1. Spanish colonial empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish colonial empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
2. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
3. Mexico City – Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political, administrative and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crownMexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
4. Tenochtitlan – Mexico-Tenochtitlan, commonly known as Tenochtitlan was a Mexica located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. Founded on June 20,1325, it became the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century, at its peak it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in Mexico Citys downtown. Tenochtitlan was one of two Nahua āltēpetl on the island, the other being Tlatelolco, traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is often thought to mean, Among the prickly pears rocks. However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as the Bancroft dialogues suggest the second vowel was short, Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2, situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. At the time of Spanish conquests, Mexico City comprised both Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco, the city was connected to the mainland by causeways leading to the north, south, and west. The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city, the city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes, since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish. During the reign of Moctezuma I, the levee of Nezahualcoyotl was constructed, estimated to be 12 to 16 km in length, the levee was completed circa 1453. The levee kept fresh spring-fed water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km long and made of terracotta, provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing, for drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day, Moctezuma was said to take four baths a day. According to the context of Aztec culture in literature, the soap that they most likely used was the root of a plant called copalxocotl, and to clean their clothes they used the root of metl. Also, the classes and pregnant women washed themselves in a temazcalli, similar to a sauna bath. This was also popular in other Mesoamerican cultures, and some of our soldiers even asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream. I do not know how to describe it, seeing things as we did that had never heard of or seen before. The city was divided into four zones, or campan, each campan was divided into 20 districts, there were three main streets that crossed the city, each leading to one of the three causeways to the mainland of Tepeyac, Ixtapalpa, and TlacopanTenochtitlan – Model of the temple district of Tenochtitlan at the National Museum of Anthropology
5. Aztec Empire – The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. The Triple Alliance was formed from the faction in a civil war fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces. Despite the initial conception of the empire as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Tenochtitlan quickly became dominant militarily. By the time the Spanish arrived in 1519, the lands of the Alliance were effectively ruled from Tenochtitlan, the alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as hegemonic or indirect, the Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. In return, the imperial authority offered protection and political stability, the state religion of the empire was polytheistic, worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities. Many had officially recognized cults large enough so that the deity was represented in the temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan. The imperial cult, specifically, was that of Huitzilopochtli, the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica, peoples in conquered provinces were allowed to retain and freely continue their own religious traditions, so long as they added the imperial god Huitzilopochtli to their local pantheons. The word Aztec in modern usage would not have used by the people themselves. The name comes from a Nahuatl word meaning people from Aztlan, for the purpose of this article, Aztec refers only to those cities that constituted or were subject to the Triple Alliance. For the broader use of the term, see the article on Aztec civilization, Nahua peoples descended from Chichimec peoples who migrated to central Mexico from the north in the early 13th century. According to the pictographic codices in which the Aztecs recorded their history, Early migrants settled the Basin of Mexico and surrounding lands by establishing a series of independent city-states. These early Nahua cities were ruled by petty kings called tlahtohqueh, most of the existing settlements, which had been established by other indigenous peoples before the Nahua migration, were assimilated into Nahua culture. These early city-states fought various small-scale wars with other, but due to shifting alliances. The Mexica were the last of Aztlan migrants to arrive in Central Mexico and they entered the Basin of Mexico around the year 1250 AD, and by then most of the good agricultural land had already been claimed. The Mexica persuaded the king of Culhuacan to allow them to settle in a relatively infertile patch of land called Chapultepec, the Mexica served as hired mercenaries for Culhuacan. After they served Culhuacan in battle, the appointed one of his daughters to rule over the Mexica. According to mythological native accounts, the Mexica instead sacrificed her by flaying her skin, when the king of Culhuacan learned of this, he attacked and used his army to drive the Mexica from Tizaapan by forceAztec Empire – Jaguar Warrior, from the Codex Magliabechiano.
6. Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire – The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before, in fact, Cortés had never commanded men in battle before. However, there was a generation of Spaniards who participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices, in their advance, the allies were tricked and ambushed several times by the people they encountered. When Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, Alvarado allowed a significant Aztec feast to be celebrated in Tenochtitlan and on the pattern of the earlier massacre in Cholula, closed off the square and massacred the celebrating Aztec noblemen. The biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre, the Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city. When the captured emperor Motecuhzoma II, now seen as a puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace. Cortés had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the city during the Noche Triste in June,1520. The Spanish, Tlaxcalans and reinforcements returned a year later on August 13,1521 to a civilization that had wiped out by famine. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs, the fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish overseas empire, with New Spain, which later became Mexico, a major component. The Spanish conquerors could and did write accounts that narrated the conquest from the first landfalls in Mexico to the victory over the Mexica in Tenochtitlan on August 13,1521. Indigenous accounts are from particular native viewpoints and as the events had a impact on their polity. All accounts of the conquest, Spanish and indigenous alike, have biases, in general, Spanish accounts do not credit their indigenous allies support. Individual conquerors accounts exaggerate that individuals contribution to the conquest, downplaying other conquerors, indigenous allies accounts stress their loyalty to the Spanish and their particular aid as being key to the Spanish victory. Their accounts are similar to Spanish conquerors accounts contained in petitions for rewards and these were almost immediately published in Spain and later in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, Cortéss right-hand man, Pedro de Alvarado did not write at any length about his actions in the New World, two letters to Cortés about Alvarados campaigns in Guatemala are published in The Conquistadors. Rather than it being a petition for rewards for services, as many Spanish accounts were, the account was used by eighteenth-century Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero in his descriptions of the history of Mexico. On the indigenous side, the allies of Cortés, particularly the Tlaxcalans, wrote extensively about their services to the Spanish Crown in the conquest, the most important of these are the pictorial Lienzo de Tlaxcala and the Historia de Tlaxcala by Diego Muñoz CamargoSpanish conquest of the Aztec Empire – Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas. Spanish: Conquista de México por Cortés
7. Central America – Central America is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, Central America consists of seven countries, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The combined population of Central America is between 41,739,000 and 42,688,190, Central America is a part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot, which extends from northern Guatemala through to central Panama. Due to the presence of several active faults and the Central America Volcanic Arc. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur frequently, these disasters have resulted in the loss of many lives. In the Pre-Columbian era, Central America was inhabited by the peoples of Mesoamerica to the north and west. Soon after Christopher Columbuss voyages to the Americas, the Spanish began to colonize the Americas, the seven states finally became independent autonomous states, beginning with Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala, followed by El Salvador, then Panama, and finally Belize. Middle America is usually thought to comprise Mexico to the north of the 7 states of Central America as well as Colombia, usually the whole of the Caribbean to the north-east and sometimes the Guyanas are also included. According to one source, the term Central America was used as a synonym for Middle America as recently as 1962, in Brazil, Central America comprises all countries between Mexico and Colombia, including those in the Caribbean. Mexico, in whole or in part, is included by British people. For the people living in the 5 countries formerly part of the Federal Republic of Central America there is a distinction between the Spanish language terms América Central and Centroamérica, in the Pre-Columbian era, the northern areas of Central America were inhabited by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica. Most notable among these were the Mayans, who had built numerous cities throughout the region, and the Aztecs, following Christopher Columbuss voyages to the Americas, the Spanish sent many expeditions to the region, and they began their conquest of Maya territory in 1523. Soon after the conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado commenced the conquest of northern Central America for the Spanish Empire. Beginning with his arrival in Soconusco in 1523, Alvarados forces systematically conquered and subjugated most of the major Maya kingdoms, including the Kiche, Tzutujil, Pipil, and the Kaqchikel. By 1528, the conquest of Guatemala was nearly complete, with only the Petén Basin remaining outside the Spanish sphere of influence, the last independent Maya kingdoms – the Kowoj and the Itza people – were finally defeated in 1697, as part of the Spanish conquest of Petén. In 1538, Spain established the Real Audiencia of Panama, which had jurisdiction over all land from the Strait of Magellan to the Gulf of Fonseca. This entity was dissolved in 1543, and most of the territory within Central America then fell under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia Real de Guatemala. This area included the current territories of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Mexican state of Chiapas, the president of the Audiencia, which had its seat in Antigua Guatemala, was the governor of the entire areaCentral America – Central America, 1798
8. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
9. Spanish Florida – Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery. La Florida formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Spains claim to this vast area was based on several wide-ranging expeditions mounted during the 16th century. However, Spain never exercised control over La Florida much beyond several settlements and forts which were predominantly located in present-day Florida. Spanish Florida was established in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León claimed peninsular Florida for Spain during the first official European expedition to North America, the presidio of St. Spanish control of the Florida peninsula was made possible by the collapse of native cultures during the 17th century. Several Native American groups had been long-established residents of Florida, during the mid-1700s, small bands of Creek and other Native American refugees began moving south into Spanish Florida after having been forced off their lands by English settlements and raids. They were later joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies and these newcomers - plus perhaps a few surviving descendants of indigenous Florida peoples - eventually coalesced into a new Seminole culture. The extent of Spanish Florida began to shrink in the 1600s, between disease, poor management, and ill-timed hurricanes, several Spanish attempts to establish new settlements in La Florida ended in failure. The War of Jenkins Ear included a British attack on St. Augustine, at the conclusion of the war, the northern boundary of Spanish Florida was set near the current northern border of modern-day Florida. Great Britain temporarily gained control of Florida beginning in 1763 as a result of the Anglo-Spanish War, France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803. The U. S. claimed that the transaction included West Florida, as with earlier American incursions into Florida, Spain protested this invasion but could not defend its territory, and instead opened diplomatic negotiations seeking a peaceful transfer of land. By the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, Spanish Florida ceased to exist in 1821, anonymous Portuguese sailors were likely the first Europeans to map the southeastern portion of the future United States. They kept their discoveries secret, however, and did not attempt to establish settlements or explore very far inland, in 1512 Juan Ponce de León, governor of Puerto Rico, received royal permission to search for land north of Cuba. On March 3,1513, his expedition departed from Punta Aguada, Puerto Rico, in late March, he spotted a small island but did not land. On April 2, Ponce de León spotted the east coast of the Florida peninsula and went ashore the next day at an exact location that has been lost to time. Assuming that he had found an island, he claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida, because it was the season of Pascua Florida. After briefly exploring the area around their landing site, the returned to their ships and sailed south to map the coast. The expedition followed Floridas coastline all the way around the Florida Keys, popular legend has it that Ponce de León was searching for the Fountain of Youth when he discovered Florida. Ponce de León probably was not the first Spaniard to reach Florida, evidence suggests that Spanish raiders from the Caribbean had conducted small secret expeditions to Florida to capture Indian slavesSpanish Florida – Florida from the 1502 Cantino planisphere
10. Spanish West Indies – The Spanish West Indies or Spanish Antilles was the former name of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean. It became a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain when the viceroyalty was created in 1535, the islands that later became the Spanish West Indies were the focus of the voyages of Christopher Columbus in America. Largely due to the familiarity that Europeans gained from Columbuss voyages, the Spanish West Indies were also the most enduring part of Spains American Empire, only being surrendered in 1898 at the end of the Spanish–American War. For over three centuries, Spain controlled a network of ports in the Caribbean including Havana, San Juan, Cartagena de Indias, some smaller islands were ceded to other European powers as a result of war, or diplomatic agreements during the 17th and 18th centuries. Others such as Dominican Republic gained their independence in the 19th century, the Bay Islands were ceded to England in 1643 and then to Honduras in 1861. Colony of Santiago—Jamaica was lost to England in 1655, confirmed in the Treaty of Madrid, the Cayman Islands were lost to England in the Treaty of Madrid. Haiti was lost to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, Trinidad was lost to Britain during the Invasion of Trinidad, confirmed in the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Captaincy General of Santo Domingo gained its independence from Spain as Spanish Haiti in 1821, then from Haiti as the Dominican Republic, captaincy General of Cuba was lost to the United States in 1898, after the Spanish–American War concluded by the Treaty of Paris. Captaincy General of Puerto Rico was lost to the United States in 1898, today, the Spanish Caribbean or the Hispanophone Caribbean, refers to the Spanish-speaking areas in the Caribbean Sea, chiefly Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. It includes regions where Spanish is the language, and where the legacy of Spanish settlement and colonization influences culture, through religion, language, cuisine. The varieties of Spanish that predominate in this region are known collectively as Caribbean Spanish, the term is used in contrast to Anglophone Caribbean, French Caribbean, and Dutch Caribbean, which are other modern linguistic divisions of the Caribbean region. The Hispanophone Caribbean is a part of the wider Hispanic America, historically, coastal areas of Spanish Florida and the Caribbean South America were closely tied to the Spanish Caribbean. Until the early 19th century these territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in addition to the Greater Antilles, the Caribbean islands of Venezuela could be included as well, due to the fact they are in the Caribbean. These islands are grouped into two divisions, the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela and the State of Nueva Esparta. The following is a list of islands belonging geographically to the Greater and Lesser Antilles, method of Securing the Ports and Populations of All the Coasts of the Indies was written in 1694 and discusses the Spanish West IndiesSpanish West Indies – Flag
11. Spanish East Indies – The Spanish East Indies were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899. They comprised the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, Cebu was the first seat of government, later transferred to Manila. From 1565 to 1821 these territories, together with the Spanish West Indies, were administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City, the King of Spain traditionally styled himself King of the East and West Indies. After Mexican independence, they were ruled directly from Madrid, administrative affairs of the Spanish East Indies were handled by the Captaincy General of the Philippines and the Real Audiencia of Manila. The few remaining islands were ceded to the United States when the Treaty of Washington was ratified in 1901, Spanish contact began on 6 March 1521, when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan reached the Mariana Islands. He named Guam and the other islands Islas de los Ladrones because the natives came aboard his galleon, the expedition later continued its journey west and reached the island of Homonhon in the eastern Philippines on 16 March, with only 150 crewmen. There they were able to communicate with the local peoples because the Malayan interpreter, Enrique of Malacca, Miguel López de Legazpi set out from Mexico, and established the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines in 1565, which became the town of San Miguel in present-day Cebu. In 1571, the city of Manila was founded and made seat of the Spanish Captaincy General of the Philippines and these and other Asian territories claimed by the Spanish crown were to be governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. The Manila-Acapulco galleons shipped products gathered from both Asia-Pacific and the Americas, such as silk, spices, silver, gold and other Asian-Pacific islander products to Mexico, in 1606, the Spaniards established some form of trade links with the Maluku Islands and remained until 1663. Contacts with Japan were also established and Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent as ambassador in 1611, on the north eastern coastal region of Taiwan, the Spaniards built Fort Santo Domingo near Keelung in 1626 and a mission in Tamsui in 1628, which they occupied until 1642. In 1668, Blessed Diego Luis de San Vitores established the first mission on Guam, in 1762 British troops briefly captured the city of Manila during the Seven Years War. The British promised support for an uprising led by Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela, under the peace settlement Manila was exchanged, along with British-occupied Havana, for Florida and Minorca. It was handed back to Spanish authorities in April 1764, the Seven Years War prompted Charles III to initiate extensive governmental reforms throughout the overseas possessions. An intendencia was established in Manila in 1784 to handle the government finances, in a similar vein, to promote innovation and education among the residents of the islands, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. For over 256 years, the Spanish East Indies were governed by a general. All economic matters of the Philippines were managed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in 1821 the New Spanish Viceroyalty collapsed following the Mexican War of Independence, which resulted in the First Mexican Empire. In 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Islas Carolinas Islas Marianas Islas Palau The Spanish used several names that are not currently used. Gran Moluca for the island of Mindanao and Nueva Castilla for Luzon, because Spanish interest in the region was primarily focused on its use as a base for trade with East Asia, direct Spanish control over the area expanded slowlySpanish East Indies – Map of the Spanish East Indies (1857)
12. New Mexico – New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, Mexico, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico. New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the stateNew Mexico – Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
13. Louisiana (New Spain) – Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, who had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682 and it is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded to France, under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, in 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 15 October, effecting the transfer and outlining the conditions. However, Spain agreed to continue administering the colony until French officials arrived and formalized the transfer. The ceremony was conducted at the Cabildo in New Orleans on 30 November 1803, Spain was largely a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana, Cuba, and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain. During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American revolutionists through New Orleans, in keeping with being absentee landlords, Spanish efforts to turn Louisiana into a Spanish colony were usually fruitless. For instance, while Spanish officially was the language of government. Even official business conducted at the Cabildo often lapsed into French, when Alejandro OReilly re-established Spanish rule in 1769, he issued a decree on December 7,1769, which banned the trade of Native American slaves. Although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others. A group of maroons led by Jean Saint Malo resisted re-enslavement from their base in the swamps east of New Orleans between 1780 and 1784, on May 4,1795,57 slaves and three local white men were put on trial in Point Coupee. Spanish colonial officials divided Luisiana into Upper Louisiana and Lower Louisiana at 36°35 North, in 1764, French fur trading interests founded St. Louis in what was then known as the Illinois Country. The Spanish referred to St. Louis as the city of Illinois, in 1778, several ships embarked for Louisiana with hundreds of settlers. The ships made stops in Havana and Venezuela, where half the settlers disembarked, in the end, between 2,100 and 2,736 Canarians arrived in Louisiana and settled near New Orleans. They settled in Barataria and in what is today St. Bernard Parish, however, many settlers were relocated for various reasons. Barataria suffered hurricanes in 1779 and in 1780, it was abandoned, in 1782, a splinter group of the Canarian settlers in Saint Bernard emigrated to Valenzuela. In 1779, another ship with 500 people from Málaga, arrived in Spanish Louisiana and these colonists, led by Lt. Col. Francisco Bouligny, settled in New Iberia, where they intermarried with Cajun settlers. In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War and the Anglo-Spanish War, Bernardo de Gálvez recruited men from the Canarian settlements of Louisiana and Galveston to join his forces. They participated in three military campaigns, the Baton Rouge, the Mobile, and the Pensacola, which expelled the British from the Gulf CoastLouisiana (New Spain)
14. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
15. Hispanic America – Hispanic America, more generally called Spanish America, is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas. These countries have significant commonalities with other and with Spain. In all of these countries, Spanish is the language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Catholic Christianity is the predominant religion, Hispanic America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil under the term Ibero-America, meaning those countries in the Americas with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula. Hispanic America also contrasts with Latin America, which not only Hispanic America. Hispanic America became the part of the vast Spanish Empire. Napoleons takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, by 1830, the only remaining Spanish American and Asian territories were Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War. While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Spanish America, its people, history and it was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the year in Montevideo. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the coat of arms of the medieval Crown of CastileHispanic America – Asunción
16. Peninsular War – The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleons empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, the Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas, the British Army, under the then Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. The demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of Gen, in the following year Wellington scored a decisive victory over King Josephs army at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a burden on Frances Grande Armée. The Spanish armies were beaten and driven to the peripheries. This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had provoked a total war. War and revolution against Napoleons occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, the burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850. The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion, revolution and restoration led to the independence of most of Spains American colonies, the Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered, and Russia allied with France, Napoleon expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom, furthermore, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I, had declined to join the emperors Continental System against British trade. After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne, meanwhile the Portuguese governments resolve was stiffening, and shortly afterward Napoleon was once again told that Portugal would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junots corps to cross the frontier into Spain, while all this was going on, the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau had been signed between France and Spain. The document was drawn up by Napoleons marshal of the palace Géraud Duroc and Eugenio Izquierdo, the treaty proposed to carve up Portugal into three entities. Porto and the part was to become the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania. The southern portion, as the Principality of the Algarves, would fall to Godoy, the rump of the country, centered on Lisbon, was to be administered by the French. According to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Junots invasion force was to be supported by 25,500 men in three Spanish columns, Gen. Taranco and 6,500 troops were ordered to march from Vigo to seize Porto in the north. Capt. Gen. Solano would advance from Badajoz with 9,500 soldiers to capture Elvas, Gen. Caraffa and 9,500 men were instructed to assemble at Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, and cooperate with Junots main forcePeninsular War – The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes by Francisco de Goya, 1814
17. Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valleyChile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
18. Ferdinand VII – Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain, in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired and to his detractors as the Felon King and he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers, under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low, historian Stanley Payne says, He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious, and vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth and he thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Charles IV of Spain, Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. The Queens confessor Fray Juan Almaraz wrote in his last will that she admitted in articulo mortis that none, none of her sons and daughters, none was of the legitimate marriage. In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent who was excluded from all share in government by his parents and their advisor and Prime Minister. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805, in October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents, following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand ascended the throne and turned to Napoleon for support and he abdicated on 6 May 1808. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Chateau of Valençay, while the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleons choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country, marking the beginning of the Peninsular War, provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king. After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, on 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, and negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain, the Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too closely to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the years a new world had been born of foreign invasion. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America, Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy he had relinquished six years earlier. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812, before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, but, only gave lukewarm indications he would do soFerdinand VII – Portrait by Vicente López y Portaña
19. Brazil – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes also called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called PindoramaBrazil – Megaliths in the Solstice Archaeological Park, in Amapá, erected between 500 and 2000 years ago, probably to carry out astronomical observations.
20. Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil – The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil refers to the escape of the Queen Maria I of Portugal, Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29,1807. The Braganza royal family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1, the Portuguese crown remained in Brazil from 1808 until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 led to the return of John VI of Portugal on April 26,1821. The prince regent of Portugal at the time, John VI, had governed the country on behalf of Maria I of Portugal since 1799. Anticipating the invasion of Napoleons army, John VI ordered the transfer of the Portuguese royal court to Brazil before he could be deposed. On December 5, almost halfway between Lisbon and Madeira, Sidney Smith, along with Britains envoy to Lisbon, Lord Strangford, returned to Europe with part of the British flotilla. Graham Moore, a British sailor and career officer in the Royal Navy, continued escorting the Portuguese royal family to Brazil with the ships Marlborough, London, Bedford, on January 22,1808, John and his court arrived in Salvador, Brazil. There, Prince John signed a law opening commerce between Brazil and friendly nations such as the United Kingdom and this new law, however, broke the colonial pact that had permitted Brazil to maintain direct commercial relations with Portugal only. Coutinhos secret negotiations paved the way for Prince Johns law to come to fruition in 1808, on March 7,1808, the court arrived in Rio de Janeiro. On December 16,1815, John created the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, Brazilian representatives were elected to the Portuguese Constitutional Courts. In 1816, with the death of Queen Maria, Prince John became king of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, after several delays, the ceremony of his acclamation took place in Rio de Janeiro in 1818. In Rio de Janeiro, he established a powder factory, a botanical garden, an art academy. All these measures advanced Brazils independence from Portugal, owing to the absence of the king and the economic independence of Brazil, Portugal entered a severe political crisis that obliged John VI and the royal family to return to Portugal in 1821. The heir of John VI, Pedro I, remained in Brazil, the Portuguese Cortes demanded that Brazil return to its former status as a colony and the return of the heir to Portugal. Prince Pedro, influenced by the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Senate, Brazil declared its independence on 7 September 1822, forming the Empire of Brazil, ending 322 years of colonial dominance of Portugal over Brazil. Pedro was crowned the first emperor in Rio de Janeiro on 12 October 1822, the Portuguese court’s tenure in Rio de Janeiro created the conditions which led to Brazil’s independence. With the court’s arrival, Rio de Janeiro saw an increase in its population. This, coupled with increases in trade and subsequent immigration, transformed the city into an economic center in the New World. In 1815, this resulted in Brazil being declared a co-kingdom with Portugal and this was in part because its burgeoning independent identity had had an effect on Pedro, King John’s oldest son and first emperor of BrazilTransfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil – The Royal family, preparing to move to Brazil
21. Age of Enlightenment – The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. In France, the doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy. French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715, the year that Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution, some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes of the widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses. The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church, a variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution, earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, and Baruch Spinoza. The major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence, others like James Madison incorporated them into the Constitution in 1787. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie, the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking and his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter. His skepticism was refined by John Lockes 1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding and his dualism was challenged by Spinozas uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines, the political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. Francis Hutcheson, a philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words. Much of what is incorporated in the method and some modern attitudes towards the relationship between science and religion were developed by his protégés David Hume and Adam Smith. Hume became a figure in the skeptical philosophical and empiricist traditions of philosophy. Immanuel Kant tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority, as well as map out a view of the sphere through privateAge of Enlightenment – German philosopher Immanuel Kant
22. American Revolution – The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress determined King George IIIs rule to be tyrannical and infringing the rights as Englishmen. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but then captured and they blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washingtons forces. After a failed Patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured at the Battle of Saratoga in late 1777, a combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies, in 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles, none did and Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes on the colonies for the first time. All official documents, newspapers, almanacs, and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps, the colonists did not object that the taxes were high, but because they had no representation in the Parliament. Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire, stationing a standing army in Great Britain during peacetime was politically unacceptable. London had to deal with 1,500 politically well-connected British officers who became redundant, in 1765, the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, boycott, violence, and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable, in Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765, moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances stating that taxes passed without representation violated their rights as Englishmen. Colonists emphasized their determination by boycotting imports of British merchandise, the Parliament at Westminster saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to levy any tax without colonial approvalAmerican Revolution – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress
23. Spanish monarchy – The Monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as the Crown, is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain. It used to be called the Hispanic Monarchy. The monarchy comprises the monarch, his or her family. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI, his wife Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain. The 1978 constitution affirmed the role of the King of Spain as the personification and embodiment of the Spanish State, constitutionally, the king is the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. According to the constitution, the monarch is also instrumental in promoting relations with the nations of its historical community, the King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, purportedly representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008, Juan Carlos I was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, a dynastic marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon united Spain in the 15th century. The last pretender of the Crown of the Byzantine Empire, Andreas Palaiologos, sold his title to Ferdinand II of Aragon. However, there is no evidence that any Spanish monarch has used the Byzantine imperial titles, the Spanish Empire became one of the first global powers as Isabella and Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbuss exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. This led to the discovery of America, which became the focus of Spanish colonization, in 2010, the budget for the Spanish monarchy was 7.4 million euros, one of the lowest public expenditures for the institution of monarchy in Europe. One of the earliest influential dynasties was the House of Jiménez which united much of Christian Iberia under its leadership in the 11th century. From Sancho III of Navarre until Urraca of León and Castile, the Jiménez rulers sought to bring their kingdoms into the European mainstream and often engaged in cross-Pyrenees alliances and marriages, and became patrons to Cluniac Reforms. Urracas son and heir Alfonso VII of León and Castile, the first of the Spanish branch of the Burgundy Family, was the last to claim the title of Spain. The Castilian Civil War ended with the death of King Peter at the hands of his illegitimate half-brother Henry, Henry II became the first of the House of Trastámara to rule over a Spanish kingdom. King Peters heiress, his granddaughter Catherine of Lancaster, married Henry III, reuniting the dynasties in the person of their son, each kingdom retained its basic structure. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs conquered the Kingdom of Granada in southern Spain and this date marks the unification of Spain. The territories of the Spanish empire overseas were dependencies of the crown of Castile, in the early 16th century, the Spanish monarchy controlled several territories in Europe under the Habsburg King Charles I, son of Queen Joanna of Castile. His reign ushered in the Spanish Golden Age a period of colonial expansionSpanish monarchy – King of Spain
24. Samurai – Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean those who serve in close attendance to the nobility, the pronunciation in Japanese changing to saburai. According to Wilson, a reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became almost entirely synonymous with bushi, the samurai were usually associated with a clan and their lord, and were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of then Japans population, following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD, which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform and this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, and the later Yōrō Code, the population was required to regularly for census. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military and these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in-return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system and it was called Gundan-Sei by later historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks and those of 6th rank and below were referred to as samurai and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these samurai were civilian public servants, the word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to as samurai for many more centuries, Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of seii-taishōgun, or Shogun, and began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperors preferred tool for putting down rebellions, though this is the first known use of the Shogun title, it was a temporary title, and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court, ultimately, Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the Emperors power gradually declined, while the Emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, through protective agreements and political marriages, they accumulated, or gathered, political power, eventually surpassing the traditional aristocracy. Some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their landsSamurai – Samurai in armor, 1860s. Hand-coloured photograph by Felice Beato.
25. Acapulco – Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico,380 kilometres south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the colonial period of Mexicos history. It is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States, the city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also Mexicos largest beach and balneario resort city, the city is best known as one of Mexicos oldest and most well-known beach resorts, which came into prominence in the 1950s as a getaway for Hollywood stars and millionaires. Acapulco is still famous and still attracts tourists, although most are now from Mexico itself. The name Acapulco comes from Nahuatl language Aca-pōl-co, and means where the reeds were destroyed or washed away, the de Juárez was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane, the island and municipality of Capul, in the Philippines, derives its name from Acapulco, Capul was the western end of the trans-Pacific sailing route from Acapulco to what was then a Spanish colony. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, one by Playa Larga and the other on a known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the small villages here to coalesce into larger entities. Later, Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo, then Mayan influence arrived from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and through what is now Oaxaca. This history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have found here, especially at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here and these people were the antecedents of the Aztecs. In the later 15th century, after four years of military struggle and it was annexed to a tributary province named Tepecuacuilco. However, this was only transitory, as the Aztecs could only establish a military post at the citys outskirts. The city was on territory under control of the Yopes, who continued defending it, there are two stories about how Acapulco bay was discovered by Europeans. The first states that two years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés sent explorers west to find gold, the explorers had subdued this area after 1523, and Captain Saavedra Cerón was authorized by Cortés to found a settlement here. The other states that the bay was discovered on December 13,1526 by a ship named the El Tepache Santiago captained by Santiago Guevara. The first encomendero was established in 1525 at Cacahuatepec, which is part of the modern Acapulco municipality, in 1531, a number of Spaniards, most notably Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, left the Oaxaca coast and founded the village of Villafuerte where the city of Acapulco now standsAcapulco – Acapulco panoramic collage. Top, from left to right: Acapulco Bay from Chapel of Peace, Petroglyphs in Palma Sola, Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Cathedral, Mural by Diego Rivera in Dolores Olmedo House, San Diego Fort, La Quebrada, La Condesa Beach, Acapulco Dorado and Acapulco Diamante.
26. Veracruz – It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez. This state is located in Eastern Mexico and it is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north, San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo to the west, Puebla to the southwest, Oaxaca and Chiapas to the south, and Tabasco to the southeast. On its east, Veracruz has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico, the state is noted for its mixed ethnic and indigenous populations. Its cuisine reflects the cultural influences that have come through the state because of the importance of the port of Veracruz. In addition to the city, the states largest cities include Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos, Córdoba, Minatitlán, Poza Rica, Boca Del Río. The full name of the state is Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, Veracruz was named after the city of Veracruz, which was originally called the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz. The suffix is in honor of Ignacio de la Llave y Segura Zevallos, the state’s seal was authorized by the state legislature in 1954, adapting the one used for the port of Veracruz and created by the Spanish in the early 16th century. The state is a strip of land wedged between the Sierra Madre Oriental to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east. Its total area is 78,815 km2, accounting for about 3. 7% of Mexico’s total territory and it stretches about 650 km north to south, but its width varies from between 212 km to 36 km, with an average of about 100 km in width. Veracruz shares common borders with the states of Tamaulipas, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Tabasco, and Puebla, Hidalgo, Veracruz has 690 km of coastline with the Gulf of Mexico. The topography changes drastically, rising from the coastal plains to the highlands of the eastern Sierra Madre. Elevation varies from sea level to the Pico de Orizaba, Mexico’s highest peak at 5,636 m above sea level, the coast consists of low sandy strips interspersed with tidewater streams and lagoons. Most of the coastline is narrow and sandy with unstable dunes, small shifting lagoons. The mountains are of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, major peaks include Pico de Orizaba, Cofre de Perote, Cerro de Tecomates, Cerro del Vigía Alta and Cerro de 3 Tortas. The Pico de Orizaba is covered in snow year round, the Cofre de Perote is covered in winter, major valleys include the Acultzingo, Córdoba, Maltrata, Orizaba and San Andrés. All of the rivers and streams cross the state begin in the Sierra Madre Oriental or in the Central Mesa. The largest in terms of discharge are the Pánuco, Tuxpan, Papaloapan, Coazocoalcos. The Panuco, Tuxpan, Papaloapan and Coatzacoalcos are navigable, two of Mexicos most polluted rivers, the Coatzacoalcos and the Río Blanco are located in the stateVeracruz – Pico de Orizaba
27. Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga – Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga was a Roman noble of Japanese imperial descent with ancestral ties to Emperor Kanmu and a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyō of Sendai. In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, and follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582, on the return trip, Hasekura and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manila, and then sailing north to Japan in 1620. He is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas, although Hasekuras embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking, Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan. Japans next embassy to Europe would only occur more than 200 years later, little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle that was constructed in Hasekura Ward, Kawasaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, the place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura Village, now Hasekura Ward in Kawasaki City. Hasekura and Date Masamune were of roughly the age. It is also recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taikō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in 1612, Hasekuras father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, and he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, and his son should normally have been executed as well, Date, however, gave him the opportunity to redeem his honour by placing him in charge of the Embassy to Europe, and soon gave him back his territories as well. The Spanish started trans-Pacific voyages between New Spain and the Philippines in 1565, the famous Manila galleons carried silver from Mexican mines westward to the entrepôt of Manila in the Spanish possession of the Philippines. There, the silver was used to purchase spices and trade goods gathered from throughout Asia, Spanish ships were periodically shipwrecked on the coasts of Japan due to bad weather, initiating contacts with the country. The Spanish wished to expand the Christian faith in Japan, however, some Japanese, such as Christopher and Cosmas, are known to have crossed the Pacific onboard Spanish galleons as early as 1587. It is known that gifts were exchanged between the governor of the Philippines and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who thanks him in a 1597 letter, writing The black elephant in particular I found most unusual. In 1609, the Spanish Manila galleon San Francisco encountered bad weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, the sailors were rescued and welcomed, and the ships captain, Rodrigo de Vivero, former interim governor of the Philippines, met with the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Vizcaino arrived in Japan in 1611 and had meetings with the ShogunHasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga – Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615 by Claude Deruet
28. Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growthSpain – Lady of Elche
29. Castillo de San Marcos – The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States. Located on the shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida. Construction began in 1672,107 years after the founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. The forts construction was ordered by Governor Francisco de la Guerra y de la Vega after the raid of the English privateer Robert Searles in 1668. Work proceeded under the administration of Guerras successor, Manuel de Cendoya in 1671, the construction of the core of the current fortress was completed in 1695, though it would undergo many alterations and renovations over the centuries. The fort was declared a National Monument in 1924, and after 251 years of continuous military possession, was deactivated in 1933, the 20. 48-acre site was then turned over to the United States National Park Service. In 1942 the original name Castillo de San Marcos, was restored by an Act of Congress, Castillo de San Marcos was twice besieged, first by English colonial forces led by Carolina Colony Governor James Moore in 1702, and then by Georgia colonial Governor James Oglethorpe in 1740. The Native American art form known as Ledger Art had its origins at the fort during the imprisonment of members of the Plains tribes such as Howling Wolf of the southern Cheyenne. The European city of St. Augustine was founded by the admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés for the Spanish Crown in 1565 on the site of a former Native American village called Seloy. Over the next century, the Spanish built nine wooden forts for the defense of the town in various locations, the need for fortifications was recognized after it was attacked by Sir Francis Drake and his fleet of 22 ships in 1586. Following the 1668 attack of the English pirate Robert Searle, Mariana, Queen Regent of Spain, the Castillo is a masonry star fort made of a stone called coquina, made of ancient shells that have bonded together to form a type of stone similar to limestone. Workers were brought in from Havana, Cuba, to construct the fort in addition to Native American laborers. The coquina was quarried from the Kings Quarry on Anastasia Island in what is today Anastasia State Park across Matanzas Bay from the Castillo, construction began on October 2,1672 and lasted twenty-three years, with completion in 1695. The fort has four bastions named San Pedro, San Agustín, San Carlos, multiple embrasures were built into the curtain wall along the top of the fort as well as into the bastions for the deployment of cannon of various calibers. Infantry embrasures were built into the walls below the level of the terreplein for the deployment of muskets by the forts defenders. It was through one of these embrasures that twenty Seminoles held as prisoners would escape in 1837, in 1670, Charles Town was founded by English colonists. As it was just two days sail from St. Augustine, the English settlement and encroachment of English traders into Spanish territory spurred the Spanish in their construction of a fort. In 1702, English colonial forces under the command of Carolina Governor Governor James Moore embarked on an expedition to capture St. Augustine early in Queen Annes War, the English laid siege to St. Augustine in November 1702Castillo de San Marcos – Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
30. Pueblo Revolt – The Pueblo Revolt killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province. Twelve years later the Spanish returned and were able to reoccupy New Mexico with little opposition, for more than 100 years beginning in 1540, the Pueblo Indians of present-day New Mexico were subjected to successive waves of soldiers, missionaries, and settlers. These encounters, referred to as the Entradas, were characterized by violent confrontations between Spanish colonists and Pueblo peoples. In 1598 Juan de Oñate led 129 soldiers and 10 Franciscan Catholic priests plus a number of women, children, servants, slaves. There were at the time approximately 40,000 Pueblo Indians inhabiting the region, Oñate put down a revolt at Acoma Pueblo by killing and enslaving hundreds of the Indians and sentencing 24 men to have their right foot cut off. The Acoma Massacre would instill fear of the Spanish in the region for years to come, Spanish colonial policies in the 1500s regarding the humane treatment of Indians were difficult to enforce on the northern frontier. With the establishment of the first permanent colonial settlement in 1598, encomiendas were soon established by colonists along the Rio Grande, restricting Pueblo access to fertile farmlands and water supplies and placing a heavy burden upon Pueblo labor. Especially egregious to the Pueblo was the assault on their traditional religion, Franciscan priests established theocracies in many of the Pueblo villages. The priests converted the Pueblos to build the Spanish empire in New Mexico, in 1608, it looked as though Spain might abandon the province, the Franciscans baptized seven thousand Pueblos to try to convince the Crown otherwise. The Franciscan missionaries also forbade the use of drugs in the traditional religious ceremonies of the Pueblo. Several Spanish officials, such as Nicolas de Aguilar, who attempted to curb the power of the Franciscans were charged with heresy and tried before the Inquisition. In the 1670s drought swept the region, causing a famine among the Pueblo and increased raids by the Apache which Spanish and Pueblo soldiers were unable to prevent. Fray Alonso de Benavides wrote multiple letters to the King, describing the conditions, noting the Spanish inhabitants and Indians alike to eat hides, the unrest among the Pueblos came to a head in 1675. Governor Juan Francisco Treviño ordered the arrest of forty-seven Pueblo medicine men, four medicine men were sentenced to death by hanging, three of those sentences were carried out, while the fourth prisoner committed suicide. The remaining men were whipped and sentenced to prison. When this news reached the Pueblo leaders, they moved in force to Santa Fe, because a large number of Spanish soldiers were away fighting the Apache, Governor Treviño was forced to accede to the Pueblo demand for the release of the prisoners. Among those released was a San Juan Indian named Popé, following his release, Popé, along with a number of other Pueblo leaders, planned and orchestrated the Pueblo Revolt. Popé took up residence in Taos Pueblo far from the capital of Santa Fe and he gained the support of the Northern Tiwa, Tewa, Towa, Tano, and Keres-speaking Pueblos of the Rio Grande ValleyPueblo Revolt – The location of the Pueblo villages and their neighbors in early New Mexico.
31. Pueblo – Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment structures built of stone, adobe mud and these structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people, several different federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design. The word pueblo is the Spanish word for town or village and it comes from the Latin root word populus meaning people. The demands of agrarian routine and the need for defense, the desire for human society in the vast solitude of. Nowadays the pueblo might have a running into thousands. Doubtless they were smaller in the early middle ages. There are 21 federally recognized Pueblos that are home to Pueblo people and their official federal names are as follows, Pre-Columbian towns and villages in the Southwest, such as Acoma, were located in defensible positions, for example, on high steep mesas. Anthropologists and official documents refer to ancient residents of the area as pueblo cultures. For example, the National Park Service states, The Late Puebloan cultures built the large, the people of some pueblos, such as Taos Pueblo, still inhabit centuries-old adobe pueblo buildings. Contemporary residents often maintain other homes outside the historic pueblos, adobe and light construction methods resembling adobe now dominate architecture at the many pueblos of the area, in nearby towns or cities, and in much of the American Southwest. In addition to contemporary pueblos, numerous ruins of archeological interest are located throughout the Southwest, some are of relatively recent originPueblo – Zuni pueblo c. 1873
32. History of Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 430 BC and 1000 AD, at the time of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. The Taíno peoples numbers went dangerously low during the half of the 16th century because of new infectious diseases carried by Europeans, exploitation by Spanish settlers. Located in the northeastern Caribbean, Puerto Rico formed a key part of the Spanish Empire from the years of the exploration, conquest. The island was a military post during many wars between Spain and other European powers for control of the region in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The smallest of the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico was a stepping-stone in the passage from Europe to Cuba, Mexico, Central America, and the northern territories of South America. Free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown, in 1898, during the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded and subsequently became a possession of the United States. The first years of the 20th century were marked by the struggle to obtain greater democratic rights from the United States, However, the political status of Puerto Rico, a Commonwealth controlled by the United States, remains an anomaly. The settlement of Puerto Rico began with the establishment of the Ortoiroid culture from the Orinoco region in South America, some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back 4000 years. An archeological dig at the island of Vieques in 1990 found the remains of what is believed to be an Ortoiroid man which was dated to around 2000 BC. The Ortoiroid were displaced by the Saladoid, a culture from the region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BC. Between the seventh and 11th centuries, the Arawak are thought to have settled the island, during this time the Taíno culture developed, and by approximately 1000 AD, it had become dominant. Taíno culture has been traced to the village of Saladero at the basin of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, at the time of Columbus arrival, an estimated 30 to 60 thousand Taíno Amerindians, led by the cacique Agüeybaná, inhabited the island. They called it Borinquenthe great land of the valiant and noble Lord, the natives lived in small villages led by a cacique and subsisted on hunting, fishing and gathering of indigenous cassava root and fruit. When the Spaniards arrived in 1493, the Taíno were already in conflict with the raiding Carib, the Taíno domination of the island was nearing its end, and the Spanish arrival marked the beginning of their extinction. Their culture, however, remains part of that of contemporary Puerto Rico, musical instruments such as maracas and güiro, the hammock, and words such as Mayagüez, Arecibo, iguana, Caguas and huracán are examples of the legacy left by the Taíno. On September 24,1493, Christopher Columbus set sail on his voyage with 17 ships and 1,200 to 1,500 soldiers from Cádiz. On November 19,1493 he landed on the island, naming it San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist, Ponce de Leon was actively involved in the Higuey massacre of 1503 in Puerto RicoHistory of Puerto Rico – Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886)
33. Queen Anne's War – The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. In addition to the two combatants, the war also involved numerous Native American tribes allied with each nation, and Spain. It was also known as the Third Indian War or in French as the Second Intercolonial War, the English colonies of New England fought with French and Native American forces based in Acadia and Canada. Quebec City was repeatedly targeted by British expeditions, and the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710, the French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in Massachusetts, on Newfoundland, English colonists based at St. Johns disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of destructive raids against the other sides settlements. The French successfully captured St. Johns in 1709, but the British quickly reoccupied it after the French abandoned it, following a preliminary peace in 1712, the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713. It resulted in the French cession of claims to the territories of Hudson Bay, Acadia, some of its terms were ambiguous, and concerns of various Native American tribes were not included in the treaty, setting the stage for future conflicts. In 1701, following the death in late 1700 of King Charles II, although the war was at first restricted to a few powers in Europe, in May 1702 it widened when England declared war on Spain and France. The hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers, the total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. The population centers of these colonies were concentrated along the coast, with small settlements inland, most European colonists knew very little of the interior of the continent, to the west of the Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes. This area was dominated by tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area. Spanish missionaries in La Florida had established a network of missions to convert the inhabitants to Roman Catholicism. The Spanish population was small, and the native population they ministered to has been estimated to number 20,000. French explorers had located the mouth of the Mississippi River, near which they established a colonial presence in 1699 at Fort Maurepas. From there they began to trade routes into the interior, establishing friendly relations with the Choctaw. All of these populations had suffered to some degree from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases like smallpox by early explorers and traders, France and Spain, allies in this conflict, had been on opposite sides of the recently ended Nine Years War. To the north, the conflict held a strong component in addition to territorial disputesQueen Anne's War – Queen Anne was occupied with the conflict during her reign.
34. Port of Manila – The Port of Manila refers to the collective facilities and terminals that processes maritime trade function in harbours that serves the Metro Manila Area. It is located in the Port Area and Tondo area of Manila and it is the largest and the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The Philippine Ports Authority, a corporation, manages the Port of Manila. It is composed of 3 major facilities namely Manila North Harbor, Manila South Harbor, the Port of Manila and the area dates back to Spanish and pre-Spanish rule of the Philippine Islands. It is recorded that Manila and the Philippines had trade relations with most neighboring countries at least as far back as the 9th to 12th centuries, major trading partners included China and Japan, with ties to India through the areas that are now Malaysia and Indonesia. Manila Bay was the setting for the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898 between United States and Spanish forces, and the siege of Corregidor Island by invading Japanese forces in 1942, the bay entrance is 19 kilometres wide and expands to a width of 48 kilometres. Mariveles, in the province of Bataan, is an anchorage just inside the northern entrance, on either side of the bay are volcanic peaks topped with tropical foliage. 40 kilometres to the north is the Bataan Peninsula and to the south is the province of Cavite. Manila North Harbor, occupying a 53-hectare area in Tondo, Manila, North Harbor is accessible by road through Radial Road 10. Manila South Harbor, an 80-hectare port facility located in Port Area, Manila and it is accessible by road through Bonifacio Drive has a passenger terminal located between Pier 13 and 15 namely Eva Macapagal Super Terminal. It also houses as the hub of 2GO ferry company. As of April 29,2014, The management has installed a new Liebherr quay crane to increase the efficiency of Manila South Harbor, Manila International Container Terminal is operated by International Container Terminal Services Inc. It is one of Asias major seaports and one of the Philippines most active ports and it is located between the Manila North Harbor and the Manila South Harbor and can be accessed by road through MICT South Access Road. In 2011, Manila International Container Terminal ranked 38th place in the List of worlds busiest container ports with container traffic of 3,260,000, inaugurated on July 7,2012, Berth 6 became fully operational and increases the Ports annual capacity by 450,000 TEUs. With Berth 6 in operation, ICTSI is scheduled to finish Phase 1 development of Yard 7 by yearend, South of Metro Manila, ICTSI’s Laguna Gateway Inland Container Terminal has finished its Phase 1 development. The inland container depot, which serves as an extension of the MICT and it will be connected to Manila through the revival of the Manila-Calamba cargo intermodal system, which ceased operations in 2000 due to lower demandPort of Manila – An aerial view of the Manila South Harbor
35. Tagalog language – Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. Its standardized form, officially named Filipino, is officially the national language, the word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-log, composed of tagá- and ilog. Linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs, the first written record of Tagalog is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which dates to 900 CE and exhibits fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Old Malay, Javanese and Old Tagalog. The first known book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana. Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə, in Bikol and Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/, for example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot. Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels, Proto-Philippine *ŋajan and *hajək became Tagalog ngalan and halík. Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR and *zuRuʔ became Tagalog tubig, the first substantial dictionary of the Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books and he wrote the first dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. Tagalog was declared the language by the first constitution in the Philippines. In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ, in 1959, the language was further renamed as Pilipino. The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language mandating that as it evolves, it shall be developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine. The regional languages are the official languages in the regions. In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction and it is the first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and a second language by the majority. Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family, being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages, such as Malagasy, Javanese, Malay, Tetum, and Yami. It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol Region and the Visayas islands, such as the Bikol group and the Visayan group, including Hiligaynon and Cebuano. At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars of various Tagalog dialects. Some example of differences are, Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonantsTagalog language – The Tagalog Baybayin script.
36. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred, then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were also among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient FilipinosPhilippines – King Philip II of Spain.
37. Cities of the Philippines – A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. As of December 12,2015, there are 145 cities, Cities are entitled to at least one representative in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. They are allowed to use a common seal, only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and with this city charter Congress confers on a city certain powers that regular municipalities or even other cities may not have. A citys local government is headed by an elected by popular vote. The vice mayor serves as the officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod. Upon receiving their charters, cities also receive a full complement of executive departments to serve their constituents. Some departments are established on a basis, depending on the needs of the city. Source, Local Government Code of 1991, Cities, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range from urban neighborhoods, to rural communities. Barangays are sometimes grouped into officially defined administrative districts, examples of such are the cities of Manila, Davao, Iloilo, and Samal. Some cities such as Caloocan, Manila and Pasay even have a level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units, there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels, rather they only serve to make city planning, statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient. Cities are classified according to annual income based on the previous four calendar years. There are currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines,16 of which are located in Metro Manila, Component Cities, Cities which do not meet the preceding requirements are deemed part of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located along the boundaries of two or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality, majority of the remaining cities are considered component cities. The five exceptions are listed below, independent Component Cities, Cities of this type have charters that explicitly prohibit their residents to vote for provincial officials. These cities are considered independent from the province in which they are geographically located, there are five such cities, Cotabato, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc and Santiago. There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as highly urbanized or independent component cities. Some independent cities are still grouped with their provinces for the purposes of representation in the Congress of the PhilippinesCities of the Philippines – 1.
38. Metro Manila – These 5 provinces, plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015. The region is the center of culture, economy, education, NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education. It is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines and its economic power makes the region the countrys premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37. 2% of the domestic product of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the progenitor to the present-day Metro Manila, is one of the eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. The province was honored as one of the sun rays in the Flag of the Philippines, a historical province known as Manila encompasses the former pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power, in 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served as the capital from 1898-1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States, the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the global cities. Pasig serves as its provincial capital, in 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed, the establishment of Quezon City meant demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, later on, Quezon City eventually declared as the national capital from 1948-1976. The tile was re-designated back to Manila through Presidential Decree No.940 owing to its significance as the seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period. During the war, President Manuel L. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor, Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezons principal lieutenant for administrative matters, the City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila, on November 7,1975, Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No.824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was also created to manage the region, on June 2,1978, through Presidential Decree NoMetro Manila
39. Kingdom of Maynila – The Kingdom of Maynila, also known as Seludong, was a major polity located at present-day Manila in the Philippines in the 16th century. A vassal state of the Bruneian Empire, it was one of three major polities that dominated the area around the mouth of the Pasig River before the arrival of the Spanish. Early records claim that Maynila was named after the Yamstick Mangrove, whose name was nila or nilad. The name maynila itself transliterates as There is nila, and a name for the place is maynilad. However, there is some argument among historians as to plant the name refers to. Other plants suggested as being the origin of the include the indigo plant. Historians Ambeth Ocampo and Carmen Guerrero Nakpil assert that nila is popularly referred to as nilad by modern-day people unfamiliar with the name of the plant. On his Facebook page, Ocampo notes that Some idiot added a d to give us, Maynilad, Maharnilad, blancos Flora de Filipinas circa 1877 we find the Ixora manila. There is no d after nila, a number of early sources disagree, however, suggesting that the plant referred to as nilad is the Indigo plant, a different plant altogether. Around the year 1500, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the kingdom of Tondo, the traditional Rajahs of Tondo, the Lakandula, retained their titles and property but the real political power came to reside in the House of Soliman, the Rajahs of Manila. Islamization was slow process which ocurred with the conversion of the citizenry of Tondo. The early inhabitants of the present-day Manila engaged in relations with its Asian neighbours as well as with the Hindu empires of Java and Sumatra. Trade ties with China became extensive by the 10th century, while contact with Arab merchants reached its peak in the 12th century. During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah the Sultanate of Brunei decided to break Tondos monopoly in the Chinese trade by attacking Tondo and this is narrated through Tausug and Malay royal histories, where the names Seludong, Saludong or Selurong are used to denote Manila prior to colonisation. In the mid-16th century, the areas of present-day Manila were governed by native rajahs and these settlements held ties with the sultanates of Brunei, Sulu, and Ternate, Indonesia. Maynila was centered on a fortress at the mouth of the Pasig river, the cannons were native-made and forged by Panday Piray and these were locally called lantakas. When the Spanish invaded and burned Manilas Kota Selurong to the ground, nick Joaquins Almanac for Manileños The River Dwellers by Grace P. OdalKingdom of Maynila
40. Song dynasty – The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties and it was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass, the Song dynasty is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the Northern Song, the Song capital was in the city of Bianjing. The Southern Song refers to the period after the Song lost control of its half to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars. During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze, the Southern Song dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, and later the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder, in 1234, the Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and his younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan, though his claim was only partially recognized by the Mongols in the west. In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China, after two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khans armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279. The Mongol invasion led to a reunification under the Yuan dynasty, the population of China doubled in size during the 10th and 11th centuries. The Northern Song census recorded a population of roughly 50 million, much like the Han and this data is found in the Standard Histories. However, it is estimated that the Northern Song had a population of some 100 million people and this dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China. The expansion of the population, growth of cities, and the emergence of a national economy led to the withdrawal of the central government from direct involvement in economic affairs. The lower gentry assumed a role in grassroots administration and local affairs. Appointed officials in county and provincial centers relied upon the gentry for their services, sponsorship. Social life during the Song was vibrant, citizens gathered to view and trade precious artworks, the populace intermingled at public festivals and private clubs, and cities had lively entertainment quarters. The spread of literature and knowledge was enhanced by the expansion of woodblock printing. Technology, science, philosophy, mathematics, and engineering flourished over the course of the Song, although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song periodSong dynasty – History of China
41. Bolkiah – Sultan Bolkiah was the fifth Sultan of Brunei. He ascended the throne of Brunei upon the abdication of his father, Sultan Sulaiman and his reign marked the Golden Age of Brunei and saw the Sultanate become the superpower of the Malay archipelago. Bolkiah frequently travelled abroad to new ideas for the development of the country. This increased Bruneis wealth as well as extending Islamic teachings in the region, resulting in the influence, bolkiahs rule reached essentially all of coastal Borneo, as far south as Banjarmasin, and as far north as the island of Luzon, including Seludong in the Philippines. Bolkiah was married to Laila Mecanai the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra, after his death, sultan Bolkiah was succeeded by his son, Abdul Kahar. He was buried in Kota Batu with his wife, Princess Leila Mechanai, the earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Bruneis history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim, in addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the official history not matching up with verifiable foreign sources. The Batu Tarsilah, the record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE. Therefore, much of the intepretation on history relied on earlier Chinese sources and it seems that the early Sultanate of Brunei was dependent on Chinese support, and perhaps early Sultans were of Chinese origin. Furthermore the earliest Sultans may have been practising the Hindu or Buddhist religions, with early names indicating this originBolkiah – The tomb of Sultan Bolkiah, near Kota Batu, Brunei
42. Sepoy – A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier. In the modern Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Pakistan Army, the term sepoy is derived from the Persian word sepāhī meaning infantry soldier in the Mughal Empire. In the Ottoman Empire the term Sipahi was used to refer to cavalry troopers, in its most common application, sepoy was the term used in the British Indian Army, and earlier in that of the British East India Company, for an infantry private. Initially it referred to Hindu or Muslim soldiers without regular uniform or discipline and it later generically referred to all native soldiers in the service of the European powers in India. Close to ninety-six percent of the British East India Companys army of 300,000 men were native to India, a Sipahi or a sepoy was an infantryman in both the Mughal Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb raised battalions of sepoys variously armed with matchlocks, rockets and these troops were successfully employed in siege warfare, particularly during the Siege of Bidar, the Siege of Bijapur and the Siege of Golconda. Initially the British recruited sepoys from the communities in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies. In the Bengal Army however, recruitment was only amongst high caste Brahmin and Rajput communities, mainly of the Uttar Pradesh, recruitment was undertaken locally by battalions or regiments often from the same community, village and even family. The commanding officer of a battalion became a form of substitute for the chief or gaon bura. He was the mai-baap or the father and mother of the making up the paltan. There were many family and community ties amongst the troops and numerous instances where family members enlisted in the battalion or regiment. The izzat of the unit was represented by the regimental colours and these colours were stored in honour in the quarter guard and frequently paraded before the men. They formed a point in battle. The oath of fealty by the sepoy was given to the East India Company, the salary of the sepoys employed by the East India Company, while not substantially greater than that paid by the rulers of Indian states, was usually paid regularly. Advances could be given and family allotments from pay due were permitted when the troops served abroad, there was a commisariat and regular rations were provided. Weapons, clothing and ammunition were provided centrally, in contrast to the soldiers of local kings whose pay was often in arrears, in addition local rulers usually expected their sepoys to arm themselves and to sustain themselves through plunder. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the surviving East India Company regiments were merged into a new Indian Army under the control of the British Crown. The designation of sepoy was retained for Indian soldiers below the rank of lance naik, following the formation of the French East India Company in 1719, companies of Indian sepoys were raised to augment the French regulars and Swiss mercenary troops availableSepoy – Sepoy of the Indian Infantry, circa 1900.
43. Spanish colonization of the Americas – The Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions and it is estimated that during the colonial period, a total of 18.6 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era. Spains loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas, the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created a single Spanish monarchy. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West. The funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile, in the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indiesas the monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories and he founded La Navidad on the island later named Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, in 1496 his brother, Bartholomew, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area. The local Taíno people continued to resist, refusing to plant crops, the first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, the Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién, the Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire which was the base for later conquests of other regions. Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than conquest of the Aztecs, but not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire was led by Hernán Cortés, the victory over the Aztecs was relatively quick, from 1519 to 1521, and aided by his Tlaxcala and other allies from indigenous city-states or altepetl. These polities allied against the Aztec empire, to which they paid tribute following conquest or threat of conquest, leaving the political hierarchy. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was a longer campaign, from 1551 to 1697, against the Maya peoples in the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico. When Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz and founded the Spanish city there on April 22,1519, Spain colonized and exerted control of Alta California through the Spanish missions in California until the Mexican secularization act of 1833. It was the first step in a campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. In the following years Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization, in the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes RegionSpanish colonization of the Americas – Spanish Conquest of Mexico, meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma II
44. Dutch Revolt – The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt, but later submitted to Spain. The religious clash of cultures built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, the first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, however, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged, the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, the continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial, intellectual, and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch imposed a blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns. The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence, the focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already de facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power, in a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500 and he was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French, Spanish, and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands, subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and León which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance, virtually all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s. Flanders had long been a wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had also grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the empire, Charles Vs empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, however, distributed throughout Europe, control and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empires borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars, further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, during the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities, by the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority thenDutch Revolt – Prince Maurice at the Battle of Nieuwpoort by Pauwels van Hillegaert. Oil on canvas.
45. Acaxee Rebellion – The Acaxee Rebellion was an insurrection against Spanish rule in Mexico by Acaxee Indians in 1601. Their territory was about 125 miles north to south and 50 miles east to west, the area was called Topia and Tepehuana by the Spaniards. The Acaxee and their neighbors shared common features of culture identified by scholar Susan M, an epidemic swept the region in 1576-1577, killing many thousands of Indians including possibly many Acaxee, and additional epidemics broke out in 1590 and 1596-1597. Thus, by the time of the rebellion the Acaxee probably numbered only a few thousand, furthermore, their capacity to resist the Spanish was adversely impacted by their endemic warfare with the Xixime to their south and the Tepehuan to the east. The Spanish discovered silver deposits in Acaxee territory in the 1580s, several hundred Spaniards, black and Indian slaves, and Indian laborers migrated into the Acaxee country. They needed additional labor to work in the mines, through the Encomienda system the Indians were forced to work in Spanish mines. However, the nature of the Acaxee settlements was a hindrance to utilizing Indian labor. Jesuit missionaries assisted in concentrating the Indians in larger settlements for easier exploitation, in the “Peace by Purchase” plan to resolve the Chichimeca War in 1590 the Spanish had recognized the utility of missionaries in the pacification of the northern frontiers of Nueva Espana. The Jesuits were relative newcomers to Mexico and the Indians of Sinaloa, in 1600, the missionary Hernando de Santarén toured the region with a local encomendero, Captain Diego de Avila. In return, the Spaniards promised to them from their enemies and provide tools, seeds. Indians who resisted the Spanish demands were beaten, an Indian leader named Perico initiated the rebellion in late 1601. Using a mixture of Spanish and Indian religious practices, he promised his followers that the Spanish could be exterminated, the rebellion was characterized by messianic leadership and promises of millennial redemption during a period of violent disruption and catastrophic demographic decline due to disease. The rebellion aimed “to restore pre-Columbian social and religious elements that had destroyed by the Spanish conquest. ”Indian attacks over the first few weeks killed about 50 Spaniards. The Acaxee burned Spanish mining camps and buildings, including 40 churches, the siege was raised when reinforcements arrived from Durango. The priest Santarén led a delegation but several members of his group were killed as were members of another delegation led by a bishop. The Acaxee took up positions in the mountains and shut down most silver mining. In 1603, the Spaniards gathered an army of encomenderos and Indian allies and suppressed the Acaxee, executing Perico and 48 of their leaders, defiance and Deference in Mexicos Colonial North, Indians Under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXAcaxee Rebellion – A map of Mexico showing the location of the Acaxee in Sinaloa and Durango states.
46. Acoma Massacre – The Acoma Massacre was fought in January 1599 between Spanish conquistadors and Acoma Native Americans in what is now New Mexico. Several hundred survivors were enslaved or otherwise severely punished. Relations between the Spanish and the Acoma people had been peaceful for several decades after the two groups first came into contact around 1540. In 1598, the Acoma leader, Zutacapan, learned that the Spanish intended to conquer Acoma Pueblo, accordingly, Don Oñate sent his nephew, Captain Juan de Zaldívar, to the pueblo to consult with Zutacapan. When Zaldivar arrived on December 4,1598, one of the first things he did was to take sixteen of his men up the mesa on which the pueblo was located to demand food from the natives. After being denied the food they had demanded, the Spaniards allegedly attacked some Acoma women, a fight ensued, leaving Zaldivar and eleven of his men dead. When Oñate learned of the incident, he ordered Juan de Zaldivars brother, Vicente de Zaldívar, to lead an expedition to punish the Acoma and set an example for other pueblos. Taking about seventy men, Vincente de Zaldivar left San Juan Pueblo in late December or early January, the battle began the following morning, January 22. For the first two days the Spanish and Acoma skirmished inconclusively until Zaldivar developed a plan to breach the pueblo using a small cannon, on the third day, Zalvidar and twelve of his men ascended the mesa and opened fire on the pueblo with the cannon. After some time, several Acoma homes caught on fire and were destroyed while the conquistadors stormed through the settlement, there were an estimated 6,000 natives living at or around the Acoma Pueblo in 1599, at least 2,000 of whom were warriors. Of the 2,000, about 500 were killed in the battle, some 500 prisoners were taken and later sentenced to a variety of punishments. Don Oñate ordered that every male above the age of twenty-five would have his foot cut off. However, only men actually received amputations. Males between the age of twelve and twenty-five were also enslaved for twenty years along with all of the females above the age of twelve, many of these natives were dispersed among the residences of government officials or at Jesuit missions. Sixty of the youngest women were deemed not guilty and sent to Mexico City where they were parceled out among Catholic convents. Two Hopi men were taken prisoner at the pueblo, after each had one of his hands cut off, several Acomas escaped capture by the Spanish in 1599 and by 1601 they had rebuilt their pueblo, which still stands. The massacre remains an issue in the United States. In 1998, during the 400-year anniversary of Spains founding of New Mexico colony and they later issued a statement about the incident, We took the liberty of removing Oñates right foot on behalf of our brothers and sister of Acoma PuebloAcoma Massacre – A lithograph of Acoma Pueblo made in 1848.
47. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy, Habsburg, and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was also elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious. France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and also by Adrian of Utrecht. He also gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horseCharles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charrles V by Titian, 1548. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
48. Joanna of Castile – Joanna of Castile, called the Mad, was queen of Castile from 1504 and of Aragon from 1516. From the union of two crowns modern Spain evolved. Joanna married Philip the Handsome on 20 October 1496, Philip was crowned King of Castile in 1506, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain. After Philips death that year, Joanna was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. Though she remained the legal queen of Castile throughout this time, her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, from 1517, her son, Charles, ruled as king, while she nominally remained co-monarch. Joanna was born in the city of Toledo, the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and she was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. Joanna was a clever and diligent child and an excellent student, Queen Isabella ensured that Joanna, along with her three sisters Isabella, Maria, and Catherine, received a fine education. Her academic education consisted of canon and civil law, genealogy and heraldry, grammar, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, reading, spelling, and writing. In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda, the respected educator Beatriz Galindo who was a member of the queens court, and her mother the queen. Joanna developed feminine accomplishments in court etiquette, dancing, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners, music, and the arts of embroidery, needlepoint. She excelled in all of the Iberian Romance languages, Castilian, Leonese, Galician-Portuguese, Joanna was given instruction in religious studies and she learned outdoor pursuits such as hawking and hunting. Praise was given to her for being a dancer and a talented musician, she played the clavichord, the guitar. As an infanta she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon and she had a fair complexion, blue eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and sister Catherine. Already in 1495 Joanna showed signs of religious skepticism and little devotion to worship and this alarmed her mother, who ordered it to be kept secret. English ambassadors at Valencia on 23 June 1505 attempted to give a description of her appearance according to fifteen criteria. In 1496, Joanna, at the age of sixteen, was betrothed to Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy, Philips parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. The marriage was one of a set of alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power. Joanna entered a marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of ValladolidJoanna of Castile – Portrait by Juan de Flandes, c. 1500
49. Philip IV of Spain – Philip IV of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal as Philip III. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death, Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the challenging period of the Thirty Years War. Philip IV was born in Valladolid, and was the eldest son of Philip III and his wife, Philip had seven children by Elisabeth, with only one being a son, Balthasar Charles, who died at the age of sixteen in 1646. The death of his son deeply shocked the king, who appears to have been a father by the standards of the day. Philip remarried in 1646, following the deaths of both Elisabeth and his legitimate heir. Perceptions of Philips personality have altered considerably over time, victorian authors were inclined to portray him as a weak individual, delegating excessively to his ministers, and ruling over a debauched Baroque court. Victorian historians even attributed the death of Baltasar to debauchery. The doctors who treated the Prince at that time in fact diagnosed smallpox, Philip was idealised by his contemporaries as the model of Baroque kingship. Philip was a horseman, a keen hunter and a devotee of bull-fighting. Privately, Philip appears to have had a lighter persona, when he was younger, he was said to have a keen sense of humour and a great sense of fun. He privately attended academies in Madrid throughout his reign — these were lighthearted literary salons, aiming to analyse contemporary literature, a keen theatre-goer, he was sometimes criticised by contemporaries for his love of these frivolous entertainments. Others have captured his private personality as naturally kind, gentle and affable and those close to him claimed he was academically competent, with a good grasp of Latin and geography, and could speak French, Portuguese and Italian well. Like many of his contemporaries, including Olivares, he had a keen interest in astrology and his handwritten translation of Francesco Guicciardinis texts on political history still exists. Although Philips Catholic beliefs no longer attract criticism from English language writers, notably, from the 1640s onwards he sought the advice of a noted cloistered abbess, Sor María de Ágreda, exchanging many letters with her. By the end of the reign, and with the health of Carlos José in doubt, there was a possibility of Juan Josés making a claim on the throne. Philip IV came to power as the influence of the Sandovals was being undermined by a new noble coalition, over the course of at least a year, however, the relationship became very close, with Philips tendency towards underconfidence and diffidence counteracted by Olivares drive and determination. Philip retained Olivares as his confidant and chief minister for the twenty years. Philip himself argued that it was appropriate for the king himself to go house to house amongst his ministers to see if his instructions were being carried outPhilip IV of Spain – Painting by Diego Velázquez, c.1644
50. Charles II of Spain – Charles II of Spain was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands, Italian territories, several cities in north Africa and Spains overseas empire, known as the Bewitched, he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule. He died in 1700, childless and heirless, with all potential Habsburg successors having predeceased him, in his will, Charles named as his successor the almost 17-year-old Philip, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Charles half-sister Maria Theresa of Spain, the first wife of Louis XIV. Charles was born in the Spanish capital, Madrid, the son of Philip IV of Spain and his second wife, Mariana of Austria. As the only surviving heir of his fathers two marriages, Charles was named Prince of Asturias, the title given to the person first in line to the Spanish throne. The Spanish branch of the Habsburg royal family was noted for extreme consanguinity, well aware that they owed their power to fortunate marriages, they married between themselves to protect their gains. Philip and Mariana were actually uncle and niece, therefore, Charles was not only their son, Charles was physically and mentally disabled and infertile, possibly due to this massive inbreeding. Due to the deaths of his brothers, he was the last member of the male Spanish Habsburg line. Charles did not learn to speak until the age of four nor to walk until eight and his jaw was so badly deformed that he could barely speak or chew. Fearing the frail child would be overtaxed, his caretakers did not force Charles to attend school, the indolence of the young Charles was indulged to such an extent that at times he was not expected to be clean. The only vigorous activity in which Charles is known to have participated was shooting and he occasionally indulged in the sport in the preserves of El Escorial. The years of Charless reign were difficult for Spain, the economy was stagnant, there was hunger in the land, and the power of the monarchy over the various Spanish provinces was extremely weak. Spain’s finances were perpetually in crisis, Charles unfitness for rule meant he was often ignored, and power during his reign became the subject of court intrigues and foreign influence, particularly French and Austrian. Charles was three years old when his father, Philip IV, died on 17 September 1665, the Council of Castile appointed Philips second wife and Charles mother, Mariana of Austria, regent for the minor king. Charles inherited the Portuguese Restoration War and soon after his accession Spain was plunged into the War of Devolution with France in Spanish Netherlands, as regent, Mariana managed the countrys affairs through a series of favourites, whose merits usually amounted to no more than meeting her fancy. From then on he was the de facto prime minister or valido of Spain, the sheer size of the kingdom at that time made this kind of government increasingly damaging to the realms affairs. The treaty ceded the North African enclave of Ceuta to Spain, but marked the loss of Portugal, to end the War of Devolution, Nithard signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. However, the members of the Councils and in particular Charles illegitimate half-brother, in February 1669, a military revolt in Aragon and Catalonia led by Juan José, who then proceeded to march toward Madrid, brought about Nithards dismissalCharles II of Spain – Charles II
51. Philip V of Spain – Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns,45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history and he was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by name until he became the king of Spain. Philip was tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, the three were also educated by Paul de Beauvilliers. In 1700 the King Charles II of Spain died childless and his will named the turning 17-year-old Philip, grandson of Charles half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV, as his successor. Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philips younger brother, Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philips grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and this was countered by the French branchs claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. After the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV did. Philip only later learned to speak Spanish, on 2 November 1701 the almost 18 year old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, by then an old man of 63. She was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, there was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, and another one at Versailles on 11 September. As queen of Spain, Maria Luisa proved very popular with her subjects and she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, in 1714, she died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband. The actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch, however, a second act of the French king justified a hostile interpretation, pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands. This was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the issues of the War of the League of Augsburg. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession began, inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of FrancePhilip V of Spain – Philip V
52. Charles IV of Spain – Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. Charles was the son of Charles III and his wife. He was born in Naples, while his father was King of Naples and his elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy. In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto and he was called El Cazador, due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been amiable, but simple-minded, in 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He intended to maintain the policies of his father, and retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Even though he had a belief in the sanctity of his office. The affairs of government were left to his wife, Maria Luisa, in 1792, political and personal enemies ousted Floridablanca from office, replacing him with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. Humboldts Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain was a key publication from his five-year travels, Godoy continued Arandas policy of neutrality towards France, but after Spain protested the execution of Louis XVI of France, the deposed king, in 1793, France declared war on Spain. After the declaration, Portugal and Spain signed a treaty of protection against France. In 1795 France forced Godoy to enter into an alliance, Spain remained an ally of France and supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar, when Spain became allied with Britain. However, after Napoleons victory over Prussia in 1807, Godoy again steered Spain back onto the French side and this switching of alliances devalued Charles position as a trustworthy ally, increasing Godoys unpopularity, and strengthening the fernandistas, who favoured an alliance with the United Kingdom. Economic troubles, rumours about a relationship between the Queen and Godoy, and the Kings ineptitude, caused the monarchy to decline in prestige among the population. Anxious to take over from his father, and jealous of the prime minister, riots, and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez, in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on 19 March, in favor of his son. Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon, the ousted King, having appealed to Napoleon for help in regaining his throne, was summoned before Napoleon in Bayonne, along with his son, in April 1808. Napoleon forced both Charles and his son to abdicate, declared the Bourbon dynasty of Spain deposed, and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King Joseph I of Spain. Following Napoleons deposing of the Bourbon dynasty, the ex-King, his wife, after the collapse of the regime installed by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. The former Charles IV drifted about Europe until 1812, when he settled in RomeCharles IV of Spain – Portrait of Charles IV by Goya
53. Ferdinand VII of Spain – Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain, in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired and to his detractors as the Felon King and he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers, under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low, historian Stanley Payne says, He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious, and vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth and he thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Charles IV of Spain, Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. The Queens confessor Fray Juan Almaraz wrote in his last will that she admitted in articulo mortis that none, none of her sons and daughters, none was of the legitimate marriage. In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent who was excluded from all share in government by his parents and their advisor and Prime Minister. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805, in October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents, following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand ascended the throne and turned to Napoleon for support and he abdicated on 6 May 1808. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Chateau of Valençay, while the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleons choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country, marking the beginning of the Peninsular War, provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king. After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, on 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, and negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain, the Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too closely to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the years a new world had been born of foreign invasion. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America, Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy he had relinquished six years earlier. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812, before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, but, only gave lukewarm indications he would do soFerdinand VII of Spain – Portrait by Vicente López y Portaña
54. Joseph Bonaparte – Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers, Joseph was born in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic. In the year of his birth, Corsica was invaded by France and his father was originally a follower of the Corsican Patriot leader, Pasquale Paoli, but later became a supporter of French rule. As a lawyer, politician, and diplomat, Joseph served in the Cinq-Cents and was the French ambassador to Rome and he married Marie Julie Clary daughter of François Clary on 1 August 1794 in Cuges-les-Pins, France. They had three daughters, Julie Joséphine Bonaparte, zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, married, in 1822 to Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte, married, in 1826 to Napoleon Louis Bonaparte and he claimed the two surviving daughters as his heirs. He also sired two children with Maria Giulia, the Countess of Atri, Giulio Teresa, Joseph had two American daughters born at Point Breeze, his estate in Bordentown, New Jersey, by his mistress, Annette Savage, Pauline Anne, died young. The Château de Villandry had been seized by the French Revolutionary government, in 1806, Joseph was given military command of Naples, and shortly afterward was made king by Napoleon, to be replaced two years later by his sisters husband, Joachim Murat. Joseph was then made King of Spain in August 1808, soon after the French invasion, Joseph somewhat reluctantly left Naples, where he was popular, and arrived in Spain where he was extremely unpopular. His arrival sparked the legitimate Spanish revolt against French rule, Joseph temporarily retreated with much of the French Army to northern Spain. Joseph and his supporters never established complete control over the country, King Josephs Spanish supporters were called josefinos or afrancesados. During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition, partly because Napoleon was at odds with Pope Pius VII at the time, during Josephs rule of Spain, Mexico and Venezuela declared independence from Spain. King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after the main French forces were defeated by a British-led coalition at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. He was seen by Bonapartists as the rightful Emperor of the French after the death of Napoleons own son Napoleon II in 1832, Josephs home was located near the confluence of Crosswicks Creek and the Delaware River. He considerably expanded Sayres home and created extensive gardens in the picturesque style, when his first home was destroyed by fire in January 1820 he converted his stables into a second grand house. At Point Breeze, Joseph entertained many of the leading intellectuals, reputedly some Mexican revolutionaries offered to crown him Emperor of Mexico in 1820, but he declined. Joseph Bonaparte returned to Europe, where he died in Florence, Italy, Joseph Bonaparte was admitted in Marseilles lodge la Parfaite Sincérité in 1793. He was asked by his brother Napoleon to monitor freemasonry as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, with Cambacérès he managed the post-revolution rebirth of the Order in FranceJoseph Bonaparte – Portrait of King Joseph I.
55. Real Audiencia – The Real Audiencia, or simply Audiencia, was an appellate court in Spain and its empire. The name of the institution literally translates as Royal Audience, the additional designation chancillería was applied to the appellate courts in early modern Spain. The first audiencia was founded in the Kingdom of Castile in 1371 at Valladolid, the Valladolid Audiencia functioned as the highest court in Castile for the next two centuries. Appeals from the Castilian audiencias could only be made to the Council of Castile after its creation in 1480, the second audiencia was moved to Granada in 1505. Under Charles V and Philip II, the system was extended first in Spain proper, with the Royal Audiencia of Aragon. Audiencias in cities and provinces that belong to Spain today included Seville, Las Palmas, Majorca, Asturias, the audiencias and viceroys of the Crown of Aragon were overseen by the Council of Aragon, which had been established in 1494. Audiencias in the Spanish possessions in Europe included the Italian domains of Sardinia, in Italy, the Castilian institution of the audiencia was united with the Aragonese institution of the viceroy. In 1555 a Council of Italy was created to oversee the viceroys, in the Indies, the two institutions were also united, but with a different power relationship. The Crown of Castile early on introduced the audiencia into the Americas as part of its campaign to bring the area and its Spanish settlers and conquerors under royal control. With the vast conquests on the American mainland, which began in the 1520s, viceroys were therefore introduced, but without the judicial powers the office had enjoyed under the Aragonese Crown. In the New World, instead, the audiencias were given a consultative and quasi-legislative role in the administration of the territories, both viceroys and audiencias were ultimately overseen by a Council of the Indies. Most of the dealing with the establishment of the 16th- and 17th-century audiencias can be found in Book II. The first audiencia in the Americas was established at Santo Domingo in 1511 with jurisdiction over the Caribbean islands and it was quickly suppressed due to opposition by the Spanish settlers, but was re-established permanently in 1526. As the Spanish conquest of the continent continued, more audiencias were founded in the new areas of settlement. The first mainland audiencia was set up in Mexico City in 1527, just six years after the fall of Tenochtitlan and this audiencia was followed by the Audiencia of Panama,1538, overseeing Central America and the littoral regions of northern South America until its abolishment in 1543. It later was reestablshed with jurisdiction only over Panama proper in 1564, venezuela, settled earlier, remained under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo until the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the early 18th century. The last colonial audiencias were created under the Bourbon kings as part of their administrative reforms, the new dynasty found no need for the second Audiencia of Panama and abolished it in 1751, transferring its jurisdiction to the one in Bogotá. New audiencias were established in, Caracas,1786 Cusco,1787 Buenos Aires,1783 and this meant that at the moment of Spanish American independence in the early 19th century, the overseas possessions of the Spanish Monarchy were overseen by twelve audienciasReal Audiencia – Members of the Real Audiencia of Lima, the presidente, alcaldes de corte, fiscal and alguacil mayor. (Nueva Crónica y Buen Gobierno, p. 488)
56. Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara – The Real Audiencia of Guadalajara, was the highest tribunal of the Spanish crown in what is today northern Mexico and the southwestern United States in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was created by decree on February 13,1548. Its president was the political and executive officer of the district. And we order that this law of ours be kept, as it is in it contained, and in regards to the government of war and the treasury, the orders, the Audiencia of New Galicia in the Sixteenth Century, A Study in Spanish Colonial GovernmentRoyal Audiencia of Guadalajara – Colonization
57. Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo – The Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo was the first court of the Spanish crown in America. This audiencia would become part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain upon the creation of the two decades later. It also oversaw the provinces of Maracaibo, Margarita, Cumaná, Guyana, Barinas and Trinidad, from 1777 to 1786, the president of the Audiencia retained administrative oversight of Margarita, Cumaná and Caracas throughout the majority of the colonial period. Because Spain ceded Hispaniola to France in the Peace of Basel of 1795, the new Audiencia was set up the following year and called the Real Audiencia of Puerto Príncipe. This Audiencia maintained jurisdiction over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Louisiana, in 1838 the Real Audiencia of Havana was created, with the Puerto Príncipe retaining jurisdiction over the Eastern and Central departments of Cuba, since Spain had lost Florida and Louisiana. In 1831 the Real Audiencia of Puerto Rico was established, colony of Santo Domingo − Captaincy General of Santo Domingo Museo de las Casas RealesRoyal Audiencia of Santo Domingo – Colonization
58. Captaincy General of the Philippines – The Captaincy General of the Philippines was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included the Philippine Islands and it was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements. However, in 1821, following the independence of Mexico, all control was transferred to Madrid, antonio Pigafetta, the expeditions chronicler and one of only 18 original crew members to survive Ferdinand Magellans circumnavigation of the globe, recorded all details of the voyage. On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the treasurer in the Archipelago. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola, also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese, the danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain and it was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and launched on 8 May 1570. Two of Lepazpis Lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo conquered Luzons northern region, in 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1584, the Real Audiencia of Manila is established by King Felipe II, the Captaincy had its capital in Cebu from 1565 to 1595, and in Manila from 1595 until 1898. Ciriaco González Carbajal was appointed as Oidor of the Audiencia of Manila and was instructed to abide by the Royal Ordinance of Mayors of 1782, a month earlier, on October 23, the Intendencia of Manila had been attached to the Captaincy General of the Philippines. Until 1822, all General Captains were civilians, but after that year they were chosen among the military. Mindanao, Caraga, Misamis, Zamboanga, Nueva Guipúzcoa sultanate of Sulu Joló Marianas, Marianas capital Agaña, palau Bonin Islands Spratly Islands Caroline Islands Marshall Islands Special Districts, Benguet, Ticao and Masbate, Comandancia del Corregidor, Lower territories of Agno. Spanish rule in the Philippines ceased in 1898 after the war with the United States, most of the remaining territories in the Pacific Ocean were sold to Germany during the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899. Spanish East Indies Governor-General of the Philippines Royal Audience of Manila Spanish Empire Viceroyalty of New Spain — centered in México History of the Philippines History of the PhilippinesCaptaincy General of the Philippines – Magellan landing site in Umatac Bay
59. Captaincy General of Puerto Rico – Its creation was part of the, ultimately futile, Habsburg attempt in the late 16th century to prevent incursion into the Caribbean by foreign powers. Spain also established Captaincies General in Cuba, Guatemala and Yucatán, the Captaincy General played a crucial role in the history of the Spanish Caribbean. In 1508 Juan Ponce de León was commissioned by the Crown to carry out the initial colonization of Puerto Rico, after successfully founding the city of Caparra, he was appointed as its first governor in 1509 by the regent of Castile, Ferdinand V. As a result, Ponce de León lost his position and left the island, the Columbus family appointed governors in Puerto Rico from then until 1536, when Diegos son, Luis Colón sold the rights to govern the Indies to the Crown. In 1511, when Diego Colón had won the right to appoint governors, from 1536 to 1545, the island was overseen by the president of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo, who was also Captain General of the Caribbean. The island territory was administered locally, not as one unit and these men were elected annually by the cabildos from among the local settler population. Since most of the settlers did not have the training to become governors, the islands Spanish residents complained to the Crown. Starting in 1545 governors with legal training were appointed by either the crown or the Santo Domingo Audiencia, filling the highest judicial office on the island, the governors heard cases in the first instance in their immediate districts, and in appeal from the regional alcaldes. The next court of appeal was the Audiencia in Santo Domingo, in addition to being the highest administrative office on the island, governors also derived power from their right to annually appoint two of the four regidores of the cabildos on the island. As with all other Spanish political officials, governors were subject to the juicio de residencia, since governors were the kings highest representative on the island, they had oversight over the Church because of the right of patronage that the monarchs of Spain had in the Americas. Due to Spains growing military conflicts with other European powers, both in Europe and in the New World, the Crown added the office of general to the governor in 1580. Following this, mostly men, rather than lawyers, were appointed as governors-captains general. They were assisted by an adviser in their judicial and administrative duties. Spain considered Puerto Rico as vital strategically as the gateway to the Caribbean and it was described as the key to the Indies. Given the sea currents and wind patterns of the Atlantic, Puerto Rico was usually the first port of call for ships arriving from Europe, despite this, or perhaps because of its negligible economic importance, the Spanish took a long time to build up the islands defenses. The first fortified building was the Ponce de León family home, in the next decade construction began on the first true fort, La Fortaleza, at the entrance of the bay. By 1539 construction began of a defensive complex around San Juan, which included Forts San Felipe del Morro, San Cristóbal. On the other side of the island, San Germán was left practically defenseless, with the creation of the Captaincy General in 1580, Governor-Captain General Diego Menéndez de Valdés continued to strengthen defenses around San JuanCaptaincy General of Puerto Rico – Flag
60. Provincias Internas – The goal of its creation was to establish a unified government in political, military and fiscal affairs. Its creation was part of the Bourbon Reforms and was part of an effort to invigorate economic and population growth in the region to stave off encroachment on the region by foreign powers. During its existence, the Commandancy General encompassed the Provinces of Sonora y Sinaloa, Nueva Vizcaya, Las Californias, Nuevo México, Nuevo Santander, Nuevo Reyno de León, Coahuila, the Provincias Internas were the brainchild of José de Gálvez. He hit upon the idea during his time as royal Visitador General to New Spain from 1761 to 1772, instead the chief official of the area received the military title of commander or commandant general in addition to being the chief civil executive officer of the region. Due to objections from the viceroys of New Spain, Gálvez was unable to implement his plan during his time as visitador and this was essentially a new office created by King Charles III which made Gálvez, for all purposes, independent of the Council of the Indies. From his new position, Gálvez was able to implement his vision for Spanish America, in addition to the Provincias Internas, Gálvez also created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and the Captaincy General of Venezuela. He also recommenced the project of replacing the older corregimientos. Gálvez appointed Teodoro de Croix as the first Commander General of the Provinicas Internas, the greatest threat, however, were the incursions and indigenous rebellions. Teodoro de Croix arrived to Mexico City in December 1776 and from there he began his tenure as Captain general in February 1777, in Arizpe, Croix created a house Currency and in 1782 he created the Bank of San Carlos. Pedro Galindo Navarro was appointed as an advocate and adviser. Due to the extent of its jurisdiction in 1782 Croix requested the appointment of a commander, Brigadier Felipe de Neve. Las Californias were separated from the bishopric of Guadalajara, while the province of Sonora and Sinaloa was formerly under the bishopric of Durango. On May 21,1785 the districts of Saltillo and Parras were separated from the province of Nueva Vizcaya and were incorporated into Coahuila, rengel decided to move the capital to the town of Chihuahua. On August 26,1786 the Viceroy gave directions to Captain General to regulate the manner of governing the Interior Provinces, at the death of the viceroy Galvez on November 30,1786, the Captain General regained its autonomy from the new viceroy. The Inspector General Galvez proposed to Viceroy Croix in 1769 the creation of the Intendencies of the Californias, the viceroy appointed Matías de Armona and then Felipe de Barri for the former and Eusebio Ventura Beleña for the latter, but those projections never reached implementation. The viceroy was confirmed in all its powers, but had to leave the affairs of the Royal Treasury in the hands of a deputy superintendent of Real Property which depended on 11 provincial governors. Intendency governors gathered under his command causes of justice, police, finance and war, juan de Ugalde was appointed as the Captain general and Santa Rosa as the capital. In 1787 it was considered to create a real audiencia with jurisdiction over the Interior Provinces, but the project was not put into effectProvincias Internas – Teodoro de Croix, first Captain General of the Provincias Internas.
61. Indendancies of New Spain – New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, topography, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest, occupation, and government of the New World was achieved. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown. As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy. Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540Indendancies of New Spain – "Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North" (1540) by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
62. Chiapas – Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas, is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 122 municipalities and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez, other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, Tapachula, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south, in general, Chiapas has a humid, tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, in the past, natural vegetation at this region was lowland, tall perennial rainforest, but this vegetation has been destroyed almost completely to give way to agriculture and ranching. Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak and it is also home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions. The last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people, the official name of the state is Chiapas. The name derives from Chiapan or Tepechiapan, the name of an indigenous population, the term, from Nahuatl, may mean sage seed hill or water below the hill. After the Spanish arrived, they established two cities called Chiapas de los Indios and Chiapas de los Españoles, with the name of Provincia de Chiapas for the area around the cities, the first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the coat of arms. Hunter gatherers began to occupy the valley of the state around 7000 BCE. The oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools, in the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north. One of these peoples ancient cities is now the site of Chiapa de Corzo. This is three hundred years before the Mayans developed their calendar, the descendants of Mokaya are the Mixe-Zoque. During the pre Classic era, it is known that most of Chiapas was not Olmec, olmec-influenced sculpture can be found in Chiapas and products from the state including amber, magnetite, and ilmenite were exported to Olmec lands. The Olmecs came to what is now the northwest of the looking for amber with one of the main evidences for this called the Simojovel AxChiapas – Jaguar sculpture from Cintalapa dating between 1000 to 400 BCE on display at the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Chiapas.
63. Comayagua – Comayagua is a city in Honduras, some 50 miles northwest of Tegucigalpa on the highway to San Pedro Sula at an elevation of 1,949 feet above sea level. In 2015 the estimated population was 152,051 people and it is the capital of the Comayagua department of Honduras. The city is noted for its wealth of Spanish Colonial architecture, the central square has a cathedral with the oldest clock in the Americas. Comayagua was founded with the name Santa María de la Nueva Valladolid by Conquistador Alonso de Cáceres under orders from Francisco de Montejo, from 1540 on Comayagua was the capital of the Honduras Province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, on the square, was begun in 1563. In 1786 the Spanish Crown created the Intendencia of Comayagua, with Comayagua as its capital, from 1812 to 1814 it was the capital of the Province of Comayagua when it again reverted to being the capital of the Intendencia of Comayagua until 1820. In 1820, Honduras was again called the Province of Comayagua or Honduras, after independence from the Spanish it was the capital of the state of Honduras in the Federal Republic of Central America. After Honduras became an independent republic, the capital alternated between Comayagua and Tegucigalpa before being established at Tegucigalpa in 1880. In February 2012 a fire killed more than 350 people at Comayagua prison, right in front of the plaza is located City Hall, which has been reconstructed a couple of times. The building is of neoclassic style and was built during the 16th century, the Cathedral of Comayagua was built during the colonial era in Honduras. It was inaugurated on 8 December 1711, Soto Cano Air Base is a Honduran military installation located less than 10 miles from Comayagua. The two miles wide and six miles long airbase is home of the Honduran Air Force Academy, United States maintains Joint Task Force Bravo on Soto Cano Air Base with approximately 550 US military personnel and more than 650 US and Honduran civilians. Comayagua is headquarters of Club Hispano, of the Honduran National Soccer League, the club obtained its first promotion to the National League in 2004–2005. Nevertheless, after only their first season in the soccer league, for this reason the board of directors, bought the first division franchise from Club Municipal-Valencia of Choluteca. The Club plays its games at the municipal stadium Carlos Miranda which currently holds about 10,000 spectators. Comayagua was host to the first International Fellowship of Christian Athletes Motocross camp in September 2012,60 men and women participated in the camp which was instructed by professional riders from the United States, Jimmy Povolny, Shawn Clark and Ryan Meyung among others. The camp was followed by a race sponsored by Colmotos Enduro and was in memory of Dylan First and this is now an annual event in Comayagua with instructors from the US and leaders from HondurasComayagua – Comayagua Cathedral
64. Santiago de Cuba – Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city of Cuba and capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island, some 870 km south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana. Historically Santiago de Cuba has long been the second most important city on the island after Havana and it is on a bay connected to the Caribbean Sea and is an important sea port. In 2004 the city of Santiago de Cuba had a population of about 509,143 people, Santiago de Cuba was the fifth village founded by Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar on July 25,1515. In 1516 the settlement was destroyed by fire, and was immediately rebuilt and this was the starting point of the expeditions led by Juan de Grijalba and Hernán Cortés to the coasts of Mexico in 1518, and in 1538 by Hernando de Sotos expedition to Florida. The first cathedral was built in the city in 1528, from 1522 until 1589 Santiago was the capital of the Spanish colony of Cuba. The city was plundered by French forces in 1553, and by British forces under Christopher Myngs in 1662, the city experienced an influx of French and British immigrants in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, many coming from Haiti after the Haitian slave revolt of 1791. This added to the citys cultural mix, already rich with Spanish. It was also the location where Spanish troops faced their main defeat at San Juan Hill on July 1,1898, after capturing the surrounding hills, General William Rufus Shafter laid siege to the city. Spain later surrendered to the United States after Admiral William T. Sampson destroyed the Spanish Atlantic fleet just outside Santiagos harbor on July 3,1898, Cuban poet, writer, and national hero, José Martí, is buried in Cementerio Santa Efigenia. Pope Francis visited Cuba in 2015, Santiago was also the home of the revolutionary hero, Frank País. On July 26,1953, the Cuban Revolution began with an armed attack on the Moncada Barracks by a small contingent of rebels led by Fidel Castro. Shortly after this incident, País began talking with students and young working people informally. This developed into highly organized cells coordinating a large scale urban resistance that became instrumental in the success of the Cuban Revolution, País group prepared carefully, accruing weapons, collecting money, collecting medical supplies. They published a newsletter that reported news that criticized the government. In the summer of 1955, País organization merged with Castros July 26 Movement, País became the leader of the new organization in Oriente province, though two years later he was betrayed to the police and was shot after his capture. On January 1,1959, Fidel Castro proclaimed the victory of the Cuban Revolution from a balcony on Santiago de Cubas city hall, Santiago de Cuba was the hometown of poet José María Heredia. It is the birthplace of the world-famous Bacardi Brand, which was started by Facundo Bacardi Masso in 1862 and it now houses a museum that displays the extensive art collection of the Bacardí family. Santiago de Cuba is well known for its cultural life, some of Cubas most famous musicians, including Compay Segundo, Ibrahim Ferrer and Eliades Ochoa and trova composer Ñico Saquito were born in the city or in one of the villages surrounding itSantiago de Cuba – Santiago de Cuba
65. Guadalajara – Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,495,189 it is Mexicos fourth most populous municipality, the municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. It is a business and economic center in the Bajio region. Guadalajara is the 10th largest city in Latin America in population, urban area, the city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, the name of which came from the Andalusian Arabic wād l-ḥijāra, meaning river/valley of stones. Other, more industries, such as shoes, textiles. Guadalajara, one of the most popular clubs in Mexico. This city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005, Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games. The city was established in five other places before moving to its current location, the first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Nochistlán, Zacatecas. This site was settled by Cristóbal de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán, with the purpose of securing recent conquests, the settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water, in 1533 it was moved to a location near Tonalá. Four years later, Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán, while the settlement was in Tlacotán, the Spanish king Charles I granted the coat of arms that the city still has today. This settlement was attacked during the Mixtón War in 1543 by Caxcan, Portecuex. The war was initiated by the due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements. The conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians such as freeing the Indian slaves, the village of Guadalajara barely survived the war, and the villagers attributed their survival to the Archangel Michael, who remains the patron of the city. It was decided to move the city again, this time to Atemajac. The city has remained there to this day, in 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara and, in the same year, the status of city was granted by the king of Spain. Guadalajara was officially founded on February 14,1550 in the Valley of Atemajac, the settlements name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de GuzmánGuadalajara
66. Durango – Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is located in Northwest Mexico, with a population of 1,632,934, it has Mexicos second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the capital, named after the first president of Mexico. Sedentary life began in Durango around 500 B. C. in response to population growth, the exceptions were the Acaxee, Humas, and Xiximes who were constantly at war but always on the look-out for final settlements in the region of the Quebradas. On the east bank of the state a longitudinal zone can be found, the Indios Laguneros traveled interchangeably between this area, they were characterized by their rebellious attitude, instability, religious customs and for being hunters and gatherers. These Natives of which so little was recorded were the first inhabitants of the region long before they were exterminated by the Spanish colonists, today, only a few remain of the Tepehuanos, Huicholes, Coras and Tarahumara tribes. By around 200–300 A. D. Durango along with the central zone of present-day Mexico was inhabited by sedentary groups that were link to the cultures located further south. The state was connected by a commercial network that linked it to areas as north as New Mexico. Spanish explorer Francisco de Ibarra, the first to colonize Durango, on July 8,1563, he founded the capital city and named it Durango for the town Durango, Biscay, Spain. Additionally many of the soldiers who came on the expedition of Captain Francisco de Ibarra, in 1552 Spanish Captain Ginés Vázquez del Mercado discovered one of the worlds richest iron-ore deposits which was named after him, present-day Cerro de Mercado. Gradually, in the decades, the Franciscans followed by the Jesuits began the evangelization of Nueva Vizcaya. The establishment of garrisons in Northern Mexico provided security to the people immersed in isolation, the new routes enjoined the military camps and thus emerged the Courier of the Provinces, a government scheme adopted by the Spanish monarchs in 1767. The new territory began to split in the colonial period, the first to emerge was the Sinaloa Province, which then included the areas known today as Sonora and Arizona. At the time that Porfirio Díaz was at the head of the Republic, Durango also experienced local dictatorships such as that of Governor Juan Manuel Flores, esteban Fernandez, who also became governor, was reelected in 1908 after his four-year term only to leave in 1911. Durango played an important role in the Mexican Revolution. On November 21,1910, Duranguense military personnel Jesús Agustín Castro and Oreste Pereyra, the splitting of the territories continued with the government of Enrique R. At the half century, the educational crusade began which bestowed upon Durango colleges of education such as Instituto Tecnológico de Durango. The latter was based on the historical Instituto Juarez, which dates back to the eighteenth century and this was a late colonization for the Spanish, due mostly to heavy resistance by the indigenous populationDurango – Captain Francisco de Ibarra
67. Viceroy – A viceroy /ˈvaɪs. rɔɪ/ is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning in the place of, a viceroys territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal, less often viceroyal, the term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more used to indicate a viceroys wife. The title was used by the Crown of Aragon, where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia. In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, with the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions and these Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time, Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848. These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties, New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 and the Río de la Plata in 1776. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, however the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque, who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was three years, possibly longer, given the power represented, of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century. After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy. Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, the designation Viceroy, although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. The Governor-General continued to be the representative of the Crown. The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India, alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. During the offices history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities, Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century, additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand, the Viceroys House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta and they are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectivelyViceroy – Francisco de Almeida, first viceroy of Portuguese India
68. Treaty of Zaragoza – The conflict sprang in 1520, when the expeditions of both kingdoms reached the Pacific Ocean, since there was not a set limit to the east. In 1494 Castile and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, dividing the world into two exploration and colonizing areas, the Castilian and the Portuguese and it stated a meridian in the Atlantic Ocean, with the western part exclusive to Spain and the east to Portugal. In 1511 Malacca, then the center of Asian trade, was conquered for Portugal by Afonso de Albuquerque, before reaching Banda, they first touched the islands of Buru, Ambon, and Seram, and then the Banda Islands. On November 6,1521, the Moluccas, cradle of all spices, were reached from the east by Magellans fleet, sailing then under Juan Sebastián Elcano, at the service of the Spanish Crown. Before Magellan and Serrão could meet in the Moluccas, Serrão died on the island of Ternate, the expedition reached with difficulty the Moluccas, docking at Tidore, where the Spanish later founded a fort. In 1524 both kingdoms organized the Junta de Badajoz-Elvas to resolve the issue, John III and Charles V agreed to not send anyone else to get Moluccan spices until finding in whose hemisphere were the islands. Between 1525 and 1528 Portugal sent several expeditions around the Moluccas, explorers such as Martim Afonso de Melo, and possible Gomes de Sequeira, sighted the Aru Islands and the Tanimbar Islands. In 1526 Jorge de Meneses reached northwestern Papua New Guinea, landing in Biak, members of the Garcia Jofre de Loaísa expedition were made prisoners by the Portuguese and its survivors return to Europe in Portuguese hands by west. On February 10,1525 Charles Vs younger sister Catherine of Austria married John III of Portugal and on March 11,1526 and these crossed weddings strengthened the ties between the two crowns, easing an agreement on the Moluccas. It was in the interest of the emperor to avoid conflict, to focus on his European policy, the Treaty of Zaragoza stated the meridian was 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Maluku Islands as the border between the two domain zones. However, this never happened, because the emperor desperately needed the Portuguese money to finance the war of the League of Cognac against his arch-rival Francis I of France, portugals portion was roughly 191° whereas Spains portion was roughly 169°. Both portions have an uncertainty of ±4° due to the wide variation in the opinions regarding the location of the Tordesillas line. Portugal gained control of all lands and seas west of the Zaragoza, including all of Asia and its neighboring islands so far discovered, although the Philippines were not named in the treaty, Spain implicitly relinquished any claim to them because they were well west of the line. Nevertheless, by 1542, King Charles V decided to colonize the Philippines, judging that Portugal would not protest too vigorously because the archipelago had no spices, but he failed in his attempt. King Philip II succeeded in 1565, establishing the initial Spanish trading post at Manila, the Portuguese delegation sent by King João III included, among others, António de Azevedo Coutinho, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Lopo Homem and Simão Fernandes. Plenipotentiaries were, from Portugal, António Azevedo Coutinho, and from Spain, Count Mercurio Gâtine, Garcia de Loaysa, Bishop of Osma, 141st meridian east Indonesia–Papua New Guinea relations South Australia–Victoria border dispute Yasuo Miyakawa. The changing iconography of Japanese political geography, GeoJournal, Vol.52, NoTreaty of Zaragoza – The 1494 Tordesilhas Treaty meridian (purple) and the Moluccas antimeridian (green), set at the Treaty of Zaragoza, 1529
69. Peace of Westphalia – The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion. The Treaty of Osnabrück, involving the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, the treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power, a norm was established against interference in another states domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of states, became central to international law. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs, provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King, were started in Cologne in 1641 and these negotiations were initially blocked by France. Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies, in Hamburg and Lübeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg. This was done with the intervention of Richelieu, the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. This larger agreement was negotiated in Westphalia, in the cities of Münster. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations, Münster was, since its re-Catholization in 1535, a strictly mono-denominational community. It housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, only Roman Catholic worship was permitted. No places of worship were provided for Calvinists and Lutherans, in the years of 1628–1633 Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League. The Catholic Prince-Bishop Franz Wilhelm, Count of Wartenberg then imposed the Counter-Reformation onto the city with many Lutheran burgher families being exiled, while under Swedish occupation Osnabrückss Catholics were not expelled, but the city severely suffered from Swedish war contributions. Therefore, Osnabrück hoped for a great relief becoming neutralised and demilitarised, since Lutheran Sweden preferred Osnabrück as a conference venue, its peace negotiations with the Empire, including the allies of both sides, took place in Osnabrück. The Empire and its opponent France, including the allies of each, as well as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, between January 1646 and July 1647 probably the largest number of diplomats were present. The French delegation was headed by Henri II dOrléans, duc de Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude dAvaux, the Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius. Philip IV of Spain was represented by a double delegation, the Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, and notably included the diplomats and writers Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, and Bernardino de Rebolledo. The Burgundian lawyer Antoine Brun represented Philip as hereditary ruler of the Franche Comté, the papal nuncio in Cologne, Fabio Chigi, and the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire also sent delegations, Brandenburg sent several representatives, including VollmarPeace of Westphalia – The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster, 15 May 1648 (1648) by Gerard ter Borch
70. Treaty of Utrecht – The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war. They marked the end of French ambitions of hegemony in Europe expressed in the wars of Louis XIV, the War of the Spanish Succession was occasioned by the failure of the Habsburg king, Charles II of Spain, to produce an heir. Dispute followed the death of Charles II in 1700, and fourteen years of war were the result, France and Great Britain had come to terms in October 1711, when the preliminaries of peace had been signed in London. The preliminaries were based on an acceptance of the partition of Spains European possessions. Following this, the Congress of Utrecht opened on 29 January 1712, with the British representatives being John Robinson, Bishop of Bristol, and Thomas Wentworth, Lord Strafford. Reluctantly the United Provinces accepted the preliminaries and sent representatives, and this assurance was given, and so in February the Imperial representatives made their appearance. As Philip was not yet recognized as its king, Spain did not at first send plenipotentiaries, but the Duke of Savoy sent one, and the Kingdom of Portugal was represented by Luís da Cunha. With Great Britain and France having agreed upon a truce, the pace of negotiation now quickened, and the main treaties were finally signed on 11 April 1713. The treaty recognised Louis XIVs grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou, as King of Spain, however, Philip was compelled to renounce for himself and his descendants any right to the French throne. In similar fashion various French princelings, including most notably the Duke of Berry, Utrecht marked the rise of Great Britain under Anne and later the House of Hanover, her exploits martial were due to Marlborough. Portugal had its sovereignty recognised over the lands between the Amazon and Oyapock rivers, in Brazil, in 1715, the Portuguese also recovered Colónia do Sacramento, previously taken by Spain in Uruguay. In North America, France ceded to Great Britain its claims to Newfoundland and they also ceded the Acadian colony of Nova Scotia. The formerly partitioned island of Saint Kitts was also ceded in its entirety to Britain, France was required to recognise British suzerainty over the Iroquois and commerce with the Far Indians was to be open to traders of all nations. France retained its other pre-war North American possessions, including Île-Saint-Jean, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, as well as Île Royale, a series of commercial treaties were also signed. The treatys territorial provisions did not go as far as the Whigs in Britain would have liked, considering that the French had made overtures for peace in 1706, the Whigs considered themselves the heirs of the staunch anti-French policies of William III and the Duke of Marlborough. However, in the Parliament of 1710 the Tories had gained control of the House of Commons, Queen Anne and her advisors had also come to agree. The French negotiator Melchior de Polignac taunted the Dutch with the scathing remark de vous, chez vous, sans vous, meaning that negotiations would be held about you, around you, without you. In any case, the Dutch achieved their condominium in the Austrian Netherlands with the Austro-Dutch Barrier Treaty of 1715Treaty of Utrecht – A first edition of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht between Great Britain and Spain in Spanish (left) and a later edition in Latin and English.
71. Toluca – Toluca, officially called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca. It is the center of a growing urban area, now the fifth largest in Mexico. It is located 63 kilometres west-southwest of Mexico City, about 40 minutes by car to the edge of the city. According to the 2010 census, the city of Toluca has a population of 819,561, the city is the fifth largest in Mexico in population. When Toluca was founded by the Matlatzincas, its name was Nepintahihui. The current name is based on the Náhuatl name for the area when it was renamed by the Aztecs in 1473. The name has its origin in the word tollocan that comes from the name of the god, Tolo, plus the suffix, can. It is also referred to in a number of Aztec codices as Tolutépetl, meaning hill of the god, Tolo, the name Toluca de Lerdo was adopted in 1861 in honor of President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. The Valley of Toluca was known as Matlatzinco Valley in ancient times and home to at least four groups, the Matlatzinca, Otomi, Mazahua. In the Postclassic period, the valley was ruled by a powerful capital city whose ruins are located today in the village of Calixtlahuaca. In 1478 the Mexica emperor Axayacatl conquered the Toluca Valley, the capital was stripped of its dynasty and power and some lands were distributed to kings and nobles from the Valley of Mexico. One of the rivals of Calixtlahuaca was Tollocan, a minor city-state before 1478, when Axayacatl destroyed Calixtlahuaca, he placed the imperial provincial capital in Tollocan. Calixtlahuaca and other towns in the Toluca Valley paid tribute to the Aztec Empire through Tollocan, after the Spanish conquest, the name Tollocan was changed to Toluca. Archaeologists have not yet located a major Postclassic settlement within the modern city, either the pre-Hispanic city of Tollocan was destroyed and covered over by the expansion of Toluca, or else the remains of Tollocan could lie outside of the modern city. A small Postclassic site was discovered on the hill called Tolochi, which is in the north of the modern city, but the remains seem too insubstantial to have been a major provincial capital. The tree of Las Manitas Rojas, which means little red hands, was planted before the Spanish Conquest in what is now the monastery of Nuestra Señora del Carmen. This tree is significant because it shows that Toluca was important enough for the Aztecs to create a botanical garden, in 1521, the Spanish conquered the Valley of Toluca. Leading the troops was Gonzalo de Sandoval, one of Cortes many sergeants, toluca’s first governor was Pedro Cortés CoyotzinToluca – Toluca
72. Cuernavaca – Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. It was established by the Olmec, the culture of Mesoamerica. The city is located south of Mexico City, from which it may be reached after a drive of approximately 1½ hours using the D-95 Freeway, the city was nicknamed the City of Eternal Spring by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. It has long been an escape for Mexico City and foreign visitors because of this warm, stable climate. Aztec emperors had summer residences there, and today many people as well as Mexico City residents maintain homes there. Cuernavaca is also host to a foreign resident population, including large numbers of students who come to study the Spanish language. The name Cuernavaca is derived from the Nahuatl phrase Cuauhnāhuac and means surrounded by or close to trees, the name eventually was Hispanicized to Cuernavaca. The coat-of-arms of the municipality is based on the pre-Columbian pictograph emblem of the city depicts a tree trunk with three branches, with foliage, and four roots colored red. There is a cut in the trunk in the form of a mouth, from which emerges a speech scroll, probably representing the language Nahuatl and by extension the locative suffix -nāhuac, Cuernavaca was nicknamed city of eternal spring by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. The city is located in a region, but its temperature is kept fairly constant in the 70s. It is located on the slope of the Sierra de Chichinautzin mountains. In the morning, warm air flows up the mountains from the valley below and in the late afternoon, a ubiquitous flowering plant in the city is the bougainvillea. This pleasant climate has attracted royalty and nobles since Aztec times, most of the Aztec emperors called Cuernavaca their summer residence. Foreign princes, archdukes, and other nobles have been attracted to this place because of its flowers, sun, fruits, fresh-water springs, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico set up a country residence in the city. Philanthropist Barbara Hutton, who held several royal titles through marriage, had a home in the city, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, lived in exile in the city following the Iranian Revolution. Although a native of the U. S. Cuernavaca always has been a place for people from Mexico City to escape the city. In the twentieth century, the climate and flora began to attract foreigners as well. Population increase in urban area began in 1940, but the metro area was not created, nor recognizedCuernavaca
73. Oaxaca City – The city and municipality of Oaxaca de Juárez, or simply Oaxaca, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of the same name. It is located in the Centro District in the Central Valleys region of the state and this city relies heavily on tourism, which is based on its large number of colonial-era structures as well as the native Zapotec and Mixtec cultures and archeological sites. It, along with the site of Monte Albán, were named a World Heritage Site in 1987. It is also the home of the cultural festival called the Guelaguetza, which features Oaxacan dance from the seven regions, music. It is nicknamed la Verde Antequera due to its prior name, the coat of arms for the municipality bears the image of the decapitated Donaji, who was an indigenous princess in the years immediately after the Conquest. The Aztecs entered the valley in 1440 and named it Huaxyacac, when the Spanish arrived in 1521, the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs were involved in one of their many wars. Spanish conquest would end this fighting, the first Spanish expedition here arrived late in 1521, headed by Captain Francisco de Orozco, and accompanied by 400 Aztecs. Hernán Cortés sent Francisco de Orozco to Oaxaca because Moctezuma II said that the Aztecs gold came from there, the Spanish expedition under Orozco set about building a Spanish city where the Aztec military post was at the base of the Cerro de Fortín. The first mass was said here by Chaplain Juan Díaz on the bank of the Atoyac River under a large huaje tree and this group of Spaniards chose their first mayor, Gutierres de Badajoc, their first town council and began construction of the cathedral of Oaxaca in 1522. Their name for the settlement was Guajaca, a Hispanization of the Nahuatl name, the establishment of the relatively independent village did not suit Hernán Cortes, who wanted power over the entire region for himself. Cortés sent Pedro de Alvarado, who proceeded to drive out most of the villages population, the original Spanish settlers appealed to the Spanish crown to recognize the village they founded, which it did in 1526, with land divided among the Spaniards of Orozcos expedition. However, this did not stop Cortés from driving out the population of the once again. Once again, the founders appealed to Spanish royal authority. This viceroy also sided with the founders, and the town was refounded in 1529 as Antequera. Francisco de Herrera convened the new, Crown-approved town council, in the meantime, Cortés was able to obtain from the crown the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, which contains the disputed village. This permitted him to tax the area heavily, and to have control of the territory that surrounded the village, the village was then in a position of having to survive surrounded by villages which answered to Cortés. These villages not only did not take orders from Antequera, they were hostile to it, to counter this, the village petitioned the Crown to be elevated to the status of a city, which would give it certain rights, privileges and exceptions. It would also ensure that the settlement would remain under the control of the kingOaxaca City
74. Morelia – Morelia is a city and municipality in the north central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The city is in the Guayangareo Valley and is the capital, the main pre-Hispanic cultures here were the Purépecha and the Matlatzinca, but no major cities were founded in the valley during this time. The Spanish took control of the area in the 1520s, the Spanish under Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza founded a settlement here in 1541 with the name of Valladolid, which became rival to the nearby city of Pátzcuaro for dominance in Michoacán. In 1580, this ended in Valladolid’s favor and it became the capital of the colonial province. After the Mexican War of Independence, the city was renamed Morelia in honor of José María Morelos, in 1991, the city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved colonial buildings and layout of the historic center. Human settlements in the Guayangareo Valley in which Morelia is located have been dated back as far as the 7th century, artifacts found here have shown Teotihuacán culture influence on early cultures in this area. In the 12th century, the Purépecha arrived in the valley and they dominated it politically for the rest of the pre-Hispanic period but did not build any major settlements here. Between the 12th and the 15th century, Matlatzincas moved into the area with permission of the Purépechas, the main Matlatzinca settlement was where Júarez Plaza in the city is today. The Spanish pushed into the Guayangareo Valley between 1525 and 1526, headed by Gonzalo Gómez, in the 1530s, the area was evangelized by Franciscans such as Juan de San Miguel and Antonio de Lisboa. What would become the city of Morelia was founded by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and a number of encomenderos in 1541, the action also required that the new settlement change its name to Guayangareo. In 1545, Guayangareo gained city status from Charles V in 1545 with the name of Valladolid and this was part of a power struggle between Antonio de Mendoza and Vasco de Quiroga over the province of Michoacán. During Quiroga’s lifetime, he managed to keep political and ecclesiastical power in Pátzcuaro despite the viceroy’s, the 17th century saw growth for Valladolid, with the construction of the cathedral and aqueduct. The cathedral was begun in 1640 and the aqueduct in 1657, churches include La Compañía, San Juan and La Cruz, but the most important structure built during this time period was the Cathedral. The location of this cathedral defined the composition and development of the city from then on, at the end of the colonial period, Valladolid was a small city with about 20,000 inhabitants. It was also a center with four important schools such as the College of San Nicolás. Demonstrations against Spanish rule had been occurring in the town in 1809 and this plot was discovered, with the main conspirators were arrested and sent to other parts of New Spain, which helped to spread republican ideas. One year later, after forming his army in Guanajuato state, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla arrived and took over the city, the city was taken back by royalist forces soon after. Morelos came here to try and dislodge the royalists but was defeated by Agustín de Iturbide, another prominent figure in the war, Mariano Matamoros was shot by firing squad on the city’s main square in 1814Morelia – Cathedral of Morelia
75. Campeche City – The citys population at the 2010 census was 220,389, and the municipality for which it serves as municipal seat had a population of 259,005. The city was founded in 1540 by Spanish conquistadores as San Francisco de Campeche atop the pre-existing Maya city of Can Pech, the Pre-Columbian city was described as having 3,000 houses and various monuments, of which little trace remains. The city retains many of the old colonial Spanish city walls and fortifications protected the city from pirates. The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, originally, the Spaniards lived inside the walled city, while the natives lived in the surrounding barrios of San Francisco, Guadalupe and San Román. These barrios still retain their original churches, the one in Guadalupe is almost 500 years old, founded in 1540 by Francisco Montejo, Campeche was terrorized by pirates and marauders until the city started fortification in 1686. San Francisco de Campeche was originally a village, Ah Kim Pech. The city of Campeche was founded in 1540 and fortified against pirates during the 17th century and it still has the appearance of a fortress. Historical monuments and buildings, such as the Franciscan cathedral, old Maya ruins, the state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a World Heritage Site in 1999. More than one thousand buildings with a historic value have survived as witnesses of space, the French engineer Louis Bouchard de Becour was commissioned to unify all the defensive works that surrounded the city with a wall. At its completion, the surrounding the city of Campeche was 2,560 meters in length, forming an irregular hexagon around the main part of the city. These bulwarks now serve different functions, Santiago, Used as the Botanical Garden Xmuch´haltún, San Francisco, Protects the Land Gate. Houses the library of the INAH, San Juan, Protects the Land Gate. Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Also protects the Sea Gate and it is the largest one and holds the Museum of City History. San Carlos, Holds the City Museum and this fort was the first one built. It also contained four gates to access to the main quarters. The main entrances are the Puerta de la tierra, built in 1732, the Land Gate is kept as a tourist attraction, having a light and sound show three nights each week and keeping original supplies and items from the 17th century. The other gates were Guadalupe and San Román, connecting to the outside neighborhoods, additionally, two main forts protected the city from two nearby hills on each side, the forts of San José el Alto and San Miguel. These forts gave long-range artillery coverage and served also as look-outs and they were built before the walls of the cityCampeche City – San Francisco de Campeche
76. Durango City – Durango, officially Victoria de Durango and also known as Ciudad de Durango, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Durango. It stands at an altitude of 1,880 metres above sea level, the city was founded on July 8,1563 by Spanish Basque explorer Francisco de Ibarra. During the Spanish colonial era the city was the capital of the Nueva Vizcaya province of New Spain, as of 2010, the city had a total population of 518,709, up from 463,830 as of 2005. It serves as seat of Durango Municipality which had a population of 582,267 in 2010. The municipality has a large land area of 10,041 square kilometres and includes such outlying communities as El Nayar. The city of Durango was built on a valley in which a primitive Spanish village named Nombre de Dios was founded. According to the 1921 Mexican census, the city had a population of 67,456 out of which 21,300 were European immigrants, the city of Durango is located in the northwestern part of the country, and Midwestern part of the Mexican plateau. It is between 22 °40 and 26 °50 north latitude and between the meridian 102 °2555 and 107 °0850 west latitude relative to Greenwich, the municipality is 10.041 square kilometers. Its longest measured lengths are 520 kilometers and 480 kilometers from east to west, the city of Durango has a semi-arid climate, classified as BSk in the Köppen climate classification system. The climate is temperate in the western portion, with the annual temperature being 15 °C. In the eastern region, the annual temperature is 19 °C. Winters are mild, with a daytime high of 21 °C in January. As a result of the altitude and aridity during the winter months. Occasionally, temperatures can go above 30 °C while cold fronts from the north can push temperatures below −5 °C. During the winter months, the climate is dominated by the ridge, resulting in dry conditions and many days are clear and sunny. Precipitation is rare, with March being the driest month, summers are warm to hot with June being the hottest month, with an average high of 30 °C and a low of 14 °C. Generally, this occurs around in mid-June. Afternoon storms are common in the summer and they can be accompanied with hail or thunderstorms, July and August have warm temperatures, averaging 28 °C though slightly cooler due to the presence of the rainDurango City – Panoramic view
77. Monterrey – Monterrey, is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation, Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations. It is one of the wealthiest cities in Mexico with a GDP PPP of 130.7 billion dollars in 2012, Monterreys GDP PPP per capita is of approximately 32,000 dollars. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive, rich in history and culture, Monterrey is considered one of the most developed cities in the entire country and often regarded as the most americanized in Mexico. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery and Heineken, which features Norteño capital and Grupo ALFA, Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor, in the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a great industrial growth, prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey, Azalapas, Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, in 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, Monterrey was also the point of emigration from Europe, people from Portugal, Spain, France, Russia went to Monterrey seeing it as a good place to live in. Most of the Monterrey people descent from a creole Spanish heritage, during the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio, Tampico and from Saltillo to the center of the country, tampicos port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the foreign colonies. In 1824, the New Kingdom of León became the State of Nuevo León, in 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling U. S. forces during the first few advances on the city, the battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua, during the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. In 1986, several games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted. In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city, the conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperationMonterrey – Monterrey
78. Zacatecas City – Zacatecas is a city and municipality in Mexico, and the capital and largest city of the state of Zacatecas. Located in north-central Mexico, the city had its start as a Spanish mining camp in the mid-16th century, native Americans had already known about the areas rich deposits of silver and other minerals. Due to the wealth that the mines provided, Zacatecas quickly became one of the most important cities in New Spain, today, the colonial part of the city is a World Heritage Site, due to the Baroque and other structures built during its mining days. Mining still remains an important industry, the name Zacatecas is derived from the Zacateco people and has its roots in Nahuatl. The name means people of the grasslands, the first people to populate the area arrived approximately 10,000 years ago, when the climate was wetter and warmer, with different vegetation and wildlife. These peoples were mining silver and other metals in these hills long before the Europeans arrived, the Spanish came to the Zacatecas area via Guadalajara. In 1540, Nuño de Guzmán traveled from Mexico City conquering what are now the states of Michoacán, one of Guzmáns lieutenants, Cristobal de Oñate, conquered the area around what is now Guadalajara. Another, Pedro Almindes Chirinos Peralmindes, went to explore the lands to the north, taking Zacatecas with little trouble, and the area initially was simply frontier. Other expeditions followed, including one by Juan de Tolosa in 1546, who brought back samples from Cerro de la Bufa. A mining camp was established at the foot of Cerro de la Bufa. The Zacatecos initially fought the permanent presence of the Spanish, but the potential of the area strengthened the Europeans’ resolve. Surveys of the surrounding hills were undertaken by Tolosa, Diego de Ibarra, Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, Andrés de Villanueva. A military mining camp was established in 1548 and called Minas de Nuestra Señora de Remedios. The first major vein of silver was found in 1548 in a mine called San Bernabe and this was followed by similar finds in mines called Albarrada de San Benito, Vetagrande, Panuco and others. This brought a number of people to Zacatecas, including craftsmen, merchants, clerics. In 1550, royalty found its way to Zacatecas in the person of Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, doña Leonor married Juan de Tolosa. The settlement grew over the space of a few years one of the most important cities in New Spain. The success of the led to the arrival of indigenous peopleZacatecas City – View of Zacatecas
79. Saltillo – Saltillo is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 258 kilometres west of the Texas border, as of the 2005 census, Saltillo had a population of 725,095 people. 823,098 people reside within the area, making it the 19th biggest metro area in the country. The metro area comprises the municipalities of Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, founded in 1577 by Conquistador Alberto del Canto and Spanish colonists, Saltillo is the oldest post-conquest settlement in northern Mexico. Saltillo was a commercial center on the northern frontier which served as a bridge from central Mexico to regions farther northeast, Nuevo León, Nuevo Santander, Coahuila. Saltillo supplied the mines of Zacatecas with wheat. It never rose to prominence, but it did develop a commercial core. Saltillo became administratively more important at the end of the eighteenth century, merchants, most of whom were Iberian-born peninsular Spaniards, constituted the most important economic group, handling a wide variety of goods and sold in shops. They were the branch of the transatlantic merchant sector, with ties to Mexico City merchants. Peninsular merchants in Saltillo married into local society, acquired rural properties. In the late century, an annual trade fair was established, with goods from as far away as China and Europe. Saltillo could produce wheat commercially so long as enterprises had access to water, in the eighteenth century, there was a demand for draft animals, which Saltillo could supply. The city of Saltillo is the seat of the municipality of Saltillo. The current Mayor is Isidro Lopez Villareal from the Partido Accion Nacional, el Cerro del Pueblo and its 4-metre cross overlook the city. The citys elevation, at 1,600 metres, makes it cooler and windier than the city of Monterrey. Saltillo lies near the city of Arteaga and in the Chihuahuan Desert, the city is flanked by the Zapalinamé mountains, which are part of the Sierra Madre Oriental. By looking at the relief of the mountains, one can see, according to local legend, Saltillo is located in the Chihuahuan Desert but temperatures are cooler than other desert cities in Mexico because it is located in an altitude of 1,600 meters. Summers are slightly hot with cool nights, and winters are sunny, rainfall is scarce but more prominent in summerSaltillo – City of Saltillo
80. History of San Jose, California – For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. Don Pedro Fages, the governor at Monterey, passed through the area on his 1770 and 1772 expeditions to explore the East Bay. Late in 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza led the first overland expedition to bring colonists from New Spain to California and he left the colonists at Monterey in 1776, and explored north with a small group. Anza returned to Mexico City before any of the settlements were actually founded, el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe was founded by José Joaquín Moraga on November 29,1777, the first pueblo-town not associated with a mission or a military post in upper Las Californias. The town was founded by the colonists led to California by Anza, as a community to provide food for the presidios of San Francisco. In 1778, the pueblo had a population of 68, in the ensuing years a number of Mexican Rancho Land Grants Land Grants were confirmed within the lands now considered San Jose. During the Bear Flag Revolt, Captain Thomas Fallon led a force from Santa Cruz. Fallon would later become the mayor of San Jose. Its unclear whether or not Fallon ordered all townspeople of Spanish/Mexican origin out of San Jose, during the California Gold Rush period, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mines just south of the city were the largest mercury mines in North America. Mining operations began in 1847 at what was the first operating mine in the province, the importance of the mercury industry at the time explains why the local newspaper is named the Mercury News. On March 27,1850, San Jose became the first incorporated city in the U. S. state of California, the first mayor was Josiah Belden. It also served as the states first capital with the first and second sessions of the California Legislature, known as the Legislature of a Thousand Drinks, from 1858 to 1861, San Jose was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail stage line. In 1881, because of a campaign by editor J. J. It didnt provide sufficient illumination, and by 1884 was used only for ceremonial purposes and it collapsed during the great gale of 1915. In 1989, an informal Court of Historical Inquiry looked into the issue of whether the Eiffel Tower was an infringement of the Electric Light Tower. Before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the Winchester Mystery House reached a height of 7 stories, many visitors to the house claim to have felt the presence of ghosts, while others claim there is no detectable presence. In 1909, Dr. Charles Herrold began experimental broadcasts in downtown San Jose. His station was licensed in 1921 as KQW, then moved to San FranciscoHistory of San Jose, California – The 200th anniversary (1977) of the El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe founding in Las Californias: marked by this Commemorative U.S. postage stamp.
81. Presidio of San Diego – El Presidio Reál de San Diego is a historic fort in San Diego, California. It was established on May 14,1769, by Gaspar de Portolá, the presidio was the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific Coast of the present-day United States. As the first of the presidios and Spanish missions in California, the associated Mission San Diego de Alcalá later moved a few miles away. Essentially abandoned by 1835, the site of the original Presidio lies on a hill within present-day Presidio Park, the San Diego Presidio was registered as a California Historical Landmark in 1932, then declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. Prior to occupation by the Spanish, the site of the Presidio was home to the Kumeyaay people, the first Europeans to explore San Diego Bay and its environs were members of the maritime expedition led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. Sebastián Vizcaíno visited again in 1602, but no settlement was made until the fort was begun in May 1769, later that year, on July 16,1769, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was established by Junípero Serra on Presidio Hill. The presidio had a view of San Diego Bay and the Pacific Ocean. Less than a month after the mission was established, an uprising of Indians occurred, four Spaniards were wounded, after the attack, the Spaniards built a stockade which was finished in March 1770. It included two cannons, one pointed to the bay, the other to the nearby Indian village. One of the cannons, El Jupiter, is now in the Serra Museum, in 1773 and 1774, adobe structures were built to replace the temporary wood and brush huts. Later in 1774, the mission was moved a few miles up Mission Valley to separate the Indians from the influence of the presidial garrison, by 1783, there were 54 troops stationed at the presidio. With Mexican independence in 1821, the presidio came under Mexican control, from 1825-1829, it served as the Mexican governors residence. In 1907 George Marston, a department store owner, bought Presidio Hill with an interest to preserve the site. Unable to attract public funding, Marston built a park in 1925 with the help of architect John Nolen. Serra Museum is sometimes referred to as the Presidio. Marston donated the park and museum to the city in 1929, Presidio Park is still owned by the city of San Diego, Serra Museum is managed by the San Diego History Center. No historical structures remain in Presidio Park today, the Presidio site is occasionally used for archaeological excavations. Early History of the San Diego Presidial District, 1542-1782, UC Berkeley thesis,1930, by Lucien C. AthertonPresidio of San Diego – San Diego Presidio
82. Santa Fe, New Mexico – Santa Fe is the capital of the state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of Santa Fe County and this area was occupied for at least several hundred years by indigenous peoples who built villages. The city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is known as the oldest state capital city in the United States, Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012. It is the city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The citys full name when founded was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the area of Santa Fe was originally occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900, the river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway, as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, Santa Fe remained Spains provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Louis, when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis, the citys status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it claimed Santa Fe as part of the portion of Texas along the Rio Grande. In 1841, a military and trading expedition set out from Austin. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled Spain 1776. This showed that New Mexico had received munitions and other support under Mexican rule, some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote, I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported, the country around it is barrenSanta Fe, New Mexico – Santa Fe's Downtown Area
83. Albuquerque, New Mexico – Albuquerque is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Mexico. The high-altitude city serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County, the city population is 557,169 as of the July 1,2014 population estimate from the United States Census Bureau, and ranks as the 32nd-largest city in the U. S. The Albuquerque metropolitan statistical area has a population of 907,301 according to the United States Census Bureaus most recently available estimate for 2015, Albuquerque is the 60th-largest United States metropolitan area. The Sandia Mountains run along the side of Albuquerque. Albuquerque is also the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the worlds largest such gathering of hot-air balloons from around the globe, the event takes place during the first week of October. Albuquerque was named in honor of Francisco, Duke of Alburquerque, the growing village soon to become Albuquerque was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. Franciscos title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the Spanish province of Badajoz, the name has two theories of origin which denote either Latin or Arabic roots. The first of which derived from the Latin albus quercus meaning white oak and this name was probably in reference to the prevalence of cork oaks in the region, which have a white wood when the bark is removed. Alburquerque is still a center of the Spanish cork industry, another theory suggests that it may come from the Arabic Abu al-Qurq, which means father of the cork. The change was also in due to the fact that citizens found the original name difficult to pronounce. Western folklore offers a different explanation, tracing the name Albuquerque to the Galician word albaricoque, the apricot was brought to New Mexico by Spanish settlers, possibly as early as 1743. As the story goes, the settlement was established near an apricot tree, as frontiersmen were unable to correctly pronounce the Galician word, it became corrupted to Albuquerque. The Tanoan and Keres peoples had lived along the Rio Grande for centuries before European settlers arrived in what is now Albuquerque, Albuquerque was founded in 1706 as the Spanish colonial outpost of Villa de Alburquerque. Present-day Albuquerque retains much of its historical Spanish cultural heritage, Albuquerque was a farming community and strategically located military outpost along the Camino Real. The town was also the center of the West. Spain established a presidio in Albuquerque in 1706, after 1821, Mexico also had a military garrison there. The town of Alburquerque was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern, a plaza surrounded by government buildings, homes. This central plaza area has preserved and is open to the public as a museum, cultural areaAlbuquerque, New Mexico – Francisco, Duke of Alburquerque
84. Los Adaes – Los Adaes was the capital of Tejas on the northeastern frontier of New Spain from 1729 to 1770. It included a mission, San Miguel de Linares de los Adaes, the name Adaes represents the indigenous Adai people, who were to be served by the mission. The site, now preserved in the state-run Los Adaes State Historic Site, is located on Louisiana Highway 485 in present-day Natchitoches Parish and it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986. Although Spain claimed much of the Gulf Coast of North America as part of its colonial territory, in 1699, French forts were established at Biloxi Bay and on the Mississippi River, ending Spains exclusive control of the Gulf Coast. The Spanish recognized that French encroachment could threaten other Spanish areas, on April 12,1716, an expedition led by Domingo Ramón left San Juan Bautista for Tejas, intending to establish four missions and a presidio. At the same time, the French were building a fort in Natchitoches, the Spanish countered by founding two more missions just west of Natchitoches, including San Miguel de los Adaes. In 1719, European powers embarked on the War of the Quadruple Alliance, in June 1719,7 Frenchmen from Natchitoches took control of the mission of San Miguel de los Adaes from its sole defender, who did not know that the nations were at war. The French soldiers explained that 100 additional soldiers were coming, the Spanish colonists, missionaries, the Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo volunteered to reconquer Spanish Texas and raised an army of 500 soldiers. By July 1721 Aguayo reached the Neches River and his expedition encountered a French force en route to attack San Antonio de Bexar. The outnumbered Frenchmen agreed to retreat to Louisiana, Aguayo then ordered the building of a new presidio Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Los Adaes, located near present-day Robeline, Louisiana, only 12 miles from Natchitoches. The new fort became the first capital of Texas, and it was guarded by 6 cannon, all six of the eastern Tejas missions were reopened, under the protection of the new presidio. Spain discouraged manufacturing in its colonies and limited trade to Spanish goods handled by Spanish merchants, most of the ports, including all of those in Texas, were closed to commercial vessels in the hopes of dissuading smugglers. By law, all bound for Texas had to be shipped to Vera Cruz. This caused the goods to be expensive in the Texas settlements. Without many goods to trade, however, the Spanish missionaries and colonists had little to offer the Indians, on November 3,1762, as part of the Treaty of Fontainebleau, France ceded the portion of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain. Rubi recommended that eastern Texas be totally abandoned, with all the moving to San Antonio. With Louisiana in Spanish control, there was no need for Los Adaes to reside so closely to Natchitoches, especially after the missions had relocated to San Antonio. In August 1768, the governor, Juan María Vicencio, Baron de Ripperdá, moved his headquarters and the garrison to San AntonioLos Adaes – Los Adaes
85. History of San Antonio – The City of San Antonio is one of the oldest Spanish colonization of the European settlements in Texas and was, for decades, its largest city. Before Spanish colonization, the site was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, the historic Payaya Indians were likely those who encountered the first Europeans. Development of the Spanish colonial city followed construction of a fort in 1717, a Catholic mission and trading post were also established, and the town developed as the capital of Tejas, a province of colonial Spain. It was the northernmost settlement associated with the Hispanic culture of the Valley of Mexico, after Mexico achieved independence in 1821, Anglo-American settlers entered the region from the United States. In 1849, Anglo-Americans gained control of San Antonio in the fighting that gained independence for the Republic of Texas, in 1845 Texas was annexed by the United States of America, and became a state. After thousands of years of succeeding indigenous cultures, the historic Payaya Indians coalesced as an ethnic group. They lived near the San Antonio River Valley, in the San Pedro Springs area, in 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, a shipwrecked Spanish explorer who was enslaved by Native Americans for a period, visited the interior of what would later be called Texas. He saw and described the later to be named the San Antonio. He eventually rejoined Spanish colleagues in Mexico City, from the Convent of Querétaro, organized several expeditions to the region of Texas, an area of great strategic importance to the Spanish crown. In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river, as it was the feast day of Saint Anthony of Padova, Italy, they named the place and river San Antonio in his honor. The same year he traveled to Spain to convince the authorities to establish, in 1716, Fray Antonio de Olivares wrote to the Viceroy of New Spain, telling their hopes and plans for the future mission, and urged him to send families of settlers to found a town. It remained only at the site of the mission for some time organizing everything with the Indians and this mission was called San Antonio de Valero, a name derived from San Antonio de Padua and Viceroy New Spain, Marquess of Valero. The mission was located near a community of Coahuiltecan and was inhabited by indigenous three to five converted from Mission San Francisco Solano. When he could walk again, mission changed place, transferring it to the west bank of the river, on orders of his religious order, Fray Antonio de Olivares transferred the Mission San Francisco Solano to the new mission of San Antonio de Valero. He also built the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, on the west side of the San Antonio River, approximately 1 mile from the mission. It was designed to protect the system of missions and civilian settlements in central Texas and to ensure the representation of Spain in the region of the aggression of French, British, the presidio consisted of an adobe building, thatched with grass, with soldiers quartered in brush huts. As settlers concentrated around the complex and mission, began to form the town of Bejar or Bexar. Being located in the center of several operating systems mission Bejar suffered not the needs, the operating complex was completed with the construction of the first ditch of Texas,6 miles long, built to irrigate 400 hectares and supply of the inhabitants of the new facilities builtHistory of San Antonio – Misión de San Antonio de Valero San Antonio (Tejas).
86. Pensacola, Florida – Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 51,923. Pensacola is the city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, which is protected by the island of Santa Rosa. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center, the area was originally inhabited by Muskogean peoples. The Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the city gradually developed. The area changed several times as European powers competed in North America. During Floridas British rule, fortifications were strengthened, other nicknames include Worlds Whitest Beaches, Cradle of Naval Aviation, Western Gate to the Sunshine State, Americas First Settlement, Emerald Coast, Red Snapper Capital of the World, and P-Cola. The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples, at the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region. This name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name Pensacola for the bay and thence the city. Creek people, also Muskogean-speaking, came regularly from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and even continental network of relations. The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site and this site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, five of which are arranged around a central plaza. Its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550 and it was a ceremonial center for the Pensacola people and a gateway to their society. This site would have had access by a dugout canoe. The areas written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area. The expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name Bay of Ochuse. In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Veracruz, MexicoPensacola, Florida – Up Clockwise: Pensacola Skyline, T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum, University of West Florida Library, Escambia County Courthouse, William Dudley Chipley Obelisk, National Naval Aviation Museum
87. St. Augustine, Florida – St. Augustine is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast in northeastern Florida. It is the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the continental United States, the county seat of St. Johns County, it is part of Floridas First Coast region and the Jacksonville metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 12,975, the United States Census Bureaus 2013 estimate of the citys population was 13,679, while the urban area had a population of 69,173 in 2012. Saint Augustine was founded on September 8,1565, by Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Floridas first governor. He named the settlement San Agustín, as his ships bearing settlers, troops, and supplies from Spain had first sighted land in Florida eleven days earlier on August 28, the feast day of St. Augustine. The city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years, since the late 19th century, St. Augustines distinct historical character has made the city a major tourist attraction, and it is also the headquarters for the Florida National Guard. Founded in 1565 by the Spanish conquistador, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, in 1562, a group of Huguenots led by Jean Ribault arrived in Spanish Florida to establish a colony in the territory claimed by Spain. They explored the mouth of the St. Johns River, calling it la Rivière de Mai, then sailed northward, Spain learned of this French expedition through its spies at ports on the Atlantic coast of France. The Huguenot nobleman René de Laudonnière, who had participated in the expedition and he arrived at the mouth of the River May on June 22,1564, sailed up it a few miles, and founded Fort Caroline. He was ordered as well to drive away any intruders who were not subjects of the Spanish crown. On July 28, Menéndez set sail from Cádiz with a led by his 600-ton flagship, the San Pelayo, accompanied by several smaller ships, and carrying over 1,000 sailors, soldiers. On the feast day of St. Augustine, August 28, Menéndez then sailed north and confronted Ribaults fleet outside the bar of the River May in a brief skirmish. On September 6, he returned to the site of his first landfall, naming it after the Catholic saint, disembarked his troops, and quickly constructed fortifications to protect his people and supplies. Menéndez then marched his soldiers overland for an attack on Fort Caroline. Jean Ribault had already put out to sea with his ships for an assault on St. Augustine, there they were confronted by the Spaniard and his men on the opposite side. After several parleys with the Spanish, Jean Ribault and the Frenchmen with him surrendered, almost all of them were executed in the dunes near the inlet, in 1572, the settlement was relocated to the mainland, in the area just south of the future town plaza. Confident that he had fulfilled the conditions of his contract with the King, including the building of forts along the coast of La Florida. After several more transatlantic crossings, Menéndez fell ill and died on September 17,1574, succeeding governors of the province maintained a peaceful coexistence with the local Native Americans, allowing the isolated outpost of St. Augustine some stability for a few yearsSt. Augustine, Florida – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
88. History of Havana – This article is about the History of Havana, now the capital city of Cuba. It was founded in the sixteenth century displacing Santiago de Cuba as the islands most important city when it became a port for Atlantic shipping. The current Havana area and its bay were first visited by Europeans during Sebastián de Ocampos circumnavigation of the island in 1509. Shortly thereafter, in 1510, the first Spanish colonists arrived from the island of Hispaniola, all attempts to found a city on Cubas south coast failed, however an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river. Between 1514 and 1519, the city had at least two different establishments on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhood of Puentes Grandes, the final citys location was adjacent to what was then called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519. The quality of this bay, which now the site of Havanas harbor. This bay is very good and can host many ships, which I visited few years after the Discovery, few are in Spain, or elsewhere in the world, that are their equal. This final establishment is commemorated by El Templete, shortly after the founding of Cubas first cities, the island served as little more than a base for expeditions of exploration, conquest, and settlement of other lands. Hernán Cortés organized his expedition to Mexico from the island, the legends of Eldorado and the Seven Cities of Gold attracted many adventurers from Spain, and also from the adjacent colonies, leaving Havana and the rest of Cuba largely unpopulated. Havana was originally a port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555, the pirate took Havana easily, plundering the city and burning much of it to the ground. De Sores left without obtaining the wealth he was hoping to find in Havana. A single merchant fleet could easily be protected by the Spanish Armada or Navy. Following a royal decree in 1561, all headed for Spain were required to assemble this fleet in the Havana Bay. Ships arrived from May through August, waiting for the best weather conditions, and together and this naturally boosted commerce and development of the adjacent city of Havana. Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, the thousands of ships gathered in the citys bay also fueled Havanas agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20,1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City, later on, the city would be officially designated as Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies by the Spanish crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the infrastructures of the city continuedHistory of Havana – NASA photo of Havana, showing narrow inlet to Bay of Havana, and green spaces.
89. San Juan, Puerto Rico – San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricos capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, today, San Juan is Puerto Ricos most important seaport, and is the islands manufacturing, financial, cultural, and tourism center. San Juan is also a city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the settlement was given its formal name. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant, because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe. Because of the cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, artillery from San Juans fort, El Morro, repelled Drake, however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion, in 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amezquita and 50 members of the militia on land. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amezquita. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard, after a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the citys militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze, captains Amezquita and Andre Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemys front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships, the British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. The USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, on May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victorySan Juan, Puerto Rico – Ruins of Juan Ponce de León's residence at Caparra
90. Antigua Guatemala – Antigua Guatemala is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches. It served as the capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala and it has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Antigua Guatemala serves as the seat for the surrounding municipality of the same name. It also serves as the capital of Sacatepéquez Department. The city had a population of some 60,000 in the 1770s. Despite significant population growth in the late 20th century, the city had reached half that number by the 1990s. According to the 2007 census, the city has some 34,685 inhabitants, Antigua Guatemala means Ancient Guatemala and was the third capital of Guatemala. Naturally, St. James became the saint of the city. After several Kaqchikel uprisings, the capital was moved to a suitable site in the Valley of Almolonga on November 22,1527. This new city was located on the site of present-day San Miguel Escobar and this city was destroyed on September 11,1541 by a devastating lahar from the Volcán de Agua. As a result, the authorities decided to move the capital once more. So, on March 10,1543 the Spanish conquistadors founded present-day Antigua, during its development and splendor, it was known as one of the three most beautiful cities of the Spanish Indies. The city was out in a square pattern, with streets running north to south and from east to west. Both church and government buildings were designated important places around the central plaza, the original building was small and paneled with portal, tile roof and adobe walls. The city is surrounded by three enormous volcanoes and mountains, plains and hills and this territory was called Valley of Guatemala and had 73 villages, two towns and the city of Santiago de los Caballeros. Due to constant problems between the conquerors and the representatives of the crown sent by the king of Spain, the Audiencia de los Confines was abolished in 1565. In 1570 the hearing was restored, this time independent of the viceroy of Mexico and this primitive chapel was destroyed in 1575 by an earthquake and during the next ten years collections were made to build the new complex, two blocks from the previous one. Notable students included Cristóbal de Villalpando, Thomas Merlo and Alonso de Paz, the city was the final resting place of the great Spanish chronicler Bernal Díaz del Castillo, and his remains were interred in one of the churches that was eventually ruined by earthquakesAntigua Guatemala – La Antigua Guatemala Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala
91. History of Manila – Manilas hisory begins around 65,000 BC the time the Callao Man first settled in the Philippines, predating the arrival of the Negritos and the Malayo-Polynesians. By the thirteenth century, the city consisted of a settlement and trading quarter near the mouth of the Pasig River. However, the city known by the name given to it by its Tagalog inhabitants, Maynil, based on the nilad plant. Manila became the seat of the government of Spain when it gained sovereignty over the Philippine Islands in 1565. The seat of the Spanish government was situated within the walls of Old Manila. The walls were constructed to keep out invading Chinese pirates and protect the city from native uprisings, several communities eventually grew outside the walls of Manila. The city became the center of trade between Manila and Acapulco, which lasted for three centuries and brought the goods from the Americas to South East Asia and vice versa, there were a number of raids and invasion attempts made upon Manila during the Spanish period. In 1898, Spain ceded control of the Philippines after over three hundred year of rule to the United States after the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish–American War. During the American Period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs, during World War II, much of the city was destroyed, but the city was rebuilt in after the war. It was the second most destroyed city in the world after Warsaw, the Metropolitan Manila region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975. The city became known by the name given by its Tagalog inhabitants, as Maynila, the name is based on the nila, a flowering mangrove plant that grew on the marshy shores of the bay, used to produce soap for regional trade. It is either from the phrase may nila, [ for there is nila, nila itself is probably from Sanskrit nila meaning indigo tree. The idea that the plant name is actually nilad is baseless and it was also known as Gintu or Suvarnadvipa by its neighbors. The said kingdom flourished during the half of the Ming Dynasty as a result of trade relations with China. Ancient Tondo has always been the capital of the empire. Its rulers were equivalents to kings and not mere chieftains, and they were addressed as panginuan or panginoon, well into the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the bay of the Pasig River, on top of previous older towns. During this time, the lord-minister Jayadewa presented a document of debt forgiveness to Lady Angkatan and her brother Bukah and this is described in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Philippines oldest recorded document. This inscription shows the link between the ancient Philippines and the Medang Kingdom of JavaHistory of Manila – Golden Mosque of Manila
92. The Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish, Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been confusion about use of the plural The Californias by Spanish colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its peninsular character was ascertained, it was called simply California, when the expeditions for the settlement of San Diego and Monterey marched, it was understood that they were going, not out of California, but into a new part of it. The peninsula then began to be spoken of as Antigua or Old California. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino and his Misión San Bruno failed, however, and it wasnt until 1697 that Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó was successfully established by another Jesuit, Juan María de Salvatierra. The mission became the nucleus of Loreto, first permanent settlement, the Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the missions, gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, a new visitador, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The more ambitious name, Las Californias, was established by a joint dispatch to the King from Viceroy de Croix and visitador José de Gálvez. Gálvez sought to make a distinction between the Antigua area of established settlement and the Nueva unexplored areas to the north, the single province was divided in 1804, into Alta California province and Baja California province. By the time of the 1804 split, the Alta province had expanded to coastal areas as far north as what is now the San Francisco Bay Area in the U. S. state of California. Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, independent Mexico retained the division but demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. In 1836, the designation Las Californias was revived, reuniting Alta, the Seven Laws were repealed in 1847, during the Mexican-American War, and the split of the two Californias was restored. Following Mexicos defeat in the war, most of the former Alta California territory was ceded on 2 February 1848 to the United States, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The new Mexico-United States border was established slightly to the north of the previous Alta-Baja border, the areas in North America acquired by the U. S. were designated as unorganized territory under a military governor, pending reestablishment of civilian control and organization. California was the first section of the territory to achieve statehood, the Baja California Peninsula is bordered on three sides by water, the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, while Alta California had the Pacific Ocean on the west and deserts on the east. A northern boundary was established by the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 and that boundary line remains the northern boundary of the U. S. states of California, Nevada, and the western part of UtahThe Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
93. Alta California – Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California, Nevada, and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the later U. S. states of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation, conversion and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans. As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and later Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction, ranching and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horsesAlta California – Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain. Map dated 1789 from Dobson's Encyclopedia.
94. Nueva Galicia – El Nuevo Reino de Galicia or simply Nueva Galicia was an autonomous kingdom of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was named after Galicia in Spain, Nueva Galicias territory became the present-day Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Zacatecas. Spanish exploration of the began in 1531 with Nuño Beltrán de Guzmáns expedition. He named the city founded in the area Villa de Guadalajara after his birthplace. Instead Queen Joanna, at the moment the acting regent of Spain, Guzmáns violent conquest left Spanish control of the area unstable, and within a decade full war had reemerged between the settlers and the Native peoples of the area. The Mixtón War, which lasted from 1540–1541, pitted an alliance of Coras, Gauchichiles, nine years later the Chichimeca War broke out, this time pitting mostly Zacatecos against their former allies, the Caxcan, who had now allied with the Spanish. Nahuas from the Valley of Mexico moved into the region along with the Spanish as the area was settled, in the last decades of the sixteenth century Huichols also arrived. Given the growing wealth of the region with the discovery of silver to the north, especially in Nueva Vizcaya, the Audiencia of Guadalajara had oversight of all the northern mainland provinces of the Viceroyalty. The Audencia at first was subordinate to the Royal Audiencia of Mexico but was independent in 1572. This enabled New Galicia to be ruled largely separate from the rest of the Viceroyalty, there are a number of published chronicles on colonial Nueva Galicia. A1621 account by Domingo Lázaro de Arregui, Descripción de la Nueva Galicia gives considerable information about the peoples of the area. In the late 18th century, as part of the Bourbon Reforms, in 1824, after Mexican independence was consolidated, the kingdom was transformed into the State of Jalisco and the Territory of Colima. Province of Nueva Galicia Province, Nayarit and Jalisco, Province of Los Zacatecas Province, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Intendancy of Guadalajara, Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima, Intendancy of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Real Audiencia of Guadalajara List of governors of New Galicia La Gran Chichimeca History of Mexico Worldstatesmen. org, Provinces of New SpainNueva Galicia – New Galicia Nueva Galicia
95. Pampanga – Pampanga or Pampaŋga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city and is governed independently of the province. The name La Pampanga was given by the Spaniards, who encountered natives living along the banks of the Pampanga River and its creation in 1571 makes it the first Spanish province on Luzon Island. The town of Villa de Bacolor in the province served as the Spanish colonial capital when Great Britain invaded Manila as part of the Seven Years War. Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport, which is in Clark Freeport Zone, the province is home to two Philippine Air Force airbases, Basa Air Base in Floridablanca and the former United States Clark Air Base in Angeles City. By 2015, the province has 2,198,110 inhabitants, ancient Pampangas territorial area included portions of the modern provinces of Tarlac, Bataan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. Pampanga was re-organized as a province by the Spaniards on December 11,1571, due to excessive abuses committed by some encomenderos, King Philip II of Spain in 1574 prohibited the further awarding of private estates, but this decree was not fully enforced until 1620. The encomiendas of La Pampanga at that time had eighteen thousand six hundred, Pampanga, which is about 850 square miles in area and inhabited by more than 1.5 million people, had its present borders drawn in 1873. During the Spanish regime it was one of the richest Philippine provinces, Manila and its surrounding region were then primarily dependent on Kapampangan agricultural, fishery and forestry products as well as on the supply of skilled workers. As other Luzon provinces were created due to increases in population, during the 17th century, The Dutch recruited men from Pampanga as mercenaries who served the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, known as Papangers part of the larger Mardijkers community. Their legacy can be found in North Jakarta, however, there are few traces of their descendants, except for a small community in Kampung Tugu. The old Pampanga towns of Aliaga, Cabiao, Gapan, San Antonio, the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo of Pampanga was yielded to the province of Bulacan in the same provincial boundary configuration in 1848. However, in 1873, the four towns were returned to Pampanga. On December 8,1941, Japanese planes bombed Clark Air Base marking the beginning of the invasion of Pampanga, between 1941 and 1942, occupying Japanese forces began entering Pampanga. The establishment of the general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from 1935 to 1946. The Philippine Constabulary was active from 1935 to 1942 and 1944 to 1946 in the province of Pampanga. S. military forces fight the Imperial Japanese armed forces. The June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo displaced a number of people with the submersion of whole towns. Pampanga covers a area of 2,002.20 square kilometres occupying the south-central section of the Central Luzon regionPampanga – Pampanga, 1899
96. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He also had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian. In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern EuropeChristopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
97. Francisco de Ulloa – Francisco de Ulloa was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés. It is not known whether Ulloa accompanied Cortés on his first expedition to the New Spain, by the account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, he came to Mexico later while transporting letters to Cortés from his wife. According to some historians, Ulloa was influential in helping subdue the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan by naval power. Lawrence, proving the existence of the Northwest Passage, the expedition left on July 8 sailing northwards along the coast and reaching the Gulf of California six weeks later. Ulloa named it the Sea of Cortés in honor of his patron, when one of his ships was lost in a storm Ulloa paused to repair the other two ships, and then resumed his voyage on September 12, eventually reaching the head of the Gulf. Unable to find the Strait of Anián, Ulloa turned south and sailed along the eastern coast of the Baja California Peninsula, landing at the Bay of La Paz. After taking on supplies of wood and water Ulloa rounded the tip of the peninsula with great difficulty, the progress of his small ships was hampered by the fierce winds and high seas he encountered, eventually forcing him to turn back to New Spain. The voyage eventually reached 28 degrees north near the Isla de Cedros, although his discoveries a peninsula, his reports were used to create maps depicting California as an island. According to Díaz del Castillo, Ulloa was stabbed to death in 1540, by other accounts, his ship was lost without a trace during the return voyage from Baja California. Supposedly his ship was swept inland with a tsunami, later becoming known as the Lost Ship of the Desert, catholic Encyclopedia Francisco de Ulloa AmericanJourneys. org Francisco de UlloaFrancisco de Ulloa – Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico
98. Spanish missions in the Americas – During the Age of Discovery, the Christian Church inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World by converting indigenous peoples. As such, the establishment of Christian missions went hand-in-hand with the efforts of European powers such as Spain, France. For these nations, the enterprise was based on the necessity to develop European commerce. According to Adriaan van Oss, Catholicism remains the principal colonial heritage of Spain in America, more than any set of economic relationships. The Catholic religion continues to permeate Spanish-American culture today, creating a cultural unity which transcends the political and national boundaries dividing the continent. Christian leaders and Christian doctrines have been accused of justifying and perpetrating violence against Native Americans found in the New World, according to Colin Calloway, the Spanish missions also produced massive population decline, food shortages, increased demands for labor, and violence. However, other scholars point out that the Catholic Church often defended the rights of Native Americans, for example, Jesuits devoted themselves to the interests of Native Americans. The Spanish missions in the Carolinas were part of a series of religious outposts that Spanish Catholics established to spread Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, the principal coastal mission and fort in the area was Santa Elena, which survived until 1587. The Spanish chapter of Georgias earliest colonial history is dominated by the mission era. The early missions in present-day Georgia were established to serve the Guale and various Timucua peoples, later the missions served other peoples who had entered the region, including the Yamassee. These missions brought grain, cattle, and a homeland for the California Native Americans. They had no immunity to European diseases, with subsequent indigenous tribal population falls, overland routes were established from New Spain that resulted in the establishment of a mission and presidio - now San Francisco, and a pueblo - now Los Angeles. The clash of Spanish and native cultures during the Spanish Las Californias-New Spain and these aspects have received more research in recent decades. The missions gave Spain a valuable toehold in the land, and introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables. Eventually, a network of settlements was established each of the installations was no more than a long days ride by horse or boat from another. As early as the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert pagans to Catholicism in Nueva España, New Spain consisted of the Caribbean, Mexico, and portions of what is now the Southwestern United States. To facilitate colonization, the Catholic Church decided to award these lands to Spain, the missions represented the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, and gave Spain a valuable toehold in the frontier land. The government of Mexico shut down the missions in the 1830s, in the end, the mission had mixed results in its objective to convert, educate, and civilize the indigenous population and transforming the natives into Spanish colonial citizensSpanish missions in the Americas – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
99. Spanish missions in California – The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spains North American claims. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833 and this divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives, to convert, educate, today, the surviving mission buildings are the states oldest structures, and its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. The missions were to be interconnected by a route which later became known as the Camino Real. The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serras death in 1784. Plans to build a mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a mother mission, in addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. California was months away from the nearest base in colonized Mexico, to sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americans, called neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials, although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of priestly whim. The padres blessed the site, and with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes and it was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present. The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church, once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The cuadrángulo was rarely a perfect square because the missionaries had no surveying instruments at their disposal and it was a doctrine established in 1531, which based the Spanish states right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them. It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos, the civilized and disciplined culture of the natives, developed over 8,000 year, was not considered. A total of 146 Friars Minor, mostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests, sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts, while the remainder returned to Europe due to illness, or upon completing their ten-year service commitmentSpanish missions in California – A view of Mission San Juan Capistrano in. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins."
100. Spanish missions in New Mexico – The Spanish Missions in New Mexico were a series of religious outposts in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México — present day New Mexico. They attempted to Hispanicize the indigenous peoples, the affected included the rich cultures and tribes of, many of the 21 distinct Puebloan groups, the Tiwa, the Navajo, and the Apache. The missions also aimed to pacify resistance to the European invasion of the tribes Pre-Columbian homelands, the missions introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, and small-scale industry into the Southwest region. They also introduced European diseases that the people had no immunity against. Fray Marcos de Niza, sent by Coronado, first saw the now known as New Mexico in 1539. The first permanent settlement was Mission San Gabriel, founded in 1598 by Juan de Oñate near what is now known as the San Juan Pueblo, see also Isleta Pueblo Mission San Buenaventura de Cochiti - Completed in 1628, renovated in the 1960s. See also Cochiti Pueblo Mission San Esteban del Rey de Acoma - Established 1629 and completed in 1641, Mission San Felipe - Built on the site of a previous church Mission San Gregorio de Abó - Established in 1640 by Fray Francisco Acevedo. Ruins are now part of the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Mission San Ildefonso - The original mission church was built in 1711, but was later destroyed. Mission San Isidro and Mission San Buenaventura de Humanas - the ruins are part of the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument Mission San José de los Jémez - Established in 1621, now in ruins. Mission Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro, today known as the Mission San Miguel - Established in 1598 by Fray Alfonso Benavidez, San Miguel Mission Chapel is said to be the oldest church still in use in the United States. Mission San José de Laguna - built in 1699, see also Laguna Pueblo Mission San Lorenzo de Picurís—established circa 1620. Mission Santa Ana - Completed in 1750, Mission Santo Domingo - The original mission church was destroyed by flooding of the Rio Grande. San Francisco de Asis Mission - Ranchos de Taos San Miguel Mission - Santa Fe Mission La Purisima Concepcíón de Hawikuh - Established in 1628, Mission Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de Zuni - Still in use. El Santuario de Chimayó - Site of an Easter pilgrimage by foot to this spot every year. Not a mission, founded c.1810 as a private chapel, San Francisco de Asis Mission Church - Church built between 1772 and 1816 and is located in the historic district of Ranchos de Taos. Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe - Founded c,1777, believed to be nations oldest shrine dedicated to Our Lady of GuadalupeSpanish missions in New Mexico – Quarai Mission church in 1940. Photo: George A. Grant.
101. Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert – The missions are in an area of the Sonoran Desert, then called Pimería Alta de Sonora y Sinaloa, now divided between the Mexican state of Sonora and the U. S. state of Arizona. Jesuits in missions in Northwestern Mexico wrote reports that throw light on the peoples they evangelized. A1601 report, Relación de la Provincia de Nuestra Señora de Sinaloa was published in 1945, an important Jesuit report concerned the resistance in 1691 of the Tarahumara to evangelization, Historia de la tercera rebelión tarahumara. During Father Eusebio Kinos stay in the Pimería Alta, he founded over twenty missions in eight mission districts, on February 3,1768, King Carlos III ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and its overseas empire. Despite the order, many Jesuits remained in and around the present day Tucson, misión de Cuquiárachi founded in 1645, south of Fronteras, Sonora Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, founded on March 13,1687. This was the first mission founded in the Pimería Alta by Father Kino, by 1744, the mission was abandoned. Nuestra Señora de los Remedios was founded in 1687 and was abandoned by 1730, San Ignacio de Cabórica was founded in 1687 and is located in San Ignacio, Sonora. Mission San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama was founded in 1687, in Tubutama, Santa Teresa de Atil was founded in 1687, in the small town of Atil, Sonora. Santa María Magdalena was founded in 1687, located in Magdalena de Kino, padre Kinos grave is located here. San José de Imuris was founded in 1687, in Imuris, Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Santiago de Cocóspera was founded in 1689. It is located in Cocóspera, Sonora, San Antonio Paduano del Oquitoa was founded in 1689. It is located in Oquitoa, Sonora, San Diego del Pitiquito was founded in 1689. It is located in Pitiquito, Sonora, San Luis Bacoancos was founded in 1691, but was soon abandoned after Apache attacks. Mission San Cayetano del Tumacacori was founded in 1691 at a native Sobaipuri settlement, the farming land around the mission was sold at auction in 1834 and the mission was abandoned by 1840. It is now a National Monument in Tumacácori National Historical Park in Southern Arizona, Mission Los Santos Ángeles de Guevavi was founded in 1691 and is the location of the first church built in southern Arizona. The church was established in a native settlement, but then was destroyed by fire. The church rebuilt in new locations twice, the final and largest one being built in 1751 and its ruins are part of Tumacácori National Historical Park. San Lázaro was founded in 1691, but was abandoned after Apache attacksSpanish missions in the Sonoran Desert – Mission San Xavier del Bac.
102. Pedro de Gante – Fray Pieter van der Moere, also known as Fray Pedro de Gante or Pedro de Mura was a Franciscan missionary in sixteenth century Mexico. Born in Geraardsbergen in present-day Belgium, he was of Flemish descent. Since Flanders, like Spain, belonged to the Habsburg Empire and he was a relative of King Charles V, gantes group in fact arrived before the 12 Franciscans normally thought of as the first priests in New Spain. In Mexico he spent his life as a missionary, indoctrinating the indigenous population in Christian catechism and he learned Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, and composed a Christian doctrina. One of his most significant contributions to Mexico was the creation of the School of San Jose de los Naturales and this was the first school set up by Europeans in the Americas. In 1988 he was beatified, by Pope John Paul II and he was ranked 99th in a 2005 vote on the list of Greatest Belgians. Manuscripts Catecismo de la doctrina cristiana con jeroglíficos, para la enseñanza de los indios de México, Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional, published Works Doctrina Christiana en Lengua Mexicana. Icamachiotl cruz yhuicpain toya chua Xitech momaquixtili Totecuiyoc diose, tetatzin yhuan Tepilizin yhuan Spiritus Sancti. 1547, Mexico, Juan Pablos,1553, Amberes,1553, Mexico, facsimile edition with comments by ed. Ernesto de la Torre Villar. Cartas, versos religiosos en mejicano, ed. en, Joaquín García Icazbalceta, Códice franciscano, the Franciscan Encyclopedia on Pedro de Gante Information at De Grootste BelgPedro de Gante – Fray Pedro de Gante
103. Toribio de Benavente Motolinia – Toribio of Benavente, O. F. M. also known as Motolinía, was a Franciscan missionary, one of the famous Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in May 1524. His published writings are a key source for the history and ethnography of the Nahuas of central Mexico in the immediate post-conquest period as well as the challenges of Christian evangelization. He is probably best known for his attacks on the defender of the rights of the peoples, Bartolomé de las Casas. Motolinia supported the subjugation of the Indians as savages and did all he could to vilify the Dominican campaign to protect their natural rights and full humanity. Toribio entered the Franciscan Order as a boy, dropping his family name of Paredes in favor of his birth city. In 1523 he was chosen to be among the first twelve missionaries to be sent to the New World, after a strenuous journey he arrived in Mexico where Fray Toribio was greeted with great respect by Hernán Cortés. Upon walking through Tlaxcala the Indians commented on his ragged Franciscan robes, saying Motolinia and this was the first word he learned in the Nahuatl language and he took it as his name. For the Franciscan Order, poverty was an important and defining virtue and he was named Guardian of the Convent of San Francisco in Mexico City where he resided from 1524 to 1527. From 1527 to 1529 Fray Toribio worked in Guatemala and perhaps Nicaragua, back in Mexico he stayed at the convent of Huejotzinco near Tlaxcala, where he had to help the natives against the abuse and atrocities committed by Nuño de Guzmán. With Franciscan colleagues he traveled to Tehuantepec in Guatemala and to the Yucatán to undertake missionary work. In fact, in a letter to King Charles V of Spain, he undertook a virulent attack on Las Casas. He called him a man, restless, importunate, turbulent, injurious. He furthermore advised the king to have Las Casas shut up for keeping in a monastery. In 1545 the encomenderos of Chiapas asked for him to come there to them against Las Casas but he declined. The letter to the king is an important document, clarifying the Franciscan position of baptizing as many Indians as possible if they presented themselves for it. Given that in the years of post-conquest Mexico devastating plagues reduced the indigenous population considerably. They took the position that they should baptize first to ensure salvation, the Dominican Order was famous for its adherence to firm doctrinal positions, which is Mexico meant that they refused baptism to Indians they deemed ill prepared in the tenets of Christianity. In his letter to the king, Motolinia recounts an incident of Las Casass refusal to baptize an Indian in Tlaxcala, and since you wont baptize or instruct and Indian, it would be well if you would pay those that you so load down and tire outToribio de Benavente Motolinia – Contents
104. Alonso de Molina – He also wrote a bilingual confessional manual for priests who served in Nahuatl-speaking communities. He was born in Extremadura, Spain in the Province of Cáceres and he grew up playing with monolingual Nahuatl speaking children in the streets as the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan was being refashioned into Mexico City, and so he became a fluent speaker of Nahuatl. In 1528, as a man, he entered the Franciscan convent of Mexico City becoming a friar. Juan Badiano, a student at the school, translated a Nahuatl herbal into Latin, besides his clerical duties, Molina devoted himself to the study, understanding and writing of Nahuatl. He composed and preached sermons in the Nahuatl tongue. It is still considered a tool for students of Classical Nahuatl language. According to James Lockhart, Molina went far beyond utilitarian basics to include a vast range of vocabulary, making many subtle semantic, molinas work creating Nahuatl language tools came under scrutiny by the Inquisition. Molina records many nouns from Spanish that became integrated into Nahuatl, el arte de la lengua mexicana y castellana de fray Alonso de Molina, morfología y composición. Fray Alonso de Molina y el proyecto indigenista de la orden seráfica, las doctrinas de Molina y Sahagún, similitudes y diferencias. La incidencia de hispanismos en los confessionarios mayor y menor de fray Alonso de Molina, un prólogo en náhuatl suscrito por Bernardino de Sahagún y Alonso de MolinaAlonso de Molina – Molina's dictionary.
105. Diego de Landa – Diego de Landa Calderón was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán. He is a figure in the Black Legend. Born in Cifuentes, Guadalajara, Spain, he became a Franciscan monk in 1541, Landa was in charge of bringing the Roman Catholic faith to the Maya peoples after the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. He presided over a monopoly granted to the Catholic Franciscan order by the Spanish crown. His initial appointment was to the mission of San Antonio in Izamal and he is the author of the Relación de las cosas de Yucatán in which he catalogues the Maya religion, Maya language, culture and writing system. The manuscript was written around 1566 on his return to Spain, however, the account is known only as an abridgement, which in turn had undergone several iterations by various copyists. After hearing of Roman Catholic Maya who continued to practice idol worship, he ordered an Inquisition in Mani, during the ceremony on July 12,1562, a disputed number of Maya codices and approximately 5000 Maya cult images were burned. The actions of Landa passed into the Black Legend of the Spanish in the Americas, only three pre-Columbian books of Maya hieroglyphics and, perhaps, fragments of a fourth are known to have survived. Collectively, the works are known as the Maya codices, Landas Inquisition showered a level of physical abuse upon the indigenous Maya that many viewed as excessive and was, at the very least, unusual. Scores of Maya nobles were jailed pending interrogation, and large numbers of Maya nobles, during hoisting, a victims hands were bound and looped over an extended line that was then raised until the victims entire body was suspended in the air. Often, stone weights were added to the ankles or lashes applied to the back during interrogation, some contemporary observers were troubled by this widespread use of torture. Additionally, Landa dispensed with much of the formal procedure and documentation that accompanied Spanish torture. Landa, however, perhaps inspired by intolerant fellow Franciscan Cardenal, Cisneros, Landa believed a huge underground network of apostasies, led by displaced indigenous priests, were jealous of the power the Church enjoyed and sought to reclaim it for themselves. The apostates, Landa surmised, had launched a counteroffensive against the Church, Landa claimed that he had discovered evidence of human sacrifice and other idolatrous practices while rooting out native idolatry. Lopez de Cogolludo, Landas chief Franciscan biographer, wrote of Landas firsthand experiences with human sacrifices, when Landa first came to the Yucatán, he made it his mission to walk the breadth of the peninsula and preach to the most remote villages. While passing through Cupules, he came upon a group of 300 about to sacrifice a young boy. Enraged, Landa stormed through the crowd, released the boy, smashed the idols and began preaching with such zeal and sincerity that they begged him to remain in the land, Landa was remarkable in that he was willing to go where no others would. He entered lands that had only recently conquered, where native resentment of Spaniards was still very intenseDiego de Landa – Diego de Landa, Bishop of Yucatán
106. Marcos de Niza – For the High School in Tempe, Arizona, see Marcos de Niza High School. Fray Marcos de Niza was a Franciscan friar and he is credited with being the first European in what is now the State of Arizona in the United States. In 1537 he arrived in Mexico City at the request of the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, el gran burlador de América, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Why did you do this to me http, //www. psi. edu/epo/coronado/journeyofmarcosdeniza. html The Mysterious Journey of Friar Marcos de Niza | www. psi. eduMarcos de Niza – Stone Inscription, thought by some to be a forgery from a time in the 1930s, very often (and perhaps wrongly) attributed to Fray Marcos de Niza, located in Pima Canyon near Phoenix, Arizona South Mountain Park.
107. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla – He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores, after his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, both of Hidalgos parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgos father was a manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgos parents would have three sons, José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, and José María. In 1759, enlightened despot Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain, he sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate. During this period, Don Cristobal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquin should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, at the age of fifteen Hidalgo was sent to Valladolid, Michoacán to study at the Colegio de San Francisco Javier with the Jesuits, along with his brothers. When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolas and he completed his preparatory education in 1770. After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning his degree in philosophy and his education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin, rhetoric and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages, such as Nahuatl, Otomi and he also studied Italian and French, which were not commonly studied in Mexico at this time. He earned the nickname El Zorro for his reputation for cleverness at school, Hidalgos study of French allowed him to read and study works of the Enlightenment current in Europe but, at the same time, forbidden by the Catholic church in Mexico. Hidalgo was ordained as a priest in 1778 when he was 25 years old, from 1779 to 1792, he dedicated himself to teaching at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid, it was one of the most important educational centers of the viceroyalty. He was a professor of Latin grammar and arts, as well as a theology professor, beginning in 1787, he was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary, becoming dean of the school in 1790 when he was 39. As rector, Hidalgo continued studying the liberal ideas that were coming from France, authorities ousted him in 1792 for revising traditional teaching methods there, but also for irregular handling of some funds. The Church sent him to work at the parishes of Colima and San Felipe Torres Mochas until he became the parish priest in Dolores, Guanajuato, succeeding his brother Felipe, who died in 1802. Although Hidalgo had an education for the priesthood, as an educator at the Colegio de San Nicolás, he had innovated in teaching methodsMiguel Hidalgo y Costilla – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
108. Cargo system – The cargo system is a collection of secular and religious positions held by men or households in rural indigenous communities throughout central and southern Mexico and Central America. These revolving offices, or cargos, become the responsibility of men who are active in civic life. They typically hold a given post for a term of one year, office holders execute most of the tasks of local governments and churches. Individuals who hold a cargo are generally obligated to incur the costs of feasting during the fiestas that honor particular saints, where it is practiced, there is generally some expectation of all local men to take part in this cargo system throughout their lives. Office holders assume greater responsibilities as they grow in stature in the community, after the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica in the 16th century, many Indians were forcibly relocated to pueblos, which like Spanish villages contained a church as the town center. The priests were mindful that much of their influence over the Indians stemmed from the ability to speak Indian languages. The colonial church did not insist on excessive Catholicization of existing indigenous practices, because the missionaries were small in number, they increasingly placed religious responsibilities in the hands of trusted members of the villages. The village mayor or alcalde was charged with the responsibility of leading the villagers in a procession to Sunday Mass, over time, these processions were conducted with greater ceremony, making use of trappings such as crosses, incense, and music. On occasion drawing on a Spanish institution called the cofradías, the created a hierarchy of village posts in order to better organize the religious. Indigenous people filled these roles, which in theory gave them greater status within the community and these roles, however, also placed economic obligations on their recipients and the clergy used them as a way to exercise control over the villagers. Villagers were obligated to organize efforts to discharge debts related to cost of food, wafers and wine for the Mass, indigenous peoples of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas Chance, John K. William B. Taylor. Cofradías and Cargos, An Historical Perspective on the Mesoamerican Civil-Religious Hierarchy, American Ethnologist, Vol.12, No.1. Changes in the Cargo Systems of MesoAmerica, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol.48, the Secularization of the Cargo System, An Example from Postrevolutionary Central Mexico. Latin American Research Review, Vol.16, No.2Cargo system – Colonization
109. Indian Reductions – Reductions or reducciones were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Latin America. The Spanish relocated native inhabitants, forcibly if necessary, into settlements which were modeled on towns, in Portuguese speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias. The policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503, the Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built. The concentration or reducción of the Indian population facilitated the Spaniards access to Indian labor, the promulgation of Christianity, moreover, the reduction of the Indians was intended to break down ethnic and kinship ties and detribalize the residents to create a generic Indian population. Reductions began in Mexico shortly after Cortéss conquest in the 1520s and were begun in Baja California in the 17th century, reductions in Mexico were more commonly known as congregaciones. Indian reductions in the Andes, mostly in present-day Peru and Bolivia, Indian reductions in the Andes Jesuit reductionsIndian Reductions – Colonization
110. Aztec – The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. The Nahuatl words aztecatl and aztecah mean people from Aztlan, a place for the Nahuatl-speaking culture of the time. Often the term Aztec refers exclusively to the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan, situated on an island in Lake Texcoco, who referred to themselves as Mēxihcah Tenochcah or Cōlhuah Mexihcah. From the 13th century, the Valley of Mexico was the heart of Aztec civilization, here the capital of the Aztec Triple Alliance, the Triple Alliance formed a tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle, Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as achieving remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments. Subsequently, the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the ruined Aztec capital, the term extends to further ethnic groups associated with the Aztec empire such as the Acolhua and Tepanec and others that were incorporated into the empire. In older usage the term was used about modern Nahuatl speaking ethnic groups. In recent usage these ethnic groups are referred to as the Nahua peoples. Linguistically the term Aztecan is still used about the branch of the Uto-Aztecan languages that includes the Nahuatl language and its closest relatives Pochutec, to the Aztecs themselves the word aztec was not an endonym for any particular ethnic group. Rather it was a term used to refer to several ethnic groups, not all of them Nahuatl speaking. In the Nahuatl language aztecatl means person from Aztlan and this usage has been the subject of debate in more recent years, but the term Aztec is still more common. For the same reason the notion of Aztec civilization is best understood as a horizon of a general Mesoamerican civilization. Particular to the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan was the Mexica patron God Huitzilopochtli, twin pyramids, the Aztec Empire was a tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan that extended its power throughout Mesoamerica in the late postclassic period. Soon Texcoco and Tlacopan became junior partners in the alliance, which was de facto led by the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, the empire extended its power by a combination of trade and military conquest. The political clout of the empire reached far south into Mesoamerica conquering cities as far south as Chiapas and Guatemala, the Nahua peoples began to migrate into Mesoamerica from northern Mexico in the 6th century. They populated central Mexico, dislocating speakers of Oto-Manguean languages as they spread their influence south. As the former nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples mixed with the civilizations of Mesoamerica, adopting religious and cultural practices. During the Postclassic period they rose to power at such sites as Tula, in the 12th century the Nahua power center was in Azcapotzalco, from where the Tepanecs dominated the valley of MexicoAztec – The Aztec Pyramid at St. Cecilia Acatitlan, State of Mexico
111. Maya peoples – The Maya people are a group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica. They inhabit southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, the pre-Columbian Maya population was approximately eight million. There were a seven million Maya living in this area at the start of the 21st century. Guatemala, southern Mexico and the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize, El Salvador, one of the largest groups of modern Maya can be found in Mexicos Yucatán State and the neighboring states of Campeche, Quintana Roo and in Belize. These peoples commonly identify themselves simply as Maya with no further ethnic subdivision and they speak the language which anthropologists term Yucatec Maya, but is identified by speakers and Yucatecos simply as Maya. Among Maya speakers, Spanish is commonly spoken as a second or first language, linguists refer to the Maya language as Yucatec or Yucatec Maya to distinguish it from other Mayan languages. This norm has often been misinterpreted to mean that the people are also called Yucatec Maya, that refers only to the language. Maya is one language in the Mayan language family, thus, to refer to Maya as Mayans would be similar to referring to Spanish people as Romantics because they speak a language belonging to the Romance language family. Confusion of the term Maya/Mayan as an ethnic label occurs because Maya women who use traditional dress identify by the ethnic term mestiza, the Yucatáns indigenous population was first exposed to Europeans after a party of Spanish shipwreck survivors came ashore in 1511. One of the sailors, Gonzalo Guerrero, is reported to have taken up with a woman and started a family. Later Spanish expeditions to the region were led by Córdoba in 1517, Grijalva in 1518, from 1528 to 1540, several attempts by Francisco Montejo to conquer the Yucatán failed. His son, Francisco de Montejo the Younger, fared almost as badly when he first took over, while holding out at Chichen Itza. Chichen Itza was conquered by 1570, in 1542, the western Yucatán Peninsula also surrendered to him. Historically, the population in the half of the peninsula was less affected by. In the 21st century in the Yucatán Peninsula, between 750,000 and 1,200,000 people speak Mayan, however, three times more than that are of Maya origins, hold ancient Maya surnames, and do not speak Mayan languages as their first language. Matthew Restall, in his book The Maya Conquistador, mentions a series of letters sent to the King of Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries. The noble Maya families at that time signed documents to the Spanish Royal Family, surnames mentioned in letters are Pech, Camal, Xiu, Ucan, Canul, Cocom. A large 19th-century revolt by the native Maya people of Yucatán, for a period the Maya state of Chan Santa Cruz was recognized as an independent nation by the British Empire, particularly in terms of trading with British HondurasMaya peoples – Francisco Luna Kan Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Comandante Ramona Armando Manzanero Jesús Tecú Osorio, Carlos Mérida
112. Mixtec people – The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the class and generally richer. In recent times, a reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs mixteco de la costa whose language is related to that of the Low Mixtecs, they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca. The Mixtec languages form a branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other, like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million, today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States. The term Mixtec comes from the Nahuatl word mixtecah, cloud people, there are many names that the Mixtecs have for naming themselves, ñuù savi, nayívi savi, ñuù davi, nayivi davi. etc. This all denominations can be translated as people of the rain, the historic homeland of Mixtec people is La Mixteca, called in Mixtec language Ñuu Savi, Ñuu Djau, Ñuu Davi, etc. depending on the local variant. They call their language saan davi, daan davi or tuun savi, in pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla, Cuilapan, Huajuapan, Mitla, Tlaxiaco, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, the Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán. The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone, wood, according to West, the Mixtec of Oaxaca. were the foremost goldsmiths of Mesoamerica, which included the lost-wax casting of gold and its alloys. At the height of the Aztec Empire, many Mixtecs paid tribute to the Aztecs and they put up resistance to Spanish rule until they were subdued by the Spanish and their central Mexican allies led by Pedro de Alvarado. Mixtecs have migrated to parts of both Mexico and the United States. In recent years a large exodus of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, such as the Zapotec, as of 2011, an estimated 150,000 Mixteco people were living in California, and 25,000 to 30,000 in New York City. Large Mixtec communities exist in the cities of Tijuana, Baja California, San Diego, California and Tucson. Mixtec communities are generally described as trans-national or trans-border because of their ability to maintain, there is considerable documentation in the Mixtec native language for the colonial era, which has been studied as part of the New Philology. There is considerable Mixtec documentation for land issues, but sparse for market activity, long distance trade existed in the prehispanic era and continued in indigenous hands in the early colonialMixtec people – Turquoise mosaic mask. Mixtec-Aztec, 1400-1521 AD
113. Tarascan state – The Tarascan state was a state in pre-Columbian Mexico, roughly covering the geographic area of the present-day Mexican state of Michoacán, parts of Jalisco, and Guanajuato. At the time of the Spanish conquest, it was the second-largest state in Mesoamerica, the state was founded in the early 14th century and lost its independence to the Spanish in 1530. In 1543 it officially became the governorship of Michoacán, from the Nahuatl name for the Tarascan state, the Tarascan state was constituted of a network of tributary systems and gradually became increasingly centralized, under the control of the ruler of the state called the cazonci. The Tarascan state was contemporary with and an enemy of the Aztec Empire, due to its relative isolation within Mesoamerica, the Tarascan state had many cultural traits completely distinct from those of the Mesoamerican cultural group. It is particularly noteworthy for being among the few Mesoamerican civilizations to use metal for tools and ornamentation, in Purépecha, language of the Purépecha people, the name of the state was PIréchecua Tzintzuntzáni, the Lands of Tzintzuntzan referring to the capital Tzintzuntzan. The state included different groups, primarily Purépecha people and additionally Matlazincas, Tecos, Mazahuas, Otomíes, Chontales, the people of the Tarascan empire were mostly of Purépecha ethnic affiliation but also included other ethnic groups such as the Nahua, Otomi, Matlatzinca and Chichimec. These ethnic groups were gradually assimilated into the Purépecha majority group, most common soil types in the central plateau are young volcanic andosols, luvisols and less fertile acrisols. The vegetation is pine, pine-oak and fir. Human occupation has focused on the basins, which are abundant in resources. In the north, near the Lerma river, there are obsidian resources, the Tarascan state was centered around the Lake Pátzcuaro basin. The Tarascan area has been inhabited at least since the early Pre-classic period, early lithic evidence from before 2500 B. C. like fluted points and stone utensils are found at some megafauna kill sites. The earliest radio-carbon dates of archeological sites fall around 1200 B. C, the best known early Pre-classic culture of Michoacán was the Chupícuaro culture. Most Chupícuaro sites are found on islands which can be seen as a sign of it having traits relating it to the later Tarascan cultural patterns. In the early Classic period, ballcourts and other artifacts demonstrate a Teotihuacan influence in the Michoacán region, unfortunately the first part is only partly preserved. Other sources include a number of small pictorial manuscripts, the best known being the Lienzo de Jucutacuto, according to the Relación de Michoacán a visionary leader of the Purépecha named Tariácuri decided to gather the communities around Lake Pátzcuaro into one strong state. Around 1300 he undertook the first conquests and installed his sons Hiripan and Tangáxoan as lords of Ihuatzio and Tzintzuntzan respectively, by the death of Taríacuri, his lineage was in control of all the major centers around Lake Pátzcuaro. His son Hiripan continued the expansion into the area surrounding Lake Cuitzeo, Hiripan and later his brother Tangáxuan I began to institutionalize the tributary system and consolidate the political unity of the empire. They created a bureaucracy and divided responsibilities of and tributes from the conquered territories between lords and noblesTarascan state – A Tarascan incense burner showing a deity with a " Tlaloc headdress", 1350–1521 CE.
114. Kowoj – The Kowoj was a Maya group and polity, from the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. The Kowoj claimed to have migrated from Mayapan sometime after the collapse in 1441 AD. Indigenous documents also describe Kowoj in Mayapan and linguistic data indicate migrations between the Yucatán Peninsula and the Petén region, a specific variant of temple assemblage, in a C-shaped plaza, defines the location of the Kowoj in both Mayapan and Petén. These assemblages were the centers of the Kowoj. The temple assemblages also communicated a prestigious connection with Mayapan and differentiated the Kowoj from their Itzá neighbors in the Petén Basin region, temple assemblage with raised shrine lies at a right angle to a western facing temple rather than facing into it. This specific variant appears at central Petén sites including Zacpetén, Topoxte, ceremonial architecture outside these boundaries follows a very different pattern. For example, Late Post Classic Itzá ceremonial groups do not appear to include formal temples, the residences at Zacpetén are tandem-shaped structures standing in patio groups. Tandem residences include a front room and back room, the former has a plastered, household production activities are concentrated in the back room, while socializing and ritual performances were focused upon the front room. Kan Ek list of Mayan languages Hunac Ceel Pugh, Timothy W, the Exemplary Center of the Late Postclassic Kowoj Maya. Proyecto Maya Colonial, Ixlú, Zacpetén, in Guatemala, Cradle of the Maya CivilizationKowoj – Maya civilization
115. K'iche' people – Kiche are indigenous peoples of the Americas, one of the Maya peoples. The Kiche language is a Mesoamerican language in the Mayan language family, the highland Kiche states in the pre-Columbian era are associated with the ancient Maya civilization, and reached the peak of their power and influence during the Postclassic period. The meaning of the word Kiche is many trees, the Nahuatl translation, Cuauhtēmallān Place of the Many Trees, is the origin of the word Guatemala. Quiché Department is also named for them, rigoberta Menchú, an activist for indigenous rights who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992, is perhaps the best-known Kiche. According to the 2011 census, Kiche people constituted 11% of the Guatemalan population, El Quiché forms the heartland of the Kiche people. In pre-Columbian times, the Kiche settlements and influence reached beyond the highlands, including the valley of Antigua, most Kiche speak their native language and have at least a working knowledge of Spanish, with the exception of some remote and isolated rural communities. Maya languages closely related to Kiche are Uspantek, Sakapultek, Kaqchikel, in pre-Columbian times, the Kiche Kingdom of Qumarkaj was one of the most powerful states in the region. K’iche was an independent state that existed after the decline of the Maya Civilization with the Classic collapse, Kiche lay in a highland mountain valley of Guatemala, and during this time they were also found in parts of El Salvador. However, there is evidence for a degree of cultural exchange between the Kiche and the people of Central Mexico, and Nahuatl has influenced the Kiche language greatly. The Spanish conquerors described towns such as Qumarkaj, the capital of Kiche, the Kiche were conquered by the conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in 1524. Their last military commander, Tecún Umán, led the Kiche armies against the forces of Pedro de Alvarado and their Kaqchikel allies. The Kiche armies were defeated, and close to 10,000 Kiche died, including Tecún Umán, after the battle, the Kiche surrendered and invited Alvarado to their capital, Qumarkaj. However, Alvarado suspected an ambush and had the city burned, the ruins of the city can still be seen, just a short distance from Santa Cruz del Quiché. Kiche – an introduction – article at Citizendium Allen J. Christensons Kiche-English Dictionary A reversal, the English-Kiche DictionaryK'iche' people – Market day in the K'iche' town of Chichicastenango
116. Mission Indians – Spanish explorers arrived on Californias coasts as early as the mid-16th century. In 1769 the first Spanish Franciscan mission was built in San Diego, local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Disease, starvation, over work, and torture decimated these tribes, many were baptized as Roman Catholics by the Franciscan missionaries at the missions. Mission Indians were from many regional Native American tribes, their members were often relocated together in new mixed groups, for instance, the Payomkowishum were renamed Luiseños after the Mission San Luis Rey, and the Acjachemem were renamed the Juaneños after the Mission San Juan Capistrano. The Catholic priests forbade the Indians from practicing their native culture, resulting in the disruption of many linguistic, spiritual. When Mexico gained its independence in 1834, it assumed control of the Californian missions from the Franciscans, Mexico secularized the missions and transferred or sold the lands to other non-Native administrators or owners. Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions, around 1906 Alfred L. Kroeber and Constance G. On January 12,1891 the U. S, in 1927, Sacramento Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington was instructed by Assistant Commissioner E. B. Merritt in Washington D. C. to list tribes in California that Congress had not yet purchased land to be used as reservations. As part of the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act enrollment, Native Americans were asked to identify their “Tribe or Band. ”The majority of applicants supplied the name of the mission that they knew their ancestors were associated with. The enrollment was part of a plan to provide reservation lands promised, some bands also occupy trust lands—Indian Reservations—identified under the Mission Indian Agency. The Mission Indian Act of 1891 formed the administrative Bureau of Indian Affairs unit which governs San Diego County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, there is one Chumash reservation in the last county, and more than thirty reservations in the others. Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, and Orange counties do not contain any tribal trust lands. But, resident tribes, including the Tongva in the first and these and the tribal governments of fifteen other reservations operate casinos today. The total acreage of the Mission group of reservations constitutes approximately 250,000 acres, los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians Manzanita Band of Mission Indians Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians Mission Creek Band of Mission Indians - Mission Creek Reservation of Cahuilla. Morongo Band of Mission Indians Pala Band of Mission Indians Pauma Band of Mission Indians Pechanga Band of Mission Indians Ramona Band or Village of Mission Indians San Cayetano Band of Cahuilla. San Manuel Band of Mission Indians San Miguel Arcangel, descandants of Mission San Miguel Indians in San Miguel, Mythology of the Mission Indians, The Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XVII, No. Two Myths of the Mission Indians of California, Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XIX, a Native American Encyclopedia, History, Culture, and PeoplesMission Indians – Ruin of the Indian quarters, Mission San Luis Rey
117. Chumash people – They also occupied three of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel, the smaller island of Anacapa was likely inhabited seasonally due to the lack of a consistent water source. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Malibu, Nipomo, Lompoc, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Piru, Lake Castaic, Saticoy, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area, the Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources, the tribe lived in an area of three environments, the interior, the coast, and the Northern Channel Islands. These provided an array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the plains, rivers. The coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the ocean winds. The mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy, during the cold months, what villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land covered by trees and animals. Abundant resources and a winter rarely harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory, such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources, due to advanced canoe designs, coastal and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a source of nutrition, relatively easy to find. Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones, shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring, their proximity to shore made collection easier. Some of the species included mussels, abalone, and a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested this species along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era, the Chumash and other California Indians also used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads, ornaments, and other artifacts. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish and this feat, difficult even for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoeChumash people – Pictographs, Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park
118. Kumeyaay people – The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, formerly Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the US and Baja California in Mexico, in Spanish, the name is commonly spelled Kumiai. The Kumeyaay consist of two related groups, the Ipai and Tipai, the two coastal groups traditional homelands were approximately separated by the San Diego River, the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not widely agreed upon, the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages, Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, and Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two, Ipai and Tipai, the term Kumeyaay means those who face the water from a cliff. Both Ipai and Tipai mean people, some Kumeyaay in the southern areas also refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means people of the earth. Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement, in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory,7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions, the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land extending from the Pacific Ocean to present Ensenada, Mexico, the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe also used to inhabit what is now a state park. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, katherine Luomola suggests that the nucleus of later Tipai-Ipai groups came together around AD1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe that they have lived in San Diego for 12,000 years, at the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, and domestic animals, under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including arable, in 1875, President Ulysses Grant created reservations in the area, and additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians. The reservations tended to be small and lacked water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural labor, however. For their common welfare, several formed the non-profit Kumeyaay. The colleges focus is on Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts and it serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego countyKumeyaay people – Anthony Pico, chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay
119. Miwok – The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in their native language, anthropologists commonly divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups. These distinctions were unknown among the Miwok before European contact, plains and Sierra Miwok, from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Coast Miwok, from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County, Lake Miwok, from Clear Lake basin of Lake County. Bay Miwok, from location of Contra Costa County. The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs officially recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, the Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They had domesticated dogs and cultivated tobacco, but were otherwise hunter-gatherers, the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is partially due to cultivation by Miwok tribes. They burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine, nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs, seeds, and fungi. Animals were hunted with arrows, clubs or snares, depending on the species, grasshoppers were a highly prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River. The Miwok ate meals according to rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption, primarily in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California, Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated respectively with land and water. These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with men and women. Similarly to soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost, the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up. The 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, and the 1930 Census,491, see history of each Miwok group for more informationMiwok – Miwok
120. Mohave people – Mohave or Mojave are a Native American people indigenous to the Colorado River in the Mojave Desert. The Fort Mojave Indian Reservation includes territory within the borders of California, Arizona, the Colorado River Indian Reservation includes parts of California and Arizona and is shared by members of the Chemehuevi, Hopi, and Navajo peoples. The original Colorado River and Fort Mojave reservations were established in 1865 and 1870, both reservations include substantial senior water rights in the Colorado River, water is drawn for use in irrigated farming. In the 1930s, George Devereux, a Hungarian-French anthropologist, did fieldwork and he published extensively about their culture and incorporated psychoanalytic thinking in his interpretation of their culture. The Mojave language belongs to the River Yuman branch of the Yuman language family, in 1994 approximately 75 people in total on the Colorado River and Fort Mojave reservations spoke the language, according to linguist Leanne Hinton. The tribe has published language materials, and there are new efforts to teach the language to their children, the Mohave creator is Matevilya, who gave the people their names and their commandments. His son is Mastamho, who gave them the River and taught them how to plant, historically this was an agrarian culture, they planted in the fertile floodplain of the untamed river, following the age-old customs of the Aha macave. They have traditionally used Datura in a religious sacrament, a Mohave who is coming of age must consume the plant in a rite of passage, in order to enter a new state of consciousness. Much of early Mojave history remains unrecorded in writing, since the Mojave language was not written in precolonial times and they depended on oral communication to transmit their history and culture from one generation to the next. Disease, outside cultures and encroachment on their territory disrupted their social organization, together with having to adapt to a majority culture of another language, this resulted in interrupting the Mojave transmission of their stories and songs to the following generations. The tribal name has been spelled in Spanish and English transliteration in more than 50 variations, such as Hamock avi, Amacava, A-mac-ha ves, A-moc-ha-ve, Jamajabs, and Hamakhav. This has led to misinterpretations of the name, also partly traced to a translation error in Frederick W. Hodges 1917 Handbook of the American Indians North of Mexico. This incorrectly defined the name Mohave as being derived from hamock, according to this source, the name refers to the mountain peaks known as The Needles in English, located near the Colorado River. But, the Mojave call these peaks Huqueamp avi, which means where the took place, referring to the battle in which the God-son, Mastamho. As related to contemporary landmarks, their lands began in the north at Hoover Dam and ended about one hundred miles below Parker Dam on the Colorado River and it was intended to protect east-west European-American emigrants from attack by the Mojave. By that time, white immigrants and settlers had begun to encroach on Mojave lands, in competition for scarce resources in the desert, they sometimes got into violent conflict with the indigenous people, who were trying to protect their territory. Hoffman sent couriers among the tribes, warning that the post would be gained by force if they or their allies chose to resist, instead, the army occupied the site without armed conflict. The Mojave warriors withdrew as Hoffmans formidable armada approached, and the expedition posted camp near the future Fort MojaveMohave people – Henry Welshe (Mojave), tribal chairman of Colorado River Indian Reservation council, ca. 1944–6
121. Ohlone people – The Ohlone, named Costanoan by early Spanish colonists, are a Native American people of the Northern California coast. When Spanish explorers and missionaries arrived in the late 18th century, at that time they spoke a variety of related languages. The Ohlone languages belonged to the Costanoan sub-family of the Utian language family, the term Ohlone has been used in place of Costanoan since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers, historians, and writers of popular literature. In pre-colonial times, the Ohlone lived in more than 50 distinct landholding groups and they lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering, in the typical ethnographic California pattern. The members of various bands interacted freely with one another. The Ohlone people practiced the Kuksu religion, prior to the Gold Rush, the northern California region was one of the most densely populated regions north of Mexico. However, in the years 1769 to 1833, the Spanish missions in California had an effect on Ohlone culture. The Ohlone living today belong to one or another of a number of distinct groups, most. The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe has members from around the San Francisco Bay Area, and is composed of descendants of the Ohlones/Costanoans from the San Jose, Santa Clara, and San Francisco missions. The Ohlone/Costanoan Esselen Nation, consisting of descendants of intermarried Rumsen Costanoan, the Amah-Mutsun Tribe are descendants of Mutsun Costanoan speakers of Mission San Juan Bautista, inland from Monterey Bay. Most members of group of Rumsien language, descendants from Mission San Carlos. These groups, and others with smaller memberships are separately petitioning the government for tribal recognition. The Ohlone inhabited fixed village locations, moving temporarily to gather seasonal foodstuffs like acorns and their vast region included the San Francisco Peninsula, Santa Clara Valley, Santa Cruz Mountains, Monterey Bay area, as well as present-day Alameda County, Contra Costa County and the Salinas Valley. Prior to Spanish contact, the Ohlone formed an association of approximately 50 different nations or tribes with about 50 to 500 members each. Over 50 distinct Ohlone tribes and villages have been recorded, the Ohlone villages interacted through trade, intermarriage and ceremonial events, as well as some internecine conflict. Cultural arts included basket-weaving skills, seasonal ceremonial dancing events, female tattoos, ear and nose piercings, the Ohlone subsisted mainly as hunter-gatherers and in some ways harvesters. Their staple diet consisted of crushed acorns, nuts, grass seeds and these food sources were abundant in earlier times and maintained by careful work, and through active management of all the natural resources at hand. Animals in their mild climate included the grizzly bear, elk, pronghorn, the streams held salmon, perch, and sticklebackOhlone people – Ohlone dancers at Mission San José
122. Apache – APACHE II is a severity-of-disease classification system, one of several ICU scoring systems. The first APACHE model was presented by Knaus et al. in 1981, APACHE II was designed to measure the severity of disease for adult patients admitted to intensive care units. It has not been validated for use in children or young people aged under 16, predicted mortalities are averaged for groups of patients in order to specify the groups morbidity. Even though newer scoring systems, such as SAPS II, have replaced APACHE II in many places, the calculation method is optimized for paper schemas, by using integer values and reducing the number of options so that data fits on a single-sheet paper form. The score is not recalculated during the stay, it is by definition an admission score, if a patient is discharged from the ICU and readmitted, a new APACHE II score is calculated. In the original paper that described the APACHE II score. A method to compute a refined score known as APACHE III was published in 1991, the score was validated on the dataset from 17,440 adult medical/surgical intensive care unit admissions at 40 US hospitals. The prognostic system of APACHE III has two options,1, APACHE III Score This provides an initial risk classification of severely ill hospitalized patients in defined groups. When possible, data about the time between the patient´s arrival to hospital and the ICU admission time are collected. To measure severity of disease 20 physiologic variable were selected, APACHE III scores range from 0 to 299. Reformulated Glasgow Coma parameters to eliminate almost identical scores for different neurological signs would give better and more reliable resultsApache
123. Comanche – The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Post-contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a horse culture, there may have been as many as 45,000 Comanches in the late 18th century. They were the dominant tribe on the Southern Plains and often took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, selling them as slaves to the Spanish and they also took thousands of captives from the Spanish, Mexican, and American settlers. Today, the Comanche Nation has 15,191 members, approximately 7,763 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around the Lawton, Fort Sill, the Comanche Nation Homecoming Powwow is held annually in Walters, Oklahoma in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today. The name Comanche is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, the Comanche Nation is headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Comanche, Cotton, Grady, Jefferson, Kiowa, Stephens, membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum. The tribe operates its own housing authority and issues tribal vehicle tags and they have their own Department of Higher Education, primarily awarding scholarships and financial aid for members college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, Oklahoma and they own ten tribal smoke shops and four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton, Comanche Red River Casino in Devol, Comanche Spur Casino, in Elgin, in 2002, the tribe founded the Comanche Nation College, a two-year tribal college in Lawton. Each July Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters, the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Years and one in May, the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt and they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture and they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, and have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians. Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people ever southward, by 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Rio Grande and the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. The Comanche never formed a single cohesive unit, but were divided into almost a dozen autonomous groups. These groups shared the language and culture, and rarely fought each otherComanche – For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation).
124. Hualapai – The Hualapai is a federally recognized Indian tribe in Arizona with over 2300 enrolled members. Approximately 1353 enrolled members reside on the Hualapai Indian reservation, which spans three counties in Northern Arizona. The name, meaning people of the trees, is derived from hwa, l. Their traditional territory is a 108-mile stretch along the southern side of the Grand Canyon. The Hualapai tribe is a nation and governed by an executive and judicial branch. The tribe provides a variety of social, cultural, educational, the Hualapai language is a Pai branch of the Yuman–Cochimí languages, also spoken by the closely related Havasupai, and more distantly to Yavapai people. It is still spoken by most people over 30 on the Reservation as well as young people. The Peach Springs School District runs a bilingual program for all local students. The Hualapai Indian Reservation, covering 1,142 square miles, was created by the Presidential Executive order of Chester A. Arthur on January 4,1883, major traditional ceremonies of the Hualapai include the Maturity ceremony and the Mourning ceremony. Nowadays the modern Sobriety Festival is also celebrated in June, the souls of the dead are believed to go northwestward to a beautiful land where plentiful harvest grow. This land is believed to be only by Hualapai spirits. Traditional Hualapai dress consists of full suits of deerskin and rabbit skin robes, conical houses formed from cedar boughs using the single slope form called a Wikiup. The Hualapai Reservation was created by order in 1883 on lands that just four regional bands considered as part of their home range. The other Hualapai regional bands lived far away from the current reservation land, the war broke out in May 1865, when the Hualapai leader Anasa was killed by a man named Hundertinark in the area of Camp Willow Grove and in March 1866. In response, a man named Clower was killed by the Hualapai, the most important and principal Hualapai leaders at that time were, Wauba Yuba, Sherum, Hitchi Hitchi and Susquatama. It was not until William Hardy and the Hualapai leaders negotiated an agreement at Beale Springs that the raids. However, the agreement lasted only nine months when it was broken with the murder of Chief Wauba Yuba near present-day Kingman during a dispute with the Walker party over the treaty, after the chiefs murder, raids by the Hualapai began in full force on mining camps and settlers. The cavalry from Fort Mojave responded, with the assistance of the Mohave, by attacking Hualapai rancherias, the pivotal engagement took place in January 1868, when Captain S. B. MHualapai – Ta'thamiche, a Hualapai
125. Puebloan peoples – The Pueblo peoples speak languages from several different groups and are also divided culturally by their kinship systems and agricultural practices, although all cultivate varieties of corn. In addition to differing kinship systems, the peoples have differing marriage practices and those who have a matrilineal system, in which children are considered born into the mothers clan and her line is used for inheritance and descent, are the Hopi, Keres, Towa and Zuni. The non-Towa Tanoan have a system, with clan membership, inheritance. All the Pueblo peoples have traditional economies based on agriculture and trade, at the time of Spanish encounter beginning in the 16th century, these peoples were living in complex, multi-story villages often built around a central courtyard. The Spanish called these pueblos, meaning towns, and applied the name to all the living in such complexes. In the 21st century there are 21 surviving pueblos in the Southwest of the United States, Taos, Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi are the best-known. The main pueblos are located primarily in the states of New Mexico. Anthropologists have studied these peoples extensively and published various classifications of their subdivisions, in 1950, Fred Russell Eggan contrasted the peoples of the Eastern and Western Pueblos, based largely on their subsistence farming techniques. The Western or Desert Pueblos of the Zuñi and Hopi specialize in dry farming, in 1954, Paul Kirchhoff published a division of the Pueblo peoples into two groups based on culture, one includes the Hopi, Zuni, Keres and Jemez. They each have matrilineal kinship systems, children are considered born into their mothers clan and must marry a spouse outside it and they maintain multiple kivas for sacred ceremonies. Their creation myth tells that humans emerged from the underground and they emphasize four or six cardinal directions as part of their sacred cosmology, beginning in the north. Four and seven are considered significant in their rituals and symbolism. In contrast, the Tanoan-speaking Pueblos have a kinship system. They practice endogamy, or marriage within the clan and they have two kivas or two groups of kivas in their pueblos. Their belief system is based in dualism, the creation story recounts the emergence of the people from underwater. They use five directions, beginning in the west and their ritual numbers are based on multiples of three. The Pueblo peoples speak languages from different language families, demonstrating their diverse ethnic origins. The Hopi language is Uto-Aztecan, Zuni is an isolate, and Keresan is a dialect continuum that includes Acoma, Laguna, Santa Ana, Zia, Cochiti, Santo DomingoPuebloan peoples – Laguna Pueblo dwellers
126. Yaqui people – The Yaqui or Yoeme are Native Americans who inhabit the valley of the Río Yaqui in the Mexican state of Sonora and the Southwestern United States. They also have small settlements in Sinaloa, Chihuahua, and Durango, the Pascua Yaqui Tribe is based in Tucson, Arizona. Yaqui people also live elsewhere in the southwestern United States, especially Nevada, the Yaqui territory comprises three distinct areas, a mountainous area, a fishing area and cropland. Today the population is about 32,000, having been reduced because of the wars they fought for their survival for more than 50 years. At the end of the 19th century, under the government of Porfirio Diaz, they were confronted and many were deported to plantations in Yucatan and Quintana Roo. Many of them returned to their homeland on foot, and others immigrated to Arizona in order to escape the repression of the Mexican government, the Yaqui population in Arizona is currently about 8,000 and the Tribe is recognized by the United States government. Today, in addition to the inhabitants of the traditional Yaqui area, since they did not return to their villages, they form their own colonies inside of various prominent cities. In the capital of Sonora, the city of Hermosillo, colonies such as La Matanza, El Coloso and these are places in which the inhabitants make an effort to conserve the traditions and culture of the Yaqui Nation. The patio is used for raising animals and, in the remote areas, is where the latrine is installed. The Yaqui language belongs to the Uto-Aztecan language family, Yaqui speak a Cahitan language, a group of about 10 mutually-intelligible languages formerly spoken in much of the states of Sonora and Sinaloa. Most of the Cahitan languages are extinct, only the Yaqui and Mayo still speak their language. About 15,000 Yaqui speakers live in Mexico and 1,000 in the U. S. A, the Yaqui call themselves Hiaki or Yoeme, the Yaqui word for person. The Yaqui call their homeland Hiakim, from which some say the name Yaqui is derived and they may also describe themselves as Hiaki Nation or Pascua Hiaki, meaning The Easter People, as most had converted to Catholicism under Jesuit influence in colonial Mexico. Many folk etymologies account for how the Yoeme came to be known as the Yaqui, when the Spanish first came into contact with the Yaqui in 1533, they occupied a territory along the lower course of the Yaqui River. They were estimated to number 30,000 people living in 80 rancherias in an area about 60 miles long and 15 miles wide, some Yaqui lived near the mouth of the river and were dependent upon the sea for subsistence. Most lived in communities, growing beans, maize. A few lived an existence in the deserts and mountains. Captain Diego de Guzmán, leader of an expedition to lands north of the Spanish settlementsYaqui people – Yaqui Indians
127. Chichimeca – Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to many bands and tribes of nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited northern modern-day Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term barbarian to describe people living outside settled, the name and its pejorative sense was adopted by the Spanish. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, in modern times only one ethnic group is customarily referred to as Chichimecs, namely the Chichimeca Jonaz of whom a few thousand live in the state of Guanajuato. The Chichimeca peoples were groups of varying ethnicities and speaking distinct languages from different families. As the Spaniards worked towards consolidating the rule of New Spain over the indigenous peoples during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a number of ethnic groups of the region allied against the Spanish. The first and most long-lasting of these conflicts was the Chichimeca War, for example, virtually nothing is known about the peoples referred to as the Guachichil, Caxcan, Zacateco, Tecuexe, or Guamare. Others, such as the Opata or Eudeve, are described in records. Still other Chichimec peoples maintain separate identities into the present day, for example the Otomi, Chichimeca Jonaz, Cora, Huichol, Pame, Yaqui, Mayo, Oodham, the Nahuatl name Chīchīmēcah means inhabitants of Chichiman, the placename Chichiman means Area of Milk. It is sometimes said to be related to dog, but the is in chichi are short while those in Chīchīmēcah are long. In modern Mexico, the word Chichimeca can have pejorative connotations, such as primitive, savage, uneducated, the first descriptions of Chichimecs are from the early conquest period. In 1526, Hernán Cortés writes in one of his letters of the northern Chichimec tribes and he commented that they might be enslaved and used to work in the mines. The Chicimec, Caxcanes and other people of Northern Mexico fought back against Spanish forces such as Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán when they began trying to enslave them. Their fight against Spanish forces became known as the Mixtón Rebellion, in the late sixteenth century, Gonzalo de las Casas wrote about the Chichimec. Las Casas account was called Report of the Chichimeca and the justness of the war against them and he described the people, providing ethnographic information. He wrote that only covered their genitalia with any clothing, painted their bodies. He mentions as further proof of their barbarity that Chichimec women, having given birth, while las Casas recognized that the Chichimecan tribes spoke different languages, he considered their culture as primarily uniform. This stereotype became even more prevalent during the course of the Chichimec wars, in some areas, the Chichimeca cultivated maize and calabash. From the mesquite, the Chichamecs made white bread and wine, many Chichimec tribes used the juice of the agave as a substitute for water when it was in short supplyChichimeca – Map of the location of prominent Chichimeca peoples around 1550.
128. Kiliwa people – The Kiliwa are an aboriginal people of northern Baja California, Mexico. They occupied a territory lying between the Cochimí on the south and the Paipai on the north, and extending from San Felipe on the Gulf of California to San Quintín on the Pacific coast and their traditional language is the Kiliwa language. The Ñakipa have sometimes been distinguished from the Kiliwa as an ethnolinguistic group within the southwestern portion of what is here considered Kiliwa territory. The limited linguistic evidence that is available for the Ñakipa indicates that they spoke the language as the eastern Kiliwa. Little archaeological research has as yet been done within Kiliwa territory, a partial exception is a sampling program of systematic survey along the west coast between El Rosario and San Quintín by Jerry D. Moore. Radiocarbon dates and Clovis points from farther south on the peninsula suggest that the occupation to the north must have occurred prior to 11,000 years ago. The Kiliwa first encountered Europeans when Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reached the San Quintín area in 1542, there were few subsequent contacts during the next two centuries. The Jesuit missionary-explorer Wenceslaus Linck came overland from the south into the part of Kiliwa territory in 1766. The expedition to establish Spanish settlements in California, led by Gaspar de Portolà, the Dominican mission of Santo Domingo was founded in Kiliwa territory near the coast in 1775. It was followed by a mission of San Pedro Mártir in 1794. By around the time of Mexican independence in 1821, the population at the Kiliwa missions had sharply declined, in 1929, Meigs reported that only 36 adult Kiliwa were then living, primarily at three settlements around Arroyo León, at San Isidoro, and in Valle Trinidad. Twenty years later in 1949, Hohenthal found 30 adult Kiliwa living at four settlements, including Arroyo León, Agua Caliente, La Parra, and Tepí. Meigs suggested that the population of the Kiliwa was about 1,300 individuals. He excluded the southwestern Ñakipa territory from his estimates, which would raise the total to at least 2,000, Meigs considered his estimate to be a conservative one. However, Roger C. Owen has argued that Meigs population estimates were too high. Information about the practices of the pre-contact Kiliwa comes from a variety of sources. Hohenthal, and Jesús Ángel Ochoa Zazueta, aboriginal Kiliwa subsistence was based on hunting and gathering of natural animal and plants rather than on agriculture. At least two different plants were food resources, and many others were used for medicine or as materials for construction or craft productsKiliwa people – Contents
129. Indigenous peoples of Florida – The Indigenous peoples of Florida lived in what is now known as Florida for more than 12,000 years before the time of first contact with Europeans. However, the indigenous Floridians had largely died out by the early 18th century, the first people arrived in Florida before the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Human remains and/or artifacts have been found in association with the remains of Pleistocene animals at a number of Florida locations, a carved bone depicting a mammoth found near the site of Vero man has been dated to 13,000 to 20,000 years ago. Artifacts recovered at the Page-Ladson prehistory site date to 12,500 to 14,500 years ago, evidence that a giant tortoise was cooked in its shell at Little Salt Spring dates to between 12,000 and 13,500 years ago. Human remains and artifacts have also found in association with remains of Pleistocene animals at Devils Den, Melbourne, Warm Mineral Springs. A Bison antiquus skull with a projectile point has been found in the Wacissa River. Other important Paleoindian sites in Florida include Harney Flats in Hillsborough County, the Nalcrest site, Floridas environment at the end of the Pleistocene was very different from that of today. Because of the amount of water frozen in ice sheets during the last glacial period. Florida had about twice the area, its water table was much lower. Its climate also was cooler and much drier, there were few running rivers or springs in what is todays Florida. The few water sources in the interior of Florida were rain-fed lakes and water holes over relatively impervious deposits of marl, with water available only at scattered locations, animals and humans would have congregated at the water holes to drink. The concentration of animals would have attracted hunters, many Paleoindian artifacts and animal bones showing butchering marks have been found in Florida rivers, where deep sinkholes in the river bed would have provided access to water. Half of the Paleoindian sites in Florida may now be under water in the Gulf of Mexico and these deposits preserved organic materials, including bone, ivory, wood, and other plant remains. Archaeologists have found evidence that Paleoindians in Florida hunted mammoths, mastodons, Bison antiquus. Organic materials are not well preserved in the warm, wet climate, Stone tools are therefore often the only clues to dating prehistoric sites without ceramics in Florida. Projectile points have distinctive forms that can be reliably assigned to specific time periods. Based on stone artifacts, Bullen divided pre-Archaic Florida into four periods, Early Paleo-Indian, Late Paleo-Indian, Dalton Early, purdy defined a simpler sequence, Paleo Indian and Late Paleo. Later discoveries have pushed the beginning of the Paleoindian period in Florida to an earlier date, milanich places the end of the Paleoindian period at about 7500 BCEIndigenous peoples of Florida – Thonotosassa type, Lorida, FL
130. Calusa – The Calusa were a Native American people of Floridas southwest coast. Calusa society developed from that of peoples of the Everglades region. Previous indigenous cultures had lived in the area for thousands of years, at the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the historic Calusa were the people of the Caloosahatchee culture. They are notable for having developed a culture based on estuarine fisheries rather than agriculture. Calusa territory reached from Charlotte Harbor to Cape Sable, all of present-day Charlotte and Lee counties, and may have included the Florida Keys at times. They had the highest population density of south Florida, estimates of population at the time of European contact range from 10,000 to several times that. Calusa influence may have extended to the Ais tribe on the central east coast of Florida. Early Spanish and French sources referred to the tribe, its town and its chief as Calos, Calus, Caalus. Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, a Spaniard held captive by the Calusa in the 16th century, by the early 19th century, Anglo-Americans in the area used the term Calusa for the people. It is based on the Creek and Mikasuki ethnonym for the people who had lived around the Caloosahatchee River. Juan Rogel, a Jesuit missionary to the Calusa in the late 1560s, noted the name as Carlos. Rogel also stated that the name was Caalus, and that the Spanish had changed it to Carlos. Marquardt quotes a statement from the 1570s that the Bay of Carlos, in the Indian language is called Escampaba, for the cacique of this town, who afterward called himself Carlos in devotion to the Emperor. Escampaba may be related to a place named Stapaba, which was identified in the area on an early 16th-century map, paleo-Indians entered what is now Florida at least 12,000 years ago. By around 5000 BC, people started living in villages near wetlands, favored sites were likely occupied for multiple generations. Floridas climate had reached current conditions and the sea had risen close to its present level by about 3000 BC, People commonly occupied both fresh and saltwater wetlands. Because of their reliance on shellfish, they accumulated large shell middens during this period, many people lived in large villages with purpose-built earthwork mounds, such as those at the Horrs Island. People began creating fired pottery in Florida by 2000 BC, by about 500 BC, the Archaic culture, which had been fairly uniform across Florida, began to devolve into more distinct regional culturesCalusa – Diorama of a Calusa chief at the FMNH
131. Seminole – The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida. The word Seminole is a corruption of cimarrón, a Spanish term for runaway or wild one, Seminole culture is largely derived from that of the Creek, the most important ceremony is the Green Corn Dance, other notable traditions include use of the black drink and ritual tobacco. As the Seminole adapted to Florida environs, they developed local traditions, such as the construction of open-air, historically the Seminole spoke Mikasuki and Creek, both Muskogean languages. The Seminole became increasingly independent of other Creek groups and established their own identity and they developed a thriving trade network during the British and second Spanish periods. The tribe expanded considerably during this time, and was supplemented from the late 18th century by free blacks and escaped slaves who settled near. The latter became known as Black Seminoles, although they kept their own Gullah culture, after the United States achieved independence, its settlers increased pressure on Seminole lands, leading to the Seminole Wars. The Seminole were first confined to a large inland reservation by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek, by 1842, most Seminoles and Black Seminoles had been removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, perhaps fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida after the Third Seminole War, but they fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence. In the late 19th century, the Florida Seminole re-established limited relations with the U. S. government, few Seminole moved to reservations until the 1940s, they reorganized their government and received federal recognition in 1957 as the Seminole Tribe of Florida. The more traditional people near the Tamiami Trail received federal recognition as the Miccosukee Tribe in 1962, old crafts and traditions were revived in the mid 20th century as Seminoles began seeking tourism dollars when Americans began to travel more on the countrys growing highway system. The word Seminole is derived from cimarrón, a Spanish term for runaway or wild one, the people who constituted the nucleus of this Florida group either chose to leave their tribe or were banished. At one time the terms renegade and outcast were used to describe this status and they never signed a peace treaty with the United States. Native American refugees from northern wars, such as the Yuchi and Yamasee after the Yamasee War in South Carolina and they spoke primarily Hitchiti, of which Mikasuki is a dialect, which is the primary traditional language spoken today by Miccosukee in Florida. In Cuba the Florida tribes suffered high mortality due to disease, in Florida, the Creeks had earlier intermingled with the Choctaw and other few remaining indigenous people. The Seminole were a tribe made up of mostly Lower Creeks from Georgia. At that time, numerous refugees of the Red Sticks migrated south and they were Creek-speaking Muscogee, and were the ancestors of most of the later Creek-speaking Seminole. In addition, a few hundred escaped African-American slaves had settled near the Seminole towns and, to an extent, Native Americans from other tribes. The unified Seminole spoke two languages, Creek and Mikasuki, two among the Muskogean languages family, Creek became the dominant language for political and social discourse, so Mikasuki speakers learned it if participating in high-level negotiationsSeminole – Seminole portraits
132. Yustaga – The Yustaga were a Timucua people of what is now northwestern Florida during the 16th and 17th centuries. The westernmost Timucua group, they lived between the Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers in the Florida Panhandle, just east of the Apalachee people, a dominant force in regional tribal politics, they may have been organized as a loose regional chiefdom consisting of up to eight smaller local chiefdoms. The Yustaga were among the first Timucua to encounter Europeans, as their location near the Apalachee ensured that several explorers passed through their territory looking for that group, after decades of resistance they were brought into the Spanish mission system in the 1620s. Like all Timucua groups, they experienced significant demographic decline in the period of European contact, surviving Yustaga eventually moved closer to the Spanish capital of St. Augustine and mingled with other missionized Indians, losing their independent identity. The westernmost of all Timucua groups, the Yustagas territory extended into the Florida Panhandle and they lived in the western Suwannee River valley, roughly between the Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers. On the east side of the Suwannee, inhabiting a territory spanning roughly to the St. Johns River in the east and the Santa Fe River in the south, lived another Timucua people, the Northern Utina. The Northern Utina were closely associated with the Yustaga, but spoke a different dialect, to the east of the Yustaga was a region known as the Apalachee Province, inhabited by the Apalachee and other peoples. The Yustaga region had been inhabited for thousands of years, during the first millennium AD its inhabitants participated in the Weedon Island culture, which spread across much of western Florida and beyond. From about 900 a derivative culture emerged among the peoples of the Suwannee River Valley and this culture, known as the Suwannee Valley culture, is particularly distinguished by its ceramics, and was still extant at the time of European contact. As a Weedon Island derivative, it is related to the Alachua culture of the Potano. However, a 1651 letter written by the Yustaga chief Manuel to the Spanish crown survives in the Spanish archives, archaeological evidence suggests that the Yustaga, like the Northern Utina, lived in distinct groups of villages, probably representing small-scale local chiefdoms. Around eight such community groups were known in historical times, anthropologist John Worth suggests these might have been organized into a loose regional chiefdom that was continuous from at least the early period of European contact. In this arrangement, the head of the most important town, Cotocochuni or Potohiriba, possible evidence for this lies in the fact that later Spanish lists of Yustaga chiefs consistently name them in order of the prominence of their towns, with Potohiriba invariably first. Even still, Worth notes the regional Yustaga chiefdom would have much less integrated than certain eastern Timucua chiefdoms such as the Saturiwa. The Yustaga appear to have encountered the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez when it came through the area in 1528, however, the name Yustaga first appears in the chronicles of Hernando de Sotos 1539 expedition, which describe it as the region immediately east of Apalachee. Uzachile may have been paramount over the various chiefdoms of more or less equal status on both sides of the river and they may have been in a defensive alliance against the Apalachees, the Utina and the Potano. Upon reaching Aguacaleycuens village, De Soto captured the chief, as was his usual practice, thereafter some chiefs approached de Soto and offered to take him to Uzachile, whom they said sought an alliance against the Apalachee. Instead, they led the Spanish into an ambush, De Soto ultimately prevailed and subsequently executed Aguacaleycuen and other hostages, but by the time he got into Yustaga, the villages had already been evacuatedYustaga – A suggested route for the first leg of the de Soto Expedition, passing through Uzachile and the Yustaga region. Based on Charles M. Hudson 's 1997 map
133. Negrito – The Negrito are several ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia. The Negrito peoples show strong similarities with the Pygmy peoples of Africa but are genetically closer to surrounding Southeast Asian populations. They may be descended from ancient Australoid-Melanesian settlers of Southeast Asia, the word Negrito is the Spanish diminutive of negro, used to mean little black person. Many on-line dictionaries give the plural in English as either negritos or negritoes, the plural in Spanish is negritos. The appropriateness of using the label Negrito to bundle together peoples of different ethnicity based on similarities in stature, Haplogroup O-P31 is also common among Austroasiatic-speaking Negrito peoples, such as the Maniq and the Semang. Aeta men are of great interest to genetic, anthropological and historical researchers because at least 83% of them belong to haplogroup K2b, in the form of its rare primary clades K2b1* and P*. Most Aeta males carry K-P397, which is uncommon in the Philippines and is strongly associated with the indigenous peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Basal P* is rare outside the Aeta and some groups within Maritime South East Asia. The use of single-nucleotide polymorphism shows the genomes of Andamanese people to be closest to those of South Asians and this suggests a relation between Andaman islanders and South Asians. Bulbeck likewise noted that the Andamaneses nuclear DNA clusters with that of other Andamanese Islanders, as they carry Haplogroup D-M174, however, this is a subclade of the D haplogroup which has not been seen outside of the Andamans, a fact that underscores the insularity of these tribes. Analysis of mtDNA, which is inherited exclusively by maternal descent, all Onge belong to M32 mtDNA, a subgroup of M, which is unique to Onge people. Their parental Y-DNA is exclusively Haplogroup D, which is only found in Asia. These were specific mtDNA mutations that are shared exclusively by Australian aborigines and these Indian tribes, a study of human blood group systems and proteins in the 1950s suggested that the Andamanese peoples were more closely related to Oceanic peoples than African Pygmy peoples. Genetic studies on Philippine Negritos, based on polymorphic blood enzymes and antigens, Negrito peoples may descend from Australoid-Melanesian settlers of Southeast Asia. Despite being isolated, the different peoples do share similarities with their neighboring populations. They also show relevant phenotypic variations which require explanation, in contrast, a recent genetic study found that unlike other early groups in Malesia, Andamanese Negritos lack the Denisovan hominin admixture in their DNA. Denisovan ancestry is found among indigenous Melanesian and Aboriginal Australian populations between 4–6%, indeed this sentiment is echoed in a more recent work from 2013 which concludes that at the current level of genetic resolution. There is no evidence of an ancestral population for the different groups traditionally defined as “negritos. ”A number of features would seem to suggest a common origin for the Negritos and NegrillosNegrito – Negrito
134. Igorot people – Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon. These highland peoples inhabit all the six provinces of the Cordillera Administrative Region, Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, Ifugao, the word Igorot is an exonym, derived from the Austronesian term for mountain people. During the Spanish colonial era, the term was recorded as Igolot, Ygolot. The endonyms Ifugao or Ipugao are used frequently within the Igorots themselves. Prior to Spanish colonisation of the islands, the now included under the term did not consider themselves as belonging to a single. They may be subdivided into five ethnolinguistic groups, the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Isnag, Kalinga. The Bontoc live on the banks of the Chico River in the Central Mountain Province on the island of Luzon and they speak the Bontoc language and Ilocano. They formerly practiced head-hunting and had distinctive body tattoos, the Bontoc describe three types of tattoos, The chak-lag′, the tattooed chest of the head taker, pong′-o, the tattooed arms of men and women, and fa′-tĕk, for all other tattoos of both sexes. Women were tattooed on the arms only, there was no singing or talking during the dance drama, but the women took part, usually outside the circumference. It was a serious but pleasurable event for all concerned, including the children, present-day Bontocs are a peaceful agricultural people who have, by choice, retained most of their traditional culture despite frequent contacts with other groups. The pre-Christian Bontoc belief system centers on a hierarchy of spirits, Lumawig personifies the forces of nature and is the legendary creator, friend, and teacher of the Bontoc. A hereditary class of priests hold various monthly ceremonies for this deity for their crops, the weather, the Bontoc also believe in the anito—spirits of the dead who must be consulted before anything important is done. Ancestral anitos are invited to family feasts when a death occurs to ensure the well-being of the deceaseds soul and this is by offering some small amount of food to show that they are invited and not forgotten. The Bontoc social structure used to be centered around village wards containing about 14 to 50 homes, traditionally, young men and women lived in dormitories and ate meals with their families. This gradually changed with the advent of Christianity, in general, however, it can be said that all Bontocs are very aware of their own way of life and are not overly eager to change. They were traditionally an agrarian society, many of the Ibaloi and Kalanguya people continue with their agriculture and rice cultivation. Baguio City, the city of the Cordillera, dubbed the Summer Capital of the Philippines, is located in southern Benguet. The largest feast of the Ibaloi is the Pesshet, a public feast mainly sponsored by people of prestige, Pesshet can last for weeks and involves the killing and sacrifice of dozens of animalsIgorot people – An Isneg woman, having just performed a dance.
135. Peoples of Palawan – Palawan, the largest province in the Philippines, is home to several indigenous ethnolinguistic groups namely, the Kagayanen >, Tagbanwa, Palawano, Taawt Bato, Molbog and the Batak tribes. They live in villages in the mountains and coastal areas. It is believed that their ancestors occupied the province long before Malay settlers from the Majapahit Empire of Indonesia arrived in these islands in the later 12th or 13th centuries. The recovery of the Tabon Man and other significant findings in the area earned for Palawan the title, research has shown that the Tagbanwa and Palawano are possible descendants of the Tabon Caves inhabitants. Their language and alphabet, farming methods, and common belief in soul relatives are some of their cultural similarities, after the death of Ferdinand Magellan, the remnant of his fleet landed in Palawan. Magellans chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, in his writings, described the cultivated fields of the people populating the Palawan Islands. He also mentioned that people use weapons consisting of blowpipes, spears. During his stay in the area, he witnessed for the first time cockfighting and fistfighting and he also discovered that the natives had their own system of writing consisting of 13 consonants and 3 vowels, and they had a dialect of 18 syllables. He further wrote that in Palawan, the local King had 10 scribes who wrote down the Kings dictation on leaves of plants, the Batak, which means mountain people in Cuyonon is a group of indigenous people that resides in the northeast portion of Palawan. They live in the interiors of northeastern Palawan. Living close to nature, they are a peaceful and shy people and these people believe in nature spirits, with whom they communicate through a babaylan or medium. <refwtm name=ptc_tribes/>Native-born lowland dwellers include the Cuyunon, Agutayanon sub-groups. The Cuyunons, originally from the town of Cuyo in northern Palawan, are considered the elite class in this group. They are religious, disciplined and have a developed community spirit. The Agutayanons practice a simpler island lifestyle, with fishing and farming as their source of livelihood. The Palawano tribe, also known as Palawan or Palawano, is one of the peoples of Palawan. They are part of the large Manobo-based linguistic groups of southern Philippines and they traditionally hunt using soars and bamboo blowguns. The Palawano closely resemble the Tagbanwa, and in the past, some Tausug residents in Palawan call the Palawano Traan, which means people in scattered places. Like the Yakan of Basilan, the Palawano live in houses out of sight of each other and their main occupation is subsistence farming, cultivating mainly upland ricePeoples of Palawan – Batak Palawan
136. Ati people – The Ati are a Negrito ethnic group in the Visayas, the central portion of the Philippine archipelago. Their small numbers are concentrated in the islands of Boracay, Panay. They are genetically related to other Negrito ethnic groups in the Philippines such as the Aeta of Luzon, the Batak of Palawan, in the Philippines the Aetas or Aeta ancestors were the aboriginals or the first inhabitants of this Archipelago. They most probably arrived from Borneo 20-30,000 years ago, according to some oral traditions, they also predate the Bisaya, who now inhabit most of the Visayas. The hills were left to the Atis while the plains and rivers to the Malays and this meeting is commemorated through the Ati-atihan festival. This legend, though, is challenged by some historians, during the Spanish colonization, the tribe made contact with the conquistador Legazpi and were made useful in his colonization of Panay. Currently, the tribe is threatened due to encroachments into their territory, another problem they face is discrimination. The Aeta of the north speak Sambalic languages, which are part of the Central Luzon family, the Ati speak a Visayan language known as Inati. As of 1980, the speakers of Inati numbere about 1,500, visaya and Kinaray-a are also commonly used. The Ati practice a form of animism that involves good and evil spirits and these spirits are nature spirits that often guard rivers, the sea, the sky, as well as the mountains. Sometimes, they may cause disease or comfort, the Ati from Negros refer to them as taglugar or tagapuyo, which literally means inhabiting a place. Christianity has also been adopted due to isolation and more contact with outsiders. Not too long ago, like other Negritos in the country, their clothing was simple, with women wearing wraparound skirts, sometimes out of bark cloth. However today T-shirts, pants, and rubber sandals are common as daily clothes, some jewelry objects involve plants such as flowers, while others use animal bones, particularly the teeth of pigs. Ati are known in Panay as practitioners of herbal medicine, locals often seek their help in removing leeches from a persons body. The Aetas traditionally were nomadic people, with the Aetas of Panay being known as the most mobile, now they live in more permanent settlements like Barotac Vejo, island of Guimaras, Igkaputol, Tina and Badiang (San Jose de Buenavista. Very few of them are now nomadic, Ati men traditionally join sacadas workers on time of harvest of sugar plants in places such as Negros or Batangas. The Ati are the central attraction in the Ati-atihan festival, a festival named in their honor and it is said that the festival is held to commemorate the first appearance of the Roman Catholic Church and the Spaniards in the province of AklanAti people – Ati girl
137. Panay – Panay Island, is the sixth largest and fourth most populous island in the Philippines. With a total area of 12,011 Sq. km. Iloilo City, is the largest city on the island, with a population of 447,992. It is an island, located in the western part of the Visayas. It is about 160 kilometres across, it is divided into four provinces, Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo and it is located southeast of the island of Mindoro and northwest of Negros, separated by the Guimaras Strait. Between Panay and Negros lie the island-province of Guimaras, to the north and northeast is the Sibuyan Sea and the islands of Romblon, to the west and southwest is the Sulu Sea and to the south is Panay Gulf. Panay River, is the longest river in the island, Mount Madja-as in Antique, is the second highest peak on the island with an elevation of 2,117 m above sea level. Mount Nangtud, is the highest mountain in Panay, standing at 7,234 ft. above sea level, Located on the border of Barbaza, Antique and Jamindan, before 1212, Panay was called Simsiman. The community is located at the shores of the Ulian river and was linked by a creek, the creek provided salt to the Ati people as well as animals which lick the salt out of the salty water. Coming from the root word simsim, simsimin means to something to eat or to drink. During the time of Datu Pulpulan, father of the Ati chief Marikudo, the island was called Aninipay from words ani to harvest and nipay, the hair of this grass though short is very sharp and easily prick the skin as barbs and is very difficult to remove. Once the barbs stick to the skin it can cause a skin irritation. For this reason, Datu Pulpulan enacted a law that whoever among the Atis will use the grass to endanger others will face death as punishment. The picturesque mountain which stood majestically in the area was thought to be the place of Bululakaw. The island was so named by the Malay settlers due to the splendid beauty, a Spaniard named Gonzalo Ronquillo reached the island and also gave the name Pan hay which means theres a bread in the island. The place was then called Pan-hay which eventually became Panay, Madja-as was established by nine rebel datus or high officials connected with the court of Brunei, who were forced to leave that are on account of enmity of the Rajah at that time ruling the land. The datus, together with their wives and children, as well as few faithful servants and followers were escorted out of the country by the Rajahs Chief Minister. The local folklore says that the name of the Bornean Rajah was Makatunao and their ultimate origins may be traced to the sacking of the kingdom of Pannai at North Sumatra by the Chola dynasty who had placed puppet Rajahs on the throne after their invasionPanay – Left to right: Images from the Boxer Codex illustrating members of the ancient Visayan kadatuan or tumao class from Panay:  couple from the nobility,  a royal couple, and  a native princess.
138. Bajau people – The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines. The name collectively refers to related people who call themselves the Sama or Samah, or are known by the exonyms Bajau. They usually live a lifestyle, and use small wooden sailing vessels such as the perahu, djenging, balutu, lepa, pilang. Some Sama-Bajau groups native to Sabah are also known for their horse culture. In the Philippines, they are grouped together with the religiously-similar Moro people, within the last 50 years, many of the Filipino Sama-Bajau have migrated to neighbouring Malaysia and the northern islands of the Philippines, due to the conflict in Mindanao. As of 2010, they were the second-largest ethnic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah, the modern outward spread of the Sama-Bajau from older inhabited areas seems to have been associated with the development of sea trade in sea cucumber. Like the term Kadazan-Dusun, Sama-Bajau is a term, used to describe several closely related indigenous people who consider themselves a single distinct bangsa. It is generally accepted that these groups of people can be termed Sama or Bajau, instead, they call themselves with the names of their tribes, usually the place they live or place of origin. For example, the sea-going Sama-Bajau prefer to call themselves the Sama Dilaut or Sama Mandilaut in the Philippines, while in Malaysia, even these distinctions are fading as the majority of Sama-Bajau have long since abandoned boat living, most for Sama–style piling houses in the coastal shallows. Sama is believed to have originated from the Austronesian root word sama meaning together, same, the exact origin of the exonym Bajau is unclear. Some authors have proposed that it is derived from a corruption of the Malay word berjauh, other possible origins include the Brunei Malay word bajaul, which means to fish. The term Bajau has pejorative connotations in the Philippines, indicating poverty in comparison to the term Sama, especially since it is used most commonly to refer to poverty-stricken Sama-Bajau who make a living through begging. British administrators in Sabah classified the Sama-Bajau as Bajau and labelled them as such in their birth certificates, thus the Sama-Bajau in Malaysia may sometimes self-identify as Bajau or even Malay, for political reasons. This is due to the government recognition of the Sama-Bajau as legally Bumiputera under the name Bajau and this ensures easy access to the special privileges granted to ethnic Malays. This is especially true for recent Moro Filipino migrants, the indigenous Sama-Bajau in Malaysia have also started labelling themselves as their ancestors called themselves, such as Simunul. For most of their history, the Sama-Bajau have been a nomadic, seafaring people, living off the sea by trading, the boat-dwelling Sama-Bajau see themselves as non-aggressive people. They kept close to the shore by erecting houses on stilts, after she is lost by either being swept away to the sea or being taken captive by a neighbouring kingdom, they were then supposedly ordered to find her. After failing to do so they decided to remain nomadic for fear of facing the wrath of the kingBajau people – Sama-Bajau people (Sama, Bajau, and Samal)
139. Chamorro people – Today, significant Chamorro populations also exist in several U. S. states including Hawaii, California, Washington, Texas, Tennessee, Oregon, and Nevada. According to the 2000 Census, approximately 65,000 people of Chamorro ancestry live on Guam, another 93,000 live outside the Marianas in Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States. The Chamorros are primarily Austronesian, but many also have European, East Asian, the Chamorro language is included in the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian family. Because Guam was colonized by Spain for over 300 years, many derive from the Spanish language. The traditional Chamorro number system was replaced by Spanish numbers, Chamorro is often spoken in many homes, but is becoming less common. The most said phrase in Chamorro is, Hafa Adai, which means Hello in English, the Chamorro are commonly believed to have come from Southeast Asia at around 2000 BC. They are most closely related to other Austronesian-speaking natives to the west in the Philippines and Taiwan and they were expert seafarers and skilled craftspeople familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery-making. The latte, a rock pillar topped with a hemispherical capstone, was used by early Chamorros as foundation for buildings and has since been appropriated as a national symbol. Chamorro farmers were recorded during Spanish times to plant seeds according to the phases of the moon, for example, farmers on Guam often plant tuber crops such as sweet potatoes and yams at full moon during low tide. According to early Chamorro legend, the world was created by a brother and sister, Puntan. Upon dying, Puntan instructed his sister to make his body the ingredients for the universe and she used his eyes to create the sun and moon, his eyebrows to make rainbows, and most of the rest of his parts for various features of the Earth. After she had done, she turned herself into a rock on the island of Guahan/Guam, some believe that the rock was once located at the site of an Agat Church, while others believe it is the phallic-shaped Laso de Fua located in Fouha Bay in Umatac. Ancient Chamorus engaged in ancestor veneration, but did not practice religion in the sense that they worshipped deities, however, there is at least one account, provided by Christoph Carl Fernberger in 1623, that human sacrifice was practiced to curry the favor of a great fish. This claim may be related to a Chamoru legend about why the island of Guam is narrow in the middle, according to the legend, a massive fish was gradually eating away at the island from both sides. Although the ancient Chamoru supposedly had magical abilities, the huge creature eluded them, when the men were unsuccessful in hunting it down, the women used their hair to weave a net, which grew larger as they sang. The singing enchanted the fish, and lured it into the giant net, Chamorro society was divided into two main castes and continued to be so for well over a century after the Spanish first arrived. The Chamori caste was subdivided into the upper-middle class Achoti/Achaot and the highest, Achoti could graduate to Matua, and Matua could be reduced to Achoti, but Manachang were born and died as such and had no recourse to improve their status. Members of the Manachang and the Chamori were not permitted to intermingle, all three classes performed physical labor, but had different specified dutiesChamorro people – Chamorro people (1915)
140. Spanish colonial real – The silver real was the currency of the Spanish colonies in America and the Philippines. In the seventeenth century the real was established at two billon reals or sixty-eight maravedís. A reform in 1737 set the real at two and half billon reals or eighty-five maravedís. This coin, called the real de plata fuerte, became the new standard, the gold escudo was worth 16 reales de plata fuerte. Coins were produced at mints in Bogotá, Caracas, Guatemala City, Lima, Mexico City, Popayán, Potosí, from 1572 to 1773 Spanish colonial silver coins were cobs. Initially cut from a bar and hammer struck on a coin die, they were accurate in weight. However unlike machined coins, they were irregular in shape. After 1732 similar, but better shaped cobs were produced on screw presses, cob denominations were 1/2,1,2,4, and 8 reales. When circulating in New England the larger coins might be cut to give intermediate values, since a real was nicknamed a bit, unlike in Spain, the copper coins were generally not struck by the colonial mints. Most issued silver coins in denominations of ¼, ½,1,2,4 and 8 reales, currency of Spanish America Peso Spanish dollar Spanish escudo Spanish real ViceroyaltySpanish colonial real – Obverse of a 1799 Real
141. Triangular trade – Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. Triangular trade usually evolves when a region has export commodities that are not required in the region from which its major imports come, Triangular trade thus provides a method for rectifying trade imbalances between the above regions. Historically the particular routes were also shaped by the influence of winds. Returning from North America, it is easiest to follow the Gulf Stream in a northeasterly direction using the westerlies. A similar triangle to this, called the volta do mar was already being used by the Portuguese, before Christopher Columbus voyage, to sail to the Canary Islands and the Azores. Columbus simply expanded the triangle outwards, and his became the main way for Europeans to reach, and return from. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing cash crops. European goods, in turn, were used to purchase African slaves, who were brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas. A classic example is the colonial molasses trade, sugar from the Caribbean was traded to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were used to manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa. The slaves were brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were used to buy more sugar. The trip itself took five to twelve weeks, the first leg of the triangle was from a European port to Africa, in which ships carried supplies for sale and trade, such as copper, cloth, trinkets, slave beads, guns and ammunition. When the ship arrived, its cargo would be sold or bartered for slaves, on the second leg, ships made the journey of the Middle Passage from Africa to the New World. Many slaves died of disease in the holds of the slave ships. Once the ship reached the New World, enslaved survivors were sold in the Caribbean or the American colonies, the ship then returned to Europe to complete the triangle. Instead, the crops were transported mainly by a separate fleet which only sailed from Europe to the Americas. The Triangular trade is a model, not an exact description of the ships routeTriangular trade – Depiction of the Triangular Trade of slaves, sugar, and rum with New England instead of Europe as the third corner
142. Criollo people – Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the populations, Amerindians, enslaved Africans. According to the Casta system, a criollo could have up to 1/8 Amerindian ancestry without losing social place, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, changes in the Spanish Empires policies towards its colonies led to tensions between Criollos and Peninsulares. Criollos were the supporters of the Spanish American wars of independence. The word criollo and its Portuguese cognate crioulo are believed to come from the Spanish/Portuguese verb criar, in Spanish colonies, an español criollo was an ethnic Spaniard who had been born in the colonies, as opposed to an español peninsular born in Spain. Whites in colonial Brazil, born in the Iberian Peninsula, were known as mazombos, limpieza de sangre or cleanness of blood was a legal concept in use since the Spanish Reconquista, and introduced to the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The English word creole was a loan from French créole, which in turn is believed to come from Spanish criollo or Portuguese crioulo, such cases might include the offspring of a Castizo parent and one Peninsular or Criollo parent. This one-eighth rule, also in theory, did not apply to African admixture, in reality, officials assigned various racial categories to mix-raced people depending on their social status, what they were told or due to testimony from friends and neighbors. To preserve the Spanish Crowns power in the colonies, the Spanish colonial society was based on a caste system. The highest-ranking castes were the españoles, Spaniards by birth or descent, people of mixed ancestry were classified in other castes — such as castizos, mestizos, cholos, mulatos, indios, zambos, and enslaved Africans, called blacks. Poole argues that the Virgin Mary, especially as Our Lady of Guadalupe and they used the story to legitimize their own social position and infuse it with an almost messianic sense of mission and identity. Until 1760, the Spanish colonies were ruled under laws designed by the Spanish Habsburgs and that situation changed by the Bourbon Reforms during the reign of Charles III. Spain needed to extract increasing wealth from its colonies to support the European, the Crown expanded the privileges of the Peninsulares, who took over many administrative offices which had been filled by Criollos. At the same time, reforms by the Catholic Church reduced the roles and privileges of the ranks of the clergy. By the 19th century, this policy of the Spanish Crown. With increasing support of the castes, they engaged Spain in a fight for independence. The former Spanish Empire in the Americas separated into a number of independent republics, the word criollo retains its original meaning in most Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas. In some countries, however, the word criollo has over time come to have additional meanings, for instance, comida criolla in Spanish-speaking countries refers to local cuisine, not cuisine of the criollosCriollo people – Clockwise from top left: Agustín de Iturbide
143. Mulatto – Mulatto is a term used to refer to persons born of one white parent and one black parent or to persons born of a mulatto parent or parents. In English, the term is generally confined to historical contexts. English speakers of mixed white and black ancestry seldom choose to identify themselves as mulatto. Some residents of Latin America, Spain America, the Caribbean, in Latin America, most mulattoes have descended from multi-ethnic relationships dating to the slavery period, rather than from recent ethnic mixing. This is especially true in Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Cape Verde, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. The etymology of the term is believed to derive from the Spanish and Portuguese mulato, which comes from mula, meaning mule, the hybrid offspring of a horse. Some dictionaries and scholarly works trace the origins to the Arabic term muwallad. Muwallad literally means born, begotten, produced, generated, brought up, with the implication of being born and raised among Arabs, Muwallad is derived from the root word WaLaD, and colloquial Arabic pronunciation can vary greatly. Walad means, descendant, offspring, scion, child, son, boy, young animal, in al-Andalus, Muwallad referred to the offspring of non-Arab/Muslim people who adopted the Islamic religion and manners. Notable examples of this include the famous Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm. Thus, in context, the term Muwalad has a meaning close to the adopted. According to the source, the term does not denote being of mixed-race but rather being of foreign-blood. In English, printed usage of mulatto dates to at least the 16th century and this earliest usage regarded black and white as discrete species, with the mulatto constituting a third separate species. According to Julio Izquierdo Labrado, the 19th-century linguist Leopoldo Eguilaz y Yanguas, as well as some Arabic sources muwallad is the origin of mulato. The Real Academia Española casts doubt on the muwallad theory, Scholars such as Werner Sollors cast doubt on the mule etymology for mulatto. In the 18th and 19th centuries, racialists such as Edward Long and they projected this belief back onto the etymology of the word mulatto. Sollers points out that this etymology is anachronistic, The Mulatto sterility hypothesis that has much to do with the rejection of the term by some writers is only half as old as the word Mulatto. Of São Tomé and Príncipes 193,413 inhabitants, the largest segment is classified as mestiço. or mixed race, 71% of the population of Cape Verde is also classified as suchMulatto – Juan de Pareja by Diego Velázquez, 1650
144. Black people – As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals, communities and countries, black is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, different societies apply differing criteria regarding who is classified as black, and these social constructs have also changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, in the United Kingdom, black was historically equivalent with person of color, a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as black. In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term black or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds. The Romans interacted with and later conquered parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard and he claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother who was a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman, in response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, I am not white but I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish, due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men. They used more black female slaves in domestic service and agriculture than males, the men interpreted the Quran to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab masters child, she was considered as umm walad or mother of a child, the child was given rights of inheritance to the fathers property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father. Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers social status at birth and were born free, some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608. He was not technically considered as a child of a slave, his mother was Fulani. Such tolerance for black persons, even when technically free, was not so common in Morocco, the long association of sub-Saharan peoples as slaves is shown in the term abd, it is still frequently used in the Arabic-speaking world as a term for black people. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were widely referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudans non-Arab citizens. The government was accused of deftly manipulat Arab solidarity to carry out policies of apartheid, American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. The Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid, many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheidBlack people – Soldiers of the Free Arabian Legion in Greece, September 1943
145. La Malinche – She was one of 20 women slaves given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519. Later, she became a mistress to Cortés and gave birth to his first son, Martín, the historical figure of Marina has been intermixed with Aztec legends. In Mexico today, La Malinche remains iconically potent and she is understood in various and often conflicting aspects as the embodiment of treachery, the quintessential victim, or simply as symbolic mother of the new Mexican people. The term malinchista refers to a disloyal countryperson, especially in Mexico, La Malinche was born sometime between 1496 and 1501, in the region between the Aztec-ruled Valley of Mexico and the Maya states of the Yucatán Peninsula. She was named Malinalli after the Goddess of Grass, and later Tenepal meaning one who speaks with liveliness, in her youth, her father Cacique of Paynala died, and her mother remarried another Cacique and bore a son. Now a stepchild, the girl was given to people from Xicalango. Bernal Díaz del Castillo claims Malinallis family faked her death by telling the townspeople that a deceased child of a slave was Malinalli. The Xicalango gave the child to the Tobascans, Malinalli was introduced to the Spanish in April 1519, when she was among 20 slave women given by the Chontal Maya of Potonchán after the Spaniards defeated them in battle. At this time, she was probably in her teens or early 20s. Bernal Díaz del Castillo remarked on her beauty and graciousness, she was the one of the slaves whose name he remembered. Cortés singled her out as a gift for Alonso Hernandez Puertocarrero, according to Díaz, she spoke to emissaries from Moctezuma in their native tongue Nahuatl and pointed to Cortés as the chief Spaniard to speak for them. Cortés had located a Spanish priest, Gerónimo de Aguilar, who had spent several years in captivity among the Maya peoples in Yucatán following a shipwreck, thus, he had learned some Mayan, but he did not speak Nahuatl. Cortés used Marina for translating between the Nahuatl language and the Chontal Maya language, then Aguilar could interpret from Mayan to Spanish until Marina learned Spanish and could be the sole interpreter. She accompanied Cortés so closely that Aztec codices always show her picture drawn alongside of Cortés, the natives of Tlaxcala, who formed an alliance with Cortés against Moctezuma, called both Marina and Cortés by the same name, Malintzin. According to surviving records, Marina learned of a plan by natives of Cholula to cooperate with the Aztecs to destroy the small Spanish army and she alerted Cortés to the danger and even pretended to be cooperating with her native informants while Cortés foiled their plot to trap his men. Cortés turned the tables on them and slaughtered many Cholulans, in this manner, she is often considered as a traitor by many and her name is not revered among many locals. Historians such as Prescott generally lost track of Marina after her journey to Central America, some contemporary scholars have estimated that she died less than a decade after the conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlan at some point in 1529. Historian Sir Hugh Thomas in his book Conquest reports the date of her death as 1551, deduced from letters he discovered in Spain alluding to her as alive in 1550La Malinche – Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan, November 8, 1519. Facsimile (c. 1890) of Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
146. Limahong – Lim Hong, well known as Ah Hong or Lim-A-Hong, was a Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574. He built up a reputation for his constant raids to ports in Guangdong, Fujian and he is noted to have twice attempted, and failed, to overthrow the Spanish city of Manila in 1574. Born to a family in the city Raoping of Chaozhou, Limahong had an early start in criminal activity and progressed to piracy. His activities and attacks on ports and ships throughout southern China increased and he shifted his activities to piracy on the high seas and out of reach of Chinas power. He was able to accumulate up to 40 ships, whereupon he again raided cities. Limahong attacked a city occupied by Vintoquián, another Chinese pirate, however, Limahong was able to capture 55 of Vintoquiáns fleet and thus increased his own to 95 ships. He was now a king of the high seas of southern China. In late 1573, he gathered an army of 3,000 Chinese warriors, renegades and vagabonds, there, he and his band of outlaws sought refuge, established their own kingdom and waged war with the Spaniards. By this time, a force of 40,000 soldiers and 135 ships was sent by the Ming emperor to kill, Limahong and his troops first arrived in Ilocos Sur in early 1574 where they quarreled with the Spanish commander, Juan de Salcedo. After a brief struggle with the Spanish army, his troops were away from the city. The pirates then chanced upon merchant ships from Manila doing trade with the Chinese, folk accounts have it that the inhabitants were at first disorganized, until a man from a barrio, by the name of Galo, came forward and took command. Under his able leadership, and with the arrival of Spanish forces led by Captain Juan de Salcedo from Ilocos, Limahong was repulsed, the stiff resistance of the barrio residents shocked the Chinese pirate, who thought that capturing Manila would be easy. The battle became known as the Red Sea Incident, the Parañaqueños not only saved their town, but they contributed decisively to Limahongs abandoning his plans to conquer the area. In appreciation for Galos leadership and heroic deeds, the Spanish authorities granted him the title of Don, the barrio later on was named after him. Foiled at Manila to establish a kingdom of his own, Limahong set sail for the Lingayen Gulf, as a rich place and far enough from the reach of the Spaniards and the Chinese emperor, Limahong resolved to stay here and to make himself master of the region. Near the mouth of the Agno River about four miles from the sea he built a fort consisting of a palisade of palm logs. He also built pagodas and dwelling places preparatory for permanent settlement, Limahong announced to the people that he had conquered the Spaniards and that he had come to rule over them as their king. They were commanded to pay tributes to him, thereupon, great terror and fright filled all the neighboring villages, and all of them, with no exception, received Limahong as king, and they obeyed him and paid him tributesLimahong – Anne Bonny