1. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
2. Spanish colonial empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire originated after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish -- American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies to the United States. Its African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits. The treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 in the papal bull Æterni regis. Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.Spanish colonial empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
3. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 4.8 % of its total surface. North America is the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, Europe. North America was reached by its first human populations via crossing the Bering land bridge. The Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. The Americas are usually accepted as having been named by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam. For Waldseemüller, no one should object after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa".North America – Map of North America, from 1621.
4. Mexico City – Mexico City, officially City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an "alpha" global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas. It is located at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities. The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The city was responsible for generating the metropolitan area accounted for about 22 % of total national GDP. Mexico's capital is both one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, as of 1585 it was officially known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City served as the political, financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. No run-Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325. Between 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of the Pacific Ocean. Cortés put Moctezuma under arrest, hoping to rule through him.Mexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
5. Tenochtitlan – Mexico-Tenochtitlan, commonly known as Tenochtitlan was a Mexica located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. At its peak it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in Mexico City's downtown. Tenochtitlan was one of two Nahua altepetl on the island, the other being Tlatelolco. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is often thought to mean, "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggest the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain. Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2, situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. At the time of Spanish conquests, Mexico City comprised both Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco. The city was connected to the mainland by causeways leading to the north, south, west. The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city. The city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes. Since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish.Tenochtitlan – Model of the temple district of Tenochtitlan at the National Museum of Anthropology
6. Aztec Empire – The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, began as an alliance of three Nahua "altepetl" city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Mexico-Texcoco, Mexico-Tlacopan. The Triple Alliance was formed from the victorious faction in a civil war fought between the city of its former tributary provinces. Despite the initial conception of the empire as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Tenochtitlan quickly became dominant militarily. The alliance expanded rapidly after its formation. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as "hegemonic" or "indirect". In return, the imperial authority facilitated an integrated economic network of diverse lands and peoples who had significant local autonomy. The religion of the empire was polytheistic, worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities. Many had officially recognized cults large so that the deity was represented in the central temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan. The imperial cult, specifically, was that of the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica Aztecs. The word "Aztec" in modern usage would not have been used by the people themselves. The name comes from a Nahuatl word meaning "people from Aztlan," reflecting the mythical place of origin for Nahua peoples. For the purpose of this article, "Aztec" refers only to those cities that were subject to the Triple Alliance. For the broader use of the term, see the article on Aztec civilization. Nahua peoples descended from Chichimec peoples who migrated from the north in the early 13th century. According to the pictographic codices in which the Aztecs recorded their history, the place of origin was called Aztlán.Aztec Empire – Jaguar Warrior, from the Codex Magliabechiano.
7. Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire – The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before. In fact, Cortés had never commanded men in battle before. However, there was a whole generation of Spaniards who participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices. In their advance, the allies were tricked and ambushed several times by the people they encountered. When Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge. The biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre. The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city. His men fled the city in June, 1520. The Spanish, Tlaxcalans and reinforcements returned a year later on August 13, 1521 to a civilization, wiped out by famine and smallpox. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs. Indigenous accounts are from particular native viewpoints and as the events had a direct impact on their polity. All accounts of the conquest, Spanish and indigenous alike, have biases and exaggerations. In general, Spanish accounts do not credit their indigenous allies' support.Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire – Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas. Spanish: Conquista de México por Cortés
8. Central America – Central America is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The combined population of Central America is between 42,688,190. Central America is a part of the Mesoamerican hotspot, which extends from northern Guatemala through to central Panama. Due to the presence of the Central America Volcanic Arc, there is a great deal of seismic activity in the region. Volcanic earthquakes occur frequently; these natural disasters have resulted in the loss of many lives and much property. Soon after Christopher Columbus's voyages to the Americas, the Spanish began to colonize the Americas. The seven states finally became autonomous nations, beginning with Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, followed by El Salvador, then Panama. In Brazil, Central America comprises all countries including those in the Caribbean. Mexico, in part, is sometimes included by British people. According to one source, the term "Central America" was used as a synonym for "Middle America" recently as 1962. In the Pre-Columbian era, the northern areas of Central America were inhabited by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica. Most notable among these were the Mayans, who had built numerous cities throughout the region, the Aztecs, who had created a vast empire. Following Christopher Columbus's voyages to the Americas, they began their conquest of Maya territory in 1523.Central America – Central America, 1798
9. Panama – Panama, officially called the Republic of Panama, is a country usually considered to be entirely in North America or Central America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the south. Largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.9 million people. Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes by the Spanish in the 16th century. Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. Tourism are major and growing sectors. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in terms of the Human Development Index. Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. There are several theories about the origin of the name "Panama". Some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of tree. Others believe that the name means "many butterflies" in an indigenous language. The best-known version is that its nearby beach bore the name "Panamá", which meant "an abundance of fish". Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515, stopped in the indigenous fishing town. In 1517 a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there.Panama – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
10. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
11. Mississippi River – The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks by discharge. The river either passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along its tributaries. Some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers, then settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers. The word itself comes for the river, Misi-ziibi. See below in section for additional information. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the main branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch. The source of this waterway is along the Continental Divide outside Yellowstone National Park. This is exemplified in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. The New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is also noteworthy. These various geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway and its adjacent lands.Mississippi River – Mississippi River near Fire Point in Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa
12. Spanish Florida – La Florida formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Spanish Empire during Spanish colonization of the Americas. Spain's claim to this vast area was based on wide-ranging expeditions mounted during the 16th century. However, Spain never exercised real control over La Florida much beyond several forts which were predominantly located in present-day Florida. Spanish Florida was established in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León claimed peninsular Florida for Spain during the first European expedition to North America. Spanish control of the Florida peninsula was helped made possible by the collapse of native cultures during the 17th century. Most resisted Spanish incursions onto their land. They were later joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies. These newcomers - plus perhaps a few surviving descendents of indigenous Florida peoples - eventually coalesced into a new Seminole culture. The wide expanses of Spanish Florida gradually shrunk beginning in the 1600s. The War of Jenkins' Ear included a British attack on a Spanish invasion of Georgia, both of which were repulsed. At the conclusion of the war, the northern boundary of Spanish Florida was set near the northern border of modern day Florida. France sold Louisiana in 1803. The U.S. claimed that the transaction included West Florida, while Spain was still Spanish territory. Anonymous Portuguese sailors were likely the first Europeans to map the southeastern portion of the future United States. However, they did not attempt to establish settlements or explore very far inland.Spanish Florida – Florida from the 1502 Cantino planisphere
13. Spanish West Indies – The Spanish West Indies was the former name of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean. It became a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain when the viceroyalty was created in 1535. The islands later became the Spanish West Indies were the focus of the voyages of Christopher Columbus in America. The Spanish West Indies were also the most enduring part of Spain's American Empire, only being surrendered at the end of the Spanish -- American War. Some smaller islands were ceded as a result of war, or diplomatic agreements during the 17th and 18th centuries. Others such as Dominican Republic gained their independence in the 19th century. The Bay Islands were ceded to England in 1643 and then to Honduras in 1861. Colony of Santiago -- Jamaica was lost in 1655, confirmed in the Treaty of Madrid. The Cayman Islands were lost in the Treaty of Madrid. Haiti was lost to France in 1697. Trinidad was lost during the Invasion of Trinidad, confirmed in the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Captaincy General of Cuba was lost to the United States after the Spanish -- American War concluded by the Treaty of Paris. Captaincy General of Puerto Rico was lost to the United States after the Spanish -- American War concluded by the Treaty of Paris. Hispanophone Caribbean, refers to the Spanish-speaking areas in the Caribbean Sea, namely Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico. The term is used to Anglophone Caribbean and French Caribbean, two other cultural areas which refer to colonial heritage and language.Spanish West Indies – Flag
14. Spanish East Indies – The Spanish East Indies were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899. They comprised the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, briefly also included Spanish Formosa and parts of the Spice Islands. Cebu was the first seat of government, later transferred to Manila. With the Spanish West Indies were administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City. The King of Spain traditionally styled himself "King of the East and West Indies". After Mexican independence, they were ruled directly from Madrid. Administrative affairs of the Spanish East Indies were handled by the Real Audiencia of Manila. The few remaining islands were ceded to the United States in 1900. Spanish contact began on 6 March 1521, when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan reached the Mariana Islands. He named Guam "Isla de los Ladrones" because the natives took many of its supplies. The expedition later reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines on 16 March, with only 150 crewmen. There they were able to communicate with the indigenous peoples because Enrique of Malacca, could understand their language. The expedition baptized Rajah Humabon and the natives there through Magellan's chaplain, Pedro Valderrama. In 1571, the city of Manila was made the seat of the Spanish Captaincy General of the Philippines. Other Asian territories claimed by the Spanish crown were to be governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City.Spanish East Indies – Map of the Spanish East Indies (1857)
15. Las Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish: Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been understandable confusion about use of the plural The Californias by colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its character was ascertained, it was called simply California; but the territory so designated was unlimited in extent. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived, but with a more definite signification than before. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was in 1683. The mission became the nucleus of the province. The Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, Franciscans were brought in to take over. Gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The Nueva unexplored areas to the north. The single province was divided into Alta California province and Baja California province. Expansion came through colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, the Franciscan missionaries and others. Independent Mexico demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. The split of the two Californias was restored.Las Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
16. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The capital is Sacramento. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, largest after New York City. The state also has the nation's most populous county, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. A major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. The Spanish Empire then claimed it in their New Spain colony. The western portion of Alta California then was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. If it were a country, California would be the 35th most populous. Fifty-eight percent of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the state's economy, California's industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land rich in gold. They were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. This conventional wisdom that maps were drawn to reflect this way, lasted as late as the 1700's. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
17. Nevada – Nevada is a state in the Western, Mountain West, Southwestern regions of the United States of America. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 9th least densely populated of the 50 United States. Nevada's capital is Carson City. Nevada is officially known to its history and economy. Nevada borders Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Utah to the east. Nevada is largely much of it located within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are located within the Mojave Desert, while the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86 % of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U.S. federal government, both military. Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute, Shoshone, Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish. They called Nevada because of the snow which covered the mountains in winter. The area became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821. It was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. Nevada became the 36th state on October 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws.Nevada – The quartzite of the Prospect Mountain Formation on top of Jeff Davis Peak in Great Basin National Park
18. Coahuila – The state is located in Northeastern Mexico on the US border. Coahuila borders Durango and Chihuahua to the west. With an area of 151,563 square kilometres, it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities. In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants. The Spanish explored some decades after their victory in "Tenochtiitlán" the capital of the Aztecs. There was no gold. The Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo was settled in 1586, to form part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya of the Vice-royalty of New Spain. Later it became one of the first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835. In 1840 Coahuila briefly became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande. It regained its separate status in 1868. During the Mexican Revolution, Francisco Villa attacked the city of Torreón. On April 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded.Coahuila – Flora and fauna of Coahuila
19. Texas – Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S. and El Paso. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal. The origin of Texas, is from the word, "Tejas", which means ` friends' in the Caddo language. Due to geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the U.S. southern and southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas' area is desert. Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, the coastline. The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. After the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle.Texas – Sam Rayburn Reservoir
20. New Mexico – New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States. Inhabited before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U.S. territory and eventually a U.S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. The American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, Apache peoples. The culture of the state are expressed in the state flag. Its gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes. Formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was Federal Republic of Mexico for 1821 through 1848. New Mexico and Mexico developed with relatively independent histories. The state's total area is 121,412 square miles.New Mexico – Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
21. Louisiana (New Spain) – Spain acquired the territory from France, who had named La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682. It is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso and the Treaty of Aranjuez. In 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 15 October, outlining the conditions. However, Spain agreed to continue administering the colony until French officials formalized the transfer. During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American revolutionists beyond. In keeping with being absentee landlords, Spanish efforts to turn Louisiana into a Spanish colony were usually fruitless. For instance, while Spanish officially was the only language of government, the majority of the populace firmly continued to speak French. Even official business conducted into French requiring a translator on hand. When Alejandro O'Reilly re-established Spanish rule in 1769, he issued a decree on December 1769, which banned the trade of Native American slaves. A group of maroons led by Jean Saint Malo resisted re-enslavement in the swamps east of New Orleans between 1780 and 1784. On May 1795, 57 slaves and three local white men were put on trial in Point Coupee. Spanish colonial officials divided Luisiana at 36 ° 35' North, at about the latitude of New Madrid. In 1764, French trading interests founded St. Louis in the what was known as the Illinois Country. The Spanish governed the region from St. Louis as the "District of Illinois".Louisiana (New Spain)
22. New Spain – New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. Following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty in 1535. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City. The areas of southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, economic organization. Mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making its Asian empire. Although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every position, economic political, or religious came from him. It was on this basis that the conquest, government of the New World was achieved. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in the Kingdom of New Spain. It was one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas ` Septentrion', to the Philippine, Mariana and Caroline Islands. To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were from what they had encountered in the Caribbean.New Spain – "Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North" (1540) by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
23. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire originated after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish -- American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies to the United States. Its African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits. The treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 in the papal bull Æterni regis. Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.Spanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
24. Hispanic America – Hispanic America, more generally called Spanish America, is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas. These countries have significant commonalities with Spain, its former European metropolis. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages, or English. Catholic Christianity is the predominant religion. Hispanic America became the main part of the Spanish Empire. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish Asian territories were Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish -- American War. While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Spanish America, its people, shared cultural legacy. It was created by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted during the Pan-American Conference of the same year in Montevideo, Uruguay. The lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the coat of arms of the medieval Crown of Castile.Hispanic America – Asunción
25. Peninsular War – The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas. The British Army under the then Lieutenant General Arthur Wellesley, campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. In the following year, Wellington scored a decisive victory at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a heavy burden on France's Grande Armée. They would regroup and relentlessly hound the French. This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had unwittingly provoked a total war, to call the "Spanish Ulcer". Revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, later a cornerstone of European liberalism. Devastating civil wars between absolutist factions led by officers trained in the Peninsular War persisted in Iberia until 1850. Negotiated during a meeting between Emperors Napoleon and Alexander in July 1807, the Treaties of Tilsit concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered and Russia allied with France, Napoleon had expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom. Furthermore, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I had declined to join the emperor's Continental System against British trade. Events moved rapidly. After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne. Meanwhile, shortly afterward, Napoleon was once again told that the government would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junot's corps to cross the Spanish frontier.Peninsular War – The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes by Francisco de Goya, 1814
26. Napoleonic Wars – The wars revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription. The wars were a continuation of the Revolutionary Wars, which broke out in 1792 during the French Revolution. Initially, French power rose quickly as the armies of Napoleon conquered much of Europe. In his military career, Napoleon fought about 60 battles and lost seven, mostly at the end of his reign. The great French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. During the successive conflicts, also known as the Coalition Wars, France defeated five consecutive coalitions arrayed against it, before suffering defeat against the sixth and seventh. These victories gave Napoleon's Grande Armée a sense of invulnerability, especially when it approached Moscow and occupied it after the Russians abandoned it. Following Napoleon's final defeat, the Allies then reversed all French gains outside its 1789 borders at the Congress of Vienna. Scholars disagree about when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. The Treaty of Paris ended the wars on 20 November 1815. French measures, including total war, contributed despite the civil war occurring in France. The war ended when General Napoleon Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio. Only Great Britain remained opposed to the French Republic. During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and internal division under the Directory. Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the First Coalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt.Napoleonic Wars – Top: Battle of Austerlitz Bottom: Battle of Waterloo
27. Quito – It is located on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes mountains. With a population of 2,671,191 according to the last census, Quito is the second most populous city in Ecuador, after Guayaquil. It is also the seat of the Metropolitan District of Quito. The canton recorded a population of 2,239,191 residents in the 2010 national census. In 2008, the city was designated as the headquarters of the Union of South American Nations. The historic center of Quito has one of least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. Poland, were the first World Cultural Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO, in 1978. The central square of Quito is located about 25 kilometres south of the equator; the city itself extends within about 1 kilometre of zero latitude. Quito's origins eventually formed a commercial center. For more than four centuries, Quito was ruled under the kings. After several decades of consolidation, the Kingdom of Quito became integrated into the Incan Empire. In 1534, the Caras/Quitu people were conquered by the Spanish. Rumiñahui was then executed on January 1535. Its administration on both Viceroyalties remained to Quito. As with other places colonized by the Spanish, the colonizers promptly established Roman Catholicism in Quito.Quito – Quito
28. Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people – The Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, which challenged the legitimacy of the colonial authorities, was the principle underlying the Spanish American Independence processes. In 1808, the Spanish King Ferdinand VII had been imprisoned by the Napoleonic Empire and subsequently replaced by Joseph Bonaparte. The Seven-Part Code recognized the right of "good and honest" persons to form Juntas in absence of the king. In Spain, resistant governing juntas were formed, claiming sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate King. But the Seven-Part Code implied that the territory was still under the sovereignty of the King and that the Juntas were only a temporary fix. Only the king could rule over them, either directly or through viceroys appointed by himself. This principle already existed, justified the fact that Spain and Spanish America had different laws. Scholars of the Laws of the Indies had argued that they were two different realms, united under one same crown. The principle was employed in South America such as the Chuquisaca Revolution or the May Revolution. The American new entities also adopted the principle of consentimiento. This meant that they felt free to reject any decision they had been taken without their consent. Open cabildo School of Salamanca Francisco SuárezRetroversion of the sovereignty to the people – The open cabildo will become in Juntas in Spanish America.
29. Argentina – Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest human presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the 20th century. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. It is the country of "very high". Of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, Argentina is classified as a high-income economy. The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.Argentina – The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with indigenous artwork dating from 13,000–9,000 years ago
30. Chile – It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, islands. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. Chile is today one of South America's most prosperous nations. It leads American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally of the state and democratic development. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile. Ultimately, Almagro is credited after naming the Mapocho valley as such.Chile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
31. Ferdinand VII – Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known as the "Felon King". He rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low. Historian Stanley Payne says: He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Maria Luisa of Parma. Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents. Following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand turned to Napoleon for support. He abdicated on 6 May 1808.Ferdinand VII – Portrait by Vicente López y Portaña
32. Cuba – Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, north of Jamaica. Havana is capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants. Prior to Spanish colonization in the 15th century, Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes. It remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish -- American War of 1898, which led to nominal independence in 1902. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America. Cuba is a Marxist–Leninist one-party republic, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government including arbitrary imprisonment and torture. Its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba is ranked the eighth highest in North America. It also ranks highly in some metrics including health care and education. The name Cuba comes from the Taíno language.Cuba – Hatuey, an early Taíno chief of Cuba.
33. Puerto Rico – It is an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra, Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The island's population is approximately 3.4 million. Four centuries of colonial government transformed the island's ethnic, physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, Canarian, Andalusian settlers. In the imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played when compared to wealthier colonies like Perú and Mexico. Following the Spanish -- American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States. However, Congress approved a local constitution, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. The initiative has not resulted in Puerto Rico's admission as a state. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen -- a derivation of its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". The terms borincano are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. The island's name was briefly changed after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
34. Spain under the Restoration – This was achieved by electoral fraud. Opposition to the system Carlists. The pronunciamiento by Martinez Campos established Alfonso XII as king, marking the end of the First Spanish Republic. After this, the Constitution of 1876 was enforced during the whole restoration. This constitution established Spain with a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper house, a lower house. These years were marked by economic prosperity. During these years the modernization of the country took place on a large scale. On most fronts production supported by extreme protectionist measures. In 1898, Spain lost its last overseas colonies in the Spanish -- American War. This was the start of the system's decline, giving energy to all manner of conflicting opposition movements at a national level. The government sent the army to crush the revolt, causing over a hundred deaths and the execution of Francisco Ferrer. The problems in Morocco worsened as an army of natives attacked the Spanish army. Alfonso XIII named him Prime Minister. Primo de Rivera proceeded to assume absolute powers as a dictator. He created the Unión Patriótica Española, meant to be the legal party, abolishing all other parties.Spain under the Restoration – Portrait of Alfonso XII.
35. Wars of national liberation – Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nationalities to gain independence. The term is used with wars against foreign powers to establish separate sovereign states for the rebelling nationality. From a different point of view, these wars are called insurgencies, wars of independence. Asymmetric warfare is often utilized by groups labeled as national liberation movements, often with support from other states. The term "wars of national liberation" is most commonly used for those fought during the movement. However, this did not always guarantee Soviet influence in those countries. In January 1961 Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev pledged support throughout the world. International law generally holds that a people with a legal right to self-determination are entitled to wage wars of national liberation. While Western states tend to view these wars as civil wars, communist states tend to view them as international wars. This difference in classification leads to varying perceptions of which laws of war apply in such situations. However, there is general agreement among all states today in principle that the use of force to frustrate a people's legal right to self-determination is unlawful. Wars of national liberation are usually fought using warfare. The main purpose of these tactics is to increase the cost of the anti-guerrilla forces past the point where such forces are willing to bear. Wars of national liberation generally depend a large amounts of public support, with ordinary civilians providing crucial support. Finally, wars of national liberation are often proxy wars.Wars of national liberation – Flag of Mozambique; independent from Portugal since 1975, after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon, with the Kalashnikov as symbol of the armed struggle against the Portuguese empire, the book as symbol of instruction and a farming implement as symbol of economic growth.
36. Brazil – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km. It covers 47.3 % of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection. Brazil was inhabited by tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic following a military coup d'état. An military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. Brazil's economy is the world's ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015.Brazil – Megaliths in the Solstice Archaeological Park, in Amapá, erected between 500 and 2000 years ago, probably to carry out astronomical observations.
37. Brazilian Independence – It is celebrated on September 7, the anniversary of the September 1822 date regent Prince Dom Pedro declared Brazil's independence from Portugal. Formal recognition came with a treaty signed in late 1825. The land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered Indigenous nations divided into several tribes, most of whom shared and disputed the territory. Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was effectively started in 1534, when King John III divided the territory into fifteen hereditary captaincies. This arrangement in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes while others slowly disappeared by European diseases to which they had no immunity. By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export due to the increasing international demand for sugar. To profit by 1700, over 963,000 African slaves had been brought across the Atlantic to work in Brazil. More Africans were brought to Brazil up until that date than to all the other places in the Americas combined. They conquered English and Dutch strongholds, founding villages and forts from 1669. In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento in the Banda Oriental region. From all over Brazil, well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines. In 1820 the Constitutionalist Revolution erupted in Portugal. The movement initiated by the liberal constitutionalists resulted in the meeting of the Cortes, that would have to create the kingdom's first constitution.Brazilian Independence – " Independence or Death! " Declaration of Brazil's independence by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822. His Guard of Honor greets him in support while some discard blue and white armbands that represented loyalty to Portugal
38. Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil – The Braganza family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1. The regent of Portugal at the time, John VI, had formally governed the country on behalf of Maria I of Portugal since 1799. Anticipating the invasion of Napoleon's army, John VI ordered the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil before he could be deposed. On January 1808, John and his court arrived in Salvador, Brazil. There, Prince John signed "friendly nations" such as the United Kingdom. This new law, however, broke the colonial pact that had permitted Brazil to maintain commercial relations with Portugal only. Coutinho's secret negotiations paved the way for Prince John's law to come to fruition in 1808. On March 1808, the court arrived in Rio de Janeiro. Brazilian representatives were elected to the Portuguese Constitutional Courts. With the death of Queen Maria, Prince John became king of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. After several delays, the ceremony of his acclamation took place in 1818. In Rio de Janeiro, he also established a powder factory, a botanical garden, an opera house. All these measures advanced Brazil's independence from Portugal. The heir of John VI, Pedro I, remained in Brazil. The Portuguese Cortes demanded that Brazil return to Portugal.Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil – The Royal family, preparing to move to Brazil
39. Age of Enlightenment – The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between the year that Louis XIV died, 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution. Some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes of the period widely circulated their ideas at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses, through printed books and pamphlets. A variety including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment was closely associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza. The major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Immanuel Kant. Benjamin Franklin contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson closely later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence. Others like James Madison incorporated them in 1787. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie. The ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes' philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking.Age of Enlightenment – German philosopher Immanuel Kant
40. American Revolution – The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting in April 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were then held New York City for the duration of the war. They failed to defeat Washington's forces. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. The lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies. In 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes for the first time.American Revolution – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress
41. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
42. Kingdom of Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Kingdom of Spain – Lady of Elche
43. Spanish monarchy – The Monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as the Crown, is a constitutional institution and an historic office of Spain. It used to be also called the Hispanic Monarchy. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI, Infanta Sofia. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain. Constitutionally, the king is the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. According to the constitution, the monarch is also instrumental in promoting relations with the "nations of its historical community". The King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, purportedly representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008, Juan Carlos I was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America. A dynastic marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon united Spain in the 15th century. However, there is no evidence that any Spanish monarch has used the Byzantine imperial titles, which convert the king of Spain in legitimate Emperor of Rome. The Spanish Empire became one of the first global powers as Isabella and Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbus's exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. This led to the discovery of America, which became the focus of Spanish colonization. In 2010, the budget for the Spanish monarchy was 7.4 million euros, one of the lowest public expenditures for the institution of monarchy in Europe. One of the earliest influential dynasties was the House of Jiménez which united much of Christian Iberia under its leadership in the 11th century. The Jiménez rulers became patrons to Cluniac Reforms.Spanish monarchy – King of Spain
44. Spanish American Wars of Independence – These conflicts started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell in 1810, numerous new juntas appeared across the Spanish domains in the Americas. Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish -- American War in 1898. Mestizos replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political offices. Criollos remained at the top of a social structure which retained some of its traditional features culturally, if not legally. For almost a century thereafter, liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions. Both armies originated from colonial troops of Americas. The events in Spanish America were related in Haiti and Brazil. Several factors set the stage for wars of independence. First the Bourbon Reforms of the mid-eighteenth century introduced changes to the Crown. In some areas -- such as Cuba, New Spain -- the reforms had positive effects, improving the local economy and the efficiency of the government. Other factors included the examples of the Atlantic Revolutions. The Enlightenment spurred the desire for economic reform to spread throughout Spanish America and the Iberian Peninsula. Ideas about free physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment in Spain and spread to the overseas empire and a homegrown Spanish American Enlightenment. The Peninsular War was the trigger for the wars of independence.Spanish American Wars of Independence – The Battle of San Lorenzo in 1813
45. Japanese language – Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period, Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese. Late Middle Japanese saw changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, as well as the first appearance of European loanwords. The standard dialect moved in the Early Modern Japanese period. Following the end in 1853 of Japan's self-imposed isolation, the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly. English loanwords in particular have become frequent, Japanese words from English roots have proliferated. Japanese is an mora-timed language with simple phonotactics, a pure vowel system, a lexically significant pitch-accent. Structure is topic -- comment. Sentence-final particles are used to add emotional or emphatic impact, or make questions. Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, there are no articles. Verbs are conjugated, primarily for tense and voice, but not person. Japanese equivalents of adjectives are also conjugated. Japanese has a complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, persons mentioned.Japanese language – A page from Nihon Shoki (The Chronicles of Japan), the second oldest book of classical Japanese history.
46. Samurai – Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are usually referred to as buke. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean "those who serve to the nobility", the pronunciation in Japanese changing to saburai. The samurai were usually were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe in 663 AD, which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD. This edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, philosophy. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males was drafted into the national military. In-return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system. It is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor. Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to for many more centuries.Samurai – Samurai in armor, 1860s. Hand-coloured photograph by Felice Beato.
47. Date Masamune – Date Masamune was a regional strongman of Japan's Azuchi–Momoyama period through early Edo period. Heir to a long line of powerful daimyōs in the Tōhoku region, Masamune went on to found the modern-day city of Sendai. Date was often called dokuganryū, or the "one-eyed dragon". As a legendary leader, he is a character in a number of Japanese period dramas. Masamune was played by Ken Watanabe in the popular 1987 NHK series Masamune. Date Masamune was the eldest son of Date Terumune, born in Yonezawa Castle. At the age of 14 in 1581 he led his first campaign, helping his father fight the Sōma family. At the age of 17, he succeeded his father, Terumune, who chose to retire from his position as daimyō. Masamune's army was recognized by golden headgear. He is known for a few things that made him stand out from other daimyōs of the time. In particular, his crescent-moon-bearing helmet won him a fearsome reputation. As a child, smallpox robbed him in his right eye though it is unclear exactly how he lost the organ entirely. Various theories behind the eye's condition exist. Others say that he had his trusted retainer Katakura Kojūrō gouge out the eye for him. Local disputes remained commonplace.Date Masamune – Date Masamune 伊達政宗
48. Daimyo – The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, myō stands for myōden, meaning private land. Subordinate only to the Shogun, daimyōs were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the 19th century in Japan. From the shugo of the Muromachi period to the daimyōs of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history. The daimyō also sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans, also called "lord". A regent was chosen. The daimyō era ended soon with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871. The daimyō were the first group of men to hold the title daimyō. They arose during the Muromachi period. The shugo-daimyō held police powers, but also economic power within a province. They accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period. Major shugo-daimyō came from the Shiba, Hatakeyama, Hosokawa clans, well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ōuchi, Akamatsu. The greatest ruled multiple provinces. The Ashikaga shogunate required the shugo-daimyō to reside in Kyoto, so they called shugodai, to represent them in their home provinces. Eventually some of these in turn came appointing deputies in the provinces.Daimyo – Shimazu Nariakira: Daimyo of Satsuma Domain appears in this daguerreotype photograph by Ichiki Shirō.
49. Sendai – Sendai is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, the second largest city north of Tokyo. In 2010, the city was one of Japan's 20 designated cities. In the summer, the largest Tanabata festival in Japan, is held. In winter, the trees are decorated with thousands of lights for the Pageant of Starlight, lasting through most of December. On March 2011, coastal areas of the city suffered catastrophic damage from a magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake which triggered a destructive tsunami. Masamune was not happy with Iwadeyama. Iwadeyama was also difficult to access from Edo. Sendai was an ideal location, being in the centre of Masamune's newly defined territories, near the sea. Tokugawa Ieyasu gave Masamune permission to build a new castle in Aoba-yama, Sendai after the Battle of Sekigahara. The previous ruler of the Sendai area had used a castle located on Aobayama. At this time Sendai was written as 千代, because a temple with a thousand Buddha statues used to be located in Aobayama. Masamune changed the kanji to 仙臺, which later became 仙台. Tradition says that Masamune chose this kanji so that the castle would prosper long as a mountain inhabited by an immortal hermit. Masamune ordered the construction of the construction of the town of Sendai in 1601. The plan roads in present-day central Sendai are based upon his plans.Sendai – A parade of Sendai Aoba Matsuri held on Higashi-Ni-banchō-dōri avenue (the East 2nd avenue)
50. Holy See – The Holy See is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, an independent sovereign entity. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes. As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church. It is also recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic and spiritual independence of the Pope. Every see is considered holy. In Greek, the adjective "holy" or "sacred" is constantly applied to all such sees as a matter of course. The word "see" comes from the Latin word "sedes", meaning "seat", which refers to the Episcopal throne. The Pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia. The Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State, directs and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Archbishop Pietro Parolin, is the See's equivalent of a prime minister. Archbishop Paul Gallagher, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy See's minister of foreign affairs. Parolin was named in his role by Pope Francis On 31 August 2013. Mamberti was named in his role by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006.Holy See – The papal throne (cathedra), in the apse of Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, symbolises the Holy See.
51. Acapulco – Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history. It is a port of call for cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States. The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also balneario resort city. Acapulco still attracts many tourists, although most are now from Mexico itself. The name "Acapulco" comes from Nahuatl language means "where the reeds were destroyed or washed away". The "de Juárez" was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, the other on a hill known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the spread-out villages here to coalesce into larger entities and build ceremonial centers. Later, Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo. Then Mayan influence arrived through what is now Oaxaca. This history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have been found especially at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta and Tambuco. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here. These people were the antecedents of the Aztecs.Acapulco – Acapulco panoramic collage. Top, from left to right: Acapulco Bay from Chapel of Peace, Petroglyphs in Palma Sola, Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Cathedral, Mural by Diego Rivera in Dolores Olmedo House, San Diego Fort, La Quebrada, La Condesa Beach, Acapulco Dorado and Acapulco Diamante.
52. Veracruz – Its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez. This state is located in Eastern Mexico. On its east, Veracruz has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. The state is noted for its mixed indigenous populations. Its cuisine reflects the cultural influences that have come through the state because of the importance of the port of Veracruz. In addition to the city, the state's largest cities include Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos, Córdoba, Minatitlán, Poza Rica, Boca Del Río and Orizaba. The full name of the state is Veracruz de Ignacio la Llave. Veracruz was named after the city of Veracruz, originally called the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz. The suffix is in honor of Ignacio la Llave y Segura Zevallos, the governor of the Veracruz from 1861 to 1862. The state is a crescent-shaped strip of land wedged to the east. Its total area is 78,815 km2, accounting for about 3.7% of Mexico’s total territory. Veracruz shares common borders of Tamaulipas, Oaxaca and Chiapas Tabasco, Puebla, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí. Veracruz has km of coastline with the Gulf of Mexico. The topography changes drastically, rising to the highlands of the eastern Sierra Madre. Elevation varies to the Pico de Orizaba, Mexico's highest peak at 5,636 m above sea level.Veracruz – Pico de Orizaba
53. Manila – Manila, officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2012, World Cities Research Network listed Manila as a global city. The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, forming the historic core of the capital region of the Philippines. Manila is also the most densely populated city proper with 41,515 people per square kilometer. The term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to either the city proper. Manila is located on one of the finest harbors in the country. The city has six congressional districts for the lower house of the Philippine Congress. Manila was once ruled by the Kingdom of Tondo before it briefly became a province of the Majapahit Empire. Maynilà became a vassal state of Brunei, established to overpower Tondo. In 1571, conquistadors founded present-day Manila in what is now the Intramuros district. Spanish missionaries soon Christianized the city, built some of the oldest churches in the country, including San Agustin Church. The conquistadors renamed Nuevo Reino de Castilla. Because of its central location on Pacific trade routes, Manila received the moniker "Pearl of the Orient". Spanish rule of the Philippine archipelago lasted until 1898.Manila
54. Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga – In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a diplomatic mission in Rome visiting various ports-of-call in Europe. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582. He is conventionally considered the Japanese ambassador in Europe. Although Hasekura's embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking. Hasekura died of a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan. Little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ancestral ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a mid-level noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan, who had the opportunity to directly serve the daimyo Date Masamune. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle, constructed in Hasekura-ward, Kawasaki-city, Miyagi prefecture, by his grandfather Hasekura Tsunemasa. The place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura village, now Hasekura-ward in Kawasaki-city. It is recorded that important missions were given to Tsunenaga as his representative. It is also recorded that Hasekura served for six months in 1597. In 1612, Hasekura's father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, he was put to death in 1613. His son should normally have been executed well.Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga – Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615 by Claude Deruet
55. Conquistadors – Conquistadors /kɒŋˌkɪstəˈdɔːrz/ is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed to opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time: from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. The spread of old-world diseases, including smallpox, flu and typhus, decimated the inhabitants of the New World. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports. By the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spain's total budget. The conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics, firearms, cavalry. Their units would often specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups. Their armies were mostly composed of Iberian and other European soldiers. Native allied troops were largely infantry equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically. Some groups consisted of young men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties, soldiers with military training. These native forces often included African slaves and Native Americans. They not only served as interpreters, informants, scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were Native American women slaves who worked for the Spaniards.Conquistadors – Conquistadors and their native Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan
56. Hernando de Soto – De Soto's North American expedition ranged throughout a passage to China. De Soto died in what is now Guachoya, Arkansas or Ferriday, Louisiana. He was born in Jerez de los Caballeros, in the current province of Badajoz. However, three towns—Badajoz, Barcarrota and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace. The age of the Conquerors came on the heels of the Spanish reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the Moors were defeated. With discovery of new lands to the west, they were attracted to whispers of glory and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with the first Governor of Panama, Pedrarias Dávila. In 1524, he participated under Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba. There he acquired an encomienda and a public office in Leon, Nicaragua. He gained fame as tactician. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of León, Nicaragua. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Pizarro quickly made de Soto one of his captains. When Pizarro's men attacked the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers.Hernando de Soto – Hernando de Soto
57. Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Spain – Lady of Elche
58. Charles III of Spain – Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; she died in 1760. He never achieved satisfactory control over finances, was obliged to borrow to meet expenses. His reforms proved short-lived and Spain relapsed after his death, but his legacy lives on to this day. Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was probably the most successful European ruler of his generation. He had provided firm, consistent, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers.... Personal life had won the respect of the people." Moreover, the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of the fortress at Gibraltar. In 1700, Charles' father, originally a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V. For the remainder of his reign, he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories. In 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid.Charles III of Spain – Charles III
59. Castillo de San Marcos – The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States. Located on the western shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of Florida, the fort was designed by the Spanish engineer Ignacio Daza. Work proceeded under the administration of Guerra's successor, Manuel de Cendoya in 1671, although the first stone was not laid until 1672. In 1942 Castillo de San Marcos, was restored by an Act of Congress. The fort after 251 years of continuous military possession, was deactivated in 1933. The 20.48-acre site was then turned over to the United States National Park Service. Over the next 100 years, the Spanish built nine wooden forts in various locations. The need for fortifications was recognized after it was attacked by his fleet of 20 ships in 1586. Following the 1668 attack of the English pirate Robert Searle, Queen Regent of Spain, approved the construction of a masonry fortification to protect the city. Workers were brought in from Havana, Cuba, to construct the fort in addition to American laborers. Construction lasted twenty-three years, with completion in 1695. The fort has four bastions named San Pedro, San Agustín, San Pablo with a ravelin protecting the sally port. Infantry embrasures were also built into the walls by the fort's defenders. It was through one of these embrasures that twenty Seminoles held as prisoners would escape in 1837. In 1670, Charles Town was founded by English colonists.Castillo de San Marcos – Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
60. Pueblo Revolt – The Pueblo Revolt drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province. Twelve years later the Spanish were able to reoccupy New Mexico with little opposition. For more than 100 years beginning in 1540, the Pueblo Indians of present-day New Mexico were subjected to successive waves of soldiers, settlers. These encounters, referred to as the Entradas, were characterized by violent confrontations between Pueblo peoples. There were at the time approximately 40,000 Pueblo Indians inhabiting the region. Colonial policies in the 1500s regarding the humane treatment of Indians were difficult to enforce on the northern frontier. Especially egregious to the Pueblo was the assault on their traditional religion. Franciscan priests established theocracies in many of the Pueblo villages. The priests converted the Pueblos to build the Spanish empire in New Mexico. In 1608, it looked as though Spain might abandon the province, the Franciscans baptized thousand Pueblos to try to convince the Crown otherwise. The Franciscan missionaries also forbade the use of entheogenic drugs in the religious ceremonies of the Pueblo. Spanish officials, such as Nicolas de Aguilar, who attempted to curb the power of the Franciscans were charged with heresy and tried before the Inquisition. The unrest among the Pueblos came in 1675. Governor Juan Francisco Treviño accused them of practicing "sorcery". Four medicine men were sentenced by hanging; three of those sentences were carried out, while the fourth prisoner committed suicide.Pueblo Revolt – The location of the Pueblo villages and their neighbors in early New Mexico.
61. Pueblo – Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States. These structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were accessible only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from unwanted guests. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people. Different federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design. The pueblo is the Spanish word for "town" or "village". It comes from the Latin word populus meaning "people". Nowadays the pueblo might have a population running into thousands. There are 21 federally recognized Pueblos that are home to Pueblo people. Anthropologists and official documents often refer to ancient residents of the area as pueblo cultures. The people such as Taos Pueblo, still inhabit centuries-old adobe pueblo buildings. Contemporary residents often maintain other homes outside the historic pueblos. In addition to contemporary pueblos, numerous ruins of archeological interest are located throughout the Southwest. Some are of relatively recent origin.Pueblo – Zuni pueblo c. 1873
62. Alexander von Humboldt – Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Humboldt's advocacy of long-term geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Between 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time from a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. Humboldt was one of the first people to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. This important work also motivated a holistic perception of the universe as one entity. Alexander von Humboldt was born on 14 September 1769. He was baptized with the Duke of Brunswick serving as godfather. At age 42, Alexander Georg was rewarded with the post of Royal Chamberlain. He profited from the contract to lease state lotteries and tobacco sales. He first married the daughter of Prussian General Adjutant Schweder. In 1766, Alexander Georg married Maria Elisabeth Colomb, widow of Baron Hollwede, with whom she had a son. Alexander Georg and Maria Elisabeth had a daughter, who died young, then two sons, Wilhelm and Alexander.Alexander von Humboldt – Alexander von Humboldt (by Joseph Stieler, 1843)
63. Vaqueros – The vaquero is a horse-mounted livestock herder of a tradition that originated on the Iberian Peninsula. Today the vaquero is still a part of the doma vaquera, the Spanish tradition of working riding. They were the first cowboys in the region. The natural horsemanship movement openly acknowledges much influence of the vaquero tradition. The cowboys of the Great Basin still use the term "buckaroo", which may be a corruption of vaquero, to describe themselves and their tradition. Vaquero is a Spanish word for a herder of cattle. It derives from vaca, meaning "cow", which in turn comes from the Latin word vacca. The word buckaroo is generally believed to be an anglicized version of vaquero and shows phonological characteristics compatible with that origin. In 1960, one etymologist suggested that buckaroo derives, through Gullah: buckra, from the Ibibio and Efik: mbakara, meaning "white man, master, boss". Although that derivation was later rejected, another possibility advanced was that "buckaroo" was a pun on vaquero, blending both Spanish and African sources. The origins of the tradition come beginning with the system of medieval Spain. This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula and later, was imported to the Americas. Both regions possessed a dry climate with sparse grass, thus large herds of cattle required vast amounts of land in order to obtain sufficient forage. The need to cover distances greater than a person on foot could manage gave rise to the development of the horseback-mounted vaquero. Certain aspects of the Arabic tradition, such as the hackamore, can in turn be traced to roots in ancient Persia.Vaqueros – Vaquero, c. 1830
65. Spanish conquest of Guatemala – Before the conquest, this territory contained a number of competing Mesoamerican kingdoms, the majority of which were Maya. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as "infidels" who pacified, disregarding the achievements of their civilization. Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast. Geographic features across Guatemala now bear Nahuatl placenames owing to the influence of these Mexican allies, who translated for the Spanish. The Kaqchikel Maya initially allied themselves with the Spanish, but did not finally surrender until 1530. Technology differed greatly. The Spanish viewed the taking of prisoners as a hindrance to outright victory, whereas the Maya prioritised the capture of live prisoners and of booty. Lining them with wooden stakes. These letters were despatched to Tenochtitlan, addressed with a royal audience in mind; two of these letters are now lost. Gonzalo wrote an account that mostly supports that of Pedro de Alvarado. His account was finished some 40 years after the campaigns it describes. Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas included accounts of some incidents in Guatemala. The Brevísima Relación de la Destrucción de las Indias was first published in Seville. Other accounts were in the form of questionnaires answered before colonial magistrates to register a claim for recompense. A letter from the defeated Tz ` Maya nobility of Santiago Atitlán to the Spanish king written in 1571 details the exploitation of the subjugated peoples.Spanish conquest of Guatemala – Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado led the initial efforts to conquer Guatemala.
66. History of Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. During the Spanish -- American War, Puerto Rico was invaded and subsequently became a possession of the United States. The first years of the 20th century were marked by the struggle to obtain greater democratic rights from the United States. However, the political status of a Commonwealth controlled by the United States, remains an anomaly. The settlement of Puerto Rico began from the Orinoco region in South America. Some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back 4000 years. The Ortoiroid were displaced from the same region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BC. Between the 11th centuries, the Arawak are thought to have settled the island. By approximately 1000 AD, it had become dominant. At an estimated 30 to 60 thousand Taíno Amerindians, led by the cacique Agüeybaná, inhabited the island. They called it "Borinquen "the great land of the noble Lord". The natives lived in small villages subsisted on hunting, fishing and gathering of indigenous cassava root and fruit. When the Spaniards arrived in 1493, the Taíno were already with the raiding Carib, who were moving up the Antilles chain.History of Puerto Rico – Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886)
67. Queen Anne's War – The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. In addition to the two main combatants, the war also involved numerous American tribes allied with each nation, Spain, allied with France. It was also known as the Second Intercontinental War. The English colonies of New England fought based in Acadia and Canada. The Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710. The French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in Massachusetts, most famously raiding Deerfield in 1704. On Newfoundland, English colonists based based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted against the other side's settlements. The British quickly reoccupied it after the French abandoned it. Following a preliminary peace in 1712, the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713. Concerns of various Native American tribes were not included in the treaty, setting the stage for future conflicts. Following the death in late 1700 of King Charles II, war broke out over who should succeed him to the Spanish throne. Although the war was at first restricted to a few powers in Europe, in May 1702 it widened when England declared war on Spain and France. The hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers.Queen Anne's War – Queen Anne was occupied with the conflict during her reign.
68. Spanish American wars of independence – These conflicts started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell in 1810, numerous new juntas appeared across the Spanish domains in the Americas. Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish -- American War in 1898. Mestizos replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political offices. Criollos remained at the top of a social structure which retained some of its traditional features culturally, if not legally. For almost a century thereafter, liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions. Both armies originated from colonial troops of Americas. The events in Spanish America were related in Haiti and Brazil. Several factors set the stage for wars of independence. First the Bourbon Reforms of the mid-eighteenth century introduced changes to the Crown. In some areas -- such as Cuba, New Spain -- the reforms had positive effects, improving the local economy and the efficiency of the government. Other factors included the examples of the Atlantic Revolutions. The Enlightenment spurred the desire for economic reform to spread throughout Spanish America and the Iberian Peninsula. Ideas about free physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment in Spain and spread to the overseas empire and a homegrown Spanish American Enlightenment. The Peninsular War was the trigger for the wars of independence.Spanish American wars of independence – The Battle of San Lorenzo in 1813
69. Spanish Texas – Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821. In 1690, Alonso de León escorted Catholic missionaries to east Texas, where they established the first mission in Texas. When native tribes resisted the Spanish invasion of their homeland, the missionaries returned to Mexico, abandoning Texas for the next two decades. The new town quickly became a target by the Lipan Apache. The raids continued periodically until in 1749 when Spanish settlers and the Lipan Apache peoples made peace. But the treaty resulted in raids on Spanish settlements by the Comanche, Tonkawa, Hasinai tribes. The remoteness of the area from the rest of the Viceroyalty discouraged settlers from moving to Texas. It remained one of the least-populated by provinces. The threat of attacks did not decrease until 1785, when the Comanche peoples made a peace agreement. The Comanche tribe later assisted in defeating the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes, who had continued to cause difficulties for settlers. France formally relinquished its claim in 1762 when French Louisiana was ceded to the Spanish Empire. The inclusion of Spanish Louisiana into New Spain meant that Texas was longer essentially a buffer province. The easternmost Texas settlements were disbanded, with the population relocating to San Antonio. However, in 1803 Napoléon Bonaparte sold the territory, known as the Louisiana Purchase, to the United States. The U.S. claims into Santa Fe de Nuevo México province.Spanish Texas – This shows the paths taken by explorers from Spain into Texas.
70. Port of Manila – The Port of Manila refers to the collective facilities and terminals that processes maritime trade function in harbours that serves the Metro Manila Area. It is located in the Port Area and Tondo area of Manila, Philippines facing the Manila Bay. It is the premier international shipping gateway to the country. A government-owned corporation, manages the Port of Manila and most of the public ports in the country. It is composed of 3 major facilities namely Manila North Harbor, the Manila International Container Terminal. The Port of the area dates back to Spanish and pre-Spanish rule of the Philippine Islands. It is recorded that the Philippines had trade relations with most neighboring countries at least as far back as the 9th to 12th centuries. Major trading partners included China and Japan, with ties through the areas that are now Malaysia and Indonesia. The entrance is 19 kilometres wide and expands to a width of 48 kilometres. Sangley Point is the former location of Cavite Naval Base. On either side of the bay are volcanic peaks topped with tropical foliage. 40 kilometres to the south is the province of Cavite. North Harbor is accessible by road through Radial Road 10. It is accessible by road through Bonifacio Drive has a passenger terminal located between Pier 13 and 15 namely Eva Macapagal Super Terminal. It also houses as the main hub of 2GO company.Port of Manila – An aerial view of the Manila South Harbor
71. Tagalog language – Its standardized form, officially named Filipino, is officially the national language, along with English. The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-log, composed of tagá- and ilog. The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana, printed in 1593. Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə. In Bikol and Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot. Proto-Philippine *r, *j, *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *ŋajan and *hajək became Tagalog ngalan and halík. Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR and *zuRuʔ became Tagalog tubig and dugô. The first substantial dictionary of Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books. He wrote the first dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. Tagalog was declared the official language by the first constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897. In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ.Tagalog language – The Tagalog Baybayin script.
72. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has a population of approximately million. It is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.Philippines – King Philip II of Spain.
73. Cities of the Philippines – A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. As of December 2015, there are 145 cities. Cities are entitled in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. They are allowed to use a common seal. A city's local government is headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. The vice-mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod, which serves as the city's legislative body. Upon receiving their charters, cities also receive a full complement of executive departments to better serve their constituents. Some departments are established depending on the needs of the city. Source: Local Government Code of 1991. Cities, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range to rural communities. Barangays are sometimes grouped into administrative districts. Examples of such are the cities of Manila, Davao, Iloilo, Samal. Some cities such as Caloocan, Manila and Pasay even have an intermediate level between the barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic zones are not political units; there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels. Rather they only serve to make statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient.Cities of the Philippines – 1.
74. Metro Manila – Plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015. The region is the center of culture, economy, government of the Philippines. NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, entertainment, both locally and internationally. It is the home to all the embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country. Its economical power makes the country's premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37.2 % of the domestic product of the Philippines. A historical province known as Manila encompasses the pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of 23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served from 1898-1899 just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States. Most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the city of the country.Metro Manila
75. Kingdom of Maynila – Seludong, also known as Maynila, was a major polity located at present-day Manila in the Philippines in the 16th century. An alternative name for the place is "maynilad." However, there is some argument among historians as whether the plant was actually called "nila" or "nilad." Other plants suggested as being the origin of the name include a species of mangrove. On his Facebook page, Ocampo notes that "Some idiot added a'd' to give us: Maynilad, Lagusnilad! In Fr. Blanco's Flora de Filipinas circa 1877 we find the Ixora manila. There is no "d" after nila." A number of early sources disagree, however, suggesting that the plant referred to as "nilad" is a different plant altogether. Islamization by forced conversion of the citizens of Tondo and Manila created Muslim domains. Trade ties with China became extensive by the 10th century, while contact with Arab merchants reached its peak in the 12th century. This is narrated through Tausug and Malay royal histories, where Seludong, Saludong or Selurong are used to denote Manila prior to colonisation. In the mid-16th century, the areas of present-day Manila were governed by native rajahs. These settlements held ties with Indonesia. Maynila was centered at the mouth of the Pasig river.Kingdom of Maynila
76. Medang Kingdom – The Medang or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries. It was based in Central Java, later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty. During most of its history, the kingdom seems to rely heavily on agricultural pursuit, especially extensive rice farming, later also benefited from the maritime trade. According to archaeological findings, the kingdom seems to be quite prosperous. The kingdom had developed a complex society, they had a well developed culture and had achieved a degree of sophistication and refined civilisation. The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur and Prambanan temples. By 850, the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and later of its history, was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire. This has spurred the archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation. The native Javanese most often refer to their lands and country simply as Jawi, while the name of their nagara is often based on their capital. The only foreign source mentioning Medang was found from the Philippines inscription, dated 822 saka. There are no comprehensive written records that have survived in Java except numbers of prasasti written on stones or copper plates. These inscriptions most often recorded the political and religious deeds of the rulers. The kingdom is mentioned in the myth of Dewi Sri and also Aji Saka. This is probably the remnant of native Javanese vague collective memory of the existence of an ancient kingdom called "Medang".Medang Kingdom – A lithograph of Tjandi Sewoe ruins near Prambanan, circa 1859.
77. Heian period – The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is also noted for especially literature. Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese. The Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that later generations have always admired. The period is also noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would eventually take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, noble families required guards, soldiers. The warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency. Their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura.Heian period – Kyōto, "Capital of 1000 Years".
78. Song dynasty – The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was followed by the Yuan dynasty. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The dynasty is divided into two distinct periods, Southern. During the Northern Song, the capital was in the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China. The Southern Song refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars. During this time, the court established its capital at Lin ` an. The Southern dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, later the Mongols, the Song developed military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging the city of Chongqing. His younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan, though his claim was only partially recognized by the Mongols in the west. In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279. The Mongol invasion led to a reunification under the Yuan dynasty.Song dynasty – History of China
79. Bolkiah – Sultan Bolkiah was the fifth Sultan of Brunei. He ruled Brunei from 1485 to 1524. His reign saw the Sultanate become the superpower of the Malay archipelago. Bolkiah frequently travelled abroad to gain new ideas for the development of the country, well as seeking suggestions from his various chiefs. Bolkiah was married to Laila Mecanai the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra and Datu Kemin. After his death, sultan Bolkiah was succeeded by Abdul Kahar. He was buried in Kota Batu with Princess Leila Mechanai. The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the early documentation of Brunei history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with foreign sources. The genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807. Therefore, much of the intepretation on history relied on legends. Perhaps early Sultans were of Chinese origin. Furthermore the earliest Sultans may have been practising the Hindu or Buddhist religions, with early names indicating this origin. List of Sultans of BruneiBolkiah – The tomb of Sultan Bolkiah, near Kota Batu, Brunei
80. Manila galleon – The name of the galleon changed to reflect the city that the ship sailed from. The term Manila Galleons is also used to refer to the route between Acapulco and Manila, which lasted from 1565 to 1815. The Manila Galleons were also known in New Spain as "La Nao la China" because it carried largely Chinese goods, shipped from Manila. The successful round trips were made by Urdaneta and by Alonso de Arellano that year. The route lasted until 1815 when the Mexican War of Independence ended Spanish control of Mexican ports. The Manila galleons sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, cultural exchange. In 1521 a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan sailed west across the Pacific using the westward trade winds. The expedition claimed them for Spain. Although Magellan died there, one of his ships made it back to Spain by continuing westward. In order to trade with these islands from the Americas, an eastward maritime return path was necessary. The first ship to try this a few years later failed. In 1529 Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón could not find the eastward winds across the Pacific. In 1543 Bernardo de la Torre also failed. The Manila-Acapulco trade finally began when Spanish navigators Alonso de Arellano and Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the eastward return route in 1565. Most of his crew died on the initial voyage, for which they had not sufficiently provisioned.Manila galleon – The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico in Intramuros, Manila.
81. British occupation of Manila – The British occupation was ended as part of the settlement of the Seven Years' War. At the time, Britain and France were belligerents in what was later called the Seven Years' War. On 18 January 1762 Spain issued their own declaration of war against Britain. France successfully negotiated a treaty with Spain known as the Family Compact, signed on 15 August 1761. By an secret convention, Spain became hurriedly committed to making preparations for war against Britain. Draper was commanding officer of the 79th Regiment of Foot, currently stationed in Madras, British India. There was also the expectation that the commerce of Spain would suffer a'crippling blow'. Upon arriving in India, Draper's rank became brigadier general. The Company wanted to extend its influence over the Archipelago. The expedition, led by Rear-Admiral Samuel Cornish, captured Manila, "the greatest Spanish fortress in the western Pacific". The Spanish defeat was not really surprising. The Spanish Crown appointed the Mexican-born Archbishop of Manila Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra as temporary Lieutenant Governor. In part, because the garrison was commanded by the Archbishop, instead of by a military expert, many mistakes were made by the Spanish forces. On October 1762, the night before the fall of the walled city of Manila, the Spanish military persuaded Rojo to summon a council of war. The archbishop wished to capitulate, but was prevented.British occupation of Manila
82. Sepoy – A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier. In the modern Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Bangladesh Army it remains in use for the rank of private soldier. The term "sepoy" is derived from the Persian sepāhī meaning "infantry soldier" in the Mughal Empire. In the Ottoman Empire the term Sipahi was used to refer to cavalry troopers. Initially it referred without regular uniform or discipline. It later generically referred in the service of the European powers in India. A sepoy was an infantryman in both the Mughal Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb raised battalions of sepoys variously armed with matchlocks, grenades. These troops were successfully employed in warfare, particularly during the Siege of Bidar, the Siege of Bijapur and the Siege of Golconda. In the Bengal Army however, recruitment was only amongst high caste Brahmin and Rajput communities, mainly of the Uttar Pradesh and Bihar regions. Recruitment was undertaken locally often from the same community, village and even family. The commanding officer of a battalion became a form of substitute for the village chief or bura. He was the "father and mother" of the sepoys making up the paltan. There were many community ties amongst the troops and numerous instances where family members enlisted in the same battalion or regiment. The izzat of the unit was represented by the regimental colours; the new sepoy having to swear an oath in front of them on enlistment.Sepoy – Sepoy of the Indian Infantry, circa 1900.
83. Philippine Revolution – The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities discovered an anti-colonial secret organization. The Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, was a liberationist movement whose goal was independence from Spain through armed revolt. The organization began to influence much of the Philippines. Bonifacio called on the capital city of Manila. This attack failed; however, the surrounding provinces began to revolt. In particular, rebels in Cavite led by Emilio Aguinaldo won early victories. A struggle among the revolutionaries led to Bonifacio's death in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo, who led his own revolutionary government. The revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. Aguinaldo self-exiled himself to Hong Kong. However, the hostilities never completely ceased. On April 1898, the United States launched a naval blockade of Cuba, the first military action of the Spanish -- American War. On May 19, Aguinaldo, unofficially allied with the United States, resumed attacks against the Spaniards. By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Although this signified the date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence.Philippine Revolution – Clockwise from top left: Surviving Spanish troops on Barcelona after the Siege of Baler, Captured of a Filipino Revolutionary Leader by Spanish Troops, Filipino Soliers at the Siege of Baler, Monument recapturing the Battle of Imus, Filipino negotiators for the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, Filipino soldier during the near end of the Revolution.
84. Viceroyalty of New Spain – New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. Following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty in 1535. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City. The areas of southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, economic organization. Mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making its Asian empire. Although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every position, economic political, or religious came from him. It was on this basis that the conquest, government of the New World was achieved. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in the Kingdom of New Spain. It was one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas ` Septentrion', to the Philippine, Mariana and Caroline Islands. To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were from what they had encountered in the Caribbean.Viceroyalty of New Spain – "Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North" (1540) by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
85. Spanish colonization of the Americas – The Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions. Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, they remained separate kingdoms. The Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West. The funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of settlement resided in the monarchy. Columbus made four voyages as the monarchs financed more of his trans-Atlantic journeys. He founded La Navidad on the island later named Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, on his second voyage. In 1496 his brother, Bartholomew, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a high death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area. The local Taíno people continued abandoning their Spanish-occupied villages. The first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. The Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year.Spanish colonization of the Americas – Spanish Conquest of Mexico, meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma II
86. Dutch Revolt – The southern provinces initially later submitted to Spain. The religious ` clash of cultures' built up inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the Dutch Republic. The first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his relations. King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, however, the rebels captured the rebellion resurged. The northern provinces became independent, first in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule. The Dutch imposed a rigid blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns, especially from 1587 to 1589. The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence. The focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided as a major power and the founding of the Dutch Empire. Although Burgundy itself had been lost in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500. He spoke fluent Dutch, French, Spanish, some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands.Dutch Revolt – Prince Maurice at the Battle of Nieuwpoort by Pauwels van Hillegaert. Oil on canvas.
87. Piracy in the Caribbean – The period during which pirates were most successful was from the 1660s to 1730s. Piracy flourished in the Caribbean because of the existence of pirate seaports such as Port Royal in Jamaica, Tortuga in Haiti, Nassau in the Bahamas. Pirates were often former sailors experienced in naval warfare. The buccaneers had to seek a new life at sea, where they continued their ship raiding. Beginning in the 16th century, pirate captains recruited seamen to loot European merchant ships, especially the Spanish treasure fleets sailing to Europe. This officially sanctioned piracy was known as privateering. The Caribbean had become a center of European trade and colonization for Spain in 1492. This gave control of the Americas, a position the Spaniards later reiterated with an equally unenforceable papal bull. In the 16th century, the Spanish were Potosí in Bolivia. To combat this constant danger, in the 1560s the Spanish adopted a system. West of these lines, respectively, no protection could be offered to non-Spanish ships, "no peace beyond the line." English, Dutch and French settlers moved into this region even in times of nominal peace with the Spanish. These laws allowed only Spanish merchants to trade with the colonists of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. This arrangement provoked constant smuggling against the Spanish trading laws and new attempts by England, France and the Netherlands. Whenever a war was declared in Europe between the Great Powers the result was always widespread privateering throughout the Caribbean.Piracy in the Caribbean – French pirate Jacques de Sores looting and burning Havana in 1555
88. War of Jenkins' Ear – The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by 1742. Its unusual name, coined by Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, a captain of a British merchant ship. Despite stories to that effect, there is no evidence that the severed ear was exhibited before the British Parliament. The war resulted in heavy British casualties in North America. After 1742, the war was subsumed by the wider War of the Austrian Succession, which involved most of the powers of Europe. Peace arrived with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. This provided British traders and smugglers potential inroads into the traditionally closed markets in Spanish America. Over time, the Spanish became suspicious that British traders were abusing the contract and began to board ships and confiscate their cargoes. But the causes of the problems remained and, when the opposition against Walpole grew, so did anti-Spanish sentiment among the British public. In response, King Philip V of Spain annulled the asiento right and had all British ships in Spanish harbours confiscated. The Convention of Pardo, an attempt to mediate the dispute, broke down. On 14 August, Britain recalled its ambassador to Spain and officially declared war on 23 October 1739. Despite the Pacte de Famille, France remained neutral. After boarding, Fandiño cut off the left ear of the Rebecca's captain, Robert Jenkins, whom he accused of smuggling. Fandiño told Jenkins, "Go, tell your King that I will do the same, if he dares to do the same."War of Jenkins' Ear – Spanish Admiral Don Blas de Lezo 1741
89. Spain in the American Revolutionary War – Spain's role in the independence of Britain's Thirteen Colonies was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Spain actively supported the Thirteen Colonies throughout the American Revolutionary War. Beginning in 1776, it jointly funded a company that provided critical military supplies. Spain also provided financing in Havana, Cuba. Unzaga, concerned about overtly antagonizing the British before the Spanish were prepared for war, agreed to assist the rebels covertly. Unzaga authorized the shipment of desperately needed gunpowder in a transaction brokered by financier. When Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez was appointed Governor of New Orleans in January 1777, he continued and expanded the supply operations. During the Seven Years' War, the British had attacked and occupied two of Spain's key trading ports: Havana and Manila in 1762. In the settlement of 1763 Spain recovered Havana including St. Augustine, which the Spanish had founded in 1565. Spain recovered the Philippines later. Genoese by nature, Grimaldi demurred, replying, "You have not ours. The moment is not yet come for us. By June 1779 the Spanish had finalized their preparations for war. The British cause seemed to be at a particularly low ebb. The Spanish joined France in the war, implementing the Treaty of Aranjuez signed in April 1779.Spain in the American Revolutionary War – Combat of Santa María between the squadron of Admiral Rodney and Commodore Juan de Lángara (16 January 1780)
90. Yaqui Wars – The Yaqui Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between New Spain, the later Mexican republic, against the Yaqui Native Americans. The period lasted until 1929. The Yaqui Wars, along with the Caste War against the Maya, were the last conflicts of long Mexican Indian Wars. Following this, the Spanish gradually began settling by 1740, the natives were ready to resist. During the Mexican War of Independence from Spain the Yaqui did not participate on either side. The first fighting was at Rahum. The movement took the Virgin of Guadalupe as its symbol. The Yaqui coalesced as their leader. Banderas managed to get the Mayos, Opatas and Pimas to join in the war against the Mexican government. Occidente was so affected by the war that the capital was moved to Fuerte. In 1827 Banderas' forces were defeated in the vicinity of Hermosillo. This defeat was partly due to the Yaquis having primarily arrows, while the Mexicans had guns. In 1832 Banderas renewed the war against the Mexican authorities, with Dolores Guttierrez, a chief of the Opata. In 1833 Banderas and Guttierrez were executed after their forces were defeated in a battle near Buenavista, Mexico. There were other leaders who continued resisting, so the wars continued.Yaqui Wars – Uprising of the Yaqui Indians - Yaqui Warriors in Retreat, by Frederic Remington, 1896.
91. Chichimeca War – The Chichimeca War was a military conflict waged between Spanish colonizers and their Indian allies against a confederation of Chichimeca Indians. It was the indigenous peoples of New Spain in the history of the colony. The Chichimeca wars began eight years after the Mixtón War of 1540–42. It can be considered as a continuation of the rebellion as the fighting did not come to a halt in the intervening years. Unlike in the Mixtón rebellion, the Caxcanes were now allied with the Spanish. News of the silver strike soon spread across Spanish Mexico. The dream of quick wealth triggered multitudes of people to migrate to the city of Zacatecas in the heartland of La Gran Chichimeca. Soon the mines of Nieves were established. The Chichimeca nations resented the intrusions on their ancestral lands. Disobeying the Viceroy, Spanish soldiers soon began native settlements of both friendly and unfriendly Indians to acquire slaves for the mines. To communicate with the mines in and near Zacatecas, new roads were built from Querétaro and Jalisco across Chichimeca lands. The slow-moving caravans of wagons full of goods along the roads were a tempting target for Chichimeca raiders. In favored areas some of the Chichimeca grew other crops. Their numbers are difficult to estimate, although based on the average density of nomadic populations they probably numbered 30,000 to 60,000. The Chichimecas lived in rancherias of crude caves, frequently moving from one area to another to take advantage of seasonal foods and hunting.Chichimeca War – A statue of a Chichimeca warrior in the city of Querétaro
92. Philippine revolts against Spain – The Dagami Revolt was a revolt against colonial rule led by the Family Dagami, in the island of Leyte in the Philippines, in 1567. The revolt occurred in the same year as the Chinese Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly defended enclosure of Intramuros. When Governor General Lavezaris replaced Legaspi, he confiscated their lands. Father Martin promised to grant their privileges. Nevertheless, Solaiman continued his revolt, brutally crushed in 1574. The leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed by Christian Cruz-Herrera. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to revolt. The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities in Palawan. The Cagayan and Dingras Revolts Against the Tribute occurred in the present-day provinces of Cagayan and Ilocos Norte in 1589. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other Filipinos revolted against alleged abuses including the collection of high taxes. It began when six tax collectors who had arrived from Vigan were killed by the natives. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. The Philippine tax system reformed. The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led from Cagayan.Philippine revolts against Spain
93. Acaxee Rebellion – The Acaxee Rebellion was an insurrection against Spanish rule in Mexico by Acaxee Indians in 1601. Their territory was about 125 miles north to south and 50 miles east to west. The area was called Topia and Tepehuana by the Spaniards. Additional epidemics broke out in 1590 and 1596-1597. Thus, by the time of the rebellion the Acaxee probably numbered only a few thousand. Furthermore, their capacity to resist the Spanish was adversely impacted by their endemic warfare with the Xixime to the east. The Spanish discovered silver deposits in the 1580s and established several mining camps. Several hundred Spaniards, Indian laborers migrated into the Acaxee country. They needed additional labor to work in the mines. Through the Encomienda system the Indians were forced to work in Spanish mines. However, the dispersed nature of the Acaxee settlements was a hindrance to utilizing Indian labor. Jesuit missionaries assisted in concentrating the Indians in larger settlements for easier exploitation. The Indians of Sinaloa and Durango were their first major missionary efforts. In 1600, the missionary Hernando de Santarén toured the region with Captain Diego de Avila. In return, the Spaniards promised to provide tools, seeds, schools for their communities.Acaxee Rebellion – A map of Mexico showing the location of the Acaxee in Sinaloa and Durango states.
94. Acoma Massacre – Several hundred survivors were also enslaved or otherwise severely punished. Relations between the Acoma people had been mostly peaceful for several decades after the two groups first came into contact around 1540. In 1598, Zutacapan, learned that the Spanish intended to conquer Acoma Pueblo. Accordingly, Don Oñate sent Captain Juan de Zaldívar, to the pueblo to consult with Zutacapan. After being denied the food they had demanded, the Spaniards allegedly attacked some Acoma women. A fight ensued, leaving eleven of his men dead. When Oñate learned of the incident, he ordered Vicente de Zaldívar, to lead an expedition to punish the Acoma. Taking about seventy men, Vincente de Zaldivar arrived at Acoma Pueblo on January 21, 1599. The battle began January 22. For the first two days the Spanish and Acoma skirmished inconclusively until Zaldivar developed a plan to breach the pueblo using a small cannon. On the third day, Zalvidar and twelve of his men opened fire on the pueblo with the cannon. After some time, several Acoma homes were destroyed while the conquistadors stormed through the settlement. There were an estimated 6,000 natives living in 1599, at least 2,000 of whom were warriors. Of the 2,000, about 500 were killed in children. Some 500 prisoners were later sentenced to a variety of punishments.Acoma Massacre – A lithograph of Acoma Pueblo made in 1848.
95. Pima Revolt – The revolt culminated by the local Spanish settlers against Indians beginning in 1684. The period was characterized by local Indians' gradual loss of territory. However, the colonial province of Sonora was characterized by more frequent conflict between them and the Spaniards. The Pima Indian Revolt was directly preceded by the Seri Revolt of Seri Indians in Sonora. The initial act of rebellion was the massacre of 18 settlers lured in Sáric. Oacpicagigua surrendered after a negotiated peace. When the Pima leaders laid the blame on Jesuit missionaries they were pardoned by the colonial governor Ortiz Parrilla. Oacpicagigua eventually died in a Spanish prison in 1755. Henry F. Dobyns. Tubac Through Four Centuries: An Historical Resume and Analysis. Arizona State Parks Board. Pp. "CHAPTER V: THE PIMA REVOLT OF 1751".Pima Revolt – A Spanish colonial map of Tubac from 1767, the site of the San Ignacio de Tubac Presidio, constructed as a result of conflicts with the Pima and other natives.
96. Habsburg Spain – Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries, when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty. The Habsburg rulers reached the zenith of their power. This period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion". The Habsburg years were also a Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence. In some cases, these individual kingdoms themselves were the Crown of Aragon. The Habsburg period is formative of the notion of "Spain" in the sense, institutionalized in the 18th century. Her husband Philip I was Mary of Burgundy. Thereafter Joanna began to lapse into insanity, though how mentally ill she actually was the topic of some debate. He died later that year under mysterious circumstances, possibly poisoned by his father-in-law, Ferdinand II. Spain was now under Ferdinand II of Aragon. He also attempted strengthening it against France. Ferdinand would die later that year. Ferdinand's death led to the throne as Charles I of Castile and Aragon effectively founding the monarchy of Spain. His Spanish inheritance included all the Spanish possessions around the Mediterranean. Upon the death of his Habsburg father in 1506, Charles had inherited the Netherlands and Franche-Comté, growing up in Flanders.Habsburg Spain – 1570 map of the Iberian peninsula
97. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charles voluntarily stepped down by a series of abdications between 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, southern Europe, the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: the Houses of Valois-Burgundy, Habsburg, Trastámara. He inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From the Habsburgs, Charles inherited other lands in central Europe. He was also elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charles's reign. Enormously expensive, they led in the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean. After seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule. Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec and Inca empires.Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – Charrles V by Titian, 1548. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
98. Joanna of Castile – Joanna of Castile, called the Mad, was queen of Castile from 1504 and of Aragon from 1516. From the union of these two crowns modern Spain evolved. Joanna married Philip the Handsome on October 1496. Philip was crowned King of Castile in 1506, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain. After Philip's death Joanna was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. From 1517, Charles, ruled as king, while she nominally remained co-monarch. Joanna was born in the city of the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. She was the third child and second daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. Joanna had been an excellent student. Queen Isabella came to ensure that Joanna along with her three sisters Isabella, Maria, Catherine received a fine education. Her academic education consisted of canon and civil law, heraldry, grammar, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, reading, spelling, writing. Joanna developed feminine accomplishments in court etiquette, dancing, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners, the needle arts of embroidery, needlepoint, sewing. She had been fluent in French and Latin. She had learned outdoor pursuits such as hawking and hunting. Praise was given for being a skilled dancer and a talented musician in playing the clavichord, the guitar, the monochord.Joanna of Castile – Portrait by Juan de Flandes, c. 1500
99. Philip II of Spain – He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known as "Felipe el Prudente", his empire included territories including the Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age. The expression, "the empire on which the sun never sets," was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1596. This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence which created the Dutch Republic in 1581. The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, everything that he does is courteous and gracious." The culture and courtly life of Spain were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by Juan Martínez Siliceo – the future Archbishop of Toledo. Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in arms and letters alike. Later he would study with more illustrious tutors, including the humanist Juan Cristóbal Calvete de Estrella. Philip, though he had good command over Latin, Spanish and Portuguese, never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. Despite being also a German archduke from the House of Habsburg, Philip was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire.Philip II of Spain – 'The Baptism of Phillip II' in Valladolid, Spain. Historical ceiling preserved in Palacio de Pimentel (Valladolid).
100. Philip III of Spain – Philip III of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of sister of Holy Roman Emperor. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga, then Prince Diego's governor, to continue this role for Philip, chose García de Loaysa as his tutor. They were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, ensure he avoided the same fate as Carlos. Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – then, a gentleman of the King's chamber, in his early teens. Lerma and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philip's tutors. The prince received a Dominican confessor. Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the empire to King Philip III. Philip married Margaret of Austria, a year after becoming king. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip paid her additional attention after she bore a son in 1605.Philip III of Spain – Philip III of Spain Philip II of Portugal
101. Philip IV of Spain – Philip IV of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal as Philip III. He reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip IV was the eldest son of Philip III and his wife, Margaret of Austria. Philip had seven children with only one being a son, Balthasar Charles, who died at the age of sixteen in 1646. The death of his son deeply shocked the king, who appears to have been a good father by the standards of the day. Philip remarried following the deaths of both Elisabeth and his only legitimate heir. Perceptions of Philip's personality have altered considerably over time. Victorian authors were inclined to portray him as a weak individual, ruling over a debauched Baroque court. Victorian historians even attributed the early death of Baltasar to debauchery, encouraged by the gentlemen entrusted by the king with his education. The doctors who treated the Prince in fact diagnosed smallpox, although modern scholars attribute his death to appendicitis. Philip was idealised as the model of Baroque kingship. Philip was a fine horseman, a devotee of bull-fighting, all central parts of royal public life at court during the period. Privately, Philip appears to have had a lighter persona. When he was younger, he was said to have a ` great sense of fun'. He privately attended ` academies' in Madrid throughout his reign -- these were lighthearted literary salons, aiming to analyse contemporary poetry with a humorous touch.Philip IV of Spain – Painting by Diego Velázquez, c.1644
102. Charles II of Spain – Charles II of Spain was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched", he is noted for his consequent ineffectual rule. He died with all potential Habsburg successors having predeceased him. Charles was born in Mariana of Austria. The Spanish branch of the Habsburg family was noted for extreme consanguinity. Well aware that they owed their power to fortunate marriages, they married between themselves to protect their gains. Philip and Mariana were actually niece; therefore, Charles was not only their son, but was also Mariana's first-cousin and Philip's great-nephew. Charles was physically and possibly due to this massive inbreeding. Due to the deaths of his half brothers, he was the last member of the male Spanish Habsburg line. His jaw was badly deformed that he could barely speak or chew. Fearing the frail child would be overtaxed, his caretakers did not force Charles to attend school. The indolence of the young Charles was indulged to such an extent that at times he was not expected to be clean. The only vigorous activity in which Charles is known to have participated was shooting. He occasionally indulged in the preserves of El Escorial.Charles II of Spain – Charles II
103. Enlightenment in Spain – "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity." The Bourbon monarchs sought the expansion of scientific knowledge, urged by Benedictine friar Benito Feijóo. From 1777 to 1816, the Spanish crown funded scientific expeditions to gather information about the botanical wealth of the empire. Spanish scholars sought to understand the decline of the Spanish empire with the aim of reclaiming its former prestige. In Spanish America, the Enlightenment also had an impact in the scientific sphere, with elite American-born Spanish men involved in these projects. The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula was enormously destabilizing for the Spanish overseas empire. The ideas of the Hispanic Enlightenment have been seen to the Spanish American wars of independence although the situation is more complex. France won War of the Bourbon monarchy was established in Spain. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment had a ripple effect in Spanish American Enlightenment Spain's overseas empire. Ferdinand VII claimed he once restored to power in 1814, he renounced it and reverted to unfettered absolutist rule. New Spain and Peru were the exceptions, becoming independent in 1824. It was the "object not the arbiter." The vastness of the Spanish Empire in the New World, along with her naval resources, had made a vital part of European power politics. If it remained in the hands of another member of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty, the status quo would remain. European politics during the seventeenth century became dominated by establishing an orderly succession in Spain that would not alter the balance between Europe's great powers.Enlightenment in Spain – Prince Philip of Anjou, grandson of King Louis XIV of France, future King Philip V of Spain
104. Philip V of Spain – Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place as a grandson of King Louis XIV. Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history. He was a younger brother of Louis, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of a traditional title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by this name until he became the king of Spain. Philip was tutored by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai. The three were also educated by Paul de Beauvilliers. In 1700 the King Charles II of Spain died childless. His will named grandson of Charles' half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV, as his successor. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne as part of her marriage contract. This was countered by the French branch's claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. The ambassador, along with his son, made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV did. Philip later learned to speak Spanish.Philip V of Spain – Philip V
105. Louis I of Spain – Louis I was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months. At birth he was not given the traditional title of "Prince of Asturias" until April 1709. In 1714, when Louis was seven, his mother died, leaving his brothers, Infant Ferdinand and Infant Felipe Pedro. As a result, on 24 December 1714, Louis' father, married the young heiress to the Duchy of Parma, Elisabeth Farnese. The dowry of this marriage was an enormous million livres. On his death, his father reigned until his own death in 1746. Louis was buried in the Cripta Real del Monasterio de El Escorial part of the El Escorial complex. Danvila, Alfonso. El reinado relámpago, Luis I y Luisa Isabel de Orleáns, 1707–1724. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1952. Reprinted as Luis I y Luisa Isabel de Orleans: el relámpago. Madrid: Alderabán, 1997. Luis I Spanish A royal suit of armor housed in The Met Museum made for him at age five by his great-grandfather, Louis XIV of FranceLouis I of Spain – Louis I
106. Ferdinand VI of Spain – Ferdinand VI, called the Learned, was King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. The third member of the Spanish dynasty, was born in Madrid on 23 September 1713. Born at the Royal Alcázar of Madrid, his youth was a time of sadness for Ferdinand. The hypochondria of his father left Elisabeth mistress of the palace. Ferdinand was by temperament distrustful of his own abilities. When complimented on his shooting, he replied, "It would be hard if there were not something I could do." Shooting and music were his only pleasures, he was the generous patron of the famous singer Farinelli, whose voice soothed his melancholy. Ferdinand was married to Infanta Barbara of Portugal, Mary Anne of Austria. When he came to the throne, Spain found itself in the War of the Austrian Succession which ended without any benefit to Spain. He started his reign by eliminating the influence of the widow Queen Elisabeth of Parma and her group of Italian courtiers. Prominent figures during his reign were the Marquis of Ensenada,; a supporter of the alliance with Great Britain. The most important tasks during the reign of Ferdinand VI were carried out by the Marquis of Ensenada, Indies. He suggested that the state help modernize the country. Among his reform projects were: New model of the Treasury suggested by Ensenada in 1749.Ferdinand VI of Spain – Ferdinand VI
107. Charles IV of Spain – Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. Charles was his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony. He was born in Naples, while his father was King of Naples and Sicily. Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy. In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto. He was called due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been simple-minded. In 1788, Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. The affairs of government were left to his wife, his prime minister, while he occupied himself with hunting. In 1792, personal enemies ousted Floridablanca from office, replacing him with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain was a key publication from his five-year travels. After the declaration, Portugal and Spain signed a treaty of mutual protection against France. In 1795 France forced Godoy to declare war on the Kingdom of Great Britain. Spain supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar, when Spain became allied with Britain.Charles IV of Spain – Portrait of Charles IV by Goya
108. Ferdinand VII of Spain – Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King". He reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He jailed many of its writers. Under his rule, the country entered on his death. His reputation among historians is very low. Historian Stanley Payne says: He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious, vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma. Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents. Following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand turned for support. He abdicated on 6 May 1808.Ferdinand VII of Spain – Portrait by Vicente López y Portaña
109. Joseph Bonaparte – After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers. He was born in 1768 at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic. In the year of his birth, Corsica was conquered the following year. Later became a supporter of French rule. As a lawyer, diplomat, he served in the Cinq-Cents and was the French ambassador to Rome. Joseph married August 1794 in Cuges-les-Pins, France. They had three daughters: Julie Joséphine Bonaparte. Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte; married, in 1822 to Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte; married, in 1826 to Napoleon Louis Bonaparte. Joseph claimed the two surviving daughters as his heirs. Joseph also sired two children with the Countess of Atri: Giulio Teresa. Joseph had two American daughters born at his estate in Bordentown, New Jersey, by his mistress, Annette Savage: Pauline Anne; died young. He was then made King of Spain in August 1808, soon after the French invasion. He arrived in Spain where he was very unpopular indeed. His arrival sparked the beginning of the Peninsular War.Joseph Bonaparte – Portrait of King Joseph I.
111. Real Audiencia – The Real Audiencia, or simply Audiencia, was an appellate court in Spain and its empire. The name of the institution literally translates as Royal Audience. The additional chancillería was applied to the appellate courts in early modern Spain. Each audiencia had oidores. The first audiencia was founded in the Kingdom of Castile at Valladolid. The Valladolid Audiencia functioned for the next two centuries. Appeals from the Castilian audiencias could only be made after its creation in 1480. The second audiencia was moved in 1505. Today included Seville, Las Palmas, Majorca, Asturias, Extremadura. The viceroys of the Crown of Aragon were overseen by the Council of Aragon, established in 1494. Audiencias in the Spanish possessions in Europe included the Italian domains of Sicily. In Italy, the Castilian institution of the audiencia was united with the Aragonese institution of the viceroy. In 1555 a Council of Italy was created to oversee the audiencias in Italy. In the Indies, the two institutions were with a different power relationship. Without the judicial powers the office had enjoyed under the Aragonese Crown.Real Audiencia – Members of the Real Audiencia of Lima, the presidente, alcaldes de corte, fiscal and alguacil mayor. (Nueva Crónica y Buen Gobierno, p. 488)
112. Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara – It was originally located in Compostela and permanently seated in Guadalajara in 1560. Its president was the chief executive officer of the district, subordinated only to the Viceroy. Parry, J. H.. The Audiencia of New Galicia in the Sixteenth Century: A Study in Spanish Colonial Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara – Colonization
113. Captaincy General of Guatemala – The governor-captain general was also president of the Royal Audiencia of Guatemala. The colonization of the area that became the future Captaincy General began in 1524. In the north, the brothers Gonzalo and Pedro de Alvarado, others headed various expeditions into Guatemala and Honduras. In the south Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, acting under the auspices of Pedrarias Dávila in Panama, moved into what is Nicaragua. The capital of Guatemala has moved many times over the centuries. On 27 Pedro de Alvarado declared the Kaqchikel city, Iximche, as the first regional capital, styled Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala. However, hostilities between the Kaqchikel soon made the city uninhabitable. In 1526, the Spanish founded a new settlement at Tecpán Guatemala, Tecpán being the Nahuatl word for "palace". Tecpán is sometimes called the "first" capital because of its status as the first permanent military center. The Spaniards soon abandoned Tecpán due to continuous Kaqchikel attacks that made defense of the untenable. The survivors had no choice but to abandon the site. In 1543, the capital was again refounded several miles away at Antigua Guatemala. Over the next two centuries, this city would become one of the richest of the New World capitals. However, the city was ordered abandoned in 1776. The current capital is the modern-day Guatemala City.Captaincy General of Guatemala – The Fort of San Fernando Omoa. Built by the Spaniards to defend against pirates.
114. Real Audiencia of Manila – The Real Audiencia de Manila was the Real Audiencia of the Spanish East Indies, which included the modern-day Guam and the Philippines. The Royal Audience of Manila was created by King Felipe II dated 5 May 1583, established in 1584. Governor-General Francisco Tello de Guzmán reestablished it in 1596. The Audiencia was given supervision over the administration of the estates of deceased persons. The Audiencia was directed to exercise care that "the said Indians shall be better instructed in our Holy Catholic Faith, as our free vassals." The Audienciawas to devote two days a week to hearing suits to which Indians were parties. Himself was forbidden to authorize extraordinary expenditures from the treasury without express royal permission, except in cases of riot or invasion. The president of the Audiencia was empowered to delegate on the to investigate in the provinces. They were to note the means taken for the construction and preservation of public buildings. On these trips the Oidores were authorized to take such action as they deemed to be necessary. Oidores were also forbidden to engage in business, either singly or in partnership, nor could they avail themselves of the services of the natives. Any person could bring suit against an Oidor. Magistrates were forbidden to hear cases affecting themselves or their relatives. No relative of an Oidor could be appointed legally to a government post. Criminal charges against the oidores were to be tried with the assistance of government officials fit to judge on the case.Real Audiencia of Manila – Colonization
115. Royal Audiencia of Mexico – The Real Audiencia of Mexico or high court was the highest tribunal of the Spanish crown in the Kingdom of New Spain. The Audiencia was seated in the viceregal capital of Mexico City. The crown established the Second Audiencia in 1530. Another Audiencia was created in 1548. He initially established a government in the town of Coyoacán, south of Lake Texcoco, because Tenochtitlan was in ruins after the conquest. From here he governed with the title of Justicia Mayor. The crown sent treasury officials to New Spain, asserting the right of the crown to the revenues from the newly conquered lands. During Cortés's expedition to Honduras, the political situation descended into chaos. The first Real Audiencia in Mexico was headed by crown official Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán. By setting up the Audiencia the crown sought to limit Cortés's personal power by creating the high court as an effective instrument of royal power. One scholar calls him "a natural gangster." However, structurally the crown had set up a conflictive situation between the conquerors turned encomenderos and the high court determined to assert royal authority. The crown's choice of Nuño de Guzmán as president of the Audiencia was a major blunder. In 1532, the Viceroyalty of New Spain was created, although Don Antonio de Mendoza, would not arrive in Mexico until 1535. The Viceroy served as its President.Royal Audiencia of Mexico – Colonization
116. Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo – The Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo was the first court of the Spanish crown in America. This audiencia would become part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain upon the creation of the latter two decades later. The president of the Audiencia retained administrative oversight of Margarita, Cumaná and Caracas throughout the majority of the colonial period. The new Audiencia was set up the following year and called the Real Audiencia of Puerto Príncipe. This Audiencia maintained jurisdiction over Cuba, Florida. In 1831 the Real Audiencia of Puerto Rico was established, but it was dissolved in 1853. Colony of Santo Domingo − Captaincy General of Santo DomingoRoyal Audiencia of Santo Domingo – Colonization
117. General CaptaincyGeneral Captaincy – Colonization
118. Captaincy General of Cuba – The restructuring of the Captaincy General in 1764 was the first example of the Bourbon Reforms in America. The changes included granting more autonomy for these provinces. This later change was carried out under Charles III to strengthen the Spanish position vis-a-vis the British in the Caribbean. A governor-captain general based in Havana oversaw the administration of the new district. The local governors of the larger Captaincy General had previously been overseen by the president of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo. This audiencia retained oversight of judicial affairs in Puerto Príncipe and Havana. He oversaw the Santo Domingo Audiencia heard appeals from the island. This legal move removed the settlers from under the authority of Colón, their nominal superior. It was a precedent that would come back to haunt Velázquez during Hernán Cortés's conquest of Mexico. After the conquest of Mexico, its population remained small for the next two centuries. The Church played an important role in the Spanish settlement of the Americas. The first diocese was made suffragan to the Diocese of Seville. The seat of the Diocese was transferred to Santiago de Cuba in 1522. In 1520 Pope Leo X established the short-lived Diocese of Santiago la Florida. In 1546 the Diocese of Santiago de Cuba was made suffragan to it.Captaincy General of Cuba
119. Captaincy General of the Philippines – The Captaincy General of the Philippines was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included the Caroline Islands. It was founded with the first permanent Spanish settlements. However, following the independence of Mexico, all control was transferred to Madrid. A letter from Andres de Mirandaola, also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese. The danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain, mentioned the same reason to Panay. It was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was launched on 8 May 1570. Two of Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo conquered Luzon's northern region. In 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The Captaincy in Manila from 1595 until 1898. A month earlier, on October 23, the Intendencia of Manila had been attached to the Captaincy General of the Philippines. Until 1822, all General Captains were civilians, but after that year they were always chosen among the military. Mindoro, Marinduque, Luban, Ilin: Mindoro. Batán: Batanes.Captaincy General of the Philippines – Magellan landing site in Umatac Bay
120. Captaincy General of Puerto Rico – Its creation was part of the, ultimately futile, attempt in the late 16th century to prevent incursion into the Caribbean by foreign powers. Spain also established Captaincies General in Cuba, Guatemala and Yucatán. The Captaincy General played a crucial role in the history of the Spanish Caribbean. In 1508 Juan Ponce de León was commissioned by the Crown to carry out the initial colonization of Puerto Rico. After successfully founding the city of Caparra, he was appointed by the regent of Castile, Ferdinand V. As a result, Ponce de León left the island, not wishing to serve under Colón. From 1536 to 1545, the island was overseen by the president of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo, also Captain General of the Caribbean. These men were elected annually from among the local settler population. Since most of the settlers did not have the training to become governors, the system proved ineffective. The island's Spanish residents complained to the Crown. Starting in 1545 governors with legal training were appointed by either the Santo Domingo Audiencia. The next court of appeal was the Audiencia in Santo Domingo. As with all other political officials, governors were subject to the juicio de residencia, an official review of their time in office. Following this, mostly military men, rather than lawyers, were appointed as governors-captains general. They were assisted by a legal adviser in their administrative duties.Captaincy General of Puerto Rico – Flag
121. Captaincy General of Santo Domingo – The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo was the first colony in the New World and was claimed for Spain. The island was originally named "La Española" by Christopher Columbus. From 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo. After years of struggles with the French, the Spanish lost the western third of the island. The Spanish remained in control of the eastern two-thirds of the island, which later became the Dominican Republic. Columbus reached the island on December 5, 1492, naming it La Española. Believing that the Europeans were in some supernatural, the Taínos welcomed them with all the honors available. This was a totally different society from the one the Europeans came from. The chief who hosted Christopher Columbus and his men, treated them kindly and provided them with everything they desired. Yet the Taínos' allegedly "egalitarian" system clashed with more rigid class structures. They began to treat the tribes with more violence. Columbus tried to temper this when his men departed from Ayiti -- as the Taínos called the island -- and they left on a good note. Columbus had cemented a alliance with Guacanagarix, a powerful chief on the island. The fort was called La Navidad, since the founding of the fort occurred on Christmas Day. The garrison, in spite on the island, was wracked by divisions that evolved into conflict amongst these first Europeans.Captaincy General of Santo Domingo – Inspection and sale of African slaves.
122. Provincias Internas – The goal of its creation was to establish a unified government in political, fiscal affairs. The Provincias Internas were the brainchild of José de Gálvez. He hit upon the idea during his time from 1761 to 1772. This was essentially a new office created by King Charles III which made Gálvez, for all purposes, independent of the Council of the Indies. From his new position, Gálvez was able to implement his vision for Spanish America. In addition to the Provincias Internas, Gálvez also created the Captaincy General of Venezuela. He also recommenced the stalled project of replacing the older corregimientos and mayores with intendants. Gálvez appointed Teodoro de Croix as the first Commander General of the Provinicas Internas. The greatest threat, however, were the incursions and rebellions. In Arizpe, in 1782 he created the Bank of San Carlos. Pedro Galindo Navarro was appointed as adviser. Las Californias were separated from the bishopric of Guadalajara, while the province of Sonora and Sinaloa was formerly under the bishopric of Durango. Rengel decided to move the capital to the town of Chihuahua. On August 1786 the Viceroy gave directions to Captain General to regulate the manner of governing the Interior Provinces. At the death of the viceroy Galvez on November 1786, the Captain General regained its autonomy from the new viceroy.Provincias Internas – Teodoro de Croix, first Captain General of the Provincias Internas.
123. Indendancies of New Spain – New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. Following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty in 1535. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City. The areas of southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, economic organization. Mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making its Asian empire. Although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every position, economic political, or religious came from him. It was on this basis that the conquest, government of the New World was achieved. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in the Kingdom of New Spain. It was one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas ` Septentrion', to the Philippine, Mariana and Caroline Islands. To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were from what they had encountered in the Caribbean.Indendancies of New Spain – "Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North" (1540) by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
124. Chiapas – Its city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, Tapachula, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Arriaga. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south. In general, Chiapas has a humid, tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, rainfall can average more than 3,000 mm per year. It is still abundant enough to allow many other tropical crops near Tapachula. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak, Chinkultic. It is also home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the state’s history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions. The last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people. The official name of the state is Chiapas. The name derives from Chiapan or Tepechiapan, the name of an indigenous population. The term, from Nahuatl, may mean "hill" or "water below the hill". The first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the modern coat of arms.Chiapas – Jaguar sculpture from Cintalapa dating between 1000 to 400 BCE on display at the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Chiapas.
125. Comayagua – In 2015 the estimated population was 152,051 people. It is the capital of the Comayagua department of Honduras. The city is noted for its wealth of Spanish Colonial architecture. The central square has a cathedral with the oldest clock in the Americas. From 1540 on Comayagua was the capital of the Honduras Province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. The Cathedral on the main square, was begun in 1563 and inaugurated in 1711. In 1786 the Spanish Crown created the Intendencia of Comayagua, with Comayagua as its capital, which lasted until 1812. In 1820, Honduras was again called the Province of Comayagua or Honduras, with Comayagua as its capital. After independence from the Spanish it was the capital of the state of Honduras in the Federal Republic of Central America. After Honduras became an independent republic, the capital alternated before being permanently established at Tegucigalpa in 1880. In February 2012 a fire killed more than 350 people at Comayagua prison. Right in front of the plaza is located City Hall, reconstructed a couple of times. The building was built during the 16th century. The Cathedral of Comayagua was built during the colonial era in Honduras. It was inaugurated on 8 December 1711.Comayagua – Comayagua Cathedral
126. Santiago de Cuba – Historically Santiago de Cuba still remains the second largest. Santiago is on a bay is an important sea port. In 2004 the city of Santiago de Cuba had a population of about 509,143 people. Santiago de Cuba was the fifth village founded on July 25, 1515. In 1516 the settlement was immediately rebuilt. The first cathedral was built in the city in 1528. Until 1589 it was the capital of the Spanish colony of Cuba. The city was plundered under Christopher Myngs in 1662. This added with Spanish and African culture. Santiago was also the location where Spanish troops faced their main defeat during the Spanish -- American War. After capturing the surrounding hills, General William Rufus Shafter laid siege to the city. Spain later surrendered to the United States after Admiral William T. Sampson destroyed the Spanish Atlantic fleet on July 3, 1898. José Martí, is buried in Cementerio Santa Efigenia. Pope Francis visited Cuba in 2015. It was also the home of Frank País.Santiago de Cuba – Santiago de Cuba
127. Guanajuato – Its city is Guanajuato. The largest city in the state is León. It is located in North-Central Mexico. It covers an area of 30,608 km2. This route passes though the Sanctuary of Guanajuato. Important cities in the state include León, Irapuato. Guanajuato is located in north-west of Mexico City, bordering the states of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Michoacán, Jalisco. It covers an area of 30,589 km² and is ranked 20th out of 31 states. The Sierra Madre Oriental in Guanajuato consists of the Sierra Gorda and the Sierra del Azafrán in the northeast. The Mexican Plateau extends through the center of the state. Within, it subdivides into various regions parted by low-lying mountain chains such as the Sierra de la Cuatralba and the Sierra de Cubo. The state is crossed by several mountain ranges which have mountains between 2,300 and 3,000 meters high. Mountain ranges average 2,305 meters and flat areas lie at around 1,725 meters above mean sea level. The state is divided into five regions, taking into climate. These are called Altos de Guanajuato, La Sierra Central, Los Valles del Sur.Guanajuato – Cerro Culiacán from Jaral del Progresso
128. Guadalajara – Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the central region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,495,189 it is Mexico's fourth most populous municipality. The municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in State of Mexico. It is a strong business and economic center in the Bajio region. Guadalajara is the 10th largest city in Latin America in domestic product. The city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, the name of which came from the Andalusian Arabic wād l-ḥijāra, meaning "river/valley of stones". Other, more traditional industries, such as processing are also important contributing factors. It is home to the C.D. Guadalajara, one of the most popular football clubs in Mexico. This city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005. Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games. The city was established in five other places before moving to its current location. The first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Nochistlán, Zacatecas. The settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water; in 1533 it was moved to a location near Tonalá.Guadalajara
129. Zacatecas – Its city is Zacatecas City. Zacatecas is located in North-Central Mexico. The state is best known for its rich deposits of silver and other minerals, its colonial architecture and its importance during the Mexican Revolution. Its economic activities are mining, tourism. Zacatecas covers an area of the tenth largest state in the country. The state has an average altitude of 2230 meters above sea level, with the capital at 2,496 masl. The state has three main geographical regions, the Sierra Madre Oriental. Most of it is with highly rugged with peaks of over 2,500 meters above level. The mountains of the southeast and northeast are lower but there large valleys such as the Juchipila and Tlaltenango. Most of the territory has only small mesas and other areas of flat land. Near this chain is another called the Sierra de Órganos. No major rivers run through the state and most of the waterways run only during the rainy season. The state belongs to two basins. The south east of the state belongs to the Lerma River basin, which eventually empties in the Pacific Ocean. Rivers belonging to this basin include the San Pedro, Juchipila, Jerez and Tlaltenango.Zacatecas – Sombreretillo Mountain in the northwest
130. Puebla – Its capital city is Puebla. It is located in East-Central Mexico. The Sierra Madre Oriental. It has a roughly triangular shape with its narrow part to the north. It borders the states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Morelos, State of Mexico, Tlaxcala and Hidalgo. The state has a territory of 33,919 km2 and 4,930 named communities. Most of its mountains belong to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Some of the highest elevations include Apulco, Chichat, Chignahuapan, Soltepec and Tlatlaquitepec. In the south of the state, the major elevations are the Sierra de Atenahuacán, Zapotitlán, the Sierra de Tehuacán. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a small chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo. Together, they account over 50 % of the state. The Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the southwest covering less than 2.5 % of the state. The Sur de Puebla is in the southwest and accounts for 26% of the state. Southern subregions include the Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, the Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and the Sierras Orientales. Together, they account for about 15% of the state.Puebla – Lake and mountains in Necaxa
131. Oaxaca – It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed with recognized local forms of self governance. Its city is Oaxaca de Juárez. Oaxaca is located in Southwestern Mexico. It is bordered to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, Chiapas to the east. To the south, Oaxaca has a significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean. The state is best known for its indigenous cultures. There are sixteen that are officially recognized. These cultures have survived better in Mexico due to the state's rugged and isolating terrain. Another important area is the coast, which has the major resort of Huatulco. The name of the state comes from the name of Oaxaca. This name comes from the Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac", which refers to a tree called a "guaje" found around the city. The name was originally passed on to the Spanish during the conquest of the Oaxaca region. The state seal was designed by Alfredo Canseco Feraud and approved by the government of Eduardo Vasconcelos. Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac" was transliterated as "Oaxaca" using Spanish orthography, in which the x represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative, making "Oaxaca" pronounced as. However, Oaxaca began to be pronounced.Oaxaca – Effigy Head Brazier (500 BC-200 BC)
132. Durango – Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is located in Northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, it has Mexico's second-lowest density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria. Sedentary life began in Durango to population growth. The "Indios Laguneros" traveled interchangeably between this area, they were characterized for being hunters and gatherers. These Natives of which so little was recorded were the first inhabitants of the region long before they were exterminated by the Spanish colonists. Only a few remain of the Tepehuanos, Huicholes, Coras and Tarahumara tribes. The first to colonize Durango, settled this part of the vast northern province of Nueva Vizcaya. On July 1563, he founded the capital city and named it Durango for the town Durango, Biscay, Spain. Additionally many of the soldiers who formalized the conquest of the region were Basques. In 1552 Spanish Captain Ginés Vázquez del Mercado discovered one of the world's richest iron-ore deposits, named after present-day Cerro de Mercado. Gradually, in the following decades, the Franciscans followed by the Jesuits began the evangelization of Nueva Vizcaya, laying the foundations of a large diocese. The establishment of garrisons in Northern Mexico provided security to the people immersed in isolation, a characteristic of the territory. The new routes thus emerged the'Courier of the Provinces', a government scheme adopted by the Spanish monarchs in 1767.Durango – Captain Francisco de Ibarra
133. Sonora – Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the city is Hermosillo. Sonora is located in Northwest Mexico, bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the south. It is primarily semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation. Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, Seri. With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory. From the 20th century to the present, industry, agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico. Several theories exist as to the origin of the name "Sonora". They encountered the Opata, who could not pronounce Señora, instead saying Senora or Sonora. Francisco de Ibarra also referred to the Valles de Señora. The first humans were nomadic hunter gatherers who used tools made from seashells, wood. The oldest Clovis site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora. It was discovered during a 2007 survey. It features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated BP. In 2011, remains of Gomphothere were found; the evidence suggests that humans did in fact kill two of them here.Sonora – Cajemé, Yaqui resistance leader
134. Viceroy – The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal, less often viceroyal. The vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a viceroy jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife. The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848. These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 and the Río de la Plata in 1776. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by a council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. The government started six years under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida.Viceroy – Francisco de Almeida, first viceroy of Portuguese India
135. Cabildo (council) – A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected; but they were considered to be representative of all land-owning heads of household. The colonial cabildo was essentially the same as the one developed in medieval Castile. For example, Hernán Cortés established La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz to free himself from the authority of the Governor of Cuba. The word cabildo has the same Latin root as the English word chapter, in fact, is also the Spanish word for a cathedral chapter. Historically the ayuntamiento was often preceded by the word excelentísimo as a style of office, when referring to the council. With the establishment of the Visigothic Kingdom, the ancient municipal government disappeared. After the Muslim conquest, the new rulers also appointed judicial officers to manage the affairs of the cities. The cabildo proper began its slow evolution in the process of the Reconquista. These new bodies took their permanent form by the end of the 14th century. As part of the same process, a municipal council with different attributes and composition also evolved during this period. In theory, every municipality in the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Philippines had a cabildo. Municipalities were not just the cities but included the surrounding lands. All lands were ultimately assigned to a municipality. Usually the cabildo reported to the presidente of the audiencia, who in turn reported to the viceroy.Cabildo (council) – 1810 meeting of the cabildo in Buenos Aires
136. Encomienda – The encomienda was a labor system, rewarding conquerors with the labor of particular groups of people. It was first established in Spain during the Roman period, but utilized also following the Christian reconquest of Muslim territory. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch and the award of an encomienda was a grant from the crown to a particular individual. In return, the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, any other agricultural product. In the first decade of Spanish presence in the Caribbean, Spaniards divided up the natives, who in some cases were worked relentlessly. With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system. In many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted. In the former Inca Empire, for example, the system continued the Incaic traditions of extracting tribute in the form of labor. The heart of encomienda and encomendero lies in the Spanish verb encomendar, "to entrust". The encomienda system in Spanish America differed from the Peninsular institution in that encomenderos did not own the land on which the natives lived. The system did not entail any direct land tenure by the encomendero; Indian lands were to remain in the possession of their communities. The first grantees of the encomienda or encomenderos were usually conquerors who received these grants of labor by virtue of participation in a successful conquest. Later, some receiving encomiendas in New Spain were not conquerors themselves but were sufficiently well connected that they received grants. Holders of encomiendas also included women and indigenous notables.Encomienda – Francisco Hernández Giron was a Spanish encomendero in the Viceroyalty of Peru who protested the New Laws in 1553. These laws, passed in 1542, gave certain rights to indigenous peoples and protected them against abuses. Drawing by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala.
137. Treaty of Tordesillas – The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494 and by Portugal, 5 September 1494. Originals of both treaties are kept at the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo in Portugal. Those countries generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation. On his way back to Spain he first reached Lisbon, in Portugal. There he asked for another meeting with King John II to show him the newly discovered lands. Also, the Portuguese King stated that he was already making arrangements for a fleet to depart shortly and take possession of the new lands. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were east of the line. By 1493 Portuguese explorers had reached the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the islands encountered by Columbus, but the explicit mention of India was a major issue. Even though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the resulting line the "Papal Line of Demarcation". Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen by Europeans, as it was only divided via the treaty. Castile gained lands including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven wealth. The easternmost part of current Brazil was granted to Portugal when in 1500 Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there while he was en route to India. The line was not strictly enforced—the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.Treaty of Tordesillas – Front page of the Portuguese-owned treaty
138. Treaty of Zaragoza – The conflict sprang in 1520, when the expeditions of both kingdoms reached the Pacific Ocean, since there was not a set limit to the east. In 1494 Castile and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, colonizing areas: the Castilian and the Portuguese. It stated a meridian in the Atlantic Ocean, to Portugal. In 1511 Malacca, then the center of Asian trade, was conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque. Before reaching Banda, they first touched the islands of Buru, Ambon, Seram, then the Banda Islands. The expedition reached with difficulty the Moluccas, docking at Tidore, where the Spanish later founded a fort. In 1524 both kingdoms organized the Junta de Badajoz-Elvas to resolve the issue. John III and Charles V agreed to not send anyone else to get Moluccan spices until finding in whose hemisphere were the islands. Between 1528 Portugal sent several expeditions around the Moluccas. Possible Gomes de Sequeira, sighted the Aru Islands and the Tanimbar Islands. From there he reached Waigeo in the Bird's Head Peninsula. Members of the Garcia Jofre de Loaísa expedition were made prisoners by the Portuguese and its survivors return by west. These crossed weddings strengthened the ties between the two crowns, easing an agreement on the Moluccas. The Treaty of Zaragoza stated the meridian was 17 ° east of the Maluku Islands as the border between the two domain zones. Portugal's portion was roughly 191 ° whereas Spain's portion was roughly °.Treaty of Zaragoza – The 1494 Tordesilhas Treaty meridian (purple) and the Moluccas antimeridian (green), set at the Treaty of Zaragoza, 1529
139. Peace of Westphalia – The Treaty of Osnabrück, involving the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden and their respective allies. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. A norm was established against interference in another state's domestic affairs. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs, provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King, were started in Cologne in 1641. These negotiations were initially blocked by France. Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies, whether sovereign or a state within the Holy Roman Empire. In Hamburg and Lübeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg. This was done with the intervention of Richelieu. Sweden declared the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall agreement. This larger agreement was negotiated in Westphalia, in the neighbouring cities of Münster and Osnabrück. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. Münster was, since its re-Catholization in 1535, a strictly mono-denominational community. It housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted.Peace of Westphalia – The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster, 15 May 1648 (1648) by Gerard ter Borch
140. Treaty of Ryswick – The Treaty of Ryswick, or Ryswyck, was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick in the Dutch Republic. Under the terms of the treaty, France did gain recognition over Acadia and Saint-Domingue. Negotiations started in May. Soon, on 20 September a treaty of peace was signed between France and the three powers, England, the United Provinces. A treaty between the Holy Roman Empire was signed on the following 30 October. The basis of the peace was that all towns and districts seized since the Treaty of Nijmegen should be restored. Then France surrendered Freiburg, Breisach and Philippsburg to the Holy Roman Empire, although it kept Strasbourg. The War of the Grand Alliance also played out in North America, where it was called King William's War. The French colonies of Acadia and Canada, along with their Native allies, fought the northern English colonies and their Native allies. Still, the Treaty of Ryswick returned the territorial borders to where they had been before the war. The Iroquois nation, deserted by the English allies, continued to make war on the French colonies until the Great Peace of Montreal of 1701. "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. "The History of Haiti and the Haitian Revolution".Treaty of Ryswick – Huis ter Nieuwburg, where the Treaty was negotiated
141. Treaty of Utrecht – The treaties including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war. The War of the Spanish Succession was occasioned by the failure of Charles II of Spain to produce an heir. Fourteen years of war were the result. Great Britain had come to terms in October 1711, when the preliminaries of peace had been signed in London. The preliminaries were based on a tacit acceptance of the partition of Spain's European possessions. Following this, the Congress of Utrecht opened on 29 January 1712, with the British representatives being John Robinson, Thomas Wentworth, Lord Strafford. This assurance was given, so in February the Imperial representatives made their appearance. However, Philip was compelled to renounce for his descendants any right to the French throne. Utrecht marked the rise of later the House of Hanover; her exploits martial were due to Marlborough. Portugal had its sovereignty recognised over the lands between the Amazon and Oyapock rivers, in Brazil. In 1715, the Portuguese also recovered Colónia do Sacramento, previously taken by Spain in Uruguay. In North America, France ceded to Great Britain its claims in Rupert's Land. They also ceded the Acadian colony of Nova Scotia. The formerly partitioned island of Saint Kitts was also ceded to Britain. Commerce with the Far Indians was to be open to traders of all nations.Treaty of Utrecht – A first edition of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht between Great Britain and Spain in Spanish (left) and a later edition in Latin and English.
142. Congress of Breda – They lacked the participation of the other warring European states. There was a strong faction in Britain, which grew in strength after a number of military setbacks. Equally, France had those who advocated peace because the war was draining money. The British were represented by the Marquis de Puisieulx. The discussions convened in August 1746. Immediately they started to flounder, as it became apparent to both sides that the other was holding something back. Unsatisfied by his performance, the French had replaced him. Sandwich stalled the talks by demanding his replacement to prove his accreditation. There were further delays when a Spanish delegate turned up, claiming to have authority to represent the King of Spain. The British were constantly aware of the French strategy, as letters to the French delegates were intercepted and copied by postmasters in British pay. While there, Sandwich was appointed British Ambassador to the Dutch Republic. Prussian control over Silesia would be recognised. In the long run, that contributed to the breakdown of the Anglo-Austrian Alliance. Sandwich was rewarded by being made First Lord of the Admiralty, a post in the British cabinet. Newcastle and he were attacked for giving up Louisbourg, Britain's only significant gain in the war, to France.Congress of Breda – Breda Castle where some of the talks were held.
143. Treaty of Paris (1783) – The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire and the new country, to the United States. Details included fishing rights and restoration of war. Only 1 of the treaty, the legal underpinning of United States' existence as a sovereign country, remains in force. Peace negotiations continued through the summer. Representing the United States were Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams. David Hartley and Richard Oswald represented Great Britain. The treaty was signed at the Hotel d'York in Paris by Adams, Franklin, Jay, Hartley. Everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it could capture Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar. The United States be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain would take the north of the Ohio River. In the area south of that would be set up an Indian state under Spanish control. It would be an Indian state. However,the Americans realized that they could get a better deal directly from London. John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France and Spain.Treaty of Paris (1783) – Benjamin West 's painting of the delegations at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.
144. History of Mexico City – At its height, Tenochtitlan had enormous temples and palaces, a huge ceremonial center, residences of political, religious, merchants. Its population perhaps as high as 200,000 in 1519 when the Spaniards first saw it. During the final stage of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan was essentially razed. Some of the oldest structures in Mexico City date from the early era. Colonial-era buildings remain standing and have been re-purposed government buildings and museums. The economic elites of the country lived, even if their sources of wealth were elsewhere. It was also a educational center, with the University of Mexico founded in 1553 as part of the complex of the Plaza Mayor. Religious institutions for the education of the sons of Spanish elites were also based in the capital. Mexico City had the colony's largest concentration of those of Spanish heritage, well as the largest concentration of mixed race casta population in the colony. Many Indians also lived outside the center of the capital. Following independence in 1821 to the current era, Mexico City remains the country's most important city. At the beginning of the 20th century, the city's population stood at about 500,000. The city's history in the 21st centuries has been marked by explosive population growth and the problems that have accompanied it. The center deteriorated. And the building of the Mexico City Metro has allowed alleviated some major transportation problems.History of Mexico City – Foundation of Mexico City by José María Jara
145. Xalapa – Xalapa is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality. In the 2005 census the city reported the municipality of which it serves as municipal seat reported a population of 413,136. The municipality has an area of 118.45 km². Xalapa is the second-largest city in the state after the city of Veracruz to the southeast. The Xalapa comes from the Nahuatl roots xālli "sand" and āpan "water place", which approximately means "spring in the sand." It is classically pronounced in Nahuatl, though the final /n/ is often omitted; the /ʃ/ sound was written x in the 16th century. Its counterpart is the or sound, normally written j. The Xalapa reflects the archaic pronunciation. The full name of the city is Xalapa-Enríquez, named in honor of 19th-century Governor Juan la Luz Enríquez. The city's nickname, La ciudad de las flores, was bestowed by Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the town on 10 February 1804. The reference is also related to the city's earlier history. In folklore, the Spaniards believed that Xalapa was the home of the Florecita, which literally means "little flower". Residents of Xalapa are called Xalapeños or Jalapeños, the name given to the long peppers cultivated in this area. The Totonacs were the first people to establish themselves around the fifth mountain in Nahuatl language. An extinct volcano, received its name after the Aztecs used it as the fifth reference mountain to get to the gulf of Mexico's shores.Xalapa – Coat of arms
146. Puebla City – Due to its history and architectural styles ranging from Renaissance to Mexican Baroque, the city was named a World Heritage Site in 1987. The city is also famous for chiles en pottery. However, most of its economy is based on industry. Many students come from all over the country to study in its many renowned and prestigious colleges like BUAP, UDLAP, Ibero, UPAEP, Tecnologico de Monterrey, etc. As a result, many suppliers to Volkswagen and Audi assembly plants have opened factories in the metro area of Puebla. According to legend, the bishop had a dream about where to build the city. In this dream, he saw a valley with woods and meadows crossed by a clear river and dotted with fresh-water springs on fertile land. While he was contemplating this scenery, he supposedly saw a group of angels descend from heaven and trace out the city. Convinced he had seen a divine vision, he celebrated Mass, took some of the brothers out in search of the place. Five leagues from the monastery he declared they had found the place shown in the dream. This legend is the source of Puebla’s original name, Puebla de los Ángeles, its current nickname Angelópolis. Carlos I King of Spain, he accepted the construction between Mexico City and Veracruz, below are 7 rivers which cross the city. Several rivers flow through the Valley of the Alseseca. This valley was bordered by the indigenous city-states turned colonial towns of Cholula, Tlaxcala, Huejotzingo and Tepeaca, all of which had large indigenous populations. After the city’s foundation, this valley became the main route between Mexico City and Veracruz, the port on the Caribbean coast and the connection to Spain.Puebla City – Puebla Puebla
147. Toluca – Toluca, officially called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca. It is the center of a rapidly growing urban area, now the fifth largest in Mexico. It is located 63 kilometres west-southwest of Mexico City, about 40 minutes to the western edge of the city. According to the 2010 census, the city of Toluca has a population of 819,561. The city is the fifth largest in Mexico in population. When Toluca was founded by the Matlatzincas, its original name was Nepintahihui. The current name is based for the area when it was renamed by the Aztecs in 1473. It is also referred meaning hill of the god, Tolo, an allusion to the nearby volcano. The name Toluca de Lerdo was adopted in honor of President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. In 1478 the Mexica emperor Axayacatl conquered the Toluca Valley. Some lands were distributed to kings and nobles from the Valley of Mexico. One of the rivals of Calixtlahuaca was a minor city-state before 1478. When Axayacatl destroyed Calixtlahuaca, he placed the provincial capital in Tollocan. Other towns in the Toluca Valley paid tribute to the Aztec Empire through Tollocan. After the Spanish conquest, the Tollocan was changed to Toluca.Toluca – Toluca
148. Cuernavaca – Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. It was is designated as the archaeological site of Gualupita I. The city is located south of Mexico City, from which it may be reached after a drive of approximately 1/2 hours using the D-95 Freeway. The city was nicknamed the "City of Eternal Spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. It has long been foreign visitors because of this warm, stable climate and abundant vegetation. Today many famous people as well as Mexico City residents maintain homes there. Cuernavaca is also host including large numbers of students who come to study the Spanish language. The name "Cuernavaca" means "surrounded by or close to trees". The name eventually was Hispanicized to Cuernavaca. Cuernavaca was nicknamed "city of eternal spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. Its temperature is kept fairly constant in the 70s. It is located on the southern slope of the Sierra de Chichinautzin mountains. In the morning, warm air flows up the mountains from the valley in the late afternoon, cooler air flows down from the higher elevations. This pleasant climate has attracted royalty and nobles since Aztec times. Most of the Aztec emperors called their summer residence.Cuernavaca
149. Oaxaca City – The city and municipality of Oaxaca de Juárez, or simply Oaxaca, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of the same name. It, along with the archeological site of Monte Albán, were named a World Heritage Site in 1987. It is nicknamed "la Verde Antequera" due to the variety of structures built from a native green stone. The coat of arms for the municipality bears the image of the decapitated Donaji, an indigenous princess in the years immediately after the Conquest. The Aztecs named it "Huaxyacac," a Nahuatl phrase meaning "among the huaje" trees. When the Spanish arrived in 1521, the Mixtecs were involved in one of their many wars. Spanish conquest would end this fighting. The Spanish expedition here arrived late in 1521, headed by Captain Francisco de Orozco, accompanied by 400 Aztecs. Hernán Cortés sent Francisco de Orozco to Oaxaca because Moctezuma II said that the Aztec's gold came from there. The Spanish expedition under Orozco set about building a Spanish city where the military post was at the base of the Cerro de Fortín. This group of Spaniards began construction of the cathedral of Oaxaca in 1522. Their name for the settlement was a Hispanization of the Nahuatl name. The establishment of the relatively independent village did not suit Hernán Cortes, who wanted power for himself. Cortés sent Pedro de Alvarado, who proceeded to drive out most of the village's population. Again, the original founders appealed to Spanish royal authority, this time to the viceroy in Mexico City, Nuño de Guzmán.Oaxaca City
150. Morelia – Morelia is a city and municipality in the north central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The city is the capital and largest city of the state. No major cities were founded in the valley during this time. The Spanish took control of the area in the 1520s. In 1580, it became the capital of the colonial province. After the Mexican War of Independence, the city was renamed Morelia in honor of José María Morelos, who hailed from the city. In 1991, the city was declared layout of the historic center. Human settlements in the Guayangareo Valley in which Morelia is located have been dated back far as the 7th century. Artifacts found here have shown Teotihuacán influence on early cultures in this area. In the 12th century, the Purépecha arrived in the valley. They did not build any major settlements here. Between the 15th century, Matlatzincas moved into the area with permission of the Purépechas, who were based around nearby Pátzcuaro Lake. The main Matlatzinca settlement was where Júarez Plaza in the city is today. The Spanish pushed into the Guayangareo Valley between 1526, headed by Gonzalo Gómez. In the 1530s, the area was evangelized by Franciscans such as Antonio de Lisboa.Morelia – Cathedral of Morelia
151. Campeche City – The city's population at the 2010 census was 220,389, the municipality for which it serves as municipal seat had a population of 259,005. The city was founded as San Francisco de Campeche atop the Maya city of Can Pech. The Pre-Columbian city was described as having 3,000 houses and various monuments, of which little trace remains. The city retains many of the old colonial Spanish city walls and fortifications which protected the city from pirates and buccaneers. The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999. Originally, the Spaniards lived inside the walled city, while the natives lived in the surrounding barrios of San Francisco, Guadalupe and San Román. These barrios still retain their original churches; the one in Guadalupe is almost 500 years old. Founded in 1540 by Francisco Montejo, Campeche was terrorized by pirates and marauders until the city started fortification in 1686. San Francisco de Campeche was originally an indigenous village, Ah Kim Pech, where the Spanish first landed in Mexico in 1517. The city of Campeche was founded in 1540 and fortified against pirates during the 17th century. It still has the appearance of a fortress. Historical buildings, such as the old city walls and forts, attract many tourists. The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a World Heritage Site in 1999. More than thousand buildings with a historic value have survived as temporal superimposition of several historic periods of Mexico. The French engineer Louis Bouchard de Becour was commissioned to unify all the defensive works that surrounded the city with a wall.Campeche City – San Francisco de Campeche
152. Durango City – Durango, officially Victoria de Durango and also known as Ciudad de Durango, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Durango. It stands at an altitude of 1,880 metres above level. The city was founded by Spanish Basque explorer Francisco de Ibarra. As of 2010, the city had a total population of 518,709, up from 463,830 as of 2005. It serves as municipal seat of Durango Municipality which had a population of 582,267 in 2010. The municipality includes such outlying communities as El Nayar and Cinco de Mayo. The city of Durango was built on a wide valley in which a Spanish village named Nombre de Dios was founded. According to the 1921 Mexican census, the city had a population of 67,456 out of which 21,300 were European immigrants. The city of Durango is located in Midwestern part of the Mexican plateau. The municipality is 10.041 square kilometers. Its longest measured lengths are 520 kilometers and 480 kilometers to west. The city of Durango has a semi-arid climate, classified in the Köppen climate classification system. The climate is temperate in the western portion, with the annual temperature being 15 ° C and an average annual rainfall of 1,600 millimetres. In the eastern region, the annual temperature is 19 ° C and precipitation amounts to 500 millimetres. Winters are mild, with an daytime high of 21 ° C in January, the coldest month.Durango City – Panoramic view
153. Monterrey – Monterrey, is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico. The city is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey is the base of many significant international corporations. It is one of the wealthiest cities in the world with a GDP PPP of 130.7 billion dollars in 2012. Monterrey's GDP PPP per capita is of approximately 32,000 dollars. It is considered a Beta World City, competitive. Monterrey is located at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts with its founding by Diego de Montemayor. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a industrial growth. Prior to the European foundation of the city, the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups. Carved stone and painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as an area largely unexplored by the Spanish colonizers. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, around 1,000 kilometers northwards. The city was a place that facilitated trade to the center of the country.Monterrey – Monterrey
154. Guanajuato City – Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío. It is in a narrow valley, which makes its streets narrow and winding. Most are alleys that cars cannot pass through, some are long sets of stairs up the mountainsides. Many of the city’s thoroughfares are partially or fully underground. The historic center has civil constructions built using green sandstone. The origin and growth of Guanajuato resulted from the discovery of minerals in the mountains surrounding it. The mines were so rich that the city was one of the most influential during the colonial period. One of the mines, La Valenciana, accounted for two-thirds of the world’s silver production at the height of its production. It is also home to the Festival Internacional Cervantino, which invites artists and performers from all over the world as well as Mexico. Guanajuato was the site of the first battle of the Mexican War of Independence between insurgent and royalist troops at the Alhóndiga de Granaditas. The city was named a World Heritage Site in 1988. The first known inhabitants of the area were the Otomi, who were then displaced by the Chichimeca. There was Purépecha presence as well. The oldest known name for the area is “Mo-o-ti,” which means “place of metals.”Guanajuato City – A view of downtown Guanajuato from the El Pípila monument
155. Zacatecas City – Zacatecas is a city and municipality in Mexico, the capital and largest city of the state of Zacatecas. Located in north-central Mexico, the city had its start as a Spanish mining camp in the mid-16th century. Native Americans had already known about the area's rich deposits of silver and other minerals. The colonial part of the city is a World Heritage Site, due to other structures built during its mining days. Mining still remains an important industry. The name Zacatecas is derived from the Zacateco people and has its roots in Nahuatl. The name means "people of the grasslands." The first people to populate the area arrived approximately 10,000 years ago, when the climate was warmer, with different wildlife. These peoples were mining silver and other metals in these hills long before the Europeans arrived, making the area important in pre-Columbian times. The Spanish came to the Zacatecas area via Guadalajara. In 1540, Nuño de Guzmán traveled from Mexico City conquering what are now the states of Michoacán and Jalisco. One of Guzmán's lieutenants, Cristobal de Oñate, conquered the area around what is now Guadalajara. And the area initially was simply frontier. A camp was soon established at the foot of Cerro la Bufa. Surveys of the other surrounding hills were undertaken by Tolosa, Diego de Ibarra, others.Zacatecas City – View of Zacatecas
156. Pachuca – Pachuca, formally known as Pachuca de Soto, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Hidalgo. It is located in the south-central part of the state. Pachuca de Soto is also the name of the municipality of which the city serves as municipal seat. Pachuca is located about 90 kilometres from Mexico City via Mexican Federal Highway 85. There is no consensus about the origin of the Pachuca. It has been traced to the word pachoa, patlachuican. The official name of Pachuca is Pachuca de Soto in honor of congressman Manuel Fernando Soto, given credit for the creation of Hidalgo state. Its nickname of "La airosa" comes from the strong winds that blow into the valley through the canyons to the north of the city. In the indigenous Otomi language, Pachuca is known as Nju̱nthe. Pachuca remained a major mining center with the city's fortunes going up and down with the health of the mining sector. Mining forms only a fraction of the municipality's economy. One cultural aspect that makes Pachuca stand out is the influence that Cornish miners who immigrated here in the 19th century have had. Evidence of human habitation in this area is found in Cerro de las Navajas and Zacualtipán, in the Sierra de Pachuca. Here primitive mines to extract green obsidian, arrow heads, mammoth remains can be traced back as far as 12,000 BCE. An ancient pre-Hispanic obsidian center has also been found in the small town of San Bartolo near the city.Pachuca – Seal
157. Saltillo – Saltillo is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 258 kilometres west of the Texas border, 87 kilometres west of Nuevo León. As of the 2005 census, Saltillo had a population of 725,095 people. 823,098 people reside within the metropolitan area, making the 19th biggest metro area in the country. The area comprises the municipalities of Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Arteaga. Its 4-metre cross overlook the city. The city's elevation, at 1,600 metres, makes cooler and windier than the neighboring city of Monterrey. Saltillo lies in the Chihuahuan Desert. The city is flanked by the Zapalinamé mountains, which are part of the Sierra Madre Oriental. By looking at the relief of the mountains, one can see, according to local legend, chieftain of the Guachichil tribe. Saltillo has a semi-arid climate. Winters are sunny but cool. Rainfall is more prominent in summer. The city of Saltillo is the municipal seat of the municipality of Saltillo. The current Mayor is Isidro Lopez Villareal from the Partido Accion Nacional.Saltillo – City of Saltillo
158. Yerba Buena, California – Yerba Buena was the original name of the Spanish settlement that would later become San Francisco, California. The settlement was arranged around a plaza that remains as the present day Portsmouth Square. The name of the town was taken to the pueblo site. The plant's common name, the same in English and Spanish, is an alternate form of the Spanish hierba buena. The Portolá expedition, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá arrived overland from Mexico on November 2, 1769. A second group of this time accompanied by settlers, arrived in June 1776, led by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista De Anza. Moraga chose a location approximately halfway between the two sites to build housing for the workers, which became known as Yerba Buena. The settlers began building. In 1804 Las Californias province was split still within the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain. The faraway Mexican government paid little attention to Yerba Buena. Over the years the area between the housing area of Yerba Buena filled in. The old plaza is today's Portsmouth Square. In 1835, Englishman William A. Richardson erected a homestead near the anchorage of Yerba Buena Cove. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a plan for the expanded settlement, which retained the name Yerba Buena. A large building on the water's edge was purchased.Yerba Buena, California – Yerba Buena and Yerba Buena Island in the 1840s.
159. History of San Jose, California – For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. He explored north with a small group. His name lives on in many buildings and street names. In 1778, the pueblo had a population of 68. In the ensuing years a number of Mexican Rancho Land Grants Land Grants were confirmed within the lands now considered San Jose. During the Bear Flag Revolt, Captain Thomas Fallon captured the pueblo without bloodshed on July 11, 1846. Fallon would later become the tenth mayor of San Jose. It's unclear whether or not Fallon ordered all townspeople of San Jose, as some local historians claimed. During the California Gold Rush period, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mines south of the city were the largest mercury mines in North America. Mining operations began at what was the first operating mine in the province, just in time for the Gold Rush. The importance of the industry at the time explains why the local newspaper is named the Mercury News. On March 1850, San Jose became the first incorporated city in the U.S. state of California; the first mayor was Josiah Belden. From 1858 to 1861, San Jose was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail line. In 1881, because of a forceful campaign by editor J.J. By 1884 was used only for ceremonial purposes.History of San Jose, California – The 200th anniversary (1977) of the El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe founding in Las Californias: marked by this Commemorative U.S. postage stamp.
160. Presidio of San Diego – El Presidio Reál de San Diego is a historic fort in San Diego, California. The presidio was the first European settlement on the Pacific Coast of the present-day United States. As Spanish missions in California, it was the base of operations for the Spanish colonization of California. The associated Mission San Diego de Alcalá later moved a few miles away. Essentially abandoned by 1835, the site of the original Presidio lies on a hill within present-day Presidio Park, although no historic structures remain. The San Diego Presidio was registered as a California Historical Landmark in 1932, then declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. Prior to occupation by the Spanish, the site of the Presidio was home to the Kumeyaay people. The first Europeans to explore its environs were members of the maritime expedition led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. No settlement was made until the fort was begun in May 1769. Later that year, on July 1769, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was established by Junípero Serra on Presidio Hill. The presidio had a commanding view of the Pacific Ocean, allowing the Spanish to see potential intruders. Less than a month after the mission was established, a boy was killed. After the attack, the Spaniards built a stockade, finished in March 1770. It included two bronze cannons: one pointed to the nearby Indian village. One of El Jupiter, is now in the Serra Museum.Presidio of San Diego – San Diego Presidio
161. Santa Fe, New Mexico – Santa Fe is the capital of the state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of Santa Fe County. This area was occupied for at least several hundred years by indigenous peoples who built villages. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012. The city's full name when founded was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The area of Santa Fe was originally occupied by indigenous people, who had built a number of Pueblo villages about 1050 to 1150. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900. The people settled for its transportation. The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway. As of 2007, the river was recognized according to the group American Rivers. Santa Fe remained Spain's provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Louis, Missouri. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis. When the Republic of Texas seceded in 1836, it claimed Santa Fe along the Rio Grande.Santa Fe, New Mexico – Santa Fe's Downtown Area
162. Albuquerque, New Mexico – Albuquerque is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. The high-altitude city serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County, it is situated in the central part of the state, straddling the Rio Grande. The Albuquerque metropolitan statistical area has a population of 907,301 according to the United States Census Bureau's most recently available estimate for 2015. Albuquerque is the 60th-largest United States metropolitan area. The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, the Rio Grande flows through the city, north to south. Albuquerque is also the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the world's largest such gathering of hot-air balloons from around the globe. The event takes place during the first week of October. Albuquerque was named in honor of Francisco, Duke of Alburquerque, viceroy of New Spain from 1653 to 1660. The growing village soon to become Albuquerque was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdes. Francisco's title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the Spanish province of Badajoz, near Portugal. The name has two theories of origin which denote either Latin or Arabic roots. The first of which derived from the Latin albus quercus meaning "white oak". This name was probably in reference to the prevalence of cork oaks in the region, which have a white wood when the bark is removed. Alburquerque is still a center of the Spanish cork industry, the town coat-of-arms features a white cork oak. Another theory suggests that it may come from the Arabic Abu al-Qurq, which means "father of the cork ".Albuquerque, New Mexico – Francisco, Duke of Alburquerque
163. El Paso, Texas – El Paso is the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States. The city is situated in the far western corner of the state of Texas. El Paso stands on the Rio Grande across the border from Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The two cities, along with form a combined metropolitan area, sometimes referred as El Paso -- Juárez -- Las Cruces. The region of over million people constitutes the largest binational force in the western hemisphere. The city hosts the second oldest game in the country. El Paso has a strong federal and military presence. Fort Bliss call the home. Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. Also headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, U.S. Border Patrol El Paso Sector, U.S. Border Patrol Special Operations Group. In 2010, El Paso received an All-America City Award. El Paso has been ranked the safest large city in the U.S. for four consecutive years and ranked in the top three since 1997. As of July 2015, the estimate from the U.S. Census was 681,124, making the 20th most populous city proper in the United States.El Paso, Texas – From upper left: downtown El Paso skyline, star on the Franklin Mountains, The Cathedral of Saint Patrick, Wyler Aerial Tramway, North Franklin Peak, downtown El Paso at night
164. Los Adaes – Los Adaes was the capital of Tejas on the northeastern frontier of New Spain from 1729 to 1770. It included a mission, a presidio, Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Los Adaes. The name Adaes represents the indigenous Adai people, who were to be served by the mission. The site, now preserved in the state-run Los Adaes State Historic Site, is located on Louisiana Highway 485 in present-day Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In 1699, French forts were established on the Mississippi River, ending Spain's exclusive control of the Gulf Coast. On April 1716, an expedition led by Domingo Ramón left San Juan Bautista for Tejas, intending to establish four missions and a presidio. At the same time, the French were building a fort in Natchitoches, having founded the town in 1714. The Spanish countered by founding two more missions just west including San Miguel de los Adaes. In 1719, European powers embarked on the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The French soldiers explained that 100 additional soldiers were coming; the Spanish colonists, remaining soldiers abandoned the area and fled to San Antonio. The Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo raised an army of 500 soldiers. By July 1721 Aguayo reached the Neches River. His expedition encountered a French force en route to attack San Antonio de Bexar. The outnumbered Frenchmen agreed to retreat to Louisiana.Los Adaes – Los Adaes
165. History of San Antonio – The City of San Antonio is one of the oldest Spanish colonization of the European settlements in Texas and was, for decades, its largest city. Before Spanish colonization, the site was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Payaya Indians were likely those who encountered the first Europeans. Development of the colonial city followed construction of a fort in 1717. The town developed as the capital of Tejas, a province of colonial Spain. It was the northernmost settlement associated with the Hispanic culture of the Valley of Mexico. After Mexico achieved independence in 1821, Anglo-American settlers entered the region from the United States. In 1849,Anglo-Americans gained control of San Antonio in the fighting that gained independence for the Republic of Texas. In 1845 Texas became a state. After thousands of years of succeeding indigenous cultures, the historic Payaya Indians coalesced as a ethnic group. They lived in the San Pedro Springs area, which they called Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters". He described the river later to be named the San Antonio. He eventually rejoined Spanish colleagues in Mexico City. From the Convent of Querétaro, organized several expeditions to the Spanish crown. In 1691, a group of Spanish missionaries came upon the river and Native American settlement on June 13.History of San Antonio – Misión de San Antonio de Valero San Antonio (Tejas).
166. Tucson, Arizona – Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area was 980,263. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is located 108 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi north of the U.S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 59th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Roughly 150 Tucson companies are involved in the manufacture of optics and optoelectronics systems, earning Optics Valley. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Vail. Towns outside the Tucson area include Green Valley to the south. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo". Tucson was probably first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River have located a village site dating from 2100 BC. The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150. These people grew other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting. The Early Ceramic occupation of Tucson saw the extensive use of pottery vessels for storage.Tucson, Arizona – Tucson's Stone Avenue in 1880
167. Pensacola, Florida – Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 51,923, down from 56,255 at the 2000 census. Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, protected by the barrier island of Santa Rosa and connects to the Gulf of Mexico. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center. The area was originally inhabited by Muskogean peoples. The Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Creek people frequently visited and traded from present-day southern Alabama. Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the modern city gradually developed. The area changed hands several times as European powers competed in North America. During Florida's British rule, fortifications were strengthened. The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples. At the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region. This name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city. This site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, five of which are arranged around a central plaza.Pensacola, Florida – Up Clockwise: Pensacola Skyline, T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum, University of West Florida Library, Escambia County Courthouse, William Dudley Chipley Obelisk, National Naval Aviation Museum
168. St. Augustine, Florida – St. Augustine is a city in the southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast in northeastern Florida. It is the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the continental United States. The county seat of St. Johns County, it is part of Florida's First Coast region and the Jacksonville metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 12,975. The United States Census Bureau's 2013 estimate of the city's population was 13,679, while the urban area had a population of 69,173 in 2012. Saint Augustine was founded 451 years ago on September 8, 1565, by Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor. In 1562, a group of Huguenots led by Jean Ribault arrived in Spanish Florida to establish a colony in the territory claimed by Spain. Spain learned of this French expedition through its spies at ports on the Atlantic coast of France. The Huguenot nobleman René de Laudonnière, who had participated in the expedition, returned to Florida in 1564 with three ships and 300 Huguenot colonists. He arrived at the mouth of the River May on June 22, 1564, sailed up it a few miles, founded Fort Caroline. He was ordered as well to drive away any intruders who were not subjects of the Spanish crown. Menéndez then sailed north and confronted Ribault's fleet outside the bar of the River May in a brief skirmish. There they were confronted by the Spaniard and his men on the opposite side. In 1572, the settlement was relocated to the mainland, in the area just south of the future town plaza. After several more transatlantic crossings, Menéndez fell ill and died on September 17, 1574.St. Augustine, Florida – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
169. History of Havana – This article is about the History of Havana, the capital city of Cuba. Its natural bay were first visited by Europeans during Sebastián de Ocampo's circumnavigation of the island in 1509. Thereafter, in 1510, the first Spanish colonists arrived from Hispaniola and began the conquest of Cuba. The final city's location was adjacent to what was then called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519. The quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. This final establishment is commemorated by El Templete. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more for the Conquista of other lands. Hernán Cortés organized his expedition from the island. Havana suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates, French corsairs. The first attack and burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. The pirate took Havana easily, burning much of it to the ground. De Sores left without obtaining the enormous wealth he was hoping to find in Havana. A single fleet could more easily be protected by the Spanish Armada or Navy. Following a royal decree in 1561, all ships headed for Spain were required to assemble this fleet in the Havana Bay. Together, the fleet departed Havana for Spain by September.History of Havana – NASA photo of Havana, showing narrow inlet to Bay of Havana, and green spaces.
170. San Juan, Puerto Rico – San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico's capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic. San Juan is the island's manufacturing, cultural, tourism center. San Juan is also a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name, Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the Americas. Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. Artillery from San Juan's fort, El Morro, repelled Drake; however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken.San Juan, Puerto Rico – Ruins of Juan Ponce de León's residence at Caparra
171. Antigua Guatemala – It served as the capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Antigua Guatemala serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of the same name. It also serves as the departmental capital of Sacatepéquez Department. The city had a peak population of some 60,000 in the 1770s; the bulk of the population moved away in the 18th century. Despite significant growth in the late 20th century, the city had only reached half that number by the 1990s. According to the 2007 census, the city has some 34,685 inhabitants. Antigua Guatemala was the third capital of Guatemala. Naturally, St. James became the saint of the city. This new city was located on the site of present-day San Miguel Escobar, a neighborhood in the municipality of Ciudad Vieja. This city was destroyed by a devastating lahar from the Volcán de Agua. As a result, the colonial authorities decided to move the capital this time five miles away to the Panchoy Valley. So, again, it was named Santiago de los Caballeros. During its splendor, it was known as one of the three most beautiful cities of the Spanish Indies. The city was from east to west, with a central square.Antigua Guatemala – La Antigua Guatemala Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala
172. History of Manila – Manilese history begins around 65,000 B.C. the time the Callao Man first settled in the Philippines, predating the arrival of the Negritos and the Malayo-Polynesians. Manila became the seat of the colonial government of Spain when it gained sovereignty in 1565. The seat of the Spanish government was situated within the fortified walls of Old Manila. The walls were constructed to protect the city from native uprisings. Several communities eventually grew outside the walls of Manila. There were a number of raids and invasion attempts made during the Spanish period. The city was rebuilt in after the war. It was the second most destroyed city in the world after Warsaw, Poland during World War II. The Metropolitan Manila region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975. The city became known as Maynila, first recorded as Maynilad or "Manila". It is either from the phrase may nila, Tagalog for "there is nila," or it has a prefix ma- indicating the place where something is prevalent. Nila itself is probably from Sanskrit nila meaning ` tree'. The idea that the name is actually "nilad" is baseless. It was also known by its neighbors. The said kingdom flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty with China.History of Manila – Golden Mosque of Manila
173. The Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish: Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been understandable confusion about use of the plural The Californias by colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its character was ascertained, it was called simply California; but the territory so designated was unlimited in extent. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived, but with a more definite signification than before. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was in 1683. The mission became the nucleus of the province. The Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, Franciscans were brought in to take over. Gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The Nueva unexplored areas to the north. The single province was divided into Alta California province and Baja California province. Expansion came through colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, the Franciscan missionaries and others. Independent Mexico demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. The split of the two Californias was restored.The Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
174. Alta California – The region included all of the modern states of California, Nevada, Utah, parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were never colonized. Beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican -- American War in 1848. Two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the later U.S. states of Wyoming. The Spanish considered the area a domain of the Spanish monarchy. During the following two centuries there were various plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the population to settle such a far northern outpost. To ascertain a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched. Presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolá in San Diego in 1769. The following year, 1770, presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu. The missionary effort coincided with the construction of pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781.Alta California – Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain. Map dated 1789 from Dobson's Encyclopedia.
175. Nueva Galicia – El Nuevo Reino de Galicia or simply Nueva Galicia was an autonomous kingdom of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was named in Spain. Nueva Galicia's territory became the Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Zacatecas. Spanish exploration of the area began with Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán's expedition. The name was not approved. At the moment the acting regent of Spain, named the area "el Reino de Nueva Galicia." The Mixtón War, which lasted from 1540–1541, pitted an alliance of Coras, Gauchichiles and Caxcans against the settlers. Nine years later the Chichimeca War broke out, this time pitting mostly Zacatecos against the Caxcan, who had now allied with the Spanish. Nahuas from the Valley of Mexico moved into the region along with the Spanish as the area was settled. In the last decades of the sixteenth century Huichols also arrived. The Audiencia of Guadalajara had oversight of all the mainland provinces of the Viceroyalty. The Audencia at first was made independent in 1572, with a separate governor or president. This enabled New Galicia to be ruled largely separate from the rest of the Viceroyalty. There are a number of published chronicles on colonial Nueva Galicia. A 1621 account by Descripción de la Nueva Galicia gives considerable information about the indigenous peoples of the area.Nueva Galicia – New Galicia Nueva Galicia
176. Nueva Vizcaya – Nueva Vizcaya is a province of the Philippines located in Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Bayombong. The name Nueva Vizcaya is been derived in the Spanish period. This can be seen in the right part of the seal, a representation of the heraldic of Vizcaya in Spain. Organized religion in Nueva Vizcaya dates back to the year 1607, when the Dominican Order arrived at the hinterlands of the province to preach their beliefs. It was not until 1609, however, that the first settlement of a religious order was established in the southern half of the province. It was on this site that the first mass in Nueva Vizcaya was celebrated and the first baptism of a Christian convert was held. In 1839, upon the advice of the alcalde mayor of Cagayan, then-Governor Luis Lardizabal issued an order creating the politico-military province of Nueva Vizcaya. The order was approved on April 1841. The original province covered the areas of present-day Nueva Vizcaya, a large portion of Isabela, as well as much of Aurora. Civil government was established in the province by the Philippine Commission in 1902. In 1908, the northwestern territory of Nueva Vizcaya was annexed to the newly organized sub-province of Ifugao. In 1971, with the passage of Republic Act No. 6394, Quirino, then a sub-province of Nueva Vizcaya, was separated from its mother province and made into a regular province. The influx of civilization and the infusion of modern technology to the life stream of the province induced immigration from adjacent provinces.Nueva Vizcaya – Nueva Vizcaya Provincial Capitol
177. Bulacan – It was established on August 1578. Bulacan has 569 barangays from three component cities. It is located north of Metro Manila. It also lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay. In the 2015 census, it had a population of 3,292,071 people, the 2nd most populous in the Philippines. Bulacan's most populated city is the most populated municipality is Santa Maria while the least populated is Doña Remedios Trinidad. In 1899, the historic Barasoain Church in Malolos was the birthplace of the First Constitutional Democracy in Asia. Pre colonial Bulacan is not much documented as others in the Visayas region. Bulacan was said that Bulacan were administered from Tondo ruled by Lakandulas. In the Laguna Copperplate Inscription mentioned some settlements such as Paila, Binaungan. All a settlement under Tondo. Other colonial accounts on Bulacan was the ancient village called by Chinese traders "Lihan" as mentioned by Ferdinand Blumentritt is the present day Malolos. The Conquest of Bulacan traces in the Philippines. In April 1572, the Encomiendas of Calumpit and Malolos were unified co-administered by Moron and Herrera. And in December 28, 1575 Governor - General Francisco Sande order to include Hagonoy in Calumpit.Bulacan – The Bulacan Provincial Capitol
178. Pampanga – Pampanga or Pampaŋga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of San Fernando. Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is governed independently of the province. The name La Pampanga was given by the Spaniards, who encountered natives living along the banks of the Pampanga River. Its creation in 1571 makes the first Spanish province on Luzon Island. Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport, in some 16 kilometres north of the provincial capital. The province is home to the former United States Clark Air Base in Angeles City. By 2015, the province has 2,198,110 inhabitants, while it has 1,079,532 registered voters. Ancient Pampanga's territorial area included portions of the modern provinces of Tarlac, Bataan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. Pampanga was re-organized as a province on December 11, 1571. The encomiendas of La Pampanga at that time had eighteen hundred and eighty whole tributes. Pampanga, which inhabited by more than 1.5 million people, had its present borders drawn in 1873. During the Spanish regime it was one of the richest Philippine provinces. Its surrounding region were then primarily dependent on Kapampangan agricultural, fishery and forestry products as well as on the supply of skilled workers. As other Luzon provinces were created due to increases in population, some well-established Pampanga towns were lost to new emerging provinces in Central Luzon.Pampanga – Pampanga, 1899
179. Spanish Formosa – Spanish Formosa was a Spanish colony established in the north of Taiwan from 1626 to 1642. Named it Formosa due to the beautiful landscape as seen from the sea. The colony was meant to protect Spanish in the region by the Dutch base in the south of Taiwan. The Spanish colony was due to the unwillingness of Spanish colonial authorities in Manila to commit men and materiel for its defense. After seventeen years, the last fortress of the Spanish eventually fell, giving the Dutch control over most of the island. In 1566, the Dutch Revolt against King Philip II erupted. England and France invaded and looted many of Phillip II's overseas territories as part of the Eighty Years' War. The Dutch of the Seventeen Provinces in Dutch -- Portuguese War well as their allies England and France became enemies of both Portugal and Spain. The Dutch colonization of Formosa was part of a campaign designed to seize all the possessions including the Philippines. The Dutch began to take the string of coastal fortresses that comprised Phillip's Portuguese Asian possessions. The Dutch sought to dominate the commercial trade in Southeast Asia, even engaging in privateering. They preyed on sampans and junks from China and Japan trading at Manila. Catholic Phillip II was in competition in East Asia. As a counter to this threat, the Spanish decided to establish their own colony in the north of the island. Forts were built, both in the harbour itself.Spanish Formosa – Flag
180. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of trade routes and colonies. These voyages had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion. Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish, it is Cristóbal Colón. He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.Christopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
181. Ferdinand Magellan – Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in 1521. Ferdinand Magellan, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, reached a region of Southeast Asia, which he had reached on previous voyages traveling east. Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu. He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. After arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed. Under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained. He became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah.Ferdinand Magellan – Ferdinand Magellan
182. Conquistador – Conquistadors /kɒŋˌkɪstəˈdɔːrz/ is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 18th centuries. Human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time: from Africa and Eurasia to vice versa. The spread including smallpox, flu and typhus, decimated the inhabitants of the New World. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports. By the 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spain's total budget. The conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics, cavalry. Their units would often specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups. Their armies were mostly composed of other European soldiers. Native allied troops were infantry equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically. Some groups consisted without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties, soldiers with military training. These native forces often included Native Americans. They not only served as interpreters, informants, servants, teachers, physicians, scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were American women slaves who worked for the Spaniards.Conquistador – Conquistadors and their native Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan
183. Pedro de Alvarado – Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He is considered the conquistador of much including Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Historiography portrays that indigenous people, both Nahuatl-speakers and speakers of other languages, called him Tonatiuh, meaning "sun" in the Nahuatl language. Yet he was also called "Red Sun" in Nahuatl, which allows a variety of interpretations. Whether this epithet refers to Alvarado's red hair, some esoteric quality attributed to both, is disputed. Pedro de Alvarado was both a brilliant military commander and a cruel, hardened man. His beard were blond, which earned him the name of Tonatiuh from the Aztecs, the name of one of their sun gods. He was handsome, was volatile and quick to anger. He was ruthless in his dealings with the indigenous peoples he set out to conquer. His Spanish contemporaries denounced his extreme brutality during his lifetime. He was a poor governor of territories he had conquered, restlessly sought out new adventures. His tactical brutality, such as the massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, often undermined strategic considerations. He was also accused of cruelty against fellow Spaniards. Alvarado was little suited to govern; when he held governing positions, he did little to establish stable foundations for colonial rule. He only discussed exploration and war.Pedro de Alvarado – Pedro de Alvarado in a contemporaneous rendition.
184. Manuel Quimper – Manuel Quimper Benítez del Pino was a Spanish Peruvian explorer, cartographer, naval officer, colonial official. Quimper participated in charting the Sandwich Islands in the late 18th century. Quimper was later appointed a colonial governor at the beginning of the fight for independence there. He was born to a French father and Spanish mother. Little is known of Quimper's family. In late 1780 Quimper was assigned the transport of food from Callao to Talcahuano. In 1786 Quimper embarked to the Spanish port of Cádiz. The Spanish court was becoming increasingly concerned about Russian incursions along the Pacific Northwest coast of North America. Seven naval officers were dispatched to learn of Russian intentions. These included Peruvian Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, named commander of the Naval Department of San Blas. They departed aboard the San Ramon in May 1789. Shortly after their arrival at Veracruz, the seven were transferred to San Blas. In 1788 the British explorer John Meares had established a fur post on Nootka Sound. Spain had dispatched Martínez to occupy the port the following year. Martínez seized the port and some vessels, including the sloop Princess Royal which he renamed the Princesa Real.Manuel Quimper – This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2011)
185. Francisco de Ulloa – Francisco de Ulloa was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés. It is not known whether Ulloa accompanied Cortés to the New Spain. By the account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, he came to Mexico later while transporting letters from his wife. According to some early historians, Ulloa was influential in helping subdue the Aztec Tenochtitlan by naval power. The expedition left on July 8 reaching the Gulf of California six weeks later. Ulloa named the "Sea of Cortés" in honor of his patron. The progress of his small ships was hampered by high seas he encountered, eventually forcing him to turn back to New Spain. The voyage eventually reached 28 degrees north near the Isla de Cedros. Although a peninsula, his reports were used to create maps depicting California as an island. According to Díaz del Castillo, Ulloa was stabbed to death in 1540. By other accounts, his ship was lost without a trace from Baja California. Supposedly his ship was swept inland with a tsunami, later becoming known as the Lost Ship of the Desert. Catholic Encyclopedia Francisco de Ulloa AmericanJourneys.org Francisco de UlloaFrancisco de Ulloa – Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico
186. Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra – Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra was a Spanish naval officer born in Lima, Peru. In 1773 he was promoted to Ship Ensign, in 1774 to Ship Lieutenant. His family was of Basque origin. In 1775 under the command of Lieutenant Bruno de Heceta, the Spanish explored the Pacific Northwest. This followed the first Spanish expedition by Juan Pérez in 1774, who had failed to reach and claim the upper northwest coast for Spain. Bodega y Quadra was given the lesser position of second officer on the Sonora despite the fact that he outranked the others. So he was passed over for promotions. The Spaniards were given orders to explore the coast and to go ashore so that the newly discovered territories would be recognized as Spanish lands. Most important for the expedition was the identification of colonial Russian settlements. The ships left San Blas, New Spain, on 16 March 1775. Illnesses, storms, poor sailing capacities of the Sonora, other incidents slowed their progress. On 13 July 1775, they reached the vicinity of Point Grenville and Destruction Island in the present day U.S. state of Washington. He immediately realized his mistake and signaled the Santiago to not follow. The wind direction and changing tide trapped the Sonora between Sonora Reef and Point Grenville. The Santiago anchored a few miles to the south, in Grenville Bay.Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra – Captain Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, Spanish Navy, circa 1785. Spanish naval officer and explorer Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra wears the full dress uniform of a captain in the Spanish navy. (Museo Naval, Madrid)
187. Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa – Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa was a Spanish explorer, author, historian, mathematician, astronomer, scientist. His father Bartolomé Sarmiento was born in his mother María Gamboa was born in Bilbao, Basque Country. At the age of 18, Sarmiento de Gamboa entered the royal military in the European wars. Between 1555 the future navigator fought in the armies of Emperor Charles V. In 1555 Sarmiento began his exploring career, sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. His first destination was New Spain, where he lived for two years. Little is known of this period in his life, other than that he encountered difficulties with the Inquisition. Sarmiento then sailed to Peru, where he lived for more than twenty years, gaining a reputation as a navigator. In Lima Sarmiento was accused of following the precepts of Moses. The expedition failed to find gold and attempts at establishing a settlement in the Solomon Islands ended in failure. However, a trial was then held with the result giving Sarmiento credit for the discoveries. In 1572 Sarmiento was commissioned by the fifth Viceroy of Peru, to write a history of the Incas. Toledo hoped such a history would justify Spanish colonisation by revealing the violent history of the Incas. He produced a history that chronicles their violent conquest of the region. The royal sponsorship of the work guaranteed Sarmiento direct access in Cuzco.Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa – Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.
188. Antonio Gil Y'Barbo – Dón Antonio Gil Ybarbo, also known as Gil Ybarbo, Gil Ibarbo, many other name variants, was a pioneering settler of Nacogdoches, Texas. His parents were Spanish colonists Matheo Antonio y' Barbo, born in Seville, Spain, Juana Luzgarda Hernandez, also born in Seville in 1705. Matheo was attached to the military garrison deployed at Los Adaes ostensibly to defend New Spain against French expansion from Louisiana. Under the unusually stringent mercantilism of the Spanish Monarchy, life at such a remote outpost as Los Adaes could be difficult. It was a feature of colonial mercantilism that colonies existed for the benefit of the colonial power. Colonies were captive markets for any manufactured goods produced there. Legally, colonists were thus dependent on the government for basic goods like soap, seeds and clothing as well as farm equipment, weapons, gunpowder. Much of the trade that made life bearable at Los Adaes was illegal. After an inspection of the former Texas frontier, the Marques de Rubi ordered the closing of the presidios and missions of East Texas. For the majority who obeyed the order, it would be an arduous trip. These efforts were of little avail. Fearing contraband trade to contraband firearms and powder, Inspector-in-Chief Hugo O'Conor refused. Eventually, Gil Flores traveled to Mexico City to lodge a personal entreaty with the viceroy. At this point O'Conor intervened. In scathing letters to the Viceroy, he condemned the entire plan.Antonio Gil Y'Barbo – Statue of Antonio Gil y Barbo, Plaza Principal, Nacogdoches, erected in 1997
189. Spanish missions in the Americas – During the Age of Discovery; the Christian Church inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World by converting indigenous peoples. As such, the establishment of Christian missions went hand-in-hand with the colonizing efforts of European powers such as Spain, France and Portugal. For these nations, "the colonial enterprise was based on the necessity to develop the obligation to propagate the Christian faith." According to Adriaan van Oss, "Catholicism remains the colonial heritage of Spain in America. Christian doctrines have been accused of justifying and perpetrating violence against Native Americans found in the New World. According to Colin Calloway, the "Spanish missions also produced massive population decline, food shortages, violence." However, other scholars point out that the Catholic Church often defended the rights of Native Americans. For example, Jesuits devoted themselves to the interests of Native Americans. During Father Eusebio Kino's stay in the Pimería Alta, he founded over twenty missions in eight mission districts. In Arizona, unlike Mexico, missionization proceeded slowly. Father Kino founded missions San Xavier and San Miguel at the Piman communities of Bac and Guevavi along the Santa Cruz. Fort in the area was Santa Elena, which survived until 1587. The Spanish chapter of Georgia's earliest colonial history is dominated by the lengthy mission era, extending from 1568 through 1684. The early missions in present-day Georgia were established to serve the Guale and various Timucua peoples, including the Mocama. Later the missions served other peoples who had entered the region, including the Yamassee.Spanish missions in the Americas – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
191. Spanish missions in Baja California – The missions introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, industry into the region. The last of the missionaries departed in 1840. Some of the mission churches are still in use. As early as the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert pagans to Catholicism in Nueva España. New Spain consisted of the Caribbean, portions of what is now the Southwestern United States. To facilitate colonization, the Catholic Church awarded these lands to Spain. Asistencias were small-scale missions that regularly lacked a resident priest. Smaller sites called visitas were often attended only sporadically. Since 1493, the Crown of Spain had maintained missions throughout Nueva España. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. Scarcity of imported materials and lack of skilled laborers compelled the Fathers to employ simple building methods. Although the Spanish hierarchy considered temporary ventures, individual settlement development was not based simply on "priestly whim." The founding of a mission followed longstanding procedures. The paperwork demanded the attention of virtually every level of the bureaucracy. Construction of the iglesia created the center of the community.Spanish missions in Baja California – Misión Santa Rosalía de Mulegé in Baja California Sur
192. Spanish missions in California – Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, the missionaries forced the native Californians to live in settlements called reductions. At the peak of its development in 1832, the coastal mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833. This divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. The surviving mission buildings are its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of mission lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. The missions were to be interconnected by an overland route which later became known as the Camino Real. The detailed direction of the missions was to be carried out by O.F.M.. . Work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serra's death in 1784. Plans to build a twenty-second mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a "mother" mission, however the plan's expanding beyond never came to fruition. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. Although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of "priestly whim." It was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present.Spanish missions in California – A view of Mission San Juan Capistrano in. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins."
194. Spanish missions in Florida – The missions of what are now southeastern Georgia were divided into main four provinces where the bulk of missionary effort took place. These provinces roughly corresponded to the areas where those dialects were spoken among the varying American peoples, thus, they reflected the territories of the peoples. There were also ephemeral attempts to establish missions particularly further south into Florida. The Spanish missions to the Indians of Florida, starting with the foundation of St. Augustine in 1565, were attached to presidios. Most of the presidios were unsustainable. By 1573 Santa Elena was abandoned in 1587. The missions at the presidios were staffed by the Jesuits. Franciscan friars entered at first confined their activities to the immediate vicinity of St. Augustine. The Franciscans began taking their mission along the Atlantic coast in 1587. Starting in 1606 the Franciscans by 1633 had established missions in Apalachee Province. The network of missions took its heaviest blow into the area during Queen Anne's War. Most of the Spanish missions in the Apalachee Province were wiped out during the Apalachee massacre. The mission buildings of La Florida were built with posts set into the ground. The walls were palmetto thatch, left open. Scholars believe the roofs were thatched.Spanish missions in Florida – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
197. Spanish missions in New Mexico – The Spanish Missions in New Mexico were a series of religious outposts in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México — present day New Mexico. They attempted to Hispanicize the indigenous peoples. The affected included the rich cultures and tribes of: many of the 21 distinct Puebloan groups; the Tiwa;; the Apache. The missions also aimed to pacify resistance to loss of traditions. The missions introduced European livestock, fruits, small-scale industry into the Southwest region. They also introduced European diseases that the native people had no immunity against. Fray Marcos de Niza, sent by Coronado, first saw the area now known as New Mexico in 1539. The permanent settlement was Mission San Gabriel, founded in 1598 by Juan de Oñate near what is now known as the San Juan Pueblo. See also Isleta Pueblo Mission San Buenaventura de Cochiti - Completed in 1628, renovated in the 1960s. Completed in 1641, in continuous use since. — see also Acoma Pueblo. Mission San Felipe - Built on the site of a previous church Mission San Gregorio de Abó - Established by Fray Francisco Acevedo. Ruins are now part of the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument. Mission San Ildefonso - The original mission church was built in 1711, but was later destroyed. Mission Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro, today known as the Mission San Miguel - Established in 1598 by Fray Alfonso Benavidez and another Franciscan friar.Spanish missions in New Mexico – Quarai Mission church in 1940. Photo: George A. Grant.
198. Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert – Jesuits in missions in Northwestern Mexico wrote reports that throw light on the indigenous peoples they evangelized. Relación de la Provincia de Nuestra Señora de Sinaloa was published in 1945. An important Jesuit report concerned the resistance to evangelization, Historia de la tercera rebelión tarahumara. During Father Eusebio Kino's stay in the Pimería Alta, he founded over twenty missions in eight mission districts. On February 1768, King Carlos III ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and its overseas empire. Despite the order, many Jesuits remained as late as the 1780s. Misión de Cuquiárachi founded in 1645, south of Fronteras, Sonora Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores: founded on March 1687. This was the first mission founded by Father Kino. By 1744, the mission was abandoned. Nuestra Señora de los Remedios was abandoned by 1730. Nothing remains of this mission. San Ignacio de Cabórica is located in San Ignacio, Sonora. Mission San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama was founded in Tubutama, Sonora. Santa Teresa de Atil was founded in the small town of Atil, Sonora. Santa María Magdalena was founded in 1687, located in Magdalena de Kino, Sonora.Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert – Mission San Xavier del Bac.
199. Spanish missions in Texas – The missions introduced European livestock, fruits, industry into the Texas area. In all, twenty-six missions were maintained within the future boundaries of the state of Texas. Since 1493, Spain had maintained a number of missions throughout New Spain in order to facilitate colonization of these lands. Following policy, Franciscan missionaries sought to make life within mission communities closely resemble that of Spanish villages and Spanish culture. In order to become productive inhabitants, Native Americans learned vocational skills. Gear for horses, oxen, mules fell into disrepair, blacksmithing skills soon became indispensable. Weaving skills were needed to help clothe the inhabitants. As buildings became more elaborate, mission occupants learned carpentry under the direction of craftsmen contracted by the missionaries. Then their communities could be incorporated as such into colonial society. This transition from official status to ordinary Spanish society, when it occurred in an official manner, was called "secularization." This had resulted often in the abuse and even enslavement of the Indians and a heightening of antagonism. Spanish Texas was a part of New Spain. On its southern edge, Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. The boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed of the Rio Grande. On the east, Texas bordered French Louisiana.Spanish missions in Texas – Spanish missions within the boundaries of what is now the U.S. state of Texas
200. Pedro de Gante – Fray Pieter van der Moere, also known as Fray Pedro de Gante or Pedro de Mura was a Franciscan missionary in sixteenth century Mexico. Born in Geraardsbergen in present-day Belgium, he was of Flemish descent. Gante's group in fact arrived before the 12 Franciscans normally thought as the first priests in New Spain. In Mexico he spent his life as a missionary, indoctrinating the indigenous population in Christian dogma. He composed a Christian "doctrina". One of his most significant contributions to Mexico was the creation of the School of San Jose de los Naturales. This was the first school set up in the Americas. In 1988 he was beatified, by Pope John Paul II. He was ranked 99th in a 2005 vote on the list of Greatest Belgians. Para la enseñanza de los indios de México: Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional, Códice 1257B. Published Works Doctrina Christiana en Lengua Mexicana. Per signum crucis. Icamachiotl cruz yhuicpain chua Xitech momaquixtili Totecuiyoc diose. Ica inmotocatzin. Tetatzin yhuan Tepilizin yhuan Spiritus Sancti.Pedro de Gante – Fray Pedro de Gante
201. Toribio de Benavente Motolinia – In 1523 he was chosen to be among the first twelve missionaries to be sent to the New World. After a strenuous journey he arrived in Mexico where Fray Toribio was greeted with great respect by Hernán Cortés. Upon walking through Tlaxcala the Indians commented on his ragged Franciscan robes, saying "Motolinia", which in the Nahuatl language means "one, poor or afflicted." This was the first word he learned in the Nahuatl language and he took it as his name. For the Franciscan Order, poverty was an important and defining virtue. He was named Guardian of the Convent of San Francisco in Mexico City where he resided from 1524 to 1527. From 1527 to 1529 Fray Toribio worked in Guatemala and perhaps Nicaragua, studying the new missions in that area. With Franciscan colleagues he traveled to Tehuantepec in Guatemala and to the Yucatán to undertake further missionary work. In fact, in a famous letter to King Charles V of Spain, he undertook a virulent attack on Las Casas, intending to discredit him completely. He called him "a grievous man, restless, importunate," even an apostate, in that he had renounced the Bishopric of Chiapas. He furthermore advised the king to have Las Casas shut up for safe keeping in a monastery. The letter to the king is an important document, clarifying the Franciscan position of baptizing as many Indians as possible if they presented themselves for it. In his letter to the king, Motolinia recounts an incident of Las Casas's refusal to baptize an Indian in Tlaxcala. And since you Indian, it would be well if you would tire out." With the exception of factionalism among Spaniards, Motolinia considered the worst afflictions.Toribio de Benavente Motolinia – Contents
202. Vasco de Quiroga – Coming from a background as a judge he was appointed to be a judge in the second Audiencia after the first Audiencias failure. As an oídor he took a strong interest in restoring order to the Michoacán area, ravaged by rebellions and unrest. He employed a strategy of congregating indigenous populations into congregated Hospital-towns called Republicas de Indios, organized after principles derived from Thomas More's Utopia. The purpose of this policy was to make the dispersed populations easier to control and instruct in Christian values and lifestyles. Because of his reputation as a protector of the Indians, Vasco de Quiroga is venerated to this day. Vasco de Quiroga was born into a noble family in Castile. His family was of Galician origin. His brother Álvaro became the father of Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, later Cardenal of Toledo. Traditionally his year has been given as 1470, because of a tradition that he was 95 at his year of death. Recent biographers prefer the later date around 1478, because of evidence from Quiroga's own hand that he was 60 in 1538. De Quiroga studied law and later theology. He studied law, probably in Valladolid. He worked as a letrado - a royal jurist in southern Spain and as a judge in Oran from ca. 1520 - 1526. In North Africa he oversaw cases of corruption and disputes between the Spanish conquistadors. Returning from Africa he stayed a while with the royal court, where documents have him in 1528.Vasco de Quiroga – Vasco de Quiroga, member of the second Audiencia and first bishop of Michoacán
203. Alonso de Molina – He also wrote a confessional manual for priests who served in Nahuatl-speaking communities. He was arrived in Mexico, still a child, in 1522, during the Spanish conquest of Mexico. As a young man, he entered the Franciscan convent of Mexico City becoming a friar. A student at the school, translated a Nahuatl herbal into Latin. Besides his clerical duties, Molina devoted himself to the study, writing of Nahuatl. He preached many sermons in the Nahuatl tongue. It is still considered an indispensable tool for students of Classical Nahuatl language. According to James Lockhart, "Molina went far beyond utilitarian basics making many subtle semantic and grammatical distinctions." Molina's work creating Nahuatl language tools came by the Inquisition. His dictionary also records Nahuatl descriptions of Spanish concepts or objects. "El arte la lengua mexicana y castellana de fray Alonso de Molina: morfología y composición". Estudios de Historia Novohispana. UNAM: 167–206. Hernández de León-Portilla, Ascensión. "Fray Alonso de Molina y el proyecto indigenista la orden seráfica".Alonso de Molina – Molina's dictionary.
204. Diego de Landa – Diego de Landa Calderón was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán. He is a major figure in the "Black Legend". Landa was in charge of bringing the Roman Catholic faith after the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. His initial appointment was in Izamal, which served also as his primary residence while in Yucatán. He is the author of the Relación de las cosas de Yucatán in which he catalogues the Maya religion, Maya language, writing system. The manuscript was written around 1566 to Spain; however, the original copies have long since been lost. The account is known only as an abridgement, which in turn had undergone several iterations by various copyists. After hearing of Roman Catholic Maya who continued to practice idol worship, he ordered an Inquisition in Mani, ending with a ceremony called auto de fé. During the ceremony on July 1562, a disputed number of Maya codices and approximately 5000 Maya cult images were burned. The actions of Landa passed in the Americas. Only three pre-Columbian books of Maya hieroglyphics and, perhaps, fragments of a fourth are known to have survived. Collectively, the works are known as the Maya codices. Landa's Inquisition showered a level of physical abuse upon the indigenous Maya that many was, at the very least, unusual. Large numbers of Maya nobles and commoners were subjected to examination under "hoisting." Often, stone weights were added to the lashes applied to the back during interrogation.Diego de Landa – Diego de Landa, Bishop of Yucatán
205. Fray Juan de Torquemada – Juan de Torquemada was a Franciscan friar, active as missionary in Spanish colonial Mexico and considered the "leading Franciscan chronicler of his generation." Monarquia Indiana was destined to influence all subsequent chronicles until the twentieth century." It was used by later historians, most importantly by eighteenth-century Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero. No English translation of this work has ever been published. There are few biographical details concerning Juan de Torquemada, most of which have to be deduced from his own work. Even basic information is subject to controversy. He took the Franciscan habit, as pursued a course of studies in Latin, theology, philosophy and Nahuatl. Among his teachers he names Antonio Valeriano. At some time in the early 1580s he was sent to Guatemala where he encountered the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo. By 1584 he was certainly at the convent of San Francisco, where he assisted in the infirmary. The conjectured date of his priestly ordination is 1588. In 1601 he was guardian of the convent of Zacatlán. In 1602 he was guardian of the convent of Tulancingo. A surge of vocations from among the criollos well as a renewed influx of friars from Spain had necessitated a new alignment of responsibilities. A generation before, numbers of friars in Nueva Galicia had fallen to 16, four of whom were elderly.Fray Juan de Torquemada – Fray Juan de Torquemada, from Lucas Alamán 's Historia de la República Mexicana (1860)
206. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza – Blessed Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, a Spanish politician, administrator, Catholic clergyman in 17th century Spain and viceregal Mexico. Palafox was the Bishop of Puebla, the interim Archbishop of Mexico. He also held political office, from June 10, 1642 to November 23, 1642 as the Viceroy of New Spain. He lost a high-profile struggle in New Spain resulting to the minor Diocese of Osma in Old Castile. Although a case was opened for his beatification shortly after he died in 1659, he was not designated "blessed" until 2011. Born in Navarre, Spain, Don Juan Palafox y Mendoza was the natural son of Jaime de Palafox, the Marquis of Ariaza, of the Aragonese nobility. His mother became a Carmelite nun. Palafox was ordained in 1629, became the chaplain of Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, the sister of King Philip IV of Spain. He accompanied her on her various trips around Europe. In 1639 Philip IV nominated him, Pope Urban VIII appointed him, as Bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles in viceroyal Mexico. Puebla de los Ángeles was the second largest city in the Viceroyalty of New Spain then, is the present day City of Puebla. He was consecrated at Madrid on December 27, 1639. As bishop, Palafox arrived in Veracruz on June 24, 1640. Palafox was also named Visitador, to investigate the two previous viceroys. He served as Bishop of Puebla from 1640 to 1655, as interim archbishop of Mexico from 1642 to 1643.Juan de Palafox y Mendoza – Blessed Juan de Palafox
207. Eusebio Kino – Eusebio Francisco Kino, was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer. He worked with the American population, including primarily the Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas. Kino was born Eusebius Chinus in the village of Segno, then in the sovereign Prince-bishopric of Trent, a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Other sources cite his name as Eusebio Francesco Chini. His parents were Franciscus Chinus and Margherita Luchi. The exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on 10 August 1645 in the parish church, located in Taio. Kino was educated in Innsbruck, Austria, after recuperating from a serious illness, he joined the Society of Jesus on 20 November 1665. From 1664-69, he received religious training as a member of the Society at Freiburg, Ingolstadt, Landsberg, Bavaria. Although Kino wanted to go to the Orient, he was sent to New Spain. Due to travel delays while crossing Europe, he missed the ship on which he was to travel and had to wait a year for another ship. This publication was later the subject of a sonnet by the noted colonial nun and poet of New Spain, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. Kino's first assignment was to lead the Atondo expedition to the Baja California peninsula of Las Californias Province of New Spain. He established the Misión San Bruno in 1683.Eusebio Kino – Equestrian statue in Segno
208. Francisco Javier Clavijero – Francisco Javier Clavijero Echegaray, was a Novohispano Jesuit teacher, scholar and historian. He was born in Veracruz of a Criolla mother. His father was transferred with his family from one town to another. Most of the father's posts were to locations with a strong indigenous presence, because of this Clavijero learned Nahuatl growing up. The family lived in Teziutlán, Puebla and later in Jamiltepec, in the Mixtec region of Oaxaca. He began his studies at the college of San Jerónimo for grammar, the Jesuit college of San Ignacio for philosophy, Latin and theology. He soon decided to become a Jesuit instead. In February 1748 he transferred in Tepotzotlán, State of Mexico. There he continued to study Latin and also learned ancient Greek, French, Portuguese, German, English. In 1751 he was sent back for further studies in philosophy. Here he was introduced as Descartes, Newton, Leibniz. Next he was sent to Mexico City, to complete his philosophical studies at the Colegio de San Pedro y Pablo. While still a student, he was made prefect of the Colegio de San Ildefonso. In 1754, Clavijero was ordained a priest. He founded at the beginning of the colonial era to teach Indian youth.Francisco Javier Clavijero – Francisco Javier Clavijero
209. Marcos de Niza – For the High School in Tempe, Arizona, see Marcos de Niza High School. Fray Marcos de Niza was a Franciscan friar. He is credited with being the first European in what is now the State of Arizona in the United States. In 1537 he arrived in Mexico City at the request of the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. Sources Maura, Juan Francisco. El gran burlador de América:Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Colección Parnaseo-Lemir. Valencia:Universidad de Valencia, 2008.http://parnaseo.uv.es/lemir/Textos/Maura.pdf Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Marcos de Niza". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Http://www.psi.edu/epo/coronado/journeyofmarcosdeniza.html The Mysterious Journey of Friar Marcos de Niza | www.psi.eduMarcos de Niza – Stone Inscription, thought by some to be a forgery from a time in the 1930s, very often (and perhaps wrongly) attributed to Fray Marcos de Niza, located in Pima Canyon near Phoenix, Arizona South Mountain Park.
210. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla – He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores, Guanajuato. After his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. Hidalgo was born a criollo. Both of Hidalgo's parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgo's father was an hacienda manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgo's parents would have three other sons; José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, José María. During this period, Don Cristobal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquin should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, Hidalgo was ready for further education. When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolas, where he studied for the priesthood. He completed his preparatory education in 1770. His education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin, rhetoric and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages, such as Nahuatl, Otomi and Purépecha.Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
211. Suppression of the Society of Jesus – The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, France, the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma and the Spanish Empire is a highly controversial subject. It has been argued that it was a result of a series of localized political moves rather than a theological controversy. By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits took refuge in non-Catholic nations, particularly in Prussia and Russia, where the order was either ignored or formally rejected. The Jesuits were allowed to return to many places starting in the late nineteenth century. By the mid-18th century, the Society had acquired a reputation in Europe for political maneuvering and economic success. Monarchs in many European states grew progressively wary of what they saw as undue interference from a foreign entity. The expulsion of Jesuits from their states had the added benefit of allowing governments to impound the Society's accumulated wealth and possessions. However, historian Charles Gibson cautions, "ow far this served as a motive for the expulsion we do not know." Various states took advantage of different events in order to take action. The Spanish Empire were involved to one degree or another. The conflicts began with trade disputes, in 1750 in Portugal, in 1755 in France, in the late 1750s in the Two Sicilies. Austria and the Two Sicilies suppressed the order by decree in 1767. The Távora affair in 1758 could be considered a pretext to the expulsion and crown confiscation of Jesuit assets. Portugal's quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain.Suppression of the Society of Jesus – The Marquis of Pombal, Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766
212. California mission clash of cultures – These aspects have received more research in recent decades. One of the tasks assigned to Spanish explorers of California was to report on the native peoples found there. The Portolá expedition of 1769-70 was the European land exploration, reaching as far north as San Francisco Bay. Several members of the expedition kept observations about the natives. The most detailed of these diaries was by missionary Juan Crespí. One of the expedition's military officers, was also influential. Prepared meals, washed clothes, were generally responsible for whatever domestic chores arose at the mission. In 1811, the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico sent an interrogatorio in Alta California regarding the customs, disposition, condition of the Mission Indians. He sent the compilation to the viceregal government. The contemporary nature of the responses, no matter how biased some may be, are nonetheless of considerable value to modern ethnologists. The Indians also attended worship services several times a day. Mexican act of 1833 ended the mission system. The Mexican land period formed many more ranchos in California from mission and Native American lands. Evidence has now been brought to light that puts the Californian Native Americans' experiences in a very different context. For instance, women were quartered separately from the men, regardless of marital status.California mission clash of cultures
213. Cargo system – Cargos, become the unpaid responsibility of men who are active in civic life. They typically hold a given post for a term of one year, alternate between civic and religious obligations to year. Office holders execute most of the tasks of local churches. Individuals who hold a cargo are generally obligated to incur the costs of feasting during the fiestas that honor particular saints. Where it is practiced, there is generally some expectation of all local men to take part in this system throughout their lives. Office holders assume greater responsibilities as they grow in stature in the community. The priests were mindful that much of their influence over the Indians stemmed from the priests' ability to speak Indian languages. The colonial church did not insist on excessive Catholicization of existing practices, so long as there was no clear conflict between the two. Because the missionaries were small in number, they increasingly placed religious responsibilities in the hands of trusted members of the villages. The village alcalde was charged with the responsibility of leading the villagers in a procession to Sunday Mass.. Over time, these processions were conducted with greater ceremony, making use of trappings such as crosses, music. Indigenous people filled these roles, which in theory gave greater status within the community. These roles, however, also placed the clergy used them as a way to exercise control over the villagers. Villagers were obligated to organize efforts to discharge debts related to payment of the priests. Indigenous peoples of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas Chance, John K.; William B. Taylor.Cargo system – Colonization
214. Indian Reductions – The purpose of the Spanish Empire was to gather native populations into centers called "Indian reductions", in order to govern them more effectively. Beginning in 1569, the viceroy Francisco de Toledo presided over the resettlement of about 1.4 million native people into approximately 840 of these reductions. The resettlement was carried out in Bolivia, roughly speaking. Reducciones were not new to Latin America, had been a Spanish policy in other regions, starting in the Caribbean early as 1503. By the late 1560s, Spanish rule of the Andes was in crisis. The campaign that took place in the Andes was part of the larger reforms he had been consulting on. Toledo himself brought the viceregal court on the journey. Trekking through mountains in the southern highlands, he motivated the inspectors and administrators of the project. Toledo also developed an immense and thorough body of rules that would set the framework for the colonial ambition of reorganizing Andean society. Paternalistic attitudes were common among Spanish authorities who perceived groups as volatile and prone to lawlessness if not placed under strict administration. This was based around the concept of policia, which portrayed an civic life that extolled cleanliness, virtuous citizenship. Reducciones were, in large part, conceived within this philosophy. The structural layout of the reducciones was based on a common template, modeled after a Spanish-style rural town. Each settlement was built with a uniform grid. Each reducción had a town square, around which were arranged the chief buildings: a church with an assigned priest, a prison, a travelers lodge.Indian Reductions – Colonization
215. Indigenous peoples of the Americas – The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term "Amerindian"" is used in Quebec, the Guianas, the English-speaking Caribbean. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. Eventually, the Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of cultural practices to varying degrees, including subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics including the exact routes traveled, provide the subject of ongoing discussion.Indigenous peoples of the Americas – Quechua women in Peru
216. Aztec – The Triple Alliance formed a tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle, Aztec culture had rich and complex religious traditions, as well as achieving remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments. The term extends to ethnic groups associated with the Aztec empire such as the Acolhua and Tepanec and others that were incorporated into the empire. In older usage the term was commonly used about modern speaking ethnic groups, as Nahuatl was previously referred to as the "Aztec language". In recent usage these ethnic groups are rather referred to as the Nahua peoples. Linguistically the term "Aztecan" is still used about the branch of the Uto-Aztecan languages that includes Pochutec and Pipil. To the Aztecs themselves the word "aztec" was not an endonym for any ethnic group. In the Nahuatl language "aztecatl" means "person from Aztlan". The term "Aztec" is still more common. For the same reason the notion of "Aztec civilization" is best understood as a particular horizon of a general Mesoamerican civilization. Particular to the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan was the Mexica patron God Huitzilopochtli, the ceramic ware known as Aztec I to III. The Aztec Empire was a empire based in Tenochtitlan that extended its power throughout Mesoamerica in the late postclassic period. Soon Texcoco and Tlacopan became junior partners in the alliance, facto led by the Mexica of Tenochtitlan. The empire extended its power by a combination of trade and military conquest. The Nahua peoples began to migrate into Mesoamerica in the 6th century.Aztec – The Aztec Pyramid at St. Cecilia Acatitlan, State of Mexico
217. Maya peoples – The Maya people are a group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica. They inhabit southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras. The Maya population was approximately million. There were an estimated seven million Maya living in this area at the start of the 21st century. The Yucatán Peninsula, Belize, western Honduras have managed to maintain numerous remnants of their ancient cultural heritage. One of the largest groups of modern Maya can be found in Mexico's Yucatán State and the neighboring states of Campeche, Quintana Roo and in Belize. These peoples commonly identify themselves simply as "Maya" with no further ethnic subdivision. They speak the language, identified simply as "Maya". Among Maya speakers, Spanish is commonly spoken as a second or first language. Linguists refer to the Maya language as Yucatec or Yucatec Maya to distinguish it from other Mayan languages. Maya is one language in the Mayan language family. Confusion of the Maya/Mayan as an ethnic label occurs because Maya women who use traditional dress identify by not Maya. The Yucatán's indigenous population was first exposed to Europeans after a party of Spanish shipwreck survivors came ashore in 1511. Later Spanish expeditions to the region were led by Cortés in 1519. From 1528 to 1540, several attempts by Francisco Montejo to conquer the Yucatán failed.Maya peoples – Francisco Luna Kan Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Comandante Ramona Armando Manzanero Jesús Tecú Osorio, Carlos Mérida
218. Huastec people – The ancient Huastec civilization is one of the pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. The Pre-Columbian Huastecs constructed temples on step-pyramids, carved independently standing sculptures, produced elaborately painted pottery. They were admired for their abilities as musicians by other Mesoamerican peoples. The Huastecs were conquered by the Spanish between 1519 and the 1530s. After the Spanish Conquest, many Huastecs were sold as slaves in the Caribbean by the Spanish. The procedure depends on the assumption that languages change, in the absence of widespread literacy, at a constant rate. Of all the languages descended from Proto-Mayan, the proto-Huastecan language was the first to split from Mayan proper. The second split, in the non-Huastecan main branch, was between proto-Yucatecan, now spoken across the Yucatán Peninsula, the ancestors of all other Maya languages. The only other language, besides Huastec, which arose from proto-Huastecan was Chicomuceltec, a language once spoken in Chiapas near Comitán, but now extinct. Linguists have approximated that the precursor to the language of the Huastecs diverged from the Proto-Mayan language between 2200 and 1200 BCE. McQuown suggests 1500 BCE, Manrique Castaneda 1800 BCE, Dahlin 2100 BCE as the most likely dates for the split. Robertson's work on verb affixes in the Mayan languages implies that the Huastecs were in contact with the proto-Tzeltal branch of Mayan. In Proto-Mayan, absolutives could be marked either by a prefix or a suffix, depending on the presence of a tense/aspect marker. This feature was retained in Q'anjob'al, but lost in other branches. Huastec people lived north of Totonacs in the northeastern corner of Mesoamerica, which helped their influence with distinct style of art.Huastec people – Huastec stone sculpture – AMNH
219. Mixtec people – High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, there are also large populations in the United States. The term Mixtec comes from the Nahuatl word mixtecah, "cloud people". There are many names that the Mixtecs have for naming themselves: ñuù savi, nayívi savi, ñuù davi, nayivi davi. etc. This all denominations can be translated as'people of the rain'. The historic homeland of Mixtec people is La Mixteca, called in Mixtec language Ñuu Savi, Ñuu Djau, Ñuu Davi, etc. depending on the local variant. They call their language sa'an davi, da'an davi or tu'un savi. In pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. The Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán. The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone, wood, metal were well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica.Mixtec people – Turquoise mosaic mask. Mixtec-Aztec, 1400-1521 AD
220. Tarascan state – The Tarascan state was a state in pre-Columbian Mexico, roughly covering the geographic area of the present-day Mexican state of Michoacán, parts of Jalisco, Guanajuato. At the time of the Spanish conquest, it was the second-largest state in Mesoamerica. The state lost its independence in 1530. In 1543 it officially became the governorship of Michoacán, for Michoacán. The Tarascan state was contemporary with and an enemy of the Aztec Empire, against which it fought many wars. Due to its relative isolation within Mesoamerica, the Tarascan state had many cultural traits completely distinct from those of the Mesoamerican cultural group. It is particularly noteworthy for being to metal for tools and ornamentation, even weapons. In language of the Purépecha people, the name of the state was the "Lands of Tzintzuntzan" referring to the capital Tzintzuntzan. The state included different groups, primarily Purépecha people and additionally Matlazincas, Tecos, Mazahuas, Otomíes, Chontales, Nahuas. The people of the Tarascan empire also included ethnic groups such as the Nahua, Otomi, Matlatzinca and Chichimec. These ethnic groups were gradually assimilated into the Purépecha majority group. Most common soil types in the central plateau are less fertile acrisols. The vegetation is mainly fir. Human occupation has focused on the lake basins, which are abundant in resources. In the north, near the Lerma river, there are obsidian resources and thermal springs.Tarascan state – A Tarascan incense burner showing a deity with a " Tlaloc headdress", 1350–1521 CE.
221. Totonac people – The Totonac /ˈtoʊtoʊˌnɑːk/ people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo. They are one of the possible builders of the Pre-Columbian city of El Tajín, further maintained quarters in Teotihuacán. Until the mid-19th century they were the world's main producers of vanilla. The term "totonac" refers to the people living in Totonacapan, some authors had translated the term "totonac" as a Nahuatl word meaning "People of Hot Land". The translation for this word according to the Totonac Language is "tutunacu" meaning "Three Hearts" signifying their three cities or cultural centers; Cempoala, Tajin and Teayo. Totonacapan was largely hot and humid. Even during the disastrous central Mexican famine of 1450-1454, the region remained a reliable agricultural center. At that time, many Aztecs were forced to sell themselves or their family members as slaves to the Totonac in exchange for subsistence maize. The Totonacs ate notably zapotes, avocados. Men fished shark, frogs. Women raised turkeys and dogs. Peasants as well as nobles ate corn porridge in the morning. Lunch was the main meal of the day and consisted of manioc, bean stew or even a rich meat sauce for the nobles. Fish and seafood as well as game was eaten by both nobles and farmers.Totonac people – Totonacs of Papantla, Veracruz performing the " voladores " ritual
222. Kowoj – The Kowoj was a Maya group and polity, from the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. The Kowoj claimed to have migrated sometime after the city's collapse in 1441 AD. Indigenous documents also describe Kowoj in linguistic data indicate migrations between the Yucatán Peninsula and the Petén region. A specific variant in a C-shaped plaza, defines the location of the Kowoj in both Mayapan and Petén. These assemblages were the exemplary centers of the Ko'woj. The temple assemblages also differentiated the Kowoj from their Itzá neighbors in the Petén Basin region. Temple assemblage with raised shrine lies at a right angle to a western facing temple rather than facing into it. Muralla de Leon, all of which lie within the reconstructed Ko ` woj social boundaries. Ceremonial architecture outside these boundaries follows a very different pattern. For example, Late Post Classic Itzá ceremonial groups do not appear to include formal temples. The residences at Zacpetén are tandem-shaped structures standing in patio groups. Tandem residences include a front room and room, the former has a plastered and occasionally painted surface while the latter has an earthen floor. Household production activities are concentrated in the back room, while ritual performances were focused upon the front room. Kan Ek' list of Mayan languages Hunac Ceel Pugh, Timothy W.. "The Exemplary Center of the Late Postclassic Kowoj Maya".Kowoj – Maya civilization
223. K'iche' people – K'iche' are indigenous peoples of the Americas, one of the Maya peoples. The K'iche' language is a Mesoamerican language in the Mayan language family. The meaning of the word K'iche' is "many trees." "Place of the Many Trees", is the origin of the word Guatemala. Quiché Department is also named for them. Rigoberta Menchú, an activist for indigenous rights who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992, is perhaps the best-known K'iche'. According to the 2011 census, K'iche' people constituted 11% of the Guatemalan population, accounting for 1,610,013 people out of a total of 14,636,487. El Quiché forms the heartland of the K'iche' people. In pre-Columbian times, influence reached including the valley of Antigua and coastal areas in Escuintla. Most K'iche' have at least a working knowledge of Spanish, with the exception of isolated rural communities. Maya languages closely related to K'iche' are Uspantek, Sakapultek, Kaqchikel and Tzutujil. In pre-Columbian times, the K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj was one of the most powerful states in the region. K’iche' was an independent state that existed after the decline of the Maya Civilization with the Classic collapse. K'iche' lay in a highland mountain valley of Guatemala, during this time they were also found in parts of El Salvador. The Spanish conquerors described towns such as Q'umarkaj, the capital of K'iche'.K'iche' people – Market day in the K'iche' town of Chichicastenango
224. Kaqchikel people – The Kaqchikel are one of the indigenous Maya peoples of the midwestern highlands in Guatemala. The name was formerly spelled including Cakchiquel, Cakchiquel, Kakchiquel, Caqchikel, Cachiquel. In Maya times the capital of the main branch of the Kaqchikel was Iximché. Like the neighboring K'iche', they were governed by four lords: Tzotzil, Xahil, Tucuché and Acajal, who were responsible for the administrative, religious affairs. The Kakchikel recorded their history in the book Annals of the Cakchiquels, also known as Memorial de Sololá. The Chajoma were another Kaqchikel-speaking people; the ruins of Mixco Viejo have been identified as their capital. Iximché was conquered by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in 1524. At that time, the Kaqchikel helped the Spaniards to conquer it. Tecpán Guatemala, was founded near Iximché on July 25, 1524. After several Kaqchikel uprisings, the capital was moved to Ciudad Vieja, near Antigua Guatemala. One of the Mayan languages, is spoken today by 400,000 people. Their culture reflects a fusion of Maya and Spanish influences.Kaqchikel people – A Kaqchikel family
225. Zapotec peoples – The Zapotecs are an indigenous people of Mexico. The population is concentrated in the southern state of Oaxaca, but Zapotec communities exist in neighboring states, as well. The present-day population is estimated at approximately 800,000 to 1,000,000 persons, many of whom are monolingual in one of the native Zapotec languages and dialects. In pre-Columbian times, the Zapotec civilization was one of the highly developed cultures of Mesoamerica, which, among other things, included a system of writing. The name Zapottec is an exonym coming from Nahuatl tzapotēcah, which means "inhabitants of the place of sapote." The Zapotecs call themselves Ben'Zaa, which means "The Cloud People." Zapotec people have changed their last names to "zapote" to show their respect on their heritage and carrying the last name for further generations. The first Zapotecs came to Oaxaca from the north, probably in about 1000 BCE. While never displacing other peoples entirely, they became the predominant ethnic group.. They built many important cities, the most renowned of which are Monte Albán and Mitla. The Zapotecan language group is composed of over 60 variants of Zapotecan, as well as the closely related Chatino language. The major variant is Isthmus Zapotec, spoken on the Pacific coastal plain of Southern Oaxaca's Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Though the Zapotecs are now largely Catholics, some of their ancient beliefs and practices, such as the burial of the dead with valuables, still survive. Zapotec women in the Mexican state of Oaxaca play a variety of social roles in their families and communities. As is true for many other cultures, Zapotec women have historically had a different place in society than men.Zapotec peoples – Heliodoro Charis, Benito Juárez
226. Mam people – The Mam are an indigenous people in the western highlands of Guatemala and in south-western Mexico who speak the Mam language. Most Mam live in the departments of Huehuetenango, San Marcos, Quetzaltenango. The Mam people in Mexico live principally in the soconusco region of Chiapas. In pre-Columbian times the Mam were part of the Maya civilization; the pre-Columbian capital of the Mam kingdom was Zaculeu. Many Mam live around the nearby modern city of Huehuetenango. The city of Quetzaltenango or Xela was originally Mam. Many more Mam live in the mountains of northern Guatemala keeping many of their native traditions.Mam people – Mam
227. Arawak peoples – The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and historically of the Caribbean. The term Arawak originally applied specifically to the South American group who self-identified as Arawak or Lokono. The Arawak language, gives its name to the Arawakan family. In 1871, ethnologist Daniel Garrison Brinton proposed calling the Caribbean populace "Island Arawak" due to their cultural and linguistic similarities with the mainland Arawak. Subsequent scholars shortened this convention to "Arawak", creating confusion between the island and mainland groups. In the 20th century, scholars such as Irving Rouse resumed using "Taíno" for the Caribbean group to emphasize their distinct culture and language. The Arawakan languages may have emerged in the Orinoco River valley. At some point, the Arawakan-speaking Taíno culture emerged in the Caribbean. The Taíno were among the American people to encounter Europeans when Christopher Columbus visited multiple chiefdoms on his first voyage. It was at this time they experienced European colonization, their population declined precipitously as a result. Taíno influence has survived even until today, though, as can be seen in music of Caribbean cultures. The Lokono and other South American groups resisted colonization for a longer period, the Spanish remained unable to subdue them throughout the 16th century. In the 17th century, they allied against the neighboring Kalina, who allied with the English and Dutch. Their population declined until the 20th century, when it began to increase again. The Taíno have been extinct as a distinct population since the 16th century, though many people in the Caribbean have Taíno ancestry.Arawak peoples – Arawak woman, by John Gabriel Stedman
228. Guanajatabey – The Guanahatabey were an indigenous people of western Cuba at the time of European contact. Historical studies suggest the Guanahatabey were archaic hunter-gatherers with a distinct language and culture from their neighbors, the Taíno. They may have been a relict of an earlier culture that spread widely before the ascendance of the agriculturalist Taíno. They lived in what is now parts of Habana and Matanzas Provinces. Archaeological surveys of the area reveal an archaic population of hunter-gatherers. They in caves; they made no houses. Unlike the neighboring Taíno they practiced no agriculture and supplemented their diet with fish and game. They made stone, shell, bone tools using grinding and lithic reduction techniques. The language of the Guanahatabey is lost for a handful of placenames. However, it appears to have been distinct from the Taíno language, as the Taíno interpreter for Christopher Columbus could not communicate with them. Similar cultures existed at roughly the same time though this may be simply an independent adaptation to a similar environment. It is possible the Guanahatabey were related to the Taíno, though no characteristically Taíno sites have ever been found in their territory. Columbus visited the Guanahatabey region during his second voyage. Their Taíno interpreters could not communicate with them, implying they spoke a different language. Both writers described the Guanahatabey as primitive cave-dwellers who chiefly ate fish.Guanajatabey – The Guanahatabey region in relation to Taíno and Island Carib groups
229. Indigenous peoples of California – With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population. The California cultural area does not exactly conform to the state of California's boundaries. Some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as Indigenous peoples of Mexico. Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of approximately 100 distinct languages. "The majority of California Indian language are language isolates." Of the remainder, most are Uto-Aztecan or Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed. The Hokan superstock has been most difficult to demonstrate; Penutian is somewhat less controversial. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic. The several Athapaskan languages are no more recent than about 2000 years ago. Linguistic anthropologist Jocelyn C. Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago. Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members. Today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States.Indigenous peoples of California – A map of California tribal groups and languages at the time of European contact.
230. Mission Indians – Spanish explorers arrived on California's coasts as early as the mid-16th century. In 1769 the Franciscan mission was built in San Diego. Local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Starvation, over torture decimated these tribes. Many were baptized as Roman Catholics by the Franciscan missionaries at the missions. For instance, the Payomkowishum were renamed Luiseños after the Mission San Luis Rey, the Acjachemem were renamed the Juaneños after the Mission San Juan Capistrano. The Catholic priests forbade the Indians from practicing their native culture, resulting in the disruption of many tribes' linguistic, spiritual, cultural practices. When Mexico gained its independence in 1834, it assumed control of the Californian missions from the Franciscans, but abuse persisted. Mexico sold the lands to other non-Native administrators or owners. Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions. In 1927, Sacramento Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington was instructed by Assistant Commissioner E. B. Merritt in Washington D.C. to list tribes in California that Congress had not yet purchased land to be used as reservations. As part of the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act enrollment, Native Americans were asked to identify their “Tribe or Band.” The majority of applicants supplied the name of the mission that they knew their ancestors were associated with. The enrollment was part of a plan to provide reservation lands promised but never fulfilled by 18 non-ratified treaties made in 1851-1852.Mission Indians – Ruin of the Indian quarters, Mission San Luis Rey
231. Cahuilla people – The ʔívil̃uqaletem are Native Americans of the inland areas of southern California. Their original territory included an area of about 2,400 square miles. The traditional Cahuilla territory was near the geographic center of Southern California. The Cahuilla language is in the Uto-Aztecan family. A 1990 census revealed 35 speakers in an ethnic population of 800. It is critically endangered, since most speakers are middle-aged or older. In their own language, their autonym is ʔívil̃uqaletem, the name of their language is ʔívil̃uʔat, however they also call themselves táxliswet meaning'person'. Cahuilla is an exonym applied to the group after mission secularization in the Ranchos of California. The word "Cahuilla" is probably from the Ivilyuat word kawi'a, meaning "master." Oral legends suggest that when the Cahuilla first moved into the Coachella Valley, a large body of water which geographers call Lake Cahuilla was in existence. Fed by the Colorado River, it dried up sometime before 1700, following one of the repeated shifts in the river's course. In 1905 a break in a levee created the much smaller Salton Sea in the same location. The Cahuilla lived from the land by using native plants. A notable tree whose fruits they harvested is the California fan palm. The Cahuilla also used palm leaves for basketry of many purposes; roofing thatch for dwellings.Cahuilla people – Desert Cahuilla woman by Edward S. Curtis, 1926
232. Chumash people – Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Malibu, Lompoc, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Piru, Lake Castaic, Saticoy, Moorpark, Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash lived along the southern California coast for millennia. The California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources. The tribe lived in an area of three environments: the interior, the coast, the Northern Channel Islands. These provided a diverse array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is spanning the wide plains, rivers, mountains. The coast covers the cliffs and close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the areas of the ocean from which the Chumash harvested. The Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the incoming ocean winds. The mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy; during the cold months, the tribespeople harvested what they supplemented their diets with stored foods. What villagers traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of land densely covered by trees and animals, the Chumash had a diverse array of food. A winter rarely harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a sedentary lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory.Chumash people – Pictographs, Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park
233. Kumeyaay people – The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, formerly Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is commonly spelled Kumiai. The Kumeyaay consist of two related groups, Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were approximately separated by the San Diego River: the southern Tipai. Tribal distinctions are not widely agreed upon. The scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two: Tipai. The Kumeyaay means "those who face the water from a cliff". Both "Ipai" and "Tipai" mean "people." Some Kumeyaay in the southern areas also refer as MuttTipi, which means "people of the earth." Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the early work on documenting the language. Evidence in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory, may go back 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the Desert tradition. A late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples.Kumeyaay people – Anthony Pico, chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay
234. Miwok – The Miwok means people in their native language. Anthropologists commonly divide the Miwok into four culturally diverse ethnic subgroups. These distinctions were unknown among the Miwok before European contact. Plains and Sierra Miwok: from tads western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Coast Miwok: from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County. . Lake Miwok: from Clear Lake basin of Lake County. Bay Miwok: from present-day location of Contra Costa County. The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs officially recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California. The Miwok lived in small bands before contact with European Americans in 1769. They were otherwise hunter-gatherers. The Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the modern-day extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is partially due to cultivation by Miwok tribes. They burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine. Nearly every other kind of edible matter was used as a food source, including bulbs, seeds, fungi.Miwok – Miwok
235. Mohave people – Mohave or Mojave are a Native American people indigenous to the Colorado River in the Mojave Desert. The Fort Mojave Indian Reservation includes territory within the borders of California, Arizona, Nevada. The Colorado River Indian Reservation is shared by members of the Chemehuevi, Hopi, Navajo peoples. The original Colorado River and Fort Mojave reservations were established in 1870, respectively. Both reservations include senior water rights in the Colorado River; water is drawn for use in irrigated farming. The Colorado River Indian Tribes headquarters, museum are in Parker, Arizona, about 40 miles north of I-10. The National Indian Days Celebration is held annually from Thursday through Sunday during the last week of September. The All-Indian Rodeo is also celebrated annually, on the first weekend in December. RV facilities are available along the Colorado River. In the 1930s, a Hungarian-French anthropologist, did fieldwork and lived among the Mohave for an extended period of study. He incorporated psychoanalytic thinking in his interpretation of their culture. The Mojave language belongs to the River Yuman branch of the Yuman family. In 1994 approximately 75 people in total on the Colorado River and Fort Mojave reservations spoke the language, according to lingusit Leanne Hinton. There are new efforts to teach the language to their children. The Mohave creator is Matevilya, who gave their names and their commandments.Mohave people – Henry Welshe (Mojave), tribal chairman of Colorado River Indian Reservation council, ca. 1944–6
236. Ohlone people – Ohlone people, named Costanoan by early Spanish colonists, are a Native American people of the Northern California coast. At that time they spoke a variety of related languages. The Ohlone languages belonged to the Costanoan sub-family of the Utian family, which itself belongs to the proposed Penutian phylum. In pre-colonial times, the Ohlone lived in more than 50 distinct landholding groups, did not view themselves as a distinct group. They lived by gathering, in the typical ethnographic California pattern. The members of these various bands interacted freely with one another. The Ohlone people practiced the Kuksu religion. Prior to the Gold Rush, the northern California region was one of the most densely populated regions north of Mexico. Today belong to one or another of a number of most, but not all, in their original home territory. The Ohlone/Costanoan Esselen Nation, consisting of descendants of intermarried Rumsen Costanoan and Esselen speakers of Mission San Carlos Borromeo, are centered at Monterey. The Amah-Mutsun Tribe are descendants of Mutsun Costanoan speakers of Mission San Juan Bautista, inland from Monterey Bay. Descendants from the Costanoan Rumsien Carmel Tribe of Pomona/Chino, now live in southern California. These groups, others with smaller memberships are separately petitioning the federal government for tribal recognition. The Ohlone inhabited fixed village locations, moving temporarily to gather seasonal foodstuffs like acorns and berries. Over 50 distinct Ohlone tribes and villages have been recorded.Ohlone people – Ohlone dancers at Mission San José
237. Serrano people – The Serrano are an indigenous people of California. They use the autonyms of Taaqtam,; Yuhaviatam, "people of the pines." Today the Maarenga'yam are enrolled in the Morongo Band of Mission Indians, the Yuhaviatam are enrolled in the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians. Additionally, some Serrano people are enrolled in the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians. The Serrano historically lived the San Bernardino Mountains and other Transverse Ranges, in the southern Mojave Desert, within Southern California. The Serrano language is part of the Takic subset of the large Uto-Aztecan languages group of indigenous people of North America. The family historically extended with representation among tribes in Mesoamerica. They were a branch of the Takic languages speaking people who arrived in Southern California around 2,500 years ago. Serrano means "highlander" or "mountaineer" in Spanish. The Spanish founded Mission San Gabriel Arcangel in 1771, south of the San Gabriel Mountains and southwest of the San Bernardino Mountains. With the Cahuilla and Quechan tribes, in 1812 the Serrano revolted against it and other local missions practicing Indian reductions. In 1834 the Mexican Alta California government forcibly relocated many Serrano to the missions. They suffered devastating smallpox outbreaks in 1840 and 1860, as they had no immunity to the Eurasian disease. Three American ranch hands were killed at a ranch called Los Flores in Summit Valley, near present-day Hesperia. Tribal leader Santos Manuel led the survivors from the mountains to the valley, where they established permanent residence adjacent to the hot springs near present-day Highland.Serrano people – Workers making pipe turnouts on the Morongo Reservation
238. Tongva people – The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering approximately 4,000 square miles. Along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000. Many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago. These migrants either absorbed or pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region. By 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded widely with neighboring peoples. Over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family. There may have been five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the twentieth century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. This marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades later, California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War. The US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified.Tongva people – Mrs. James Rosemeyre (née Narcisa Higuera), photographed here in 1905, was one of the last fluent Tongva speakers. An informant for the ethnographer C. Hart Merriam, she was the source of the widely used endonym Tongva.
239. Oasisamerica – Oasisamerica is a term used by some scholars, primarily Mexican anthropologists, for the broad cultural area defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America. It extends from modern-day Utah down from the coast on the Gulf of California eastward to the Río Bravo river valley. Its name comes with the similar regions of Mesoamerica and mostly nomadic Aridoamerica. The term Greater Southwest is often used to describe this region by American anthropologists. As opposed to their nomadic Aridoamerican neighbors, the Oasisamericans primarily had agricultural societies. The term "Oasisamerica" is derived from a combination of the terms "oasis" and "America". It refers to a wild land dominated by the Sierra Madre Occidental. To the east and west of these enormous mountain ranges stretch the arid plains of the Sonora, Chihuahua, Arizona Deserts. Despite being a basically dry land, Oasisamerica contains several bodies of water like rivers: Rio Grande, Colorado, Conchos and Gila Rivers. The story of the origins of the cultural superarea of Mesoamerica takes some 2000 years after the separation of Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica. Some of the Aridoamerican communities farmed to their hunter-gatherer economy. Those communities, among whom one finds adherents to the Desert Tradition, later would form Oasisamerica. Based on maize remnants found in Arizona, it appears that agriculture practices date back to at least 3500 BCE. It is less certain what role they played in the development of the high cultures of Oasisamerica. At least three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the birth of the cultures of Oasisamerica.Oasisamerica – A pebble of turquoise
240. Apache – APACHE II is a severity-of-disease classification system, one of several ICU scoring systems. The first APACHE model was presented by Knaus et al. in 1981. APACHE II was designed to measure the severity of disease for adult patients admitted to intensive care units. It has not been validated in children or young people aged under 16. Predicted mortalities are averaged for groups of patients in order to specify the group's morbidity. The score is not recalculated during the stay; it is by an admission score. If a patient is readmitted, a new APACHE II score is calculated. A method to compute a refined score known as APACHE III was published in 1991. The score was validated from 17,440 adult medical/surgical intensive care unit admissions at 40 US hospitals. The prognostic system of APACHE III has two options: 1. APACHE III Score This provides an initial classification of severely ill hospitalized patients in defined groups. 2. The ICU admission time are collected. To measure severity of disease 20 variable were selected. APACHE III scores range from 0 to 299.Apache
241. Coahuiltecan people – Coahuiltecan people is a collective name for the many small, autonomous bands of Native Americans who inhabited southernmost Texas, the Rio Grande valley and adjacent Mexico. The Coahuiltecans were hunter-gatherers. The survivors were absorbed into the Hispanic population of southern Texas or northern Mexico. In 1886, ethnologist Albert Gatschet found perhaps the last survivors of Coahuiltecan bands: 25 Comecrudo, 1 Cotoname, 2 Pakawa. They were living near Reynosa, Mexico. The name given to the Coahuiltecans derives from Coahuila, the state in which some of them lived. The word Coahuila derives from a Nahuatl word. They lived on both sides of the Rio Grande. To their north were the Jumano and, later, the Lipan Apache and Comanche. People of similar livelihood lived throughout northeastern Mexico. Although living near the Gulf of Mexico, most of the Coahuiltecans were inland people. Most modern linguists, however, believe that the Coahuiltecans were diverse in both language. The best known of the languages are Comecrudo and Cotoname, both spoken in the delta of the Rio Grande and Pakawa. The names of ethnic groups were recorded, over more than 300 years. Band names and their composition doubtless changed frequently.Coahuiltecan people – Drawing of a Coahuilteco man
242. Comanche – The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Post-contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a culture. There may have been as many as 45,000 Comanches in the 18th century. They also took thousands of captives from the Spanish, Mexican, American settlers. The Comanche Nation Homecoming Powwow is held annually in Walters, Oklahoma in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. About 1 % of Comanches speak their language today. The name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for kɨmantsi. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Their jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Comanche, Cotton, Grady, Jefferson, Kiowa, Stephens, Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 quantum. The tribe issues tribal vehicle tags. They have their own Department of Higher Education, financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, Oklahoma. They own four casinos.Comanche – For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation).
243. Hopi people – The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the 2,531.773 sq mi Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of 2010, there were 19,327 Hopi in the United States, according to the 2010 census. The Hopi language is one in the Uto-Aztecan family. The majority of Hopi people are enrolled in the Hopi Tribe of Arizona but some are enrolled in the Colorado River Indian Tribes. The Hopi are descended from the Ancient Pueblo Peoples who constructed apartment-house complexes in northeastern Arizona, southwestern Colorado. They lived along the Mogollon Rim, especially from the 12th–14th century, when they abandoned their large villages. The name Hopi is a shortened form of their autonym, Hopituh Shi-nu-mu. Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture's religion, spirituality, its view of morality and ethics. The Hopi observe their traditional ceremonies for the benefit of the entire world. Traditionally, Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife's clan. These clan organizations extend across all villages. Children are named by the women of the father's clan. On the twentieth day of a baby's life, the women of the paternal clan gather, each woman bringing a name and a gift for the child. In some cases where many relatives would attend, a child could be given over forty names, for example.Hopi people – Hopi portraits
244. Hualapai – The Hualapai is a federally recognized Indian tribe in Arizona with over 2300 enrolled members. Approximately enrolled members reside on the Hualapai Indian reservation, which spans over three counties in Northern Arizona. The name, meaning "people of the tall trees", is derived from hwa: the Hualapai word for ponderosa pine and pai "people". The Hualapai tribe is a sovereign nation and governed by a tribal council. The tribe provides a variety of social, cultural, economic services to its members. The Hualapai language is a Pai branch of the Yuman–Cochimí languages, also spoken by the closely related Havasupai, more distantly to Yavapai people. It is still spoken on the Reservation as well as many young people. The Peach Springs School District runs a successful bilingual program for all local students, in addition to immersion camps. The Hualapai Indian Reservation, covering 1,142 square miles, was created by the Presidential Executive order of Chester A. Arthur on January 1883. Traditional ceremonies of the Hualapai include the "Maturity" ceremony and the "Mourning" ceremony. Nowadays the modern Sobriety Festival is also celebrated in June. The souls of the dead are believed to go northwestward to a beautiful land where plentiful harvest grow. This land is believed to be seen only by Hualapai spirits. Hualapai dress consists of full suits of deerskin and rabbit skin robes. Conical houses formed from cedar boughs using the single form called a Wikiup.Hualapai – Ta'thamiche, a Hualapai
245. La Junta Indians – In 1535 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca recorded visiting these peoples while making his way to a Spanish settlement. They cultivated crops in the river floodplains, well as catching fish from the rivers. They were part of an extensive trading network in the region. As a crossroads, the area attracted people of different tribes. In the eighteenth century, the Spanish set up missions in the area and the Native Americans gradually lost their tribal identifications. After suffering severe population losses through infectious disease, the Spanish slave trade, attacks by raiding Apache and Comanche, the La Junta Indians disappeared. The Conchos River unite near Mexico. The Conchos is more than twice as large as the Rio Grande, but below the confluence the river is known as the Rio Grande. The area was named La Junta by Spanish explorers for the confluence, or junction, of rivers. The floodplain supports a thick growth of reeds, mesquite, willows, groves of cottonwood trees. Two terraces rise 20 and 60 feet above the floodplain. Only desert vegetation grows on the terraces. The La Junta Indians used the floodplain for wild foods. Rugged mountains ring the river valley and terraces. La Junta is near the center of the Chihuahua Desert and receives an average of 10.8 inches of precipitation annually.La Junta Indians – La Junta is located at the confluence of the Conchos River and the Rio Grande. The Conchos River is the larger of the two.
246. Navajo people – The Navajos are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. After the Cherokee, they are the second largest federally recognized tribe with 300,460 enrolled tribal members as of 2015. The Navajo language is spoken with most Navajos speaking English as well. The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. Over three-quarters of the Navajo population reside in these two states. The Navajos are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language known as Diné bizaad. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects. Historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajos and Apaches entered the Southwest around 1400 CE. The Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references of this migration. Until contact with the Spanish, the Navajos were largely hunters and gatherers. The tribe adopted farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing mainly corn, beans, squash. Sheep also became a form of currency and symbol among the Navajos based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, the practice of weaving wool into blankets and clothing became common and eventually developed into a form of highly valued artistic expression. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajos' cultivating large crop areas. By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term "Navajo" to refer to the Diné.Navajo people – Navajo portraits
247. Pima people – The Pima /ˈpiːmə/ are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. They are closely related to other river people, the Ak-Chin O'odham, now forming the Ak-Chin Indian Community. They are also related to the Sobaipuri, whose descendants reside on the San Xavier Indian Reservation or Wa:k, in the Salt River Indian Community. The latter referred to them as the Pima. This term was adopted by later English speakers: traders, explorers and settlers. The Pima Indians called themselves Othama until the first account of interaction with non-Native Americans was recorded. Spanish missionaries recorded Pima villages known as Kina, Equituni and Uturituc. European Americans later corrupted the miscommunication into Pimos, adapted to Pima river people. The Akimel O'Otham are a subgroup of the Upper O'otham or Upper Pima, whose lands were known in Spanish as Pimería Alta. These groups are culturally related. They are thought to be culturally descended from the group classified in archaeology as the Hohokam. The term Hohokam is a derivative of the O'otham word Huhugam, literally translated as "those who have gone before," meaning "The Ancestors." In the early 18th century, they were gradually driven out of the lower San Pedro River valley. In the middle of the century, their remaining settlements along the upper San Pedro River were broken up by Arivaipa and Pinaleño Apache attacks. They moved west, seeking refuge among the Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham, with whom they merged.Pima people – O'odham portraits
248. Puebloan peoples – In addition to differing kinship systems, the peoples have differing marriage practices: exogamous or endogamous. The non-Towa Tanoan have a patrilineal system, with descent all passed through the father's line. All the Pueblo peoples have traditional economies based on agriculture and trade. At the time of Spanish beginning in the 16th century, these peoples were living in multi-story villages often built around a central courtyard. The Spanish called these pueblos, meaning "towns," and applied the name to all the peoples living in such complexes. In the 21st century there are 21 surviving pueblos in the Southwest of the United States. Taos, Acoma, Zuni, Hopi are the best-known. The main pueblos are located primarily in the present-day states of New Mexico and Arizona. Anthropologists have studied these peoples extensively and published various classifications of their subdivisions. In 1950, Fred Russell Eggan contrasted the peoples of the Eastern and Western Pueblos, based largely on their subsistence farming techniques. The Western or Desert Pueblos of the Zuñi and Hopi specialize in dry farming, compared to the irrigation farmers of the Eastern or River Pueblos. Both groups cultivated mostly maize. In 1954, Paul Kirchhoff published a division of the Pueblo peoples into two groups based on culture: one includes the Hopi, Zuni, Keres and Jemez. They each have matrilineal kinship systems; children must marry a spouse outside an exogamous practice. They maintain multiple kivas for sacred ceremonies.Puebloan peoples – Laguna Pueblo dwellers
249. Quechan people – Not to be confused with Quechua, South American language. Members are enrolled into the Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. The federally recognized tribe's main office is located in Arizona. The majority of its land are located in California, United States. The Patayan is used by archaeologists to describe the prehistoric American cultures who inhabited parts of modern day Arizona, California and Baja California. These areas included territory near the Colorado River Valley, the nearby uplands, north to the vicinity of the Grand Canyon. The prehistoric people may have been ancestral to the Quechan. They practiced agriculture where possible, but relied heavily on gathering. The significant contact of the Quechan with Europeans was with his party in the winter of 1774. Relations were friendly. His three companions were baptized in Mexico City on February 1777. Palma was given the Spanish baptismal name Salvador Carlos Antonio. Spanish settlement among the Quechan did not go smoothly; the tribe killed thirty soldiers. They also damaged the Spanish mission settlements of Puerto de Purísima Concepción, killing many. The Spanish retaliated against the tribe.Quechan people – Quechan tribal seal
250. Solano peopleSolano people – Solano
251. Yaqui people – The Pascua Yaqui Tribe is based in Tucson, Arizona. Yaqui people also live elsewhere in the southwestern United States, especially Nevada and California. The Yaqui language belongs to the Uto-Aztecan language family. Yaqui speak a Cahitan language, a group of about 10 mutually-intelligible languages formerly spoken in much of the states of Sonora and Sinaloa. Most of the Cahitan languages are extinct. Only the Yaqui and Mayo still speak their language. About 15,000 Yaqui speakers live in Mexico and 1,000 in the U.S.A, mostly Arizona. The Yaqui call the Yaqui word for person. The Yaqui call their homeland Hiakim, from which some say the name "Yaqui" is derived. Many folk etymologies account for how the Yoeme came to be known as the "Yaqui". When the Spanish first came into contact with the Yaqui in 1533, they occupied a territory along the lower course of the Yaqui River. They were estimated to number 30,000 people living in 80 rancherias in an area about 60 miles long and 15 miles wide. Some Yaqui lived near the mouth of the river and were dependent upon the sea for subsistence. Most lived in agricultural communities, growing beans, squash on land inundated by every year. A few depended upon gathering.Yaqui people – Yaqui Indians
252. Aridoamerica – Mesoamerica lies to the north. These cultural regions overlap each other. Unlike Mesoamerica, Aridoamerica has a dry, arid geography. Because of the hard conditions, the precolumbian people in this region had cultures and subsistence patterns distinct from their Mesoamerican neighbors. The region has only 120 to 160 cm of annual precipitation. The sparse rainfall feeds seasonal waterholes. An umbrella term for several tribes used by the Nahua people, were hunter-gatherers in Aridoamerica grasslands. They gathered magueys, yucca flowers, mesquite beans, cacti, including the paddles of fruits of nopal cactus. The plant is a particularly important resource in the region. Despite dry conditions, Aridoamerica is a possible site of their domestication. Maize cultivation reached Aridoamerica by about 2100 BCE. Archaeologists disagree whether the plant was spread either northward or southward from other groups by cultural borrowing. In Baja California, hunting provided food, as did harvesting acorns, nopal, pine nuts, other native plants. Historically, people of Aridoamerica coppiced willows, tree trunks were cut to a stump to encourage the growth of slender shoots. These willow shoots were woven tightly to produce cooking baskets.Aridoamerica – T-shaped doorway at Paquimé
253. Acaxee – Acaxee was a tribe or group of tribes in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sinaloa and NW Durango. They spoke a Tarachatitian language in the Southern Uto-Aztecan family. Their culture was based on the exploitation of wild animal and plant life. They are now extinct as an ethnic group. In December 1601, the Acaxees, under the direction of an elder named Perico, began an uprising against Spanish rule. This revolt was called the Acaxee Rebellion. They are said to have been converted to the Catholic faith in 1602. Early accounts by Jesuit missionaries allege continual cannibalism among the Tepehuan, Acaxee, Xixime who inhabited Nueva Vizcaya. Acaxee Sabaibo Tebaca Papudo Tecaya Beals, Ralph L. 1933. The Acaxee: a Mountain Tribe of Durango and Sinaloa. Deeds, Susan. Defiance and Deference in Mexico's Colonial North: Indians Under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX. ISBN 0-292-70551-4Acaxee – The distribution of Indian groups in pre-Hispanic Sinaloa
254. Chichimeca – Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe people living outside settled, agricultural areas. The name and its pejorative sense was adopted by the Spanish. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. The Chichimeca peoples were many groups of varying ethnicities and speaking distinct languages from different families. As the Spaniards worked towards consolidating the rule of New Spain over the indigenous peoples during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Chichimecan tribes resisted. A number of ethnic groups of the region allied against the Spanish. The first and most long-lasting of these conflicts was the Chichimeca War. For example, virtually nothing is known about the peoples referred to as the Guachichil, Caxcan, Zacateco, Tecuexe, or Guamare. Others, such as the Opata or Eudeve, are well described in records but extinct as a people. The Nahuatl name Chīchīmēcah means "inhabitants of Chichiman"; the placename Chichiman means "Area of Milk". In modern Mexico, the word "Chichimeca" can have pejorative connotations, such as "primitive", "savage", "uneducated" and "native". The first descriptions of "Chichimecs" are from the early conquest period. He commented that they might be enslaved and used to work in the mines. Their fight against Spanish forces became known as the Mixtón Rebellion. In the late sixteenth century, Gonzalo de las Casas wrote about the Chichimec.Chichimeca – Map of the location of prominent Chichimeca peoples around 1550.
255. Kiliwa people – The Kiliwa are an aboriginal people of northern Baja California, Mexico. Their traditional language is the Kiliwa language. The Ñakipa have sometimes been distinguished from the Kiliwa as a separate ethnolinguistic group within the southwestern portion of what is here considered Kiliwa territory. The limited linguistic evidence, available for the Ñakipa indicates that they spoke the same language as the eastern Kiliwa. Archaeological research has yet been done within Kiliwa territory. A partial exception is a sampling program of systematic survey along the west coast between El Rosario and San Quintín by Jerry D. Moore. The Kiliwa first encountered Europeans when Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reached the San Quintín area in 1542. There were few subsequent contacts during the next two centuries. The Jesuit missionary-explorer Wenceslaus Linck came overland from the south into the eastern part of Kiliwa territory in 1766. The expedition to establish Spanish settlements in California, led by Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra passed through the western portions. The Dominican mission of Santo Domingo was founded in Kiliwa territory near the coast in 1775. It was followed by an inland mission of San Pedro Mártir in 1794. By around the time of Mexican independence in 1821, the population at the Kiliwa missions had sharply declined. In 1929, Meigs reported that only 36 adult Kiliwa were then living, primarily in Valle Trinidad. Twenty years later in 1949, Hohenthal found 30 adult Kiliwa living at four settlements, including Arroyo León, Tepí.Kiliwa people – Contents
256. Indigenous peoples of Florida – The Indigenous peoples of Florida lived in what is now known as Florida for more than 12,000 years before the time of first contact with Europeans. However, the indigenous Floridians had largely died out by the 18th century. The first people arrived before the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Human remains and/or artifacts have been found in association at a number of Florida locations. A carved bone depicting a mammoth found near the site of Vero man has been dated to 13,000 to 20,000 years ago. Artifacts recovered to 12,500 to 14,500 years ago. Evidence that a giant tortoise was cooked at Little Salt Spring dates to between 12,000 and 13,500 years ago. A Bison antiquus skull with an embedded point has been found in the Wacissa River. Important Paleoindian sites in Florida include Harney Flats in Hillsborough County, the Nalcrest site, Silver Springs. Florida's environment at the end of the Pleistocene was very different from that of today. Of the enormous amount of water frozen in ice sheets during the last glacial period, sea level was at least 100 metres lower than now. Florida had twice the land area, its water table was much lower. Its climate also was much drier. There were running rivers or springs in what is today's Florida. With water available only at scattered locations, humans would have congregated at the water holes to drink.Indigenous peoples of Florida – Thonotosassa type, Lorida, FL
257. Apalachee – The Apalachee are a Native American people who historically lived in the Florida Panhandle. They lived at the head of an area known to Europeans as the Apalachee Province. They spoke a Muskogean language called Apalachee, now extinct. The Apalachee occupied the site of Velda Mound starting about 1450 CE, but had mostly abandoned it when Spanish started settlements in the 17th century. They first encountered Spanish explorers in the 16th century, when the Hernando de Soto expedition arrived. European encroachment severely reduced their population. About 300 descendants in Rapides and Natchitoches parishes assert an Apalachee identity today. The Apalachee spoke the Apalachee language, a Muskogean language which became extinct. It was documented by Spanish settlers in letters written during the Spanish Colonial period. Around 1,100 indigenous peoples began to cultivate crops. Agriculture was important in the area that became the Apalachee domain. It was part of the Fort Walton Culture, a Florida culture influenced by the Mississippian culture. At the time of Hernando de Soto's visit in 1539-1540, the Apalachee capital was Anhaica. The Apalachee lived in villages of various size, or on individual farmsteads of.5 acres or so. Smaller settlements might have a single earthwork mound and a few houses.Apalachee – A proposed route for the first leg of the de Soto Expedition, based on Charles M. Hudson map of 1997
258. Calusa – The Calusa were a Native American people of Florida's southwest coast. Calusa society developed from that of archaic peoples of the Everglades region. Previous cultures had lived in the area for thousands of years. At the time of European contact in the 17th centuries, the historic Calusa were the people of the Caloosahatchee culture. They are notable for having developed a complex culture based on estuarine fisheries rather than agriculture. Calusa territory may have included the Florida Keys at times. Calusa influence may have also extended on the central east coast of Florida. French sources referred to the tribe, its chief town and its chief as Calos, Calus, Caalus, Carlos. Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, a Spaniard held captive in the 16th century, recorded that Calusa meant "fierce people" in their language. By the 19th century, Anglo-Americans in the area used the term Calusa for the people. It is based for the people who had lived around the Caloosahatchee River. Rogel also stated that the Spanish had changed it to Carlos. Escampaba may be related to a place named Stapaba, identified in the area on an 16th-century map. Paleo-Indians entered what is now Florida at least 12,000 years ago. By around 5000 BC, people started living in villages near wetlands.Calusa – Diorama of a Calusa chief at the FMNH
259. Muscogee people – The Muscogee people, also known as the Creek people and Creek Confederacy, are a group of related Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym. Originally from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, northern Florida, Muscogee people were forcibly relocated in the early 19th century to Indian Territory, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas. Their languages, Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. The Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. The result was a weakening of the Creek Nation and the forced ceding of Creek lands to the US. During the Indian Removal of the 1830s, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BCE to 1000 CE, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to urban centers and regional chiefdoms. The early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama.Muscogee people – Muscogee portraits
260. Pensacola people – They spoke a Muskogean language. They are the source of the city of Pensacola. They were thereafter assimilated into other groups. Sites for the culture stretched north into the southern Tombigbee and Alabama River valleys, as far as the vicinity of Selma, Alabama. This site has at least eighteen platform mounds; five of which are arranged around a central plaza. Its main occupation was from 1250 to 1550. It was a gateway to their society. This site is difficult to reach on foot. However, it would have been easy access by the main mode of transportation available to the people who built the Bottle Creek site. The Pensacola's first contact with Europeans may have been in 1528. The cacique wore a robe of what de Vaca called "civet-marten", "the best, I think, that can be found." After initially appearing to be friendly, the Indians attacked the Spaniards without warning during the night. In 1539 Diego Maldonado, exploring the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico under orders from Hernando de Soto, found Pensacola Bay. Maldonado found a village on the bay, where he seized two of the inhabitants, along with a "good blanket of sables." De Soto ordered Maldonado to meet him with supplies for his expedition.Pensacola people – Geographic extent of Pensacola culture and some of its important sites
261. Seminole – They comprise independent groups, most living in Oklahoma with a minority in Florida. The Seminole is a corruption of cimarrón, a Spanish term for "runaway" or "wild one". During their early decades, the Seminole established their own identity. They developed a thriving network during the British and second Spanish periods. The latter became known as Black Seminoles, although they kept their own Gullah culture of the Low Country. They developed the Afro-Seminole Creole language, which they spoke after the move to Indian Territory. As the Seminole adapted to Florida environs, they developed local traditions, such as the construction of thatched-roof houses known as chickees. Historically the Seminole spoke Muskogean languages. After the independent United States acquired Florida in 1819, its settlers increased pressure on Seminole lands. By 1842, Black Seminoles had been coerced or forced to move to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, while others belong to unorganized groups. In the 19th century, the Florida Seminole re-established limited relations with the U.S. government and in 1930 received 5,000 acres of reservation lands. Few Seminole moved until the 1940s; they reorganized their government and received federal recognition in 1957 as the Seminole Tribe of Florida. The more traditional people near the Tamiami Trail received federal recognition in 1962. The Oklahoma and Florida Seminole filed claim suits in the 1950s, which were combined in the government's settlement of 1976.Seminole – Seminole portraits
262. Timucua – The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, many leading thousands of people. The various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the Timucua language. The name "Timucua" came from the exonym used by the Saturiwa to refer to the west of the St. Johns River. The Spanish came to use the term more broadly for other peoples in the area. Eventually it became the common term for all peoples who spoke what is known as the Timucuan language. While confederacies arose between the chiefdoms from time to time, the Timucua were never organized into a single political unit. The various groups of Timucua speakers practiced several cultural traditions. The people suffered severely from the introduction of infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity. By 1595, thirteen chiefdoms remained. By 1700, the population of the tribe had been reduced to 1000. Warfare against them by native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century. Both groups spoke dialects of the Timucua language. The dialect spoken in that province became known as "Timucua". During the 17th century, the Province of Timucua was extended to include the area between the Aucilla River, thus extending its scope.Timucua – One of the engravings based on Jacques le Moyne 's drawings, depicting Athore, son of the Timucuan chief Saturiwa, showing René Laudonnière a monument placed by Jean Ribault
263. Yustaga – The Yustaga were a Timucua people of what is now northwestern Florida during the 16th and 17th centuries. They lived between the Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers in the Florida Panhandle, just east of the Apalachee people. A dominant force in tribal politics, they may have been organized as a loose regional chiefdom consisting of up to eight smaller local chiefdoms. After decades of resistance they were brought into the Spanish system in the 1620s. Like all Timucua groups, they experienced demographic decline in the period of European contact, especially following raids by English-allied Indians from the north. Surviving Yustaga eventually mingled with other missionized Indians, losing their independent identity. The Yustaga's territory extended into the Florida Panhandle and southwestern Georgia. They lived in the western Suwannee River valley, roughly between the Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers. The Northern Utina spoke a different dialect, known as Timucua proper. To the east of the Yustaga was a region known as the Apalachee Province, inhabited by the Apalachee and other peoples. The Yustaga region had been inhabited for thousands of years. During the first millennium AD its inhabitants participated in the Weedon Island culture, which spread beyond. From about 900 a derivative culture emerged among the peoples of the Suwannee River Valley, the groups later designated as the Yustaga and Northern Utina. This culture, known as the Suwannee Valley culture, was still extant at the time of European contact. As a Weedon Island derivative, it is closely related to the Alachua culture of a Timucua group of what is now Alachua County.Yustaga – A suggested route for the first leg of the de Soto Expedition, passing through Uzachile and the Yustaga region. Based on Charles M. Hudson 's 1997 map
264. Filipino people – Filipinos are the people who are native to, or identified with the country of the Philippines. The people of the Philippines come with the vast majority of Filipinos being of Austronesian stock. The modern Filipino identity, with its Austronesian roots, was developed with Spanish, Chinese and American influences. The Philippines was a Spanish colony for 333 years, setting a foundation for Filipino culture. Under Spanish rule, most of the Filipino populace revolted many times against its hierarchy. Almost all Filipinos adopted Spanish surnames from the Catálogo alfabético de apellidos published by the Spanish colonial government. The lack of the letter "F" in Abakada, had caused the letter "F" to be substituted with "P". Upon official adoption of the 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the name Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. Use in the Philippines started during the Spanish colonial period. The original meaning was "a person of Spanish descent born in the Philippines". This original usage is now obsolete. The term, although in popular usage, is still considered as a racial slur and derogatory. In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Fox, an anthropologist from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed that they belonged to human beings.Filipino people – Lapu-Lapu
265. Negrito – The Negrito are several ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia. The Negrito peoples show strong physical similarities with Negrillos, but are genetically closer to other Southeast Asian populations. They may be descended from ancient Australoid-Melanesian settlers of Southeast Asia, or represent an early split from the southern coast migrants from Africa. The word "Negrito" is the Spanish diminutive of negro, used to mean "little black person". Many on-line dictionaries give the plural in English as either "negritos" or "negritoes", without preference. The plural in Spanish is "negritos". The appropriateness of using the label "Negrito" to bundle together peoples of different ethnicity based on similarities in stature and complexion has been challenged. Haplogroup O2 is also common among Austroasiatic-speaking Negrito peoples, such as the Maniq of Thailand, the Semang of Malaysia. Most Aeta males carry K-P397, otherwise uncommon in the Philippines and is strongly associated with the indigenous peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Basal P* is rare outside the Aeta and some other groups within Maritime South East Asia. The use of single-nucleotide polymorphism shows the genomes of Andamanese people to be closest to those of South Asians. This suggests a relation between Andaman islanders and South Asians. Analysis of mtDNA, inherited exclusively by maternal descent, confirms the above results. All Onge belong to M32 mtDNA, subgroup of M, unique to Onge people. Their parental Y-DNA is exclusively Haplogroup D, also only found in Asia.Negrito – Negrito
266. Igorot people – Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in The Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon. The word "Igorot" is an exonym, derived from the archaic Tagalog term for "mountain people". During the Spanish colonial era, the term was variously recorded as Igolot, Ygolot, Igorrote, compliant to Spanish orthography. The endonyms Ifugao or Ipugao are used more frequently within the Igorots themselves, as igorot is viewed by some as slightly pejorative. Prior to Spanish colonisation of the islands, the peoples now included under the term did not consider themselves as belonging to a single, cohesive ethnic group. They may be further subdivided into five ethnolinguistic groups: the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Isnag, Kalinga, the Kankanaey. The Bontoc live on the banks of the Chico River in the Central Mountain Province on the island of Luzon. They speak the Bontoc language and Ilocano. They formerly practiced head-hunting and had distinctive body tattoos. Women were tattooed on the arms only. There was no singing or talking during the dance drama, but the women took part, usually outside the circumference. It was a serious but pleasurable event for all concerned, including the children. Present-day Bontocs are a peaceful agricultural people who have, by choice, retained most of their traditional culture despite frequent contacts with other groups. The Bontoc system centers on a hierarchy of the highest being a supreme deity called Lumawig. Lumawig is teacher of the Bontoc.Igorot people – An Isneg woman, having just performed a dance.
267. Mangyan peoples – The ethnic groups of the island, from north to south, are: Iraya, Alangan, Tadyawan, Tawbuid, Buhid, Hanunoo. An additional group on the south coast is labelled Ratagnon. They appear to be intermarried with lowlanders. The group known on the east of Mindoro as Bangon may be a subgroup of Tawbuid, as they speak the'western' dialect of that language. They also have an alphabet, called the Ambahan. The Mangyans were once the only inhabitants of Mindoro. Today, the Mangyans live secludedly in remote parts of Mindoro but eventually comes down to the lowlands in order to make usual trades. Their sustenance are farming for their own crops, fruits, hunting. A division was created among the people of Mindoro when the Spaniards came. There were the Iraya Mangyans, olated themselves from the culture of the Spaniards, the lowland Christians who submitted themselves to a new belief system. These two groups only interacted for economic matters through trading forest goods from the Mangyan and consumer goods for the lowlanders. Despite being grouped as one tribe, Mangyans differ in many ways. The Northern tribes, on the other hand, are simpler in their way of living. Their language, as in the rest of the Philippines, came from the Austronesian language family. However, even if they are defined as one ethnic group, the tribes used different languages.Mangyan peoples – A Mangyan woman in traditional attire, c. 1912
268. Peoples of Palawan – They live in remote villages in coastal areas. Other significant findings in the area earned for Palawan the title, "the Cradle of Philippine Civilization." Research has shown that the Tagbanwa and Palawano are possible descendants of the Tabon Caves' inhabitants. Their language and alphabet, common belief in soul relatives are some of their cultural similarities. After the death of Ferdinand Magellan, the remnant of his fleet landed in Palawan. Antonio Pigafetta, in his writings, described the cultivated fields of the native people populating the Palawan Islands. He also mentioned that these people use weapons consisting of spears and bronze ombard. During his stay in the area, he witnessed for the first time fistfighting. He further wrote that in Palawan, the local King had 10 scribes who wrote down the King's dictation on leaves of plants. The Batak, which means "mountain people" in Cuyonon is a group of indigenous people that resides in the portion of Palawan. They live in the rugged interiors of northeastern Palawan. Living close to nature, they are a shy people. These people believe in nature spirits, with whom they communicate through a babaylan or medium.<refwtm name="ptc_tribes"/> Native-born lowland dwellers include the Cuyunon, Agutayanon sub-groups. The Cuyunons, originally from the town of Cuyo in northern Palawan, are considered the elite class in this group.Peoples of Palawan – Batak Palawan
269. Ati people – The Ati are a Negrito ethnic group in the Visayas, the central portion of the Philippine archipelago. Their small numbers are principally concentrated in the islands of Boracay, Panay and Negros. In the Philippines the Aetas or Aeta ancestors were the first inhabitants of this Archipelago. According to some oral traditions, they also predate the Bisaya, who now inhabit most of the Visayas. The hills were left while the plains and rivers to the Malays. This meeting is commemorated through the Ati-atihan festival. This legend, though, is challenged by some historians. During the Spanish colonization, the tribe were made useful in his colonization of Panay. Currently, the tribe is threatened due to encroachments into their territory, recently seen in Boracay. Another problem they face is discrimination. The Aeta of the north speak Sambalic languages, which are part of the Central Luzon family. The Ati speak a Visayan language known as Inati. As of 1980, the speakers of Inati numbere about 1,500. Visaya and Kinaray-a are also commonly used. The Ati practice a form of animism that involves evil spirits.Ati people – Ati girl
270. Panay – Panay is a triangular island in the Philippines located in the western part of the Visayas. It is about 160 kilometres across, ranking the sixth largest of the islands in the country. Politically, it is divided into four provinces: all in the Western Visayas Region. It is located southeast of Negros separated by the Guimaras Strait. Between Negros and Panay Island lie the island-province of Guimaras. The island, bisected by Central Panay Mountain Range, has many rivers including Aklan, Jalaur River, Panay. Mount Madja-as in Antique, is the highest peak on the island at an elevation of 2,117 meters above level. Other peaks include Mount Porras, Nangtud, Napulak. Before 1212, Panay was called Simsiman. The community was linked by a creek. The creek provided salt to the Ati people well as animals which lick the salt out of the salty water. Coming from the word "simsim," simsimin means to lick something to eat or to drink, thus the place was called Simsiman. The hair of this grass is very difficult to remove. Once the barbs stick to the skin it can cause an extreme irritation. For this reason, Datu Pulpulan enacted a law that whoever among the Atis will use the nipay grass to endanger others will face death as punishment.Panay – Left to right: Images from the Boxer Codex illustrating members of the ancient Visayan kadatuan or tumao class from Panay:  couple from the nobility,  a royal couple, and  a native princess.
271. Lumad peoples – The Lumad is a term being used to denote a group of the non-Muslim indigenous people in the southern Philippines. It is a Cebuano term meaning "native" or "indigenous". It is the self-ascription and collective identity of the indigenous peoples of Mindanao. The Lumad grew out during the martial regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. No other Lumad organization had had the express goal in the past. Representatives from 15 tribes agreed in June 1986 to adopt the name; there were no delegates from the three major groups of the T'boli, the Teduray. According to the Lumad Development Center Inc. there are about 18 Lumad groups in 19 provinces across the country. Considered as "vulnerable groups", they live in hinterlands, forests, lowlands and coastal areas. There are about 20 general hilltribes of Mindanao, all of which are Austronesian. The term lumad excludes the Butuanons and Surigaonons, even though these two groups are also native to Mindanao. This is due to their Visayan ethnicity and lack of close affinity with the Lumad. This can be confusing, since the word lumad literally means "native" in the Visayan languages. The B'laan is an indigenous group, concentrated in Davao del Sur and South Cotabato. They practice indigenous rituals while adapting to the way of life of modern Filipinos. The Bukidnon are one of the seven tribes in the Bukidnon plateau of Mindanao.Lumad peoples – A woman in traditional Manobo dress
272. Bajau people – The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines. The name collectively refers to related people who usually call themselves the Sama or Samah; or are known by the exonyms Bajau and Samal or Siyamal. They usually use wooden sailing vessels such as djenging, balutu, lepa, pilang, vinta. Some Sama-Bajau groups native to Sabah are also known for their traditional horse culture. In the Philippines, they are grouped together with the religiously-similar Moro people. As of 2010, they were the second-largest ethnic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah. The outward spread of the Sama-Bajau from older inhabited areas seems to have been associated in cucumber. Like the Kadazan-Dusun, Sama-Bajau is a collective term, used to describe several closely related indigenous people who consider a distinct bangsa. It is generally accepted that these groups of people can be termed Sama or Bajau, though they never call themselves "Bajau" in the Philippines. Instead, they call themselves with the names of their tribes, usually the place they live or place of origin. For example, the sea-going Sama-Bajau prefer to call themselves the Sama Dilaut or Sama Mandilaut in the Philippines; while in Malaysia, they identify as Bajau Laut. Even these distinctions are fading as the majority of Sama-Bajau have long since abandoned boat living, most for Sama–style piling houses in the coastal shallows. "Sama" is believed to have originated from the Austronesian root word sama meaning "together", "same", or "we". The exact origin of the exonym "Bajau" is unclear. Some authors have proposed that it is derived from a corruption of the Malay word berjauh.Bajau people – Sama-Bajau people (Sama, Bajau, and Samal)
273. Tagalog people – The Tagalogs are a major ethnolingustic group in the Philippines. They form a high majority in Metro Manila and Calabarzon, a considerable plurality in Central Luzon and Mimaropa. The name Tagalog comes from either the term tagá-ilog, which means'people living along the river', or another term, tagá-alog, which means'people living along the ford'. In 1821, Edmund Roberts called the Tagalog, Tagalor in his memoirs about his trips to the Philippines. The Tagalog people arrived on the Philippine shores on a period known as the Mass Malay Migration. Other Tagalog tribes migrated in coastal areas like Bataan and Cavite. The province of Bombon and Maynila, ruled by the Muslim Rajah Sulayman was found to be a prosperous trading maritime towns. They have government, music, weaponry. The Tagalogs played an active role during the Philippine Revolution and many of its leaders were either from Manila or surrounding provinces. The Katipunan once intended to name the Philippines as "Katagalugan" or the Tagalog Republic. The Tagalog number around 27 million in the Philippines making them the second largest indigenous Filipino ethnic group after the Visayans. The Tagalog speak a language with many dialects although all are mutually comprehensible to each other. The Tagalog mostly practice Christianity with a minority practicing Islam, Buddhism, Irreligion. Tagalog settlements are found on riverbanks, specifically near the delta and the "wawa" or the mouth of the river. The traditional clothing of the Tagalog, the Barong Tagalog, is the folk costume of the Philippines.Tagalog people – Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines. The color-schemes represent the 4 dialect zones of the language: Northern, Central, Southern, and Marinduque.
274. Cebuano people – The Cebuano people The Cebuano people reside in the Cebu Province in the Central Visayas of the Philippines. The main population of Cebuano people are concentrated at Metro Cebu. Oceanic or Austronesian people called Malayo-Polynesians settled Cebu island and the rest of the Philippines around 30,000 years ago. Most Cebuanos today have Malayo-Polynesian ancestry. The ancient Cebuanos developed a culture with significant influence from mainly Japan, China, India and Borneo. They traded pearls and coral for gold, spices. The early Cebuanos held animist beliefs and worshiped anitos until the introduction of Roman Catholicism. The famous encounter between the local Lapu-Lapu ended in the death of Magellan at the Battle of Mactan. The Cebuanos held off colonization for a while until a Spanish explorer colonized Cebu and the Cebuanos came under Spanish rule. Along with the rest of the Philippines, Cebu as a result received heavy Mexican influence. There are thousands of Mexican Spanish loanwords in Cebuano. Spanish influence is evident in the cuisine, traditional costumes, dances, music, festivals, crafts. Cebuano culture is traditionally characterized from the United States. The majority of Cebuanos are Roman Catholic. Among the island's notable festivities are the Sinulog festival, cultural elements, celebrated annually every third week of January.Cebuano people – Distribution of the Cebuano language in the Philippines.
275. Taiwanese aborigines – Taiwanese aborigines is the term commonly applied to the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number more than 530,000 and constitute nearly 2.3% of the island's population. Recent research suggests their ancestors may have been living on Taiwan for approximately 8,000 years before a major Han immigration began in the 17th century. The issue of an ethnic identity unconnected to the Asian mainland has become one thread in the discourse regarding the political status of Taiwan. For centuries, Taiwan's aboriginal inhabitants experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing newcomers. These languages are of unique historical significance, since most historical linguists consider Taiwan to be the original homeland of the Austronesian language family. Taiwan's Austronesian speakers were formerly distributed over much of the island's rugged central mountain range and were concentrated in villages along the alluvial plains. The bulk of contemporary Taiwanese aborigines now live in the mountains and in cities. The indigenous peoples of Taiwan face economic and social barriers, including a high unemployment rate and substandard education. Since the early 1980s, many aboriginal groups have been actively seeking a higher degree of political self-determination and economic development. The revival of ethnic pride is expressed in many ways by aborigines, including the incorporation of elements of their culture into commercially successful pop music. Efforts are under way in indigenous communities to revive traditional cultural practices and preserve their traditional languages. The Austronesian Cultural Festival in Taitung City is one means by which tribe members promote aboriginal culture. Taxonomies imposed by colonizing forces divided the aborigines into named subgroups, referred to as "tribes". These divisions did not always correspond to distinctions drawn by the aborigines themselves. This designation reflected the prevailing idea that anyone could be civilized/tamed by adopting Confucian social norms.Taiwanese aborigines – Taiwanese aborigine woman and infant, by John Thomson, 1871
276. Chamorro people – Today, significant Chamorro populations also exist in several U.S. states including Hawaii, California, Washington, Texas, Tennessee, Oregon, Nevada. According to the 2000 Census, approximately 65,000 people of Chamorro ancestry live on Guam and another 19,000 live in the Northern Marianas. Another 93,000 live outside the Marianas in Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States. Many also have European, Filipino ancestry. The Chamorro language is included in the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian family. Because Guam was colonized by Spain for over 300 years, many words derive from the Spanish language. The traditional Chamorro number system was replaced by Spanish numbers. Chamorro is often spoken in many homes, but is becoming less common. The most said phrase in Chamorro is, "Hafa Adai," which means "Hello" in English. The Chamorro are commonly believed to have come from Southeast Asia at around 2000 BC. They are most closely related to other Austronesian-speaking natives to the west in the Philippines and Taiwan, as well as the Carolines to the south. They were expert seafarers and skilled craftspeople familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery-making. Chamorro farmers were recorded during Spanish times to plant seeds according to the phases of the moon. For example, farmers on Guam often plant tuber crops such as sweet potatoes and yams at full moon during low tide. According to early Chamorro legend, the world was created by a twin brother and sister, Puntan and Fu'uña.Chamorro people – Chamorro people (1915)
277. Spanish Colonial architecture – These two visible aspects of the city are complementary. The 16th century Laws of the Indies included provisions in the Americas and elsewhere. The new churches and mission stations, for example, aimed in terms of their imposition and domination of the surrounding buildings or countryside. The Spanish Colonial style of architecture were also somewhat visible in its other colonies. It is sometimes marked by the contrast between the solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Some of the most famous cities in Mexico built in the Colonial style are Morelia. The historic center of Mexico City is a mixture of architectural styles from the 16th century to the present. The Metropolitan Cathedral -- built in a variety of styles including the Renaissance, Baroque, Neo Classical. The rich interior is mostly Baroque. During the 17th century to 1750, one of Mexico's most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque. These buildings were built in an ultra-Baroque, visually frenetic style. Antigua Guatemala in Guatemala is also known for its well preserved Spanish colonial architecture. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. San Juan was founded in 1521 where Spanish colonial architecture can be found like the Historic Hotel El Convento. Also, Old San Juan with buildings are very good examples, in excellent condition.Spanish Colonial architecture – The Colonial Cathedral of Mexico City.
278. Spanish colonial real – The silver real was the currency of the Spanish colonies in America and the Philippines. In the seventeenth century the silver real was established at sixty-eight maravedís. Gold escudos were also issued. A reform in 1737 set the real at two and half billon reals or eighty-five maravedís. This coin, called the real de fuerte, became the new standard, issued as coins until the early 19th century. The gold escudo was worth 16 reales de fuerte. Coins were produced at mints in Bogotá, Caracas, Guatemala City, Lima, Mexico City, Popayán, Potosí, Santiago. From 1572 to 1773 colonial silver coins were cobs. Initially hammer struck on a coin die, they were accurate in weight, though sometimes debased in precious metal content. However unlike machined coins, they were often irregular in shape, especially if a too-thick coin was clipped by the mint to reach the proper weight. After 1732 better shaped cobs were produced on screw presses. Cob denominations were 1/2, 1, 2, 8 reales. Unlike in Spain, the copper coins were generally not struck by the colonial mints. Most issued silver coins in gold coins for 1/2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos. Currency of Spanish America Peso Spanish dollar Spanish escudo Spanish real ViceroyaltySpanish colonial real – Obverse of a 1799 Real
279. Columbian Exchange – Invasive species of communicable diseases were a byproduct of the Exchange. Traders returned to Europe with maize, tomatoes, which became very important crops in Europe by the 18th century. The term was first used by American historian Alfred W. Crosby in his environmental history book The Columbian Exchange. It has become widely known. In 1972 an American historian at the University of Texas at Austin, published The Columbian Exchange. This book covers the environmental impact of Columbus' landing in the new world. The term has become popular among historians and journalists, such as Charles C. Mann, whose book 1493 expands and updates Crosby's original research. Before AD 1500, potatoes were not grown outside of South America. By the 1840s, Ireland was so dependent on the potato that the proximate cause of the Great Famine was a disease. Potatoes eventually became an important staple of the diet in much of Europe. European rulers, including Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia, encouraged the cultivation of the potato. Manioc, introduced by the Portuguese from South America in the 16th century, have replaced sorghum and millet as Africa's most important food crops. Spanish colonizers introduced new staple crops to Asia from the Americas, including maize and sweet potatoes, thereby contributed to population growth in Asia. Tomatoes, which came from the New World via Spain, were initially prized in Italy mainly for their ornamental value.Columbian Exchange – New World native plants. Clockwise, from top left: 1. Maize (Zea mays) 2. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 3. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) 4. Vanilla (Vanilla) 5. Pará rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) 6. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) 7. Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica)
280. Triangular trade – Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. Triangular trade usually evolves when a region has export commodities that are not required in the region from which its major imports come. Triangular trade thus provides a method for rectifying trade imbalances between the above regions. Historically the particular routes were also shaped during the age of sail. Returning from North America, it is easiest to follow the Gulf Stream in a northeasterly direction using the westerlies. His route became the main way for Europeans to reach, return from, the Americas. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing cash crops, which were exported to Europe. A classic example is the colonial trade. Sugar from the Caribbean was traded to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, shipped to Europe, restarting the cycle. The trip itself took five to twelve weeks. When the ship arrived, its cargo would be bartered for slaves. On the second leg, ships made the journey of the Middle Passage to the New World.Triangular trade – Depiction of the Triangular Trade of slaves, sugar, and rum with New England instead of Europe as the third corner
281. Peninsulars – The word peninsular makes reference to Peninsular Spain situated on much of the Iberian Peninsula. In colonial Brazil, White people born in the Iberian Peninsula were known as mazombos. Higher offices in the Americas and Philippines were held by peninsulares. From criollos, the castas system distinguished also mestizos, mulatos, finally negros. Such as during the wars of independence, peninsulares were in Mexico, gauchos. Colonial officials at the highest levels arrived from Spain to fulfill their duty to govern Spanish colonies in Latin America and the Philippines. Often, the peninsulares possessed large quantities of land. They worked to preserve Spanish power and acted as agents of patrol, in certain cases. In the French Revolution, the peninsulares were generally conservative.Peninsulars – Juan Ponce de León · Junípero Serra Bartolomé de las Casas · Pedro de Valdivia
282. Criollo people – Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the other populations — Amerindians, enslaved Africans and peoples of mixed descent. According to the Casta system, a criollo could have up to 1/8 Amerindian ancestry and not lose social place. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, changes in the Spanish Empire's policies towards its colonies led to tensions between Criollos and Peninsulares. Criollos were the main supporters of the Spanish American wars of independence. The word criollo and its Portuguese cognate crioulo are believed to come from the Spanish/Portuguese verb criar, meaning "to breed" or "to raise". In Spanish colonies, an español criollo was an ethnic Spaniard, born in the colonies, as opposed to an español peninsular born in Spain. Whites in colonial Brazil, born in the Iberian Peninsula, were known as mazombos. Limpieza de sangre or "cleanness of blood" was a legal concept in use since the Spanish Reconquista, introduced to the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The English word "creole" was a loan from French créole, which in turn is believed to come from Spanish criollo or Portuguese crioulo. Most Spanish colonies started with a sizable population of indigenous Amerindians. Because the Spanish colonists were mostly men, they had liaisons with Amerindian women, thus resulting in their children being mixed race. The population of mixed Spanish-Amerindian ancestry grew large enough to become a rather distinct group. In the 17th century, some Spanish colonies also imported large numbers of enslaved Africans, who contributed to the racial mix of the populace. In theory, Criollo status was attained by people of mixed origin who had one-eighth or less Amerindian ancestry, although in some cases individuals had much more.Criollo people – Clockwise from top left: Agustín de Iturbide
283. Mestizo – The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system, in use during the Spanish Empire's control of their New World colonies. Mestizos are usually considered to be mixed Spaniards by the crown of Spain. The term mestizaje - taking as its root mestizo or "mixed" - is the Spanish word for miscegenation, the general process of mixing ancestries. To avoid confusion with the original usage of the term mestizo, mixed people started to be referred to collectively as castas. In colonial Venezuela, pardo was more commonly used instead of mestizo. In colonial Brazil most of the non-slave population was mestiço in the original Iberian definition of the word. In Canada, the Métis people is a community composed of those who possess combined European and North American Amerindian ancestry. In Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of mixed European and East Asian ancestry. The Spanish word mestizo is from Latin mixticius, meaning mixed. Its usage has been documented as early as 1275, to refer to the offspring of an Egyptian and a Jew. This term was first documented in English in 1582. It is related to the particular racial identity of historical non-white Amerindian-descended Hispanic and Latino American communities in an American context. In English-speaking Canada, Métis, as a loanword from French, refers to persons who self-identify as mixed-race. Mestizo, mestís, mestiezen, mestee, mixed are all cognates of the Latin word mixticius. There were three main categories of race during the initial period of colonization of the Americas by the Spanish: White Spaniard, Amerindian, Black African.Mestizo – A painting of a Spanish man and a Peruvian indigenous woman with Mestizo child, 1770.
284. Castizo – Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of "pure", "genuine" or representative of its race. The feminine form is castiza. In Latin America Castizo is used to describe the individuals with an admixture of 25 % Native American. For castizos whose residual quarter of Amerindian ancestry was not apparent at all, many simply consolidated themselves within the Peninsulares. Some countries, however, have recently reintroduced voluntary and anonymous declarations of race with no legal consequence to the individual. A person who formerly would have been deemed a castizo would simply identify as mestizo or White. The word "castizo" itself has lost all racial meaning. They are scattered in almost all Latin America but many focus on specific countries or regions of the same. They in turn, mixed with Europeans over and over again, further reducing indigenous DNA. CHILE: It might be the country with the highest percentage of castizos of America. They are located mainly in cities such as Santiago, Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Rancagua and Talca. They also constitute an important percentage in Northern and Southern Chile. In Chile castizos together represent the country's largest ethnic group. COSTA RICA: It could also be the country with the highest percentage of castizos of America due to continued European immigration and mixing with the mestizos. Castizos are located in almost all the national territory.Castizo – Union of castizo (left) and mestiza (right): chamizo
285. Cholo – Its use has migrated from the initial ethnic designation as originated by Hispanic criollos in the 16th century. In sociological literature, it refers to Mexican American gangsters. The precise usage of "cholo" has varied widely in different places. In American usage, it most often applies to the low-rider sub-culture manner of dress. Of an Indian male and Black female, they call mulato and mulata. The children of these they call cholo. In Colonial Mexico, the terms coyote co-existed, indicating mixed Mestizo and Amerindian ancestry. Other terms were used to denote other ratios of greater Spanish-to-Amerindian ancestry. During the War of the Pacific Peruvians were contemptuously referred to as "cholos" by Chilean officers. In 1571, Fray Alonso de Molina, in his Nahuatl vocabulary, defined the xolo as slave, servant, or waiter. During the 40s, Cholos and Chicanos were known as "pachucos" and were associated with the zoot suit and hep cat subcultures. The press at the time accused the Cholos in the US of petty criminality, leading to the Zoot Suit Riots. Cholos are known for pressing their pants and shirts, often wear military-style webbed belts. Footwear originally included Stacy Adams dress "biscuits". Modern cholos tend to wear athletic shoes, such as Converse, Nike Cortez, Adidas Stan Smith, slip-on house shoes, Huarache sandals.Cholo – An example of "cula de Castas" which classified people by their ancestry, admixture, and degree of admixture. Within this representation of Cholos during the Latin American colonial period one can read "De mestizo e india, sale coiote" (from Mestizo and Amerindian, begotten a Coyote).
286. Mulatto – The term today is generally confined to historical contexts and English-speakers of mixed white and black ancestry seldom choose to identify themselves as "mulatto." The term is generally considered archaic, may be taken as pejorative, especially in the United States, where the terms "multiracial" and "biracial" are preferred. Those terms, however, may also apply to other racial mixtures. The term is frequently found in historical documents where it is merely descriptive and lacks negative connotations. In Latin America, most mulattos have descended from interracial relationships dating to the slavery period, rather than from recent racial mixing. Some dictionaries and scholarly works trace the word's origins to the Arabic term muwallad, which means "a person of mixed ancestry". Muwallad literally means "born,; brought up", with the implication of being raised among Arabs, but not of Arab blood. Muwallad is derived from the root word WaLaD, colloquial Arabic pronunciation can vary greatly. Walad means, "descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one". In al-Andalus, Muwallad referred to the offspring of non-Arab/Muslim people who adopted the Islamic religion and manners. Notable examples of this category include the famous Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm. Thus, in this context, the term "Muwalad" has a meaning close to "the adopted". According to the same source, the term does not denote being of mixed-race but rather being of foreign-blood and local culture. In English, printed usage of mulatto dates to at least the 16th century. This earliest usage regarded "black" and "white" as discrete "species", with the "mulatto" constituting a third separate "species."Mulatto – Juan de Pareja by Diego Velázquez, 1650
287. Zambo – The racial cross between African slaves and Amerindians was referred to as a zambaggoa, then zambo, then sambo. In the United States, the sambo is thought to refer to the racial cross between a black slave and a white person. The meaning of the sambo however is contested in North America, where other etymologies have been proposed. The word most likely originated from Latin and its direct descendants. The feminine word is zamba. During this period, other terms denoted individuals of African-Amerindian ancestry in ratios smaller or greater than the 50:50 of zambos: cambujo for example. Zambo refers to all people with significant amounts of both African and Amerindian ancestry, though it is frequently considered pejorative. The zambo was not formally used in Spanish writing until the seventeenth century, often competed with other terms, including mulato. African slaves began mixing with indigenous people into Hispaniola in the early sixteenth century. In the eighteenth century, zambo was defined in its final meaning. Some famous zambo groups took over indigenous communities. By the early eighteenth century came to dominate the kingdom, leading it on many extensive slave raids. Protection of English merchants and settlers in the area helped England found the colony of British Honduras. Officially, zambos represent small minorities in Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Ecuador. A noticeable number of zambos resulting from recent unions of Amerindian women to Afro-Ecuadorian men are not uncommon in major coastal cities of Ecuador.Zambo – 16th century painting of Zambo Caciques from Esmeraldas, Ecuador.
288. Black people – As such, the meaning of the expression depends significantly on context. These social constructs have also changed over time. In a number of countries, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was historically equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In Latin America, mixed-race people are generally not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds. The people of the region were noted as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in some dating from prehistoric communities. He claims that much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men. They used more black female slaves than males. The men interpreted the Qur ` an to permit sexual relations between his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children.Black people – Soldiers of the Free Arabian Legion in Greece, September 1943
289. Juan Bautista de Anza – Juan Bautista de Anza Bezerra Nieto was a New-Spanish explorer of Basque descent, Governor of New Mexico for the Spanish Empire. Juan Bautista de Anza was born in Fronteras, Sonora, New Spain in 1736, into a military family living on the northern frontier of New Spain. He was the son of Juan Bautista de Anza I. In 1752 he enlisted in the army at the Presidio of Fronteras. He advanced rapidly and was a captain by 1760. He married in 1761. His wife was the daughter of Spanish mine owner Francisco Pérez Serrano. They had no children. The Spanish began colonizing Alta California with the Portolá expedition of 1769-1770. The two-pronged effort involved both a long sea voyage from Baja California. Colonies were established at San Diego and Monterey, with a presidio and Franciscan mission at each location. Further colonization were desired, especially at present-day San Francisco, which Portolá was not able to colonize. By the time of Juan Bautista de Anza's expedition, three more missions had been established, including Mission San Antonio de Padua in the Salinas Valley. In 1772, Anza proposed an expedition to Alta California to the Viceroy of New Spain. Anza heard of a California Native American called Sebastian Tarabal who had fled from Mission San Gabriel to Sonora, took him as guide.Juan Bautista de Anza – Juan Bautista de Anza
290. Francis Drake – Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded a knighthood in 1581. Drake was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. Drake died of dysentery after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits made him a hero to the English but a pirate to whom he was known as El Draque. King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of about # 4 million by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Devon, England. Although his birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. "he was twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith". This would date his birth to 1544. Drake was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, his wife Mary Mylwaye. The first son was alleged to have been named after 2nd Earl of Bedford. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, the Drake family fled into Kent. There the father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the King's Navy. Drake was made vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway.Francis Drake – Sir Francis Drake in Buckland Abbey 16th century, oil on canvas, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
291. La Malinche – She was one of 20 slaves given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519. Later, she gave birth to his first son, Martín, considered one of the first Mestizos. The historical figure of Marina has been intermixed with Aztec legends. In Mexico La Malinche remains iconically potent. The malinchista refers to a disloyal countryperson, especially in Mexico. La Malinche was born sometime in the region between the Aztec-ruled Valley of Mexico and the Maya states of the Yucatán Peninsula. She was named Malinalli after the Goddess of Grass, later Tenepal meaning "one who speaks with liveliness." In her youth, her mother remarried another Cacique and bore a son. Now a stepchild, the girl was given from Xicalango. Bernal Díaz del Castillo claims Malinalli's family faked her death by telling the townspeople that a recently deceased child of a slave was Malinalli. The Xicalango gave the child to the Tobascans. At this time, she was probably in early 20s. Bernal Díaz del Castillo graciousness; she was the only one of the slaves whose name he remembered. Cortés singled her out as a gift for perhaps the most well-born member of the expedition. According to Díaz, she pointed to Cortés as the chief Spaniard to speak for them.La Malinche – Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan, November 8, 1519. Facsimile (c. 1890) of Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
292. Limahong – Lim Hong, well known as Ah Hong or Lim-A-Hong, was a Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574. He built up a reputation for his constant raids to ports in Guangdong, Fujian and southern China. He is noted to have twice attempted, failed, to overthrow the Spanish city of Manila in 1574. He was married to Nataracy. He shifted his activities to piracy on the high seas and out of reach of China's power. He was able to accumulate up to whereupon he again raided cities and ports in southern China. Limahong attacked a city occupied by Vintoquián, another Chinese pirate, but Vintoquián was able to escape along with 5 of Limahong's ships. However, Limahong was able to capture 55 of Vintoquián's fleet and thus increased his own to 95 ships. He was now a veritable king of the high seas of southern China. In late 1573, he gathered an army of 3,000 Chinese warriors, renegades and vagabonds and fled to the island of Luzon. There, his band of outlaws sought refuge, waged war with the Spaniards. By this time, a force of 135 ships was sent by the Ming emperor to capture the pirates. His troops first arrived in Ilocos Sur in early 1574 where they quarreled with Juan de Salcedo. After a brief struggle with the Spanish army, his troops were driven away from the city. It was November 29, 1574.Limahong – Anne Bonny
293. Moctezuma II – During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its greatest size. Moctezuma widened the divide between pipiltin and macehualtin by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces. The biases of some historical sources make it difficult to understand his actions during the Spanish invasion. He only two women were his Queens -- Tlapalizquixochtzin and Teotlalco. Moctezuma was also a King Consort of Ecatepec because Tlapalizquixochtzin was Queen of that city. His many children included Princess Isabel Moctezuma -- and Chimalpopoca and Tlaltecatzin. The Nahuatl pronunciation of his name is. The Aztec chronicles called Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma. Xocoyotzin means "young one". Thus nothing is known for certain about his personality and rule. He had a short black beard, well-shaped and thin. His face was rather cheerful, Moctezuma had fine eyes, in his appearance and manner could express geniality or, when necessary, a serious composure. Moctezuma took a bath every afternoon. Moctezuma was quite free from sodomy. He wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later.Moctezuma II – Moctezuma II in the Codex Mendoza
294. Hasekura Tsunenaga – In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a diplomatic mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582. He is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas and in Europe. Although Hasekura's embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking. Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan. Little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ancestral ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a mid-level noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan, who had the opportunity to directly serve the daimyo Date Masamune. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle, constructed in Hasekura-ward, Kawasaki-city, Miyagi prefecture, by his grandfather Hasekura Tsunemasa. The place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura village, now Hasekura-ward in Kawasaki-city. It is recorded that important missions were given as his representative. It is also recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taiko Toyotomi Hideyoshi, for six months in 1597. In 1612, Hasekura's father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, his son should normally have been executed as well.Hasekura Tsunenaga – Hasekura's portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615 by Claude Deruet