1. Spanish language – Spanish —also called Castilian —is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain, with hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the worlds second-most spoken native language after Mandarin Chinese and it is one of the few languages to use inverted question and exclamation marks. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Beginning in the early 16th century, Spanish was taken to the colonies of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania, around 75% of modern Spanish is derived from Latin. Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, Spanish vocabulary has been in contact from an early date with Arabic, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin and it has also been influenced by Basque as well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. It also adopted words from languages such as Gothic language from the Visigoths in which many Spanish names and surnames have a Visigothic origin. Spanish is one of the six languages of the United Nations. It is the language in the world by the number of people who speak it as a mother tongue, after Mandarin Chinese. It is estimated more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, speakers in the Americas total some 418 million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8% of the population. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States, in 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over,38 million speak Spanish at home. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows, El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado, las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas. Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State, the other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities. The Spanish Royal Academy, on the hand, currently uses the term español in its publications. Two etymologies for español have been suggested, the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus, from—or pertaining to—HispaniaSpanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
2. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
3. Mexico City – Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political, administrative and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crownMexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
4. Panama – Panama, officially called the Republic of Panama, is a country usually considered to be entirely in North America or Central America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the countrys 4.1 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. Panama broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, when Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, in 1977 an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panamas GDP, although commerce, banking, in 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America, covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panamas jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them to be found nowhere else on the planet. There are several theories about the origin of the name Panama, some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of tree. Others believe that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, the best-known version is that a fishing village and its nearby beach bore the name Panamá, which meant an abundance of fish. Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515, in 1517 Don Gaspar De Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there. In 1519 Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Empires Pacific city in this site, the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crowns global plan after the beginning of the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific. Blending all of the above together, Panamanians believe in general that the word Panama means abundance of fish and this is the official definition given in social studies textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama. However, others believe the word Panama comes from the Kuna word bannaba which means distant or far away, at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have disappeared, as they had no immunity from European infectious diseases. The earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points, later central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC. These evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, the monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are also important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures. Before Europeans arrived Panama was widely settled by Chibchan, Chocoan, the largest group were the Cueva. The size of the population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertainPanama – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
5. Mississippi River – The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, then settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and then as a vital transportation artery and communications link. Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is also noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, however, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, Missouri, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper riverMississippi River – Mississippi River near Fire Point in Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa
6. Spanish Florida – Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery. La Florida formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Spains claim to this vast area was based on several wide-ranging expeditions mounted during the 16th century. However, Spain never exercised control over La Florida much beyond several settlements and forts which were predominantly located in present-day Florida. Spanish Florida was established in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León claimed peninsular Florida for Spain during the first official European expedition to North America, the presidio of St. Spanish control of the Florida peninsula was made possible by the collapse of native cultures during the 17th century. Several Native American groups had been long-established residents of Florida, during the mid-1700s, small bands of Creek and other Native American refugees began moving south into Spanish Florida after having been forced off their lands by English settlements and raids. They were later joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies and these newcomers - plus perhaps a few surviving descendants of indigenous Florida peoples - eventually coalesced into a new Seminole culture. The extent of Spanish Florida began to shrink in the 1600s, between disease, poor management, and ill-timed hurricanes, several Spanish attempts to establish new settlements in La Florida ended in failure. The War of Jenkins Ear included a British attack on St. Augustine, at the conclusion of the war, the northern boundary of Spanish Florida was set near the current northern border of modern-day Florida. Great Britain temporarily gained control of Florida beginning in 1763 as a result of the Anglo-Spanish War, France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803. The U. S. claimed that the transaction included West Florida, as with earlier American incursions into Florida, Spain protested this invasion but could not defend its territory, and instead opened diplomatic negotiations seeking a peaceful transfer of land. By the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, Spanish Florida ceased to exist in 1821, anonymous Portuguese sailors were likely the first Europeans to map the southeastern portion of the future United States. They kept their discoveries secret, however, and did not attempt to establish settlements or explore very far inland, in 1512 Juan Ponce de León, governor of Puerto Rico, received royal permission to search for land north of Cuba. On March 3,1513, his expedition departed from Punta Aguada, Puerto Rico, in late March, he spotted a small island but did not land. On April 2, Ponce de León spotted the east coast of the Florida peninsula and went ashore the next day at an exact location that has been lost to time. Assuming that he had found an island, he claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida, because it was the season of Pascua Florida. After briefly exploring the area around their landing site, the returned to their ships and sailed south to map the coast. The expedition followed Floridas coastline all the way around the Florida Keys, popular legend has it that Ponce de León was searching for the Fountain of Youth when he discovered Florida. Ponce de León probably was not the first Spaniard to reach Florida, evidence suggests that Spanish raiders from the Caribbean had conducted small secret expeditions to Florida to capture Indian slavesSpanish Florida – Florida from the 1502 Cantino planisphere
7. Spanish East Indies – The Spanish East Indies were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899. They comprised the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, Cebu was the first seat of government, later transferred to Manila. From 1565 to 1821 these territories, together with the Spanish West Indies, were administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City, the King of Spain traditionally styled himself King of the East and West Indies. After Mexican independence, they were ruled directly from Madrid, administrative affairs of the Spanish East Indies were handled by the Captaincy General of the Philippines and the Real Audiencia of Manila. The few remaining islands were ceded to the United States when the Treaty of Washington was ratified in 1901, Spanish contact began on 6 March 1521, when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan reached the Mariana Islands. He named Guam and the other islands Islas de los Ladrones because the natives came aboard his galleon, the expedition later continued its journey west and reached the island of Homonhon in the eastern Philippines on 16 March, with only 150 crewmen. There they were able to communicate with the local peoples because the Malayan interpreter, Enrique of Malacca, Miguel López de Legazpi set out from Mexico, and established the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines in 1565, which became the town of San Miguel in present-day Cebu. In 1571, the city of Manila was founded and made seat of the Spanish Captaincy General of the Philippines and these and other Asian territories claimed by the Spanish crown were to be governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. The Manila-Acapulco galleons shipped products gathered from both Asia-Pacific and the Americas, such as silk, spices, silver, gold and other Asian-Pacific islander products to Mexico, in 1606, the Spaniards established some form of trade links with the Maluku Islands and remained until 1663. Contacts with Japan were also established and Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent as ambassador in 1611, on the north eastern coastal region of Taiwan, the Spaniards built Fort Santo Domingo near Keelung in 1626 and a mission in Tamsui in 1628, which they occupied until 1642. In 1668, Blessed Diego Luis de San Vitores established the first mission on Guam, in 1762 British troops briefly captured the city of Manila during the Seven Years War. The British promised support for an uprising led by Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela, under the peace settlement Manila was exchanged, along with British-occupied Havana, for Florida and Minorca. It was handed back to Spanish authorities in April 1764, the Seven Years War prompted Charles III to initiate extensive governmental reforms throughout the overseas possessions. An intendencia was established in Manila in 1784 to handle the government finances, in a similar vein, to promote innovation and education among the residents of the islands, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. For over 256 years, the Spanish East Indies were governed by a general. All economic matters of the Philippines were managed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in 1821 the New Spanish Viceroyalty collapsed following the Mexican War of Independence, which resulted in the First Mexican Empire. In 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Islas Carolinas Islas Marianas Islas Palau The Spanish used several names that are not currently used. Gran Moluca for the island of Mindanao and Nueva Castilla for Luzon, because Spanish interest in the region was primarily focused on its use as a base for trade with East Asia, direct Spanish control over the area expanded slowlySpanish East Indies – Map of the Spanish East Indies (1857)
8. Las Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish, Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been confusion about use of the plural The Californias by Spanish colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its peninsular character was ascertained, it was called simply California, when the expeditions for the settlement of San Diego and Monterey marched, it was understood that they were going, not out of California, but into a new part of it. The peninsula then began to be spoken of as Antigua or Old California. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino and his Misión San Bruno failed, however, and it wasnt until 1697 that Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó was successfully established by another Jesuit, Juan María de Salvatierra. The mission became the nucleus of Loreto, first permanent settlement, the Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the missions, gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, a new visitador, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The more ambitious name, Las Californias, was established by a joint dispatch to the King from Viceroy de Croix and visitador José de Gálvez. Gálvez sought to make a distinction between the Antigua area of established settlement and the Nueva unexplored areas to the north, the single province was divided in 1804, into Alta California province and Baja California province. By the time of the 1804 split, the Alta province had expanded to coastal areas as far north as what is now the San Francisco Bay Area in the U. S. state of California. Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, independent Mexico retained the division but demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. In 1836, the designation Las Californias was revived, reuniting Alta, the Seven Laws were repealed in 1847, during the Mexican-American War, and the split of the two Californias was restored. Following Mexicos defeat in the war, most of the former Alta California territory was ceded on 2 February 1848 to the United States, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The new Mexico-United States border was established slightly to the north of the previous Alta-Baja border, the areas in North America acquired by the U. S. were designated as unorganized territory under a military governor, pending reestablishment of civilian control and organization. California was the first section of the territory to achieve statehood, the Baja California Peninsula is bordered on three sides by water, the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, while Alta California had the Pacific Ocean on the west and deserts on the east. A northern boundary was established by the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 and that boundary line remains the northern boundary of the U. S. states of California, Nevada, and the western part of UtahLas Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
9. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
10. Texas – Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product. The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southTexas – Sam Rayburn Reservoir
11. Louisiana (New Spain) – Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, who had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682 and it is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded to France, under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, in 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 15 October, effecting the transfer and outlining the conditions. However, Spain agreed to continue administering the colony until French officials arrived and formalized the transfer. The ceremony was conducted at the Cabildo in New Orleans on 30 November 1803, Spain was largely a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana, Cuba, and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain. During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American revolutionists through New Orleans, in keeping with being absentee landlords, Spanish efforts to turn Louisiana into a Spanish colony were usually fruitless. For instance, while Spanish officially was the language of government. Even official business conducted at the Cabildo often lapsed into French, when Alejandro OReilly re-established Spanish rule in 1769, he issued a decree on December 7,1769, which banned the trade of Native American slaves. Although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others. A group of maroons led by Jean Saint Malo resisted re-enslavement from their base in the swamps east of New Orleans between 1780 and 1784, on May 4,1795,57 slaves and three local white men were put on trial in Point Coupee. Spanish colonial officials divided Luisiana into Upper Louisiana and Lower Louisiana at 36°35 North, in 1764, French fur trading interests founded St. Louis in what was then known as the Illinois Country. The Spanish referred to St. Louis as the city of Illinois, in 1778, several ships embarked for Louisiana with hundreds of settlers. The ships made stops in Havana and Venezuela, where half the settlers disembarked, in the end, between 2,100 and 2,736 Canarians arrived in Louisiana and settled near New Orleans. They settled in Barataria and in what is today St. Bernard Parish, however, many settlers were relocated for various reasons. Barataria suffered hurricanes in 1779 and in 1780, it was abandoned, in 1782, a splinter group of the Canarian settlers in Saint Bernard emigrated to Valenzuela. In 1779, another ship with 500 people from Málaga, arrived in Spanish Louisiana and these colonists, led by Lt. Col. Francisco Bouligny, settled in New Iberia, where they intermarried with Cajun settlers. In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War and the Anglo-Spanish War, Bernardo de Gálvez recruited men from the Canarian settlements of Louisiana and Galveston to join his forces. They participated in three military campaigns, the Baton Rouge, the Mobile, and the Pensacola, which expelled the British from the Gulf CoastLouisiana (New Spain)
12. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
13. Hispanic America – Hispanic America, more generally called Spanish America, is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas. These countries have significant commonalities with other and with Spain. In all of these countries, Spanish is the language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Catholic Christianity is the predominant religion, Hispanic America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil under the term Ibero-America, meaning those countries in the Americas with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula. Hispanic America also contrasts with Latin America, which not only Hispanic America. Hispanic America became the part of the vast Spanish Empire. Napoleons takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, by 1830, the only remaining Spanish American and Asian territories were Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War. While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Spanish America, its people, history and it was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the year in Montevideo. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the coat of arms of the medieval Crown of CastileHispanic America – Asunción
14. Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainlandPuerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
15. Wars of national liberation – Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nationalities to gain independence. The term is used in conjunction with wars against foreign powers to establish separate sovereign states for the rebelling nationality, from a different point of view, these wars are called insurgencies, rebellions, or wars of independence. Guerrilla warfare or asymmetric warfare is often utilized by groups labeled as national liberation movements, the term wars of national liberation is most commonly used for those fought during the decolonization movement. Since these were primarily in the world against Western powers and their economic influence and a major aspect of the Cold War. However, this did not always guarantee Soviet influence in those countries, in January 1961 Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev pledged support for wars of national liberation throughout the world. International law generally holds that a people with a right to self-determination are entitled to wage wars of national liberation. While Western states tend to view these wars as civil wars, Third World and this difference in classification leads to varying perceptions of which laws of war apply in such situations. However, there is agreement among all states today in principle that the use of force to frustrate a peoples legal right to self-determination is unlawful. Wars of national liberation are usually fought using guerrilla warfare, the main purpose of these tactics is to increase the cost of the anti-guerrilla forces past the point where such forces are willing to bear. Wars of national liberation generally depend a large amounts of public support, finally, wars of national liberation are often embedded in a larger context of great power politics and are often proxy wars. These strategies explain why they are quite successful against foreign regimes, foreign regimes usually have a threshold beyond which they would prefer to go home rather than to fight the war. By contrast an indigenous regime has no place to go to, moreover, foreign regimes usually have relatively few active supporters, who can often be easily identified, making it possible for guerrilla armies to operate. By contrast, indigenous regimes often have more popular support. However the rebellion led to the Irish Civil War. The African National Congress s struggle against the regime is also another example. These wars were in part supported by the Soviet Union, which claimed to be an anti-imperialist power, the concept of imperialism itself had been which had theorized in Lenins 1916 book, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. In the same decade, Cuba, led by Fidel Castro, would support national liberation movements in Angola, the Portuguese colonial wars finally led to the recognition of Angola, Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau as independent states in 1975, following the April Carnation Revolution. The PLO also participates in UN Security Council debates, since 1988, some Iraqi insurgent groups, and certain political groups believe that the Iraq War is a war of national liberation against the US-led coalitionWars of national liberation – Flag of Mozambique; independent from Portugal since 1975, after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon, with the Kalashnikov as symbol of the armed struggle against the Portuguese empire, the book as symbol of instruction and a farming implement as symbol of economic growth.
16. Brazilian Independence – It is celebrated on September 7, the anniversary of the September 7,1822 date regent Prince Dom Pedro declared Brazils independence from Portugal. Formal recognition came with a treaty signed by both Brazil and Portugal in late 1825, the land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered Indigenous nations divided into tribes, most of whom shared the same Tupi-Guaraní language Black Mountains family. Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was started in 1534. This arrangement proved problematic, however, and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony, the Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes while others slowly disappeared in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity. By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazils most important export due to the international demand for sugar. To profit from the situation, by 1700, over 963,000 African slaves had been brought across the Atlantic to work in Brazil, more Africans were brought to Brazil up until that date than to all the other places in the Americas combined. Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567 and they sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered English and Dutch strongholds, founding villages and forts from 1669. In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, from all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines. The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. During the invasion of Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil and this had the side effect of creating within Brazil many of the institutions required to exist as an independent state, most importantly, it freed Brazil to trade with other nations at will. In 1820 the Constitutionalist Revolution erupted in Portugal, the movement initiated by the liberal constitutionalists resulted in the meeting of the Cortes, that would have to create the kingdoms first constitution. The king left for Europe on April 26, while Dom Pedro remained in Brazil governing it with the aid of the ministers of the Kingdom and Foreign Affairs, of War, of Navy and of Finance. The Portuguese military officers headquartered in Brazil were completely sympathetic to the constitutionalist movement in Portugal, the main leader of the Portuguese officers, General Jorge Avilez, forced the prince to dismiss and banish from the country the ministers of Kingdom and Finance. Both were loyal allies of Pedro, who had become a pawn in the hands of the military, the humiliation suffered by the prince, who swore he would never yield to the pressure of the military again, would have a decisive influence on his abdication ten years later. Meanwhile, on September 30,1821, the Cortes approved a decree that subordinated the governments of the Brazilian provinces directly to Portugal, Prince Pedro became for all purposes only the governor of the Rio de Janeiro Province. Other decrees that came after ordered his return to Europe and also extinguished the judicial courts created by João VI in 1808, dissatisfaction over the Cortes measures among most residents in Brazil rose to a point that it soon became publicly known. Two groups that opposed the Cortes actions to undermine the Brazilian sovereignty appeared, Liberals led by Joaquim Gonçalves LedoBrazilian Independence – " Independence or Death! " Declaration of Brazil's independence by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822. His Guard of Honor greets him in support while some discard blue and white armbands that represented loyalty to Portugal
17. American Revolution – The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress determined King George IIIs rule to be tyrannical and infringing the rights as Englishmen. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but then captured and they blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washingtons forces. After a failed Patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured at the Battle of Saratoga in late 1777, a combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies, in 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles, none did and Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes on the colonies for the first time. All official documents, newspapers, almanacs, and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps, the colonists did not object that the taxes were high, but because they had no representation in the Parliament. Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire, stationing a standing army in Great Britain during peacetime was politically unacceptable. London had to deal with 1,500 politically well-connected British officers who became redundant, in 1765, the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, boycott, violence, and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable, in Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765, moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances stating that taxes passed without representation violated their rights as Englishmen. Colonists emphasized their determination by boycotting imports of British merchandise, the Parliament at Westminster saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to levy any tax without colonial approvalAmerican Revolution – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress
18. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. The Revolution also witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France. In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIVFrench Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
19. Kingdom of Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growthKingdom of Spain – Lady of Elche
20. Spanish monarchy – The Monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as the Crown, is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain. It used to be called the Hispanic Monarchy. The monarchy comprises the monarch, his or her family. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI, his wife Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain. The 1978 constitution affirmed the role of the King of Spain as the personification and embodiment of the Spanish State, constitutionally, the king is the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. According to the constitution, the monarch is also instrumental in promoting relations with the nations of its historical community, the King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, purportedly representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008, Juan Carlos I was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, a dynastic marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon united Spain in the 15th century. The last pretender of the Crown of the Byzantine Empire, Andreas Palaiologos, sold his title to Ferdinand II of Aragon. However, there is no evidence that any Spanish monarch has used the Byzantine imperial titles, the Spanish Empire became one of the first global powers as Isabella and Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbuss exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. This led to the discovery of America, which became the focus of Spanish colonization, in 2010, the budget for the Spanish monarchy was 7.4 million euros, one of the lowest public expenditures for the institution of monarchy in Europe. One of the earliest influential dynasties was the House of Jiménez which united much of Christian Iberia under its leadership in the 11th century. From Sancho III of Navarre until Urraca of León and Castile, the Jiménez rulers sought to bring their kingdoms into the European mainstream and often engaged in cross-Pyrenees alliances and marriages, and became patrons to Cluniac Reforms. Urracas son and heir Alfonso VII of León and Castile, the first of the Spanish branch of the Burgundy Family, was the last to claim the title of Spain. The Castilian Civil War ended with the death of King Peter at the hands of his illegitimate half-brother Henry, Henry II became the first of the House of Trastámara to rule over a Spanish kingdom. King Peters heiress, his granddaughter Catherine of Lancaster, married Henry III, reuniting the dynasties in the person of their son, each kingdom retained its basic structure. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs conquered the Kingdom of Granada in southern Spain and this date marks the unification of Spain. The territories of the Spanish empire overseas were dependencies of the crown of Castile, in the early 16th century, the Spanish monarchy controlled several territories in Europe under the Habsburg King Charles I, son of Queen Joanna of Castile. His reign ushered in the Spanish Golden Age a period of colonial expansionSpanish monarchy – King of Spain
21. Spanish American Wars of Independence – These conflicts started in 1809 with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French invasion, in 1810, Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish–American War in 1898. The new republics from the abolished the formal system of racial classification and hierarchy, casta system, the Inquisition. Slavery was not abolished immediately, but ended in all of the new nations within a quarter century, criollos and mestizos replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political offices. Criollos remained at the top of a structure which retained some of its traditional features culturally. For almost a century thereafter, conservatives and liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions, both armies originated from Spanish colonial troops of Americas. The events in Spanish America were related to the wars of independence in former French colony of St-Domingue, Haiti, a more direct cause of the Spanish American wars of independence were the unique developments occurring within the Kingdom of Spain and its monarchy during this period. Political independence was not necessarily the outcome of the political turmoil in Spanish America. There was little interest in outright independence, humphreys and John Lynch note, it is all too easy to equate the forces of discontent or even the forces of change with the forces of revolution. Since by definition, there was no history of independence until it happened, because Spanish American independence did occur, there are a number of factors that have been identified. First, increasing control by the Crown of its overseas empire via the Bourbon Reforms of the mid-eighteenth century introduced changes to the relationship of Spanish Americans to the Crown. The language used to describe the overseas empire shifted from kingdoms with independent standing with the crown to colonies and this meant that Spanish American elites were thwarted in their expectations and ambitions by the crowns upending long-standing practices of creole access to office holding. The regalist and secularizing policies of the Bourbon monarchy were aimed at decreasing the power of the Roman Catholic Church, the crown had already expelled the Jesuits in 1767, which saw many creole members of the Society of Jesus go into permanent exile. In the economic sphere, the sought to gain control over church revenues. In a financial crisis of 1804, the crown attempted to call in debts owed the church, shortening the repayment period meant many elites were faced with bankruptcy. Prominently in Mexico, lower clergy participated in the insurgency for independence with priests Miguel Hidalgo, in some areas—such as Cuba, Río de la Plata and New Spain—the reforms had positive effects, improving the local economy and the efficiency of the government. Other factors may include Enlightenment thinking and the examples of the Atlantic Revolutions, the Enlightenment spurred the desire for social and economic reform to spread throughout Spanish America and the Iberian Peninsula. Ideas about free trade and physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment in Spain and spread to the overseas empire, the political reforms implemented and the many constitutions written both in Spain and throughout the Spanish world during the wars of independence were influenced by these factorsSpanish American Wars of Independence – The Battle of San Lorenzo in 1813
22. Samurai – Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean those who serve in close attendance to the nobility, the pronunciation in Japanese changing to saburai. According to Wilson, a reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became almost entirely synonymous with bushi, the samurai were usually associated with a clan and their lord, and were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of then Japans population, following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD, which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform and this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, and the later Yōrō Code, the population was required to regularly for census. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military and these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in-return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system and it was called Gundan-Sei by later historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks and those of 6th rank and below were referred to as samurai and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these samurai were civilian public servants, the word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to as samurai for many more centuries, Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of seii-taishōgun, or Shogun, and began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperors preferred tool for putting down rebellions, though this is the first known use of the Shogun title, it was a temporary title, and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court, ultimately, Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the Emperors power gradually declined, while the Emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, through protective agreements and political marriages, they accumulated, or gathered, political power, eventually surpassing the traditional aristocracy. Some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their landsSamurai – Samurai in armor, 1860s. Hand-coloured photograph by Felice Beato.
23. Sendai – Sendai is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo. In 2010, the city had a population of one million, the city was founded in 1600 by the daimyō Date Masamune, and is nicknamed the City of Trees, there are about 60 zelkova trees on Jōzenji Street and Aoba Street. In the summer, the Sendai Tanabata Festival, the largest Tanabata festival in Japan, is held, in winter, the trees are decorated with thousands of lights for the Pageant of Starlight, lasting through most of December. On March 11,2011, coastal areas of the city suffered damage from a magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake which triggered a destructive tsunami. Although the Sendai area was inhabited as early as 20,000 years ago, the history of Sendai as a city begins from 1600, Masamune was not happy with his previous stronghold, Iwadeyama. Iwadeyama was located to the north of his territories and was difficult to access from Edo. Sendai was a location, being in the centre of Masamunes newly defined territories, upon a major road from Edo. Tokugawa Ieyasu gave Masamune permission to build a new castle in Aoba-yama, the previous ruler of the Sendai area had used a castle located on Aobayama. At this time Sendai was written as 千代, because a temple with a thousand Buddha statues used to be located in Aobayama, Masamune changed the kanji to 仙臺, which later became 仙台. The kanji came from a Chinese poem that praised a palace created by the Emperor Wen of Han China, tradition says that Masamune chose this kanji so that the castle would prosper as long as a mountain inhabited by an immortal hermit. Masamune ordered the construction of Sendai Castle in December 1600 and the construction of the town of Sendai in 1601, the grid plan roads in present-day central Sendai are based upon his plans. The first railway line between Sendai and Tokyo, now the Tōhoku Main Line, opened in 1887, bringing the area within a days travel from Tokyo for the first time in history. Tohoku Imperial University, the regions first university, was founded in Sendai in 1907, Sendai was incorporated as a city on 1 April 1889, as a result of the abolition of the han system. At the time of incorporation the citys area was 17.45 square kilometres, the city grew, however, through seven annexations that occurred between 1928 and 1988. The city became a city on 1 April 1989, the citys population exceeded one million in 1999. Sendai was considered to be one of Japans greenest cities, mostly because of its numbers of trees. Sendai became known as The City of Trees before the Meiji Restoration, as a result, many houses, temples, and shrines in central Sendai had household forests, which were used as resources for wood and other everyday materials. In 1925, the Senseki Line to Sendai Station became the first underground railway segment in Japan, the 2nd Infantry Division was known as the Sendai Division as it was based in Sendai, and recruited locallySendai – A parade of Sendai Aoba Matsuri held on Higashi-Ni-banchō-dōri avenue (the East 2nd avenue)
24. Acapulco – Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico,380 kilometres south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the colonial period of Mexicos history. It is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States, the city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also Mexicos largest beach and balneario resort city, the city is best known as one of Mexicos oldest and most well-known beach resorts, which came into prominence in the 1950s as a getaway for Hollywood stars and millionaires. Acapulco is still famous and still attracts tourists, although most are now from Mexico itself. The name Acapulco comes from Nahuatl language Aca-pōl-co, and means where the reeds were destroyed or washed away, the de Juárez was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane, the island and municipality of Capul, in the Philippines, derives its name from Acapulco, Capul was the western end of the trans-Pacific sailing route from Acapulco to what was then a Spanish colony. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, one by Playa Larga and the other on a known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the small villages here to coalesce into larger entities. Later, Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo, then Mayan influence arrived from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and through what is now Oaxaca. This history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have found here, especially at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here and these people were the antecedents of the Aztecs. In the later 15th century, after four years of military struggle and it was annexed to a tributary province named Tepecuacuilco. However, this was only transitory, as the Aztecs could only establish a military post at the citys outskirts. The city was on territory under control of the Yopes, who continued defending it, there are two stories about how Acapulco bay was discovered by Europeans. The first states that two years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés sent explorers west to find gold, the explorers had subdued this area after 1523, and Captain Saavedra Cerón was authorized by Cortés to found a settlement here. The other states that the bay was discovered on December 13,1526 by a ship named the El Tepache Santiago captained by Santiago Guevara. The first encomendero was established in 1525 at Cacahuatepec, which is part of the modern Acapulco municipality, in 1531, a number of Spaniards, most notably Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, left the Oaxaca coast and founded the village of Villafuerte where the city of Acapulco now standsAcapulco – Acapulco panoramic collage. Top, from left to right: Acapulco Bay from Chapel of Peace, Petroglyphs in Palma Sola, Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Cathedral, Mural by Diego Rivera in Dolores Olmedo House, San Diego Fort, La Quebrada, La Condesa Beach, Acapulco Dorado and Acapulco Diamante.
25. Manila – Manila, officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. Founded on June 24,1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi and it is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as a global city, the city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, forming the historic core of Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines. The metropolitan area, which includes the much larger Quezon City, Manila is also the most densely populated city proper in the world, with 41,515 people per square kilometer. The term Manila is commonly used to refer to either the whole area or the city proper. Manila is located on the shore of the Manila Bay on one of the finest harbors in the country. The city has six districts for the lower house of the Philippine Congress. Manila was once ruled by the Kingdom of Tondo before it became a province of the Majapahit Empire. During the Bruneian invasion of the Philippines, Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei captured Seludong and renamed it Maynilà, Maynilà became a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei, established to overpower Tondo. In 1571, conquistadors arrived from Mexico, across the Pacific Ocean, Spanish missionaries soon Christianized the city, incorporated Tondo and built some of the oldest churches in the country, including San Agustin Church. The conquistadors renamed the area Nuevo Reino de Castilla, Manila became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade route linking Spanish America with Asia, one of the earliest examples of globalization. Because of its location on Pacific trade routes, Manila received the moniker Pearl of the Orient. Spanish rule of the Philippine archipelago lasted for more than three centuries, until 1898, order was usually quickly restored and the city returned to the business of trade. In the 19th century, Manila was one of the most modern cities in Asia, before the Spanish–American War, it saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution. After the war, the United States took control, switched the official language from Spanish to English, near the end of World War II, during the Battle of Manila, most of the city was flattened by intensive aerial bombardment by the United States Air Force. As a result, relatively little remains of Manilas prewar and colonial architecture, although there are ongoing projects, especially within the old walled city. Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word nilà, referring to a mangrove tree that grew on the delta of the Pasig River. The flowers were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on religious altars or in churchesManila
26. Charles III of Spain – Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philips second wife. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily until 1759. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Polish king Augustus III, Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years. Charles succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, after the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain who left no heirs. As King of Spain Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce and he also tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars. His previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable as King of Spain and he did not achieve complete control over the States finances, and was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses. Most of his reforms proved to be successful and his important legacy lives on to this day, historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III was probably the most successful European ruler of his generation. He had provided firm, consistent, intelligent leadership, personal life had won the respect of the people. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, and the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Minorca, in 1700, Charles father, originally a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V. For the remainder of his reign, he attempted to regain the ceded territories. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714, she proved a domineering consort. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid and he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers, the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, and Ferdinand. Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and she also sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was also childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de Medici, the birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia, in 1718, Alberoni also ordered the invasion of Sicily, which was also ruled by the House of SavoyCharles III of Spain – Charles III
27. Pueblo – Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment structures built of stone, adobe mud and these structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people, several different federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design. The word pueblo is the Spanish word for town or village and it comes from the Latin root word populus meaning people. The demands of agrarian routine and the need for defense, the desire for human society in the vast solitude of. Nowadays the pueblo might have a running into thousands. Doubtless they were smaller in the early middle ages. There are 21 federally recognized Pueblos that are home to Pueblo people and their official federal names are as follows, Pre-Columbian towns and villages in the Southwest, such as Acoma, were located in defensible positions, for example, on high steep mesas. Anthropologists and official documents refer to ancient residents of the area as pueblo cultures. For example, the National Park Service states, The Late Puebloan cultures built the large, the people of some pueblos, such as Taos Pueblo, still inhabit centuries-old adobe pueblo buildings. Contemporary residents often maintain other homes outside the historic pueblos, adobe and light construction methods resembling adobe now dominate architecture at the many pueblos of the area, in nearby towns or cities, and in much of the American Southwest. In addition to contemporary pueblos, numerous ruins of archeological interest are located throughout the Southwest, some are of relatively recent originPueblo – Zuni pueblo c. 1873
28. Alexander von Humboldt – Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. He was the brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher. Humboldts quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography, Humboldts advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America and his description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. Humboldt was one of the first people to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined and this important work also motivated a holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity. Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin in Prussia on 14 September 1769 and he was baptized as a baby in the Lutheran faith, with the Duke of Brunswick serving as godfather. At age 42, Alexander Georg was rewarded for his services in the Seven Years War with the post of Royal Chamberlain and he profited from the contract to lease state lotteries and tobacco sales. He first married the daughter of Prussian General Adjutant Schweder, in 1766, Alexander Georg married Maria Elisabeth Colomb, a well-educated woman and widow of Baron Hollwede, with whom she had a son. Alexander Georg and Maria Elisabeth had three children, a daughter, who died young, and then two sons, Wilhelm and Alexander and her first-born son, Wilhelms and Alexanders half-brother, was something of a neer do well, not often mentioned in the family history. Alexander Georg died in 1779, leaving the brothers Humboldt in the care of their emotionally distant mother, Humboldts mother expected them to become civil servants of the Prussian state. The money Baron Holwede left to Alexanders mother became, after her death, instrumental in funding Alexanders explorations, due to his youthful penchant for collecting and labeling plants, shells and insects, Alexander received the playful title of the little apothecary. On April 25,1789, he matriculated at Göttingen, then known for the lectures of C. G. Heyne and his brother Wilhelm was already a student at Göttingen, but they did not interact much since their intellectual interests were quite different. His vast and varied interests were by this time fully developed, at Göttingen he met Georg Forster, a naturalist who had been with Captain James Cook on his second voyage. Humboldt traveled with Forster in Europe, the two traveled to England, Humboldts first sea voyage, The Netherlands, and France. In England, he met Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society, the scientific friendship between Banks and Humboldt lasted until Bankss death in 1820, and the two shared botanical specimens for study. Banks also mobilized his scientific contacts in later years to aid Humboldts work, Humboldts scientific excursion up the Rhine resulted in his 1790 treatise Mineralogische Beobachtungen über einige Basalte am Rhein. Humboldts passion for travel was of long standing, Humboldts talents were devoted to the purpose of preparing himself as a scientific explorer. During this period, his brother Wilhelm married, but Alexander did not attend the nuptials, Humboldt graduated from the Freiberg School of Mines in 1792 and was appointed to a Prussian government position in the Department of Mines as an inspector in Bayreuth and the Fichtel mountainsAlexander von Humboldt – Alexander von Humboldt (by Joseph Stieler, 1843)
29. Spanish American wars of independence – These conflicts started in 1809 with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French invasion, in 1810, Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish–American War in 1898. The new republics from the abolished the formal system of racial classification and hierarchy, casta system, the Inquisition. Slavery was not abolished immediately, but ended in all of the new nations within a quarter century, criollos and mestizos replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political offices. Criollos remained at the top of a structure which retained some of its traditional features culturally. For almost a century thereafter, conservatives and liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions, both armies originated from Spanish colonial troops of Americas. The events in Spanish America were related to the wars of independence in former French colony of St-Domingue, Haiti, a more direct cause of the Spanish American wars of independence were the unique developments occurring within the Kingdom of Spain and its monarchy during this period. Political independence was not necessarily the outcome of the political turmoil in Spanish America. There was little interest in outright independence, humphreys and John Lynch note, it is all too easy to equate the forces of discontent or even the forces of change with the forces of revolution. Since by definition, there was no history of independence until it happened, because Spanish American independence did occur, there are a number of factors that have been identified. First, increasing control by the Crown of its overseas empire via the Bourbon Reforms of the mid-eighteenth century introduced changes to the relationship of Spanish Americans to the Crown. The language used to describe the overseas empire shifted from kingdoms with independent standing with the crown to colonies and this meant that Spanish American elites were thwarted in their expectations and ambitions by the crowns upending long-standing practices of creole access to office holding. The regalist and secularizing policies of the Bourbon monarchy were aimed at decreasing the power of the Roman Catholic Church, the crown had already expelled the Jesuits in 1767, which saw many creole members of the Society of Jesus go into permanent exile. In the economic sphere, the sought to gain control over church revenues. In a financial crisis of 1804, the crown attempted to call in debts owed the church, shortening the repayment period meant many elites were faced with bankruptcy. Prominently in Mexico, lower clergy participated in the insurgency for independence with priests Miguel Hidalgo, in some areas—such as Cuba, Río de la Plata and New Spain—the reforms had positive effects, improving the local economy and the efficiency of the government. Other factors may include Enlightenment thinking and the examples of the Atlantic Revolutions, the Enlightenment spurred the desire for social and economic reform to spread throughout Spanish America and the Iberian Peninsula. Ideas about free trade and physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment in Spain and spread to the overseas empire, the political reforms implemented and the many constitutions written both in Spain and throughout the Spanish world during the wars of independence were influenced by these factorsSpanish American wars of independence – The Battle of San Lorenzo in 1813
30. Spanish Texas – Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821. Spain had claimed ownership of the territory, which comprised part of the present-day U. S, in 1690, Alonso de León escorted several Catholic missionaries to east Texas, where they established the first mission in Texas. When native tribes resisted the Spanish invasion of their homeland, the returned to Mexico. Two years later in 1718, the first civilian settlement in Texas, the new town quickly became a target for raids by the Lipan Apache. The raids continued periodically for almost three decades, until in 1749 when Spanish settlers and the Lipan Apache peoples made peace, but the treaty angered the enemies of the Apache, and resulted in raids on Spanish settlements by the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai tribes. Fear of Indian attacks and the remoteness of the area from the rest of the Viceroyalty discouraged settlers from moving to Texas and it remained one of the least-populated by immigrants provinces. The threat of attacks did not decrease until 1785, when Spain, the Comanche tribe later assisted in defeating the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes, who had continued to cause difficulties for settlers. France formally relinquished its claim to its region of Texas in 1762, the inclusion of Spanish Louisiana into New Spain meant that Texas was no longer essentially a buffer province. The easternmost Texas settlements were disbanded, with the population relocating to San Antonio, however, in 1799 Spain gave Louisiana back to France, and in 1803 Napoléon Bonaparte sold the territory, known as the Louisiana Purchase, to the United States. The U. S. claims on the vast Spanish territories west of the Sabine River into Santa Fe de Nuevo México province, during the Mexican War of Independence from 1810–1821, Texas experienced much turmoil. Governor Manuel María de Salcedo was overthrown by rebels in 1810, three years later, the Republican Army of the North, consisting primarily of Indians and Americans, again overthrew the Texas government and executed Salcedo. The Spanish response was brutal, and by 1820 fewer than 2000 Hispanic citizens remained in Texas. Spain was forced to relinquish its control of New Spain in 1821, with Texas becoming a province of the newly formed nation of Mexico, the Spanish left a deep mark on Texas. Their European livestock caused mesquite to spread inland while farmers tilled and irrigated the land, the Spanish language provided the names for many of the rivers, towns, and counties that currently exist, and Spanish architectural concepts still flourish. Although Texas eventually adopted much of the Anglo-American legal system, many Spanish legal practices were retained, including the concept of a homestead exemption, Spanish Texas was a colonial province within the northeastern mainland region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. On its southern edge, Tejas was bordered by the province of Coahuila, the boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed by the Medina River and the Nueces River,100 miles northeast of the Rio Grande. On the east, Texas bordered La Louisiane, although Spain claimed that the Red River formed the boundary between the two, France insisted that the border was the Sabine River,45 miles to the west. After Mexican independence from Spain, it was within Coahuila y Tejas from 1824 to 1835, although Alonso Álvarez de Pineda claimed Texas for Spain in 1519, the area was largely ignored by Spain until the late seventeenth centurySpanish Texas – This shows the paths taken by explorers from Spain into Texas.
31. Tagalog language – Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. Its standardized form, officially named Filipino, is officially the national language, the word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-log, composed of tagá- and ilog. Linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs, the first written record of Tagalog is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which dates to 900 CE and exhibits fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Old Malay, Javanese and Old Tagalog. The first known book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana. Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə, in Bikol and Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/, for example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot. Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels, Proto-Philippine *ŋajan and *hajək became Tagalog ngalan and halík. Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR and *zuRuʔ became Tagalog tubig, the first substantial dictionary of the Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books and he wrote the first dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. Tagalog was declared the language by the first constitution in the Philippines. In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ, in 1959, the language was further renamed as Pilipino. The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language mandating that as it evolves, it shall be developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine. The regional languages are the official languages in the regions. In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction and it is the first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and a second language by the majority. Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family, being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages, such as Malagasy, Javanese, Malay, Tetum, and Yami. It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol Region and the Visayas islands, such as the Bikol group and the Visayan group, including Hiligaynon and Cebuano. At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars of various Tagalog dialects. Some example of differences are, Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonantsTagalog language – The Tagalog Baybayin script.
32. Cities of the Philippines – A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. As of December 12,2015, there are 145 cities, Cities are entitled to at least one representative in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. They are allowed to use a common seal, only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and with this city charter Congress confers on a city certain powers that regular municipalities or even other cities may not have. A citys local government is headed by an elected by popular vote. The vice mayor serves as the officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod. Upon receiving their charters, cities also receive a full complement of executive departments to serve their constituents. Some departments are established on a basis, depending on the needs of the city. Source, Local Government Code of 1991, Cities, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range from urban neighborhoods, to rural communities. Barangays are sometimes grouped into officially defined administrative districts, examples of such are the cities of Manila, Davao, Iloilo, and Samal. Some cities such as Caloocan, Manila and Pasay even have a level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units, there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels, rather they only serve to make city planning, statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient. Cities are classified according to annual income based on the previous four calendar years. There are currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines,16 of which are located in Metro Manila, Component Cities, Cities which do not meet the preceding requirements are deemed part of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located along the boundaries of two or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality, majority of the remaining cities are considered component cities. The five exceptions are listed below, independent Component Cities, Cities of this type have charters that explicitly prohibit their residents to vote for provincial officials. These cities are considered independent from the province in which they are geographically located, there are five such cities, Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc and Santiago. There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as highly urbanized or independent component cities. Some independent cities are still grouped with their provinces for the purposes of representation in the Congress of the PhilippinesCities of the Philippines – 1.
33. Medang Kingdom – The Medang or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries. It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java, established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty. During most of its history, the kingdom seems to rely heavily on agricultural pursuit, especially extensive rice farming, according to foreign sources and archaeological findings, the kingdom seems to be well populated and quite prosperous. The kingdom had developed a society, they had a well developed culture and had achieved a degree of sophistication. The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur, by 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and later of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. This has spurred the archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation, the history of Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is also part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava, and the classical Javanese civilisation. The native Javanese most often refer to their lands and country simply as Jawi, the only foreign source mentioning Medang was found from the Philippines inscription, dated 822 saka. There are no written records that have survived in Java except numbers of prasasti written on stones or copper plates. These inscriptions most often recorded the political and religious deeds of the rulers, nevertheless, some local legends and historical records, written on lontar — most often dated from later period — might also provides data and source to reconstruct the historical event. The kingdom is mentioned in the myth of Dewi Sri and also Aji Saka and this is probably the remnant of native Javanese vague collective memory of the existence of an ancient kingdom called Medang. Stone inscriptions, most common are mentioning about the foundation and funding of temples, which report on the political and religious deeds of the kings, or stating their lineage. The most notable are the Canggal, Kalasan, Shivagrha and Balitung charter, bas reliefs in a series of temple walls with depictions of life in the palace, village, temple, ship, marketplace and also the everyday lives of the population. The most notable are the bas reliefs found on Borobudur and Prambanan temple, native manuscripts, mentioning about the story of kings, their deeds and exploits, that somehow corrugated with accounts mentioned in stone inscriptions. The notable example is the Carita Parahyangan, reports and chronicles of foreign diplomats, traders and travellers, mainly from Chinese, Indian, and Arab sources. Initially, the kingdom was identified only through its location Yawadvipa as mentioned in Canggal inscription, the inscription mentioned Rakai Mataram Sang Ratu Sanjaya. This is based on the locations where numbers of candi were discovered in. The etymology of the name Mataram derived from a Sanskrit term for mother, the name Medang appear later in East Javanese inscriptions such as Anjukladang inscription and Minto Stone, Paradah inscription and some inscriptions discovered in Surabaya. As the result, historians tends to identify the Eastern Java period of this kingdom as Medang to differ it with its earlier Central Java period of MataramMedang Kingdom – A lithograph of Tjandi Sewoe ruins near Prambanan, circa 1859.
34. Manila galleon – The name of the galleon changed to reflect the city that the ship sailed from. The term Manila Galleons is also used to refer to the route between Acapulco and Manila, which lasted from 1565 to 1815. The Manila Galleons were also known in New Spain as La Nao de la China because it carried largely Chinese goods, the Manila Galleon trade route was inaugurated in 1565 after Augustinian friar and navigator Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Philippines to Mexico. The first successful round trips were made by Urdaneta and by Alonso de Arellano that year, the route lasted until 1815 when the Mexican War of Independence ended Spanish control of Mexican ports. The Manila galleons sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of goods, economic benefits. In 1521, a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan sailed west across the Pacific using the trade winds. The expedition discovered the Mariana Islands and the Philippines and claimed them for Spain, although Magellan died there, one of his ships made it back to Spain by continuing westward. In order to settle and trade with these islands from the Americas, the first ship to try this a few years later failed. In 1529, Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón also tried sailing east from the Philippines, in 1543, Bernardo de la Torre also failed. In 1542, however, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo helped pave the way by sailing north from Mexico to explore the Pacific coast, reaching as far north as the Russian River, just north of the 38th parallel. The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade finally began when Spanish navigators Alonso de Arellano, sailing as part of the expedition commanded by Miguel López de Legazpi to conquer the Philippines in 1565, Arellano and Urdaneta were given the task of finding a return route. Most of his crew died on the initial voyage, for which they had not sufficiently provisioned. Arellano, who had taken a more southerly route, had already arrived, the English privateer Francis Drake also reached the California coast, in 1579. After capturing a Spanish ship heading for Manila, Drake turned north and he failed in that regard, but staked an English claim somewhere on the northern California coast. Although the ships log and other records were lost, the location is now called Drakes Bay. The first motivation for land exploration of present-day California was to scout out possible way-stations for the seaworn Manila galleons on the last leg of their journey. Early proposals came to little, but in 1769, the Portola expedition established Alta California ports at San Diego and Monterey, providing safe harbors for returning Manila galleons. In Manila, the safety of ocean crossings was commended to the virgin Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga in masses held by the Archbishop of ManilaManila galleon – The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico in Intramuros, Manila.
35. British occupation of Manila – The British occupation was ended as part of the peace settlement of the Seven Years War. At the time, Britain and France were belligerents in what was called the Seven Years War. As the war progressed, the neutral Spanish government became concerned that the string of major French losses at the hands of the British were becoming a threat to Spanish interests. Britain first declared war against Spain on 4 January 1762, France successfully negotiated a treaty with Spain known as the Family Compact which was signed on 15 August 1761. By an ancillary secret convention, Spain became hurriedly committed to making preparations for war against Britain, Draper was commanding officer of the 79th Regiment of Foot, which was currently stationed in Madras, British India. There was also the expectation that the commerce of Spain would suffer a crippling blow, upon arriving in India, Drapers brevet rank became brigadier general. A secret committee of the East India Company agreed to provide a civil governor for the administration of the Islands, Manila was one of the most important trading cities in Asia during this period and the Company wanted to extend its influence over the Archipelago. On 24 September 1762, a British fleet of eight ships of the line, three frigates, and four ships with a force of 6,839 regulars, sailors and marines. The expedition, led by Brigadier-General William Draper and Rear-Admiral Samuel Cornish, captured Manila, the Spanish defeat was not really surprising. The Spanish Crown appointed the Mexican-born Archbishop of Manila Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra as temporary Lieutenant Governor, in part, because the garrison was commanded by the Archbishop, instead of by a military expert, many mistakes were made by the Spanish forces. On 5 October 1762, the night before the fall of the city of Manila. Several times the archbishop wished to capitulate, but was prevented, at dawn of 6 October, British forces attacked the breach and took the fortifications meeting with little resistance. During the siege, the Spanish military lost three officers, two sergeants,50 troops of the line, and 30 civilians of the militia, besides many wounded, among the natives there were 300 killed and 400 wounded. The besiegers suffered 147 killed and wounded, of whom 16 were officers, the fleet fired upon the city more than 5,000 bombs, and more than 20,000 balls. Once Manila fell to British troops, the soldiers turned to pillage, Rojo wrote that the sack actually lasted 30 hours or more, although he laid the blame on the domestics of the Spaniards, the Chinese and Filipinos, as much as upon the British soldiers. Although the captain-general objected at the end of the twenty-four hours and he himself killed with his own hands a soldier he found transgressing his orders, and had three hanged. The British had demanded a ransom of four million dollars from the Spanish government to which Archbishop Rojo now agreed to further destruction. On 2 November 1762, Dawsonne Drake of the British East India Company assumed office as the British Governor of Manila and he was assisted by a council of four, consisting of John L. Smith, Claud Russel, Henry Brooke and Samuel JohnsonBritish occupation of Manila
36. Spanish colonization of the Americas – The Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions and it is estimated that during the colonial period, a total of 18.6 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era. Spains loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas, the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created a single Spanish monarchy. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West. The funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile, in the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indiesas the monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories and he founded La Navidad on the island later named Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, in 1496 his brother, Bartholomew, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area. The local Taíno people continued to resist, refusing to plant crops, the first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, the Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién, the Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire which was the base for later conquests of other regions. Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than conquest of the Aztecs, but not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire was led by Hernán Cortés, the victory over the Aztecs was relatively quick, from 1519 to 1521, and aided by his Tlaxcala and other allies from indigenous city-states or altepetl. These polities allied against the Aztec empire, to which they paid tribute following conquest or threat of conquest, leaving the political hierarchy. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was a longer campaign, from 1551 to 1697, against the Maya peoples in the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico. When Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz and founded the Spanish city there on April 22,1519, Spain colonized and exerted control of Alta California through the Spanish missions in California until the Mexican secularization act of 1833. It was the first step in a campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. In the following years Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization, in the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes RegionSpanish colonization of the Americas – Spanish Conquest of Mexico, meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma II
37. Dutch Revolt – The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt, but later submitted to Spain. The religious clash of cultures built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, the first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, however, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged, the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, the continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial, intellectual, and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch imposed a blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns. The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence, the focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already de facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power, in a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500 and he was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French, Spanish, and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands, subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and León which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance, virtually all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s. Flanders had long been a wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had also grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the empire, Charles Vs empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, however, distributed throughout Europe, control and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empires borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars, further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, during the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities, by the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority thenDutch Revolt – Prince Maurice at the Battle of Nieuwpoort by Pauwels van Hillegaert. Oil on canvas.
38. Piracy in the Caribbean – The period during which pirates were most successful was from the 1660s to 1730s. Piracy flourished in the Caribbean because of the existence of pirate seaports such as Port Royal in Jamaica, Tortuga in Haiti, Pirates were often former sailors experienced in naval warfare. The buccaneers were later chased off their islands by colonial authorities and had to seek a new life at sea, beginning in the 16th century, pirate captains recruited seamen to loot European merchant ships, especially the Spanish treasure fleets sailing from the Caribbean to Europe. This officially sanctioned piracy was known as privateering, from 1520 to 1560, French privateers were alone in their fight against the Crown of Spain and the vast commerce of the Spanish Empire in the New World, but were later joined by the English and Dutch. The Caribbean had become a center of European trade and colonization after Columbus discovery of the New World for Spain in 1492. In the 1493 Treaty of Tordesillas the non-European world had been divided between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south line 270 leagues west of the Cape Verde and this gave Spain control of the Americas, a position the Spaniards later reiterated with an equally unenforceable papal bull. In the 16th century, the Spanish were mining extremely large quantities of silver from the mines of Zacatecas in New Spain, to combat this constant danger, in the 1560s the Spanish adopted a convoy system. A treasure fleet or flota would sail annually from Seville in Spain, carrying passengers, troops and this cargo, though profitable, was really just a form of ballast for the fleet as its true purpose was to transport the years worth of silver to Europe. This made the returning Spanish treasure fleet a tempting target, although pirates were more likely to shadow the fleet to attack stragglers than to engage the main vessels. South and west of these lines, respectively, no protection could be offered to non-Spanish ships, English, Dutch and French pirates and settlers moved into this region even in times of nominal peace with the Spanish. These laws allowed only Spanish merchants to trade with the colonists of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and this arrangement provoked constant smuggling against the Spanish trading laws and new attempts at Caribbean colonization in peacetime by England, France and the Netherlands. Whenever a war was declared in Europe between the Great Powers the result was always widespread piracy and privateering throughout the Caribbean, the Anglo-Spanish War in 1585–1604 was partly due to trade disputes in the New World. However, very profitable trade continued between Spains colonies, which continued to expand until the early 19th century, as Spains military might in Europe weakened, the Spanish trading laws in the New World were violated with greater frequency by the merchants of other nations. Additional problems came from shortage of supplies because of the lack of people to work farms. England especially began to turn its peoples maritime skills into the basis of commercial prosperity, as for the Dutch Netherlands, after decades of rebellion against Spain fueled by both Dutch nationalism and their staunch Protestantism, independence had been gained in all but name. The Netherlands had become Europes economic powerhouse, each possessed a large population and a self-sustaining economy, and was well-protected by Spanish defenders. By 1600, Porto Bello had replaced Nombre de Dios as the Isthmus of Panamas Caribbean port for the Spanish Silver Train and the annual treasure fleet. Veracruz, the port city open to trans-Atlantic trade in New SpainPiracy in the Caribbean – French pirate Jacques de Sores looting and burning Havana in 1555
39. Yaqui Wars – The Yaqui Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between New Spain, and the later Mexican republic, against the Yaqui Native Americans. The period began in 1533 and lasted until 1929, the Yaqui Wars, along with the Caste War against the Maya, were the last conflicts of the centuries long Mexican Indian Wars. Over the course of nearly 400 years, the Spanish and the Mexicans repeatedly launched military campaigns into Yaqui territory which resulted in several serious battles and some infamous massacres. The cause of the conflicts was like many of the Indian Wars in history, in 1684, following this, the Spanish gradually began settling on Yaqui land and by 1740, the natives were ready to resist. Some minor conflicts from before dated back to 1533 but in 1740 the Yaquis united their tribe with the neighboring Mayo, Opata, during the Mexican War of Independence from Spain the Yaqui did not participate on either side. It was when Occidente passed a law in 1825 making the Yaqui its citizens and subjecting them to taxes that the Yaqui decided to go to war, the first fighting was at Rahum. The movement was encouraged by Pedro Leyva, a Catholic priest, the Yaqui coalesced around Juan Banderas as their leader. Banderas managed to get the Mayos, Opatas and Pimas to join in the war against the Mexican government, Occidente was so affected by the war that the capital was moved from Cosala to Fuerte. In 1827 Banderas forces were defeated by Mexicans in the vicinity of Hermosillo and this defeat was partly due to the Yaquis having primarily bows and arrows, while the Mexicans had guns. After this defeat, Banderas negotiated a peace with Occidente, in which he was granted pardon, and recognized as captain-general of the Yaqui town, and was given a salary. In 1828 the office of captain-general was abolished, and Occidente government reasserted its right to tax the Yaqui, in 1832 Banderas renewed the war against the Mexican authorities, in cooperation with Dolores Gutiérrez, a chief of the Opata. In 1833 Banderas and Gutiérrez were executed after their forces were defeated in a battle near Buenavista, there were other leaders who continued resisting, so the wars continued. One incident in 1868 was a massacre by Mexican soldiers of about 120 Yaqui men, women and children, some 400 of the Yaqui prisoners were held inside a church which was then bombarded by artillery. Affairs such as this many of the natives to emigrate. Some warriors fled from their occupied pueblos along the Rio Yaqui, in 1834 Yaqui at Torim tried to drive the Mexican settlers from that location. The Mexican forces in this fighting were led by a Yaqui, Juscamea continued to cooperate with the Mexican government until 1840 when he was killed by anti-Mexican Yaquis in fighting at Horcasitas. During the 1830s and 1840s the Yaqui often allied with Manuel Gándara in his struggle against José de Urrea for control of Sonora, in 1838 this led to Urrea capturing the coastal salt deposits of the Yaqui and transferring them to state control. In 1857 Gándara was removed from power by Ignacio Pesqueira, the Yaqui under the leadership of Mateo Marquin, also known as Jose Maria Barquin, were among the chief allies of Gándara in his attempt to regain control of SonoraYaqui Wars – Uprising of the Yaqui Indians - Yaqui Warriors in Retreat, by Frederic Remington, 1896.
40. Chichimeca War – The Chichimeca War was a military conflict waged between Spanish colonizers and their Indian allies against a confederation of Chichimeca Indians. It was the longest and most expensive conflict between Spaniards and the peoples of New Spain in the history of the colony. The Chichimeca wars began eight years after the Mixtón War of 1540–42 and it can be considered as a continuation of the rebellion as the fighting did not come to a halt in the intervening years. Unlike in the Mixtón rebellion, the Caxcanes were now allied with the Spanish, the war was fought in the Bajío region known as La Gran Chichimeca, specifically in the Mexican states of Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, and San Luis Potosí. On September 8,1546 Indians near the Cerro de la Bufa in what would become the city of Zacatecas showed the Spaniard Juan de Tolosa several pieces of silver-rich ore, news of the silver strike soon spread across Spanish Mexico. The dream of quick wealth triggered multitudes of people to migrate from southern Mexico to the city of Zacatecas in the heartland of La Gran Chichimeca, soon the mines of San Martín, Chalchihuites, Avino, Sombrerete, Fresnillo, Mazapil, and Nieves were established. The Chichimeca nations resented the intrusions by the Spanish and their Indian laborers, disobeying the Viceroy, Spanish soldiers soon began raiding native settlements of both friendly and unfriendly Indians to acquire slaves for the mines. To supply and communicate with the mines in and near Zacatecas, new roads were built from Querétaro, the slow-moving caravans of carts and wagons full of goods along the roads were a tempting target for Chichimeca raiders. The Chichimecas were nomadic and semi-nomadic people who occupied the large desert basin stretching from present day Saltillo and Durango in the north to Querétaro, in favored areas some of the Chichimeca grew corn and other crops. Their numbers are difficult to estimate, although based on the density of nomadic populations they probably numbered 30,000 to 60,000. The Chichimecas lived in rancherias of crude shelters or caves, frequently moving from one area to another to take advantage of seasonal foods and hunting. The characteristics most noted about them by the Spanish was that women and men wore few if any clothes, grew their hair long, and painted and tattooed their bodies. They were often accused of cannibalism, the Chichimecas were not a single tribe or a united nation, but consisted or four different ethnic groups, Guachichiles, Pames, Guamares, and Zacatecos. None of these groups were united but rather consisted of many different independent tribes. Their territories overlapped and other Indian groups also joined one or another of the Chichimeca groups in raiding on occasion, the Guachichiles’ territory centered on the area around what would become the city of San Luis Potosí. They seem to have been the most numerous of the four ethnic groups and their name meant ‘head colored red” and they colored both their skin and clothing that color. Living in close proximity to the road between Querétaro and Zacatecas, they were the most feared of the Indian raiders. The Pames lived north of Querétaro and south and east of the Guachichiles and they were the least warlike and dangerous of the Chichimecas – primarily raiders of livestockChichimeca War – A statue of a Chichimeca warrior in the city of Querétaro
41. Philippine revolts against Spain – The Dagami Revolt was a revolt against Spanish colonial rule led by the Family Dagami, in the island of Leyte in the Philippines, in 1567. The Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt, also known as the Tagalog Revolt, was an uprising in 1574 against Spanish colonial rule led by Lakandula, the revolt occurred in the same year as the Chinese pirate Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly defended enclosure of Intramuros. When Governor General Lavezaris replaced Legaspi, he revoked their exemptions from paying tribute, Father Martin convinced Lakandula and Soliman to abort the revolt and promised to grant their privileges. Nevertheless, Solaiman continued his revolt which was crushed in 1574. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was foiled before it could begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and it was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao of Calamianes, the Cagayan and Dingras Revolts Against the Tribute occurred on Luzon in the present-day provinces of Cagayan and Ilocos Norte in 1589. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other Filipinos revolted against alleged abuses by the tax collectors and it began when six tax collectors who had arrived from Vigan were killed by the natives. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels, the rebels were eventually pardoned and the Philippine tax system reformed. The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led by Magalat and he had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging by some Dominican priests, together with his brother, he urged the entire country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities against his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against the Spaniards and he soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged. The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and they fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men, by order of the Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán an expedition was sent to the Cordillera region for religious conversion purposes with the aid of Padre Esteban Marin. Marin, the curate of Ilocos at that time, tried initially to convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to Catholicism, Marin allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in the Igorot dialect to advance this cause. The Igorots, however, killed Marin and the Governor-General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish, the revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region. The surviving Chinese fled to Wawa, or what is now known as Guagua, the Chinese inhabitants of Manila set fire to Legarda and Binondo and for a time threatened to capture the Moro stronghold in Intramuros. The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was an uprising in the island of BoholPhilippine revolts against Spain
42. Acaxee Rebellion – The Acaxee Rebellion was an insurrection against Spanish rule in Mexico by Acaxee Indians in 1601. Their territory was about 125 miles north to south and 50 miles east to west, the area was called Topia and Tepehuana by the Spaniards. The Acaxee and their neighbors shared common features of culture identified by scholar Susan M, an epidemic swept the region in 1576-1577, killing many thousands of Indians including possibly many Acaxee, and additional epidemics broke out in 1590 and 1596-1597. Thus, by the time of the rebellion the Acaxee probably numbered only a few thousand, furthermore, their capacity to resist the Spanish was adversely impacted by their endemic warfare with the Xixime to their south and the Tepehuan to the east. The Spanish discovered silver deposits in Acaxee territory in the 1580s, several hundred Spaniards, black and Indian slaves, and Indian laborers migrated into the Acaxee country. They needed additional labor to work in the mines, through the Encomienda system the Indians were forced to work in Spanish mines. However, the nature of the Acaxee settlements was a hindrance to utilizing Indian labor. Jesuit missionaries assisted in concentrating the Indians in larger settlements for easier exploitation, in the “Peace by Purchase” plan to resolve the Chichimeca War in 1590 the Spanish had recognized the utility of missionaries in the pacification of the northern frontiers of Nueva Espana. The Jesuits were relative newcomers to Mexico and the Indians of Sinaloa, in 1600, the missionary Hernando de Santarén toured the region with a local encomendero, Captain Diego de Avila. In return, the Spaniards promised to them from their enemies and provide tools, seeds. Indians who resisted the Spanish demands were beaten, an Indian leader named Perico initiated the rebellion in late 1601. Using a mixture of Spanish and Indian religious practices, he promised his followers that the Spanish could be exterminated, the rebellion was characterized by messianic leadership and promises of millennial redemption during a period of violent disruption and catastrophic demographic decline due to disease. The rebellion aimed “to restore pre-Columbian social and religious elements that had destroyed by the Spanish conquest. ”Indian attacks over the first few weeks killed about 50 Spaniards. The Acaxee burned Spanish mining camps and buildings, including 40 churches, the siege was raised when reinforcements arrived from Durango. The priest Santarén led a delegation but several members of his group were killed as were members of another delegation led by a bishop. The Acaxee took up positions in the mountains and shut down most silver mining. In 1603, the Spaniards gathered an army of encomenderos and Indian allies and suppressed the Acaxee, executing Perico and 48 of their leaders, defiance and Deference in Mexicos Colonial North, Indians Under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXAcaxee Rebellion – A map of Mexico showing the location of the Acaxee in Sinaloa and Durango states.
43. Pima Revolt – The revolt culminated from decades of low-level violence by the local Spanish settlers against Indians beginning in 1684. The period was characterized by local Indians gradual loss of autonomy, however, the colonial province of Sonora was characterized by a larger native population, and more frequent conflict between them and the Spaniards. The Pima Indian Revolt was directly preceded by the Seri Revolt of Seri Indians in Sonora, the initial act of rebellion was the massacre of 18 settlers lured to Oacpicagiguas home in Sáric. In the ensuing three months, Oacpicagigua and more than a hundred men attacked the mission at Tubutama, and other Spanish settlements. Oacpicagigua surrendered to Captain José Díaz del Carpio on March 18,1752 after a negotiated peace, when the Pima leaders laid the blame for the revolt on Jesuit missionaries they were pardoned by the colonial governor Ortiz Parrilla. Small scale conflict soon began again, however, and Oacpicagigua eventually died in a Spanish prison in 1755, tubac Through Four Centuries, An Historical Resume and Analysis. Pp. CHAPTER V, THE PIMA REVOLT OF1751Pima Revolt – A Spanish colonial map of Tubac from 1767, the site of the San Ignacio de Tubac Presidio, constructed as a result of conflicts with the Pima and other natives.
44. Habsburg Spain – Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries, when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg. The Habsburg rulers reached the zenith of their influence and power and this period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the Age of Expansion. The Habsburg years were also a Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence, in some cases, these individual kingdoms themselves were confederations, most notably, the Crown of Aragon. Isabella and Ferdinand were bestowed the title of Most Catholic Monarchs by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, the Habsburg period is formative of the notion of Spain in the sense that was institutionalized in the 18th century. Her husband Philip I was the Habsburg son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, shortly thereafter Joanna began to lapse into insanity, though how mentally ill she actually was the topic of some debate. In 1506, Philip I was declared jure uxoris king, but he died later that year under mysterious circumstances, possibly poisoned by his father-in-law, Ferdinand II. Since their oldest son Charles was only six, the Cortes reluctantly allowed Joannas father Ferdinand II to rule the country as the regent of Joanna, Spain was now in personal union under Ferdinand II of Aragon. He also attempted to enlarge Spains sphere of influence in Italy, as ruler of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and the Republic of Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. The war was less of a success than that against Venice, Ferdinand would die later that year. Ferdinands death led to the ascension of young Charles to the throne as Charles I of Castile and Aragon and his Spanish inheritance included all the Spanish possessions in the New World and around the Mediterranean. Upon the death of his Habsburg father in 1506, Charles had inherited the Netherlands and Franche-Comté, in 1519, with the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I, Charles inherited the Habsburg territories in Germany, and was duly elected as Holy Roman Emperor that year. At that point, Emperor and King Charles was the most powerful man in Christendom, the accumulation of so much power by one man and one dynasty greatly concerned Francis I of France, who found himself surrounded by Habsburg territories. In 1521 Francis invaded the Spanish possessions in Italy and Navarre, the war was a disaster for France, which suffered defeats at Biccoca, Pavia, and Landriano before Francis relented and abandoned Milan to Spain once more. Charless victory at the Battle of Pavia surprised many Italians and Germans, Pope Clement VII switched sides and now joined forces with France and prominent Italian states against the Habsburg Emperor, in the War of the League of Cognac. Henry VIII of England, who bore a grudge against France than he held against the Emperor for standing in the way of his divorce. Although the Spanish army was defeated at the Battle of Ceresole, in Savoy Henry fared better. The Austrians, led by Charless younger brother Ferdinand, continued to fight the Ottomans in the east, with France defeated, Charles went to take care of an older problem, the Schmalkaldic League. The Protestant Reformation had begun in Germany in 1517, the German Peasants War broke out in Germany in 1524 and ravaged the country until it was brutally put down in 1526, Charles, even as far away from Germany as he was, was committed to keeping orderHabsburg Spain – 1570 map of the Iberian peninsula
45. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy, Habsburg, and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was also elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious. France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and also by Adrian of Utrecht. He also gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horseCharles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charrles V by Titian, 1548. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
46. Joanna of Castile – Joanna of Castile, called the Mad, was queen of Castile from 1504 and of Aragon from 1516. From the union of two crowns modern Spain evolved. Joanna married Philip the Handsome on 20 October 1496, Philip was crowned King of Castile in 1506, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain. After Philips death that year, Joanna was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. Though she remained the legal queen of Castile throughout this time, her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, from 1517, her son, Charles, ruled as king, while she nominally remained co-monarch. Joanna was born in the city of Toledo, the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and she was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. Joanna was a clever and diligent child and an excellent student, Queen Isabella ensured that Joanna, along with her three sisters Isabella, Maria, and Catherine, received a fine education. Her academic education consisted of canon and civil law, genealogy and heraldry, grammar, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, reading, spelling, and writing. In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda, the respected educator Beatriz Galindo who was a member of the queens court, and her mother the queen. Joanna developed feminine accomplishments in court etiquette, dancing, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners, music, and the arts of embroidery, needlepoint. She excelled in all of the Iberian Romance languages, Castilian, Leonese, Galician-Portuguese, Joanna was given instruction in religious studies and she learned outdoor pursuits such as hawking and hunting. Praise was given to her for being a dancer and a talented musician, she played the clavichord, the guitar. As an infanta she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon and she had a fair complexion, blue eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and sister Catherine. Already in 1495 Joanna showed signs of religious skepticism and little devotion to worship and this alarmed her mother, who ordered it to be kept secret. English ambassadors at Valencia on 23 June 1505 attempted to give a description of her appearance according to fifteen criteria. In 1496, Joanna, at the age of sixteen, was betrothed to Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy, Philips parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. The marriage was one of a set of alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power. Joanna entered a marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of ValladolidJoanna of Castile – Portrait by Juan de Flandes, c. 1500
47. Philip III of Spain – Philip III of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his wife and niece Anna. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philips reliance on his chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. After Philip IIIs older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos condition had been the influence of the factions at the Spanish court. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga, then Prince Diegos governor, to continue this role for Philip and they were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, nonetheless, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive, cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue. Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – then, Lerma and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philips tutors. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence, the prince received a new, conservative Dominican confessor. The following year, Philip II died after an illness, leaving the empire to his son. Philip married his cousin, Margaret of Austria, in 1599, Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philips court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret continued to fight a battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an affectionate, close relationship with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605 and they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip steadily acquired other religious advisors, similarly Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margarets, was also criticised for her later influence over the Kings actions. The Spanish crown at the time ruled through a system of royal councils and these councils were then supplemented by small committees, or juntas, as necessary, such as the junta of the night through which Philip II exercised personal authority towards the end of his reign. As a matter of policy, Philip had tried to avoid appointing grandees to major positions of power within his government and relied heavily on the lesser nobles, the so-called service nobility. To his contemporaries, the degree of personal oversight he exercised was excessive, Philip first started to become engaged in practical government at the age of 15, when he joined Philip IIs private committeePhilip III of Spain – Philip III of Spain Philip II of Portugal
48. Enlightenment in Spain – The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spains Catholic identity, the Bourbon monarchs sought the expansion of scientific knowledge, which had been urged by Benedictine friar Benito Feijóo. From 1777 to 1816, the Spanish crown funded scientific expeditions to gather information about the potential wealth of the empire. Spanish scholars sought to understand the decline of the Spanish empire from its glory days. In Spanish America, the Enlightenment also had an impact in the intellectual and scientific sphere, the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula was enormously destabilizing for Spain and the Spanish overseas empire. The ideas of the Hispanic Enlightenment have been seen as a contributor to the Spanish American wars of independence. The French Bourbons had a claim on the Spanish throne following the 1700 death of the last Hapsburg monarch, Charles II. France won War of the Spanish Succession and the Bourbon monarchy was established in Spain, once it consolidated rule in Spain, the Bourbon monarchs embarked upon a series of reforms to revitalize the Spanish empire, which had significantly declined in power in the late Hapsburg era. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment had an impact in Spain. A cortes was convened in Cádiz, which ratified a constitution in 1812. Ferdinand VII claimed he supported the liberal constitutions, but once restored to power in 1814, he renounced it, New Spain and Peru were the exceptions, becoming independent in 1821 and 1824. Mexico briefly had a monarchy under royalist military officer turned insurgent Agustín de Iturbide, Spain was at the center of this political crisis, but it was the object not the arbiter. The vastness of the Spanish Empire in the New World, along with her naval resources, had made Spain a vital part of European power politics. If the throne of Spain was to go to a relative of the king of France, if it remained in the hands of another member of the anti-French, Austrian Habsburg dynasty, the status quo would remain. European politics during the century became dominated by establishing an orderly succession in Spain that would not alter the balance between Europes great powers. Castilian legitimists, who valued the succession of the closest heir of the king over the continuation of Habsburg rule, Spanish officials were also concerned with Spain remaining an independent country, rather than another part of the French or Austrian empires. Even so, on hearing the news that his grandson had become King of Spain, Louis XIV proclaimed, at age 17, Philip V arrived in Madrid in early 1701 without visible opposition. Philip confirmed the fueros of Catalunya and Aragon, and to all appearances the Bourbon succession was successful, the Austrian Hapsburg claimant to the Spanish throne, Archduke Charles of Austria, argued that he had been cheated out of the throne of Spain unfairlyEnlightenment in Spain – Prince Philip of Anjou, grandson of King Louis XIV of France, future King Philip V of Spain
49. Philip V of Spain – Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns,45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history and he was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by name until he became the king of Spain. Philip was tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, the three were also educated by Paul de Beauvilliers. In 1700 the King Charles II of Spain died childless and his will named the turning 17-year-old Philip, grandson of Charles half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV, as his successor. Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philips younger brother, Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philips grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and this was countered by the French branchs claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. After the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV did. Philip only later learned to speak Spanish, on 2 November 1701 the almost 18 year old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, by then an old man of 63. She was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, there was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, and another one at Versailles on 11 September. As queen of Spain, Maria Luisa proved very popular with her subjects and she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, in 1714, she died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband. The actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch, however, a second act of the French king justified a hostile interpretation, pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands. This was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the issues of the War of the League of Augsburg. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession began, inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of FrancePhilip V of Spain – Philip V
50. Louis I of Spain – Louis I was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months, born at Palacio del Buen Retiro, in Madrid as the eldest son of the reigning King Philip V of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. At birth he was the heir apparent but was not given the title of Prince of Asturias until April 1709. In 1714, when Louis was seven, his mother died, leaving him and his brothers, Infant Ferdinand, as a result, on 24 December 1714, the King of Spain, Louis father, married the young heiress to the Duchy of Parma, Elisabeth Farnese. As heir not only to the vast Spanish empire, but also to a new dynasty, it was decided that Louis would take a wife as soon as possible. On 20 January 1722, at Lerma, he met and married Louise Élisabeth dOrléans, the dowry of this marriage was an enormous 4 million livres. Louis ruled for a period between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favour and his death from smallpox. On his death, his father returned to the throne, Louis was buried in the Cripta Real del Monasterio de El Escorial part of the El Escorial complex. El reinado relámpago, Luis I y Luisa Isabel de Orleáns, reprinted as Luis I y Luisa Isabel de Orleans, el reinado relámpago. Luis I Spanish A royal suit of armor housed in The Met Museum made for him at age five by his great-grandfather, Louis XIV of FranceLouis I of Spain – Louis I
51. Charles IV of Spain – Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. Charles was the son of Charles III and his wife. He was born in Naples, while his father was King of Naples and his elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy. In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto and he was called El Cazador, due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been amiable, but simple-minded, in 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He intended to maintain the policies of his father, and retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Even though he had a belief in the sanctity of his office. The affairs of government were left to his wife, Maria Luisa, in 1792, political and personal enemies ousted Floridablanca from office, replacing him with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. Humboldts Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain was a key publication from his five-year travels, Godoy continued Arandas policy of neutrality towards France, but after Spain protested the execution of Louis XVI of France, the deposed king, in 1793, France declared war on Spain. After the declaration, Portugal and Spain signed a treaty of protection against France. In 1795 France forced Godoy to enter into an alliance, Spain remained an ally of France and supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar, when Spain became allied with Britain. However, after Napoleons victory over Prussia in 1807, Godoy again steered Spain back onto the French side and this switching of alliances devalued Charles position as a trustworthy ally, increasing Godoys unpopularity, and strengthening the fernandistas, who favoured an alliance with the United Kingdom. Economic troubles, rumours about a relationship between the Queen and Godoy, and the Kings ineptitude, caused the monarchy to decline in prestige among the population. Anxious to take over from his father, and jealous of the prime minister, riots, and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez, in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on 19 March, in favor of his son. Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon, the ousted King, having appealed to Napoleon for help in regaining his throne, was summoned before Napoleon in Bayonne, along with his son, in April 1808. Napoleon forced both Charles and his son to abdicate, declared the Bourbon dynasty of Spain deposed, and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King Joseph I of Spain. Following Napoleons deposing of the Bourbon dynasty, the ex-King, his wife, after the collapse of the regime installed by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. The former Charles IV drifted about Europe until 1812, when he settled in RomeCharles IV of Spain – Portrait of Charles IV by Goya
52. Ferdinand VII of Spain – Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain, in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired and to his detractors as the Felon King and he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers, under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low, historian Stanley Payne says, He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious, and vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth and he thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Charles IV of Spain, Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. The Queens confessor Fray Juan Almaraz wrote in his last will that she admitted in articulo mortis that none, none of her sons and daughters, none was of the legitimate marriage. In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent who was excluded from all share in government by his parents and their advisor and Prime Minister. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805, in October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents, following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand ascended the throne and turned to Napoleon for support and he abdicated on 6 May 1808. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Chateau of Valençay, while the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleons choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country, marking the beginning of the Peninsular War, provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king. After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, on 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, and negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain, the Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too closely to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the years a new world had been born of foreign invasion. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America, Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy he had relinquished six years earlier. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812, before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, but, only gave lukewarm indications he would do soFerdinand VII of Spain – Portrait by Vicente López y Portaña
53. Joseph Bonaparte – Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers, Joseph was born in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic. In the year of his birth, Corsica was invaded by France and his father was originally a follower of the Corsican Patriot leader, Pasquale Paoli, but later became a supporter of French rule. As a lawyer, politician, and diplomat, Joseph served in the Cinq-Cents and was the French ambassador to Rome and he married Marie Julie Clary daughter of François Clary on 1 August 1794 in Cuges-les-Pins, France. They had three daughters, Julie Joséphine Bonaparte, zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, married, in 1822 to Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte, married, in 1826 to Napoleon Louis Bonaparte and he claimed the two surviving daughters as his heirs. He also sired two children with Maria Giulia, the Countess of Atri, Giulio Teresa, Joseph had two American daughters born at Point Breeze, his estate in Bordentown, New Jersey, by his mistress, Annette Savage, Pauline Anne, died young. The Château de Villandry had been seized by the French Revolutionary government, in 1806, Joseph was given military command of Naples, and shortly afterward was made king by Napoleon, to be replaced two years later by his sisters husband, Joachim Murat. Joseph was then made King of Spain in August 1808, soon after the French invasion, Joseph somewhat reluctantly left Naples, where he was popular, and arrived in Spain where he was extremely unpopular. His arrival sparked the legitimate Spanish revolt against French rule, Joseph temporarily retreated with much of the French Army to northern Spain. Joseph and his supporters never established complete control over the country, King Josephs Spanish supporters were called josefinos or afrancesados. During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition, partly because Napoleon was at odds with Pope Pius VII at the time, during Josephs rule of Spain, Mexico and Venezuela declared independence from Spain. King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after the main French forces were defeated by a British-led coalition at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. He was seen by Bonapartists as the rightful Emperor of the French after the death of Napoleons own son Napoleon II in 1832, Josephs home was located near the confluence of Crosswicks Creek and the Delaware River. He considerably expanded Sayres home and created extensive gardens in the picturesque style, when his first home was destroyed by fire in January 1820 he converted his stables into a second grand house. At Point Breeze, Joseph entertained many of the leading intellectuals, reputedly some Mexican revolutionaries offered to crown him Emperor of Mexico in 1820, but he declined. Joseph Bonaparte returned to Europe, where he died in Florence, Italy, Joseph Bonaparte was admitted in Marseilles lodge la Parfaite Sincérité in 1793. He was asked by his brother Napoleon to monitor freemasonry as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, with Cambacérès he managed the post-revolution rebirth of the Order in FranceJoseph Bonaparte – Portrait of King Joseph I.
54. Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara – The Real Audiencia of Guadalajara, was the highest tribunal of the Spanish crown in what is today northern Mexico and the southwestern United States in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was created by decree on February 13,1548. Its president was the political and executive officer of the district. And we order that this law of ours be kept, as it is in it contained, and in regards to the government of war and the treasury, the orders, the Audiencia of New Galicia in the Sixteenth Century, A Study in Spanish Colonial GovernmentRoyal Audiencia of Guadalajara – Colonization
55. Real Audiencia of Manila – The Real Audiencia de Manila was the Real Audiencia of the Spanish East Indies, which included the modern-day Guam and the Philippines. Similar to Real Audiencias throughout the Spanish Empire, it was the highest tribunal within the territories of the Captaincy General of the Philippines, a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. When the Real Audiencia of Manila was established, a system already existed that was similar to the judicial. The Royal Audience of Manila was created by Royal Decree by King Felipe II dated 5 May 1583, Governor-General Francisco Tello de Guzmán reestablished it in 1596. Most of the dealing with the establishment of all 16th and 17th century Audiencias can be found in the Recopilación de Leyes de los Reynos de las Indias issued in 1680. The Audiencia was given supervision over the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the Audiencia was directed to exercise care that the said Indians shall be better treated and instructed in our Holy Catholic Faith, as our free vassals. This was in conformance with the requirement to exercise care in suits involving the local population, respecting their rites, customs. The Audienciawas to devote two days a week to hearing suits to which Indians were parties, although it was commanded not to interfere with governors of provinces, it had the right, when charges had been made by private individuals, to conduct investigations on government officials. The Governor-General himself was forbidden to authorize extraordinary expenditures from the treasury without express royal permission, the president of the Audiencia was empowered to delegate on the to investigate about the correct administration of government and justice in the provinces. They were to note the state of the towns and their needs, on these trips the Oidores were authorized to take such action as they deemed to be necessary. Oidores were forbidden to any fees from or to act as advocates for any private person. Oidores were also forbidden to engage in business, either singly or in partnership, any person could bring suit against an Oidor. The Audiencia was forbidden to act alone in the selection of the Judges, no relative of the President or of an Oidor could be appointed legally to a government post. Criminal charges against the oidores were to be tried by the Governor-General, among the most frequently complaints made against the Governor-General and his military subordinates was their abuse of power. In order to all military personnel accountable for their actions a Juicio de Residencia was held at the end of their terms. If he was guilty of official misconduct, dishonesty or any other crimes, he was apprehended, degraded. Edward Gaylord Bourne described the process as extremely harsh, It was designed to provide a method by which officials could be held to strict accountability for all, acts during their term of office. To allow a contest in the courts involving the governor s powers during his term of office would be subversive of his authorityReal Audiencia of Manila – Colonization
56. Chiapas – Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas, is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 122 municipalities and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez, other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, Tapachula, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south, in general, Chiapas has a humid, tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, in the past, natural vegetation at this region was lowland, tall perennial rainforest, but this vegetation has been destroyed almost completely to give way to agriculture and ranching. Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak and it is also home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions. The last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people, the official name of the state is Chiapas. The name derives from Chiapan or Tepechiapan, the name of an indigenous population, the term, from Nahuatl, may mean sage seed hill or water below the hill. After the Spanish arrived, they established two cities called Chiapas de los Indios and Chiapas de los Españoles, with the name of Provincia de Chiapas for the area around the cities, the first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the coat of arms. Hunter gatherers began to occupy the valley of the state around 7000 BCE. The oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools, in the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north. One of these peoples ancient cities is now the site of Chiapa de Corzo. This is three hundred years before the Mayans developed their calendar, the descendants of Mokaya are the Mixe-Zoque. During the pre Classic era, it is known that most of Chiapas was not Olmec, olmec-influenced sculpture can be found in Chiapas and products from the state including amber, magnetite, and ilmenite were exported to Olmec lands. The Olmecs came to what is now the northwest of the looking for amber with one of the main evidences for this called the Simojovel AxChiapas – Jaguar sculpture from Cintalapa dating between 1000 to 400 BCE on display at the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Chiapas.
57. Guadalajara – Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,495,189 it is Mexicos fourth most populous municipality, the municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. It is a business and economic center in the Bajio region. Guadalajara is the 10th largest city in Latin America in population, urban area, the city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, the name of which came from the Andalusian Arabic wād l-ḥijāra, meaning river/valley of stones. Other, more industries, such as shoes, textiles. Guadalajara, one of the most popular clubs in Mexico. This city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005, Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games. The city was established in five other places before moving to its current location, the first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Nochistlán, Zacatecas. This site was settled by Cristóbal de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán, with the purpose of securing recent conquests, the settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water, in 1533 it was moved to a location near Tonalá. Four years later, Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán, while the settlement was in Tlacotán, the Spanish king Charles I granted the coat of arms that the city still has today. This settlement was attacked during the Mixtón War in 1543 by Caxcan, Portecuex. The war was initiated by the due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements. The conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians such as freeing the Indian slaves, the village of Guadalajara barely survived the war, and the villagers attributed their survival to the Archangel Michael, who remains the patron of the city. It was decided to move the city again, this time to Atemajac. The city has remained there to this day, in 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara and, in the same year, the status of city was granted by the king of Spain. Guadalajara was officially founded on February 14,1550 in the Valley of Atemajac, the settlements name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de GuzmánGuadalajara
58. Zacatecas – Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City, Zacatecas is located in North-Central Mexico. The state is best known for its deposits of silver and other minerals, its colonial architecture. Its main economic activities are mining, agriculture and tourism, Zacatecas is located in the center-north of Mexico, and covers an area of 75, 284km2, the tenth largest state in the country. It borders the states of Jalisco, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí, Coahuila and Durango and is divided into fifty eight municipalities and 4,882, towns, cities and other communities. The state has an altitude of 2230 meters above sea level. The state has three geographical regions, the Sierra Madre Occidental in the west, the Mexican Plateau. Most of it is in the Sierra Madre Occidental with highly rugged with peaks of over 2,500 meters above sea level, the mountains of the southeast and northeast are lower but there large valleys such as the Juchipila and Tlaltenango. Most of the territory has only small mesas and other areas of flat land, in the center of the state, there is a small mountain chain called the Sierra de Fresnillo, from which much of the state’s mineral wealth comes from. In the extreme northwest, there is another important mountain chain called the Sierra de Sombrerete, marked by a mountain called Sombreretillo, near this chain is another called the Sierra de Órganos. No major rivers run through the state and most of the run only during the rainy season. The state belongs to two basins, the south east of the state belongs to the Lerma River basin, which eventually empties in the Pacific Ocean. Rivers belonging to this include the San Pedro, Juchipila, Jerez. The other basin is smaller and endorheic, and does not empty into any ocean, the state has eighty dams with a total capacity of 595,337 million cubic meters. The largest of these are the Leobardo Reynoso in Fresnillo, Miguel Aleman in Tlaltenango, much of the state’s water is underground divided into twenty hydraulic zones. These are accesses with over 5,800 wells mostly for agricultural use, most of the territory has a cool, dry climate, although areas in the south have more moisture, with most rain falling between June and September. The driest and coldest areas are in the northeast, known as the Salado because of its saltwater lakes, 75% of the state is arid or semi arid. 14% is arable and 79% is apt for the grazing of livestock, the average annual temperature is 16C with most of the state being temperateZacatecas – Sombreretillo Mountain in the northwest
59. Puebla – Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital city is Puebla and it is located in East-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the north and east, Hidalgo, México, Tlaxcala and Morelos to the west, and Guerrero and Oaxaca to the south. The origins of the lie in the city of Puebla. By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a province with its own governor. It is home to five major groups, Nahuas, the Totonacs, the Mixtecs, the Popolocas and the Otomi, which can mostly be found in the far north. The state is located on the highlands of Mexico between the Sierra Nevada and the Sierra Madre Oriental. It has a triangular shape with its narrow part to the north. It borders the states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Morelos, State of Mexico, Tlaxcala, the state has a territory of 33, 919km2 and ranks 20th out of 31 states in size, and 4,930 named communities. Most of its mountains belong to the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, some of the highest elevations include Apulco, Chichat, Chignahuapan, Soltepec and Tlatlaquitepec. In the south of the state, the elevations are the Sierra de Atenahuacán, Zapotitlán, Lomerio al Suroeste. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo. The Huasteco Plateau and the Llanuras y Lomeríos zone are located in the north and northeast, with the Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuc in the center, together, they account for over 50% of the state. The east and northeast are occupies by the Chiconquiaco and Llanudras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo areas, the Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the west and southwest covering less than 2. 5% of the state. The Sur de Puebla is in the southwest and accounts for 26% of the state, other southern subregions include the Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, the Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and the Sierras Orientales. Together, they account for about 15% of the state, the hydrology of Puebla is formed by three major river systems. This river receives water from tributaries such as the Acateno, Atila, Amacuzac, Molinos. The river has one dam called Valsequllo or Manuel Avila CamachoPuebla – Lake and mountains in Necaxa
60. Oaxaca – Oaxaca, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed by the system of Usos y costumbres with recognized forms of self governance. Its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez, Oaxaca is located in Southwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, to the south, Oaxaca has a significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean. The state is best known for its indigenous peoples and cultures, the most numerous and best known are the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, but there are sixteen that are officially recognized. These cultures have survived better than most others in Mexico due to the states rugged, most live in the Central Valleys region, which is also an important area for tourism, attracting people for its archeological sites such as Monte Albán, native culture and crafts. Another important tourist area is the coast, which has the major resort of Huatulco, Oaxaca is also one of the most biologically diverse states in Mexico, ranking in the top three, along with Chiapas and Veracruz, for numbers of reptiles, amphibians, mammals and plants. The name of the state comes from the name of its capital city and this name comes from the Nahuatl word Huaxyacac, which refers to a tree called a guaje found around the capital city. The name was applied to the Valley of Oaxaca by Nahuatl-speaking Aztecs. The modern state was created in 1824, and the seal was designed by Alfredo Canseco Feraud. Nahuatl word Huaxyacac was transliterated as Oaxaca using Medieval Spanish orthography, in which the x represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative, however, during the sixteenth century the voiceless fricative sound evolved into a voiceless velar fricative, and Oaxaca began to be pronounced. Most of what is known about pre-historic Oaxaca comes from work in the Central Valleys region, evidence of human habitation dating back to about 11,000 years BC has been found in the Guilá Naquitz cave near the town of Mitla. More finds of nomadic peoples date back to about 5000 BC, by 2000 BC, agriculture had been established in the Central Valleys region of the state, with sedentary villages. The diet developed around this time would remain until the Spanish Conquest, consisting primarily of harvested corn, beans, chocolate, tomatoes, chili peppers, squash, meat was generally hunted and included tepescuintle, turkey, deer, peccary, armadillo and iguana. The oldest known settlements, such as Yanhuitlán and Laguna Zope are located in this area as well. The latter settlement is known for its small figures called pretty women or baby face, between 1200 and 900 BC, pottery was being produced in the area as well. This pottery has been linked with work done in La Victoria. Other important settlements from the time period include Tierras Largas, San José Mogote and GuadalupeOaxaca – Effigy Head Brazier (500 BC-200 BC)
61. Sonora – Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities, the city is Hermosillo. Sonora is located in Northwest Mexico, bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U. S. –Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California. Sonoras natural geography is divided into three parts, the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state, plains and rolling hills in the center, and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation, Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, the Yaqui, and Seri. It has been important for its agriculture, livestock, and mining since the colonial period. With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory, from the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico. Several theories exist as to the origin of the name Sonora and they encountered the Opata, who could not pronounce Señora, instead saying Senora or Sonora. A third theory, written by Father Cristóbal de Cañas in 1730, states that the name comes from the word for a water well, sonot. The first record of the name Sonora comes from explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, Francisco de Ibarra also traveled through the area in 1567 and referred to the Valles de Señora. Evidence of human existence in the dates back over 10,000 years. The first humans were hunter gatherers who used tools made from stones, seashells. During much of the period, the environmental conditions were less severe than they are today, with similar. The oldest Clovis culture site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora and it was discovered during a 2007 survey. It features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP, in 2011, remains of Gomphothere were found, the evidence suggests that humans did in fact kill two of them here. Agriculture first appeared around 400 BCE and 200 CE in the river valleys, the lowland central coast, however, seems never truly to have adopted agriculture. Because Sonora and much of the northwest does not share many of the traits of that areaSonora – Cajemé, Yaqui resistance leader
62. Treaty of Tordesillas – This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage, named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia. The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile, the treaty was signed by Spain,2 July 1494 and by Portugal,5 September 1494. Originals of both treaties are kept at the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo in Portugal. This treaty would be observed fairly well by Spain and Portugal, despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World, however and those countries generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation. The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to solve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus and his crew, on his way back to Spain he first reached Lisbon, in Portugal. There he asked for another meeting with King John II to show him the newly discovered lands, also, the Portuguese King stated that he was already making arrangements for a fleet to depart shortly and take possession of the new lands. After reading the letter the Catholic Monarchs knew they did not have any power in the Atlantic to match the Portuguese. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were east of the line. The Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land—it prevented him from possessing India, by 1493 Portuguese explorers had reached the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the islands encountered by Columbus, the treaty effectively countered the bulls of Alexander VI but was subsequently sanctioned by Pope Julius II by means of the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis of 24 January 1506. Even though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the line the Papal Line of Demarcation. Very little of the divided area had actually been seen by Europeans. Castile gained lands including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven wealth, the easternmost part of current Brazil was granted to Portugal when in 1500 Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there while he was en route to India. Some historians contend that the Portuguese already knew of the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil before this time, the line was not strictly enforced—the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. However, the Catholic Monarchs attempted to stop the Portuguese advance in Asia, by claiming the meridian line ran around the world, Portugal pushed back, seeking another papal pronouncement that limited the line of demarcation to the Atlantic. This was given by Pope Leo X, who was friendly toward Portugal and its discoveries, for a period between 1580 and 1640, the treaty was rendered meaningless, as the Spanish King was also King of Portugal. It was superseded by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid which granted Portugal control of the lands it occupied in South America, however, the latter treaty was immediately repudiated by the Catholic Monarch. The First Treaty of San Ildefonso settled the problem, with Spain acquiring territories east of the Uruguay River, the Treaty of Tordesillas only specified the line of demarcation in leagues from the Cape Verde IslandsTreaty of Tordesillas – Front page of the Portuguese-owned treaty
63. Treaty of Ryswick – The Treaty of Ryswick, or Ryswyck, was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick in the Dutch Republic. The treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces. Under the terms of the treaty, France renounced some recent territorial gains, the French representatives had their headquarters at The Hague, and the allies were based in Delft, the conference taking place in between the two towns in the Huis ter Nieuwburg, Ryswick. Soon, Spain gave way, and on 20 September a treaty of peace was signed between France and the three powers, England, Spain and the United Provinces. William then persuaded Leopold to make peace, and a treaty between France and the Holy Roman Empire was signed on the following 30 October, the basis of the peace was that all towns and districts seized since the Treaty of Nijmegen should be restored. France surrendered Freiburg, Breisach, and Philippsburg to the Holy Roman Empire, on the other hand, France regained Pondichéry, as well as Acadia, and Spain recovered Catalonia and the barrier fortresses of Mons, Luxembourg, and Kortrijk. The War of the Grand Alliance also played out in North America, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, along with their Native allies, fought the northern English colonies and their Native allies. Still, the Treaty of Ryswick returned the territorial borders to where they had been before the war, the Iroquois nation, deserted by the English allies, continued to make war on the French colonies until the Great Peace of Montreal of 1701. Needle of Rijswijk Peace of Basel 1795 — Hispaniola Barrier Treaty Treaty of Utrecht Treaty of Ryswick and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Treaty Of Ryswick. History of European Diplomacy, 1451–1789324 pages online pp 141-54, eccles, W. J. Canada Under Louis XIVTreaty of Ryswick – Huis ter Nieuwburg, where the Treaty was negotiated
64. Congress of Breda – They were designed to bring an end to the Austrian War of Succession and laid the foundations for the ultimate peace settlement at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. They were not official peace talks and lacked the participation of the other warring European states, the War of the Austrian Succession had been raging since 1740 in one form or another, but Britain and France formally went to war with each other only in 1744. There was a strong faction in Britain, which grew in strength after a number of military setbacks. Equally, France had those who advocated peace because the war was draining French resources, talks were arranged and agreed to be held by representatives of the two states in the Dutch Republic, which was, in practice, allied to Britain but officially neutral. The British were represented by Lord Sandwich and the French by the Marquis de Puisieulx. Sandwich and the British delegation set up their headquarters in the pavilion of Breda Castle which was lent to them by their ally, William IV, Prince of Orange for the duration of the talks. Their instructions from the Duke of Newcastle were to prolong the talks until a significant British victory on the battlefield allowed them to negotiate from a position of strength. Although the French entered the following a string of victories, they had been beset by a financial crisis. The discussions convened in August 1746, almost immediately they started to flounder, as it became apparent to both sides that the other was holding something back. France wanted to negotiate a treaty there and then, on behalf of their respective coalitions, the British also rejected a French proposal to declare the Low Countries as neutral territory ending the war there because they believed they would need the Dutch as allies in future conflicts. Unsatisfied by his performance, the French had recalled Puyzieulx and replaced him, Sandwich stalled the talks for some time by demanding his replacement to prove his accreditation. There were further delays when a Spanish delegate turned up, claiming to have authority to represent the King of Spain, the British were constantly aware of the French negotiating strategy, as letters to the French delegates were intercepted and copied by postmasters in British pay. While there, Sandwich was appointed British Ambassador to the Dutch Republic and he was instrumental in a coup, which helped the Prince of Orange take power in the Netherlands, a move designed to boost the anti-French coalition in Flanders. Still, by 1747, the Allied war situation had grown more grave following defeats at Lauffeld and Bergen op Zoom, France would withdraw from the Low Countries, and Prussian control over Silesia would be recognised. To do so, a congress at Aix-la-Chapelle was arranged. The peace was concluded with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 in which all parties participated although the terms had already been agreed in advance by Britain. The terms proved deeply unsatisfactory to Maria Theresa of Austria who was outraged that Austria had lost Silesia, in the long run, that contributed to the breakdown of the Anglo-Austrian Alliance. Sandwich was rewarded for his role at the Congress by being made First Lord of the Admiralty, Newcastle and he were attacked by the Opposition for giving up Louisbourg, Britains only significant gain in the war, to FranceCongress of Breda – Breda Castle where some of the talks were held.
65. Treaty of Paris (1783) – The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire and the United States, on lines exceedingly generous to the latter. Details included fishing rights and restoration of property and prisoners of war, only Article 1 of the treaty, which is the legal underpinning of United States existence as a sovereign country, remains in force. Peace negotiations began in April 1782, and continued through the summer, representing the United States were Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and John Adams. David Hartley and Richard Oswald represented Great Britain, the treaty was signed at the Hotel dYork in Paris on September 3,1783, by Adams, Franklin, Jay, and Hartley. Regarding the American Treaty, the key episodes came in September,1782, France was exhausted by the war, and everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it could capture Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar, the United States would gain its independence but be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain would take the north of the Ohio River. In the area south of that would be set up an independent Indian state under Spanish control and it would be an Indian barrier state. However, the Americans realized that they could get a deal directly from London. John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France, the British Prime Minister Lord Shelburne agreed. He was in charge of the British negotiations and he now saw a chance to split the United States away from France. The western terms were that the United States would gain all of the area east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, the northern boundary would be almost the same as today. The United States would gain fishing rights off Canadian coasts, and it was a highly favorable treaty for the United States, and deliberately so from the British point of view. Prime Minister Shelburne foresaw highly profitable trade between Britain and the rapidly growing United States, as indeed came to pass. Great Britain also signed agreements with France and Spain. In the treaty with Spain, the territories of East and West Florida were ceded to Spain, Spain also received the island of Minorca, the Bahama Islands, Grenada, and Montserrat, captured by the French and Spanish, were returned to Britain. The treaty with France was mostly about exchanges of captured territory, the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14,1784. Copies were sent back to Europe for ratification by the parties involvedTreaty of Paris (1783) – Benjamin West 's painting of the delegations at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.
66. History of Mexico City – At its height, Tenochtitlan had enormous temples and palaces, a huge ceremonial center, residences of political, religious, military, and merchants. Its population was estimated at least 100,000 and perhaps as high as 200,000 in 1519 when the Spaniards first saw it, during the final stage of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan was besieged and essentially razed. Some of the oldest structures in Mexico City date from the early conquest era, many colonial-era buildings remain standing and have been re-purposed government buildings and museums. It was where the merchant houses were located and the economic elites of the country lived. It was also an educational center, with the University of Mexico founded in 1553 as part of the complex of the Plaza Mayor. Many religious institutions for the education of the sons of Spanish elites were also based in the capital, Mexico City had the colonys largest concentration of those of Spanish heritage, as well as the largest concentration of mixed race casta population in the colony. Many Indians also lived outside the center of the capital, following independence in 1821 to the current era, Mexico City remains the countrys largest and most important city. Post-independence, Mexico City was captured by U. S. forces during the Mexican–American War and saw violence during the Reform War, at the beginning of the 20th century, the citys population stood at about 500,000. The citys history in the 20th and 21st centuries has been marked by population growth. And the government has had problems keeping up with basic services, smog became a serious problem as the shanty towns evolved, formed by the poor of the country migrating to the city. Since the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, which caused significant damage to the center of the city, in the 2000s, businessman and philanthropist Carlos Slim created a foundation to revitalize the historic center as well as sites near the Basilica of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The Aztecs were one of the last of the Nahuatl-speaking peoples who migrated to part of the Valley of Mexico after the fall of the Toltec Empire. Their presence was resisted by the peoples who were already there, the Aztecs themselves had a story about how their city was founded after being led to the island by their principal god, Huitzilopochtli. According to the story, the god indicated their new home with a sign, between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states or altepetl around Lake Texcoco, and in the Valley of Mexico. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire reached much of Mesoamerica, there are two overlapping narratives about the founding to the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, which would become modern Mexico City. The first is told by the archeological and historic record, and the second comes from the Mexica themselves, the central highlands of what is now Mexico were occupied for many centuries before the founding of the city. To the northeast are the ruins of Teotihuacan, whose empire, after that, the Toltecs ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico until about 1200 CE. After the fall of the Toltec capital of Tollan, large migrations of people moved into the Valley of Mexico and this led to the founding of a number of semi-autonomous urban centers around Lake Texcoco each claiming legitimacy as descendants of the ToltecsHistory of Mexico City – Foundation of Mexico City by José María Jara
67. Puebla City – A colonial era-planned city, it is located southeast of Mexico City and west of Mexicos main Atlantic port, Veracruz, on the main route between the two in Central Mexico. The city was founded in 1531 in an area called Cuetlaxcoapan and this valley was not populated in the 16th century as in the pre-Hispanic period, this area was primarily used to the flower wars between a number of populations. Due to its history and architectural styles ranging from Renaissance to Mexican Baroque, the city is also famous for mole poblano, chiles en nogada and Talavera pottery. However, most of its economy is based on industry, many students come from all over the country to study in its many renowned and prestigious colleges like BUAP, UDLAP, Ibero, UPAEP, Tecnologico de Monterrey, etc. As a result, many suppliers to Volkswagen and Audi assembly plants have opened factories in the area of Puebla. According to legend, the bishop had a dream about where to build the city, in this dream, he saw a valley with woods and meadows crossed by a clear river and dotted with fresh-water springs on fertile land. While he was contemplating this scenery, he saw a group of angels descend from heaven. Convinced he had seen a vision, he celebrated Mass. Five leagues from the monastery he declared they had found the place shown in the dream and this legend is the source of Puebla’s original name, Puebla de los Ángeles, and its current nickname Angelópolis. The citys coat of arms refers to a city which is protected by one by side. Carlos I King of Spain, he accepted the construction between Mexico City and Veracruz, below are 7 rivers which cross the city. The coat has a heart form Forma corazonada The city was founded in 1531 the Valley of Cuetlaxcoapan as a Spanish city, not on the foundation of an existing indigenous city-state. Official date of foundation is 16 April 1531, however, this first attempt at settlement failed due to constant flooding of the right next to the river. Several rivers flow through the Valley of Puebla, the San Francisco, Atoyac and this valley was bordered by the indigenous city-states turned colonial towns of Cholula, Tlaxcala, Huejotzingo and Tepeaca, all of which had large indigenous populations. After the city’s foundation, this became the main route between Mexico City and Veracruz, the port on the Caribbean coast and the connection to Spain. It supplied the capital with commercially grown agricultural products and became a center of textile production. It was well connected to Mexicos North, particularly the region around Zacatecas. Most of the population moved away from the west bank of the San Francisco River to a higher site, a few families remained behind and renamed the original settlement Alto de San FranciscoPuebla City – Puebla Puebla
68. Cuernavaca – Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. It was established by the Olmec, the culture of Mesoamerica. The city is located south of Mexico City, from which it may be reached after a drive of approximately 1½ hours using the D-95 Freeway, the city was nicknamed the City of Eternal Spring by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. It has long been an escape for Mexico City and foreign visitors because of this warm, stable climate. Aztec emperors had summer residences there, and today many people as well as Mexico City residents maintain homes there. Cuernavaca is also host to a foreign resident population, including large numbers of students who come to study the Spanish language. The name Cuernavaca is derived from the Nahuatl phrase Cuauhnāhuac and means surrounded by or close to trees, the name eventually was Hispanicized to Cuernavaca. The coat-of-arms of the municipality is based on the pre-Columbian pictograph emblem of the city depicts a tree trunk with three branches, with foliage, and four roots colored red. There is a cut in the trunk in the form of a mouth, from which emerges a speech scroll, probably representing the language Nahuatl and by extension the locative suffix -nāhuac, Cuernavaca was nicknamed city of eternal spring by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. The city is located in a region, but its temperature is kept fairly constant in the 70s. It is located on the slope of the Sierra de Chichinautzin mountains. In the morning, warm air flows up the mountains from the valley below and in the late afternoon, a ubiquitous flowering plant in the city is the bougainvillea. This pleasant climate has attracted royalty and nobles since Aztec times, most of the Aztec emperors called Cuernavaca their summer residence. Foreign princes, archdukes, and other nobles have been attracted to this place because of its flowers, sun, fruits, fresh-water springs, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico set up a country residence in the city. Philanthropist Barbara Hutton, who held several royal titles through marriage, had a home in the city, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, lived in exile in the city following the Iranian Revolution. Although a native of the U. S. Cuernavaca always has been a place for people from Mexico City to escape the city. In the twentieth century, the climate and flora began to attract foreigners as well. Population increase in urban area began in 1940, but the metro area was not created, nor recognizedCuernavaca
69. Oaxaca City – The city and municipality of Oaxaca de Juárez, or simply Oaxaca, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of the same name. It is located in the Centro District in the Central Valleys region of the state and this city relies heavily on tourism, which is based on its large number of colonial-era structures as well as the native Zapotec and Mixtec cultures and archeological sites. It, along with the site of Monte Albán, were named a World Heritage Site in 1987. It is also the home of the cultural festival called the Guelaguetza, which features Oaxacan dance from the seven regions, music. It is nicknamed la Verde Antequera due to its prior name, the coat of arms for the municipality bears the image of the decapitated Donaji, who was an indigenous princess in the years immediately after the Conquest. The Aztecs entered the valley in 1440 and named it Huaxyacac, when the Spanish arrived in 1521, the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs were involved in one of their many wars. Spanish conquest would end this fighting, the first Spanish expedition here arrived late in 1521, headed by Captain Francisco de Orozco, and accompanied by 400 Aztecs. Hernán Cortés sent Francisco de Orozco to Oaxaca because Moctezuma II said that the Aztecs gold came from there, the Spanish expedition under Orozco set about building a Spanish city where the Aztec military post was at the base of the Cerro de Fortín. The first mass was said here by Chaplain Juan Díaz on the bank of the Atoyac River under a large huaje tree and this group of Spaniards chose their first mayor, Gutierres de Badajoc, their first town council and began construction of the cathedral of Oaxaca in 1522. Their name for the settlement was Guajaca, a Hispanization of the Nahuatl name, the establishment of the relatively independent village did not suit Hernán Cortes, who wanted power over the entire region for himself. Cortés sent Pedro de Alvarado, who proceeded to drive out most of the villages population, the original Spanish settlers appealed to the Spanish crown to recognize the village they founded, which it did in 1526, with land divided among the Spaniards of Orozcos expedition. However, this did not stop Cortés from driving out the population of the once again. Once again, the founders appealed to Spanish royal authority. This viceroy also sided with the founders, and the town was refounded in 1529 as Antequera. Francisco de Herrera convened the new, Crown-approved town council, in the meantime, Cortés was able to obtain from the crown the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, which contains the disputed village. This permitted him to tax the area heavily, and to have control of the territory that surrounded the village, the village was then in a position of having to survive surrounded by villages which answered to Cortés. These villages not only did not take orders from Antequera, they were hostile to it, to counter this, the village petitioned the Crown to be elevated to the status of a city, which would give it certain rights, privileges and exceptions. It would also ensure that the settlement would remain under the control of the kingOaxaca City
70. Morelia – Morelia is a city and municipality in the north central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The city is in the Guayangareo Valley and is the capital, the main pre-Hispanic cultures here were the Purépecha and the Matlatzinca, but no major cities were founded in the valley during this time. The Spanish took control of the area in the 1520s, the Spanish under Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza founded a settlement here in 1541 with the name of Valladolid, which became rival to the nearby city of Pátzcuaro for dominance in Michoacán. In 1580, this ended in Valladolid’s favor and it became the capital of the colonial province. After the Mexican War of Independence, the city was renamed Morelia in honor of José María Morelos, in 1991, the city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved colonial buildings and layout of the historic center. Human settlements in the Guayangareo Valley in which Morelia is located have been dated back as far as the 7th century, artifacts found here have shown Teotihuacán culture influence on early cultures in this area. In the 12th century, the Purépecha arrived in the valley and they dominated it politically for the rest of the pre-Hispanic period but did not build any major settlements here. Between the 12th and the 15th century, Matlatzincas moved into the area with permission of the Purépechas, the main Matlatzinca settlement was where Júarez Plaza in the city is today. The Spanish pushed into the Guayangareo Valley between 1525 and 1526, headed by Gonzalo Gómez, in the 1530s, the area was evangelized by Franciscans such as Juan de San Miguel and Antonio de Lisboa. What would become the city of Morelia was founded by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and a number of encomenderos in 1541, the action also required that the new settlement change its name to Guayangareo. In 1545, Guayangareo gained city status from Charles V in 1545 with the name of Valladolid and this was part of a power struggle between Antonio de Mendoza and Vasco de Quiroga over the province of Michoacán. During Quiroga’s lifetime, he managed to keep political and ecclesiastical power in Pátzcuaro despite the viceroy’s, the 17th century saw growth for Valladolid, with the construction of the cathedral and aqueduct. The cathedral was begun in 1640 and the aqueduct in 1657, churches include La Compañía, San Juan and La Cruz, but the most important structure built during this time period was the Cathedral. The location of this cathedral defined the composition and development of the city from then on, at the end of the colonial period, Valladolid was a small city with about 20,000 inhabitants. It was also a center with four important schools such as the College of San Nicolás. Demonstrations against Spanish rule had been occurring in the town in 1809 and this plot was discovered, with the main conspirators were arrested and sent to other parts of New Spain, which helped to spread republican ideas. One year later, after forming his army in Guanajuato state, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla arrived and took over the city, the city was taken back by royalist forces soon after. Morelos came here to try and dislodge the royalists but was defeated by Agustín de Iturbide, another prominent figure in the war, Mariano Matamoros was shot by firing squad on the city’s main square in 1814Morelia – Cathedral of Morelia
71. Monterrey – Monterrey, is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation, Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations. It is one of the wealthiest cities in Mexico with a GDP PPP of 130.7 billion dollars in 2012, Monterreys GDP PPP per capita is of approximately 32,000 dollars. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive, rich in history and culture, Monterrey is considered one of the most developed cities in the entire country and often regarded as the most americanized in Mexico. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery and Heineken, which features Norteño capital and Grupo ALFA, Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor, in the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a great industrial growth, prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey, Azalapas, Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, in 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, Monterrey was also the point of emigration from Europe, people from Portugal, Spain, France, Russia went to Monterrey seeing it as a good place to live in. Most of the Monterrey people descent from a creole Spanish heritage, during the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio, Tampico and from Saltillo to the center of the country, tampicos port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the foreign colonies. In 1824, the New Kingdom of León became the State of Nuevo León, in 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling U. S. forces during the first few advances on the city, the battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua, during the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. In 1986, several games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted. In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city, the conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperationMonterrey – Monterrey
72. Zacatecas City – Zacatecas is a city and municipality in Mexico, and the capital and largest city of the state of Zacatecas. Located in north-central Mexico, the city had its start as a Spanish mining camp in the mid-16th century, native Americans had already known about the areas rich deposits of silver and other minerals. Due to the wealth that the mines provided, Zacatecas quickly became one of the most important cities in New Spain, today, the colonial part of the city is a World Heritage Site, due to the Baroque and other structures built during its mining days. Mining still remains an important industry, the name Zacatecas is derived from the Zacateco people and has its roots in Nahuatl. The name means people of the grasslands, the first people to populate the area arrived approximately 10,000 years ago, when the climate was wetter and warmer, with different vegetation and wildlife. These peoples were mining silver and other metals in these hills long before the Europeans arrived, the Spanish came to the Zacatecas area via Guadalajara. In 1540, Nuño de Guzmán traveled from Mexico City conquering what are now the states of Michoacán, one of Guzmáns lieutenants, Cristobal de Oñate, conquered the area around what is now Guadalajara. Another, Pedro Almindes Chirinos Peralmindes, went to explore the lands to the north, taking Zacatecas with little trouble, and the area initially was simply frontier. Other expeditions followed, including one by Juan de Tolosa in 1546, who brought back samples from Cerro de la Bufa. A mining camp was established at the foot of Cerro de la Bufa. The Zacatecos initially fought the permanent presence of the Spanish, but the potential of the area strengthened the Europeans’ resolve. Surveys of the surrounding hills were undertaken by Tolosa, Diego de Ibarra, Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, Andrés de Villanueva. A military mining camp was established in 1548 and called Minas de Nuestra Señora de Remedios. The first major vein of silver was found in 1548 in a mine called San Bernabe and this was followed by similar finds in mines called Albarrada de San Benito, Vetagrande, Panuco and others. This brought a number of people to Zacatecas, including craftsmen, merchants, clerics. In 1550, royalty found its way to Zacatecas in the person of Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, doña Leonor married Juan de Tolosa. The settlement grew over the space of a few years one of the most important cities in New Spain. The success of the led to the arrival of indigenous peopleZacatecas City – View of Zacatecas
73. Saltillo – Saltillo is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 258 kilometres west of the Texas border, as of the 2005 census, Saltillo had a population of 725,095 people. 823,098 people reside within the area, making it the 19th biggest metro area in the country. The metro area comprises the municipalities of Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, founded in 1577 by Conquistador Alberto del Canto and Spanish colonists, Saltillo is the oldest post-conquest settlement in northern Mexico. Saltillo was a commercial center on the northern frontier which served as a bridge from central Mexico to regions farther northeast, Nuevo León, Nuevo Santander, Coahuila. Saltillo supplied the mines of Zacatecas with wheat. It never rose to prominence, but it did develop a commercial core. Saltillo became administratively more important at the end of the eighteenth century, merchants, most of whom were Iberian-born peninsular Spaniards, constituted the most important economic group, handling a wide variety of goods and sold in shops. They were the branch of the transatlantic merchant sector, with ties to Mexico City merchants. Peninsular merchants in Saltillo married into local society, acquired rural properties. In the late century, an annual trade fair was established, with goods from as far away as China and Europe. Saltillo could produce wheat commercially so long as enterprises had access to water, in the eighteenth century, there was a demand for draft animals, which Saltillo could supply. The city of Saltillo is the seat of the municipality of Saltillo. The current Mayor is Isidro Lopez Villareal from the Partido Accion Nacional, el Cerro del Pueblo and its 4-metre cross overlook the city. The citys elevation, at 1,600 metres, makes it cooler and windier than the city of Monterrey. Saltillo lies near the city of Arteaga and in the Chihuahuan Desert, the city is flanked by the Zapalinamé mountains, which are part of the Sierra Madre Oriental. By looking at the relief of the mountains, one can see, according to local legend, Saltillo is located in the Chihuahuan Desert but temperatures are cooler than other desert cities in Mexico because it is located in an altitude of 1,600 meters. Summers are slightly hot with cool nights, and winters are sunny, rainfall is scarce but more prominent in summerSaltillo – City of Saltillo
74. Yerba Buena, California – Yerba Buena was the original name of the Spanish settlement that later became San Francisco, California. The settlement was arranged in the Spanish style around a plaza that remains as the present day Portsmouth Square, the name of the town was taken from the yerba buena plant, native to the pueblo site. Franciscan missionary Pedro Font, accompanying the Juan Bautista de Anza expedition of 1775-76, the plants common name, yerba buena, the same in English and Spanish, is an alternate form of the Spanish hierba buena. The Spanish Portolá expedition, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá arrived overland from Mexico on November 2,1769 and it was the first documented European visit by land to the San Francisco Bay Area, claiming it for Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. A second group of soldiers, this accompanied by settlers, arrived in June 1776. One of De Anzas officers, José Joaquín Moraga, was given the task of building a Spanish mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís and a military fort, the Presidio of San Francisco. Moraga chose a location halfway between the two sites to build housing for the workers, which became known as Yerba Buena. A supply ship arrived about two months later and the settlers began building, in 1804 Las Californias province was split into Alta California province and Baja California province, both still within the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the territory of Alta California became part of Mexico, over the years the area between the port facilities at Yerba Buena Cove and the housing area of Yerba Buena filled in. The old plaza is todays Portsmouth Square, in 1835, Englishman William A. Richardson erected a homestead near the boat anchorage of Yerba Buena Cove. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a plan for the expanded settlement. In early 1841 James Douglas of the Hudsons Bay Company, operating on the Pacific coast from Fort Vancouver, a large building on the waters edge was purchased. The HBC post had several purposes and it operated as a wholesale store, selling goods exported from Fort Vancouver such as salmon, lumber, and British manufactures in exchange for hides and tallow. Despite the mercantile potential of the HBC store in Yerba Buena, the HBC store in Yerba Buena was sold in 1846, two years before the California Gold Rush transformed Yerba Buena into the major city on the North American west coast. On July 7,1846, US Navy Commodore John D. Henry Bulls Watson was placed in command of the garrison there. On July 31,1846, Yerba Buena doubled in population when about 240 Mormon migrants from the East coast arrived on the ship Brooklyn, in August 1846, Lt. Washington Allon Bartlett was named alcalde of Yerba Buena. On January 30,1847, Lt. Bartletts proclamation changing the name Yerba Buena to San Francisco took effect. The city and the rest of Alta California officially became a United States military territory in 1848 by the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, California was admitted for statehood to the United States on September 9,1850Yerba Buena, California – Yerba Buena and Yerba Buena Island in the 1840s.
75. History of San Jose, California – For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. Don Pedro Fages, the governor at Monterey, passed through the area on his 1770 and 1772 expeditions to explore the East Bay. Late in 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza led the first overland expedition to bring colonists from New Spain to California and he left the colonists at Monterey in 1776, and explored north with a small group. Anza returned to Mexico City before any of the settlements were actually founded, el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe was founded by José Joaquín Moraga on November 29,1777, the first pueblo-town not associated with a mission or a military post in upper Las Californias. The town was founded by the colonists led to California by Anza, as a community to provide food for the presidios of San Francisco. In 1778, the pueblo had a population of 68, in the ensuing years a number of Mexican Rancho Land Grants Land Grants were confirmed within the lands now considered San Jose. During the Bear Flag Revolt, Captain Thomas Fallon led a force from Santa Cruz. Fallon would later become the mayor of San Jose. Its unclear whether or not Fallon ordered all townspeople of Spanish/Mexican origin out of San Jose, during the California Gold Rush period, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mines just south of the city were the largest mercury mines in North America. Mining operations began in 1847 at what was the first operating mine in the province, the importance of the mercury industry at the time explains why the local newspaper is named the Mercury News. On March 27,1850, San Jose became the first incorporated city in the U. S. state of California, the first mayor was Josiah Belden. It also served as the states first capital with the first and second sessions of the California Legislature, known as the Legislature of a Thousand Drinks, from 1858 to 1861, San Jose was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail stage line. In 1881, because of a campaign by editor J. J. It didnt provide sufficient illumination, and by 1884 was used only for ceremonial purposes and it collapsed during the great gale of 1915. In 1989, an informal Court of Historical Inquiry looked into the issue of whether the Eiffel Tower was an infringement of the Electric Light Tower. Before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the Winchester Mystery House reached a height of 7 stories, many visitors to the house claim to have felt the presence of ghosts, while others claim there is no detectable presence. In 1909, Dr. Charles Herrold began experimental broadcasts in downtown San Jose. His station was licensed in 1921 as KQW, then moved to San FranciscoHistory of San Jose, California – The 200th anniversary (1977) of the El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe founding in Las Californias: marked by this Commemorative U.S. postage stamp.
76. Presidio of San Diego – El Presidio Reál de San Diego is a historic fort in San Diego, California. It was established on May 14,1769, by Gaspar de Portolá, the presidio was the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific Coast of the present-day United States. As the first of the presidios and Spanish missions in California, the associated Mission San Diego de Alcalá later moved a few miles away. Essentially abandoned by 1835, the site of the original Presidio lies on a hill within present-day Presidio Park, the San Diego Presidio was registered as a California Historical Landmark in 1932, then declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. Prior to occupation by the Spanish, the site of the Presidio was home to the Kumeyaay people, the first Europeans to explore San Diego Bay and its environs were members of the maritime expedition led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. Sebastián Vizcaíno visited again in 1602, but no settlement was made until the fort was begun in May 1769, later that year, on July 16,1769, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was established by Junípero Serra on Presidio Hill. The presidio had a view of San Diego Bay and the Pacific Ocean. Less than a month after the mission was established, an uprising of Indians occurred, four Spaniards were wounded, after the attack, the Spaniards built a stockade which was finished in March 1770. It included two cannons, one pointed to the bay, the other to the nearby Indian village. One of the cannons, El Jupiter, is now in the Serra Museum, in 1773 and 1774, adobe structures were built to replace the temporary wood and brush huts. Later in 1774, the mission was moved a few miles up Mission Valley to separate the Indians from the influence of the presidial garrison, by 1783, there were 54 troops stationed at the presidio. With Mexican independence in 1821, the presidio came under Mexican control, from 1825-1829, it served as the Mexican governors residence. In 1907 George Marston, a department store owner, bought Presidio Hill with an interest to preserve the site. Unable to attract public funding, Marston built a park in 1925 with the help of architect John Nolen. Serra Museum is sometimes referred to as the Presidio. Marston donated the park and museum to the city in 1929, Presidio Park is still owned by the city of San Diego, Serra Museum is managed by the San Diego History Center. No historical structures remain in Presidio Park today, the Presidio site is occasionally used for archaeological excavations. Early History of the San Diego Presidial District, 1542-1782, UC Berkeley thesis,1930, by Lucien C. AthertonPresidio of San Diego – San Diego Presidio
77. El Paso, Texas – El Paso is the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States. The city is situated in the far corner of the U. S. state of Texas. El Paso stands on the Rio Grande river across the Mexico–United States border from Ciudad Juárez, the region of over 2.7 million people constitutes the largest bilingual and binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. The city hosts the annual Sun Bowl college football post-season game, El Paso has a strong federal and military presence. William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Bliss call the city home, Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. Also headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, Border Patrol El Paso Sector, and U. S. In 2010, El Paso received an All-America City Award, El Paso has been ranked the safest large city in the U. S. for four consecutive years and has ranked in the top three since 1997. As of July 1,2015, the estimate for the city from the U. S. Census was 681,124. Its U. S. metropolitan area covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, the El Paso MSA forms part of the larger El Paso–Las Cruces CSA, with a population of 1,053,267. The El Paso region has had human settlement for thousands of years, the evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation. The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers, when the Spanish arrived, the Manso, Suma, and Jumano tribes populated the area. These were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, the Mescalero Apache were also present. El Paso del Norte was founded on the bank of the Río Bravo del Norte. El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the U. S. in 1848, the Texas Revolution was generally not felt in the region, as the American population was small, not being more than 10% of the population. However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico, during this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region. The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850, El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat. The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography, a military post called The Post opposite El Paso was established in 1854. Further west, a settlement on Coons Rancho called Franklin became the nucleus of the future El Paso, a year later, pioneer Anson Mills completed his plan of the town, calling it El PasoEl Paso, Texas – From upper left: downtown El Paso skyline, star on the Franklin Mountains, The Cathedral of Saint Patrick, Wyler Aerial Tramway, North Franklin Peak, downtown El Paso at night
78. Los Adaes – Los Adaes was the capital of Tejas on the northeastern frontier of New Spain from 1729 to 1770. It included a mission, San Miguel de Linares de los Adaes, the name Adaes represents the indigenous Adai people, who were to be served by the mission. The site, now preserved in the state-run Los Adaes State Historic Site, is located on Louisiana Highway 485 in present-day Natchitoches Parish and it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986. Although Spain claimed much of the Gulf Coast of North America as part of its colonial territory, in 1699, French forts were established at Biloxi Bay and on the Mississippi River, ending Spains exclusive control of the Gulf Coast. The Spanish recognized that French encroachment could threaten other Spanish areas, on April 12,1716, an expedition led by Domingo Ramón left San Juan Bautista for Tejas, intending to establish four missions and a presidio. At the same time, the French were building a fort in Natchitoches, the Spanish countered by founding two more missions just west of Natchitoches, including San Miguel de los Adaes. In 1719, European powers embarked on the War of the Quadruple Alliance, in June 1719,7 Frenchmen from Natchitoches took control of the mission of San Miguel de los Adaes from its sole defender, who did not know that the nations were at war. The French soldiers explained that 100 additional soldiers were coming, the Spanish colonists, missionaries, the Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo volunteered to reconquer Spanish Texas and raised an army of 500 soldiers. By July 1721 Aguayo reached the Neches River and his expedition encountered a French force en route to attack San Antonio de Bexar. The outnumbered Frenchmen agreed to retreat to Louisiana, Aguayo then ordered the building of a new presidio Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Los Adaes, located near present-day Robeline, Louisiana, only 12 miles from Natchitoches. The new fort became the first capital of Texas, and it was guarded by 6 cannon, all six of the eastern Tejas missions were reopened, under the protection of the new presidio. Spain discouraged manufacturing in its colonies and limited trade to Spanish goods handled by Spanish merchants, most of the ports, including all of those in Texas, were closed to commercial vessels in the hopes of dissuading smugglers. By law, all bound for Texas had to be shipped to Vera Cruz. This caused the goods to be expensive in the Texas settlements. Without many goods to trade, however, the Spanish missionaries and colonists had little to offer the Indians, on November 3,1762, as part of the Treaty of Fontainebleau, France ceded the portion of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain. Rubi recommended that eastern Texas be totally abandoned, with all the moving to San Antonio. With Louisiana in Spanish control, there was no need for Los Adaes to reside so closely to Natchitoches, especially after the missions had relocated to San Antonio. In August 1768, the governor, Juan María Vicencio, Baron de Ripperdá, moved his headquarters and the garrison to San AntonioLos Adaes – Los Adaes
79. Pensacola, Florida – Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 51,923. Pensacola is the city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, which is protected by the island of Santa Rosa. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center, the area was originally inhabited by Muskogean peoples. The Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the city gradually developed. The area changed several times as European powers competed in North America. During Floridas British rule, fortifications were strengthened, other nicknames include Worlds Whitest Beaches, Cradle of Naval Aviation, Western Gate to the Sunshine State, Americas First Settlement, Emerald Coast, Red Snapper Capital of the World, and P-Cola. The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples, at the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region. This name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name Pensacola for the bay and thence the city. Creek people, also Muskogean-speaking, came regularly from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and even continental network of relations. The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site and this site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, five of which are arranged around a central plaza. Its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550 and it was a ceremonial center for the Pensacola people and a gateway to their society. This site would have had access by a dugout canoe. The areas written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area. The expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name Bay of Ochuse. In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Veracruz, MexicoPensacola, Florida – Up Clockwise: Pensacola Skyline, T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum, University of West Florida Library, Escambia County Courthouse, William Dudley Chipley Obelisk, National Naval Aviation Museum
80. St. Augustine, Florida – St. Augustine is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast in northeastern Florida. It is the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the continental United States, the county seat of St. Johns County, it is part of Floridas First Coast region and the Jacksonville metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 12,975, the United States Census Bureaus 2013 estimate of the citys population was 13,679, while the urban area had a population of 69,173 in 2012. Saint Augustine was founded on September 8,1565, by Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Floridas first governor. He named the settlement San Agustín, as his ships bearing settlers, troops, and supplies from Spain had first sighted land in Florida eleven days earlier on August 28, the feast day of St. Augustine. The city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years, since the late 19th century, St. Augustines distinct historical character has made the city a major tourist attraction, and it is also the headquarters for the Florida National Guard. Founded in 1565 by the Spanish conquistador, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, in 1562, a group of Huguenots led by Jean Ribault arrived in Spanish Florida to establish a colony in the territory claimed by Spain. They explored the mouth of the St. Johns River, calling it la Rivière de Mai, then sailed northward, Spain learned of this French expedition through its spies at ports on the Atlantic coast of France. The Huguenot nobleman René de Laudonnière, who had participated in the expedition and he arrived at the mouth of the River May on June 22,1564, sailed up it a few miles, and founded Fort Caroline. He was ordered as well to drive away any intruders who were not subjects of the Spanish crown. On July 28, Menéndez set sail from Cádiz with a led by his 600-ton flagship, the San Pelayo, accompanied by several smaller ships, and carrying over 1,000 sailors, soldiers. On the feast day of St. Augustine, August 28, Menéndez then sailed north and confronted Ribaults fleet outside the bar of the River May in a brief skirmish. On September 6, he returned to the site of his first landfall, naming it after the Catholic saint, disembarked his troops, and quickly constructed fortifications to protect his people and supplies. Menéndez then marched his soldiers overland for an attack on Fort Caroline. Jean Ribault had already put out to sea with his ships for an assault on St. Augustine, there they were confronted by the Spaniard and his men on the opposite side. After several parleys with the Spanish, Jean Ribault and the Frenchmen with him surrendered, almost all of them were executed in the dunes near the inlet, in 1572, the settlement was relocated to the mainland, in the area just south of the future town plaza. Confident that he had fulfilled the conditions of his contract with the King, including the building of forts along the coast of La Florida. After several more transatlantic crossings, Menéndez fell ill and died on September 17,1574, succeeding governors of the province maintained a peaceful coexistence with the local Native Americans, allowing the isolated outpost of St. Augustine some stability for a few yearsSt. Augustine, Florida – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
81. The Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish, Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been confusion about use of the plural The Californias by Spanish colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its peninsular character was ascertained, it was called simply California, when the expeditions for the settlement of San Diego and Monterey marched, it was understood that they were going, not out of California, but into a new part of it. The peninsula then began to be spoken of as Antigua or Old California. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino and his Misión San Bruno failed, however, and it wasnt until 1697 that Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó was successfully established by another Jesuit, Juan María de Salvatierra. The mission became the nucleus of Loreto, first permanent settlement, the Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the missions, gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, a new visitador, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The more ambitious name, Las Californias, was established by a joint dispatch to the King from Viceroy de Croix and visitador José de Gálvez. Gálvez sought to make a distinction between the Antigua area of established settlement and the Nueva unexplored areas to the north, the single province was divided in 1804, into Alta California province and Baja California province. By the time of the 1804 split, the Alta province had expanded to coastal areas as far north as what is now the San Francisco Bay Area in the U. S. state of California. Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, independent Mexico retained the division but demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. In 1836, the designation Las Californias was revived, reuniting Alta, the Seven Laws were repealed in 1847, during the Mexican-American War, and the split of the two Californias was restored. Following Mexicos defeat in the war, most of the former Alta California territory was ceded on 2 February 1848 to the United States, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The new Mexico-United States border was established slightly to the north of the previous Alta-Baja border, the areas in North America acquired by the U. S. were designated as unorganized territory under a military governor, pending reestablishment of civilian control and organization. California was the first section of the territory to achieve statehood, the Baja California Peninsula is bordered on three sides by water, the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, while Alta California had the Pacific Ocean on the west and deserts on the east. A northern boundary was established by the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 and that boundary line remains the northern boundary of the U. S. states of California, Nevada, and the western part of UtahThe Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
82. Alta California – Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California, Nevada, and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the later U. S. states of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation, conversion and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans. As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and later Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction, ranching and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horsesAlta California – Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain. Map dated 1789 from Dobson's Encyclopedia.
83. Nueva Galicia – El Nuevo Reino de Galicia or simply Nueva Galicia was an autonomous kingdom of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was named after Galicia in Spain, Nueva Galicias territory became the present-day Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Zacatecas. Spanish exploration of the began in 1531 with Nuño Beltrán de Guzmáns expedition. He named the city founded in the area Villa de Guadalajara after his birthplace. Instead Queen Joanna, at the moment the acting regent of Spain, Guzmáns violent conquest left Spanish control of the area unstable, and within a decade full war had reemerged between the settlers and the Native peoples of the area. The Mixtón War, which lasted from 1540–1541, pitted an alliance of Coras, Gauchichiles, nine years later the Chichimeca War broke out, this time pitting mostly Zacatecos against their former allies, the Caxcan, who had now allied with the Spanish. Nahuas from the Valley of Mexico moved into the region along with the Spanish as the area was settled, in the last decades of the sixteenth century Huichols also arrived. Given the growing wealth of the region with the discovery of silver to the north, especially in Nueva Vizcaya, the Audiencia of Guadalajara had oversight of all the northern mainland provinces of the Viceroyalty. The Audencia at first was subordinate to the Royal Audiencia of Mexico but was independent in 1572. This enabled New Galicia to be ruled largely separate from the rest of the Viceroyalty, there are a number of published chronicles on colonial Nueva Galicia. A1621 account by Domingo Lázaro de Arregui, Descripción de la Nueva Galicia gives considerable information about the peoples of the area. In the late 18th century, as part of the Bourbon Reforms, in 1824, after Mexican independence was consolidated, the kingdom was transformed into the State of Jalisco and the Territory of Colima. Province of Nueva Galicia Province, Nayarit and Jalisco, Province of Los Zacatecas Province, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Intendancy of Guadalajara, Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima, Intendancy of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Real Audiencia of Guadalajara List of governors of New Galicia La Gran Chichimeca History of Mexico Worldstatesmen. org, Provinces of New SpainNueva Galicia – New Galicia Nueva Galicia
84. Nueva Vizcaya – Nueva Vizcaya is a province of the Philippines located in Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. It is bordered by Benguet to the west, Ifugao to the north, Isabela to the northeast, Quirino to the east, Aurora to the southeast, Nueva Ecija to the south, and Pangasinan to the southwest. The name Nueva Vizcaya is derived from the name of the province of Biscay in the Spanish rule period and this can be seen in the right part of the seal, a representation of the heraldic of Vizcaya in Spain. The areas of present-day Nueva Vizcaya used to be a territory of the vast Provincia de Cagayan, organized religion in Nueva Vizcaya dates back to the year 1607, when the Dominican Order arrived at the hinterlands of the province to preach their beliefs. It was not until 1609, however, that the first settlement of an order was established in the southern half of the province. In 1702, a convent was erected in Burubur at the foot of the Caraballo Mountains in Santa Clara and it was on this site that the first mass in Nueva Vizcaya was celebrated and the first baptism of a Christian convert was held. In 1839, upon the advice of the mayor of Cagayan. The order was approved by a Royal Decree on April 10,1841, the original province covered the areas of present-day Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Mountain Province, and a large portion of Isabela, as well as much of Aurora. Civil government was established in the province by the Philippine Commission in 1902, in 1908, the northwestern territory of Nueva Vizcaya was annexed to the newly organized sub-province of Ifugao. The survey executed by the Bureau of Lands in 1914 further caused the diminution of its area, during the Second World War, Balete Pass was the scene of a major battle between the Japanese and American forces, with the Americans gaining the victory on 31 May 1945. In 1971, with the passage of Republic Act No,6394, Quirino, which was then a sub-province of Nueva Vizcaya, was separated from its mother province and made into a regular province. Since Nueva Vizcayas birth as a province, traces of the culture and customs of its early settlers—the Ilongots, Igorots, Ifugaos, Isinais, the influx of civilization and the infusion of modern technology to the life stream of the province induced immigration from adjacent provinces. Surrounded by North Luzons three large mountain ranges, Nueva Vizcaya is generally mountainous, varying from steep mountains to rolling hills, with some valleys and plains. It is bordered on the west by the Cordillera mountains, on the east by the Sierra Madre mountains, the province are separated from the Central Luzon plains by the Caraballo Mountains. The province has a land area of 3,975.67 square kilometres. The southernmost province in the Cagayan Valley region, Nueva Vizcaya lies approximately 268 kilometres north of Metro Manila, all municipalities are encompassed by a lone legislative district. The 15 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 275 barangays, with Roxas in Solano as the most populous in 2010, and Santa Rosa in Santa Fe as the least. The population of Nueva Vizcaya in the 2015 census was 452,287 people, Nueva Vizcaya is home to about 18 indigenous peoples, which includes the major tribes of the Ifugao, Gaddang, Isinai, Dumagat, Kalanguya, and the BugkalotNueva Vizcaya – Nueva Vizcaya Provincial Capitol
85. Bulacan – Bulacan is a province in the Philippines, located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon,11 kilometres north of Manila, and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bulacan was established on August 15,1578 and it has 569 barangays from 21 municipalities and three component cities. Bulacan is located north of Metro Manila. Bordering Bulacan are the provinces of Pampanga to the west, Nueva Ecija to the north, Aurora and Quezon to the east, Bulacan also lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay. In the 2015 census, Bulacan had a population of 3,292,071 people, the highest in Region III, Bulacans most populated city is San Jose del Monte, the most populated municipality is Santa Maria while the least populated is Doña Remedios Trinidad. In 1899, the historic Barasoain Church in Malolos was the birthplace of the First Constitutional Democracy in Asia, pre colonial Bulacan is not much documented as others in the Visayas region. It was said that Bulacan were administered by the Royal Natives from Tondo ruled by Lakandulas, in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription mentioned some settlements such as Gatbuka, Paila, Binaungan. Other pre colonial accounts on Bulacan was the ancient village called by Chinese traders Lihan as mentioned by Ferdinand Blumentritt is the present day Malolos, the Conquest of Bulacan traces to the first years of the Spanish in the Philippines. Upon the defeat of the Macabebe and Hagonoy natives led by Bambalito in the Battle of Bangkusay in June 3,1571 that caused Martin de Goiti to move up north first to Lubao in September 1571. In April 5,1572, the Encomiendas of Calumpit and Malolos were unified co-administered by Moron, also on that year Alcaldia de Calumpit was formed which the areas of Macabebe, Candaba, Apalit in Pampanga and the settlements of Meyto, Panducot, Meysulao and Malolos. And in December 28,1575 Governor - General Francisco Sande order to include Hagonoy in Calumpit and it was gone and recreated in 1997 upon the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Parish of Our Lady of Presentacion in Malolos. In April 30,1578 Bulakan town was established by the Augustinians with Fray Diego Vivar as its first prior. It was reported that the part of the present-day Bulacan was to be very well populated. No exact date and year when Alcaldia de Calumpit was dissolved and it was only documented that Malolos were first to be appeared as part of Alcaldia de Bulacan was in 1582. It may assumed that reorganization of encomiendas has been occurred between 1580-1582 at the time of Governor General Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa, however, the establishment and development of southern part of the present-day Bulacan was not simultaneous and identified with the West. It was because this part of the Province was established by group of missionaries. In 1578 Order of Friars Minor headed by Juan de Plasencia and Diego Oropesa arrived in the area called Toril, also in 1578 Plasencia established the Town of Meycauayan. Where in fact Bulacan the town was already a visita of Tondo in 1575 and Calumpit where Malolos and it was the towns of Bocaue, Polo, San Jose del Monte, Santa Maria de Pandi, Obando and Marilao)Bulacan – The Bulacan Provincial Capitol
86. Pampanga – Pampanga or Pampaŋga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city and is governed independently of the province. The name La Pampanga was given by the Spaniards, who encountered natives living along the banks of the Pampanga River and its creation in 1571 makes it the first Spanish province on Luzon Island. The town of Villa de Bacolor in the province served as the Spanish colonial capital when Great Britain invaded Manila as part of the Seven Years War. Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport, which is in Clark Freeport Zone, the province is home to two Philippine Air Force airbases, Basa Air Base in Floridablanca and the former United States Clark Air Base in Angeles City. By 2015, the province has 2,198,110 inhabitants, ancient Pampangas territorial area included portions of the modern provinces of Tarlac, Bataan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. Pampanga was re-organized as a province by the Spaniards on December 11,1571, due to excessive abuses committed by some encomenderos, King Philip II of Spain in 1574 prohibited the further awarding of private estates, but this decree was not fully enforced until 1620. The encomiendas of La Pampanga at that time had eighteen thousand six hundred, Pampanga, which is about 850 square miles in area and inhabited by more than 1.5 million people, had its present borders drawn in 1873. During the Spanish regime it was one of the richest Philippine provinces, Manila and its surrounding region were then primarily dependent on Kapampangan agricultural, fishery and forestry products as well as on the supply of skilled workers. As other Luzon provinces were created due to increases in population, during the 17th century, The Dutch recruited men from Pampanga as mercenaries who served the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, known as Papangers part of the larger Mardijkers community. Their legacy can be found in North Jakarta, however, there are few traces of their descendants, except for a small community in Kampung Tugu. The old Pampanga towns of Aliaga, Cabiao, Gapan, San Antonio, the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo of Pampanga was yielded to the province of Bulacan in the same provincial boundary configuration in 1848. However, in 1873, the four towns were returned to Pampanga. On December 8,1941, Japanese planes bombed Clark Air Base marking the beginning of the invasion of Pampanga, between 1941 and 1942, occupying Japanese forces began entering Pampanga. The establishment of the general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from 1935 to 1946. The Philippine Constabulary was active from 1935 to 1942 and 1944 to 1946 in the province of Pampanga. S. military forces fight the Imperial Japanese armed forces. The June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo displaced a number of people with the submersion of whole towns. Pampanga covers a area of 2,002.20 square kilometres occupying the south-central section of the Central Luzon regionPampanga – Pampanga, 1899
87. Spanish Formosa – Spanish Formosa was a Spanish colony established in the north of Taiwan from 1626 to 1642. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the island of Taiwan in 1544, the colony was meant to protect Spanish in the region from interference by the Dutch base in the south of Taiwan. The Spanish colony was short-lived due to the unwillingness of Spanish colonial authorities in Manila to commit men, after seventeen years, the last fortress of the Spanish was besieged by Dutch forces and eventually fell, giving the Dutch control over most of the island. In 1566, the Dutch Revolt against King Philip II erupted, the Dutch Republic and its allies, England and France invaded and looted many of Phillip IIs overseas territories as part of the Eighty Years War. As a result of the union of the Portuguese and Spanish crowns in 1580, Spanish Habsburg Philip II of Spain ruled Portugal. The Dutch of the Seventeen Provinces in Dutch–Portuguese War as well as their allies England, the Dutch colonization of Formosa was part of a campaign designed to seize all the possessions of Philip II in Asia, including the Philippines. The Dutch began to take the string of fortresses that comprised Phillips Portuguese Asian possessions. The settlements were isolated, difficult to reinforce if attacked, and prone to being picked off one by one, pursuing their quest for alternative routes to Asia for trade, the first Dutch squadron to reach the Philippines on December 14,1600 was led by Olivier van Noort. The Dutch sought to dominate the sea trade in Southeast Asia. They disrupted trade by harassing the coasts of Manila bay and its environs, the Battles of La Naval de Manila were five naval battles fought in the waters off the Philippines in 1646, between the forces of Spain and the Dutch Republic, during the Eighty Years War. War with the Dutch led to invasions of many of Phillips Portuguese and Spanish possessions in Asia, including Ceylon, the Philippines, and commercial interests in Japan, Africa, and South America. Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the island of Ceylon. Catholic Phillip II was in competition with Protestant Holland for trade, with the establishment of a Dutch colony at Tayouan, present-day Anping, in the south of Taiwan, the Dutch were able to threaten Spains trade in the region. As a counter to this threat, the Spanish decided to establish their own colony in the north of the island, landing at Cape Santiago in the north-east of Taiwan but finding it unsuitable for defensive purposes, the Spanish continued westwards along the coast until they arrived at Keelung. A deep and well-protected harbour plus a small island in the mouth of the harbour made it the ideal spot to build the first settlement, forts were built, both on the island and in the harbour itself. In 1629 the Spanish erected a second base, centered on Fort San Domingo, in 1641, the Spanish had become such an irritant to the Dutch in the south that it was decided to take northern Taiwan from the Spanish by force. In courteous terms, the Dutch Governor Paulus Traudenius informed the Spanish governor of their intentions, the Spanish governor was not inclined to give in so easily, and replied in kind. They returned, thwarted and humiliated, to the Dutch base at Fort Zeelandia, in August 1642, The Dutch returned to Keelung with four large ships, several smaller ships, and approximately 369 Dutch soldiersSpanish Formosa – Flag
88. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He also had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian. In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern EuropeChristopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
89. Ferdinand Magellan – Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the peaceful sea. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the reached the Spice Islands in 1521. Magellan did not complete the voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521. Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east, by visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, in March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India, although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated in battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu and he later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to an ending in retreat. Magellan had a role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan, after the conquest their ways parted, Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the Spice Islands in the Moluccas and he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories, after taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp and he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a member on a Portuguese shipFerdinand Magellan – Ferdinand Magellan
90. Pedro de Alvarado – Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalvas exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico and he is considered the conquistador of much of Central America, including Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Historiography portrays that indigenous people, both Nahuatl-speakers and speakers of languages, called him Tonatiuh, meaning sun in the Nahuatl language. Yet he was also called Red Sun in Nahuatl, which allows a variety of interpretations, whether this epithet refers to Alvarados red hair, some esoteric quality attributed to him, or both, is disputed. Pedro de Alvarado was flamboyant and charismatic, and was both a brilliant military commander and a cruel, hardened man and his hair and beard were blond, which earned him the name of Tonatiuh from the Aztecs, the name of one of their sun gods. He was handsome, and presented an appearance, but was volatile. He was ruthless in his dealings with the peoples he set out to conquer. Historians judge that his greed drove him to excessive cruelty, and he was a poor governor of territories he had conquered, and restlessly sought out new adventures. His tactical brutality, such as the massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan and he was also accused of cruelty against fellow Spaniards. Alvarado was little suited to govern, when he held governing positions and his letters show no interest in civil matters, and he only discussed exploration and war. Alvarado stubbornly resisted attempts by the Spanish Crown to establish ordered taxation in Guatemala, american historian William H. Prescott described Alvarados character in the following terms, Alvarado was a cavalier of high family, gallant and chivalrous, and warm personal friend. He had talents for action, was possessed of firmness and intrepidity, while his frank, but, underneath this showy exterior, the future conqueror of Guatemala concealed a heart rash, rapacious, and cruel. He was altogether destitute of that moderation, which, in the position he occupied, was a quality of more worth than all the rest. Spanish chronicler Antonio de Remesal commented that Alvarado desired more to be feared than loved by his subjects, in his easy recourse to violence, Alvarado was a product of his time, and Alvarado was not the only conquistador to have resorted to such actions. Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro carried out deeds of similar cruelty, Pedro de Alvarado was born in 1485 in the town of Badajoz, Extremadura. His father was Gómez de Alvarado, and his mother was Leonor de Contreras, Pedro de Alvarado had a twin sister, Sarra, and four full-blood brothers, Jorge, Gonzalo, Gómez, and Juan. Pedro had a half brother, also named Juan, referred to in contemporary sources as Juan el Bastardo. Very little is known of Pedro de Alvarados early life before his arrival in the Americas, during the conquest of the Americas, tales of his youthful exploits in Spain became popular legends, but their veracity is doubtfulPedro de Alvarado – Pedro de Alvarado in a contemporaneous rendition.
91. Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa – Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa was a Spanish explorer, author, historian, mathematician, astronomer, and scientist. His birthplace is not certain and may have been Pontevedra, in Galicia, where his family originated, or Alcalá de Henares in Castile. His father Bartolomé Sarmiento was born in Pontevedra and his mother María Gamboa was born in Bilbao, at the age of 18, Sarmiento de Gamboa entered the royal military in the European wars. Between 1550 and 1555 the future navigator fought in the armies of Emperor Charles V, in 1555 he began his exploring career, sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. His first destination was New Spain, where he lived for two years, little is known of this period in his life, other than that he encountered difficulties with the Inquisition. He then sailed to Peru, where he lived for more than twenty years, in Lima he was accused by the Inquisition of possessing two magic rings and some magic ink and of following the precepts of Moses. The expedition failed to find gold and attempts at establishing a settlement in the Solomon Islands ended in failure, in order to take credit of the discoveries for himself Mendaña threw the journals and maps made by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa overboard and abandoned him in Mexico. However, a trial was held in Lima, with the result giving Sarmiento credit for the discoveries. In 1572 he was commissioned by Francisco de Toledo, the fifth Viceroy of Peru, Toledo hoped such a history would justify Spanish colonisation by revealing the violent history of the Incas. Sarmiento collected oral accounts first hand from Inca informants and produced a history that chronicles their violent conquest of the region, the royal sponsorship of the work guaranteed Sarmiento direct access to the highest Spanish officials in Cuzco. It also allowed him to summon influential natives, as well as those who had witnessed the fall of the Inca Empire, so that they could relate their stories. Sarmiento traveled widely and interviewed numerous local leaders and lords, surviving members of the royal Inca families, after the public reading, which occurred on 29 February and 1 March 1572, the manuscript was entrusted to a member of the viceroys personal guard. However, due to a series of events, this irreplaceable document of Inca history was relegated to obscurity for centuries. He became the commander of the station in the Pacific in 1578. Sarmiento de Gamboa sailed out of the port of Callao with eleven vessels in 1579 to capture Drake. The expedition lost eight vessels in a storm, and Flores, on account of rivalry with Sarmiento de Gamboa, abandoned him with twelve vessels in the entry of the Strait and returned to Spain. The settlement failed shortly after he left, and when Thomas Cavendish visited the ruins in 1587 he renamed the place Port Famine. In 1584 Sarmiento de Gamboa sailed for Europe, but he was captured by an English fleet under to Sir Walter Raleigh and carried to England where he was presented to Queen Elizabeth I of EnglandPedro Sarmiento de Gamboa – Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.
92. Spanish missions in the Americas – During the Age of Discovery, the Christian Church inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World by converting indigenous peoples. As such, the establishment of Christian missions went hand-in-hand with the efforts of European powers such as Spain, France. For these nations, the enterprise was based on the necessity to develop European commerce. According to Adriaan van Oss, Catholicism remains the principal colonial heritage of Spain in America, more than any set of economic relationships. The Catholic religion continues to permeate Spanish-American culture today, creating a cultural unity which transcends the political and national boundaries dividing the continent. Christian leaders and Christian doctrines have been accused of justifying and perpetrating violence against Native Americans found in the New World, according to Colin Calloway, the Spanish missions also produced massive population decline, food shortages, increased demands for labor, and violence. However, other scholars point out that the Catholic Church often defended the rights of Native Americans, for example, Jesuits devoted themselves to the interests of Native Americans. The Spanish missions in the Carolinas were part of a series of religious outposts that Spanish Catholics established to spread Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, the principal coastal mission and fort in the area was Santa Elena, which survived until 1587. The Spanish chapter of Georgias earliest colonial history is dominated by the mission era. The early missions in present-day Georgia were established to serve the Guale and various Timucua peoples, later the missions served other peoples who had entered the region, including the Yamassee. These missions brought grain, cattle, and a homeland for the California Native Americans. They had no immunity to European diseases, with subsequent indigenous tribal population falls, overland routes were established from New Spain that resulted in the establishment of a mission and presidio - now San Francisco, and a pueblo - now Los Angeles. The clash of Spanish and native cultures during the Spanish Las Californias-New Spain and these aspects have received more research in recent decades. The missions gave Spain a valuable toehold in the land, and introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables. Eventually, a network of settlements was established each of the installations was no more than a long days ride by horse or boat from another. As early as the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert pagans to Catholicism in Nueva España, New Spain consisted of the Caribbean, Mexico, and portions of what is now the Southwestern United States. To facilitate colonization, the Catholic Church decided to award these lands to Spain, the missions represented the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, and gave Spain a valuable toehold in the frontier land. The government of Mexico shut down the missions in the 1830s, in the end, the mission had mixed results in its objective to convert, educate, and civilize the indigenous population and transforming the natives into Spanish colonial citizensSpanish missions in the Americas – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
93. Spanish missions in California – The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spains North American claims. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833 and this divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives, to convert, educate, today, the surviving mission buildings are the states oldest structures, and its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. The missions were to be interconnected by a route which later became known as the Camino Real. The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serras death in 1784. Plans to build a mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a mother mission, in addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. California was months away from the nearest base in colonized Mexico, to sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americans, called neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials, although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of priestly whim. The padres blessed the site, and with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes and it was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present. The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church, once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The cuadrángulo was rarely a perfect square because the missionaries had no surveying instruments at their disposal and it was a doctrine established in 1531, which based the Spanish states right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them. It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos, the civilized and disciplined culture of the natives, developed over 8,000 year, was not considered. A total of 146 Friars Minor, mostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests, sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts, while the remainder returned to Europe due to illness, or upon completing their ten-year service commitmentSpanish missions in California – A view of Mission San Juan Capistrano in. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins."
94. Spanish missions in Florida – Augustine to the area around Tallahassee, southeastern Georgia, and some coastal settlements, such as Pensacola, Florida. A few short-lived missions were established in locations, including Mission Santa Elena in present-day South Carolina, around the Florida peninsula. The missions of what are now northern Florida and southeastern Georgia were divided into four provinces where the bulk of missionary effort took place. These provinces roughly corresponded to the areas where those dialects were spoken among the varying Native American peoples, thus, there were also ephemeral attempts to establish missions elsewhere, particularly further south into Florida. It ended in failure after six weeks with de Cancers death at the hands of the Tocobaga natives, the first Spanish missions to the Indians of Florida, starting with the foundation of St. Augustine in 1565, were attached to presidios. Between 1565 and 1567 ten presidios were established at major harbors from Port Royal Sound to Tampa Bay to prevent other European powers from establishing bases in the area, most of the presidios were unsustainable. By 1573 the only remaining presidios in Florida were St. Augustine and Santa Elena, the missions at the presidios were staffed by the Jesuits. Due to the hostility of the Indians, which resulted in the murder of several of the missionaries, franciscan friars entered into La Florida in 1573, but at first confined their activities to the immediate vicinity of St. Augustine. The Franciscans began taking their mission to the Guale and Timucua Indians along the Atlantic coast in 1587, starting in 1606 the Franciscans expanded their mission efforts westward across Timucua territory, and by 1633 had established missions in Apalachee Province. The network of missions took its heaviest blow with Carolina Governor James Moores raids into the area during Queen Annes War, most of the Spanish missions in the Apalachee Province were wiped out during the Apalachee massacre. The mission buildings of La Florida were built with posts set into the ground, the walls were palmetto thatch, wattle and daub or plank, or left open. The floors were clay, and scholars believe the roofs were thatched, the church buildings in the missions averaged some 20 m by 11 m. Other buildings situated within a palisade included a convento to house the missionaries, a barracks for the soldiers, the Spanish used the term province for the territory of a tribe or chiefdom. There was no fixed definition of province boundaries, as tribes and chiefdoms lost population and importance, the provinces associated with them would no longer appear in the records. Other provinces expanded to take in their territories, most of the people taken into the mission system were Timucua speakers. Three major groups that other languages were also taken into the mission system. The Guale Province was the territory the Guale, and covered what is now coastal Georgia, the Guale were among the first people to be taken into the mission system, in the 1580s. Later in the 17th century, Guale Province was sometimes referred to as extending southward, the Apalachee Province included the Apalachee people, who spoke a Muskogean language, and were brought into the mission system in the 1630sSpanish missions in Florida – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
95. Alonso de Molina – He also wrote a bilingual confessional manual for priests who served in Nahuatl-speaking communities. He was born in Extremadura, Spain in the Province of Cáceres and he grew up playing with monolingual Nahuatl speaking children in the streets as the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan was being refashioned into Mexico City, and so he became a fluent speaker of Nahuatl. In 1528, as a man, he entered the Franciscan convent of Mexico City becoming a friar. Juan Badiano, a student at the school, translated a Nahuatl herbal into Latin, besides his clerical duties, Molina devoted himself to the study, understanding and writing of Nahuatl. He composed and preached sermons in the Nahuatl tongue. It is still considered a tool for students of Classical Nahuatl language. According to James Lockhart, Molina went far beyond utilitarian basics to include a vast range of vocabulary, making many subtle semantic, molinas work creating Nahuatl language tools came under scrutiny by the Inquisition. Molina records many nouns from Spanish that became integrated into Nahuatl, el arte de la lengua mexicana y castellana de fray Alonso de Molina, morfología y composición. Fray Alonso de Molina y el proyecto indigenista de la orden seráfica, las doctrinas de Molina y Sahagún, similitudes y diferencias. La incidencia de hispanismos en los confessionarios mayor y menor de fray Alonso de Molina, un prólogo en náhuatl suscrito por Bernardino de Sahagún y Alonso de MolinaAlonso de Molina – Molina's dictionary.
96. Diego de Landa – Diego de Landa Calderón was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán. He is a figure in the Black Legend. Born in Cifuentes, Guadalajara, Spain, he became a Franciscan monk in 1541, Landa was in charge of bringing the Roman Catholic faith to the Maya peoples after the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. He presided over a monopoly granted to the Catholic Franciscan order by the Spanish crown. His initial appointment was to the mission of San Antonio in Izamal and he is the author of the Relación de las cosas de Yucatán in which he catalogues the Maya religion, Maya language, culture and writing system. The manuscript was written around 1566 on his return to Spain, however, the account is known only as an abridgement, which in turn had undergone several iterations by various copyists. After hearing of Roman Catholic Maya who continued to practice idol worship, he ordered an Inquisition in Mani, during the ceremony on July 12,1562, a disputed number of Maya codices and approximately 5000 Maya cult images were burned. The actions of Landa passed into the Black Legend of the Spanish in the Americas, only three pre-Columbian books of Maya hieroglyphics and, perhaps, fragments of a fourth are known to have survived. Collectively, the works are known as the Maya codices, Landas Inquisition showered a level of physical abuse upon the indigenous Maya that many viewed as excessive and was, at the very least, unusual. Scores of Maya nobles were jailed pending interrogation, and large numbers of Maya nobles, during hoisting, a victims hands were bound and looped over an extended line that was then raised until the victims entire body was suspended in the air. Often, stone weights were added to the ankles or lashes applied to the back during interrogation, some contemporary observers were troubled by this widespread use of torture. Additionally, Landa dispensed with much of the formal procedure and documentation that accompanied Spanish torture. Landa, however, perhaps inspired by intolerant fellow Franciscan Cardenal, Cisneros, Landa believed a huge underground network of apostasies, led by displaced indigenous priests, were jealous of the power the Church enjoyed and sought to reclaim it for themselves. The apostates, Landa surmised, had launched a counteroffensive against the Church, Landa claimed that he had discovered evidence of human sacrifice and other idolatrous practices while rooting out native idolatry. Lopez de Cogolludo, Landas chief Franciscan biographer, wrote of Landas firsthand experiences with human sacrifices, when Landa first came to the Yucatán, he made it his mission to walk the breadth of the peninsula and preach to the most remote villages. While passing through Cupules, he came upon a group of 300 about to sacrifice a young boy. Enraged, Landa stormed through the crowd, released the boy, smashed the idols and began preaching with such zeal and sincerity that they begged him to remain in the land, Landa was remarkable in that he was willing to go where no others would. He entered lands that had only recently conquered, where native resentment of Spaniards was still very intenseDiego de Landa – Diego de Landa, Bishop of Yucatán
97. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza – Blessed Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, a Spanish politician, administrator, and Catholic clergyman in 17th century Spain and viceregal Mexico. Palafox was the Bishop of Puebla, and the interim Archbishop of Mexico and he also held political office, from June 10,1642 to November 23,1642 as the Viceroy of New Spain. He lost a struggle with the Jesuits in New Spain, resulting in a recall to Spain. Although a case was opened for his beatification shortly after he died in 1659, born in Navarre, Spain, Don Juan Palafox y Mendoza was the natural son of Jaime de Palafox, the Marquis of Ariaza, of the Aragonese nobility. His mother became a Carmelite nun and he was taken in by a family of millers who gave him the name Juan and raised him for ten years, after which his father recognized him, and had him educated at Alcalá and Salamanca. Palafox was ordained in 1629, and became the chaplain of Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress and he accompanied her on her various trips around Europe. In 1639 Philip IV nominated him, and Pope Urban VIII appointed him, Puebla de los Ángeles was the second largest city in the Viceroyalty of New Spain then, and is the present day City of Puebla. He was consecrated at Madrid on December 27,1639, as bishop, Palafox arrived in Veracruz on June 24,1640. He was in the company of the new Viceroy of New Spain, Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona, whom he had gotten to know during the voyage. That same ship brought an Irishman, William Lamport, known in New Spain as Don Guillén de Lombardo y Guzmán, Palafox was also named Visitador, to investigate the two previous viceroys. He served as Bishop of Puebla from 1640 to 1655, and he was embroiled in a major controversy with the Jesuits over ecclesiastical jurisdiction that eventually cost him his post as Bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles. He was largely successful in doing so in Puebla and he then targeted the Jesuits as another entity that did not respect ecclesiastical jurisdiction by paying tithes, essentially a 10% tax on agricultural production, to the Church hierarchy. In the 1640s when he took on the Jesuits, Palafox pointed out that the Jesuit order was a wealthy landowner in New Spain. Jesuits claimed that the income from their haciendas went exclusively toward support of their educational institutions, on principle, Palafox asserted that it was the spiritual duty of all to pay the tithe, which the Jesuits steadfastly refused to do. The tithe transferred wealth from the landed estates to cities and towns, supporting the cathedral chapter, parish priests. Obviously, as a bishop, Palafox would have been interested in increasing gaining the revenue from Jesuit tithes. In 1647, the diocese of Puebla ordered all Jesuits to produce licenses from the diocese to preach and hear confession, something that was required under canon law, the Jesuits asserted they needed no such licenses, that they could exercise such powers without special permission of a bishop. Palafox wrote that if this were true, that the bishop had no power in his own diocese, the Jesuits found an ally against Palafox in the new viceroy, García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, 2nd Count of SalvatierraJuan de Palafox y Mendoza – Blessed Juan de Palafox
98. Eusebio Kino – Eusebio Francisco Kino, was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono OOdham, Sobaipuri and he proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions, Kino was born Eusebius Chinus in the village of Segno, then in the sovereign Prince-bishopric of Trent, a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Other sources cite his name as Eusebio Francesco Chini and his parents were Franciscus Chinus and Margherita Luchi. The exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on 10 August 1645 in the parish church, Kino was educated in Innsbruck, Austria, and after recuperating from a serious illness, he joined the Society of Jesus on 20 November 1665. From 1664-69, he received training as a member of the Society at Freiburg, Ingolstadt. After completing a stage of training in the Society, during which he taught mathematics in Ingolstadt. Although Kino wanted to go to the Orient, he was sent to New Spain, due to travel delays while crossing Europe, he missed the ship on which he was to travel and had to wait a year for another ship. While waiting in Cádiz, Spain, he wrote some observations, done during late 1680 and early 1681, about his study of a comet, which he published as the Exposición astronómica de el cometa. This publication was later the subject of a sonnet by the noted colonial nun and poet of New Spain, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, kinos first assignment was to lead the Atondo expedition to the Baja California peninsula of Las Californias Province of New Spain. He established the Misión San Bruno in 1683, after a prolonged drought there in 1685, Kino and the Jesuit missionaries were forced to abandon the mission and return to the viceregal capital of Mexico City. See also Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Father Kino began his career in the Pimería Alta on the morning of 14 March 1687,24 years and this was the morning he left Cucurpe, a town once considered the Rim of Christendom. Once Father Kino arrived in the Pimería Alta, at the request of the natives, subsequently Kino traveled across northern Mexico, and to present day California and Arizona. He followed ancient trading routes established millennia prior by the natives and these trails were later expanded into roads. His many expeditions on horseback covered over 50,000 square miles, Kino was important in the economic growth of the area, working with the already agricultural indigenous native peoples and introducing them to European seed, fruits, herbs and grains. He also taught them to raise cattle, sheep and goats, kinos initial mission herd of twenty cattle imported to Pimería Alta grew during his period to 70,000. Historian Herbert Bolton referred to Kino as Arizonas first rancher, in his travels in the Pimería Alta, Father Kino interacted with 16 different tribesEusebio Kino – Equestrian statue in Segno
99. Francisco Javier Clavijero – Francisco Javier Clavijero Echegaray, was a Mexican Jesuit teacher, scholar and historian. He was born in Veracruz of a Spanish father and a Criolla mother and his father worked for the Spanish crown, and was transferred with his family from one town to another. Most of the posts were to locations with a strong indigenous presence. The family lived at times in Teziutlán, Puebla and later in Jamiltepec. There was no mountain, dark cave, pleasant valley, spring, brook. He began his studies in Puebla, at the college of San Jerónimo for grammar, upon completion of these studies, he entered a seminary in Puebla, Puebla to study for the priesthood, but he soon decided to become a Jesuit instead. In February 1748 he transferred to a Jesuit college in Tepotzotlán, there he continued to study Latin and also learned ancient Greek, French, Portuguese, Italian, German, and English. In 1751 he was sent back to Puebla for further studies in philosophy, here he was introduced to the works of such contemporary thinkers as Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz. Next he was sent to Mexico City, to complete his theological and philosophical studies at the Colegio de San Pedro y Pablo, while still a student, he began teaching, and was made prefect of the Colegio de San Ildefonso. Later he was appointed to the chair of rhetoric in the Seminario Mayor of the Jesuits, in 1754, Clavijero was ordained a priest. He began to teach at the Colegio de San Gregorio, founded at the beginning of the era to teach Indian youth. Nevertheless, his time at San Gregorio was not without problems, Clavijero followed Sigüenza as an example in his investigations, and was very pleased with Sigüenzas benevolence to and love of the Indians. He also admired much of the culture of the Indians before their contact with Europeans, Clavijero never ceased to try to read the ideograms in diego luna. Clavijero was transferred to the Colegio de San Javier in Puebla and he taught there for three years. In 1764 he was transferred again, to Valladolid, to teach philosophy in the seminary there, more of a rationalist in philosophy than his predecessors, he was an innovator in the field. Good work in Valladolid got him promoted to the position in Guadalajara. It was in Guadalajara that he finished his treatise Physica Particularis, when Clavijero left the colony, he went first to Ferrara, Italy, but soon relocated to Bologna, Italy, where he lived the rest of his life. In Italy he devoted his time to his historical investigations, although he no longer had access to the Aztec codices, the reference works, and the accounts of the first Spanish conquistadors, he retained in his memory the information from his earlier studiesFrancisco Javier Clavijero – Francisco Javier Clavijero
100. Marcos de Niza – For the High School in Tempe, Arizona, see Marcos de Niza High School. Fray Marcos de Niza was a Franciscan friar and he is credited with being the first European in what is now the State of Arizona in the United States. In 1537 he arrived in Mexico City at the request of the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, el gran burlador de América, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Why did you do this to me http, //www. psi. edu/epo/coronado/journeyofmarcosdeniza. html The Mysterious Journey of Friar Marcos de Niza | www. psi. eduMarcos de Niza – Stone Inscription, thought by some to be a forgery from a time in the 1930s, very often (and perhaps wrongly) attributed to Fray Marcos de Niza, located in Pima Canyon near Phoenix, Arizona South Mountain Park.
101. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla – He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores, after his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, both of Hidalgos parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgos father was a manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgos parents would have three sons, José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, and José María. In 1759, enlightened despot Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain, he sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate. During this period, Don Cristobal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquin should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, at the age of fifteen Hidalgo was sent to Valladolid, Michoacán to study at the Colegio de San Francisco Javier with the Jesuits, along with his brothers. When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolas and he completed his preparatory education in 1770. After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning his degree in philosophy and his education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin, rhetoric and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages, such as Nahuatl, Otomi and he also studied Italian and French, which were not commonly studied in Mexico at this time. He earned the nickname El Zorro for his reputation for cleverness at school, Hidalgos study of French allowed him to read and study works of the Enlightenment current in Europe but, at the same time, forbidden by the Catholic church in Mexico. Hidalgo was ordained as a priest in 1778 when he was 25 years old, from 1779 to 1792, he dedicated himself to teaching at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid, it was one of the most important educational centers of the viceroyalty. He was a professor of Latin grammar and arts, as well as a theology professor, beginning in 1787, he was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary, becoming dean of the school in 1790 when he was 39. As rector, Hidalgo continued studying the liberal ideas that were coming from France, authorities ousted him in 1792 for revising traditional teaching methods there, but also for irregular handling of some funds. The Church sent him to work at the parishes of Colima and San Felipe Torres Mochas until he became the parish priest in Dolores, Guanajuato, succeeding his brother Felipe, who died in 1802. Although Hidalgo had an education for the priesthood, as an educator at the Colegio de San Nicolás, he had innovated in teaching methodsMiguel Hidalgo y Costilla – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
102. California mission clash of cultures – These aspects have received more research in recent decades. One of the assigned to early Spanish explorers of California was to report on the native peoples found there. The Portolá expedition of 1769-70 was the first European land exploration, several members of the expedition kept diaries that, among other things, described interactions with and observations about the natives. The most detailed of these diaries was by Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, a report written later by Pedro Fages, one of the expeditions military officers, was also influential. The priests offered beads, clothing, blankets, even food to the heathens to attract them to the prospects of mission life and convince them to move into the mission compound or a nearby village. Each Indian was expected to contribute a number of hours labor each week towards making adobes or roof tiles, working on construction crews, performing some type of handicraft. Women wove cloth, prepared meals, washed clothes, and were responsible for whatever domestic chores arose at the mission. In 1811, the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico sent an interrogatorio to all missions in Alta California regarding the customs, disposition, and condition of the Mission Indians. The replies, which varied greatly in length, spirit, and he sent the compilation to the viceregal government. The contemporary nature of the responses, no matter how incomplete or biased some may be, are nonetheless of considerable value to modern ethnologists, the Indians also spent much of their days learning the Christian faith, and attended worship services several times a day. Mexican secularization act of 1833 ended the mission system, much of the prime agricultural lands had Californios with Spanish land grants who remained, who tended to utilize the Indian peoples as a form of enslaved labor. The Mexican land grant period formed many more ranchos in California from mission, the Indians were purportedly often granted leave to visit their villages and participated in many ceremonies and celebrations throughout the year at the urging of their benefactors. Evidence has now brought to light that puts the Californian Native Americans experiences in a very different context. For instance, women were quartered separately from the men, regardless of marital status, in addition, Native American cultural and spiritual beliefs about marriage, love, and sex were routinely disrespected or punished. Indians were often subjected to punishment and other discipline as determined by the padres. The pre-contact population of California had been reduced by 33 percent during Spanish and Mexican rule, under American rule, when most of the twenty-one missions were in ruins, the loss of indigenous lives was catastrophic—80 percent died, leaving just 30,000 in 1870. And nearly half of losses were due not to disease. Baja California experienced a reduction in native population resulting from Spanish colonization efforts thereCalifornia mission clash of cultures
103. Cargo system – The cargo system is a collection of secular and religious positions held by men or households in rural indigenous communities throughout central and southern Mexico and Central America. These revolving offices, or cargos, become the responsibility of men who are active in civic life. They typically hold a given post for a term of one year, office holders execute most of the tasks of local governments and churches. Individuals who hold a cargo are generally obligated to incur the costs of feasting during the fiestas that honor particular saints, where it is practiced, there is generally some expectation of all local men to take part in this cargo system throughout their lives. Office holders assume greater responsibilities as they grow in stature in the community, after the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica in the 16th century, many Indians were forcibly relocated to pueblos, which like Spanish villages contained a church as the town center. The priests were mindful that much of their influence over the Indians stemmed from the ability to speak Indian languages. The colonial church did not insist on excessive Catholicization of existing indigenous practices, because the missionaries were small in number, they increasingly placed religious responsibilities in the hands of trusted members of the villages. The village mayor or alcalde was charged with the responsibility of leading the villagers in a procession to Sunday Mass, over time, these processions were conducted with greater ceremony, making use of trappings such as crosses, incense, and music. On occasion drawing on a Spanish institution called the cofradías, the created a hierarchy of village posts in order to better organize the religious. Indigenous people filled these roles, which in theory gave them greater status within the community and these roles, however, also placed economic obligations on their recipients and the clergy used them as a way to exercise control over the villagers. Villagers were obligated to organize efforts to discharge debts related to cost of food, wafers and wine for the Mass, indigenous peoples of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas Chance, John K. William B. Taylor. Cofradías and Cargos, An Historical Perspective on the Mesoamerican Civil-Religious Hierarchy, American Ethnologist, Vol.12, No.1. Changes in the Cargo Systems of MesoAmerica, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol.48, the Secularization of the Cargo System, An Example from Postrevolutionary Central Mexico. Latin American Research Review, Vol.16, No.2Cargo system – Colonization
104. Indian Reductions – Reductions or reducciones were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Latin America. The Spanish relocated native inhabitants, forcibly if necessary, into settlements which were modeled on towns, in Portuguese speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias. The policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503, the Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built. The concentration or reducción of the Indian population facilitated the Spaniards access to Indian labor, the promulgation of Christianity, moreover, the reduction of the Indians was intended to break down ethnic and kinship ties and detribalize the residents to create a generic Indian population. Reductions began in Mexico shortly after Cortéss conquest in the 1520s and were begun in Baja California in the 17th century, reductions in Mexico were more commonly known as congregaciones. Indian reductions in the Andes, mostly in present-day Peru and Bolivia, Indian reductions in the Andes Jesuit reductionsIndian Reductions – Colonization
105. Indigenous peoples of the Americas – The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, eventually, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence, North and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice ageIndigenous peoples of the Americas – Quechua women in Peru
106. Aztec – The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. The Nahuatl words aztecatl and aztecah mean people from Aztlan, a place for the Nahuatl-speaking culture of the time. Often the term Aztec refers exclusively to the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan, situated on an island in Lake Texcoco, who referred to themselves as Mēxihcah Tenochcah or Cōlhuah Mexihcah. From the 13th century, the Valley of Mexico was the heart of Aztec civilization, here the capital of the Aztec Triple Alliance, the Triple Alliance formed a tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle, Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as achieving remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments. Subsequently, the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the ruined Aztec capital, the term extends to further ethnic groups associated with the Aztec empire such as the Acolhua and Tepanec and others that were incorporated into the empire. In older usage the term was used about modern Nahuatl speaking ethnic groups. In recent usage these ethnic groups are referred to as the Nahua peoples. Linguistically the term Aztecan is still used about the branch of the Uto-Aztecan languages that includes the Nahuatl language and its closest relatives Pochutec, to the Aztecs themselves the word aztec was not an endonym for any particular ethnic group. Rather it was a term used to refer to several ethnic groups, not all of them Nahuatl speaking. In the Nahuatl language aztecatl means person from Aztlan and this usage has been the subject of debate in more recent years, but the term Aztec is still more common. For the same reason the notion of Aztec civilization is best understood as a horizon of a general Mesoamerican civilization. Particular to the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan was the Mexica patron God Huitzilopochtli, twin pyramids, the Aztec Empire was a tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan that extended its power throughout Mesoamerica in the late postclassic period. Soon Texcoco and Tlacopan became junior partners in the alliance, which was de facto led by the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, the empire extended its power by a combination of trade and military conquest. The political clout of the empire reached far south into Mesoamerica conquering cities as far south as Chiapas and Guatemala, the Nahua peoples began to migrate into Mesoamerica from northern Mexico in the 6th century. They populated central Mexico, dislocating speakers of Oto-Manguean languages as they spread their influence south. As the former nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples mixed with the civilizations of Mesoamerica, adopting religious and cultural practices. During the Postclassic period they rose to power at such sites as Tula, in the 12th century the Nahua power center was in Azcapotzalco, from where the Tepanecs dominated the valley of MexicoAztec – The Aztec Pyramid at St. Cecilia Acatitlan, State of Mexico
107. Huastec people – The ancient Huastec civilization is one of the pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. The Pre-Columbian Huastecs constructed temples on step-pyramids, carved independently standing sculptures and they were admired for their abilities as musicians by other Mesoamerican peoples. The Huastecs were conquered by the Spanish between 1519 and the 1530s, after the Spanish Conquest, many Huastecs were sold as slaves in the Caribbean by the Spanish. The first grammatical and lexical description of the Huastec language accessible to Europeans was by Fray Andrés de Olmos, studies of language change, especially glottochronology, have given linguists the tools to estimate the point in time when many pairs of languages diverged from their common ancestral tongue. The procedure depends on the assumption that change, in the absence of widespread literacy. Of all the languages descended from Proto-Mayan, the language was the first to split from Mayan proper. The second split, in the main branch, was between proto-Yucatecan, now spoken across the Yucatán Peninsula, and the ancestors of all other Maya languages. The only other language, besides Huastec, which arose from proto-Huastecan was Chicomuceltec, a language spoken in Chiapas near Comitán. Linguists have approximated that the precursor to the language of the Huastecs diverged from the Proto-Mayan language between 2200 and 1200 BCE. Linguist Morris Swadesh posited the later date as the latest possible time for this split to have occurred, mcQuown suggests 1500 BCE, Manrique Castaneda 1800 BCE, and Dahlin 2100 BCE as the most likely dates for the split. Robertsons work on verb affixes in the Mayan languages implies that the Huastecs were in contact with the branch of Mayan. In Proto-Mayan, absolutives could be marked either by a prefix or a suffix and this feature was retained in Qanjobal, but lost in other branches. Huastec appears to have influenced by proto-Tzeltal, resulting in such innovations as the preposition ta. Huastec people lived north of Totonacs in the corner of Mesoamerica. Huastec people spoke Mayan, which was a trade language to be spoken at the time. Their art was influenced by the area resulting in shell artifacts. Amongst their art they also made pots, gaming stones, platform pipes and these items were often made from shells and made into shape of human heads, engraved shell gorgets, fan headdresses, and of hunch backed humans. At least three languages are spoken in parts of the region today, Nahuatl, spoken especially in VeracruzHuastec people – Huastec stone sculpture – AMNH
108. Mixtec people – The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the class and generally richer. In recent times, a reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs mixteco de la costa whose language is related to that of the Low Mixtecs, they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca. The Mixtec languages form a branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other, like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million, today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States. The term Mixtec comes from the Nahuatl word mixtecah, cloud people, there are many names that the Mixtecs have for naming themselves, ñuù savi, nayívi savi, ñuù davi, nayivi davi. etc. This all denominations can be translated as people of the rain, the historic homeland of Mixtec people is La Mixteca, called in Mixtec language Ñuu Savi, Ñuu Djau, Ñuu Davi, etc. depending on the local variant. They call their language saan davi, daan davi or tuun savi, in pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla, Cuilapan, Huajuapan, Mitla, Tlaxiaco, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, the Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán. The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone, wood, according to West, the Mixtec of Oaxaca. were the foremost goldsmiths of Mesoamerica, which included the lost-wax casting of gold and its alloys. At the height of the Aztec Empire, many Mixtecs paid tribute to the Aztecs and they put up resistance to Spanish rule until they were subdued by the Spanish and their central Mexican allies led by Pedro de Alvarado. Mixtecs have migrated to parts of both Mexico and the United States. In recent years a large exodus of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, such as the Zapotec, as of 2011, an estimated 150,000 Mixteco people were living in California, and 25,000 to 30,000 in New York City. Large Mixtec communities exist in the cities of Tijuana, Baja California, San Diego, California and Tucson. Mixtec communities are generally described as trans-national or trans-border because of their ability to maintain, there is considerable documentation in the Mixtec native language for the colonial era, which has been studied as part of the New Philology. There is considerable Mixtec documentation for land issues, but sparse for market activity, long distance trade existed in the prehispanic era and continued in indigenous hands in the early colonialMixtec people – Turquoise mosaic mask. Mixtec-Aztec, 1400-1521 AD
109. Totonac people – The Totonac /ˈtoʊtoʊˌnɑːk/ people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and they are one of the possible builders of the pre-Columbian city of El Tajín, and further maintained quarters in Teotihuacán. Until the mid-19th century they were the main producers of vanilla. The term totonac refers to the living in Totonacapan, some authors had translated the term totonac as a Nahuatl word meaning People of Hot Land. The translation for this according to the Totonac Language is tutunacu meaning Three Hearts signifying their three cities or cultural centers, Cempoala, Tajin and Teayo. In the 15th century, the Aztecs labeled the region of the Totonac Totonacapan, Totonacapan was largely hot and humid. Along with the agricultural crops of maize, manioc, squash, beans, pumpkin and chili peppers. Even during the disastrous central Mexican famine of 1450-1454, the region remained an agricultural center. At that time, many Aztecs were forced to sell themselves or their members as slaves to the Totonac in exchange for subsistence maize. There is an absence of comals, metates and manos meaning the Totonacs did not eat tortillas, however. The Totonacs ate fruit most notably zapotes, guavas, papayas, plantains, men hunted and fished shark, turtle, deer, armadillo, opossums, and frogs. Peasants as well as nobles ate corn porridge in the morning, lunch was the main meal of the day and consisted of manioc, bean stew or even a rich meat sauce for the nobles. Fish and seafood as well as game was eaten by both nobles and farmers, Totonac women were expert weavers and embroiderers, they dressed grandly and braided their hair with feathers. The Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún stated that, in all aspects of their appearance, the women were quite elegant, women wore skirts, noble women wore shell and jade necklaces and earrings and often tattooed their faces with red ink. Married women wore their hair in the Nahuatl fashion while peasant women wore their hair long, likewise, the noble men dressed well, adorning themselves with multicolored cloaks, loin cloths, necklaces, arm bands, lip plugs and devices made of the prized quetzal feathers. Hair was kept long with a tuft of hair on the top tied up with a ribbon. Houses were generally thatched and had an overhang, the region of Totonacapan was subject to Aztec military incursions from the mid-15th century until the Spanish arrival. Despite the e tablishment of Aztec fortifications throughout the region, rebellion was endemic, major Totonac centers were Papantla, with an estimated population of 60,000 in 1519, Xalapa, and CempoalaTotonac people – Totonacs of Papantla, Veracruz performing the " voladores " ritual
110. Mam people – The Mam are an indigenous people in the western highlands of Guatemala and in south-western Mexico who speak the Mam language. Most Mam live in Guatemala, in the departments of Huehuetenango, San Marcos, the Mam people in Mexico live principally in the soconusco region of Chiapas. In pre-Columbian times the Mam were part of the Maya civilization, many Mam live in and around the nearby modern city of Huehuetenango. The city of Quetzaltenango or Xela was originally Mam, many more Mam live in small hamlets in the mountains of northern Guatemala, keeping many of their native traditions. Many Mam are bilingual and speak both Spanish as well as the Mam language, part of the Maya language family, the latter typically as their first languageMam people – Mam
111. Guanajatabey – The Guanahatabey were an indigenous people of western Cuba at the time of European contact. Archaeological and historical studies suggest the Guanahatabey were archaic hunter-gatherers with a language and culture from their neighbors. They may have been a relict of a culture that spread widely through the Caribbean before the ascendance of the agriculturalist Taíno. They lived in what is now Pinar del Río Province and parts of Habana, archaeological surveys of the area reveal an archaic population of hunter-gatherers. They lived outdoors and in caves, they made no houses, unlike the neighboring Taíno they practiced no agriculture and subsisted mostly on shellfish and foraging, and supplemented their diet with fish and game. They were aceramic, and made stone, shell, and bone tools using grinding, the language of the Guanahatabey is lost except for a handful of placenames. However, it appears to have been distinct from the Taíno language, similar cultures existed in southern Florida at roughly the same time, though this may be simply an independent adaptation to a similar environment. It is possible the Guanahatabey were related to the Taíno, though no characteristically Taíno sites have ever found in their territory. Columbus visited the Guanahatabey region in April 1494, during his second voyage, the expedition encountered the locals but their Taíno interpreters could not communicate with them, implying they spoke a different language. The first recorded use of the name Guanahatabey is in a 1514 letter by the conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, both writers described the Guanahatabey as primitive cave-dwellers who chiefly ate fish. The accounts are second-hand, evidently coming from Taíno informants, as such, scholars such as William F. Keegan cast doubt on these reports as they could reflect Taíno legends about the Gaunahatabey rather than reality. The Spanish made sporadic references to the Guanahatabey and the language into the 16th century. They seem to have disappeared before any information about them was recorded. In the 20th century, misreadings of the record led scholars to confuse the Guanahatabey with another Cuban group. As many of sites were found in the former Guanahatabey region of western Cuba. However, this appears to be an error, las Casas distinguished between the Gaunahatabey and the Ciboney, who were a western Taíno group of central Cuba subject to the eastern chiefs, the Peoples of the Caribbean, An Encyclopedia of Archeology and Traditional CultureGuanajatabey – The Guanahatabey region in relation to Taíno and Island Carib groups
112. Mission Indians – Spanish explorers arrived on Californias coasts as early as the mid-16th century. In 1769 the first Spanish Franciscan mission was built in San Diego, local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Disease, starvation, over work, and torture decimated these tribes, many were baptized as Roman Catholics by the Franciscan missionaries at the missions. Mission Indians were from many regional Native American tribes, their members were often relocated together in new mixed groups, for instance, the Payomkowishum were renamed Luiseños after the Mission San Luis Rey, and the Acjachemem were renamed the Juaneños after the Mission San Juan Capistrano. The Catholic priests forbade the Indians from practicing their native culture, resulting in the disruption of many linguistic, spiritual. When Mexico gained its independence in 1834, it assumed control of the Californian missions from the Franciscans, Mexico secularized the missions and transferred or sold the lands to other non-Native administrators or owners. Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions, around 1906 Alfred L. Kroeber and Constance G. On January 12,1891 the U. S, in 1927, Sacramento Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington was instructed by Assistant Commissioner E. B. Merritt in Washington D. C. to list tribes in California that Congress had not yet purchased land to be used as reservations. As part of the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act enrollment, Native Americans were asked to identify their “Tribe or Band. ”The majority of applicants supplied the name of the mission that they knew their ancestors were associated with. The enrollment was part of a plan to provide reservation lands promised, some bands also occupy trust lands—Indian Reservations—identified under the Mission Indian Agency. The Mission Indian Act of 1891 formed the administrative Bureau of Indian Affairs unit which governs San Diego County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, there is one Chumash reservation in the last county, and more than thirty reservations in the others. Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, and Orange counties do not contain any tribal trust lands. But, resident tribes, including the Tongva in the first and these and the tribal governments of fifteen other reservations operate casinos today. The total acreage of the Mission group of reservations constitutes approximately 250,000 acres, los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians Manzanita Band of Mission Indians Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians Mission Creek Band of Mission Indians - Mission Creek Reservation of Cahuilla. Morongo Band of Mission Indians Pala Band of Mission Indians Pauma Band of Mission Indians Pechanga Band of Mission Indians Ramona Band or Village of Mission Indians San Cayetano Band of Cahuilla. San Manuel Band of Mission Indians San Miguel Arcangel, descandants of Mission San Miguel Indians in San Miguel, Mythology of the Mission Indians, The Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XVII, No. Two Myths of the Mission Indians of California, Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XIX, a Native American Encyclopedia, History, Culture, and PeoplesMission Indians – Ruin of the Indian quarters, Mission San Luis Rey
113. Chumash people – They also occupied three of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel, the smaller island of Anacapa was likely inhabited seasonally due to the lack of a consistent water source. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Malibu, Nipomo, Lompoc, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Piru, Lake Castaic, Saticoy, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area, the Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources, the tribe lived in an area of three environments, the interior, the coast, and the Northern Channel Islands. These provided an array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the plains, rivers. The coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the ocean winds. The mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy, during the cold months, what villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land covered by trees and animals. Abundant resources and a winter rarely harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory, such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources, due to advanced canoe designs, coastal and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a source of nutrition, relatively easy to find. Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones, shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring, their proximity to shore made collection easier. Some of the species included mussels, abalone, and a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested this species along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era, the Chumash and other California Indians also used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads, ornaments, and other artifacts. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish and this feat, difficult even for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoeChumash people – Pictographs, Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park
114. Kumeyaay people – The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, formerly Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the US and Baja California in Mexico, in Spanish, the name is commonly spelled Kumiai. The Kumeyaay consist of two related groups, the Ipai and Tipai, the two coastal groups traditional homelands were approximately separated by the San Diego River, the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not widely agreed upon, the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages, Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, and Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two, Ipai and Tipai, the term Kumeyaay means those who face the water from a cliff. Both Ipai and Tipai mean people, some Kumeyaay in the southern areas also refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means people of the earth. Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement, in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory,7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions, the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land extending from the Pacific Ocean to present Ensenada, Mexico, the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe also used to inhabit what is now a state park. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, katherine Luomola suggests that the nucleus of later Tipai-Ipai groups came together around AD1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe that they have lived in San Diego for 12,000 years, at the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, and domestic animals, under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including arable, in 1875, President Ulysses Grant created reservations in the area, and additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians. The reservations tended to be small and lacked water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural labor, however. For their common welfare, several formed the non-profit Kumeyaay. The colleges focus is on Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts and it serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego countyKumeyaay people – Anthony Pico, chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay
115. Miwok – The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in their native language, anthropologists commonly divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups. These distinctions were unknown among the Miwok before European contact, plains and Sierra Miwok, from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Coast Miwok, from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County, Lake Miwok, from Clear Lake basin of Lake County. Bay Miwok, from location of Contra Costa County. The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs officially recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, the Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They had domesticated dogs and cultivated tobacco, but were otherwise hunter-gatherers, the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is partially due to cultivation by Miwok tribes. They burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine, nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs, seeds, and fungi. Animals were hunted with arrows, clubs or snares, depending on the species, grasshoppers were a highly prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River. The Miwok ate meals according to rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption, primarily in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California, Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated respectively with land and water. These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with men and women. Similarly to soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost, the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up. The 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, and the 1930 Census,491, see history of each Miwok group for more informationMiwok – Miwok
116. Tongva people – The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering approximately 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are also known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built near their territory, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000, many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago. These migrants either absorbed or pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region, by 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded widely with neighboring peoples, over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family. There may have five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542 and this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina, in 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades later, California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared, the endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been widely adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh. Two of the groups are the result of a split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva as the tribe of the Los Angeles Basin. In 2008, more than 1,700 people identified as Tongva or claimed partial ancestry, the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for house, Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called Kīj, suggesting that the words were distinct. The term Kizh was generally used at that time to designate the language, in 1875, Yarrow indicated that the name Kizh was unknown at Mission San Gabriel. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning settlers, in 1885, Hoffman also referred to the natives as Tobikhar. The word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant and he spelled it Tong-vā, by his orthography, it would be pronounced /ˈtɒŋveɪ/, TONG-vayTongva people – Mrs. James Rosemeyre (née Narcisa Higuera), photographed here in 1905, was one of the last fluent Tongva speakers. An informant for the ethnographer C. Hart Merriam, she was the source of the widely used endonym Tongva.
117. Apache – APACHE II is a severity-of-disease classification system, one of several ICU scoring systems. The first APACHE model was presented by Knaus et al. in 1981, APACHE II was designed to measure the severity of disease for adult patients admitted to intensive care units. It has not been validated for use in children or young people aged under 16, predicted mortalities are averaged for groups of patients in order to specify the groups morbidity. Even though newer scoring systems, such as SAPS II, have replaced APACHE II in many places, the calculation method is optimized for paper schemas, by using integer values and reducing the number of options so that data fits on a single-sheet paper form. The score is not recalculated during the stay, it is by definition an admission score, if a patient is discharged from the ICU and readmitted, a new APACHE II score is calculated. In the original paper that described the APACHE II score. A method to compute a refined score known as APACHE III was published in 1991, the score was validated on the dataset from 17,440 adult medical/surgical intensive care unit admissions at 40 US hospitals. The prognostic system of APACHE III has two options,1, APACHE III Score This provides an initial risk classification of severely ill hospitalized patients in defined groups. When possible, data about the time between the patient´s arrival to hospital and the ICU admission time are collected. To measure severity of disease 20 physiologic variable were selected, APACHE III scores range from 0 to 299. Reformulated Glasgow Coma parameters to eliminate almost identical scores for different neurological signs would give better and more reliable resultsApache
118. Coahuiltecan people – Coahuiltecan people is a collective name for the many small, autonomous bands of Native Americans who inhabited southernmost Texas, the Rio Grande valley and adjacent Mexico. The survivors were absorbed into the Hispanic population of southern Texas or northern Mexico, in 1886, ethnologist Albert Gatschet found perhaps the last survivors of Coahuiltecan bands,25 Comecrudo,1 Cotoname, and 2 Pakawa. They were living near Reynosa, Mexico, the name given to the Coahuiltecans derives from Coahuila, the state in which some of them lived. The word Coahuila derives from a Nahuatl word and they lived on both sides of the Rio Grande. Their neighbors along the Texas coast were the Karankawa, and inland to their northeast were the Tonkawa, to their north were the Jumano and, later, the Lipan Apache and Comanche. People of similar hunting and gathering livelihood lived throughout northeastern Mexico, although living near the Gulf of Mexico, most of the Coahuiltecans were inland people. Near the Gulf for more than 70 miles both north and south of the Rio Grande, there is fresh water, which limited the opportunity to live near. Most modern linguists, however, discount this theory for lack of evidence, at least seven different languages are known to have been spoken, one of which is called Coahuiltecan or Pakawa, spoken by a number of bands near San Antonio. The best known of the languages are Comecrudo and Cotoname, both spoken in the delta of the Rio Grande and Pakawa, vocabularies of several languages were compiled in the 18th and 19th century, but the language samples are too small to establish relationships between and among the languages. The names of more than one thousand bands or ethnic groups were recorded, primarily by Spanish explorers and priests, band names and their composition doubtless changed frequently. Most of the bands apparently numbered between 100 and 500 people, the total population of non-agricultural Indians, including Coahuiltecans, in northeastern Mexico and neighboring Texas has been estimated by two different scholars as 86,000 and 100,000. Possibly 15,000 of these lived in the Rio Grande delta, a small group of African blacks was recorded as living in the delta in 1757. Smallpox and slavery decimated the Coahuiltecans in the Monterrey area by the mid 17th century, however, after a Franciscan Roman Catholic Mission was established in 1718 at San Antonio, indigenous population of the people declined rapidly, especially from smallpox epidemics beginning in 1739. Most groups disappeared before 1825, their remnants absorbed by the diverse population of Texas or Mexico. Coahuiltecan lifeways, in the words of one scholar, “represent the culmination of more than 11,000 years of a way of life that had adapted to the climate and resources of south Texas. ”They shared the common traits of being non-agricultural and living in small autonomous bands with no political unity above the level of the band. They were nomadic hunter-gatherers, carrying their possessions on their backs as they moved from place to place to exploit sources of food that might be available only seasonally. At each campsite, they built small huts with frames of four bent poles which they covered with woven mats. At times, they together in large groups of several bands and hundreds of people, but most of the time their encampments were small, consisting of a few hutsCoahuiltecan people – Drawing of a Coahuilteco man
119. Hualapai – The Hualapai is a federally recognized Indian tribe in Arizona with over 2300 enrolled members. Approximately 1353 enrolled members reside on the Hualapai Indian reservation, which spans three counties in Northern Arizona. The name, meaning people of the trees, is derived from hwa, l. Their traditional territory is a 108-mile stretch along the southern side of the Grand Canyon. The Hualapai tribe is a nation and governed by an executive and judicial branch. The tribe provides a variety of social, cultural, educational, the Hualapai language is a Pai branch of the Yuman–Cochimí languages, also spoken by the closely related Havasupai, and more distantly to Yavapai people. It is still spoken by most people over 30 on the Reservation as well as young people. The Peach Springs School District runs a bilingual program for all local students. The Hualapai Indian Reservation, covering 1,142 square miles, was created by the Presidential Executive order of Chester A. Arthur on January 4,1883, major traditional ceremonies of the Hualapai include the Maturity ceremony and the Mourning ceremony. Nowadays the modern Sobriety Festival is also celebrated in June, the souls of the dead are believed to go northwestward to a beautiful land where plentiful harvest grow. This land is believed to be only by Hualapai spirits. Traditional Hualapai dress consists of full suits of deerskin and rabbit skin robes, conical houses formed from cedar boughs using the single slope form called a Wikiup. The Hualapai Reservation was created by order in 1883 on lands that just four regional bands considered as part of their home range. The other Hualapai regional bands lived far away from the current reservation land, the war broke out in May 1865, when the Hualapai leader Anasa was killed by a man named Hundertinark in the area of Camp Willow Grove and in March 1866. In response, a man named Clower was killed by the Hualapai, the most important and principal Hualapai leaders at that time were, Wauba Yuba, Sherum, Hitchi Hitchi and Susquatama. It was not until William Hardy and the Hualapai leaders negotiated an agreement at Beale Springs that the raids. However, the agreement lasted only nine months when it was broken with the murder of Chief Wauba Yuba near present-day Kingman during a dispute with the Walker party over the treaty, after the chiefs murder, raids by the Hualapai began in full force on mining camps and settlers. The cavalry from Fort Mojave responded, with the assistance of the Mohave, by attacking Hualapai rancherias, the pivotal engagement took place in January 1868, when Captain S. B. MHualapai – Ta'thamiche, a Hualapai
120. La Junta Indians – La Junta Indians is a collective name for the various Indians living in the area known as La Junta de los Rios on the borders of present-day West Texas and Mexico. In 1535 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca recorded visiting these peoples while making his way to a Spanish settlement and they cultivated crops in the river floodplains, as well as gathering indigenous plants and catching fish from the rivers. They were part of a trading network in the region. As a crossroads, the area attracted people of different tribes, in the eighteenth century, the Spanish set up missions in the area and the Native Americans gradually lost their tribal identifications. After suffering severe population losses through disease, the Spanish slave trade, and attacks by raiding Apache and Comanche. The Rio Grande and the Conchos River unite near the cities of Presidio, Texas. The Conchos is more than twice as large as the Rio Grande, the area was named La Junta by Spanish explorers for the confluence, or junction, of rivers. A mile-wide floodplain extends from La Junta 35 miles upstream to Ruidosa and 18 miles downstream to Redford on the Rio Grande, the floodplain supports a thick growth of reeds, mesquite, willows, and groves of cottonwood trees. Two terraces rise 20 and 60 feet above the floodplain, only desert vegetation grows on the terraces. The La Junta Indians lived on the terraces and used the floodplain for agriculture, fishing, hunting, rugged mountains ring the river valley and terraces. La Junta is near the center of the Chihuahua Desert and receives an average of 10.8 inches of precipitation annually, summers are very hot and winters are mild, although freezes are frequent. The abundant water, plant, and animal life attracted indigenous peoples to the La Junta region for thousands of years, settled village life, with agriculture supplementing traditional hunting and gathering, began by 1200 A. D. Archaeologists suggest that La Junta was settled as an expansion southeastward of the Jornada Mogollon culture and people who lived around present-day El Paso, Texas,200 miles up the Rio Grande. It may also have influenced by Casas Grandes, a notable prehistoric Indian civilization of the late 14th century located 200 miles west in present-day Mexico. Its people built complex communities with multi-story buildings and used highly developed systems to support agriculture. Based on recent research of architectural styles and mortuary practices, scholars believe that the people of La Junta may have been indigenous to the area, between 1450 and 1500 many of the Jornada Mogollon settlements in western Texas were abandoned, possibly because of drought that made agriculture infeasible. The inhabitants possibly reverted to a culture that has left few traces in the archaeological record. The settlements at La Junta apparently survived the drought, although changes in the types of dwellings occurred and distinctive, the architectural styles of the houses and mortuary practices differ from the MogollonLa Junta Indians – La Junta is located at the confluence of the Conchos River and the Rio Grande. The Conchos River is the larger of the two.
121. Quechan people – Not to be confused with Quechua, South American language. The Quechan are a Native American tribe who live on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation on the lower Colorado River in Arizona, members are enrolled into the Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. The federally recognized Quechan tribes main office is located in Fort Yuma and its operations and the majority of its reservation land are located in California, United States. The term Patayan is used by archaeologists to describe the prehistoric Native American cultures who inhabited parts of modern day Arizona, California and these areas included territory near the Colorado River Valley, the nearby uplands, and north to the vicinity of the Grand Canyon. The prehistoric people may have been ancestral to the Quechan and they practiced floodplain agriculture where possible, but relied heavily on hunting and gathering. The first significant contact of the Quechan with Europeans was with the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza, the chief Palma and his three companions were baptized in Mexico City on February 13,1777. Palma was given the Spanish baptismal name Salvador Carlos Antonio, Spanish settlement among the Quechan did not go smoothly, the tribe rebelled from July 17–19,1781 and killed four priests and thirty soldiers. They also attacked and damaged the Spanish mission settlements of San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer and Puerto de Purísima Concepción, the following year, the Spanish retaliated with military action against the tribe. After the United States annexed the territories after winning the Mexican-American War, during which, the historic Fort Yuma was built across the Colorado River from the present day Yuma, Arizona. Estimates for the populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Quechan at 2,500, jack D. Forbes compiled historical estimates and suggested that before they were first contacted, the Quechan had numbered 4,000 or a few more. Kroeber estimated the population of the Quechan in 1910 as 750, by 1950, there were reported to be just under 1,000 Quechan living on the reservation and another 1, 100+ off it. The 2000 census reported a resident population of 2,376 persons on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, more than 27 percent identified as white. The Quechan language is part of the Yuman language family, the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation is a part of the Quechans traditional lands. Established in 1884, the reservation, at 32°47′N 114°39′W, has an area of 178.197 km2 in southeastern Imperial County, California. Both the county and city are named for the tribe, warriors of the Colorado, The Yumas of the Quechan Nation and Their Neighbors. Kroeber, A. L. Handbook of the Indians of California, a Native American Encyclopedia, History, Culture, and Peoples. Traders and Raiders, The Indigenous World of the Colorado Basin, chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina PressQuechan people – Quechan tribal seal
122. Aridoamerica – Aridoamerica is term coined in 1988 to denote a cultural region spanning the northern and central regions of Mexico and small parts of the Southwest United States. Mesoamerica lies to the south and east, and Oasisamerica to the north and these cultural regions overlap each other. Unlike Mesoamerica, Aridoamerica has a dry, arid climate and geography, because of the hard conditions, the precolumbian people in this region had cultures and subsistence patterns distinct from their Mesoamerican neighbors. The region has only 120 cm to 160 cm of annual precipitation, the sparse rainfall feeds seasonal creeks and waterholes. The Chichimeca, a term for several tribes used by the Nahua people, were hunter-gatherers in Aridoamerica grasslands. They gathered magueys, yucca flowers, mesquite beans, chia seeds, the century plant is a particularly important resource in the region. Despite dry conditions, Aridoamerica boasts the greatest diversity of wild, maize cultivation reached Aridoamerica by about 2100 BCE. Archaeologists disagree whether the plant was introduced by Uto-Aztecan migrants from Mesoamerica or spread either northward or southward from other groups by cultural borrowing, in Baja California, fishing and hunting provided food, as did harvesting acorns, nopal, pine nuts, and other native plants. Historically, people of Aridoamerica coppiced willows, that is, tree trunks were cut to a stump to encourage the growth of slender shoots and these willow shoots were woven tightly to produce waterproof, cooking baskets. Fired-heated rocks were plunged into a gruel in the baskets to cook, cave, City, and Eagles Nest, An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No.2. Cordell, Linda S. and Don D. Fowler, eds, Southwest Archaeology in the Twentieth Century. Salt Lake City, University of Utah Press,2005, genetic Resources of Phaseolus Beans, Their maintenance, domestication, evolution and utilizationAridoamerica – T-shaped doorway at Paquimé
123. Chichimeca – Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to many bands and tribes of nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited northern modern-day Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term barbarian to describe people living outside settled, the name and its pejorative sense was adopted by the Spanish. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, in modern times only one ethnic group is customarily referred to as Chichimecs, namely the Chichimeca Jonaz of whom a few thousand live in the state of Guanajuato. The Chichimeca peoples were groups of varying ethnicities and speaking distinct languages from different families. As the Spaniards worked towards consolidating the rule of New Spain over the indigenous peoples during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a number of ethnic groups of the region allied against the Spanish. The first and most long-lasting of these conflicts was the Chichimeca War, for example, virtually nothing is known about the peoples referred to as the Guachichil, Caxcan, Zacateco, Tecuexe, or Guamare. Others, such as the Opata or Eudeve, are described in records. Still other Chichimec peoples maintain separate identities into the present day, for example the Otomi, Chichimeca Jonaz, Cora, Huichol, Pame, Yaqui, Mayo, Oodham, the Nahuatl name Chīchīmēcah means inhabitants of Chichiman, the placename Chichiman means Area of Milk. It is sometimes said to be related to dog, but the is in chichi are short while those in Chīchīmēcah are long. In modern Mexico, the word Chichimeca can have pejorative connotations, such as primitive, savage, uneducated, the first descriptions of Chichimecs are from the early conquest period. In 1526, Hernán Cortés writes in one of his letters of the northern Chichimec tribes and he commented that they might be enslaved and used to work in the mines. The Chicimec, Caxcanes and other people of Northern Mexico fought back against Spanish forces such as Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán when they began trying to enslave them. Their fight against Spanish forces became known as the Mixtón Rebellion, in the late sixteenth century, Gonzalo de las Casas wrote about the Chichimec. Las Casas account was called Report of the Chichimeca and the justness of the war against them and he described the people, providing ethnographic information. He wrote that only covered their genitalia with any clothing, painted their bodies. He mentions as further proof of their barbarity that Chichimec women, having given birth, while las Casas recognized that the Chichimecan tribes spoke different languages, he considered their culture as primarily uniform. This stereotype became even more prevalent during the course of the Chichimec wars, in some areas, the Chichimeca cultivated maize and calabash. From the mesquite, the Chichamecs made white bread and wine, many Chichimec tribes used the juice of the agave as a substitute for water when it was in short supplyChichimeca – Map of the location of prominent Chichimeca peoples around 1550.
124. Muscogee people – The Muscogee, also known as the Creek and the Creek Confederacy, are a group of related Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Originally from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and northern Florida, Muscogee people were relocated in the early 19th century to Indian Territory, Alabama, Louisiana. Their languages, Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family, the Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century, the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered to be civilized under George Washingtons civilization plan. The result was a weakening of the Creek Nation and the ceding of Creek lands to the US. During the Indian Removal of the 1830s, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory, at least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a range of animals, including the megafauna. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BCE to 1000 CE, locals developed pottery, the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to urban centers and regional chiefdoms, stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, and flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 CE. The early historic Muscogee were descendants of the builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee, Georgia. They may have related to the Tama of central Georgia. At the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, many centers of the Mississippians were already in decline. The region is best described as a collection of moderately sized native chiefdoms interspersed with autonomous villages. After Cabeza de Vaca, a castaway who survived the ill-fated Narváez expedition, returned to Spain, Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first expedition into the interior of the North American continent. De Soto, convinced of the riches, wanted Cabeza de Vaca to go on the expedition, from 1540–1543, de Soto explored through present-day Florida and Georgia, and then westward into the Alabama and Mississippi area. The areas were inhabited by historic Muscogee Native Americans, de Soto brought with him a well-equipped army. He attracted many recruits from a variety of backgrounds who joined his quest for riches in the Americas, as the de Soto expeditions brutalities became known to the indigenous peoples, they decided to defend their territory. The Battle of Mabila was a point for the de Soto venture, the battle broke the back of the Spanish campaignMuscogee people – Muscogee portraits
125. Seminole – The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida. The word Seminole is a corruption of cimarrón, a Spanish term for runaway or wild one, Seminole culture is largely derived from that of the Creek, the most important ceremony is the Green Corn Dance, other notable traditions include use of the black drink and ritual tobacco. As the Seminole adapted to Florida environs, they developed local traditions, such as the construction of open-air, historically the Seminole spoke Mikasuki and Creek, both Muskogean languages. The Seminole became increasingly independent of other Creek groups and established their own identity and they developed a thriving trade network during the British and second Spanish periods. The tribe expanded considerably during this time, and was supplemented from the late 18th century by free blacks and escaped slaves who settled near. The latter became known as Black Seminoles, although they kept their own Gullah culture, after the United States achieved independence, its settlers increased pressure on Seminole lands, leading to the Seminole Wars. The Seminole were first confined to a large inland reservation by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek, by 1842, most Seminoles and Black Seminoles had been removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, perhaps fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida after the Third Seminole War, but they fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence. In the late 19th century, the Florida Seminole re-established limited relations with the U. S. government, few Seminole moved to reservations until the 1940s, they reorganized their government and received federal recognition in 1957 as the Seminole Tribe of Florida. The more traditional people near the Tamiami Trail received federal recognition as the Miccosukee Tribe in 1962, old crafts and traditions were revived in the mid 20th century as Seminoles began seeking tourism dollars when Americans began to travel more on the countrys growing highway system. The word Seminole is derived from cimarrón, a Spanish term for runaway or wild one, the people who constituted the nucleus of this Florida group either chose to leave their tribe or were banished. At one time the terms renegade and outcast were used to describe this status and they never signed a peace treaty with the United States. Native American refugees from northern wars, such as the Yuchi and Yamasee after the Yamasee War in South Carolina and they spoke primarily Hitchiti, of which Mikasuki is a dialect, which is the primary traditional language spoken today by Miccosukee in Florida. In Cuba the Florida tribes suffered high mortality due to disease, in Florida, the Creeks had earlier intermingled with the Choctaw and other few remaining indigenous people. The Seminole were a tribe made up of mostly Lower Creeks from Georgia. At that time, numerous refugees of the Red Sticks migrated south and they were Creek-speaking Muscogee, and were the ancestors of most of the later Creek-speaking Seminole. In addition, a few hundred escaped African-American slaves had settled near the Seminole towns and, to an extent, Native Americans from other tribes. The unified Seminole spoke two languages, Creek and Mikasuki, two among the Muskogean languages family, Creek became the dominant language for political and social discourse, so Mikasuki speakers learned it if participating in high-level negotiationsSeminole – Seminole portraits
126. Timucua – The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, the various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the Timucua language. At the time of European contact, the occupied by speakers of Timucuan dialects occupied about 19,200 square miles. The name Timucua came from the used by the Saturiwa to refer to the Utina. The Spanish came to use the more broadly for other peoples in the area. Eventually it became the term for all peoples who spoke what is known as the Timucuan language. While alliances and confederacies arose between the chiefdoms from time to time, the Timucua were never organized into a political unit. The various groups of Timucua speakers practiced several different cultural traditions, the people suffered severely from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity. By 1595, their population was estimated to have reduced from 200,000 to 50,000. By 1700, the population of the tribe had been reduced to 1000, warfare against them by the English colonists and native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century. The word Timucuan may derive from Thimogona or Tymangoua, a used by the Saturiwa chiefdom of present-day Jacksonville for their enemies, the Utina. Both groups spoke dialects of the Timucua language, the French followed the Saturiwa in this usage, but the Spanish applied the term Timucua much more widely to groups within a wide section of interior North Florida. In the 16th century they designated the area north of the Santa Fe River between the St. Johns and Suwannee Rivers as the Timucua Province, which they incorporated into the mission system, the dialect spoken in that province became known as Timucua. During the 17th century, the Province of Timucua was extended to include the area between the Suwannee River and the Aucilla River, thus extending its scope, eventually, Timucua was applied to all speakers of the various dialects of the Timucua language. The pre-Columbian era was marked by regular, routine, and probably small tribal wars with neighbors, the Timucua were organized into as many as 35 chiefdoms, each of which had hundreds of people in assorted villages within its purview. They sometimes formed loose political alliances, but did not operate as a political unit. It is the oldest archaeological site in the city, the Timucua may have been the first American natives to see the landing of Juan Ponce de León near St. Augustine in 1513. This notion is up for debate since most historians now agree that the Ponce de León landing point was likely much further south in Ais territoryTimucua – One of the engravings based on Jacques le Moyne 's drawings, depicting Athore, son of the Timucuan chief Saturiwa, showing René Laudonnière a monument placed by Jean Ribault
127. Mangyan peoples – Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups found on the island of Mindoro, southwest of the island of Luzon, the Philippines, each with its own tribal name, language, and customs. The ethnic groups of the island, from north to south, are, Iraya, Alangan, Tadyawan, Tawbuid, Buhid, an additional group on the south coast is labelled Ratagnon. They appear to be intermarried with lowlanders, the group known on the east of Mindoro as Bangon may be a subgroup of Tawbuid, as they speak the western dialect of that language. They also have a kind of poetry which is called the Ambahan, the Mangyans were once the only inhabitants of Mindoro. Today, the Mangyans live secludedly in remote parts of Mindoro and their sustenance are farming for their own crops, fruits, and hunting. A division was created among the people of Mindoro when the Spaniards came, there were the Iraya Mangyans, who isolated themselves from the culture of the Spaniards, and the lowland Christians who submitted themselves to a new belief system. These two groups only interacted for economic matters through trading forest goods from the Mangyan and consumer goods for the lowlanders, despite being grouped as one tribe, Mangyans differ in many ways. In comparison to the advance between the two geographical divisions, the Southern tribes are more advanced as seen in their use of weaving, pottery. The Northern tribes, on the hand, are simpler in their way of living. Their language, as in the rest of the Philippines, came from the Austronesian language family, however, even if they are defined as one ethnic group, the tribes used different languages. On the average, they only share 40% of their vocabulary, the tribes have also varied physical and ethnogenetic appearances, Iraya has Veddoid features, Tadyawan are mainly Mongoloid, and the Hanunuo looks like a Proto-Malayan. Another difference between tribes is the date of their arrival in the Philippines, a theory suggests that the Southern tribes were already present by 900 AD while the Northern tribes are believed to have arrived hundreds of years ahead of their Southern peers. The Spanish authorities had documented their existence since their arrival in the 16th century, however, historians suggest that the Mangyans may have been the first Filipinos to trade with the Chinese. Examples of this relationship are seen in the caves, as porcelains. However, not much research has been made except for the tribal. Mangyans lived in societies as compared to the head hunting tribes of North Luzon. Social scientists theorized that some societies become peaceful because their system of norms and values reward peaceful behavior, peaceful societies are characterized by egalitarian social organization without status competition between men and without asymmetric relationship between men and women. Another theory posited that populations adapt, therefore, offering a more logical explanation why Mangyans preferred to retreat in the hinterlands and they accept peaceful submissiveness when they encounter lowland settlers, missionaries, traders and government officialsMangyan peoples – A Mangyan woman in traditional attire, c. 1912