the first Sunday of July, state governors are also elected every six years, whereas the legislatures are renewed every three years. State elections need not be concurrent with federal elections, elections within the Federal District are also organized by a local electoral institute. A strongly ingrained concept in Mexican political life is no reelection, the theory was implemented after Porfirio Díaz managed to monopolize the presidency for over 25 years. Presently, Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, Deputies and senators are not allowed to immediately succeed themselves. The most recent federal elections were held on July 2,2006 concurrent with the full renovation of both chambers of the Congress of the Union. In these elections the Party of the Democratic Revolution, the Labour Party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party and the Ecologist Green Party formed a coalition called Alliance for Mexico. Felipe Calderón got the greatest number of votes according to the preliminary computation, the Federal Electoral Tribunal declared Felipe Calderón the winner of the elections on September 5, and president electPolitics of Mexico – Vicente Fox, president 2000-2006
39. Congress of the Union – The Congress of the Union is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. The Congress is an assembly, consisting of two chambers, the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate of the Republic. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, the upper chamber is the Senate, Cámara de Senadores or Senado. It comprises 128 seats,96 members are elected by popular vote for six-year terms. The lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, Cámara de Diputados and it has 500 seats,300 members are elected by popular vote to three-year terms, the other 200 seats are allocated according to proportional representation. The Congress of the Union has two chambers, the 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions to that rule, a party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. Also, a party cannot get more than 300 seats overall, the Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a six-year term,96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up and it is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the LXIII Legislature, the previous Congress was the LXII Legislature, the I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution. Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I, madero popularized the slogan, Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección. In keeping with that long held principle, and until 2014, on February 10,2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the General Election of 2018, Deputies and Senators will be allowed to run for reelection, Chamber of Deputies Senate Politics of Mexico List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies SenateCongress of the Union
40. Senate of the Republic (Mexico) – The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote, Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election, the Senate is completely renewed every six years, since senators are barred from immediate reelection. This will change at the 2018 election, in Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term. The current session is known as the LXII Legislatura, Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current Senators will serve during the 62nd and 63rd Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies, according to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the requirements, Being a Mexican citizen by birth. Not being active duty in the military or have control of police or rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election, not to be secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election. Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated from office three years before the election, no minister of some religious cult. Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and can not be reelected for the period, although alternately. They are elected by popular suffrage and secret ballot in every state of the republic. They are also 32 senators elected by proportional representation, the integration of the governing bodies in the LXII Legislature has been as follows, For the office of legislative affairs Senators integrate in Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue. The most important committees are those of, Interior, Constitutional Issues, Defense, Finance, Justice, each Senator belongs to at least three different commissions, and each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 to coordinate their work. A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected, divided into two legislatures of three years each, from 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end his term on 31 August 2018. The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses, there are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. The sessions of the Standing Committee are held in the Senate during the first recess and the House of Representatives in the second recessSenate of the Republic (Mexico) – Former Senate tribune.
41. Chamber of Deputies (Mexico) – The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution, the Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative for every 200,000 citizens. Of these,300 majority deputies are elected by plurality from single-member districts. The remaining 200 party deputies are assigned through rules of proportional representation and these seats are not tied to districts, rather, they are allocated to parties based on each partys share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives, substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare. From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitutions ban on immediate reelection to the legislature, thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world that was completely renewed at an election. However, this change at the 2018 elections, deputies are now permitted to run for reelection. Congressional elections held halfway into the six year mandate are known as mid-term elections. President of the Chamber of Deputies Directive Board Congress of Mexico Senate of Mexico Politics of Mexico Official websiteChamber of Deputies (Mexico)
42. Constitution of Mexico – The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention and it was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor to the Constitution of 1857, and earlier Mexican constitutions, the current Constitution of 1917 is the first such document in the world to set out social rights, serving as a model for the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Russian Constitution of 1918. Constitution Day is one of Mexicos annual Fiestas Patrias, commemorating the promulgation of the Constitution on 5 February 1917, although the official anniversary is on 5 February, the holiday takes place on the first Monday of February regardless of the date. Carranza convoked a congress specifically to draft the new constitution and it replaced the liberal Constitution of 1857, extending that constitutions restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. Its innovations were in expanding the Mexican states power into the realms of economic nationalism, political nationalism, the constitution was a means to confer legitimacy on a shaky regime. The Liberal Party of Mexicos 1906 political program proposed a number of reforms that were incorporated into the 1917 Constitution, Article 27 of the Constitution incorporated some of the PLMs demands for land reform in Mexico. Points in the PLMs call for improvement in education were also incorporated, such as completely secular education, compulsory attendance up until age 14, not surprisingly, the PLM also called for restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church, which were incorporated in the constitution. These included treating religious institutions as businesses and required to pay taxes, nationalization of religious institutions real property, the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States was drafted by the Constitutional Congress in Querétaro, not the capital. Carranza chose the site because it was where Emperor Maximilian of Mexico was executed, delegates to the congress were to be elected, with one per jurisdiction that had existed in 1912, when congressional elections had been held during the Francisco I. Those who had been hostile to the Constitutionalist Cause were banned from participating, Carranza was pressured to amnesty those who had been hostile as well as allow those who had gone into exile to return to Mexico, but he refused. The congress formally opened in November 1916, with delegate elections, the final draft was approved on 5 February 1917. The membership of the congress was not representative of all regions, classes, the 220 delegates were all Carrancistas, since the Constitutionalist faction had been victorious militarily. However, that did not mean they were of one mind, most delegates were middle class, not workers or peasants. Middle class professionals predominated, with lawyers, teachers, engineers, doctors, villas home state of Chihuahua had only one delegate. The predominantly civilian composition of the Constituent Congress was in contrast with the place of power in revolutionary Mexico. Most senior generals did not participate directly in the congress, an important group of delegates elected to the congress were the Bloc Renovador, who had been elected in 1912 to the Mexican legislature during Maderos presidency. Some considered them tainted for their continuing to serve during Victoriano Huertas regime, some congressmen fled Mexico, others were jailed by HuertaConstitution of Mexico – Venustiano Carranza, leader of the victorious faction, convoked the elected body to draft the new constitution.
43. Elections in Mexico – Elections in Mexico determine who, on the national level, takes the position of the head of state – the president – as well as the legislature. The President of Mexico is elected for a term by the people. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even if he or she not have an absolute majority. Since no President can serve more than a term in office. The Congress of the Union has two chambers, the 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions on this rule, first, a party can only lose PR-seats due to rule, second. The Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a term,96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up. At the local level, each of Mexicos 31 constituent states elects a governor to serve a term, they also elect legislative deputies who sit in state congresses. The Federal District elects a Head of Government in lieu of a mayor, district assemblymen in lieu of state congressional deputies, IFE website Mexico page of the ACE Project Adam Carrs Election Archive ElectionworldElections in Mexico – Mexico
44. List of political parties in Mexico – This article lists political parties in Mexico. Mexico has a multi-party system, which means there are more than three dominant political parties. Nationally, there are three political parties that dominate, the PRI, the PAN, and the PRD. Other smaller political parties survive in isolation or by forming coalitions with any of the big three. As of 2017, Mexico has seven nationally recognized political parties by the Federal Electoral Institute, National recognition was given to those parties that secured representation in Congress. Under Mexican law, parties are listed in the order in which they were first registered, thus, National Action Party – a right of center party, member of Centrist Democrat International. Institutional Revolutionary Party – the dominating party, under different names, at the municipal, state and it is currently the dominant party in the Chamber of Deputies and at the municipal and state level, and took primacy in the 2012 senatorial elections as well. This is the party of Incumbent President Peña Nieto as of the July 1,2012 Elections. Party of the Democratic Revolution – a left of center party, born as National Democratic Front, a joint effort from a splinter group of the PRI and several forces from the left, in the 1988 elections. Its first candidate and founder, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, lost the 1988 presidential election under dubious circumstances and it has long controlled the Federal District. Labor Party – a laborist political party formed in 1990 and it is often allied with the PRD for electoral purposes. Ecologist Green Party of Mexico – a minor party with an environmental platform and this party allied with the PAN to elect the first non-PRI president in almost seven decades. Since then it has mostly allied with the PRI, citizens Movement – a social democratic party, formed in 1997. New Alliance – originally created by academics of the Autonomous Technical Institute of Mexico and members of the National Educational Workers Union and it was established on July 14,2005. National Regeneration Movement – a left-wing nationalism party, formed in 2011, humanist Party – a humanist party, formed in 2014. Social Encounter Party – a right-wing and social party, formed in 2006. In terms of their congressional representation and share of the vote, only PRI, PAN. This list is complete as of 2006, http, //www. marketingpolitico. com. mx/Institutoselectorales. htm - Index of links to every Electoral Institute in each state of MexicoList of political parties in Mexico – Mexico
45. President of Mexico – The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces, the current President is Enrique Peña Nieto, who took office on December 1,2012. Currently, the office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post, even on a basis, is allowed to run or serve again. The constitution and the office of the President closely follow the system of government. Chapter III of Title III of the Constitution deals with the branch of government and sets forth the powers of the president. He is vested with the executive power of the Union. Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty years, be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election. Be a resident of Mexico for the year prior to the election. Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination, not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not have been president already, even in a provisional capacity, the ban on any sort of presidential re-election, dating back to the aftermath of the Porfiriato and the end of the Mexican Revolution, has remained in place even as it was relaxed for other offices. In 2014, the constitution was amended to allow Deputies and Senators to run for a consecutive term. Previously, Deputies and Senators were barred from successive re-election, however, the restriction on presidential re-election, even if it is nonsuccessive, remained in place. The presidential term was set at four years from 1821 to 1934, the president is elected by direct, popular, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a plurality of the national vote is elected. The most recent former President, Felipe Calderón, won with 36. 38% of the votes in the 2006 general election, finishing only 0.56 percent above his nearest rival, Andrés Manuel López Obrador. Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the vote, Ernesto Zedillo won 48% of the votePresident of Mexico – Incumbent Enrique Peña Nieto since December 1, 2012
46. Bank of Mexico – The Bank of Mexico, abbreviated BdeM or Banxico, is Mexicos central bank, monetary authority and lender of last resort. The Bank of Mexico is autonomous in exercising its functions, the Bank of Mexico was created on 1 September 1925. In July 1931, the Monetary Law was constituted and he assumed office on 1 January 2010. Mexican peso Economy of Mexico Economic history of Mexico Official site of Banco de MéxicoBank of Mexico – Bank of Mexico headquarters in Mexico City
47. Economic history of Mexico – Mexicos economic history has been characterized since the colonial era by resource extraction, agriculture, and a relatively underdeveloped industrial sector. Economic elites in the period were predominantly Spanish born, active as transatlantic merchants and silver mine owners. The largest sector of the population was indigenous subsistence farmers, who lived mainly in the center, New Spain was envisioned by the Spanish crown as a supplier of wealth to Iberia, which huge silver mines accomplished. A colonial economy to supply foodstuffs and products from ranching as well as a textile industry meant that the economy supplied much of its own needs. The mid-nineteenth-century Liberal Reforma attempted to decrease the power of the Roman Catholic Church. Following civil war and an intervention, the late nineteenth century found political stability. Mexico was opened to foreign investment and, to a lesser extent, foreign capital built a railway network, one of the keys for transforming the Mexican economy, by linking regions of Mexico and major cities and ports. As the construction of the bridge over a deep canyon at Metlac demonstrates. The mining industry revived in the north of Mexico and the industry developed in the north Gulf Coast states with foreign capital. Regional civil wars broke out in 1910 and lasted until 1920, following the military phase of the Revolution, Mexican regimes attempted to transform a largely rural and backward country … into a middle-sized industrial power. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 gave the Mexican government the power to expropriate property, which allowed for the distribution of land to peasants, Mexico benefited economically from its participation in World War II and the post-war years experienced what has been called the Mexican Miracle. This growth was fueled by import substitution industrialization, the Mexican economy experienced the limits of ISI and economic nationalism and Mexico sought a new model for economic growth. Huge oil reserves were discovered in the Gulf of Mexico in the late 1970s, when the price of oil dropped in the 1980s, Mexico experienced a severe financial crisis. Mexico implemented neoliberal economic policies and changed significant articles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 to ensure private property rights against future nationalization, in the twenty-first century, Mexico has strengthened its trade ties with China, but Chinese investment projects in Mexico have hit roadblocks in 2014–15. Mexicos continued dependence on oil revenues has had an impact when oil prices drop. Mexicos economy in the period was based on resource extraction, on agriculture and ranching. In the immediate post-conquest period, the indigenous and hierarchically organized central Mexican peoples were a ready labor supply. Indian communities tribute and labor were awarded to individual conquerors in an arrangement called encomienda, the colonial landscape in central Mexico became a patchwork of different sized holdings by Spaniards and indigenous communitiesEconomic history of Mexico – A photo of the Metlac Bridge, built during nineteenth-century railway construction that enabled modernization. Photo by Guillermo Kahlo.
48. Corruption in Mexico – Corruption in Mexico has permeated several segments of society – political, economic, and social – and has greatly affected the country’s legitimacy, transparency, accountability, and effectiveness. Many of these dimensions have evolved as a product of Mexico’s legacy of elite, oligarchic consolidation of power and that is, Mexico functioned as a one-party state and was characterized by a system in which politicians provided bribes to their constituents in exchange for support and votes for reelection. Political contestation equated to political, economic, and social isolation, the party remained securely in power, and government accountability was low. Power was consolidated in the hands of a few, and even more narrowly. Beyond this, few checks were set on elected officials’ actions throughout the PRIs unbroken reign, consequently, sustained PRI rule yielded low levels of transparency and legitimacy within the councils of Mexico’s government. 71 years of power provided an opportunity for corruption to accumulate, with this type of institutionalized corruption, the political path in Mexico was very narrow. There were specified political participation channels and selective electoral mobilization and these issues, deeply engrained in Mexico’s political culture after over half a century’s existence, have continued to generate and institutionalize political corruption in today’s Mexico. Mexico’s geographic location has played largely in the development of the role in organized crime. Not only is Mexico adjacent to the world’s largest illegal drug market – the United States – but it also borders Central America, a region of nations with a similarly high demand for drugs. This positions Mexican drug cartels at an advantage, demand for drugs is not simply confined to the Mexican state, as drug cartels and TCOs have increasingly made use of these areas, the groups have become progressively more complex, violent, and diverse. The Mexican government has historically accomplished very little in terms of effectively curbing the offenses of these TCOs and cartels, under this system, TCOs’ influence has extended beyond violent criminal activity or drug trade, and has reached into Mexico’s institutional bases. These networks – alongside a lack of government transparency and checks, the growing prevalence and diversification of organized crime is in many ways linked to the political changes that Mexico underwent in 2000. For the first time in 71 years, the PRI ceded power to a different party, the traditional power structure, which had enabled patronage networks to flourish and TCOs to operate, became challenged by government forces that attempted to curb violence and illegal activity. However, social decomposition quickly followed the fall of the PRI, the PAN, never before in the seat of power, was in many ways inexperienced in broad governance, and criminal factions capitalized on the party’s perceived weakness. During PAN President Felipe Calderón’s administration, Mexico experienced a vast increase in organized crime. ”In this, beyond further diversifying criminal activity, TCOs further developed their connections to Mexico’s institutions and to corruption. Many members of the Federal Police and the Army joined TCOs and this corruption permeated the social atmosphere along the border, where violence became increasingly heightened and fatal. Attempting to combat this security crisis, Calderón deployed the military against criminal organizations along the border, however, rather than resolving the corruption and violence issues that pervaded the area, the army deepened problems and crime. The employment of the military by the Calderón administration exacerbated Mexico’s violence and organized crime, surrendering public spaces to organized crime had already become a serious threat to national security and had overtaken the capabilities of local governments to do anything about itCorruption in Mexico – PRI party
49. Demographics of Mexico – Throughout most of the twentieth century Mexicos population was characterized by rapid growth. The most populous city in the country is the capital, Mexico City, with a population of 8.8 million, approximately 50% of the population lives in one of the 55 large metropolitan areas in the country. In total, about 78. 84% of the population of the lives in urban areas. The Census Inegi in Mexico is the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, the National Population Council, is an institution under the Secretary of the Interior in charge of the analysis and research of population dynamics. The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, also undertakes research, in 1900, the Mexican population was 13.6 million. These measures jointly led to an intense demographic increase between 1930 and 1980, the populations annual growth rate has been reduced from a 3. 5% peak, in 1965 to 0. 99% in 2005. While Mexico is now transitioning to the phase of demographic transition. Fertility rates have decreased from 5.7 children per woman in 1976 to 2.2 in 2006. However, as of recent years in the 2010s, the net migration rate reached 0, given the economy of Mexico. However, Mexico itself constitutes the second country of total number of immigrants to the United States from 1830 to 2000, the Mexican government projects that the Mexican population will grow to about 123 million by 2042 and then start declining slowly. Assumptions include fertility stabilizing at 1.85 children per woman, the states and the Federal District that conform the Mexican federation are collectively called federal entities. The five most populous federal entities in 2005 were the State of Mexico and this has also led to decentralization and growth of other metropolitan areas that conform regional centers of economic growth, like Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, León and Torreón. According to the 2012 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 117,886,000 in 2010, compared to only 28,296,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 30%, structure of the population, Source, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía Note, registered births include births from non-resident mothers. Therefore, the rates are overestimated in the past two decades. The following estimates were prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, aside from the original Spanish colonists, many Europeans immigrated to Mexico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Non-Spanish immigrant groups included British, Irish, Italian, German, large numbers of Middle Eastern immigrants arrived in Mexico during the same period, mostly from Syria and Lebanon. Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese, some via the United States, settled in northern Mexico, during the 1970s and 1980s Mexico opened its doors to immigrants from Latin America, mainly political refugees from Chile, Cuba, Peru, Colombia and Central AmericaDemographics of Mexico – Population growth
50. Education in Mexico – Education in Mexico has a long history. The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was founded by decree in 1551. By comparison, Harvard College, the oldest in Anglo-America, was founded in 1636, Education in Mexico was until relatively recently largely confined to elite males and under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. The Mexican state has been involved in education since the nineteenth century. Control of education was a source of ongoing conflict between the Mexican state and the Roman Catholic Church, which since the era had exclusive charge of education. The mid nineteenth-century Liberal Reform separated church and state, which had a impact on education. President Benito Juárez sought the expansion of public schools, during the lengthy tenure of president Porfirio Díaz, the expansion of education became a priority under a cabinet-level post held by Justo Sierra, Sierra also served President Francisco I. Madero in the years of the Mexican Revolution. The 1917 Constitution strengthened the Mexican states power in education, undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church to shape the development of Mexicans. During presidency of Álvaro Obregón in the early 1920s, his Minister of Public Education José Vasconcelos implemented an expansion of access to public. This work was built on and expanded in the administration of Plutarco Elías Calles by Moisés Sáenz, in the 1930s, the Mexican government under Lázaro Cárdenas mandated socialist education in Mexico and there was considerable push back from the Roman Catholic Church as an institution. Socialist education was repealed during the 1940s, with the administration of Manuel Ávila Camacho, a number of private universities have opened since the mid twentieth century. Education in Mexico is currently regulated by the Secretariat of Public Education, Education standards are set by this Ministry at all levels except in autonomous universities chartered by the government. Accreditation of private schools is accomplished by an approval and registration with this institution. Religious instruction is prohibited in schools, however, religious associations are free to maintain private schools. In the same fashion as other systems, education has identifiable stages, Primary School, Junior High School, High School, Higher education. In Mexico, basic education is divided in three steps, primary school, comprising grades 1-6, junior high school, comprising grades 7-9. The terms Primary School or Elementary School usually corresponds to primaria, comprising grades 1-6 and it starts the basic compulsory education systemEducation in Mexico – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México The main campus of this public university in Mexico City.
51. Health care in Mexico – Healthcare in Mexico is provided via public institutions, private entities, or private physicians. Healthcare delivered through private organizations operates entirely on the free-market system and this is also the case of healthcare obtained from private physicians at their private office or clinic. Public healthcare delivery, on the hand, is accomplished via an elaborate provisioning. In 2012, Mexico instituted universal healthcare, as of December 31,2013, there were 4,466 hospitals in Mexico. Hospitals were established in Mexico in the sixteenth century, including ones exclusively for Indians. Some were established by the crown, others by private endowment, Bishop Vasco de Quiroga established hospital complexes in Michoacan in the sixteenth century. In Mexico City, conqueror Hernán Cortés established the Hospital de Jesús Nazareno for Indians, the Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, was founded in 1791. The institution, still functioning, is now a World Heritage Site and it is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in Latin America. The complex was founded by the Bishop of Guadalajara to combine the functions of a workhouse, hospital, orphanage, the Mexican healthcare program IMSS was founded in 1943 during the presidency of Manuel Avila Camacho. In the early 1990s, Mexico showed clear signs of having entered a stage in the health of its population. When compared with 1940 or even 1970, Mexico in the 1990s exhibited mortality patterns that closely approximated those found in developed societies. The CDCs flu director Nancy Cox, added that Mexicos response impressed the entire world, public Healthcare delivery is accomplished via an elaborate provisioning and delivery system instituted by the Mexican Federal Government. It is provided to all Mexican citizens as guaranteed via Article 4 of the Constitution, public care is either fully or partially subsidized by the federal government, depending upon the persons employment status. All Mexican citizens are eligible for subsidized healthcare regardless of their status via a system of health care facilities operating under the federal Secretariat of Health agency. The Secretariat of Healths Seguro Popular offers coverage to Mexicans who do not have formal employment, the program currently covers over 55 million people. Employed citizens and their dependents, however, are eligible to use the program administered and operated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The IMSS program is a system funded equally by the employee, the private employer. There are 58 million people covered through IMSS and this includes local, state, and federal government employeesHealth care in Mexico – Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
52. Mexican nationality law – This law was last modified in 2005. In general terms, Mexican nationality is based on both the principle of jus soli and the principle of jus sanguinis, the Mexican constitution also makes a distinction between nationals of Mexico and citizens of Mexico. According to the 30th article of the Constitution of Mexico, there are two ways in which a person can acquire Mexican citizenship, by birth and by naturalization, as in most other Central and South American countries, Mexican law differentiates between nationality and citizenship. The 34th article of the Mexican constitution establishes that Mexican citizens are those Mexican who are 18 years of age or older, Mexican law also distinguishes between naturalized citizens and natural-born citizens in many ways. Under the Mexican constitution, naturalized citizens are prohibited from serving in an array of positions. The Mexican nationality law acknowledges that a Mexican by birth may possess another nationality, if that is the case, however, such an individual must always enter and leave the country as a Mexican. If in such a case, she or he can request a Certificate of Nationality from the government, visa requirements for Mexican citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of MexicoMexican nationality law – President Enrique Peña Nieto swears in new Mexicans at a naturalization ceremony.
53. Poverty in Mexico – It is divided in two categories, Moderate poverty and Extreme poverty. Extreme poverty is defined by the Mexican government as persons who have deficiencies in both social rights and a lower than the well being income line. Additional figures from SEDESOL estimates that 6% live in extreme poverty, mexicos positive potential and the result of millions in poverty is always a topic of discussion among opinion-makers. Despite theses changes, Mexico continues to great social inequality. The current administration has made an attempt at reducing poverty in the country, to more opportunities to its citizens such as jobs, education. The constant governmental corruption is another factor to which poverty is frequently attributed, only in recent years, after various economic setbacks, Mexico has recovered to a level where the middle class, once virtually nonexistent, is beginning to flourish. Social stratification is still present in Mexico can be traced back to the countrys origin. In the Colonial Period, before its independence, the class was composed of those who owned the land. After the Mexican Revolution, the government ceded an estimated 50 percent of the land to the general population, land ownership continued to be main source of wealth for Mexicans and has dictated the hierarchy of wealth distribution amongst the population. After the country entered its economic industrial transformation, industrialists, businessmen, the average individual gross annual income in Mexico in 2002 was US$6,879.37. 12.3 percent of the Mexican labor force earns the daily minimum wage or MX$1,343.28 per month. 20.5 of the labor force earns twice the minimum wage and 21.4 percent earns up to three times the minimum wage while 18.6 earn no more than five daily minimum wages. Only 11.8 percent of the population earn wages equal or above MX$6,716.40 per month. The urban poverty rate, however, got stuck at 11.3 per cent, Social development began to take place in the form of written policy in the early 1900s. The global economic crisis of the late 1920s and forward slowed down any possibility of development in the country. Between the 1920s and the 1940s the illiteracy levels range between 61.5 and 58 percent, due this the government focused on establishing social protection institutions, by the late 1950s,59 percent of the population knew how to read and write. In the 2000s only 9.5 percent of the older than 15 years was illiterated. The 1970s and 1980s saw the transformation of government and economic policies, the government gave way to flexible foreign trade, deregulation and privatization of several sectorsPoverty in Mexico – Marginalized settlement "Colinas del Río", in the municipality Benito Juárez, Nuevo León, 2005.
54. List of Mexican states by Human Development Index – The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states, ranked in order of their Human Development Index, as reported by the United Nations in 2015 with data from 2008-2015. None of the States has a low level of human development, only Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, located south in the country, are in the medium level if the HDI. Puebla, Veracruz and Michoacán jumped from this level to high development states in 2010, between the states, Querétaro and Campeche have climbed more positions jumping from 11 to 7 and 18 to 15 places respectively. In the other hand, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Nayarit are the ones who have lost more places,4,4 and 3 falling from 15 to 19,7 to 11 and 17 to 20 correspondingly. - List of Mexican states by poverty rate List of Mexican states by unemploymentList of Mexican states by Human Development Index – Mexican States by Human Development Index, 2015.
55. Women in Mexico – The status of women in Mexico has changed significantly over time. Until the twentieth century, Mexico was a rural country, with rural womens status defined within the context of the family. With urbanization beginning in the century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, cities have provided economic. Roman Catholicism in Mexico has shaped societal attitudes about womens role, emphasizing the role of women as nurturers of the family. Marianismo has been an ideal, with role as being within the family under the authority of men. In the twentieth century, Mexican women made great strides toward towards a more legal and social status. In 1953 women in Mexico were granted the vote in national elections, urban women in Mexico worked in factories, the earliest being the tobacco factories set up in major Mexican cities as part of the lucrative tobacco monopoly. Women ran a variety of enterprises in the era, with the widows of elite businessmen continuing to run the family business. In the prehispanic and colonial periods, non-elite women were small-scale sellers in markets, in the late nineteenth century, as Mexico allowed foreign investment in industrial enterprises, women found increased opportunities for work outside the home. Women can now be working in factories, portable food carts. “In 1910, women made up 14% of the workforce, by 2008 they were 38%”, Mexican women face discrimination and at times harassment from the men exercising machismo against them. Although women in Mexico are making great advances they are faced with the expectation of being the head of the household. As of 2014, Mexico has the 16th highest female homicide rate in the world, the Mayan civilization was initially established during the Pre-Classic period. Women within Mayan society were limited in regards to status, marriage, in all pre-Columbian societies, marriage was the ideal state for women beyond the age of puberty. Elite women enjoyed a status within their society and were sometimes rulers of city states. Among a handful of female rulers were Lady Ahpo-Katum of Piedras Negras, Women could not own or inherit land. They owned what could be termed feminine goods which included household objects, domestic animals, beehives, Women could bequeath their property, but it was gender specific and was usually not of much value. The word Aztec refers to ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl languageWomen in Mexico – A female Mexican vendor
56. Mexican art – Mexican art consists of various visual arts that developed over the geographical area now known as Mexico. Mexican art is also filled most of the times with intricate patterns, during this time, all influences on art production were indigenous, with art heavily tied to religion and the ruling class. There was little to no distinction among art, architecture. After Independence, art remained heavily European in style, but indigenous themes appeared in works as liberal Mexico sought to distinguish itself from its Spanish colonial past. The first dominant Mesoamerican culture was that of the Olmecs, which peaked around 1200 BCE, the Olmecs originated much of what is associated with Mesoamerica, such as hieroglyphic writing, calendar, first advances in astronomy, monumental sculpture and jade work. They were a forerunner of later cultures such as Teotihuacan, north of Mexico City, the Zapotecs in Oaxaca, while empires rose and fell, the basic cultural underpinnings of the Mesoamerica stayed the same until the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. These included cities centered on plazas, temples built on pyramid bases, Mesoamerican ball courts. While the art of Mesoamerica is more varied and extends over more time than anywhere else in the Americas, unlike modern Western art, almost all Mesoamerican art was created to serve religious or political needs, rather than art for art’s sake. It is strongly based on nature, the political reality. Octavio Paz states that Mesoamerican art is a logic of forms, lines and he goes on to state that this focus on space and time is highly distinct from European naturalism based on the representation of the human body. Even simple designs such as stepped frets on buildings fall into this representation of space and time, life, Art was expressed on a variety of mediums such as ceramics, amate paper and architecture. Most of what is known of Mesoamerican art comes from works that cover stone buildings and pottery, mostly paintings, ceramics date from the early the Mesoamerican period. They probably began as cooking and storage vessels but then were adapted to ritual, ceramics were decorated by shaping, scratching, painting and different firing methods. The earliest of these are female figures, probably associated with fertility rites because of their often oversized hips and thighs. When male figures appear they are most often soldiers, the production of these ceramic figures, which would later include animals and other forms, remained an important art form for 2000 years. In the early Olmec period most were small but large-scale ceramic sculptures were produced as large as 55 cm, after the middle pre-Classic, ceramic sculpture declined in the center of Mexico except in the Chupícuaro region. In the Mayan areas, the art disappears in the late pre-Classic, to reappear in the Classic, mostly in the form of whistles and other musical instruments. In a few areas, such as parts of Veracruz, the creation of ceramic figures continued uninterrupted until the Spanish conquest, Mesoamerican painting is found in various expressions—from murals, to the creation of codices and the painting of ceramic objectsMexican art – Detail of a mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace.
57. Visual arts of Mexico – Visual arts of Mexico are any visual art made in Mexico, from prehistoric times to the present. Painting is one of the oldest arts of Mexico and it is believed that the American continents oldest rock art,7500 years old, is found in a cave on the peninsula of Baja California. The mural blossomed during the century in religious building and houses of the nobility. Among native painters was Marcos Aquino, a Flemish painter Simon Pereyns came to New Spain in 1566 and is considered the most important painter of this era. Pereyns along with Francisco de Morales, Francisco de Zumaya and Andrés de la Concha Juan de Arrúe formed a group of educated painters, the works preserved by this Flemish artist are, among others, his altarpiece paintings of Huejotzingo and San Cristóbal at the Metropolitan Cathedral. The church produced the most important works of the seventeenth century, Juan Correa, worked from 1671 to 1716 and reached great prestige and reputation for the quality of its design and scale of some of his works. Caravaggio and Francisco de Zurbarán as Painter of the King greatly influenced the creation of this period. From latter many works for the churches of New Spain were brought, at the end of the Baroque period, Bartolome Esteban Murillo works were present in New Spanish workshops. Along with the construction of temples and houses artistic religious themes proliferated, in New Spain, as in the rest of the New World, since the seventeenth century, particularly during the eighteenth century, the portrait became an important part of the artistic repertoire. In a society characterized by a religious feeling which was imbued, it was expected that many portraits reflected the moral virtues. Sebastian Zalcedo painted ca.1780 a beautiful allegory of the Virgin of Guadalupe in oil on copper foil, in this century Josep Antonio de Ayala was a prominent artist, who is known for painting The family of the Valley at the foot of Our Lady of Loreto c. This devotional painting was commissioned to be done for the children of the del Valle family in memory of his parents and is characteristic of the painting of this century. A description of colonial art says, In the Sponsorship of Saint Joseph on the Caroline College, Saint Joseph is seen as a figure of the work. Two archangels flank him and maintain its long purple robe, at the top two little angels are observed with intent to crown the holy. For centuries, the work was attributed to Manuel Caro, Miguel Cabrera Secular art emerged as an important development in the eighteenth century, partiucarly casta paintings, depictions of the system of racial hierarchy. Accomplished religious artists, such as Miguel Cabrera, painted a set of paintings, Cabrera also painted elites in New Spain as well as cultural icons. Some painters like Nicolas Rodriguez Juarez, were involved in the implementation of triumphal entry to the viceroys, the poblano José Luis Rodríguez Alconedo was the last novohispano painter. In this century there are examples of such as folkloric style created between 1855 and 1867 in La Barca, JaliscoVisual arts of Mexico – Painting cave in Yucatán.
58. Languages of Mexico – Several different languages are spoken in Mexico, with a large majority of the population fluent in Spanish while some indigenous Mexicans are monolingual in indigenous languages. The government of Mexico uses Spanish for most official purposes, the Law of Linguistic Rights establishes Spanish as one of the countrys national languages, along with 68 distinct indigenous languages. The law, promulgated in 2003, requires the state to all of its services to its indigenous citizens in their mother tongues. For instance, Mixtec is identified as a language within this list of 68 languages. However, there are at least 12 distinct Mixtec dialect regions, the Ethnologue currently states that 287 distinct languages are currently spoken in Mexico. There are other languages not native to Mexico that are spoken in the country, from the arrival of the first Franciscan missionaries, Spanish, Latin, and indigenous languages played parts in the evangelization of Mexico. Many sixteenth-century churchmen studied indigenous languages in order to instruct native peoples in Christian doctrine, the same men also found Castilian and Latin appropriate in certain contexts. All told, there existed a kind of linguistic coexistence from the beginning of the colonial period, some monks and priests attempted to describe and classify indigenous languages with Spanish. Philip II of Spain decreed in 1570 that Nahuatl become the language of the colonies of New Spain in order to facilitate communication between the natives of the colonies. In 1696 Charles II reversed that policy and banned the use of any other than Spanish throughout New Spain. Beginning in the 18th century, decrees ordering the Hispanization of indigenous populations became more numerous, after the independence the government initiated an educational system with the primary aim of Hispanization of the native populations. This policy was based on the idea was that this would help the indigenous peoples become an integrated part of the new Mexican nation. Except for the Second Mexican Empire, led by the Habsburg Maximilian I, in 1889, Antonio García Cubas estimated that 38% of Mexicans spoke an indigenous language, down from 60% in 1820. By the end of the 20th century, this figure had fallen to 6%, for most of the 20th century successive governments denied native tongues the status of valid languages. Indigenous students were forbidden to speak their languages in school and were often punished for doing so. In 2002, Mexicos constitution was amended to reinforce the nations pluricultural nature by giving the State the obligation to protect, the Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas was passed in December 2002, establishing a framework for the conservation, nurturing and development of indigenous languages. Critics claim that the laws complexity makes enforcement difficult, Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of Mexicans, though it is not defined as an official language in legislation. In 2003 Congress approved the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples, accordingly, they have the same validity in their territory, location and contextLanguages of Mexico – A page of the Florentine Codex written in romanized Nahuatl (Nahuatl is not known to have been a written language prior to its romanization).
59. Radio in Mexico – Radio in Mexico is a mass medium with 98 percent national penetration and a wider diversity of owners and programming than on television. In August 2015, there were 1,750 radio stations in operation in Mexico, the development of Mexican radio would take place simultaneously in various cities around the country, as opposed to the rather centralized, Mexico City-based development of television. The first radio broadcasts in Mexico took place in 1921, as part of celebrations of the centennial of the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, which formalized Mexican independence. The next year, radio stations would begin operations in Mexico City, Pachuca, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Morelia, San Luis Potosí, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, also in 1922, the National Radio League, the first radio association in Mexico, was formed. On May 8,1923, the station El Universal/La Casa del Radio came to air in Mexico City with 50 watts of power, the station was co-owned by the El Universal newspaper and Raúl Azcárraga, owner of the La Casa del Radio chain of radio stores. Andrés Segovia and Manuel Ponce were among the present at the stations formal inauguration that evening. That September, the station would increase its power to 500 watts, on September 15, the El Buen Tono cigarette company began the operation of its own station. 1924 also saw the launch of stations by the Excélsior newspaper. The latter station, on 560 kHz, would operate until 1929, the first communications law, the Electric Communications Law, was promulgated in 1926 by President Plutarco Elías Calles. Article 12 of the law provided that radio programming should not harm the security of the State or the established government, in 1929, callsigns were reassigned again. Mexico received the range XAA to XPZ, callsigns beginning in XE would be used for broadcasting. In the 1940s, the XH callsign series would be used for new FM and TV stations, the 1930s saw the development of many new radio stations in Mexico. XEN, Radio Mundial, provided the Mexico City area with the worlds first all-news radio station in 1930, but the most important new radio station in 1930 was XEW900, owned by Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta. Known as the Voice of Latin America, XEW marked the changing of a guard in Mexican radio development and it specialized in developing daily programming that attracted viewers, and thus advertisers. Azcárragas empire grew with the sign-on of XEQ in 1938, the National Revolutionary Party, predecessor to the Institutional Revolutionary Party, launched station XEFO940 kHz in Mexico City on January 1,1931. Concessions awarded to stations were valid for up to 50 years, in 1969, the government set a quota of 12.5 percent of the airtime of all broadcast stations to be allotted for its uses. The original border blaster, John Brinkleys XER in Villa Acuña, XERA broadcast at 500 kilowatts and operated until 1939, when it was shut down amidst a treaty with the United States. 1940 saw a further pioneering effort in radio, station XEQK in Mexico City, which had struggled since signing on in 1938, began transmitting the time, every minute on the minute, interspersed with short commercial announcementsRadio in Mexico – The tower for XHUPC-FM, the radio station of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional
60. Sport in Mexico – The most popular sport in Mexico is association football, followed by boxing. Charrería is Mexicos national sport, baseball the most popular sport in the northwest and southeast regions, basketball, american football and bullfighting are also highly popular, Mexico City hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics – the first time the event was held in Latin America. Since then the region hadnt held another edition of the Olympic Games until 2016, held in Rio de Janeiro. Mexico first participated at the Olympic Games in 1900 and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since 1924, Mexico has also participated in several Winter Olympic Games since 1928. Mexico has performed best in athletics, boxing, equestrian, diving, and Swimming events, the Pan American Games competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games. Mexico Ranks 6th in the top ten all time at the Pan American Games. Mexico and Canada have hosted three Pan American Games each, more than any other nation, among cities, only Winnipeg and Mexico City have played host to the Pan American Games more than once, each holding that honor twice. Similar to the Olympic flame, the Pan American Games flame is lit well before the Games are to commence, the flame was lit for the first games in Olympia, Greece. For subsequent games, the torch has been lit by Aztec people, in ancient temples, first in the Cerro de la Estrella and later in the Pyramid of the Sun at the Teotihuacan Pyramids. The only exception was for the São Paulo games in 1963, charreada is the national sport of Mexico, it dates back to the 16th century and consists of a series of Mexico-developed equestrian events. The most notable event is the charreada, a style of rodeo developed in Mexico in the interest of maintaining the traditions of the charro, a charro is a term referring to a traditional horseman or a cowboy of Mexico, originating in the state of Jalisco. The Federación Mexicana de Charrería organizes charrería events, the most popular sport is football. The Spanish colonization of Mexico introduced bullfighting into the country, the sport has been one of the most popular in the country for the last 400 years. One of the most prominent bullfighters of the 20th century in Mexico was Carlos Arruza and he was known as El Ciclón. Typically, a bullfight in Mexico includes a variety of events known as charreadas. Thousands of bullfighting events occur in Mexico, in certain areas of the country, bullfighting generates a large amount of revenue from the local population, as well as visiting tourists. As evidence of the popularity of the sport, the largest bullring in the world is the Plaza Mexico, the anniversary of the opening of Plaza Mexico is celebrated annually with a special bullfight called the Corrida de Aniversario. The Plaza México has been host to many of the worlds best and most famous bullfighters, Basque Pelota is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat, or a basket propulsor, against a wallSport in Mexico – Estadio Olímpico Universitario is a multi-purpose stadium in Mexico City. It has been used in many international competitions
61. Television in Mexico – Television is a popular form of entertainment in Mexico, with mass entertainment playing an important role in creating a national, unified culture. Mexico has four commercial television networks reaching 75% or more of the population. Two are owned by Televisa, the Canal de las Estrellas and Canal 5 networks, while Azteca owns the Azteca 7, cadenatres is currently only available in Mexico City and some other cities in northern Mexico, but it will expand beginning in 2016. There are also other commercial networks with less than 75% national reach. Chief among these are Televisas Gala TV, which in some areas shares time with regional programming, and Multimedios Televisión, noncommercially, Canal Once operated by the Instituto Politécnico Nacional is the oldest educational television service in Latin America. As SPRs national transmitter network complements that of Canal Once, almost all of its stations also retransmit that network, in Mexico, telenovelas usually involve a romantic couple that encounters many problems throughout the shows run, a villain and usually ends with a wedding. One common ending archetype, consists of a wedding, and with the dying, going to jail, becoming permanently injured or disabled. Television in Mexico first began in August 19,1946 in Mexico City when Guillermo González Camarena transmitted the first television signal in Latin America from the bathroom of his home. On September 7,1946 at 8,30 PM Mexico’s and this experimental station broadcast an artistic program and interviews on Saturdays for two years. Mexico’s first commercial station, XHTV channel 4 in Mexico City, signed on August 31,1950 and it started transmitting regular programs on the following day. It is also the first Hispanophone or Spanish speaking country to introduce television, the first program to be broadcast was President Miguel Alemán Valdés IV Informe de Gobierno. Within a year, XEW-TV channel 2, owned by the Azcárraga family, was formed, Mexicos first color television transmission was carried out by the third television station in the capital, González Camarenas XHGC Canal 5. In 1955, all three formed an alliance, Telesistema Mexicano, the predecessor to Televisa. In 1959, XEIPN-TV channel 11 signed on, the base of todays Canal Once network, with the exception of the short-lived but popular Televisión Independiente de México, which TSM absorbed in 1973 to form Televisa, the latter saw no major commercial competition until 1993. Instead, the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s were marked by an expansion in state-owned television. At the same time, a known as Televisión Rural de México sought to bring culture. In the 1980s, XHTRM-TV channel 22, the first UHF television station in the Valle de México, came to air bringing TRM programming to the nations capital. In 1985, TRM was dismantled, and with the sign-on of XHIMT-TV channel 7 in Mexico City, the TRM repeaters were linked to that station, in 1993, Imevisións privatization gave birth to Televisión AztecaTelevision in Mexico – The telenovela Abrázame muy fuerte.
62. Battle of the Alamo – The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, Santa Annas cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21,1836, several months previously, Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were then garrisoned at the Alamo, the Texian force grew slightly with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. On February 23, approximately 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas, for the next 10 days, the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties. Aware that his garrison could not withstand an attack by such a force, Travis wrote multiple letters pleading for more men and supplies. In the early morning hours of March 6, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo, after repelling two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian soldiers withdrew into interior buildings, Defenders unable to reach these points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape. Between five and seven Texians may have surrendered, if so, most eyewitness accounts reported between 182 and 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. Several noncombatants were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texian defeat, within Mexico, the battle has often been overshadowed by events from the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. In 19th-century Texas, the Alamo complex gradually became known as a battle rather than a former mission. The Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the part of the 20th century. The Alamo is now the most popular tourist site in Texas, the Alamo has been the subject of numerous non-fiction works beginning in 1843. Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model, the increasingly dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, incited many federalists to revolt. The border region of Mexican Texas was largely populated by immigrants from the United States and these people were accustomed to a federalist government and to extensive individual rights, and they were quite vocal in their displeasure at Mexicos shift towards centralism. In October, Texians engaged Mexican troops in the first official battle of the Texas Revolution, determined to quell the rebellion, Santa Anna began assembling a large force, the Army of Operations in Texas, to restore order. Most of his soldiers were raw recruits, and a number had been forcibly conscripted. The Texians systematically defeated the Mexican troops already stationed in Texas, the last group of Mexican soldiers in the region—commanded by Santa Annas brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos—surrendered on December 9 following the siege of BéxarBattle of the Alamo – The Alamo, as drawn in 1854.
63. Bald eagle – The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States. Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak, feet and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle also has a body, white head and tailBald eagle – Bald eagle
64. Battle of Goliad – The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In the early-morning hours of October 9,1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano. In September, Texians began plotting to kidnap Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos, the plan was initially dismissed by the central committee coordinating the rebellion. However, within days of the Texian victory at the Battle of Gonzales, Captain George Collinsworth, the Texians soon learned that Cos and his men had already departed for San Antonio de Béxar but continued their march. The garrison at La Bahía was understaffed and could not mount a defense of the forts perimeter. Using axes borrowed from townspeople, Texians were able to chop through a door, after a 30-minute battle, the Mexican garrison, under Colonel Juan López Sandoval, surrendered. One Mexican soldier had killed and three others wounded, while only one Texian had been injured. The victory isolated Coss men in Béxar from the coast, forcing them to rely on an overland march to request or receive reinforcements or supplies. In 1835, Mexico operated two major garrisons within its Texas territory, the Alamo at San Antonio de Béxar and Presidio La Bahía near Goliad, Béxar was the political center of Texas, and Goliad laid halfway between it and the major Texas port of Copano. Military and civilian supplies and military personnel were sent by sea from the Mexican interior to Copano Bay. In early 1835, as the Mexican government transitioned from a federalist model to centralism, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence, a central committee in San Felipe de Austin coordinated their activities. The Texians staged a revolt against customs duties in June. In July, Colonel Nicolas Condelle, led 200 men to reinforce Presidio La Bahía, the following month, a contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Cos landed at Copano Bay on September 20 with approximately 500 soldiers, Cos briefly toured the port at Copano Bay and the small garrison at nearby Refugio and left small groups of soldiers to reinforce each of these locations. The main body of soldiers arrived in Goliad on October 2, as soon as Coss warships were spotted approaching Copano Bay, Refugio colonists sent messengers to San Felipe de Austin and Matagorda to inform the other settlements of Coss imminent arrival. Concerned that a lack of artillery would make the presidio at Goliad impossible to capture, colonists eagerly rushed to assist, and on October 2 the Battle of Gonzales officially opened the Texas Revolution. After learning of the Texian victory, Cos made haste for Béxar and he left with the bulk of his soldiers on October 5, but because he was unable to find adequate transportation most of his supplies remained at La Bahía. On October 6, members of the Texian militia in Matagorda convened at the home of Sylvanus Hatch, as their first order of business they elected George Collinsworth as their captain, Dr. William Carleton was then named first lieutenant and D. CBattle of Goliad – Battle of Goliad
65. Battle of San Patricio – The Battle of San Patricio was fought on February 27,1836 between Mexican troops and rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians. The battle marked the start of the Goliad Campaign, the Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast and it took place in and around San Patricio. By the end of 1835, all Mexican troops had driven from Texas. Frank W. Johnson, the commander of the army in Texas. After spending several weeks gathering horses for the Matamoros Expedition, in late February Johnson, Johnson assigned some of his troops to a ranch 4 miles outside town to guard the horses, while the rest of his men garrisoned in three different locations in town. Unbeknownst to the Texians, on February 18, Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops from Matamoros into Texas. Their goal was to neutralize the Texian soldiers gathered along the coast, Urreas men easily followed the trail left by Johnsons herd of horses. Mexican soldiers surprised the sleeping Texians in San Patricio in the hours of February 27. After a fifteen-minute battle, all but six Texians had been killed or imprisoned, one Mexican soldier was killed and four injured. Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model to a centralized government. His increasingly dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, the Mexican army quickly put down revolts in the Mexican interior, including a brutal suppression of militias in Oaxaca and Zacatecas. Unrest continued in the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas, the area that bordered the United States, known as Texas, was populated primarily by English-speaking settlers, known as Texians. In October, the Texians took up arms in what known as the Texas Revolution. The following month, Texians declared themselves part of an independent from Coahuila. By the end of the year, all Mexican troops had expelled from Texas. Leading federalists in Mexico advocated a plan to attack centralist troops in Matamoros, members of the General Council, the interim Texas governing body, were enamored with the idea of a Matamoros Expedition. They hoped it would inspire other federalist states to revolt and keep the bored Texian troops from deserting the army, most importantly, it would move the war zone outside Texas. Determined to quash the rebellion, Santa Anna began assembling a force to restore orderBattle of San Patricio – approximate location of the battle
66. CMLL World Heavyweight Championship – The CMLL World Heavyweight Championship is a professional wrestling world heavyweight championship established in 1991 and promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. CMLL introduced the championship to signal their independence from the National Wrestling Alliance, as part of the move away from the NWA, CMLL established championships designated as CMLL World Championships for several weight divisions. The Heavyweight Championship was the first CMLL title to be created, and the champion was Konnan el Bárbaro. The current champion is Máximo Sexy, the fifteenth person to hold the championship. In most professional wrestling promotions around the world, the world heavyweight designation is used to indicate the highest-ranking championship instead of a weight division. Traditionally, however, lucha libre has used multiple weight divisions, as it is a professional wrestling championship, it is won not by actual competition, but by a scripted ending to a match. F. The Mexican National Heavyweight Championship was created in 1926, and over time, EMLL began promoting matches for that championship with the approval and oversight of the wrestling commission. In the 1950s, EMLL became a member of the National Wrestling Alliance, recognized the NWA World Heavyweight Championship, in the late 1980s, EMLL left the NWA to avoid their politics and would later rebrand themselves as Consejo Mundal de Lucha Libre. Although they had left the NWA, they were promoting the NWAs titles. By the start of the 1990s, CMLL began to downplay the Mexican National Heavyweight Championship bouts, featuring them less frequently on CMLL shows, in 1991, CMLL began creating a series of CMLL-branded world championships, the first of which was for the heavyweight division. The first champion was crowned in the finals of a 16-man tournament that saw Konnan el Bárbaro defeat Cien Caras, Konnan lost the title to Cien Caras in his first title defense on August 18,1991, making him one of three champions without a single successful title defense. CMLL held a 16-man single-elimination tournament from October 30,1992, to November 20,1992, with that victory, he became the first non-Hispanic, and so far the only British wrestler, to win the championship. On June 27,1993, Mexican native Brazo de Plata defeated Black Magic for the title at Arena México, on April 18,1997, Steel became the first Canadian to win the championship by defeating then-champion Rayo de Jalisco Jr. to become the eighth overall champion. In September 1997, Steel signed a contract with the World Wrestling Federation forcing CMLL to vacate the championship for the second time, on October 19,1997, Universo 2000 won the title, starting the first of his three reigns, more than any other champion has managed. Universo 2000 lost the title to and regained the title from Rayo de Jalisco Jr. Universo 2000s second reign as champion lasted 1,225 days and this record-breaking run ended on April 18,2003, when Mr. Niebla won the title. Mr. Niebla was champion for 543 days before Universo 2000 regained the championship for his third reign. On July 8,2007, Dos Caras Jr. became the overall champion. His reign lasted 533 days, but only saw him defend the three times, defeating Lizmark Jr. Universo 2000, and Último GuerreroCMLL World Heavyweight Championship – Val Venis, the 8th CMLL World Heavyweight Champion under the name "Steel"
67. CMLL World Middleweight Championship – The CMLL World Middleweight Championship is a professional wrestling world championship promoted by the Mexican wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The official definition of the division in Mexico is a person between 82 kg and 87 kg, but the weight limits are not strictly adhered to. Ángel de Oro is the current CMLL World Middleweight Champion, having defeated Dragón Rojo Jr. for the championship on March 25,2017, Dragón Rojo Jr. is the longest reigning champion in the history of the championship. Since its creation in 1991, there have been 17 individual championship reigns shared between 12 wrestlers, El Dandy is the only three-time champion, Apolo Dantés had the shortest reign of any champion,77 days. The middleweight division was one of the first weight divisions in Mexican lucha libre to have a championship as the Mexican National Middleweight Championship was created in 1933. When the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre was founded in September 1933, EMLL later created the World Middleweight Championship to represent the highest level prize of the middleweight division, higher than the Mexican National Middleweight Championship. In 1952, EMLL joined the National Wrestling Alliance and changed the title to the NWA World Middleweight Championship. In the late 1980s, EMLL left the NWA over internal politics, CMLL held a one-night, eight-man tournament to determine the first middleweight champion on December 18,1991. The tournament final saw Blue Panther defeat El Satánico to become the first new titleholder, in June 1992, many wrestlers left CMLL to join the newly formed Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, which significantly affected CMLLs middleweight championships. The Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission allowed AAA to assume control of the Mexican National Middleweight Championship as the reigning champion Octagón had joined AAA, meanwhile, the CMLL World Middleweight Championship was vacated after the departure of the champion, Blue Panther. CMLL held a 16-man battle royal match to reduce the field to two finalists, El Dandy and Negro Casas survived the match, and a week later El Dandy defeated Casas to become the second CMLL World Middleweight Champion. The championship has not been vacated since then, the exodus from CMLL to AAA also meant that CMLL lost control of the Mexican National Middleweight Championship as then-reigning champion Octagón was among the wrestlers that left the promotion. The Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission allowed AAA to take control of the Mexican National Middleweight Championship at that point in time, on May 3,2010, Jushin Thunder Liger defeated Negro Casas to win the CMLL World Middleweight Championship. Ángel de Oro is the current champion, having won the title on March 25,2017 and this is Ángel de Oros first reign as middleweight champion, he is the 18th overall champion. Dragón Rojo Jr. Apolo Dantés held the title the shortest amount of time, the official definition of the middleweight division in Mexico is from 82 kg to 87 kg. One example of this was when Mephisto, officially listed as 90 kg, won the CMLL World Welterweight Championship, a weight class with a 82 kg upper limit. From 2013 until June 2016, only two major CMLL shows have featured championship matches, Sin Salida in 2013 and the 2014 Juicio Final show featuring the NWA World Historic Welterweight Championship, Championship matches usually take place under best two-out-of-three falls rules. In 1991, CMLL held an eight-man, one-night tournament to crown the first ever CMLL World Middleweight Champion, in the end, Blue Panther won the championship by defeating El SatánicoCMLL World Middleweight Championship – Negro Casas, the 12th and 15th champion
68. Chicxulub crater – The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Its center is located near the town of Chicxulub, after which the crater is named and it was formed by a large asteroid or comet about 10 kilometres in diameter, the Chicxulub impactor, striking the Earth. The crater is more than 180 kilometers in diameter and 20 km in depth and it makes the feature the third of the largest confirmed impact structures on Earth. The crater was discovered by Antonio Camargo and Glen Penfield, geophysicists who had been looking for petroleum in the Yucatán during the late 1970s, Penfield was initially unable to obtain evidence that the geological feature was a crater and gave up his search. Later, through contact with Alan Hildebrand in 1990, Penfield obtained samples that suggested it was an impact feature, evidence for the impact origin of the crater includes shocked quartz, a gravity anomaly, and tektites in surrounding areas. Penfields job was to use data to scout possible locations for oil drilling. In the data, Penfield found a huge underwater arc with extraordinary symmetry in a ring 70 km across and he then obtained a gravity map of the Yucatán made in the 1960s. A decade earlier, the same map suggested a feature to contractor Robert Baltosser. Penfield found another arc on the peninsula itself, the ends of which pointed northward, Pemex disallowed release of specific data but let Penfield and company official Antonio Camargo present their results at the 1981 Society of Exploration Geophysicists conference. That years conference was underattended and their report attracted scant attention, coincidentally, many experts in impact craters and the K–Pg boundary were attending a separate conference on Earth impacts. Although Penfield had plenty of data sets, he had no rock cores or other physical evidence of an impact. He knew Pemex had drilled exploratory wells in the region, in 1951, one bored into what was described as a thick layer of andesite about 1.3 kilometres down. This layer could have resulted from the heat and pressure of an Earth impact. Penfield tried to secure site samples, but was told such samples had been lost or destroyed, when attempts at returning to the drill sites and looking for rocks proved fruitless, Penfield abandoned his search, published his findings and returned to his Pemex work. At the same time, in 1980, geologist Walter Alvarez and his father, Nobel Prize-winning scientist Luis Walter Alvarez and their evidence included greenish-brown clay with surplus iridium containing shocked quartz grains and small weathered glass beads that looked to be tektites. Thick, jumbled deposits of rock fragments were also present, thought to have been scoured from one place. Such deposits occur in locations but seem concentrated in the Caribbean basin at the K–Pg boundary. So when Haitian professor Florentine Morás discovered what he thought to be evidence of an ancient volcano on Haiti, tests on samples retrieved from the K–Pg boundary revealed more tektite glass, formed only in the heat of asteroid impacts and high-yield nuclear detonationsChicxulub crater – Imaging from NASA 's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission STS-99 reveals part of the 180 km (110 mi)-diameter ring of the crater. The numerous sinkholes clustered around the trough of the crater suggest a prehistoric oceanic basin in the depression left by the impact.
69. Cougar – The cougar, also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the greatest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, an adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types. It is the second-heaviest cat in the New World, after the jaguar, secretive and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although there are daytime sightings. The cougar is more related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat, than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae. The cougar is a predator and pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources are ungulates, particularly deer, but also livestock and it also hunts species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, the cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey, while large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, and grizzly bear. It is reclusive and mostly avoids people, fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have recently been increasing in North America as more people enter their territories. Intensive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, reports of eastern cougars still surface, although it was declared extirpated in 2011. With its vast range across the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of names and various references in the mythology of the indigenous Americans and in contemporary culture. Currently, it is referred to as puma by most scientists, Mountain lion was a term first used in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado. Other names include catamount, mountain screamer, and painter, lexicographers regard painter as a primarily upper-Southern US regional variant on panther. The word panther is used to specifically designate the black panther, a melanistic jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther. P. concolor holds the Guinness record for the animal with the greatest number of names, Cougar may be borrowed from the archaic Portuguese çuçuarana, the term was originally derived from the Tupi language susuarana, meaning similar to deer. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana and it may also be borrowed from the Guaraní language term guaçu ara or guazu ara. Less common Portuguese terms are onça-parda or leão-baio, or unusually non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, people in rural regions often refer to both the cougar and the jaguar as simply gata, and outside of the Amazon, both are colloquially referred to as simply onça by many peopleCougar
70. Exsudoporus frostii – Exsudoporus frostii, commonly known as Frosts bolete or the apple bolete, is a bolete fungus first described scientifically in 1874. A member of the family Boletaceae, the produced by the fungus have tubes and pores instead of gills on the underside of their caps. Exsudoporus frostii is distributed in the eastern United States from Maine to Georgia, a mycorrhizal species, its fruit bodies are typically found growing near hardwood trees, especially oak. Exsudoporus frostii mushrooms can be recognized by their dark red sticky caps, the red pores, the pattern of the stipe. Another characteristic of young, moist fruit bodies is the amber-colored drops exuded on the pore surface, although the mushrooms are considered edible, they are generally not recommended for consumption because of the risk of confusion with other poisonous red-pored, blue-bruising boletes. E. frostii may be distinguished from other superficially similar red-capped boletes by differences in distribution, associated species, bluing reaction. The species was named by the Unitarian minister John Lewis Russell of Salem, Massachusetts, based on specimens found in Brattleboro, Vermont. He named the fungus after his friend, fellow amateur American mycologist Charles Christopher Frost, bernard Ogilvie Dodge made reference to B. Boletus Frostii and Boletus Russellii are mushrooms with character, even though they were described by amateurs, Frostii or wrote a description of it. William Murrill in 1909 placed the species in the genus Suillellus, Tubiporus has since been synonymized with Boletus. Following recent molecular studies that outlined a new framework for the Boletaceae. Exsudoporus frostii is commonly known as Frosts bolete or the apple bolete, in Mexico, its vernacular name is panza agria, which translates to sour belly. The shape of the cap of the fruit body ranges from a half sphere to convex, later becoming broadly convex to flat or shallowly depressed. The edge of the cap is curved inward, although as it ages it can uncurl, in moist conditions, the cap surface is sticky as a result of its cuticle, which is made of gelatinized hyphae. If the fruit body has dried out after a rain, the cap is especially shiny, young mushrooms have a whitish bloom on the cap surface. The color is bright red initially, but fades with age, the flesh is up to 2.5 cm thick, and ranges in color from pallid to pale yellow to lemon yellow. The flesh has a variable staining reaction in response to bruising, so some specimens may turn deep blue almost immediately, the tubes comprising the pore surface are 9–15 mm deep, yellow to olivaceous yellow, turning dingy blue when bruised. The pores are small, circular, and until old age a deep red color that eventually becomes paler, the pore surface is often beaded with yellowish droplets when young, and readily stains blue when bruisedExsudoporus frostii – Exsudoporus frostii
71. Grass Fight – The Grass Fight was a small battle during the Texas Revolution, fought between the Mexican Army and the Texan Army. The battle took place on November 26,1835, just south of San Antonio de Béxar in the Mexican region of Texas. The Texas Revolution had officially begun on October 2 and by the end of the month the Texans had initiated a siege of Béxar, bored with the inactivity, many of the Texan soldiers returned home, a smaller number of adventurers from the United States arrived to replace them. After the Texan Army rejected commander-in-chief Stephen F. Austins call to launch an assault on Béxar on November 22, the men elected Edward Burleson their new commander-in-chief. On November 26, Texan scout Deaf Smith brought news of a Mexican pack train, accompanied by 50–100 soldiers, the Texan camp was convinced that the pack train carried silver to pay the Mexican garrison and purchase supplies. Burleson ordered Colonel James Bowie to take 45–50 cavalry and intercept the train, on seeing the battle commence, Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos sent reinforcements from Bexar. The Texians repulsed several attacks by Mexican soldiers, who retreated to Bexar. When the Texians examined the abandoned pack train they discovered that, instead of silver, four Texans were injured, and historian Alwyn Barr states that three Mexican soldiers were killed, although Bowie and Burleson initially claimed the number was much higher. On October 2,1835, Texas colonists attacked a Mexican force at the Battle of Gonzales, after the battle ended, disgruntled colonists continued to assemble in Gonzales, eager to put a decisive end to Mexican control over the area. On October 11 the disorganized volunteers elected Stephen F. Austin, in late October the Texians initiated a siege of Béxar. At 10,00 a. m. on November 26, Texian scout Erastus Deaf Smith rode into camp to report that a train of mules and horses. For several days, the Texians had heard rumors that the Mexican Army was expecting a shipment of silver and gold to pay the troops, the Texians had been fighting without pay, and most wanted to charge from camp and loot the expected riches. Burleson calmed the crowd and then ordered Colonel James Bowie to take 35–40 mounted men to investigate, after Bowie recruited the armys 12 best marksmen for the expedition, there was little doubt that he intended to find a reason to attack. Burleson managed to stop the army from following by sending Colonel William Jack with 100 infantry to support Bowies men. About 1 mile from Béxar, Bowie and his men spotted the Mexican soldiers crossing a dry ravine and this was likely near the confluence of the Alazán, Apache, and San Pedro Creeks. Bowies men charged the Mexican party, scattering the mules, the mounted forces briefly exchanged fire, and then both sides dismounted and took cover in dry streambeds. The Mexican forces counterattacked but were repulsed, in Béxar, General Cos saw the battle begin and sent 50 infantry and 1 cannon to provide cover so the cavalry could retreat to town. The Texian infantry also heard the shots and rushed toward the battleGrass Fight – Gen. Martín Perfecto de Cos, commander of the Álamo garrison
72. Hurricane Guillermo (1997) – Hurricane Guillermo was the ninth most intense Pacific hurricane on record, attaining peak winds of 160 mph and a barometric pressure of 919 hPa. Forming out of a wave on July 30,1997, roughly 345 mi south of Salina Cruz, Mexico. The system reached hurricane status by August 1 before undergoing rapid intensification the following day, at the end of this phase, the storm attained its peak intensity as a powerful Category 5 hurricane. The storm began to weaken during the afternoon of August 5 and was downgraded to a storm on August 8. Once entering the Central Pacific Hurricane Centers area of responsibility, Guillermo briefly weakened to a depression before re-attaining tropical storm status. On August 15, the reached a unusually high latitude of 41. 8°N before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone. Throughout Guillermos track, the storm never threatened any major landmass, however, because of its extreme intensity, it produced large swells across the Pacific Ocean, affecting areas from Hawaii to coastal Mexico. Along the American Pacific coast, three people drowned amid high waves, two in Baja California and one in California. At its peak, Guillermo was the second strongest known Pacific hurricane on record, however, it has since surpassed by seven other storms. The effects of Guillermo were not deemed severe enough to justify retirement of its name, Hurricane Guillermo began its extensive track as a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on July 16,1997. Initially disorganized and weak, the system tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean for several weeks, once in the Pacific, convection, areas of thunderstorm activity, and banding features began to form. Additionally, a low pressure developed within the disturbance by July 29. In response to a ridge to the north, the depression tracked at a steady pace towards the west-northwest. Within a day of being classified, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Guillermo, throughout the next day, the system gradually developed an eye within the central dense overcast, leading to further strengthening. Unlike most hurricanes in the eastern Pacific, Guillermo was investigated by Hurricane Hunters reconnaissance aircraft during its rapid intensification stage, the aircraft released several dropsondes into the storm to gather meteorological data. This mission marked the first time the Hurricane Hunters recorded high-resolution wind data from flight level to several meters of the ocean surface inside the eyewall of a major hurricane. Radar was also employed to determine the size of the eye, stated to be roughly 13 mi in diameter. Light wind shear surrounding the hurricane allowed further strengthening to take place, late on August 2, the system attained winds of 135 mph, making it a Category 4 stormHurricane Guillermo (1997) – Hurricane Guillermo at peak intensity on August 5
73. Hasekura Tsunenaga – Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga was a Roman noble of Japanese imperial descent with ancestral ties to Emperor Kanmu and a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyō of Sendai. In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, and follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582, on the return trip, Hasekura and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manila, and then sailing north to Japan in 1620. He is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas, although Hasekuras embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking, Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan. Japans next embassy to Europe would only occur more than 200 years later, little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle that was constructed in Hasekura Ward, Kawasaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, the place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura Village, now Hasekura Ward in Kawasaki City. Hasekura and Date Masamune were of roughly the age. It is also recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taikō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in 1612, Hasekuras father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, and he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, and his son should normally have been executed as well, Date, however, gave him the opportunity to redeem his honour by placing him in charge of the Embassy to Europe, and soon gave him back his territories as well. The Spanish started trans-Pacific voyages between New Spain and the Philippines in 1565, the famous Manila galleons carried silver from Mexican mines westward to the entrepôt of Manila in the Spanish possession of the Philippines. There, the silver was used to purchase spices and trade goods gathered from throughout Asia, Spanish ships were periodically shipwrecked on the coasts of Japan due to bad weather, initiating contacts with the country. The Spanish wished to expand the Christian faith in Japan, however, some Japanese, such as Christopher and Cosmas, are known to have crossed the Pacific onboard Spanish galleons as early as 1587. It is known that gifts were exchanged between the governor of the Philippines and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who thanks him in a 1597 letter, writing The black elephant in particular I found most unusual. In 1609, the Spanish Manila galleon San Francisco encountered bad weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, the sailors were rescued and welcomed, and the ships captain, Rodrigo de Vivero, former interim governor of the Philippines, met with the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Vizcaino arrived in Japan in 1611 and had meetings with the ShogunHasekura Tsunenaga – Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615 by Claude Deruet
74. Hurricane Carmen – Hurricane Carmen was the most intense tropical cyclone of the 1974 Atlantic hurricane season. A destructive and widespread storm, Carmen originated as a disturbance that emerged from Africa toward the end of August. The disturbance traveled westward, spawning a depression east of the Lesser Antilles on August 29. Carmen moved ashore on the Yucatán Peninsula, where, despite striking a sparsely populated region, it caused significant crop damage, before the storms arrival, officials had set up several evacuation centers, and many residents had moved to higher ground. Upon entering the Gulf of Mexico, Carmen turned northward and re-intensified as it approached the United States, initially threatening the major city of New Orleans, it veered westward and made landfall on the marshland of southern Louisiana, eventually dissipating over eastern Texas on September 10. Tropical cyclone watches and warnings had been issued for the storm, damage was lighter than first feared, but the sugar industry suffered substantial losses. Throughout its course, the hurricane killed 8 people and caused $162 million in damage, due to the severity of the storm, the name Carmen was retired from the list of Atlantic tropical cyclone names. The origins of Hurricane Carmen can be traced to a disturbance over Africa during the middle of August 1974. The disturbance moved westward with little convective activity initially, although upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. The wave had intensified and broadened by August 25, and it split into two components, the northernmost of which consolidated into an organized storm system. Moving westward, the system developed into a depression on August 29. Due to favorable outflow from a nearby, the depression gradually strengthened as it moved through the Lesser Antilles. It attained tropical storm status on August 30, south of Puerto Rico, at first, the storms proximity to Hispaniola prevented further strengthening, but by August 31, it had managed to intensify into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. As Carmen passed south of Jamaica, an eye feature briefly appeared, on September 1, the hurricane began to rapidly deepen over warm waters of the Caribbean Sea, by 1800 Coordinated Universal Time, it had strengthened to Category 4 intensity. Continuing westward, the storm passed north of Swan Island later that day, early on September 2, a double eyewall appeared on satellite imagery. Atmospheric steering currents became increasingly weaker, and Carmen slowed to a drift, later on September 2, the hurricane made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, its northern jog spared Belize City from a direct hit. The storms center passed a few north of Chetumal, Quintana Roo. The cyclone drifted inland, deteriorating to a storm on September 3Hurricane Carmen – Hurricane Carmen as a Category 4 storm on September 1
75. Hurricane Edith (1971) – Edith developed from a tropical wave on September 5 and quickly strengthened into a hurricane in the Caribbean Sea. Edith rapidly intensified on September 9 and made landfall on Cape Gracias a Dios as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale and it quickly lost intensity over Central America and after briefly entering the Gulf of Honduras it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Edith steadily weakened over land and dissipated over Georgia on September 18, the hurricane killed two people when it passed near Aruba. Striking northeastern Central America as a Category 5 hurricane, Edith destroyed hundreds of homes, in Texas high tides caused coastal flooding but little damage. Edith caused moderate to heavy damage in portions of Louisiana due to flooding, one tornado, rated F3 on the Fujita Scale, damaged several homes and injured multiple people in Baton Rouge. The tornado outbreak extended eastward into Florida, of which a few destroyed entire buildings, damage in the United States totaled US$25 million. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa near Dakar on August 31 and it moved westward into the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and organized into a tropical disturbance on September 2 with a small, circular area of convection. The system moved to the west, and on September 3, by the next day, the tropical disturbance was barely discernible from the clouds of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The depression moved quickly, and moved through the southern Lesser Antilles early on September 6. As the storm continued into open waters of the Caribbean, the low gradually weakened and was replaced with an anticyclone. This allowed the storm to further, and on September 8. On September 9, the storm intensified, and within 24 hours. Reconnaissance aircraft crews in the peak of the storm reported extreme turbulence, at its peak intensity, the very well-defined pinhole eye was only 5 miles in diameter. Late on September 9, Hurricane Edith made landfall on northeastern Nicaragua at Cabo Gracias a Dios and it continued to weaken as it moved northwestward, and made landfall near Belize City with tropical storm winds of 70 mph. Edith weakened further while crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, and emerged into the Gulf of Mexico near Campeche, Edith initially failed to re-intensify as it moved northwestward, despite low amounts of wind shear and warm waters. This was because an anticyclone over the Gulf was closely connected with Hurricane Fern, the anticyclone resulted in an easterly upper-level flow across Edith, creating conditions not conducive for intensification. As Fern moved inland over Texas, the became more favorable around Edith, and 36 hours after entering the Gulf of Mexico. Edith continued moving to the west-northwest, heading towards the coast of Mexico, but early on September 14, a mid-latitude trough of low pressure approached the storm, and caused Edith to turn to slowly drift towards the northeastHurricane Edith (1971) – Radar image of Edith at peak intensity
76. Hurricane Iris – Hurricane Iris of 2001 was the most destructive hurricane in Belize since Hurricane Hattie in 1961. Iris was the second-strongest storm of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season and it was the ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the year, forming from a tropical wave on October 4 just southeast of Barbados. It moved westward through the Caribbean, intensifying into a storm on October 5 south of Puerto Rico. While passing south of the Dominican Republic, Iris dropped heavy rainfall caused landslides. Later, the hurricane passed south of Jamaica, where it destroyed two houses, on reaching the western Caribbean Sea, Iris rapidly intensified into a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson scale. A small hurricane with an eye of only 7 mi in diameter, the hurricane quickly dissipated over Central America, although its remnants contributed to the formation of Tropical Storm Manuel in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Destruction was heaviest in Belize and totaled $250 million, because Iris was compact, the damage was largely confined to 72% of the houses in the Toledo district and 50% of the houses in the Stann Creek district. The hurricane damaged or destroyed 3,718 homes nationwide, Iris left about 15,000 people homeless, many receiving assistance from the government and the local Red Cross chapter. High winds also damaged large swaths of forest and crops, mostly affecting the banana industry, Iris killed 24 people in Belize, including 20 who died when a scuba diving boat capsized near Big Creek. The storm also killed eight people and damaged about 2,500 homes in neighboring Guatemala, and later dropped heavy rainfall in southern Mexico, the change provided a favorable environment for tropical development, and an area of convection soon blossomed along the waves axis. Operationally, however, Hurricane Hunters did not confirm the formation until nine hours later. In its early stages, the depression moved west-northwestward between the islands of St. Vincent and St. Lucia under the influence of a ridge to its north. Compared to its appearance 24 hours before forming, the depression exhibited improved outflow and more distinct convection and this was confirmed by a Hurricane Hunters flight into the system, which failed to report a closed circulation despite the depressions well-organized appearance on satellite imagery. At 21,00 UTC on October 5, they reported a circulation with flight-level winds of 74 mph. Based on these data, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Iris, in post-season analysis, the National Hurricane Center estimated that Iris had attained tropical storm status about nine hours earlier. Despite the storms intensification and well-organized satellite appearance, the failed to become better defined. In their first discussion on Iris, the NHC mentioned the potential for the system to degenerate into a wave if it maintained its fast forward speed. One forecaster noted that the center was fragile and that the cyclone could dissipate quickly if it encountered wind shear to its southHurricane Iris – Hurricane Iris before landfall in Belize
77. Hurricane Isis (1998) – Hurricane Isis was the deadliest tropical cyclone and only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. The ninth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isis developed on September 1 from an interaction between a wave and a large surface circulation to the southwest of Mexico. It moved northward, striking the extreme southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California, Isis made landfall at Topolobampo in the Mexican state of Sinaloa on September 3, and quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted for days before dissipating in the U. S. state of Idaho. In Mexico, Isis destroyed over 700 houses and killed 14 people, the rainfall caused widespread damage to roads and railways, stranding thousands of people. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 14,1998 and it traveled westward, and on August 19 spawned the tropical depression that eventually became Hurricane Bonnie. The wave continued westward across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, the wave decreased its forward speed while approaching a large low-level circulation over southern Mexico. On August 31, the two areas of convection were well-removed from the center. In real time, the National Hurricane Center first upgraded the system 21 hours later, the depression initially tracked slowly north-northwestward and gradually strengthened. Late on September 1 it intensified into Tropical Storm Isis while located about 200 miles south of Cabo San Lucas, upon becoming a tropical storm, the deep convection was not organized, causing one forecaster to describe Isis as a large monsoon-like system. A mid-level trough extending southward from the Arizona/California border caused the storm to accelerate northward, the storm quickly strengthened, six hours after Isis became a tropical storm it reached winds of 70 mph. At 1200 UTC on September 2, Isis made landfall on extreme southeastern Baja California Sur as a tropical storm. After entering the Gulf of California, an eye began to become apparent on satellite imagery. Continuing northward, it struck Topolobampo in the state of Sinaloa early on September 3 as a minimal hurricane, Isis weakened to a tropical storm a few hours after landfall, and subsequent to turning to the north-northwest the low-level circulation dissipated over Sierra Madre Occidental. The remnants entered southern Arizona on September 4 and tracked around an upper-level low, after entering Nevada on September 5, the remnants of Isis passed into Oregon before dissipating in Idaho on September 8. Coinciding with the National Hurricane Centers first advisory on Isis, the government of Mexico issued a storm warning from Dolores to Puerto Cortés along the Baja California Peninsula. After Isis became a hurricane, officials issued a warning from Dolores to Punta San Gabriel on the Baja California Peninsula. In Baja California Sur,2,500 residents were evacuated to emergency shelters, officials closed the port at Mazatlán and recommended fisherman along the coast of the Gulf of California to remain at portHurricane Isis (1998) – Isis shortly after becoming a hurricane
78. Hurricane Ismael – Hurricane Ismael was a weak, but deadly Pacific hurricane that killed over one hundred people in northern Mexico in September of the 1995 Pacific hurricane season. It developed from a persistent area of convection on September 12. Ismael attained hurricane status on September 14 while located 210 miles off the coast of Mexico and it continued to the north, and after passing a short distance east of Baja California it made landfall on Topolobampo in the state of Sinaloa with winds of 80 mph. Ismael rapidly weakened over land, and dissipated on September 16 over northwestern Mexico, the remnants entered the United States and extended eastward into the Mid-Atlantic States. Offshore, Ismael produced waves of up to 30 feet in height, hundreds of fishermen were unprepared for the hurricane, which was expected to move more slowly, and as a result 52 ships were wrecked, killing 57 fishermen. On land, Ismael caused 59 deaths in mainland Mexico and resulted in $26 million in damage, the hurricane destroyed thousands of houses, leaving 30,000 people homeless. Moisture from the storm extended into the United States, causing heavy rainfall, a poorly organized area of convection persisted about 170 miles off the southern coast of Guatemala on September 9. It moved west-northwestward, and after three days without further organization a circulation developed off the southwest coast of Mexico, the system quickly organized, resulting in Dvorak classifications beginning later that day. Convective banding became organized, and late on September 12 it developed into Tropical Depression Ten while located about 350 miles south-southwest of Manzanillo. The depression moved to the northwest, and following an increase in deep convection it intensified into Tropical Storm Ismael early on September 13, upon attaining tropical storm status, Ismael was located in an area of warm water temperatures with well-established upper-level outflow. Initially the storm moved to the northwest, though in response to the interaction with a low over Baja California Ismael gradually turned to the north. Such a change in motion was not operationally predicted by forecasters, Ismael steadily strengthened as it moved northward, though it failed to organize significantly, early on September 14 the center remained poorly defined despite winds of 70 mph. However, the outflow remained well-organized as it remained over warm waters, Ismael became better organized, and later on September 14 it intensified into a hurricane while located 210 miles west-southwest of Puerto Vallarta. Ismael quickly developed a defined eye, and six hours after becoming a hurricane it reached a peak intensity of 80 mph. Steered between a mid- to upper-level trough to its west and a ridge to its east, Ismael accelerated as it moved just west of due north, late on September 14 Ismael passed 65 miles east of Cabo San Lucas. The hurricane maintained its strength as it continued northward, and made landfall on Topolobampo in the state of Sinaloa on September 15. Ismael rapidly weakened as the crossed the high terrain of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The remnants of Ismael continued northward, and moisture from the storm extended over the southwestern United States eastward through the Mid-Atlantic States, initially, Hurricane Ismael was predicted to remain over the open waters of the Pacific OceanHurricane Ismael – Hurricane Ismael off the coast of Baja California nearing landfall
79. Hurricane Lane (2006) – Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. The strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico since Hurricane Kenna of 2002 and it moved northwestward, parallel to the coast of Mexico, and steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane attained peak winds of 125 mph and it rapidly weakened and dissipated on September 17, and later brought precipitation to southern part of the U. S. state of Texas. Throughout its path, Lane resulted in four deaths and moderate damage, damage was heaviest in Sinaloa, where the hurricane made landfall, including reports of severe crop damage. Across Mexico, an estimated 4,320 homes were affected by the hurricane, moderate flooding was reported in Acapulco, resulting in mudslides in some areas. Damage across the country totaled $2.2 billion, or $206 million, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 31,2006. It moved westward without development, and entered the eastern Pacific Ocean on September 10, an area of convection developed along the wave axis, several hundred miles south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. It moved slowly westward and steadily organized, convection and banding features organized around a developing center, and the system developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen-E on September 13. The system continued to organize and strengthened into Tropical Storm Lane early on September 14 about 90 miles off the coast of Mexico, Lane continued to become better organized, with deep convection developing into a central dense overcast and well-defined outflow in the western half of the storm. Late on September 14, an eyewall began to develop a distance off the Mexican coastline. Lane continued to strengthen as it turned more to the north-northwest, based on reports from Reconnaissance Aircraft, Lane was upgraded to hurricane status on September 15 about 40 miles west-northwest of Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco. Subsequently it quickly strengthened, and by six hours after it became a hurricane it attained winds of 105 mph, later that day, the 10 mile wide eye crossed over the Islas Marías. Early on September 16, Lane strengthened into a 115 mph hurricane just 50 miles off the coast of Mexico, becoming the sixth major hurricane of the season. Hurricane Lane continued to organize with its 9 mile wide eye surrounded by deep convection. It turned unexpectedly to the northeast, and at 1915 UTC on the 16th and this made Lane the most intense hurricane to strike Mexico since Hurricane Kenna in the 2002 season. The combination of the terrain of Mexico and increasing west-southwesterly wind shear caused the storm to rapidly weaken. The remnants of Lane later moved into Texas, United States, due to Lanes projected path near the western coast of Mexico, authorities closed ports to small boats in the cities of Acapulco. Just weeks after Hurricane John took a path through the areaHurricane Lane (2006) – Hurricane Lane, as seen from TERRA MODIS
80. Hurricane Mitch – Hurricane Mitch was the most powerful and destructive hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph. The storm was the tropical storm, ninth hurricane. Along with Hurricane Georges, Mitch was the most notable hurricane in the season, at the time, Hurricane Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. The hurricane matched the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record, after drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. It drifted through Central America, reformed in the Bay of Campeche, due to its slow motion from October 29 to November 3, Hurricane Mitch dropped historic amounts of rainfall in Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, with unofficial reports of up to 75 inches. Additionally, roughly 2.7 million were homeless as a result of the hurricane. The flooding caused damage, estimated at over $6 billion. Tropical Depression Thirteen formed on October 22 over the southwestern Caribbean Sea and it executed a small loop, and while doing so intensified into Tropical Storm Mitch. A weakness in a ridge allowed the storm to track slowly to the north, after becoming disorganized due to wind shear from an upper-level low, Mitch quickly intensified in response to favorable conditions, including warm waters and good outflow. It became a hurricane on October 24 and developed an eye, after turning to the west, Mitch rapidly intensified, first into a major hurricane on October 25 and then into a Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale the next day. At peak intensity, Mitch maintained maximum sustained winds of 180 mph while off the northern coast of Honduras. Hurricane Hunters reported a barometric pressure of 905 mbar, which at the time was the lowest in the month of October. Initially, the National Hurricane Center and various tropical cyclone forecast models anticipated a turn to the north, instead, Mitch turned to the south due to a ridge that was not observed while the storm was active. Land interaction imparted weakening, and the hurricane made landfall on Honduras on October 29 with winds of 80 mph, Mitch slowly weakened while turning to the west over land, maintaining deep convection over waters. After moving across mountainous terrain in Central America, the circulation of Mitch dissipated on November 1. The next day, the reached the Gulf of Mexico. Mitch accelerated to the northeast ahead of a front, moving across the Yucatán peninsula before striking southwestern Florida on November 5. Shortly thereafter, the became an extratropical cyclone, which was tracked by the NHC until November 9Hurricane Mitch – Hurricane Mitch at peak intensity
81. Hurricane Nora (1997) – Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season, the September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by the 1997–98 El Niño event, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. Nora took a path, making landfall twice as a hurricane in Baja California. Weakening quickly after landfall, its remnants lashed the Southwestern United States with tropical-storm-force winds, torrential rain and flooding. The storm was blamed for two casualties in Mexico, as well as substantial beach erosion on the Mexican coast, flash flooding in Baja California. It persisted far inland and eventually dissipated near the Arizona–Nevada border, Nora formed early on September 16,1997, while located 290 miles southwest of the Mexican port of Acapulco, Guerrero, from the same tropical wave that had earlier created Hurricane Erika. Due to favorable conditions associated with El Niño, the disturbance quickly achieved deep convection. UTC, the U. S. National Hurricane Center had designated the disturbance as Tropical Depression Sixteen-E, half a day later, it had gained enough strength to be named Tropical Storm Nora. A high pressure area over northern Mexico forced the storm to move west-northwest for the first few days, during that time, Nora kept intensifying, becoming a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale by noon UTC on September 18. Nora slowed and became stationary for two days from September 18, the eye vanished, and convection began to decrease. This was presumed to have happened because of a drop in sea-surface temperatures, the cool waters temporarily weakened Noras winds to 75 mph down from a maximum of 105 mph. After leaving the area of cool waters, the storm began moving nearly parallel to Mexicos western coast, there was a period of rapid intensification and the eye reappeared. Cloud tops cooled and at midday UTC on September 21, Nora reached its intensity of 950 mbar and 135 mph winds. The peak was brief as the cyclone encountered cool waters in the wake of Hurricane Linda, weakening the winds to 80 mph by September 23. Nora crossed an area of warm water near the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula. It restrengthened slightly before making its first landfall near Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur, when Nora was inland, the area of the storm located in the Gulf of California began to reintensify. Hurricane Nora then made a second landfall about 60 miles south-southeast of San Fernando, at landfall, a trough was accelerating Nora northwards, causing it to reach a forward speed of 30 mph. Late on September 25, still a storm, it entered the continental United States at the California-Arizona state lineHurricane Nora (1997) – Hurricane Nora shortly after peak intensity on September 22, 1997
82. Jaguar – The jaguar is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only extant Panthera species native to the Americas. The jaguar is the third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, the jaguars present range extends from Southwestern United States and Mexico across much of Central America and south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. Apart from a known and possibly breeding population in Arizona and the bootheel of New Mexico and this spotted cat most closely resembles the leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build and its behavioral and habitat characteristics are closer to those of the tiger. While dense rainforest is its habitat, the jaguar will range across a variety of forested. Its preferred habitats are swamps and wooded regions, but jaguars also live in scrublands. The jaguar is notable, along with the tiger, as a feline that enjoys swimming, the jaguar is largely a solitary, opportunistic, stalk-and-ambush predator at the top of the food chain. It is a species, playing an important role in stabilizing ecosystems. The jaguar has a powerful bite, even relative to the other big cats. This allows it to pierce the shells of armored reptiles and to employ an unusual killing method, the jaguar is a near threatened species and its numbers are declining. Threats include loss and fragmentation of habitat, while international trade in jaguars or their parts is prohibited, the cat is still frequently killed by humans, particularly in conflicts with ranchers and farmers in South America. Although reduced, its range remains large, given its historical distribution, the jaguar has featured prominently in the mythology of numerous indigenous American cultures, including those of the Maya and Aztec. The word jaguar comes to English from one of the Tupi–Guarani languages, presumably the Amazonian trade language Tupinambá, the Tupian word, yaguara beast, is sometimes translated as dog. The specific word for jaguar is yaguareté, with the suffix -eté meaning real or true, the first component of its taxonomic designation, Panthera, is Latin, from the Greek word for leopard, πάνθηρ, the type species for the genus. Onca is the Portuguese onça, with the cedilla dropped for reasons, found in English as ounce for the snow leopard. It derives from the Latin lyncea lynx, with the letter L confused with the definite article, the jaguar, Panthera onca, is the only extant New World member of the genus Panthera.8 million years ago. Phylogenetic studies generally have shown the clouded leopard is basal to this group, the position of the remaining species varies between studies and is effectively unresolved. Based on morphological evidence, British zoologist Reginald Pocock concluded the jaguar is most closely related to the leopard, however, DNA evidence is inconclusive and the position of the jaguar relative to the other species varies between studies. Fossils of extinct Panthera species, such as the European jaguar, analysis of jaguar mitochondrial DNA has dated the species lineage to between 280,000 and 510,000 years ago, later than suggested by fossil recordsJaguar
83. Hurricane Kiko (1989) – Hurricane Kiko was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to have hit the eastern coast of Mexicos Baja California peninsula during recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko formed out of a mesoscale convective system on August 25. Slowly tracking northwestward, the storm intensified into a hurricane early the next day. Strengthening continued until early August 27, when Kiko reached its intensity with winds of 120 mph. The storm turned west at this time, and at around 0600 UTC, the hurricane rapidly weakened into a tropical storm later that day and further into a tropical depression by August 28, shortly after entering the Pacific Ocean. The depression persisted for another day while tracking southward, before being absorbed by nearby Tropical Storm Lorena, though Kiko made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane, its impact was relatively minor. Press reports indicated that 20 homes were destroyed and numerous highways were flooded by torrential rains, the system slowly tracked southward into the Gulf of California and became increasingly organized. Operationally, the system was not declared a depression, instead it was immediately declared Tropical Storm Kiko with winds of 40 mph. A general northwestward drift was anticipated, and the NHC forecast the storm to hurricane intensity within 24 hours. Convective banding features began to develop late on August 25 as winds around the center reached 50 mph, with the development of an anticyclone over the storm, Kikos outflow become more pronounced. Around 0600 UTC on August 26, an eye developed within the small circulation, however, satellite intensity estimates indicated winds of only 40 mph. Shortly after, Kiko was upgraded to a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph, ships in the vicinity of the hurricane reported tropical storm-force winds extending roughly 50 mi from the center. Winds within the eyewall subsequently increased to 115 mph, making Kiko a minimal Category 3 hurricane. Intensification continued for six hours, ending around 0000 UTC on August 27, at which time the storm reached its peak intensity with winds of 120 mph. Around the time of peak intensity, Dvorak intensity estimates reached T6.0, a trough located to the north of the hurricane began to weaken, causing the storm to track in a more westward direction. Kiko weakened slightly before making landfall near Punta Arena, on the tip of Baja California. Kiko was thus the major hurricane to ever make landfall on the Gulf Coast of Baja California since reliable recordkeeping began in 1949. Due to the size and slow movement of the storm, it rapidly weakenedHurricane Kiko (1989) – Hurricane Kiko at peak intensity near landfall
84. Maya stelae – Maya stelae are monuments that were fashioned by the Maya civilization of ancient Mesoamerica. They consist of tall sculpted stone shafts and are associated with low circular stones referred to as altars. Many stelae were sculpted in low relief, although plain monuments are found throughout the Maya region, the earliest dated stela to have been found in situ in the Maya lowlands was recovered from the great city of Tikal in Guatemala. During the Classic Period almost every Maya kingdom in the southern lowlands raised stelae in its ceremonial centre, stelae became closely associated with the concept of divine kingship and declined at the same time as this institution. The production of stelae by the Maya had its origin around 400 BC and continued through to the end of the Classic Period, around 900, although some monuments were reused in the Postclassic. The major city of Calakmul in Mexico raised the greatest number of stelae known from any Maya city, at least 166, hundreds of stelae have been recorded in the Maya region, displaying a wide stylistic variation. Many are upright slabs of limestone sculpted on one or more faces, with available surfaces sculpted with figures carved in relief, stelae in a few sites display a much more three-dimensional appearance where locally available stone permits, such as at Copán and Toniná. Plain stelae do not appear to have been painted nor overlaid with stucco decoration, stelae were essentially stone banners raised to glorify the king and record his deeds, although the earliest examples depict mythological scenes. This influence receded in the 5th century although some minor Teotihuacan references continued to be used, in the late 5th century, Maya kings began to use stelae to mark the end of calendrical cycles. In the Late Classic, imagery linked to the Mesoamerican ballgame was introduced, by the Terminal Classic, the institution of divine kingship declined, and Maya kings began to be depicted with their subordinate lords. As the Classic Period came to an end, stelae ceased to be erected, the function of the Maya stela was central to the ideology of Maya kingship from the very beginning of the Classic Period through to the very end of the Terminal Classic. According to Stuart this may refer to the stelae as stone versions of standards that once stood in prominent places in Maya city centres. The name of the modern Lacandon Maya is likely to be a Colonial corruption of this word, Maya stelae were often arranged to impress the viewer, forming lines or other arrangements within the ceremonial centre of the city. An alternative interpretation of these altars is that they were in fact thrones that were used by rulers during ceremonial events, archaeologists believe that they probably also served as ritual pedestals for incense burners, ceremonial fires and other offerings. The core purpose of a stela was to glorify the king, many Maya stelae depict only the king of the city, and describe his actions with hieroglyphic script. Even when the individual depicted is not the king himself, the text or scene usually relates the subject to the king. Openly declaring the importance and power of the king to the community, the stela portrayed his wealth, prestige and ancestry, and depicted him wielding the symbols of military and divine power. Stelae were raised to commemorate important events, especially at the end of a katun 20-year cycle of the Maya calendar, the stela did not just mark off a period of time, it has been argued that it physically embodied that period of timeMaya stelae – Stela 51 from Calakmul, dating to 731, is the best preserved monument from the city. It depicts the king Yuknoom Took' K'awiil.
85. Pinguicula moranensis – Pinguicula moranensis /pɪŋˈɡwɪkjᵿlə ˌmɒrəˈnɛnsᵻs/ is a perennial rosette-forming insectivorous herb native to Mexico and Guatemala. A species of butterwort, it forms summer rosettes of flat, succulent leaves up to 10 centimeters long, which are covered in mucilaginous glands that attract, trap, nutrients derived from the prey are used to supplement the nutrient-poor substrate that the plant grows in. In the winter the plant forms a rosette of small, fleshy leaves that conserves energy while food. Single pink, purple, or violet flowers appear twice a year on upright stalks up to 25 centimeters long, based on these collections, Humboldt, Bonpland and Carl Sigismund Kunth described this species in Nova Genera et Species Plantarum in 1817. P. moranensis remains the most common and most widely distributed member of the Section Orcheosanthus and it has long been cultivated for its carnivorous nature and attractive flowers, and is one of the most common butterworts in cultivation. The generic name Pinguicula is derived from the Latin pinguis due to the texture of the surface of the carnivorous leaves. The specific epithet refers to its type location, Mina de Moran. P. moranensis is seasonally dimorphic, in that it undergoes two distinct growth habits throughout the year, during the summer when rain and insect prey are most plentiful, the plant forms a ground hugging rosette composed of 6–8 generally obovate leaves, each up to 95 millimeters long. These leaves are carnivorous, having a surface area densely covered with stalked mucilaginous glands with which they attract, trap. These so-called summer leaves are replaced by winter rosettes of small and this protective winter rosette allows the plant to undergo winter dormancy until the first rains begin in May. Flowers born singly on upright 10–25 centimeters peduncles emerge twice during the year, in the summer these appear in June, peak in August and September, and disappear with the return to the winter rosette in October or November. The leaf blades of the rosettes of P. moranensis are smooth, rigid. The laminae are generally obovate to orbicular, between 5.5 and 13 centimeters long and supported by a 1 to 3.5 centimetre petiole, as with all members of the genus, these leaf blades are densely covered by peduncular mucilaginous glands and sessile digestive glands. The peduncular glands consist of a few secretory cells on top of a single-celled stalk and these cells produce a mucilaginous secretion which forms visible droplets across the leaf surface. This wet appearance probably helps lure prey in search of water, the droplets secrete only limited enzymes and serve mainly to entrap insects. On contact with an insect, the peduncular glands release additional mucilage from special reservoir cells located at the base of their stalks, the insect struggles, triggering more glands and encasing itself in mucilage. P. moranensis can bend its leaf edges slightly by thigmotropism, the sessile glands, which lie flat on the leaf surface, serve to digest the insect prey. Once the prey is entrapped by the glands and digestion beginsPinguicula moranensis – Pinguicula moranensis
86. Romance (Luis Miguel album) – Romance is the eighth studio album by Mexican singer Luis Miguel. It was released by WEA Latina on 19 November 1991, although the production was originally intended as another collaboration with Juan Carlos Calderón, that plan was scrapped when Calderón was unable to compose songs for the album. Facing a new-material deadline in his contract, at his managers suggestion Miguel chose bolero music for his next project. Mexican singer-songwriter Armando Manzanero was hired by WEA Latina to co-produce the album with Miguel, Recording began in August 1991 at Ocean Way Recording in Hollywood, California, with Bebu Silvetti the arranger. On the album Miguel covers twelve boleros, originally recorded from 1944 to 1986, the first two singles, Inolvidable and No Sé Tú, reached number one on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States and spent six months atop the Mexican charts. Mucho Corazón and Cómo were in the top five of the Hot Latin Songs chart, Miguel promoted the record with a tour of the United States and Latin America. The album was well received by music critics, who praised Miguels singing. The singer received several accolades, including a Grammy nomination for Best Latin Pop Album, Romance sold over seven million copies worldwide, his bestselling record in his music career. Romance is the album of all time in Mexico. The album was noted by critics as reviving interest in bolero music and its success encouraged Miguel to release three more bolero records, Segundo Romance, Romances and Mis Romances. Since Miguel signed with WEA Latina in 1986, his albums Soy Como Quiero Ser, Busca una Mujer and his early recordings consisted of soft rock and pop ballad tunes, which led to Miguel becoming a teen idol. On 14 January 1991, WEA Latina announced a new album with producer and composer Juan Carlos Calderón. Wanting to replicate the success of 20 Años, Calderón would compose pop songs and ballads, production was scheduled to begin in April, with Italian- and English-language studio albums to follow. The record label was unconvinced by Calderóns pre-selected songs, he had to write more compositions, ultimately, he was unable to compose songs for the album. Miguel had a deadline with his label to record new material. The singer had performed boleros during his 1991 tour, at the suggestion of manager Hugo López, and realizing that he could appeal to an older audience, Miguel chose boleros for his next album and WEA Latina hired Manzanero to take over its production. Manzanero was enthusiastic, hoping that Miguels popularity would introduce the genre to young listeners, on 25 October 1991, the albums title was announced as a homage to boleros, it was Miguels first as a producer. Recording began on 24 August 1991, at Ocean Way Recording in Hollywood, Miguel and Manzanero produced the album, with Bebu Silvetti arranging the strings with additional contributions from 32 violinists under the direction of American conductor Ezra KligerRomance (Luis Miguel album) – Romance
87. Romances (Luis Miguel album) – Romances is the twelfth studio album by Mexican singer Luis Miguel, released on 12 August 1997, by Warner Music Latina. It is the album of the Romance series, in which Miguel covers Latin songs from 1940 to 1978. Aside from Miguel, the production also involved arranger Bebu Silvetti, and Armando Manzanero, Romances consists of twelve cover versions and two new compositions by Manzanero and Silvetti. Recording took place in early 1997 at the Ocean Way recording studio in Los Angeles, Romances has sold over 4.5 million copies and received platinum certifications in several Latin American countries, the United States and Spain. Miguel promoted the album by touring the United States, Latin America, upon its release, Romances received generally positive reviews from music critics. They mainly praised his vocals and production of the album although some found the arrangements to be repetitive. The album earned Miguel several awards, including the Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Performance in the United States, six singles were released, Por Debajo de la Mesa, El Reloj, Contigo, De Quererte Así, Bésame Mucho, and Sabor a Mí. In 1991 Miguel released Romance, a collection of classic Latin ballads, the album was produced by Armando Manzanero and arranged by Bebu Silvetti, and was credited for revitalizing the bolero genre. It also made history as the first Spanish-language album to be certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in the United States, a follow-up to Romance was released in 1994 under the title Segundo Romance, which was produced by Miguel, Juan Carlos Calderón and Kiko Cibrian. He also expressed an interest in singing in Italian and Portuguese, two months later Manzanero confirmed that he was working with Miguel on another bolero-inspired ballads album, under the tentative title Tercer Romance. Miguels record label confirmed that fourteen tracks would be included on the album under the title Romances, Miguel collaborated with Silvetti for the arrangement of Romances, while Manzanero was in charge of direction. Recording began on 18 March 1997, at Ocean Way Recording in Hollywood, Silvetti has stated that when he produces an album he does not simply copy his own arrangements, because he feels that would be ridiculous, and prefers to be creative within his own style. About the selection of songs for the album, Manzanero stated that I give the songs, participants in the recording sessions included sixty-one musicians from the Los Angeles Philharmonic. He also covers songs from other styles including tango, bossa nova. Miguel had performed some of the composers songs on his previous Romance albums. Miguel recorded Manazeros songs Voy a Apagar la Luz/Contigo Aprendí and Amanecer, the two original compositions were Por Debajo de la Mesa by Manzanero and Contigo by Bebu Silvetti and Sylvia Riera Ibáñez. Miguel launched his Romances Tour, consisting of 84 concerts, in Las Vegas, Nevada, the performances featured Miguel performing dance-pop and bolero arrangements for two-and-a-half hours. Adam Sandler of Variety expressed a mixed reaction to the concert in the Universal Amphitheatre in Los Angeles and he noted that Miguel rarely acknowledged his audience or ventured out from center stageRomances (Luis Miguel album) – Romances
88. Mourning dove – The mourning dove is a member of the dove family, Columbidae. The bird is known as the American mourning dove or the rain dove, and erroneously as the turtle dove. It is one of the most abundant and widespread of all North American birds and it is also a leading gamebird, with more than 20 million birds shot annually in the U. S. both for sport and for meat. Its ability to sustain its population under such pressure is due to its breeding, in warm areas. The wings make a whistling sound upon take-off and landing. The bird is a flier, capable of speeds up to 88 km/h. Mourning doves are light grey and brown and generally muted in color, males and females are similar in appearance. The species is monogamous, with two squabs per brood. Both parents incubate and care for the young, mourning doves eat almost exclusively seeds, but the young are fed crop milk by their parents. The mourning dove is closely related to the dove and the Socorro dove. While the three species do form a subgroup of Zenaida, using a separate genus would interfere with the monophyly of Zenaida by making it paraphyletic, the West Indian subspecies is found throughout the Greater Antilles. It has recently invaded the Florida Keys, the eastern subspecies is found mainly in eastern North America, as well as Bermuda and the Bahamas. The western subspecies is found in western North America, including parts of Mexico, the Panamanian subspecies is located in Central America. The Clarion Island subspecies is only on Clarion Island, just off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The mourning dove is sometimes called the American mourning dove to distinguish it from the distantly related mourning collared dove of Africa and it was also formerly known as the Carolina turtledove and the Carolina pigeon. The genus name was bestowed in 1838 by French zoologist Charles L. Bonaparte in honor of his wife, Princess Zénaide, the mourning part of its common name comes from its call. The mourning dove was thought to be the passenger pigeons closest living relative, the mourning dove was even suggested to belong to the same genus, Ectopistes, and was listed by some authors as E. carolinensis. The mourning dove has a range of nearly 11,000,000 km2Mourning dove – Mourning dove
89. American white ibis – The American white ibis is a species of bird in the ibis family, Threskiornithidae. It is found from Virginia via the Gulf Coast of the United States south through most of the coastal New World tropics. This particular ibis is a bird with an overall white plumage, bright red-orange down-curved bill and long legs. Males are larger and have longer bills than females, the breeding range runs along the Gulf and Atlantic Coast, and the coasts of Mexico and Central America. Outside the breeding period, the range further inland in North America. It is also found along the northwestern South American coastline in Colombia, populations in central Venezuela overlap and interbreed with the scarlet ibis. The two have been classified by some authorities as a single species and their diet consists primarily of small aquatic prey, such as insects and small fishes. Crayfish are its food in most regions, but it can adjust its diet according to the habitat. Its main foraging behavior is probing with its beak at the bottom of water to feel for. It does not see the prey, during the breeding season, the American white ibis gathers in huge colonies near water. Pairs are predominantly monogamous and both parents care for the young, although tend to engage in extra-pair copulation with other females to increase their reproductive success. Males have also found to pirate food from unmated females and juveniles during the breeding season. Human pollution has affected the behavior of the American white ibis via an increase in the concentrations of methylmercury, exposure to methylmercury alters the hormone levels of American white ibis, affecting their mating and nesting behavior and leading to lower reproduction rates. The American white ibis was one of the bird species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in the 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae. The species name is the Latin adjective albus white, alternative common names that have been used include Spanish curlew and white curlew. English naturalist Mark Catesby mistook immature birds for a separate species, local creole names in Louisiana include bec croche and petit flaman. Johann Georg Wagler gave the species its current binomial name in 1832 when he erected the new genus Eudocimus, the lack of observed hybrids was a large factor in the view that the species were separate. Hybrid ibises have also recorded in Florida, where the scarlet ibis has been introduced into wild populations of American white ibisAmerican white ibis – American white ibis
90. Black vulture – Although a common and widespread species, it has a somewhat more restricted distribution than its compatriot, the turkey vulture, which breeds well into Canada and south to Tierra del Fuego. Despite the similar name and appearance, this species is unrelated to the Eurasian black vulture, the latter species is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae, whereas the American species is a New World vulture. It is the only extant member of the genus Coragyps, which is in the family Cathartidae and it inhabits relatively open areas which provide scattered forests or shrublands. With a wingspan of 1.5 m, the black vulture is a large bird though relatively small for a vulture and it has black plumage, a featherless, grayish-black head and neck, and a short, hooked beak. The black vulture is a scavenger and feeds on carrion, in areas populated by humans, it also feeds at garbage dumps. It finds its meals either by using its keen eyesight or by following other vultures, lacking a syrinx—the vocal organ of birds—its only vocalizations are grunts or low hisses. It lays its eggs in caves or hollow trees or on the bare ground, in the United States, the vulture receives legal protection under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. This vulture also appeared in Mayan codices, the common name vulture is derived from the Latin word vulturus, which means tearer and is a reference to its feeding habits. The species name, atratus, means clothed in black, from the Latin ater black, the genus name, Coragyps means raven-vulture, from a contraction of the Greek corax/κόραξ and gyps/γὺψ for the respective birds. The family name, Cathartidae, means purifier and is derived from the Greek kathartēs/καθαρτης. The exact taxonomic placement of the vulture and the remaining six species of New World vultures remains unclear. Though both are similar in appearance and have similar roles, the New World and Old World vultures evolved from different ancestors in different parts of the world. Just how different the two are is currently under debate, with earlier authorities suggesting that the New World vultures are more closely related to storks. More recent authorities maintain their position in the order Falconiformes along with the Old World vultures, or place them in their own order. There are three subspecies of black vulture, C. a. atratus, named by the German ornithologist Johann Matthäus Bechstein in 1793, is known as the North American black vulture. It is approximately the size as C. a. foetens. Its range stretches from northern Mexico through Texas and the southern United States north to New Jersey, C. a. brasiliensis, named by Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte in 1850, is known as the Southern American black vulture. It is smaller than C. a. atratus and C. a. foetens, the light markings on the undersides of the primaries are whiter and broader than those of the other subspecies, and the underwing coverts are lighter than those of C. a. foetensBlack vulture – Black vulture
91. List of CMLL World Heavyweight Champions – The CMLL World Heavyweight Championship is a singles professional wrestling championship promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The Championship has been in existence since 1991, the title was the first to be created after Empresa Mexicana de la Lucha Libre changed its name to Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre in the early 1990s. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. As the championship is designated as a title, it can only officially be competed for by wrestlers weighing at least 105 kg. The rule is not strictly adhered to as several champions have been under the limit, including the 16th champion. All title matches take place under two-out-of-three falls rules, the first champion was Konnan El Barbaro, who won a 16-man tournament in 1991. The championship has been vacated three times, all instances were when the champion left CMLL for another promotion, universo 2000 holds the record for most reigns, with three. The current champion is Máximo Sexy, who is the 18th overall champion, Key Key General sources Royal Duncan and Gary Will. Mexico, EMLL CMLL Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre heavyweight TitleList of CMLL World Heavyweight Champions – Steele, the 8th CMLL World Heavyweight Champion
92. List of CMLL World Tag Team Champions – The CMLL World Tag Team Championship is a professional wrestling tag team championship promoted by the Mexican Lucha Libre wrestling-based promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre since 1993. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules, in response, CMLL created the CMLL World Tag Team Championship to fill the void. On March 3,1993, Canek and Dr. Wagner Jr. won a tournament to become the first CMLL World Tag Team Champions, the current tag team champions are Negro Casas and Shocker, having defeated the team of La Máscara and Rush on June 13,2014. This is the reign for Casas and the third for Shocker and they are the 37th overall champions. Los Guerreros de la Atlantida hold the record for longest reign as a team, Último Guerrero and Rey Bucanero hold the record for the longest combined reigns of any team,1,185 days divided over three reigns. Individually, Último Guerrero has held the championship six times for a total of 3,628 days, the team of Último Guerrero and Dr. Wagner Jr. held the championship for seven days, the shortest reign of any champion. Key Key Key General sources Royal Duncan and Gary Will, mexico, EMLL CMLL Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre heavyweight TitleList of CMLL World Tag Team Champions – The team of La Sombra (left) and Volador, Jr. (right), the 29th tag team champions
93. List of CMLL World Welterweight Champions – The CMLL World Welterweight Championship is a professional wrestling world championship promoted by the Mexican Lucha Libre wrestling-based promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre since 1992. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. The official definition of the Welterweight weight class in Mexico is between 70 kg and 78 kg, but is not always strictly enforced, because Lucha Libre emphasizes the lower weight classes, this division is considered more important than the normally more prestigious heavyweight division of a promotion. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules, the first champion to be recognized by CMLL was Fuerza Guerrera, who defeated El Khalifa in the finals of a four-man tournament that took place on February 15,1992. In addition to being the first champion, Fuerza Guerrera is the individual to have held the championship the shortest time, at 22 days. Mephisto holds the record for longest individual reign, at 1,141 days. Mephisto is the current champion, he is on his reign as CMLL World Welterweight Champion. He defeated Máscara Dorada on May 3,2016, to win the title, as CMLL knew that Pantera was leaving they used the opportunity to vacate the title, stating that Super Delfins claim to the title was void. After El Felino became the CMLL-endorsed champion, he defeated Super Delfin to ensure there was only one undisputed CMLL World Welterweight ChampionList of CMLL World Welterweight Champions – Místico, the 22nd CMLL World Welterweight Champion
94. List of number-one albums of 2009 (Mexico) – Lines, Vines and Trying Times by Jonas Brothers and No Line on the Horizon by U2 peaked at number one in the Billboard 200 in the United States and also reached the top position of the Mexican chart. Shakiras seventh studio album Loba debuted at one and was certified platinum in the first week of sales. Wisin & Yandel and Alejandro Fernández released the most number one albums of the year with two each, Fernández released the compilation album De Noche, Clásicos a Mi Manera and the double album Dos Mundos. Thalía also peaked at the top of the chart with her first live album Primera Fila, the album is her first release with Sony Music Latin after 10 years signed with EMI, and features the singer performing with a 12-piece band. Madonnas third compilation album Celebration earned the top spot of the chart, the soundtrack for the Mexican soap opera Atrévete a Soñar became the best-selling album of the year in the country. List of number-one songs of 2009List of number-one albums of 2009 (Mexico) – Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira peaked at number-one with her album Loba in 2009.
95. Mexican National Light Heavyweight Championship – The Mexican National Light Heavyweight Championship is a national Mexican singles professional wrestling championship sanctioned by the Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. Since its creation in 1942, the championship has not been promoted by one specific promotion throughout its existence, but shared between many Mexican promotions. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. The official definition of the Light Heavyweight weight class in Mexico is between 92 kg and 97 kg, but the limits for the different classes are not always strictly enforced. Championship matches normally take place under best two-out-of-three falls rules, jesus Anaya became the first National Light Heavyweight Champion when he won the inaugural tournament that concluded on the EMLL 9th Anniversary Show, defeating Black Guzmán. Empresa Mexicana de Luch Libre was the promotion to use the championship in subsequent years. The commission allowed Máscara Sagrada to take the championship with him to AAA, from AAAs creation in 1992 until 2002 they had exclusive control of the championship, In 2002 El Dandy won the title, transitioning the championship to the ENSEMA promotion. In December 2007 Místico won the title from Vangelis, making it an official CMLL recognized championship from that point forward, the current champion is Atlantis, having defeated Mephisto for the championship on August 24,2015. He is the 65th overall champion and this is his first title reign, La Parka / L. A. Park and Pierroth Jr. are tied for most title reigns, with four reigns, Pierroth Jr. has the shortest reign at no more than 11 days. El Dandys two reigns combine to 1,526 days, the most days for any champion, while the longest continuous reign belongs to Cavernario Galindo, Key Key 43 General sources - Royal Duncan and Gary Will. - Los Reyes de Mexico, La Historia de Los Campeonatos NacionalesMexican National Light Heavyweight Championship – 65th and current champion Atlantis
96. Mexican National Lightweight Championship – The Mexican National Lightweight Championship is a Mexican professional wrestling singles championship created and sanctioned by Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. Although the Commission sanctions the title, it does not promote the events in which the title is defended. As it is a wrestling championship, it is not won legitimately. The official definition of the weight class in Mexico is between 63 kg and 70 kg, but the weight limits for the different classes are not always strictly enforced. Since the title was back after being inactive for approximately four years it has been contested for in the Mini-Estrellas division exclusively. All title matches take place under two out of three falls rules as is tradition in Mexico, the Mexican National Lightweight Championship was created in 1934, making it one of the oldest wrestling championships still active today. Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre has the control of the championship while the Commission only serves to approve the champions. Jack OBrien was recognized as the first champion in 1934, after winning a tournament sanctioned by Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F. Eléctrico is the current Mexican National Lightweight Champion, having defeated Pequeño Nitro in a tournament final on August 13,2013. He is the 49th overall champion and the 39th person to hold the title, rodolfo Ruiz and Taro are tied for the most reigns as champion, with three in total, Mishima Ota has the shortest reign, at 1 day. Black Shadow holds the record for the longest individual reign, at over 1,901 days, Key Key In 2008 the Mexican National Lightweight Championship was reintroduced after being vacant since 2005. CMLL held two Torneo cibernetico elimination matches, one on September 9 and one on September 16 to determine the finalists, Pierrothito won the first torneo cibernetico by eliminating Pequeño Olimpico in the end. Mascarita Dorada won the torneo cibernetico, eliminating Pequeño Black Warrior in the last fall. On September 23,2009 Pierrothito defeated Mascarita Dorada to win the championship, the winners of each block faced off on August 13,2013 to determine the new champion. The finals saw Eléctrico defeat Pequeño Nitro to win the championship, Cibernetico – July 30,2013 Cibernetico – August 6,2013 General sources – Royal Duncan and Gary Will. – Los Reyes de Mexico, La Historia de Los Campeonatos Nacionales, specific CMLL World Middleweight Title history at wrestling-titles. com Cagematch. netMexican National Lightweight Championship – Ricky Marvin, held the championship in 2001
97. Tropical Depression One-E (2009) – Tropical Depression One-E was the earliest known tropical cyclone to impact the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The first system of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, One-E formed out of an area of disturbed weather on June 18,2009, throughout the day, convection developed around the center of circulation and the system was anticipated to become a tropical storm. Late on June 18, the National Hurricane Center noted that the system was on the verge of becoming a tropical storm, however, the following day, strong wind shear caused the depression to rapidly degenerate into a trough of low pressure before dissipating off the coast of Sinaloa. Although no longer a tropical cyclone, the remnants of the depression brought moderate rainfall to parts of Sinaloa, Nayarit, high winds accompanied the rainfall and left about 50,000 residences without power. Several trees were downed and some structures sustained damage from fresh water flooding, landslides occurred along major highways and significant structural damage was reported around Mazatlán. However, there was no loss of life or reports of injuries, Tropical Depression One-E originated from a tropical wave that exited the coast of Africa on May 29. Little convective activity was associated with the system as it traveled across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, on June 10, the wave crossed Central America and entered the northeastern Pacific basin. Over the following few days, the system became better organized and on June 15. The system continued to organize, and on June 17 the National Hurricane Center noted the likelihood for tropical cyclogenesis, although, at the time, the circulation was not well-defined. It organized further, and on June 18, the NHC initiated advisories on the first tropical depression of the 2009 season about 350 miles south-southwest of Mazatlán, Sinaloa. Deep convection persisted near the portion of the depression, however. The depression traveled northward along the periphery of a ridge over Mexico. Later on June 18, forecast models indicated that the system might rapidly degenerate prior to landfall, however, the NHC continued to forecast that the depression would attain tropical storm-status before landfall. Shortly after, the depression became disorganized as convection separated from the center of circulation due to increasing wind shear. Stable air ahead of the system inhibited the possibility of development as warm waters supported intensification. By the morning of June 19, the center of circulation was situated along the edge of deep convection. Despite this, the NHC continued to anticipate intensification prior to landfall, embedded within an easterly flow ahead of a mid-level trough, the storm turned towards the north-northeast and accelerated slightly. At 11,00 am PDT, the depression reached its intensity with winds of 35 mphTropical Depression One-E (2009) – Tropical Depression One-E at peak intensity
98. 1942 Belize hurricane – The 1942 Belize hurricane was the only known hurricane to strike Belize in the month of November. Initially a tropical storm, it strengthened slowly while moving westward, on November 6, the storm became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Later that day, it made landfall in Cayo Romano, Camagüey Province, impact in Cuba and the Bahamas was limited to lower barometric pressure readings and strong winds. While crossing Cuba, the weakened to a tropical storm early on November 7. The storm re-strengthened into a hurricane later that day and headed southwestward, late on November 8, this system curved westward and intensified into a Category 2 hurricane. Six hours later, it peaked with winds of 110 mph, early on November 9, the storm struck Caye Caulker and northern Belize District. Rapidly weakening, the fell to tropical storm status within 12 hours of landfall. By early on November 10, it emerged into the Bay of Campeche, the storm meandered erratically until striking the Yucatán Peninsula on November 11 and dissipating hours later. Strong winds were observed in Belize and Mexicos Yucatan Peninsula, severe damage was reported in the former. About 90% of structures in San Pedro Town were destroyed, while Newtown was completely obliterated, causing its residents to relocate, trees and crops such as coconuts also suffered heavy losses. Overall, nine deaths and approximately $4 million in damage were reported, a tropical wave moved through the West Indies between November 3 and November 4. The wave reached the vicinity of Turks and Caicos Islands on November 5, the storm moved north-northwestward and then westward across the southern Bahamas. A ridge aloft blocked the storms progress and caused it to re-curve west-southwestward on November 6. The system strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane at 1200 UTC on the modern day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, around 1800 UTC on November 6, the storm made landfall on Cayo Romano in Camagüey Province with winds of 80 mph. The system quickly weakened while crossing the terrain of Cuba and fell to tropical storm intensity early on November 7. Later that day, the storm re-intensified into a Category 1 hurricane, around midday on November 8, the storm curved westward while approaching Belize and strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane. This storm was the only hurricane to strike Belize in the month of November. At about 0000 UTC on November 9, the storm struck Caye Caulker, an observatory in Belize City recorded a barometric pressure of 991 mbar – the lowest in association with this storm1942 Belize hurricane – Surface analysis map of the hurricane on November 8
99. 1959 Mexico hurricane – The 1959 Mexico hurricane is the deadliest eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record. First observed south of Mexico on October 23, the cyclone tracked northwest and it intensified into a Category 3 hurricane on October 25 and reached Category 4 intensity the following day. After turning toward the northeast, the hurricane maintained Category 4 status and made landfall near Manzanillo, the system continued on that trajectory prior to dissipating the next day. Impact from the hurricane was severe and widespread, initially forecast to remain offshore, the system curved northeast and moved ashore, becoming one of Mexicos worst natural disasters at the time. Up to 150 boats were submerged, countless homes in Colima and Jalisco were damaged or destroyed, large portions of the states were inaccessible by flash flooding, and hundreds of residents were stranded. All coconut plantations were blown down during the storm, leaving thousands without work, torrential rainfall across mountain terrain contributed to numerous mudslides that caused hundreds of fatalities. In the aftermath of the cyclone, convoys delivering aid were hindered by the destruction, residents were vaccinated to prevent the spread of disease. Overall, the hurricane inflicted at least $280 million in damage, on October 22, a low pressure area was present south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, having originated out of an area of disturbed weather in the region the day before. That day, two ships reported gale-force winds, suggesting that a storm formed by 12,00 UTC. Moving west-northwestward parallel to the southwest coast of Mexico, the system steadily intensified, the storm continued to intensify, although there were few ships in the path to record the intensity until October 26. During that time, interpolation of observations suggests that the storm attained hurricane intensity – a Category 3 on the modern Saffir-Simpson scale – with winds of 115 mph on October 25. On October 26, the hurricane turned abruptly to the northeast toward the Mexican coast, at 00,00 UTC on October 27, a nearby ship recorded winds of 130 km/h, confirming the increase in intensity. Six hours later, another ship recorded winds of 115 mph, at around 12,00 UTC on October 27, the hurricane made landfall just northwest of Manzanillo, Colima, with an eye 13 mi in diameter. The hurricane rapidly weakened over the terrain of southwestern Mexico. Within 12 hours of landfall, the weakened to tropical storm status. Thousands of people were unprepared for the storm, thus, the system was dubbed a sneak hurricane. After passing well offshore from Acapulco, it was forecast to head out to sea, instead, it recurved east and made landfall. The hurricane had devastating effects on the places it hit and it killed at least 1,000 people directly, and a total of 1,800 people1959 Mexico hurricane – Surface weather analysis of the hurricane on October 27
100. 2011 Guerrero earthquake – The 2011 Guerrero earthquake struck with a moment magnitude of 5.7 in southern Mexico at 08,24 local time on Thursday,5 May. It was positioned west of Ometepec, Guerrero, with a depth of 24 km. Buildings swayed with the tremor in Mexico City, prompting evacuations, following the quake, police patrolled city streets for safety reasons and damage assessments were carried out across the affected region. There were no casualties, though two police stations suffered slight damage. A number of light aftershocks succeeded the main event, of which the strongest measured a magnitude of 4.1. The magnitude 5.7 earthquake occurred inland near the southern coast of Mexico at a depth of 24 km, with a duration of one minute. In the region, the Cocos, North American, and Caribbean Plates converge and create a zone of continuous seismic activity.5. Initial estimates from the USGS placed its intensity at a magnitude of 5.8, lighter ground motions were perceived in much of Guerrero, including Acapulco and Chilpancingo, with weak tremors reported as far away as in Mexico City, about 300 km from the epicenter. The capital city rests on a former lakebed of largely unconsolidated sedimentary layers, by 6 May, a total of five light aftershocks had occurred near the earthquakes epicenter. Of the five, the first registered a magnitude of 3.7 and struck about 15 minutes after the main shock, and was succeeded by a magnitude 3.9 tremor at 10,09 local time. Two similar quakes of minor intensity struck the region the day, however. Despite relatively strong ground motions, damage to the area was limited, structures around the epicenter were a mix of fairly vulnerable. Buildings swayed with the tremor in Mexico City, causing panic among many citizens, several schools in Guerrero were evacuated as a safety precaution. The earthquake and its aftershock sequence contributed to intermittent power outages in Acapulco, there were no reports of major losses or fatalities in the wake of the tremor, though two police stations located in Acapulco and Marquelia suffered light damage. Elsewhere, some roof tiles and small landslides occurred east of the epicenter in Cuautepec. Prior to the arrival of waves in Mexico City, seven of twelve earthquake sensors near the coast of Guerrero detected a potentially significant quake. Alert systems were activated in the area, giving locals at least 50 seconds to secure themselves. Shortly after impact, authorities dispatched five helicopters to ascertain any damage in the wake of the quake, SSP officials, along with over 3,000 police officers, patrolled the city streets as a safety measure2011 Guerrero earthquake – USGS shake map
101. 2015 Mexican Grand Prix – The 2015 Mexican Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez in Mexico City on 1 November 2015. The race, which was contested over seventy-one laps, was the race of the 2015 Formula One season. Nico Rosberg qualified in pole position, having already been fastest in two of the three practice sessions. He won the race for Mercedes, followed by his teammate Lewis Hamilton, Valtteri Bottas completed the podium in third, driving for Williams. Both Ferrari drivers—Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Räikkönen—retired after crashes, with losing one position in the Championship to Rosberg and Bottas respectively. It was the first time since the 2006 Australian Grand Prix that neither Ferrari was classified, the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez circuit underwent substantial reconfiguration in the build-up to the event. The first corner complex was tightened on entry, while the part of the track was completely re-profiled. The track layout featured two drag reduction system zones, one on the straight and another between turns three and four. One week prior to the race, Hurricane Patricia—the largest tropical storm cell in the Northern Hemisphere on record—crossed the Mexican coastline near Cuixmala in Jalisco state, patricia had previously disrupted the United States Grand Prix. Tyre supplier Pirelli brought four compounds to the race, as for all races, the blue-banded wet and green-banded intermediate tyres were provided for possible rain. As for dry-weather tyres, Pirelli supplied the teams with the soft and medium compounds, per the regulations for the 2015 season, three practice sessions were scheduled, two 1. 5-hour sessions on Friday and another one-hour session before qualifying on Saturday. The first session on Friday started on a track, described by Sebastian Vettel as ridiculously slippery. Valtteri Bottas set the fastest time on those tyres, before all teams switched on the medium compound, even on the dry tyres, still many drivers were fooled by the conditions, going off at turns 8 and 10 in particular. Nico Rosbergs Mercedes suffered from overheating rear brakes, forcing him back to the pit lane while he held the fastest time, Carlos Sainz Jr. recorded the most timed laps with 37, and finished eighth fastest, ahead of local favourite Sergio Pérez and Felipe Massa. Jolyon Palmer again replaced Romain Grosjean at the wheel of the Lotus, as he would do for the rest of the season, and finished fifteenth fastest,0.2 seconds slower than teammate Pastor Maldonado. The fastest time of the session was set by Max Verstappen in the Toro Rosso, at 1,25.990 and he was followed by Daniil Kvyat and the two Ferrari cars of Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel. While Rosberg was demoted to sixth, newly crowned World Champion Lewis Hamilton was only eleventh fastest, in the second session on Friday afternoon, Nico Rosberg was fastest, setting a time of 1,21.531. With the track still being very new, the surface was slippery2015 Mexican Grand Prix – Romain Grosjean had to sit out the first practice session for the eleventh time in 2015.
102. Atlantis (wrestler) – Atlantis is a Mexican luchador enmascarado, working for Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre where he performs as a Técnico. Atlantis was trained by Diablo Velasco, made his debut in 1983 and has always wrestled under the ring name Atlantis. Atlantis has held a number of professional wrestling championships over the years. He has also won the mask of several prominent wrestlers through his career including Kung Fu, Villano III, Último Guerrero, Atlantis earned the nickname El idolo de los Niños as he was always a favorite with the younger fans. In the 1990s Atlantis starred in a couple of Lucha films, including one where he teamed up with Octagón called Octagón y Atlantis, Atlantis made his professional wrestling debut on June 12,1983, after training under world-renowned Mexican wrestling trainer Diablo Velazco for just under a year. He adopted the ring persona of Atlantis, a supposed warrior from the lost city of Atlantis. After working for various Mexican promotions for the first year of his career Atlantis became a regular for Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre, on November 30,1984, Atlantis defeated Jerry Estrada to win the Mexican National Middleweight Championship, the first wrestling title of his career. Atlantis held the Middleweight title for 457 days, with high profile title defenses that helped establish the young wrestlers reputation for good matches. On March 2,1986 Atlantis lost the Middleweight title to Talismán, by 1988 Atlantis had formed a regular tag team with Ángel Azteca and on March 6,1988, the duo defeated Los Infernales (Masakre and MS-1 to win the Mexican National Tag Team Championship. Three months later Atlantis became a champion when he defeated Kung Fu to win the NWA World Middleweight Championship. Atlantis only held the title for 37 days before losing it to Emilio Charles and he quickly regained the title, defeating Charles, Jr. on July 20,1988, and held it for two weeks before losing the title back to Emilio Charles, Jr. On May 25,1990, after an 811-day reign, Atlantis and Ángel Azteca lost the Mexican Nation Tag Team Championship to Pierroth Jr. the loss of the title was used as a storyline motivation for Ángel Azteca turning Rudo (villain or heel by attacking Atlantis. The feud between the two continued off and on over the years until Ángel Aztecas death in 2007, the two fought in several intense and bloody battles, but remained close friends backstage. In 1991 Atlantis starred in a movie called La Fuerza Bruta and soon began filming another movie where he teamed up with Octagón called Octagón y Atlantis. On April 4,1991, Atlantis, Octagón, and Máscara Sagrada, the trio held the title for 94 days before losing it to Los Hermanos Dinamita on August 11,1991. Atlantis was also offered a contract by AAA but decided to stay with the company he had worked for almost his entire career, on March 3,1993, Atlantis lost the NWA World Middleweight title to Mano Negra, as part of a long-running storyline between the two. On November 3,1995, Atlantis teamed with Rayo de Jalisco, the team lost the tag team title in August 1996 but Atlantis and new partner Lizmark won the titles back from La Ola Blanca. Atlantis and Lizmark only held the title for 12 days before the titles were vacated following a match with the HeadhuntersAtlantis (wrestler) – Atlantis with a couple of fans
103. Azteca horse – The Azteca is a horse breed from Mexico, with a subtype, called the American Azteca, found in the United States. They are well-muscled horses that may be of any color. Aztecas are known to compete in western riding and some English riding disciplines. The Azteca was first developed in Mexico in 1972, from a blend of Andalusian, American Quarter Horse, from there, they spread to the United States, where American Paint Horse blood was added. The three foundation breeds of the Azteca are the Andalusian, American Quarter Horse, and Mexican Criollo or Criollo militar and they were chosen to produce a breed that combined athletic ability with a good temperament and certain physical characteristics. Azteca stallions and geldings measure between 15 and 16.1 hands at the withers, while mares stand between 14.3 and 16 hands, the ideal height is 14. 3–15.1 hands. Both sexes usually weigh from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds, the facial profile of the breed is straight or convex and the neck slightly arched. Overall, they are well-muscled horses, with broad croup and chest, gaits are free and mobile, with natural collection derived from the Andalusian ancestry of the breed. The breed is found in all colors, although gray is most often seen. White markings are allowed on the face and lower legs by breed associations, the American Azteca registry also allows non-solid pinto coloration. Horses are classified in one of six categories, designated with letters A through F. Only certain crosses between the different classes are permitted, in the American Azteca registry, horses with American Paint Horse breeding are also allowed. However, horses more than 25 percent Thoroughbred blood in their pedigrees within four generations cannot be registered. American Aztecas have four categories of registration based on the degree of blood from each foundation breed, seeking an ideal blend of 3/8 Quarter Horse. Unlike their Mexican counterparts, they do not have to go through physical inspections before being registered, the Azteca was first bred in 1972 as a horse for charros, the traditional horsemen of Mexico. Ariza used imported Andalusians, crossed with Quarter Horses and Criollos, early in the Aztecas history, breeders realized the need for a unified breeding program in order to produce horses that met the required characteristics. The Azteca Horse Research Center was created at Lake Texcoco, the first official Azteca was a stallion named Casarejo, who was a cross between an Andalusian stallion named Ocultado and a Quarter Horse mare named Americana. He was foaled at the Centro de Reproduccion Caballar Domecq in 1972, the Associacion Mexicana de Criadores de Caballos de Raza Azteca, or Mexican Breeders Association for the Azteca Horse, is the original breed registry and still maintains the international registryAzteca horse – Azteca horse
104. Tropical Storm Barbara (2007) – Tropical Storm Barbara was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall during the 2007 Pacific hurricane season. The second storm of the season, Barbara developed from a low pressure area on May 29 about 235 miles southeast of Acapulco, Mexico. The system drifted southward before turning to an eastward motion. Increased wind shear weakened Barbara, though it re-organized to attain winds of 50 mph before moving ashore just west of the border of Mexico. It rapidly weakened over land, and on June 2 the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories on the storm, despite expectations that the storm would attain hurricane status, Barbara moved ashore as a small, weak tropical storm. It produced locally heavy rainfall and gusty winds, and in most locations damage was minor, however, in southern Mexico, the rainfall destroyed large areas of cropland, with crop damage totaling 200 million pesos. In El Salvador, four people were killed by storm-induced floods, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on May 14, which is believed to have been the impetus to Barbara. The wave axis crossed Ce